Note: This page contains sample records for the topic call composition vary from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Syllable acoustics, temporal patterns, and call composition vary with behavioral context in Mexican free-tailed bats.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown that some bat species have rich vocal repertoires with diverse syllable acoustics. Few studies, however, have compared vocalizations across different behavioral contexts or examined the temporal emission patterns of vocalizations. In this paper, a comprehensive examination of the vocal repertoire of Mexican free-tailed bats, T. brasiliensis, is presented. Syllable acoustics and temporal emission patterns for 16 types of vocalizations including courtship song revealed three main findings. First, although in some cases syllables are unique to specific calls, other syllables are shared among different calls. Second, entire calls associated with one behavior can be embedded into more complex vocalizations used in entirely different behavioral contexts. Third, when different calls are composed of similar syllables, distinctive temporal emission patterns may facilitate call recognition. These results indicate that syllable acoustics alone do not likely provide enough information for call recognition; rather, the acoustic context and temporal emission patterns of vocalizations may affect meaning. PMID:19045674

Bohn, Kirsten M; Schmidt-French, Barbara; Ma, Sean T; Pollak, George D

2008-09-01

2

Call admission control for capacity-varying networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many networks, such as Non-Geostationary Orbit Satellite (NGOS) networks and networks providing multi-priority service using advance reservations, have capacities which vary over time for some or all types of calls carried on these networks. For connection-oriented networks, Call Admission Control (CAC) policies which only use current capacity information may lead to excessive and intolerable dropping of admitted calls whenever the

J. Siwko; I. Rubin

2001-01-01

3

Call admission control policy for capacity-varying networks with increasing failure rate holding time distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEO satellite systems and many other connection-oriented networks have capacities which vary over time. Call admission control (CAC) policies which only use current capacity information may lead to intolerable dropping of admitted calls whenever network capacity decreases. We introduce a CAC policy for capacity-varying networks with call holding times that have increasing failure rate distributions. This policy uses knowledge about

J. Siwko; I. Rubin

1998-01-01

4

POLYETHYLENE/KERATIN FIBER COMPOSITES WITH VARYING POLYETHYLENE CRYSTALLINITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Short-fiber reinforced composites are made from keratin fibers obtained from poultry feathers and polyethylenes of varying crystallinity. The chemical nature of the polymer and fiber is kept constant, and the molecular architecture of the polymer is varied. It is found that low crystallinity polye...

5

Responses by breeding birds to heterospecific song and mobbing call playbacks under varying predation risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a playback experiment to study the effect of predation risk on the attraction of forest passerines to heterospecific territory songs and mobbing calls during the breeding season. The experiment consisted of five treatments, which were played at different distances from the nests of sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus: the territory song and mobbing calls of the willow tit, Parus montanus,

Jukka T. Forsman; Mikko Mönkkönen

2001-01-01

6

Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call

Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

2012-01-01

7

Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call

Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

2012-01-01

8

Device for producing a fluid stream of varying composition  

DOEpatents

A device for producing a fluid stream of varying composition comprises a chamber having an inlet at one end and outlet at the other. Between the inlet and outlet there are substantially planar pans or baffles positioned normal to the bulk flow of fluid between the inlet and the outlet. These pans are arranged in pairs. Each pan, except those of the pair most remote from the inlet, is spaced from the walls of the chamber to permit air to flow past it. The pans of each pair are also spaced from each other, in a direction parallel to their planes, leaving an empty space along the mid-plane of the chamber. This produces a circulation and mixing of fluid between the pairs of pans or baffles. A secondary stream of fluid is introduced between two pairs of baffles in the intermediate portion of the chamber, so that the composition of the fluid is different in the portion adjacent to the outlet and the portion adjacent to the inlet. In a specific embodiment, the device is an exposure chamber for experimental animals, and the pans or baffles are catch pans for excrement.

Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA); Clark, Mark L. (Kennewick, WA); Rossignol, E. John (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

9

Mercury vaporization from amalgams with varied alloy compositions.  

PubMed

The fact that mercury is released from dental amalgam restorations after abrasion provides a source of continued controversy over the safe use of this material. Studies have shown that the amount and rate of mercury release vary for different amalgam products. The objective of this study was to determine how alloy composition affects mercury vaporization from experimental amalgams with similar alloy particle size and shape and percent residual mercury. An hypothesis to be tested was that mercury release is dependent upon the concentration of tin in the silver-mercury matrix phase of the amalgam. Seven spherical amalgam alloys (two low-copper and five high-copper) were made by a dental manufacturer (Tokuriki Honten, Japan). Trituration conditions were adjusted so that all set amalgams had the same residual Hg (47.3%). ADA-type amalgam cylinders were aged for 14 days at 37 degrees C, then lightly wet-abraded on #600 silicon carbide, dried, and placed into a tube through which air was blown at a rate of 750 mL/min. Mercury vaporization was monitored with a gold film analyzer (Jerome 411) for 30 min. Total Hg release was determined by integration. We analyzed polished specimens via electron microprobe to determine composition, volume fraction of silver-mercury matrix (gamma 1), and amount of tin in the gamma 1. The results showed a strong negative correlation (r2 = 0.941) between the log of total mercury released and the amount of tin in the gamma 1. The effect of alloy composition, specifically the presence or absence of zinc in the amalgam, could not be definitively determined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7560393

Ferracane, J L; Adey, J D; Nakajima, H; Okabe, T

1995-07-01

10

The effect of schedules of reinforcement on the composition of spontaneous and evoked black-capped chickadee calls.  

PubMed

Songbirds often modify elements of their songs or calls in particular social situations (e.g. song matching, flock convergence, etc.) but whether adult individuals also make vocal modifications in response to abiotic environmental factors (e.g. food availability) is relatively unknown. In the present study we test whether two different schedules of food reinforcement, fixed ratio continuous reinforcement and variable ratio partial reinforcement, cause adult black-capped chickadees to change the structure of their chick-a-dee calls. We also examine how these calls differ in two contexts: being alone versus when experiencing an alarming event. Wild-caught black-capped chickadees were housed in isolation to prevent social interaction and recorded weekly for seven weeks. Baseline recordings on week one show that calls given alone differed from those given during an alarming event in both note type composition and frequency (i.e. pitch). Calls also changed over time between birds on the two different schedules of reinforcement. In addition, birds on different reinforcement schedules responded differently during the two recording conditions. Our results suggest that call characteristics can be modified rapidly and may reflect abiotic environmental conditions. If call structure varies consistently with particular abiotic environmental conditions, much can be gained from bioacoustic analyses of calls from wild birds. However, vocal patterns must be consistent across dialects, and we must disentangle vocal changes due to the abiotic environment from those due to social interaction. Further research is needed from natural populations and across multiple regions. PMID:19717685

Proppe, Darren S; Sturdy, Christopher B

2009-09-15

11

Osteoblast response to dimethacrylate composites varying in composition, conversion and roughness using a combinatorial approach  

PubMed Central

Dimethacrylate polymers and composites are seeing increased usage in orthopedics. As these applications require the material to integrate with the surrounding tissues, direct contact cytotoxicity assays should be used to assess the biocompatibility. This study utilized a combinatorial testing platform to evaluate the cell response to dimethacrylate composites with a variety of properties on a single sample. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured directly on composites with varying filler content, filler type, degree of conversion (DC), and surface topography. Cell viability, density, and area depended on an interplay of the material properties, with low DC causing a reduction in cell area but having minimal effect on cell viability, high filler content causing an increase in cell density, and filler content/type altering the surface roughness as a function of DC. The combinatorial testing platform successfully quantified the effects of numerous material properties on several aspects of the osteoblast response.

Lin-Gibson, Sheng

2009-01-01

12

of Varying Ionic Strength and Neutral Salt Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximal calcium-activated isometric tension produced by a skinned frog single muscle fiber falls off as the ionic strength of the solution bathing this fiber is elevated declining to zero near 0.5 M as the ionic strength is varied using KC1. When other neutral salts are used, the tension always declines at high ionic strength, but there is some difference

A. M. GORDON; R. E. GODT; S. K. B. DONALDSON; C. E. HARRIS

13

Human milk fatty acid composition from nine countries varies most in DHA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many published studies of breast milk FA composition are limited to populations from one or two countries. We aimed to examine\\u000a the degree to which FA compositions vary across a number of diverse populations. Because diet and maternal adipose stores\\u000a influence breast milk FA composition, differences in FA composition between groups most likely reflect habitual dietary differences.\\u000a Approximately 50 breast

Rebecca Yuhas; Kathryn Pramuk; Eric L. Lien

2006-01-01

14

Growth performance and body composition of pike perch ( Sander lucioperca ) fed varying formulated and natural diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effect of dietary composition on growth performance and body composition of pike perch (Sander lucioperca), fingerlings with an initial body weight of 1.36 g (just trained to accept formulated feed) were fed three experimental diets in triplicate for 90 days. Two feeding groups were fed with formulated diets (CD, CD+7) containing varying levels of crude lipid (CL) of 14.65%

Carsten Schulz; Steffen Günther; Manfred Wirth; Bernhard Rennert

2006-01-01

15

Effect of Residual Stress and Reinforcement Geometry in AN Anisotropic Composite Rotating Disc Having Varying Thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the thermal residual stress and reinforcement geometry on the creep behavior of a composite disc has been analyzed in this paper. The creep analysis in a rotating disc made of Al-SiC (particle/whisker) composite having hyperbolically varying thickness has been carried out using anisotropic Hoffman yield criterion and results obtained are compared with those using Hill's criterion ignoring difference in yield stresses. The steady state creep behavior has been described by Sherby's creep law. The creep parameters characterizing difference in yield stresses have been used from the available experimental results in literature. It is observed that the stresses are not much affected by the presence of thermal residual stress, while thermal residual stress introduces significant change in the strain rates in an anisotropic rotating disc. Secondly, it is noticed that the steady state creep rates in whisker reinforced disc with/without residual stress are observed to be significantly lower than those observed in particle reinforced disc with/without residual stress. It is concluded that the presence of residual stress in an anisotropic disc with varying thickness needs attention for designing a disc.

Gupta, Vandana; Singh, S. B.

2012-12-01

16

Compositional Controls on the Geological Behavior of Icy Satellites, and a Call for More Lab Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic, volcanic, and some other important types of geologic activity of solid planetary objects arises mainly from the differential partitioning and transport of thermal energy that produces rheological structures, density inversions, and unequilibrated pressure/stress gradients, thereby causing conditions that are prone to advective mass transfers and restabilization of stress conditions. The composition of icy satellites and solid planets determines the material properties of the condensed materials, and thus their physical responses to heating and virtually all geological processes. Many key mechanical and thermodynamic properties (e.g., melting temperature, effective viscosity, and thermal conductivity) vary across orders of magnitude among the volatile ices, silicates, metals, liquid solutions, gases, and other substances making up icy satellites. Given this wide range of material properties, it is easy to understand why there is so much variability in the appearance and geologic processes of icy satellites. However, another striking discovery are some key geological/morphological similarities among many satellites. There may be three explanations for their similar appearances. (1) Dissimilar materials and dissimilar satellite attributes and conditions may give rise to dissimilar features that merely appear to be similar but are actually produced by very different processes. (2) The icy satellites are actually made of very similar materials and have responded with roughly similar processes to make similar features. (3) The icy satellites are made of dissimilar materials and operate under disparate conditions, but nevertheless many of them tend to exhibit similar geological/geophysical processes so long as they are heated sufficiently. Examples may be cited that seem consistent with each of these explanations. Theoretical understanding and modeling of satellite differentiation, cryovolcanism, solid state diapirism, magnetic field induction, and other geologic and geophysical processes depends on adequate laboratory measurements of the physical and thermodynamic properties of ices, salts, silicates, brines, gases, and other materials making up icy satellites. Examples of existing measurements of solid/liquid phase equilibria, gas solubility in aqueous solutions, thermal conductivity of solids, and rheology of aqueous solutions, ices, and salts are shown, and theoretical applications to problems of cryovolcanism and tectonism on Enceladus and Titan are given. These applications, and comparisons to silicate systems controlling much about the geology of the terrestrial planets, suggest that the third explanation above may be a key to understanding strangely familiar landscapes on Titan and Enceladus. An insufficiency in our laboratory data and our compositional knowledge of icy satellites limits our understanding of those worlds.

Kargel, J. S.

2006-12-01

17

Effect of Racial and Ethnic Composition of Neighborhoods in San Francisco on Rates of Mental-Health Related 911 Calls  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the association between San Francisco neighborhoods’ racial/ethnic residential composition and the rate of mental-health-related 911 calls. Methods Calls to the San Francisco 911 system from January 2001 through June 2003 (n=1,341,608) were divided into mental-health-related and other calls. Police sector data in the call records were overlaid onto U.S. Census tracts to estimate sector demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the association between black, Asian, Latino and white resident percentage and rates of mental-health-related calls. Results Percent of black residents was associated with a lower rate of mental-health-related calls (IRR=.99, 95% CI .98–1.00). Percent of Asian and Latino residents had no significant effect. Conclusions The observed relationship between black residents and mental-health-related calls is not consistent with known emergency mental health service utilization patterns. The paradox between underutilization of the 911 system and overutilization of psychiatric emergency services deserves further investigation.

Kessell, Eric R.; Alvidrez, Jennifer; McConnell, William A.; Shumway, Martha

2010-01-01

18

Controlled combustion tests and bottom ash analysis using household waste with varying composition  

SciTech Connect

The influence of the co-combustion of household waste with either sewage sludge, shredder fluff, electronic and electrical waste (WEEE) or PVC on the bottom ash quality and content was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions using a pot furnace. This laboratory approach avoids the interpretation problems related to large variations in input waste composition and combustion conditions that are observed in large scale MSW incinerators. The data for metals content, transfer coefficients and leaching values are presented relative to data for a base household waste composition that did not contain any of the added special wastes. The small WEEE invited direct measurement of precious metals content in the ashes, where measurement accuracy is facilitated by using only mobile phone scrap for small WEEE. The analyses were carried out for different particle size ranges that are of relevance to the recyclability of metals and minerals in the ashes. Positive correlations were found between elements content of the input waste and the bottom ashes, and also between increased levels of Cl, Mo and Cu in the input waste and their leaching in the bottom ashes. These correlations indicate that addition of PVC, small WEEE and shredder fluff in input waste can have a negative influence on the quality of the bottom ashes. Enrichment of Au and Ag occurred in the fractions between 0.15 and 6 mm. The precious metals content represents an economically interesting intrinsic value, even when the observed peak values are properly averaged over a larger volume of ashes. Overall, it has been shown that changes in quality and content of bottom ashes may be traced back to the varied input waste composition.

Hu Yanjun, E-mail: huyanjun@zjut.edu.cn [Zhejiang University of Technology, Chaowang Road 18, 310014 Hangzhou (China); Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, 2628 CN, Delft (Netherlands); Bakker, Maarten [Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, 2628 CN, Delft (Netherlands); Brem, Gerrit [University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); Chen Guanyi [Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Nankai District, 300072 Tianjin (China)

2011-02-15

19

Controlled combustion tests and bottom ash analysis using household waste with varying composition.  

PubMed

The influence of the co-combustion of household waste with either sewage sludge, shredder fluff, electronic and electrical waste (WEEE) or PVC on the bottom ash quality and content was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions using a pot furnace. This laboratory approach avoids the interpretation problems related to large variations in input waste composition and combustion conditions that are observed in large scale MSW incinerators. The data for metals content, transfer coefficients and leaching values are presented relative to data for a base household waste composition that did not contain any of the added special wastes. The small WEEE invited direct measurement of precious metals content in the ashes, where measurement accuracy is facilitated by using only mobile phone scrap for small WEEE. The analyses were carried out for different particle size ranges that are of relevance to the recyclability of metals and minerals in the ashes. Positive correlations were found between elements content of the input waste and the bottom ashes, and also between increased levels of Cl, Mo and Cu in the input waste and their leaching in the bottom ashes. These correlations indicate that addition of PVC, small WEEE and shredder fluff in input waste can have a negative influence on the quality of the bottom ashes. Enrichment of Au and Ag occurred in the fractions between 0.15 and 6 mm. The precious metals content represents an economically interesting intrinsic value, even when the observed peak values are properly averaged over a larger volume of ashes. Overall, it has been shown that changes in quality and content of bottom ashes may be traced back to the varied input waste composition. PMID:20675114

Hu, Yanjun; Bakker, Maarten; Brem, Gerrit; Chen, Guanyi

2010-08-01

20

Neutron Radiography and Fission Mapping Measurements of Nuclear Materials with Varying Composition and Shielding  

SciTech Connect

Neutron radiography and fission mapping measurements were performed on four measurement objects with varying composition and shielding arrangements at the Idaho National Laboratory's Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) facility. The measurement objects were assembled with ZPPR reactor plate materials comprising plutonium, natural uranium, or highly enriched uranium and were presented as unknowns for characterization. As a part of the characterization, neutron radiography was performed using a deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generator as a source of time and directionally tagged 14 MeV neutrons. The neutrons were detected by plastic scintillators placed on the opposite side of the object, using the time-correlation-based data acquisition of the Nuclear Materials Identification System developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each object was measured at several rotations with respect to the neutron source to obtain a tomographic reconstruction of the object and a limited identification of materials via measurement of the neutron attenuation. Large area liquid scintillators with pulse shape discrimination were used to detect the induced fission neutrons. A fission site map reconstruction was produced by time correlating the induced fission neutrons with each tagged neutron from the D-T neutron generator. This paper describes the experimental configuration, the ZPPR measurement objects used, and the neutron imaging and fission mapping results.

Mullens, James Allen [ORNL; McConchie, Seth M [ORNL; Hausladen, Paul [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL; Grogan, Brandon R [ORNL; Sword, Eric D [ORNL

2011-01-01

21

The Impact of Varying Gender Composition on Group Brainstorming Performance in a GSS Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory study that examined the extent to which group gender composition affected group brainstorming performance in a computerized group support system (GSS) environment. Theory and research related to group gender composition and GSS is reviewed, and results indicate that gender composition did not affect group brainstorming…

Herschel, Richard T.

1994-01-01

22

In vitro Wear of Composite with Varied Cure, Filler Level, and Filler Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the clinical wear of composite filling materials to be reduced, compositional factors such as degree of cure, filler level, and silanation level should be optimized. An oral-wear-simulating machine was used to explore the effects of these factors on abrasion and attrition wear as well as on opposing enamel wear. The composites were made from Sr glass (1-2 ?m avg)

J. R. Condon; J. L. Ferracane

1997-01-01

23

Frictional–viscous flow in mylonite with varied bimineralic composition and its effect on lithospheric strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical, composite flow law is presented for mylonite containing interconnected layers of a weak mineral undergoing power law creep and porphyroclasts of a stronger mineral undergoing fracture and frictional sliding. Such mylonite, termed clastomylonite, is said to undergo frictional–viscous (FV) mylonitic flow. Its bulk strength is expressed as a function of bimineralic composition, temperature, effective pressure, and shear strain

M. R. Handy; S. B. Wissing; L. E. Streit

1999-01-01

24

Transient Hydrothermal Stresses in Composites: Coupling of Moisture and Heat with Temperature Varying Diffusivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of coupled diffusion of heat and moisture on the transient stresses in a composite is investigated analytically where the moisture diffusion coefficient is taken to be temperature dependent while the thermal diffusion coefficient is kept con...

G. C. Sih M. T. Shih

1979-01-01

25

Modeled and Measured Dynamics of a Composite Beam with Periodically Varying Foam Core.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dynamics of a sandwich beam with carbon fiber composite facesheets and foam core with periodic variations in material properties are studied. The purpose of the study is to compare finite element predictions with experimental measurements on fabricate...

N. H. Schiller R. H. Cabell R. J. Cano

2012-01-01

26

Composites for bone repair: phosphate glass fibre reinforced PLA with varying fibre architecture.  

PubMed

Internal fixation for bone fractures with rigid metallic plates, screws and pins is a proven operative technique. However, refracture's have been observed after rigid internal fixation with metal plates and plate fixation has been known to cause localised osteopenia under and near the plate. In the present study, resorbable composites comprising a PLA matrix reinforced with iron doped phosphate glass fibres were investigated. Non-woven random mat laminates of approximately 30% and 45% fibre volume fraction (V(f)) were produced, along with unidirectional and 0°-90° samples of approximately 20% V(f). The non-woven composite laminates achieved maximum values of 10 GPa modulus and 120 MPa strength. The 0-90º samples showed unexpectedly low strengths close to matrix value (~50 MPa) although with a modulus of 7 GPa. The UD specimens exhibited values of 130 MPa and 11.5 GPa for strength and modulus respectively. All the modulus values observed were close to that expected from the rule of mixtures. Samples immersed in deionised water at 37°C revealed rapid mechanical property loss, more so for the UD and 0-90º samples. It was suggested that continuous fibres wicked the degradation media into the composite plates which sped up the deterioration of the fibre-matrix interface. The effect was less pronounced in the non-woven random mat laminates due to the discontinuous arrangement of fibres within the composite, making it less prone to wicking. Random mat composites revealed a higher mass loss than the UD and 0°-90° specimens, it was suggested this was due to the higher fibre volume fractions of these composites and SEM studies revealed voidage around the fibres by day 3. Studies of pH of the degradation media showed similar profiles for all the composites investigated. An initial decrease in pH was attributed to the release of phosphate ions into solution followed by a gradual return back to neutral. PMID:21671001

Ahmed, I; Jones, I A; Parsons, A J; Bernard, J; Farmer, J; Scotchford, C A; Walker, G S; Rudd, C D

2011-06-14

27

A Delay Composition Approach to Stability Analysis of Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the asymptotical stability for a class of neural networks (NNs) with time-varying delay. Under weaker assumptions on the activation functions, by defining a more general type of Lyapunov functionals and using a delay decomposition method and employing a new convex combination technique, a new less conservative stability criterion are established to guarantee the global asymptotical stability of

Wenbin Cheng; Xunlin Zhu; Yiqun Deng

2010-01-01

28

Thermal Property Characterization of Single Crystal Diamond with Varying Isotopic Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mirage-effect\\/thermal wave technique as a modern technique for thermal property characterization is described. In this technique, the thermal diffusivity of a material is determined by measuring the time and space varying temperature distribution (thermal wave) in the material generated by a intensity modulated heating laser beam. These thermal waves, whose propagating features are directly related to the thermal properties

Lanhua Wei

1993-01-01

29

Characterization of melting properties in dark chocolates from varying particle size distribution and composition using differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melting properties in dark chocolates processed from varying particle size distribution (PSD), fat and lecithin content were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Compositional parameters were PSD (D90 (90% finer than this size) of 18, 25, 35 and 50?m), fat (25%, 30% and 35%) and lecithin (0.3% and 0.5%) contents. Variations in PSD had no influence on crystallinity of products.

Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa; Alistair Paterson; Mark Fowler; Joselio Vieira

2008-01-01

30

Controlled combustion tests and bottom ash analysis using household waste with varying composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the co-combustion of household waste with either sewage sludge, shredder fluff, electronic and electrical waste (WEEE) or PVC on the bottom ash quality and content was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions using a pot furnace. This laboratory approach avoids the interpretation problems related to large variations in input waste composition and combustion conditions that are observed in

Yanjun Hu; Maarten Bakker; Gerrit Brem; Guanyi Chen

2011-01-01

31

FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The data was used to provide recommendations to the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) regarding blending and washing strategies in preparing SB5 based on acceptability of the glass compositions. These data were also used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of frits. Three composition projections for SB5 were developed using a model-based approach at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These compositions, referred to as SB5 Cases B, C and D, projected removal of 25, 50 and 75% (respectively) of the aluminum in Tank 51 through the low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The frits for this study (Frits 530 through 537) were selected based on their predicted operating windows (i.e., ranges of waste loadings over which the predicted properties of the glasses were acceptable) and their potential (based on historical trends) to provide acceptable melt rates for SB5. Six additional glasses were designed to evaluate alternatives for uranium in DWPF-type glasses used for variability studies and some scoping studies. Since special measures are necessary when working with uranium-containing glasses in the laboratory, it is desirable as a cost and time saving measure to find an alternative for uranium to support frit optimization efforts. Hafnium and neodymium were investigated as potential surrogates for uranium, and other glasses were made by simply excluding the radioactive components and renormalizing the glass composition. The study glasses were fabricated and characterized at SRNL. Chemical composition analyses suggested only minor difficulties in meeting the targeted compositions for some of the oxides for some of the glasses. Although minor differences were observed, they did not have a significant impact on the conclusions made in this study. Several of the study compositions showed retention of more than 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass. Trevorite (a spinel) was the only crystalline phase that was positively identified in a few of the study glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Spinels are not of concern as they have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. The crystallization behavior of the surrogate glasses was generally the same as that of their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. There are two pairs that were exceptions: SB5-04 (amorphous) and SB5-24 (possible trevorite), along with SB5-07 (amorphous) and SB5-25 (trevorite). In these cases, the surrogate glasses (SB5-24 and SB5-25) appear to be more conservative (more prone to crystallization) than their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized leachate (NL) values for B, Li, Na and Si for all of the study glasses were well below those of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass, regardless of heat treatment or compositional view. This indicates that all of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The highest NL [B] for the study glasses was 0.914 g/L (the quenched version of glass SB5-13), normalized using the measured, bias-correct composition. There was little practical impact of the CCC heat treatment on the PCT responses of the study glasses. The measured PCT responses were predictable by the current {Delta}G{sub p} models. In general, the PCT responses for the surrogate glasses or the glasses without U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were quite similar to their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. The average percent error in NL [B] normalized by the measured, bias-corrected compositions for the surrogate glasses compared with their radioactive counterparts was 8.8%. The largest difference in NL

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

2008-08-28

32

Practical Analysis of materials with depth varying compositions using FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS)  

SciTech Connect

FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is discussed as a nondestructive method to probe the molecular composition of materials versus depth on the basis of the analysis of layers of experimentally controllable thickness, which are measured from the sample surface to depths of some tens of micrometers, depending on optical and thermal properties. Computational methods are described to process photoacoustic amplitude and phase spectra for both semi-quantitative and quantitative depth analyses. These methods are demonstrated on layered and gradient samples.

J.F. McClelland; R.W. Jones; Siquan Luo

2004-09-30

33

Plasma membrane lipid diffusion and composition of sea urchin egg membranes vary with ocean temperature.  

PubMed

A diverse and complex array of lipids plays a vital role in structuring and organizing cell membranes. However, the details of lipid requirements for global membrane organization are poorly understood. One obstacle to this understanding is the difficulty of accurately manipulating the lipid composition of commonly studied mammalian cells. In contrast, the lipid composition of cells of ectotherms changes with changes in environmental temperatures. Thus, comparison of lipid probe diffusion in cells from animals living at different temperatures, together with biochemical analysis, can be used toward understanding membrane organization. We used two dialkyindocarbocyanine iodide (DiI) probes, of differing chain length, to probe lipid organization in terms of their lateral diffusion in eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The lateral diffusion of our probes changed in urchins developing in the year of an "El Niño" weather event, which raised the ocean temperature by several degrees, suggesting alterations in membrane domain composition and structure. Indeed the changes in lateral diffusion were correlated with lower levels of unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol in animals of the "El Niño" year than in animals of the preceding or following years. We found similar trends comparing DiI diffusion in membranes of eggs from 15 degrees C waters with those from 10 degrees C. Our findings establish a new approach for manipulating and studying membrane organization. PMID:17986387

Weaver, Frances E; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Edidin, Michael

2007-10-16

34

Anorexic effect of peripheral cholecystokinin (CCK) varies with age and body composition (short communication).  

PubMed

Obesity of middle-aged mammals is followed at old age by anorexia and cachexia leading to sarcopenia. Complex age- and body composition-related alterations in the regulation of energy homeostasis may be assumed in the background. We aimed to test the possible contribution of age- and body composition-related changes of satiety responses to catabolic brain-gut-axis peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) to these alterations in energy balance during aging. Male Wistar rats (6-8 animals/group) aged 2 months (juvenile), 3 months (young adult), 6 or 12 months (early or late middle-aged), and 24 months (old) were injected intraperitoneally with 5 ?g CCK-8 prior to re-feeding after 48-h food-deprivation. CCK suppressed re-feeding in young adult (26.8%), early middle-aged (35.5%), and old (31.4%) animals, but not in juvenile or late middle-aged rats (one-way ANOVA). CCK-resistance of 12 months old rats was prevented by life-long calorie-restriction: CCK suppressed their re-feeding by 46.8%. Conversely, in highfat diet-induced obese 6 months old rats CCK failed to suppress re-feeding. In conclusion, age-related changes in satiety responsiveness to CCK may contribute to the age-related obesity of middle-aged as well as to the anorexia of old animals. CCK-responsiveness is also influenced by body composition: calorie-restriction prevents the resistance to CCK, pre-existing obesity enhances it. PMID:22849841

Balaskó, Márta; Soós, Sz; Párniczky, A; Koncsecskó-Gáspár, M; Székely, M; Pétervári, E

2012-06-01

35

Varying the concentration of single walled carbon nanotubes in thin film polymer composites, and its effect on thermoelectric power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistivity and thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements were conducted on single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT), polyvinylidene fluoride composite thin films of varying SWNT concentrations. This heterogeneous material was used in order to utilize the good electrical conductance of the nanotubes and the poor thermal conductance of the polymer to increase the figure of merit (ZT). As the nanotube weight percent decreased from 100% to 5%, the beneficial effects of the TEP increase and thermal conductivity decrease outweighed the negative effect of decreased electrical conductivity, resulting in an increase in ZT by a factor of 100.

Hewitt, C. A.; Kaiser, A. B.; Roth, S.; Craps, M.; Czerw, R.; Carroll, D. L.

2011-05-01

36

Oxygen Consumption Constrains Food Intake in Fish Fed Diets Varying in Essential Amino Acid Composition  

PubMed Central

Compromisation of food intake when confronted with diets deficient in essential amino acids is a common response of fish and other animals, but the underlying physiological factors are poorly understood. We hypothesize that oxygen consumption of fish is a possible physiological factor constraining food intake. To verify, we assessed the food intake and oxygen consumption of rainbow trout fed to satiation with diets which differed in essential amino acid (methionine and lysine) compositions: a balanced vs. an imbalanced amino acid diet. Both diets were tested at two water oxygen levels: hypoxia vs. normoxia. Trout consumed 29% less food under hypoxia compared to normoxia (p<0.001). Under both hypoxia and normoxia trout significantly reduced food intake by 11% and 16% respectively when fed the imbalanced compared to the balanced amino acid diet. Oxygen consumption of the trout per unit body mass remained identical for both diet groups not only under hypoxia but also under normoxia (p>0.05). This difference in food intake between diets under normoxia together with the identical oxygen consumption supports the hypothesis that food intake in fish can be constrained by a set-point value of oxygen consumption, as seen here on a six-week time scale.

Saravanan, Subramanian; Geurden, Inge; Figueiredo-Silva, A. Claudia; Nusantoro, Suluh; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Verreth, Johan; Schrama, Johan W.

2013-01-01

37

Species composition and cyanotoxin production in periphyton mats from three lakes of varying trophic status.  

PubMed

In lakes, benthic micro-algae and cyanobacteria (periphyton) can contribute significantly to total primary productivity and provide important food sources for benthic invertebrates. Despite recognition of their importance, few studies have explored the diversity of the algal and cyanobacterial composition of periphyton mats in temperate lakes. In this study, we sampled periphyton from three New Zealand lakes: Tikitapu (oligotrophic), ?k?reka (mesotrophic) and Rotoiti (eutrophic). Statistical analysis of morphological data showed a clear delineation in community structure among lakes and highlighted the importance of cyanobacteria. Automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were used to investigate cyanobacterial diversity. Despite the close geographic proximity of the lakes, cyanobacterial species differed markedly. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified eight cyanobacterial OTUs. A comparison with other known cyanobacterial sequences in GenBank showed relatively low similarities (91-97%). Cyanotoxin analysis identified nodularin in all mats from Lake Tikitapu. ndaF gene sequences from these samples had very low (? 89%) homology to sequences in other known nodularin producers. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of nodularin in a freshwater environment in the absence of Nodularia. Six cyanobacteria species were isolated from Lake Tikitapu mats. None were found to produce nodularin. Five of the species shared low (< 97%) 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with other cultured cyanobacteria. PMID:22092304

Wood, Susie A; Kuhajek, Jeannie M; de Winton, Mary; Phillips, Ngaire R

2011-10-26

38

The composition of phyllosphere fungal assemblages of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) varies significantly along an elevation gradient.  

PubMed

Little is known about the potential effect of climate warming on phyllosphere fungi, despite their important impact on the dynamics and diversity of plant communities. The structure of phyllosphere fungal assemblages along elevation gradients may provide information about this potential effect, because elevation gradients correspond to temperature gradients over short geographic distances. We thus investigated variations in the composition of fungal assemblages inhabiting the phyllosphere of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) at four sites over a gradient of 1000 m of elevation in the French Pyrénées Mountains, by using tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing. Our results show that the composition of fungal assemblages varied significantly between elevation sites, in terms of both the relative abundance and the presence-absence of species, and that the variations in assemblage composition were well correlated with variations in the average temperatures. Our results therefore suggest that climate warming might alter both the incidence and the abundance of phyllosphere fungal species, including potential pathogens. For example, Mycosphaerella punctiformis, a causal agent of leaf spots, showed decreasing abundance with elevation and might therefore shift to higher elevations in response to warming. PMID:22934891

Cordier, Tristan; Robin, Cécile; Capdevielle, Xavier; Fabreguettes, Olivier; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure; Vacher, Corinne

2012-08-30

39

Roll Call  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Roll Call is "The Newspaper of Capitol Hill since 1955", that covers the people, process and politics of Capitol Hill. The website has many multimedia features, including videos, an interactive timeline, podcasts, photo galleries, and political cartoons. Some of the sections of the online version of the paper include "News", "Opinion", "Politics", "Vested Interests", "Around the Hill", and "Investigations". To watch videos on various topics, or listen to Roll Call podcasts, visitors should click on "More Video", in the box entitled Roll Call Video, which resides in the middle of the page. The link provides recent videos, Roll Call on C-SPAN, Roll Call TV (CN8), podcasts, and a photo gallery of photos of the day. At the top of the homepage, visitors can find the latest news from Congress and the judiciary under the "Congress Now" tab. For policy intelligence on many issues, the "Briefing Room" tab allows visitors to explore the latest issues, divided into the topics of "Budget and Appropriations", "Defense", "Energy and Environment", "Foreign Policy and Trade", "Health", and "Homeland Security".

40

Delay-Dependent Stabilization of Linear Input-Delayed Systems with Composite State-Derivative Feedback: Constant and Time-Varying Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers stability problem for input- delayed systems for both constant and time-varying delay case. A new composite state-derivative control law is introduced, in which, a composition of the state variables and their derivatives appear in control law. By this means, the resulting closed-loop system becomes a particular time-delay system of neutral type. The significant specification of this neutral

A. Shariati; H. D Taghirad; B. Labibi

41

Personal Stories, Composition, and Varying Institutional Dynamics: What Role Does "Story" Play in Small Schools vs. Large Ones?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two years ago an instructor left a large public university to teach composition at the University of Findlay, a small private coeducational institution located in a city of 36,000 people south of Toledo, Ohio. Describing the differences between small and large schools, he touches upon the more personalized student-teacher interactions at Findlay.…

Martin, Eric V.

42

Attitudes, Behaviors, and Effectiveness of Black and White Leaders of Simulated Problem Solving Groups of Varying Size and Racial Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A field experiment was used to investigate the effects, if any, of changing group size and racial composition on the attitudes, behaviors, and effectiveness of black and white leaders. Subjects were 288 naval recruits, half black and half white, performing two tasks which were watched by a pair of racially mixed observers through a one-way…

Hill, Walter A.; Allen, William R.

43

Tree composition and structure in disturbed stands with varying dominance by Pinus spp. in the highlands of Chiapas, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied soil and forest floor conditions, regeneration patterns oftrees, and forest structure and floristic composition along a gradient ofdominance by Pinus spp. in disturbed stands in thehighlands of Chiapas, southern Mexico. Seedlings, saplings, and adults of treespecies were counted and measured in 2-3 circular plots (1000m2 each) in 36 forest stands (a total of 38 treespecies). Dominance of broadleaved

Luis Galindo-Jaimes; Mario González-Espinosa; Pedro Quintana-Ascencio; Luis García-Barrios

2002-01-01

44

Nonlinear and threshold responses of grassland productivity and species composition to increased CO2 vary with soil type  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Climate change is likely to cause non-linear responses in ecosystem function and threshold changes in species composition. Here we report aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) responses to a continuous CO2 concentration gradient (250 to 500 µL L-1) in experimental grassland communities on...

45

Nonlinear and Threshold Responses of Grassland Productivity and Species Composition to Increased CO2 Vary with Soil Type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is likely to cause nonlinear responses in ecosystem function and threshold changes in species composition. Here we report aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) responses to a continuous CO2 concentration gradient (250 to 500 ?L L-1,) in experimental grassland communities on three soils differing in water holding capacity and other properties. Communities consisting of four C4 grasses, two C3 forbs, and one legume were established on a lowland clay (vertisol, n=32), an upland clay (mollisol, n=32), and an alluvial sand (alfisol, n=16). The communities were positioned in a stratified random design in the CO2 gradient for five growing seasons, and were irrigated to mimic the average growing season rainfall regime for the study site in Central Texas. ANPP increased with CO2 almost two-fold more on the upland clay and alluvial sand than on the lowland clay (p < 0.0001), because of strong linear responses to CO2 on these soils (R2 = 0.50 to 0.59, p < 0.002) compared to a saturating response to CO2 on the lowland clay (R2 = 0.48, p= 0.01). On the two more responsive soils, the mesic tallgrass Sorghastrum nutans replaced the more drought adapted mid-grass Bouteloua curtipendula at elevated CO2, while B. curtipendula largely replaced S. nutans at low CO2, especially on the upland clay. Evidence for a similar composition change was not found on the lowland clay. Thus, two soils displayed a threshold change in community composition that accounted for up to 57% of variation in ANPP for those soils. Variation in ANPP and species composition with CO2 were accompanied by linear increases in soil water content (SWC, 0 - 20 cm, volumetric), most strongly on the alluvial sand (R2 = 0.39, p < 0.009) and by weak decreases with CO2 in soil N. Structural equation models explained 34 to 52% of the variation in ANPP, and indicated that CO2 effects on ANPP on the upland clay were primarily explained by CO2 effects on species composition, and on the alluvial sand by CO2 effects on SWC. Responses to elevated CO2 in SWC, ANPP, and species composition were explained by reduced stomatal conductance and increased photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE) in both grasses. In addition, S. nutans gained more in WUE at elevated CO2 than B. curtipendula, while B. curtipendula at elevated CO2 had lower light saturated photosynthetic capacity, quantum use efficiency, and dark respiration than S. nutans. Thus, at elevated CO2, shading by the taller S. nutans likely lowered B. curtipendula carbon assimilation and growth. We conclude that elevated CO2 strongly increased ANPP on upland clay and alluvial sand soils where there were also gains in soil moisture and threshold changes in species composition driven by physiological differences in the two dominant grass species. As a result, CO2 effects on ANPP will likely differ with soil type across the landscape.

Fay, P. A.; Jin, V.; Jackson, R. B.; Gill, R. A.; Way, D.; Polley, W.

2011-12-01

46

Enhanced nurse call systems.  

PubMed

This Evaluation focuses on high-end computerized nurse call systems--what we call enhanced systems. These are highly flexible systems that incorporate microprocessor and communications technologies to expand the capabilities of the nurse call function. Enhanced systems, which vary in configuration from one installation to the next, typically consist of a basic system that provides standard nurse call functionality and a combination of additional enhancements that provide the added functionality the facility desires. In this study, we examine the features that distinguish enhanced nurse call systems from nonenhanced systems, focusing on their application and benefit to healthcare facilities. We evaluated seven systems to determine how well they help (1) improve patient care, as well as increase satisfaction with the care provided, and (2) improve caregiver efficiency, as well as increase satisfaction with the work environment. We found that all systems meet these objectives, but not all systems perform equally well for all implementations. Our ratings will help facilities identify those systems that offer the most effective features for their intended use. The study also includes a Technology Management Guide to help readers (1) determine whether they'll benefit from the capabilities offered by enhanced systems and (2) target a system for purchase and equip the system for optimum performance and cost-effective operation. PMID:11382209

2001-04-01

47

Changes in Fungal Community Composition in Response to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization Varies with Soil Horizon  

PubMed Central

Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and rates of nitrogen (N)-deposition to forest ecosystems are predicted to alter the structure and function of soil fungal communities, but the spatially heterogeneous distribution of soil fungi has hampered investigations aimed at understanding such impacts. We hypothesized that soil physical and chemical properties and fungal community composition would be differentially impacted by elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) and N-fertilization in spatially separated field samples, in the forest floor, 0–2, 2–5, and 5–10?cm depth intervals in a loblolly pine Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment. In all soils, quantitative PCR-based estimates of fungal biomass were highest in the forest floor. Fungal richness, based on pyrosequencing of the fungal ribosomal large subunit gene, increased in response to N-fertilization in 0–2?cm and forest floor intervals. Composition shifted in forest floor, 0–2 and 2–5?cm intervals in response to N-fertilization, but the shift was most distinct in the 0–2?cm interval, in which the largest number of statistically significant changes in soil chemical parameters (i.e., phosphorus, organic matter, calcium, pH) was also observed. In the 0–2?cm interval, increased recovery of sequences from the Thelephoraceae, Tricholomataceae, Hypocreaceae, Clavicipitaceae, and Herpotrichiellaceae families and decreased recovery of sequences from the Amanitaceae correlated with N-fertilization. In this same depth interval, Amanitaceae, Tricholomataceae, and Herpotriciellaceae sequences were recovered less frequently from soils exposed to eCO2 relative to ambient conditions. These results demonstrated that vertical stratification should be taken into consideration in future efforts to elucidate environmental impacts on fungal communities and their feedbacks on ecosystem processes.

Weber, Carolyn F.; Vilgalys, Rytas; Kuske, Cheryl R.

2013-01-01

48

Evaluation of microstructure and electrochemical corrosion behavior of austenitic 316 stainless steel weld metals with varying chemical compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Austenitic stainless steel weld metals have, in general, inferior corrosion resistance compared with the base metals. This is due to the fact that the weld metal has an inhomogeneous and dendritic microstructure with microsegregation of major elements (i.e., Cr, Mo, and Ni) as well as minor elements (i.e., S and P) at the ?-? interface boundaries. The nonuniform alloying element concentration around ferrite particles plays a major role in determining the electrochemical corrosion behavior of such weld metals. Although the presence of ferrite is considered to be detrimental as far as the localized corrosion is considered, its exact role in uniform corrosion is still not clear. The uniform corrosion behavior of an alloy is determined by the fundamental electrochemical parameters of the major alloying elements. In this study, an attempt has been made to correlate the microstructure and uniform corrosion behavior of type 316 stainless steel weld metals with varying concentrations of Cr and Mo, and different ferrite contents. From the empirical equations obtained during the analysis of the electrochemical corrosion data, an attempt has been made to understand the role of Cr, Mo, and ferrite in altering the electrochemical corrosion parameters of the weld metal. Based on the extensive microstructural characterization, a dissolution model for the weld metal in the moderately oxidizing medium has been proposed.

Pujar, M. G.; Dayal, R. K.; Gill, T. P. S.; Malhotra, S. N.

2005-06-01

49

Spectroscopic and thermodynamic study of charge transfer complex formation between cloxacillin sodium and riboflavin in aqueous ethanol media of varying composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloxacillin sodium has been shown to form a charge transfer complex of 2:1 stoichiometry with riboflavin (Vitamin B 2) in aqueous ethanol medium. The enthalpy and entropy of formation of this complex have been determined by estimating the formation constant spectrophotometrically at five different temperatures in pure water medium. Pronounced effect of dielectric constant of the medium on the magnitude of K has been observed by determining K in aqueous ethanol mixtures of varying composition. This has been rationalized in terms of ionic dissociation of the cloxacillin sodium (D -Na +), hydrolysis of the anion D - and complexation of the free acid, DH with riboflavin.

Roy, Dalim Kumar; Saha, Avijit; Mukherjee, Asok K.

2006-03-01

50

Carbon stable isotopic composition of soluble sugars in Tillandsia epiphytes varies in response to shifts in habitat.  

PubMed

We studied C stable isotopic composition (delta(13)C) of bulk leaf tissue and extracted sugars of four epiphytic Tillandsia species to investigate flexibility in the use of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C(3) photosynthetic pathways. Plants growing in two seasonally dry tropical forest reserves in Mexico that differ in annual precipitation were measured during wet and dry seasons, and among secondary, mature, and wetland forest types within each site. Dry season sugars were more enriched in (13)C than wet season sugars, but there was no seasonal difference in bulk tissues. Bulk tissue delta(13)C differed by species and by forest type, with values from open-canopied wetlands more enriched in (13)C than mature or secondary forest types. The shifts within forest habitat were related to temporal and spatial changes in vapor pressure deficits (VPD). Modeling results estimate a possible 4% increase in the proportional contribution of the C(3) pathway during the wet season, emphasizing that any seasonal or habitat-mediated variation in photosynthetic pathway appears to be quite moderate and within the range of isotopic effects caused by variation in stomatal conductance during assimilation through the C(3) pathway and environmental variation in VPD. C isotopic analysis of sugars together with bulk leaf tissue offers a useful approach for incorporating short- and long-term measurements of C isotope discrimination during photosynthesis. PMID:20155286

Goode, Laurel K; Erhardt, Erik B; Santiago, Louis S; Allen, Michael F

2010-02-13

51

Carbon stable isotopic composition of soluble sugars in Tillandsia epiphytes varies in response to shifts in habitat  

PubMed Central

We studied C stable isotopic composition (?13C) of bulk leaf tissue and extracted sugars of four epiphytic Tillandsia species to investigate flexibility in the use of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C3 photosynthetic pathways. Plants growing in two seasonally dry tropical forest reserves in Mexico that differ in annual precipitation were measured during wet and dry seasons, and among secondary, mature, and wetland forest types within each site. Dry season sugars were more enriched in 13C than wet season sugars, but there was no seasonal difference in bulk tissues. Bulk tissue ?13C differed by species and by forest type, with values from open-canopied wetlands more enriched in 13C than mature or secondary forest types. The shifts within forest habitat were related to temporal and spatial changes in vapor pressure deficits (VPD). Modeling results estimate a possible 4% increase in the proportional contribution of the C3 pathway during the wet season, emphasizing that any seasonal or habitat-mediated variation in photosynthetic pathway appears to be quite moderate and within the range of isotopic effects caused by variation in stomatal conductance during assimilation through the C3 pathway and environmental variation in VPD. C isotopic analysis of sugars together with bulk leaf tissue offers a useful approach for incorporating short- and long-term measurements of C isotope discrimination during photosynthesis.

Erhardt, Erik B.; Santiago, Louis S.; Allen, Michael F.

2010-01-01

52

Aroma profiles of vegetable oils varying in fatty acid composition vs. concentrations of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products.  

PubMed

The aroma compositions of oxidised sunflower oil, linseed oil and a blend thereof (85/15) were compared with frequently used indicators for primary and secondary lipid oxidation. Primary lipid oxidation was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes, secondary lipid oxidation by proponal and hexanal formation. Highest concentrations of conjugated dienes and propanal were measured in the linseed oil, followed by the blend and sunflower oil, respectively. Highest concentrations of hexanal were determined in the blend. At similar primary oxidation levels, volatile compounds of the oils were isolated in a model mouth system and subsequently analysed by gas chromatography/sniffing port analysis. Propanal, pentanal, 1-penten-3-one, hexanal, 1-pentanol, octanal, 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol and (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal possessed detectable odours. Comparing the three oils, most aroma compounds and greatest intensities were determined in the blend. Conjugated diene concentrations did not predict the formation of aroma compounds adequately. Although propanal and hexanal concentrations were reasonable indicators for aroma development in linseed and sunflower oil, respectively, neither of the indicators predicted aroma development in all three oils sufficiently. PMID:11075372

van Ruth, S M; Roozen, J P; Jansen, F J

2000-10-01

53

Differential uptake of liposomes varying in size and lipid composition by parenchymal and Kupffer cells of mouse liver  

SciTech Connect

Using liposomes differing in size and lipid composition, we have studied the uptake characteristics of the liver parenchymal and Kupffer cells. Desferal labeled with iron-59 was chosen as a radiomarker for the liposomal content, because Desferal in its free form does not cross cellular membranes.At various time intervals after an intravenous injection of liposomes into mice, the liver was perfused with collagenase, and the cells were separated in a Percoll gradient. It was found that large multilamellar liposomes (diameter of about 0.5 ..mu..m) were mainly taken up by the Kupffer cells. For these large liposomes, the rate of uptake by Kupffer cells was rapid, with maximum uptake at around 2 hours after liposme injection. Unexpectedly, small unilamellar liposomes (diameter of about 0.08 ..mu..m) were less effectively taken up by Kupffer cells, and the rate of uptake was slow, with a maximum uptake at about 10 hours after liposome injection. In contrast, parenchymal cells were more effective in taking up small liposmes and the uptake of large liposomes was negligible. In addition, liposomes made with a galactolipid as part of the lipid constituents appeared to have higher affinity to parenchymal cells than liposomes made without the galactolipid. These findings should be of importance in designing suitable liposomes for drug targeting.

Rahman, Y.E.; Cerny, E.A.; Patel, K.R.; Lau, E.H.; Wright, B.J.

1982-11-08

54

Differential uptake of liposomes varying in size and lipid composition by parenchymal and Kupffer cells of mouse liver  

SciTech Connect

Using liposomes differing in size and lipid composition, we have studied the uptake characteristics of the liver parenchymal and Kupffer cells. Desferal labeled with iron-59 was chosen as a radiomarker for the liposomal content, because Desferal in its free form does not cross cellular membranes. At various time intervals after an intravenous injection of liposomes into mice, the liver was perfused with collagenase, and the cells were separated in a Percoll gradient. It was found that large multilamellar liposomes (diameter of about 0.5 ..mu..m) were mainly taken up by the Kupffer cells. For these large liposomes, the rate of uptake by Kupffer cells was rapid, with maximum uptake at around 2 hours after liposome injection. In contrast, parenchymal cells were more effective in taking up small liposomes and the uptake of large liposomes was negligible. In addition, liposomes made with a galactolipid as part of the lipid constituents appeared to have higher affinity to parenchymal cells than liposomes made without the galactolipid. These findings should be of importance in designing suitable liposomes for drug targeting.

Rahman, Y.E.; Cerny, E.A.; Patel, K.R.; Lau, E.H.; Wright, B.J.

1982-01-01

55

Sediment accretion rates and sediment composition in Prairie Pothole wetlands under varying land use practices, Montana, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increased sedimentation and nutrient cycle changes in Prairie Pothole Region wetlands associated with agriculture threaten the permanence and ecological functionality of these important resources. To determine the effects of land use on sedimentation and nutrient cycling, soil cores were analyzed for cesium-137 (137Cs), lead-210 (210Pb), and potassium-40 (40K) activities; textural composition; organic and inorganic carbon (C); and total nitrogen (N) from twelve wetlands surrounded by cropland, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands, or native prairie uplands. Separate soil cores from nine of these wetlands were also analyzed for phosphorus (P), nitrate (NO3), and ammonium (NH4) concentrations. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had significantly greater linear sediment accretion rates than wetlands surrounded by CRP or native prairie. Linear sediment accretion rates from wetlands surrounded by cropland were 2.7 and 6 times greater than wetlands surrounded by native prairie when calculated from the initial and peak occurrence of 137Cs, respectively, and 0.15 cm y?1 (0.06 in yr?1) greater when calculated from 210Pb. Relative to wetlands surrounded by CRP, linear sediment accretion rates for wetlands surrounded by cropland were 4.4 times greater when calculated from the peak occurrence of 137Cs. No significant differences existed between the linear sediment accretion rates between wetlands surrounded by native prairie or CRP uplands. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had increased clay, P, NO3, and NH4, and decreased total C and N concentrations compared to wetlands surrounded by native prairie. Wetlands surrounded by CRP had the lowest P and NO3 concentrations and had clay, NH4, C, and N concentrations between those of cropland and native prairie wetlands. We documented increased linear sediment accretion rates and changes in the textural and chemical properties of sediments in wetlands with cultivated uplands relative to wetlands with native prairie uplands. These findings demonstrate the value of the CRP at protecting wetland catchments to reduce sedimentation.

Preston, T. M.; Sojda, R. S.; Gleason, R. A.

2013-01-01

56

Optimization of Ligninolytic Enzyme Activity and Production Rate with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for Application in Bioremediation by Varying Submerged Media Composition and Growth Immobilization Support  

PubMed Central

Response surface methodology (central composite design of experiments) was employed to simultaneously optimize enzyme production and productivities of two ligninolytic enzymes produced by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Concentrations of glucose, ammonium tartrate and Polysorbate 80 were varied to establish the optimal composition of liquid media (OLM), where the highest experimentally obtained activities and productivities were 41 U L?1 and 16 U L?1 day?1 for laccase (Lac), and 193 U L?1 and 80 U L?1 day?1 for manganese peroxidase (MnP). Considering culture growth in OLM on various types of immobilization support, the best results were obtained with 1 cm beech wood cubes (BWCM). Enzyme activities in culture filtrate were 152 U L?1 for Lac and 58 U L?1 for MnP, since the chemical composition of this immobilization material induced higher Lac activity. Lower enzyme activities were obtained with polyurethane foam. Culture filtrates of OLM and BWCM were applied for dye decolorization. Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) was decolorized faster and more efficiently than Copper(II)phthalocyanine (CuP) with BWCM (80% and 60%), since Lac played a crucial role. Decolorization of CuP was initially faster than that of RBBR, due to higher MnP activities in OLM. The extent of decolorization after 14 h was 60% for both dyes.

Babic, Janja; Likozar, Blaz; Pavko, Aleksander

2012-01-01

57

When males call, females listen: sex differences in responsiveness to rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta, copulation calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many species, males and\\/or females produce advertisement calls before, during or after mating. Respon- siveness to these calls may vary by sex because of underlying perceptual, motivational or attentional sys- tems. I conducted playback experiments on free-ranging adult rhesus monkeys to examine whether males and females differentially respond to calls from the same male or to calls from different

Marc D. Hauser

2007-01-01

58

House Calls in Utah  

PubMed Central

To learn the criteria Utah physicians use in making or not making house calls and their specialty, age and frequency of calls, a random sample of half of Utah's physicians in family practice, general practice and general medicine was surveyed. Of 225 respondents, 70% reported making house calls at an average rate of 2.6 per month. More family practitioners made house calls than did internists; older physicians made more house calls than their younger counterparts. An estimated 82% of the calls were for patients aged 65 years and older. The most frequently stated reasons for making house calls were that patients were homebound and to assess the family or home situation. Reasons given for not making house calls were inefficient use of time and lack of equipment or necessary facilities.

Schueler, Mark S.; Harris, Dona L.; Goodenough, Gerald K.; Collette, Linda

1987-01-01

59

Emotions and calls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Birds use different calls to understand each other. Birds can give distress calls and other calls to let other birds know how they feel. Similarly, humans can detect how other humans feel by the tone of voice they use. They can use their hearing abilities to assess the emotions and moods of others.

N/A N/A (None;)

2006-10-08

60

Bird calls: their potential for behavioral neurobiology.  

PubMed

Birdsongs are always part of larger set of sound signals. Every bird uses a repertoire of calls for communication. Calls are shorter and simpler than songs, with a much larger range of functions. Whereas songs are specialized for application in reproduction and territoriality, calls also serve such functions as signaling about food, maintaining social cohesion, contact calls, synchronizing and coordinating flight, and the resolution of aggressive and sexual conflicts. Alarm calls of various kinds are a major component, including distress, mobbing, and hawk alarm calls. Call repertoires vary greatly in size, up to 20 or so distinct call types. Rough estimates for songbirds range between 5 and 10, but some birds, especially galliforms, may have twice as many. Call usage is often sexually dimorphic and commonly varies seasonally and with physiological state. Most calls appear to be innate, but more and more examples of developmental plasticity in bird calls are emerging. Some display well-defined local dialects. A case is made for the value to avian behavioral neurobiology of including bird calls in studies of the psychophysics and sensory physiology of signal perception. They may also help to extend the range of neurobiological investigations of the song system to include circuitry controlling such functionally related behaviors as aggression and reproduction. PMID:15313768

Marler, Peter

2004-06-01

61

Call Me Pet Names  

Microsoft Academic Search

1st VERSE. Call me pet names dearest! Call me a bird,\\u000aThat flies to thy breast at one cherishing word,\\u000aThat folds its wild wings there, ne'er dreaming of flight,\\u000aThat tenderly sings there in loving delight!\\u000aOh! my sad heart keeps pining for one fond word!\\u000aCall me pet names dearest! Call me a bird!\\u000a2d VERSE. Call me

Francis Weiland; Frances Sargent Locke Osgood

1851-01-01

62

Urea metabolism in beef steers grazing bermudagrass, caucasian bluestem, or gamagrass pastures varying in plant morphology, protein content, and protein composition.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to evaluate pastures of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon, BG), caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica, CBS), and gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides, GG) from the perspectives of forage composition, selection during grazing, and N metabolism in beef steers. All pastures were ferti...

63

Anonymous Mobile Conference Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an architecture and protocol for making anonymous mobile conference calls. A number of examples exist where multiple users may wish to communicate in an anonymous manner, such as anonymous virtual support groups (e.g Alcoholics Anonymous). Anonymous group identification schemes coupled with the novel idea of Virtual Numbers, allows for identification to a conference call facility where access

N. J Croft; M. S Olivier

64

Called Party Hold Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Called Party Hold (CPH) device enables a telephone subscriber to hold an incoming call for tracing purposes. This paper describes the affects on AUTOVON of a commercially available CPH device that was in use at Scott AFB. It proposes a solution that wil...

V. P. Arafiles

1976-01-01

65

Callings and Organizational Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…

Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith

2010-01-01

66

Ultradeep 16S rRNA Sequencing Analysis of Geographically Similar but Diverse Unexplored Marine Samples Reveal Varied Bacterial Community Composition  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial community composition in the marine environment differs from one geographical location to another. Reports that delineate the bacterial diversity of different marine samples from geographically similar location are limited. The present study aims to understand whether the bacterial community compositions from different marine samples harbour similar bacterial diversity since these are geographically related to each other. Methods and Principal Findings In the present study, 16S rRNA deep sequencing analysis targeting V3 region was performed using Illumina bar coded sequencing. A total of 22.44 million paired end reads were obtained from the metagenomic DNA of Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater and the epibacterial DNA of Seaweed and Seagrass. Diversity index analysis revealed that Marine sediment has the highest bacterial diversity and the least bacterial diversity was observed in Rhizosphere sediment. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant taxa present in all the marine samples. Nearly 62–71% of rare species were identified in all the samples and most of these rare species were unique to a particular sample. Further taxonomic assignment at the phylum and genus level revealed that the bacterial community compositions differ among the samples. Conclusion This is the first report that supports the fact that, bacterial community composition is specific for specific samples irrespective of its similar geographical location. Existence of specific bacterial community for each sample may drive overall difference in bacterial structural composition of each sample. Further studies like whole metagenomic sequencing will throw more insights to the key stone players and its interconnecting metabolic pathways. In addition, this is one of the very few reports that depicts the unexplored bacterial diversity of marine samples (Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater) and the host associated marine samples (Seaweed and Seagrass) at higher depths from uncharacterised coastal region of Palk Bay, India using next generation sequencing technology.

Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

2013-01-01

67

Lawmaking and Roll Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to generate theories of lawmaking has not been matched by an ability to evaluate the success of these theories for explaining legislative reality. The principal problem in testing lawmaking theories is that many analysts use roll-call votes—or various measures based on roll-call votes—when, in fact, these votes are partly a cause and partly a consequence of the very

Joshua D. Clinton

2007-01-01

68

Characterization of adhesive bonded lap joints of C\\/C–SiC composite and Ti–6Al–4V alloy under varying conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of glueline thickness, glueline length, etching time, temperature, exposure time and strain rate on C\\/C–SiC composite and Ti–6Al–4V alloy adherences were examined before and after adhesive bonding. The results show that the C\\/C–SiC adherence is more sensitive to strain rate and temperature than the Ti–6Al–4V adherence because of poor oxidizing resistance and high brittleness.

V. K Srivastava

2003-01-01

69

Characterization of rumen ciliate community composition in domestic sheep, deer, and cattle, feeding on varying diets, by means of PCR-DGGE and clone libraries.  

PubMed

The structure and variability of ciliate protozoal communities in the rumens of domestic New Zealand ruminants feeding on different diets was investigated. The relative abundance of ciliates compared with bacteria was similar across all samples. However, molecular fingerprinting of communities showed ruminant-specific differences in species composition. Community compositions of cattle were significantly influenced by diet. In contrast, diet effects in deer and sheep were weaker than the animal-to-animal variation. Cloning and sequencing of almost-full-length 18S rRNA genes from representative samples revealed that New Zealand ruminants were colonized by at least nine genera of ciliates and allowed the assignment of samples to two distinct community types. Cattle contained A-type communities, with most sequences closely related to those of the genera Polyplastron and Ostracodinium. Deer and sheep (with one exception) harboured B-type communities, with the majority of sequences belonging to the genera Epidinium and Eudiplodinium. It has been suggested that species composition of ciliate communities may impact methane formation in ruminants, with the B-type producing more methane. Therefore, manipulation of ciliate communities may be a means of mitigating methane emissions from grazing sheep and deer in New Zealand. PMID:21204869

Kittelmann, Sandra; Janssen, Peter H

2011-01-11

70

When Crises Call  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Natural disasters, as well as crises of the man-made variety, call on leaders of school districts to manage scenarios impossible to predict and for which no amount of training can adequately prepare. One thing all major crises hold in common is their far-reaching effects, which can run the gamut from personal safety and mental well-being to the…

Kisch, Marian

2012-01-01

71

Calling in the Feds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A Georgia superintendent (and former teacher) angered board and community members by calling in federal authorities to help eliminate de facto segregation in two schools serving 1,200 students. At issue were a discriminatory track system and unintegrated cheerleading teams. Sidebars explain the U.S. Education Department's Office for Civil Rights…

Cherubini, Corkin F.

1995-01-01

72

Boys Call Me Cow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 1992-95 survey of over 1,000 Long Island, New York, students attending eight middle, junior, and high schools found that most peer harassment focused on verbal assaults. Although there was more harassment by boys, both sexes harassed their peers, mostly by name calling. The main targets were unattractive or unstylish girls, physically mature…

Shakeshaft, Charol; And Others

1997-01-01

73

Binding of the Biogenic Polyamines to Deoxyribonucleic Acids of Varying Base Composition: Base Specificity and the Associated Energetics of the Interaction  

PubMed Central

Background The thermodynamics of the base pair specificity of the binding of the polyamines spermine, spermidine, putrescine, and cadaverine with three genomic DNAs Clostridium perfringens, 27% GC, Escherichia coli, 50% GC and Micrococcus lysodeikticus, 72% GC have been studied using titration calorimetry and the data supplemented with melting studies, ethidium displacement and circular dichroism spectroscopy results. Methodology/Principal Findings Isothermal titration calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, optical melting studies, ethidium displacement, circular dichroism spectroscopy are the various techniques employed to characterize the interaction of four polyamines, spermine, spermidine, putersine and cadaverine with the DNAs. Polyamines bound stronger with AT rich DNA compared to the GC rich DNA and the binding varied depending on the charge on the polyamine as spermine>spermidine >putrescine>cadaverine. Thermodynamics of the interaction revealed that the binding was entropy driven with small enthalpy contribution. The binding was influenced by salt concentration suggesting the contribution from electrostatic forces to the Gibbs energy of binding to be the dominant contributor. Each system studied exhibited enthalpy-entropy compensation. The negative heat capacity changes suggested a role for hydrophobic interactions which may arise due to the non polar interactions between DNA and polyamines. Conclusion/Significance From a thermodynamic analysis, the AT base specificity of polyamines to DNAs has been elucidated for the first time and supplemented by structural studies.

Kabir, Ayesha; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

2013-01-01

74

Just call it "treatment"  

PubMed Central

Although many in the addiction treatment field use the term “medication-assisted treatment” to describe a combination of pharmacotherapy and counseling to address substance dependence, research has demonstrated that opioid agonist treatment alone is effective in patients with opioid dependence, regardless of whether they receive counseling. The time has come to call pharmacotherapy for such patients just “treatment”. An explicit acknowledgment that medication is an essential first-line component in the successful management of opioid dependence.

2012-01-01

75

Automated call tracking systems  

SciTech Connect

User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

Hardesty, C.

1993-03-01

76

Sex and cognitive dietary restraint influence cholecystokinin release and satiety in response to preloads varying in fatty acid composition and content.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of preloads differing in fatty acid composition, content, and delivery form on acute behavioral, subjective, and biological outcomes of satiety. Four energy- and volume-matched preloads were tested in normal weight men and women (n = 12 and 13, respectively), using a random, crossover design. Preloads were semisolid shakes differing in fat source [walnut or safflower (SAFF)], delivery [ground walnuts (WNT) or walnut oil (WOL)] or content [39% fat energy (SAFF, WNT, WOL) or 4% low-fat control (LFC)]. Blood was collected and subjective satiety assessed at 0 (fasting), 15, 30, and 45 min after preload consumption. Lunch (test meal) was provided thereafter. Energy intake at lunch was not affected by preload; however, subjects selected more carbohydrate, fiber-rich foods at the test meal lunch after walnut preloads than after LFC or SAFF preloads. Compared with the LFC preload, appetite satisfaction was significantly greater after SAFF and WNT, but not after WOL. Women were hungrier after SAFF than after WOL, whereas men were less hungry after SAFF and LFC than after WOL or WNT. Plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations reflected preload fat content and availability, particularly among men; CCK was higher after WOL and SAFF preloads than after LFC or WNT preloads. Plasma insulin was higher after LFC and SAFF preloads, corresponding to hunger suppression in men. Dietary restraint was associated with a blunted CCK response to preloads, whereas insulin was not affected by restraint. The results indicate that test meal energy intake after preloads containing approximately 40% walnut or safflower fat or 4% fat did not differ; however, walnut consumption may promote food patterns consistent with consuming diets higher in fiber. PMID:15930445

Burton-Freeman, Britt

2005-06-01

77

Effects of Erlang call holding times on PCS call completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies personal communications services (PCSs) channel allocation assuming the Erlang call holding time distribution (a generalization of the exponential distribution) to investigate the effect of the variance of the call holding times on the call completion probability. Our analysis indicates that the call completion probability decreases as the variance of the call holding times decreases. This effect becomes

Yi-Bing Lin; Imrich Chlamtac

1999-01-01

78

Utility of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance compared with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for assessment of total and regional body composition varies between men and women.  

PubMed

Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition may be an appropriate alternative to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We hypothesized that there would be no significant differences between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and either the Biospace (Los Angeles, CA, USA) InBody 520 or 720 multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis devices for total lean body mass (LBM), appendicular lean mass (ALM), trunk lean mass (TM), and total fat mass (FM) in 25 men and 25 women (including lean, healthy, and obese individuals according to body mass index), age 18 to 49 years, weight of 73.6 ± 15.4 kg. Both devices overestimated LBM in women (~2.5 kg, P < .001) and underestimated ALM in men (~3.0 kg, P < .05) and women (~1.0 kg, P < .05). The 720 overestimated FM in men (1.6 kg, P < .05) and underestimated TM in women (0.6 kg, P ? .05). Regression analyses in men revealed R² (0.87-0.91), standard error of the estimate (SEE; 2.3-2.8 kg), and limits of agreement (LOAs; 4.5-5.7 kg) for LBM; R(2) (0.62-0.87), SEE (1.5-2.6 kg), and LOA (3.2-6.0 kg) for ALM; R² (0.52-0.71), SEE (2.4-3.0 kg), and LOA (4.6-6.1 kg) for TM; and R(2) (0.87-0.93), SEE (1.9-2.6 kg), and LOA (5.9-6.2 kg) for FM. Regression analyses in women revealed R² (0.87-0.88), SEE (1.8-1.9 kg), and LOA (4.1-4.2 kg) for LBM; R² (0.78-0.79), SEE (1.4-1.5 kg), and LOA (2.7-2.9 kg) for ALM; R² (0.76-0.77), SEE (1.0 kg), and LOA (2.2-2.3 kg) for TM; and R² (0.95), SEE (2.2 kg), and LOA (4.3-4.4 kg) for FM. The InBody 520 and 720 are valid estimators of LBM and FM in men and of LBM, ALM, and FM in women; the 720 and 520 are valid estimators of TM in men and women, respectively. PMID:22901555

Anderson, Lindsey J; Erceg, David N; Schroeder, E Todd

2012-06-26

79

Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution  

PubMed Central

Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge.

Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

2007-01-01

80

National Runaway Safeline Call Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Email a Friend Home > Learn > Research > Call Statistics 2012 NRS Call Statistics View 2012 Area Code Breakdown ... Runaway Safeline Call Content Data Report Calendar Year 2012 Data was collected on 17,141 crisis related ...

81

Effects of Erlang Call Holding Times on PCS Call Completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous performance studies of PCS channel allocation assumed that call holding times have an exponential distribution. The exponential call holding time assumption is justified for existing cellular systems, where wireless calls are charged based on the length of the call holding time. Future PCS systems may exercise flat rate billing, and consequently a more general distribution is desirable to model

Yi-bing Lin; Imrich Chlamtac

1997-01-01

82

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places  

PubMed Central

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs.

Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

2010-01-01

83

Time-Varying BRDFs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their BRDFs to be time-varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this work, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs.

Bo Sun; Kalyan Sunkavalli; Ravi Ramamoorthi; Peter N. Belhumeur; Shree K. Nayar

2007-01-01

84

Fault Tolerant Remote Procedure Call  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheme is presented that makes a remote procedure call (RPC) mechanism fault-tolerant to hardware failures. Fault tolerance is provided by replicating the procedure at a group of nodes, called a cluster. The copies in a cluster are linearly ordered. A call to a procedure is sent to the first copy in the cluster and is propagated internally to all

Kiam S. Yap; Pankaj Jalote; Satish K. Tripathi

1988-01-01

85

Distributed intelligent call admission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose QoS-based distributed intelligent call admission control (DICAC) for wideband multi-service CDMA system. Neural network is employed to predict next-step existing-call interference, fuzzy logic is used to estimate equivalent interference for a new call and make admission decision. QoS performances of all service types in home and neighboring cells are measured as feedback of the system.

Daipeng Zhang; Gang Zhu

2005-01-01

86

Call control with k rejections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Given a set of connection requests (calls) in a communication network, the call control problem is to accept a subset of the requests and route them along paths in the network such that no edge capacity is violated, with the goal of reject - ing as few requests as possible We investigate the complexity of parameterized versions of this

R. Sai Anand; Thomas Erlebach; Alexander Hall; Stamatis Stefanakos

2003-01-01

87

Call Control with k Rejections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a set of connection requests (calls) in a communication network, the call control problem is to accept a subset of the requests and route them along paths in the network such that no edge capacity is violated, with the goal of rejecting as few requests as possible.We investigate the complexity of parameterized versions of this problem, where the number

R. Sai Anand; Thomas Erlebach; Alexander Hall; Stamatis Stefanakos

2002-01-01

88

House Calls in Private Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates the experiences of a social worker in private practice who offered house calls as an ongoing setting for counseling and psychotherapy to individuals and families. Describes advantages and disadvantages, liability, and target populations. (JAC)

Whittington, Ronaele

1985-01-01

89

The effect of unreliable wireless channel on the call performance in mobile network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a model to study the call per- formance in mobile network taking into account the inherent time varying wireless channel. The performance metrics call complete probability and call complete ratio are introduced and further de- rived with the general call holding time. The impacts of the wire- less channel error characteristics and the system parameters

Yan Zhang; Boon-hee Soong

2005-01-01

90

[Comparison of mating calls and adaptive strategies of Amolops wuyiensis and Odorrana tormotus (Anura) in noise-controlled environments].  

PubMed

In order to understand the acoustic characteristics and adaptive strategies of sympatric male Amolops wuyiensis and male Odorrana tormotus in environments controlled for high noise levels, we recorded and analyzed the advertisement calls produced by individual males during breeding season. The results show that A. wuyiensis produced a single type of call composed of variable syllables (from 3 to 6 syllables) with 2~10 pulses over different time periods. The average values of call duration, dominant frequency and signal noise ratio were 2 198.20 ms, 2 231.90 Hz and 33.00 dB respectively. There were no ultrasonic elements in A. wuyiensis calls and they did not have the basis of ultrasonic communication. The average values of call duration, dominant frequency and signal noise ratio of O. tormotus were 331.80 ms, 6 665.50 Hz and 37.00 dB respectively. Call structure of O. tormotus was consistent with previous studies. The noise did not mask the calls from the male A. wuyiensis and male O. tormotus, which have higher frequencies and amplitudes. To fulfill the intra-species communication in a noise-controlled environment, the A. wuyiensis male, which has a low vocal frequency and long transmission length, varied vocal frequency, composition, and duration, the latter of which serves to attract females. By contrast, the male O. tormotus increased vocal frequency, which reduces the energy expended on intra-species communication. PMID:23775995

Zhang, Fang; Chen, Pan; Zhao, Shu-Yi

2013-06-01

91

CALL Essentials: Principles and Practice in CALL Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computers and the Internet offer innovative teachers exciting ways to enhance their pedagogy and capture their students' attention. These technologies have created a growing field of inquiry, computer-assisted language learning (CALL). As new technologies have emerged, teaching professionals have adapted them to support teachers and learners in…

Egbert, Joy

2005-01-01

92

Impact of time-varying loads on the programmable pulsed power driver called genesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of dynamic materials properties research at Sandia National Laboratories has led to research into ultra-low impedance, compact pulsed power systems capable of multi-MA shaped current pulses with rise times ranging from 220–500 ns. The Genesis design consists of two hundred and forty 200 kV, 80 kA modules connected in parallel to a solid dielectric disk transmission line and

S. F. Glover; J.-P. Davis; L. X. Schneider; K. W. Reed; G. E. Pena; C. A. Hall; H. L. Hanshaw; R. J. Hickman; K. C. Hodge; R. W. Lemke; J. M. Lehr; D. J. Lucero; D. H. McDaniel; J. G. Puissant; J. M. Rudys; M. E. Sceiford; S. J. Tullar; D. M. Van De Valde; F. E. White; L. K. Warne; R. S. Coats; W. A. Johnson

2011-01-01

93

Waiting time of handoff calls for the wireless mobile networks with dependent calls arrival processes and impatient calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the quasi-waiting time, the actual waiting time of the handoff calls in the buffer and the actual call holding times of new calls for the mobile wireless networks, in which the new calls arrival processes may depend on the number of calls in the target cells and the handoff calls arrival processes from the given cell to

Wei Li; Kia Makki; Niki Pissinou

2000-01-01

94

Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

2006-05-01

95

CALL and the Speaking Skill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using common technologies listed in the conversation class, the article suggests a computer-aided language learning (CALL) speaking methodology that is interaction rather than machine centered and outlines ways to ensure the success of speaking activities at the computer. (31 references) (Author/CK)

James, Robert

1996-01-01

96

Close Call: Breaking the Rules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contrary to a rule to never teach students to lead climb, an instructor taught several youth to lead climb at a parent's request. These students planned to pursue rock climbing on their own after they left school, and preparing them was deemed a safety precaution. Analysis of this "close call" offers guidelines for introducing students to lead…

Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1993

1993-01-01

97

Bridging a High School Science Fair Experience with First Year Undergraduate Research: Using the E-SPART Analyzer to Determine Electrostatic Charge Properties of Compositionally Varied Rock Dust Particles as Terrestrial Analogues to Mars Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

More is known about Mars from data collected in 2004. We present particle size and electrostatic data for particles derived from various terrestrial materials to provide analogue studies for what also appears to be present: sedimentary compositions.

A. G. Scott; W. J. W. Williams; M. K. Mazumder; A. Biris; P. K. Srirama

2005-01-01

98

On the function of redfronted lemur's close calls.  

PubMed

In order to maintain group cohesion, many social mammals and birds regularly produce close calls. In some primate species, close calls appear to have a dual function: calls addressed at a broad class of targets serve to maintain group cohesion, whereas the same calls directed at a specific target serve to regulate subsequent social interactions. Redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) produce different types of close calls: grunts, long grunts, hoos and meows. In order to study the function of these calls, we conducted focal observations and vocal recordings from eight adult males and females out of four social groups in Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. Redfronted lemurs produce long grunts, hoos and meows at relatively low rates during foraging, resting or group movements, respectively. Grunts were given most often and more or less constantly during foraging and traveling. Calling rate increased when the risk of separation increased and may thus promote group cohesion. Grunts given during approaches of other group members resulted more often in friendly interactions than approaches that were not accompanied by a grunt. Thus, redfronted lemurs produce specific but also generic contact calls, whereas the latter calls have a dual function that varies depending on the addressed audience: they act as an auditory beacon to maintain group cohesion and serve as signals of benign intent to avoid costly conflicts and facilitating social interactions. PMID:22573307

Pflüger, Femke J; Fichtel, Claudia

2012-05-10

99

Reference-free SNP calling: improved accuracy by preventing incorrect calls from repetitive genomic regions  

PubMed Central

Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant type of genetic variation in eukaryotic genomes and have recently become the marker of choice in a wide variety of ecological and evolutionary studies. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has made it possible to efficiently genotype a large number of SNPs in the non-model organisms with no or limited genomic resources. Most NGS-based genotyping methods require a reference genome to perform accurate SNP calling. Little effort, however, has yet been devoted to developing or improving algorithms for accurate SNP calling in the absence of a reference genome. Results Here we describe an improved maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm called iML, which can achieve high genotyping accuracy for SNP calling in the non-model organisms without a reference genome. The iML algorithm incorporates the mixed Poisson/normal model to detect composite read clusters and can efficiently prevent incorrect SNP calls resulting from repetitive genomic regions. Through analysis of simulation and real sequencing datasets, we demonstrate that in comparison with ML or a threshold approach, iML can remarkably improve the accuracy of de novo SNP genotyping and is especially powerful for the reference-free genotyping in diploid genomes with high repeat contents. Conclusions The iML algorithm can efficiently prevent incorrect SNP calls resulting from repetitive genomic regions, and thus outperforms the original ML algorithm by achieving much higher genotyping accuracy. Our algorithm is therefore very useful for accurate de novo SNP genotyping in the non-model organisms without a reference genome. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Richard Durbin, Dr. Liliana Florea (nominated by Dr. Steven Salzberg) and Dr. Arcady Mushegian.

2012-01-01

100

Stability of Call Sequence in Dugongs' Vocalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dugongs (Dugong dugon) produce different types of vocalization such as chirp, trill, and barks. Previous reports showed that dugongs have two kinds of phonemes: long duration calls (trill) and short duration calls (chirp-squeaks hereinafter called chirp). Especially, the chirp and trill calls were widely reported in different populations. However, characteristics of call patterns in dugongs have never been reported. Moreover,

N. Okumura; K. Ichikawa; T. Akamatsu; N. Arai; T. Shinke; T. Hara; K. Adulyanukosol

2006-01-01

101

Call centre management: responsibilities and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To investigate call centre management from the perspective of the managers, particularly what the key management responsibilities are in managing call centres and the key performance indicators (KPIs) used in managing call centres. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey of call centre managers, followed by in-depth interviews. Findings – There is confusion over the strategic intent of call centres. Centres

George Robinson; Clive Morley

2006-01-01

102

[Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)].  

PubMed

The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of temperature in acoustic components. The results suggest that acoustic variables show geographic variation to compare data with previous works. PMID:23894980

Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

2013-03-01

103

SMART CALL BOX FIELD OPERATIONAL TEST EVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Smart call boxes are an enhanced version of devices used as emergency call boxes in California. The overall system consists of a microprocessor, a cellular communications transceiver, solar power sources, data collection devices, maintenance computers, and data recording systems. The Smart Call Box Field Operational Test (FOT) evaluated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of using smart call boxes for five

James H. Banks; Patrick A. Powell

1997-01-01

104

Newport: enabling sharing during mobile calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newport is a collaborative application for sharing context (e.g. location) and content (e.g. photos and notes) during mobile phone calls. People can share during a phone call and sharing ends when the call ends. Newport also supports using a computer during a call to make it easier to share content from the phone or launch screen sharing if the caller

Junius A. Gunaratne; A. J. Bernheim Brush

2010-01-01

105

Compositional C++: Compositional Parallel Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compositional parallel program is a program constructed by composing component programs in parallel, where the composed program inherits properties of its components. In this paper, we describe a small extension of C++ called Compositional C++ or CC++ which is an object-oriented notation that supports compositional parallel programming. CC++ integrates different paradigms of parallel programming: data-parallel, task-parallel and object-parallel paradigms;

K. Mani Chandy; Carl Kesselman

1992-01-01

106

Competitive non-preemptive call control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We deal with randomized competitive algorithms for non-preemptive call control on tree-like switching networks. We give an O(log n) competitive algorithm for nonpreemptive call scheduling on trees. We then introduce the complexities of variable call rates, call durations, and arbitrary call benefits, resulting in a polylog competitive algorithm for the combined problem. We also show that many algorithms for similar

Baruch Awerbuch; Yair Bartalt; Amos Fiat; Adi Rosén

1994-01-01

107

Perceiving a Calling, Living a Calling, and Job Satisfaction: Testing a Moderated, Multiple Mediator Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated the relations of perceiving a calling with

Ryan D. Duffy; Elizabeth M. Bott; Blake A. Allan; Carrie L. Torrey; Bryan J. Dik

2012-01-01

108

Potential Paradigms and Possible Problems for CALL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three models of CALL (computer assisted language learning) activity--games, the expert system, and the prosthetic approaches. A case is made for CALL development within a more instrumental view of the role of computers. (Author/CB)

Phillips, Martin

1987-01-01

109

Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) (formerly called Pseudogout)  

MedlinePLUS

... Patient Resources > Diseases & Conditions Back to Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) (formerly called Pseudogout) PRINT Download ... aquí . Joint problems caused by crystals of a calcium salt called pyrophosphate may be one of the ...

110

Hornbills can distinguish between primate alarm calls.  

PubMed Central

Some mammals distinguish between and respond appropriately to the alarm calls of other mammal and bird species. However, the ability of birds to distinguish between mammal alarm calls has not been investigated. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce different alarm calls to two predators: crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Yellow-casqued hornbills (Ceratogymna elata) are vulnerable to predation by crowned eagles but are not preyed on by leopards and might therefore be expected to respond to the Diana monkey eagle alarm call but not to the leopard alarm call. We compared responses of hornbills to playback of eagle shrieks, leopard growls, Diana monkey eagle alarm calls and Diana monkey leopard alarm calls and found that they distinguished appropriately between the two predator vocalizations as well as between the two Diana monkey alarm calls. We discuss possible mechanisms leading to these responses.

Rainey, Hugo J; Zuberbuhler, Klaus; Slater, Peter J B

2004-01-01

111

Potential Paradigms and Possible Problems for CALL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes three models of CALL (computer assisted language learning) activity--games, the expert system, and the prosthetic approaches. A case is made for CALL development within a more instrumental view of the role of computers. (Author/CB)|

Phillips, Martin

1987-01-01

112

Scheduling of calls with known holding times  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the option of queueing calls in connection-oriented networks instead of blocking them when network resources are unavailable. A simple call queueing algorithm would be to hold up call setup messages at each switch along an end-to-end path until re- sources become available. This scheme suffers from poor network utilization and long call queueing delays. Howev- er, if

Reinette Grobler; Malathi Veeraraghavan; David Rouse

2000-01-01

113

Characterization of Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Epoxy-Glass Microballoon Syntactic Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density of hollow particle (microballoon) filled composites called syntactic foams can be varied by two methods. The first method is the variation in microballoon volume fraction and the second method is the variation in the microballoon wall thickness, while keeping their volume fraction the same. A comparison of compressive properties of syntactic foams having microballoons of four different wall

Nikhil Gupta; Shashank Priya; Rashed Islam; William Ricci

2006-01-01

114

What Constitutes a Typical Cell Phone Call.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 21 young people completed a 35-multipart question survey about their use of cell phones. Of them, 15 completed logs of every call for a month and answered over 20 multipart questions about each call (depending on the call), covering a total of ...

J. George P. Green R. Jacob

2004-01-01

115

Calling in Work: Secular or Sacred?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent scholarship indicates that people who view their work as a calling are more satisfied with their work and their lives. Historically, calling has been regarded as a religious experience, although modern researchers frequently have adopted a more expansive and secular conceptualization of calling, emphasizing meaning and personal fulfillment…

Steger, Michael F.; Pickering, N. K.; Shin, J. Y.; Dik, B. J.

2010-01-01

116

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PASSERINE MOBBING CALLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the acoustic structure of mobbing calls of 52 species of passerines representing an array of taxa. Marler suggested that calls given during mobbing have char- acteristics enhancing locatability that include abrupt onsets and a wide frequency range. Only about one-half of the species we studied produced calls during mobbing that had these characteristics. However, clicks (probably produced by

MILLICENT SIGLER FICKEN; JAMES POPP

117

Call completion probability for a PCS network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the emerging PCS networks, some calls may not be completed due to the handoff failure. It is very important to know the call completion probability for system design and performance evaluation. This probability depends on the distributions of the call holding times and the cell residence times. While the commonly used exponential distributions may provide good approximations for some

Y. Fang; I. Chlamtac; Yi-Bing Lin

1997-01-01

118

CALL Environments: Research, Practice, and Critical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Essays on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include: "Computer-Enhanced Language Learning Environments" (Joy Egbert, Chin-chi Chao, Elizabeth Hanson-Smith); "Theory and Research Interaction via Computers" (Joy Kreeft Peyton); "Classroom Practice: Creating Interactive CALL Activities" (Joy Egbert); "CALL Issues: Building a…

Egbert, Joy, Ed.; Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.

119

Anomaly Detection Using Call Stack Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The call stack of a program execution can be a very good information source for intrusion detection. There is no pri or work on dynamically extracting information from call stack and effectively using it to detect exploits. In this paper, w e propose a new method to do anomaly detection using call stack information. The basic idea is to extract

Henry Hanping Feng; Oleg M. Kolesnikov; Prahlad Fogla; Wenke Lee; Weibo Gong

2003-01-01

120

Echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially in the brainstem of the bat Phyllostomus discolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Echolocating bats emit vocalizations that can be classified either as echolocation calls or communication calls. Neural control of both types of calls must govern the same pool of motoneurons responsible for vocalizations. Electrical microstimulation in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) elicits both communication and echolocation calls, whereas stimulation of the paralemniscal area (PLA) induces only echolocation calls. In both

Thomas Fenzl; Gerd Schuller

2005-01-01

121

Perceiving a Calling, Living a Calling, and Job Satisfaction: Testing a Moderated, Multiple Mediator Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated…

Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Dik, Bryan J.

2012-01-01

122

Nutritional effects on male calling behaviour in the variable field cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the variable field cricket,Gryllus lineaticeps, females prefer higher chirp rates and longer chirp durations in male calling song. Higher chirp rates are energetically more expensive to produce, but the energetic cost of calling does not vary with chirp duration. We tested the hypothesis that nutrition affects male chirp rate and chirp duration. Full-sibling brothers of similar age were placed

WILLIAM E. WAGNER; W. WYATT HOBACK

1999-01-01

123

Implementing remote procedure calls with DECnet  

SciTech Connect

The ''Remote Procedure Call'' (RPC) has recently become an important communication model for distributed systems. The basic idea behind remote procedure calls is that a process running on one machine can ''call'', using standard procedure calling semantics, another routine that executes on a different machine. A message-passing mechanism is used to transfer parameters between the caller and the called routine. In this paper, we describe a remote procedure call system we have implemented that uses DECnet as the underlying message-passing mechanism. Our system is highly reliable, reasonalbly efficient, and supports some advanced features such as asynchronous remote procedures. The described system is currently part of a distributed accelerator-control system containing VMS, Micro-VMS, and VAXELN nodes. It could also be extended to any other system that supports DECnet. Topics discussed include the system design, parameter-passing protocol, error detection and recovery, and performance.

Bjorklund, E.; Schaller, S.C.

1987-01-01

124

Why do trade costs vary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As tariffs have fallen, it is apparent that trade costs are a significant obstacle to international trade and that they vary\\u000a from country to country. The gap between the cif and fob value of a trade flow is a useful measure of aggregate trade costs,\\u000a but only if the measure is based on a consistent volume of trade; mirror statistics

Richard Pomfret; Patricia Sourdin

2010-01-01

125

Differences in the nestling begging calls of hosts and host-races of the common cuckoo, Cuculus canorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared nestling begging calls of four hosts (reed warbler, Acrocephalus scirpaceus; great reed warbler, A. arundinaceus; dunnock, Prunella modularis; and meadow pipit, Anthus pratensis) and the respective host-races of the common cuckoo. Note structure varied between host species, but not between cuckoo host-races, so cuckoos did not vary their call note structure to match that of their hosts' chicks.

S. H. M. BUTCHART; R. M. KILNER; T. FUISZ; N. B. DAVIES

2003-01-01

126

Disentangling the Link between Perceiving a Calling and Living a Calling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has suggested there is an important distinction between perceiving a calling and living a calling. With a sample of 542 working adults, the current study examined (a) the degree to which perceiving a calling and living a calling differed according to yearly income and level of educational attainment and (b) potential mediators that may…

Duffy, Ryan D.; Autin, Kelsey L.

2013-01-01

127

Disentangling the Link between Perceiving a Calling and Living a Calling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research has suggested there is an important distinction between perceiving a calling and living a calling. With a sample of 542 working adults, the current study examined (a) the degree to which perceiving a calling and living a calling differed according to yearly income and level of educational attainment and (b) potential mediators that may…

Duffy, Ryan D.; Autin, Kelsey L.

2013-01-01

128

CALL by design: discourse, products and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design' is a term that is familiar to many language teachers and CALL practitioners. It is used reg- ularly in relation to curriculum, syllabus, course and task in the general literature and it occurs in all these areas and more in the CALL sphere where instructional design, website design, interface design and screen design are just some of the additional

MIKE LEVY

2002-01-01

129

CALL in Lebanese elementary ESL writing classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the effectiveness of using computer assisted language learning (CALL) in motivating fourth-grade English as a second language (ESL) students to develop better writing skills. It also seeks to explore the perceptions of ESL teachers and students regarding the use of CALL in the ESL classroom. The study involved 48 fourth graders and their four teachers. Data were

Diana Fidaoui; Rima Bahous; Nahla N. Bacha

2010-01-01

130

Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

2009-01-01

131

Predicting Internet Telephony Call Setup Delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet telephony has been the focus of much recent effort by ITU and IETF standards bodies, with ini- tial, albeit small-scale deployment in progress. While In- ternet telephony voice quality has been studied, call setup delay has received little attention. This paper outlines a simulation study of Internet Telephony Call Setup delay, based on UDP delay\\/loss traces. The focus is

Tony Eyers; Henning Schulzrinne

2000-01-01

132

Primate copulation calls and postcopulatory female choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females in some species of Old World monkeys and apes vocalize after copulation, but the function of these vocalizations is not clear. In this article, we examine the hypothesis that copulation calls are a form of postcopulatory female choice. According to this hypothesis, copulation calls are honest signals of fertility (i.e., ovulation) that are used by females to encourage mate

Dario Maestripieri; James R. Roney

2005-01-01

133

Eliminating Virtual Function Calls in C++ Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and implemented an optimizing source-to- source C++ compiler that reduces the frequency of virtual function calls. Our prototype implementation demonstrates the value of OO-specific optimization for C++. Despite some limitations of our system, and despite the low frequency of virtual function calls in some of the programs, optimization improves the performance of a suite of large C++

Gerald Aigner; Urs Hölzle

1996-01-01

134

Kindness Curbs Kids' Name-Calling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses the impact of name-calling towards the student's academic performance and emotions and cites some measures on how should teachers address this problem in order to facilitate effective learning among students. Psychologists recognize that name-calling and other forms of verbal bullying and harassment are more…

Saxon, Rebekah

2005-01-01

135

Making Room for the Call Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

A call center can dramatically improve an organization's ability to serve its customers. in this article, three important questions are addressed for senior managers and executives who are establishing or expanding a call-center operation. First, as employees focus on responding to customer inquiries, will their skills become narrower and ultimately less beneficial to the organization? This article argues that skills

Marco Adria; Shamsud D. Chowdhury

2002-01-01

136

Beyond bureaucracy? Work organization in call centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Call centres are a rapidly growing, IT-based channel for service and sales delivery, particularly in the financial services and telecom industries. Although little research has been undertaken on the human resource aspects of call centres, two contrasting images are emerging. The first emphasizes the bureaucratic, constraining nature of these work settings, while the second image points towards worker empowerment characteristic

Stephen J. Frenkel; May Tam; Marek Korczynski; Karen Shire

1998-01-01

137

Promotion in Call Centres: Opportunities and Determinants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of jobs in call centres by focusing on the opportunities for promotion in this sector. More specifically, the research questions focus on discovering whether promotion is common practise in the call centre sector and on identifying the factors that affect this.…

Gorjup, Maria Tatiana; Valverde, Mireia; Ryan, Gerard

2008-01-01

138

Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

2009-01-01

139

Call Cultures in Orang-Utans?  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents) has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects). Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval), individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. Conclusion/Significance These results are consistent with the potential presence of ‘call cultures’ and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might assist in bridging the gap between vocal communication in non-human primates and human speech.

Wich, Serge A.; Nater, Alexander; Arora, Natasha; Bastian, Meredith L.; Meulman, Ellen; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C.; Atmoko, S. Suci Utami; Pamungkas, Joko; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Hardus, Madeleine E.; van Noordwijk, Maria; van Schaik, Carel P.

2012-01-01

140

Loud calls of adult male red howling monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).  

PubMed

Loud calls of adult male red howlers (Alouatta seniculus) inhabiting a deciduous and semideciduous open woodland site in Venezuela were recorded opportunistically and categorized by ear and sonographically as barks and roars. Five to six different bark syllables were identified as occurring singly or in sequences of doublets and triplets. In barks, spectral energy was concentrated in bands at 350-400 Hz, 900-1,100 Hz, 1,800-2,200 Hz and 3,000-3,500 Hz, but not all higher bands were present in each syllable. Roars appeared sonographically like prolonged barks composed of a pulsated preface, a long legato climax and a brief, fractionated and at times pulsated coda; each part varied internally to the ear and in acoustic structure. All loud calls were of the noisy type (nonharmonic energy over a broad frequency range). Acoustic characteristics of the calls are interpreted in terms of the subserving vocal tract anatomy. I compare loud calls of red howlers with those of mantled (A. palliata) and black (A. caraya) howlers. PMID:3609972

Schön Ybarra, M A

1986-01-01

141

CALLING BEHAVIOR OF SPOTTED OWLS IN NORTHERN ARIZONA  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied the calling behavior of radio-tagged Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in northern Arizona. Owls used a variety of calls, with three call types (Four-note Location Call, Contact Call, and Bark Series) accounting for 86% of calling bouts heard. These calls were used by both sexes, but in significantly different proportions. Males (n = 4) called twice as

JOSEPH L. GANEY

142

Mass varying neutrinos in supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the consequences on the neutrino oscillation parameter space, mixing angle (tan?2?), and vacuum mass difference (?m02) when mass varying neutrino (MaVaN) models are assumed in a supernova environment. We consider electronic to sterile channels ?e??s and ?¯e??¯s in two-flavor scenario. In a given model of MaVaN mechanism, we induce a position-dependent effective mass difference, ?m˜2(r), where r is the distance from the supernova core, that changes the neutrino and antineutrino flavor conversion probabilities. We study the constraints on the mixing angle and vacuum mass difference coming from r-process and the SN1987A data. Our result is the appearance of a new exclusion region for very small mixing angles, tan?2?=10-6-10-2, and small vacuum mass difference, ?m02=1-20eV2, due the MaVaN mechanism.

Rossi-Torres, F.; Guzzo, M. M.; de Holanda, P. C.; Peres, O. L. G.

2011-09-01

143

Audience effects in chimpanzee copulation calls  

PubMed Central

Audience effects arise when the signaling behavior of animals is affected by the presence of others. Whilst this phenomenon has been documented in numerous animal species, very little research has addressed what effect the listening audience has in the mating context. In this article we discuss our recent findings that the production of chimpanzee copulation calls is effected by the presence of potentially eavesdropping females and males. We relate these results to understanding the function of primate copulation calls in addition to what more they can tell us about the cognitive processes underlying primate call production.

Zuberbuhler, Klaus

2009-01-01

144

Perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction: testing a moderated, multiple mediator model.  

PubMed

The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated the relations of perceiving a calling with career commitment and work meaning, such that these relations were more robust for those with a stronger sense they were living their calling. Additionally, a moderated, multiple mediator model was run to examine the mediating role of career commitment and work meaning in the relation of perceiving a calling and job satisfaction, while accounting for the moderating role of living a calling. Results indicated that work meaning and career commitment fully mediated the relation between perceiving a calling and job satisfaction. However, the indirect effects of work meaning and career commitment were only significant for individuals with high levels of living a calling, indicating the importance of living a calling in the link between perceiving a calling and job satisfaction. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:22059426

Duffy, Ryan D; Bott, Elizabeth M; Allan, Blake A; Torrey, Carrie L; Dik, Bryan J

2011-11-07

145

Echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially in the brainstem of the bat Phyllostomus discolor  

PubMed Central

Background Echolocating bats emit vocalizations that can be classified either as echolocation calls or communication calls. Neural control of both types of calls must govern the same pool of motoneurons responsible for vocalizations. Electrical microstimulation in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) elicits both communication and echolocation calls, whereas stimulation of the paralemniscal area (PLA) induces only echolocation calls. In both the PAG and the PLA, the current thresholds for triggering natural vocalizations do not habituate to stimuli and remain low even for long stimulation periods, indicating that these structures have relative direct access to the final common pathway for vocalization. This study intended to clarify whether echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially below the level of the PAG via separate vocal pathways before converging on the motoneurons used in vocalization. Results Both structures were probed simultaneously in a single experimental approach. Two stimulation electrodes were chronically implanted within the PAG in order to elicit either echolocation or communication calls. Blockade of the ipsilateral PLA site with iontophoretically application of the glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid did not impede either echolocation or communication calls elicited from the PAG. However, blockade of the contralateral PLA suppresses PAG-elicited echolocation calls but not communication calls. In both cases the blockade was reversible. Conclusion The neural control of echolocation and communication calls seems to be differentially organized below the level of the PAG. The PLA is an essential functional unit for echolocation call control before the descending pathways share again the final common pathway for vocalization.

Fenzl, Thomas; Schuller, Gerd

2005-01-01

146

Disentangling the link between perceiving a calling and living a calling.  

PubMed

Research has suggested there is an important distinction between perceiving a calling and living a calling. With a sample of 542 working adults, the current study examined (a) the degree to which perceiving a calling and living a calling differed according to yearly income and level of educational attainment and (b) potential mediators that may explain the link between perceiving a calling and living a calling. Adults with higher yearly incomes and more education were significantly more likely to endorse living a calling, but no significant group differences were found for perceiving a calling. Additionally, using structural equation modeling, work volition was found to be a significant mediator in the link between perceiving a calling and living a calling, and organizational support was found to be a significant mediator in the link between work volition and living a calling. The strength and significance of these indirect effects were supported by bootstrapping techniques. We suggest that part of the reason people with a calling feel more able to live out that calling is because of increased feelings of control in their career decision making. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:23438413

Duffy, Ryan D; Autin, Kelsey L

2013-02-25

147

Season-related changes in circulating androgen, brain aromatase, and perch-calling in male ring doves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perch-call of ring doves (Streptopelia risoria) is related to territorial defence and mate attraction. Perch-calls are sexually dimorphic and individually different in structure. The expression of perch-call is androgen-dependent and is controlled by the action of testosterone on the preoptic-hypothalamic areas. However, it is not known whether the acoustic features of the call vary with the reproductive condition. We

Leonida Fusani; Thomas Van’t Hof; John B. Hutchison

2003-01-01

148

33 CFR 401.64 - Calling in.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.64 Calling in. (a) Every vessel, intending to transit or in transit, shall report...

2013-07-01

149

Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls.  

PubMed

In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. PMID:23206277

Fitch, W Tecumseh

2012-12-03

150

Securitizing congestion: The congestion call option  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the idea of a European-type congestion call option to value commuting to work along a given path for a given departure time selected by automobile drivers who are modeled as Cournot–Nash non-cooperative agents competing for limited roadway capacity when the alternative of telecommuting exists. We show how to compute flow patterns based on congestion call options and contrast

Terry L. Friesz; Reetabrata Mookherjee; Tao Yao

2008-01-01

151

Call of the riled: addressing the financial impact of ED call coverage.  

PubMed

Healthcare financial managers can use several strategies to avoid paying call stipends to every specialist group on the call panel: Set a budget in advance-and stick to it. Involve the medical staff. Understand your market. Include performance standards. Revisit your hospital's call coverage program annually. PMID:17366721

Henzke, Leonard J; Forster, Kevin P

2007-01-01

152

Call Completion Probability with Generalized Call Holding Time and Cell Dwell Time Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we derive simple closed-form expressions that closely approximate the call completion probability in a wireless cellular network under generalized gamma distributed cell dwell time and call holding time with arbitrary distribution. The derived expressions are given in terms of the moment generating function of the call holding time and only require finite first and second moments of

George P. Efthymoglou; Suwat Pattaramalai; Valentine A. Aalo

2009-01-01

153

On call: alert or unsafe? A report of the AORN on-call electronic task force.  

PubMed

Research has linked health care providers' long work hours with patient care errors. Perioperative staff members often work extended hours because of long shifts and being on call. AORN's on-call electronic task force conducted a survey of nurses to determine their work load, call scheduling, and experiences related to fatigue. Of the 1,013 respondents, 67.7% said they had experienced effects of sleep deprivation. A follow-up survey revealed that few call programs are in compliance with AORN's recommended practices. Compliant call programs are detailed for adaptation in other perioperative settings. PMID:17931543

Kenyon, Trudy A G; Gluesing, Rebecca E; White, Karen Y; Dunkel, Wanda L; Burlingame, Byron L

2007-10-01

154

Breathing patterns during varied activities.  

PubMed

The level of ventilation attained and breathing patterns adopted during activity have important implications for the distribution and deposition of particles that are inhaled. However, breathing patterns and levels of ventilation adopted during specific physical activities are unknown. We used a noninvasive means of measuring ventilation in subjects performing a variety of activities (bicycling, arm ergometry, lifting, and pulling) during unencumbered (no mouthpiece) breathing and while breathing through a mouthpiece. Minute ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), inspiratory time (TI), and total breathing cycle time (TT) were measured initially both spirometrically and from body surface displacements. When a mouthpiece was used, VE and breathing patterns were significantly altered during all activities such that VE, VT, and TT increased by 16, 34, and 20%, respectively. This mouthpiece effect was attenuated at the higher levels of VE. A task dependency of breathing pattern was also noted such that there was much greater variability of VT and TI for a given VE during the lifting activity compared with bicycling (coefficient of variation for VT of 0.39 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.20 +/- 0.07, P less than 0.01; and for TI of 0.38 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.21 +/- 0.08, P less than 0.01). We conclude that a mouthpiece significantly alters breathing pattern during varied types and intensities of activities, and breathing patterns may differ significantly from one activity to another. When the total dose of particulates inhaled in the lung are assessed, the mouthpiece effect and activity effect on breathing pattern must be considered. PMID:1400052

Paek, D; McCool, F D

1992-09-01

155

The communicative content of the common marmoset phee call during antiphonal calling  

PubMed Central

Vocalizations are a dominant means of communication for numerous species, including nonhuman primates. These acoustic signals are encoded with a rich array of information available to signal receivers that can be used to guide species-typical behaviors. Here we examined the communicative content of common marmoset phee calls, the species-typical long distance contact call, during antiphonal calling. This call type has a relatively stereotyped acoustic structure, consisting of a series of long tonal pulses. Analyses revealed that calls could be reliably classified based on the individual identity and social group of the caller. Our analyses did not, however, correctly classify phee calls recorded under different social contexts, though differences were evident along individual acoustic parameters. Further tests of antiphonal calling interactions showed that spontaneously produced phee calls differ from antiphonal phee calls in their peak and end frequency, which may be functionally significant. Overall, this study shows that the marmoset phee call has a rich communicative content encoded in its acoustic structure available to conspecifics during antiphonal calling exchanges.

Miller, Cory T.; Mandel, Katherine; Wang, Xiaoqin

2011-01-01

156

A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics  

PubMed Central

Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species.

Magrath, Robert D.; Bennett, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

157

Comparing responses of four ungulate species to playbacks of baboon alarm calls.  

PubMed

A growing body of evidence suggests that a wide range of animals can recognize and respond appropriately to calls produced by other species. Social learning has been implicated as a possible mechanism by which heterospecific call recognition might develop. To examine whether familiarity and/or shared vulnerability with the calling species might influence the ability of sympatric species to distinguish heterospecific alarm calls, we tested whether four ungulate species (impala: Aepyceros melampus; tsessebe: Damaliscus lunatus; zebra: Equus burchelli; wildebeest: Connochaetes taurinus) could distinguish baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) alarm calls from other loud baboon calls produced during intra-specific aggressive interactions ('contest' calls). Overall, subjects' responses were stronger following playback of alarm calls than contest calls. Of the species tested, impala showed the strongest responses and the greatest difference in composite response scores, suggesting they were best able to differentiate call types. Compared with the other ungulate species, impala are the most frequent associates of baboons. Moreover, like baboons, they are susceptible to both lion and leopard attacks, whereas leopards rarely take the larger ungulates. Although it seems possible that high rates of association and/or shared vulnerability may influence impala's greater ability to distinguish among baboon call types, our results point to a stronger influence of familiarity. Ours is the first study to compare such abilities among several community members with variable natural histories, and we discuss future experiments that would more systematically examine development of these skills in young ungulates. PMID:20607576

Kitchen, Dawn M; Bergman, Thore J; Cheney, Dorothy L; Nicholson, James R; Seyfarth, Robert M

2010-07-04

158

Addressing the call-back problem  

SciTech Connect

Service recalls or call-backs are one of the costliest and most persistent of service management problems. Although all service industries have call-back problems each time the oilburner breaks down, the customer has what could be a costly inconvenience. Every customer complaint reduces loyalty and makes the industry more and more vulnerable to competition, not just from each other but, from the utilities and the discounters. A customer who gets prompt, capable service will usually stay with his present company and, just as importantly, he stays with fuel oil. If the industry were to place the blame for call-backs on a particular person or area it would probably be in the individual serviceman. The lack of training, lack of motivation, lack of compassion for the customer or lack of company spirit, is discussed.

Skinner, R.

1985-08-01

159

Soft calls and broadcast calls in the corncrake as adaptations to short and long range communication.  

PubMed

Because birds' acoustic signals function in antagonistic interactions between males and in female attraction, a majority of vocalisations are loud. In contrast, some birds, additionally produce soft vocalisations in escalated agonistic and sexual contexts. Nevertheless, the relationship between the acoustic parameters of such signals and their function is not clear. Here I investigate the sound transmission degradation properties of soft and broadcast (loud) calls in the corncrake using calls with natural and changed amplitude. I show that, if played at the same amplitude, the maximum limit for communication distance with soft calls was significantly shorter than that of broadcast calls, indicating that frequency structure is important in determining the range of both signals independently of their amplitude. At the same time, the values of excess attenuation were lower for soft calls than for broadcast calls at most distances, which suggests that the short transmission of soft calls is achieved mostly due to their low and narrow frequency ranges, promoting their masking by ambient noise. Finally, contrary to soft calls, changes in the energy of tails of echoes in broadcast calls were associated with the distance of propagation, which might be useful in assessing the distance to senders. I suggest that the acoustic structure of soft vocalisations can be used to limit the range of the signal, which might be helpful in eavesdropping avoidance, whereas broadcast calls are designed for long-range transmission. PMID:23876392

R?k, Pawe?

2013-07-19

160

What is this thing called pain?  

PubMed Central

To paraphrase Cole Porter’s famous 1926 song, “What is this thing called pain? This funny thing called pain, just who can solve its mystery?” Pain, like love, is all consuming: when you have it, not much else matters, and there is nothing you can do about it. Unlike love, however, we are actually beginning to tease apart the mystery of pain. The substantial progress made over the last decade in revealing the genes, molecules, cells, and circuits that determine the sensation of pain offers new opportunities to manage it, as revealed in this Review series by some of the foremost experts in the field.

Woolf, Clifford J.

2010-01-01

161

Intra- and interspecific responses to Rafinesque’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) social calls.  

SciTech Connect

Bats respond to the calls of conspecifics as well as to calls of other species; however, few studies have attempted to quantify these responses or understand the functions of these calls. We tested the response of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) to social calls as a possible method to increase capture success and to understand the function of social calls. We also tested if calls of bats within the range of the previously designated subspecies differed, if the responses of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats varied with geographic origin of the calls, and if other species responded to the calls of C. rafinesquii. We recorded calls of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats at two colony roost sites in South Carolina, USA. Calls were recorded while bats were in the roosts and as they exited. Playback sequences for each site were created by copying typical pulses into the playback file. Two mist nets were placed approximately 50–500 m from known roost sites; the net with the playback equipment served as the Experimental net and the one without the equipment served as the Control net. Call structures differed significantly between the Mountain and Coastal Plains populations with calls from the Mountains being of higher frequency and longer duration. Ten of 11 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats were caught in the Control nets and, 13 of 19 bats of other species were captured at Experimental nets even though overall bat activity did not differ significantly between Control and Experimental nets. Our results suggest that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats are not attracted to conspecifics’ calls and that these calls may act as an intraspecific spacing mechanism during foraging.

Loeb, Susan, C.; Britzke, Eric, R.

2010-07-01

162

Repetition patterns in Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) underwater multiple element calls.  

PubMed

Many vocalizations produced by Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) are made up of repeated individual distinct sounds (elements). Patterning of multiple element calls was examined during the breeding season at Casey and Davis, Antarctica. Element and interval durations were measured from 405 calls all > 3 elements in length. The duration of the calls (22+/-16.6 s) did not seem to vary with an increasing number of elements (F4,404=1.83,p = 0.122) because element and interval durations decreased as the number of elements within a call increased. Underwater vocalizations showed seven distinct timing patterns of increasing, decreasing, or constant element and interval durations throughout the calls. One call type occurred with six rhythm patterns, although the majority exhibited only two rhythms. Some call types also displayed steady frequency changes as they progressed. Weddell seal multiple element calls are rhythmically repeated and thus the durations of the elements and intervals within a call occur in a regular manner. Rhythmical repetition used during vocal communication likely enhances the probability of a call being detected and has important implications for the extent to which the seals can successfully transmit information over long distances and during times of high level background noise. PMID:15376691

Moors, Hilary B; Terhune, John M

2004-08-01

163

Repetition patterns in Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) underwater multiple element calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many vocalizations produced by Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) are made up of repeated individual distinct sounds (elements). Patterning of multiple element calls was examined during the breeding season at Casey and Davis, Antarctica. Element and interval durations were measured from 405 calls all >3 elements in length. The duration of the calls (22+/-16.6 s) did not seem to vary with an increasing number of elements (F4,404=1.83,p=0.122) because element and interval durations decreased as the number of elements within a call increased. Underwater vocalizations showed seven distinct timing patterns of increasing, decreasing, or constant element and interval durations throughout the calls. One call type occurred with six rhythm patterns, although the majority exhibited only two rhythms. Some call types also displayed steady frequency changes as they progressed. Weddell seal multiple element calls are rhythmically repeated and thus the durations of the elements and intervals within a call occur in a regular manner. Rhythmical repetition used during vocal communication likely enhances the probability of a call being detected and has important implications for the extent to which the seals can successfully transmit information over long distances and during times of high level background noise. .

Moors, Hilary B.; Terhune, John M.

2004-08-01

164

Call by Contract for Cryptographic Protocols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A compositional approach to protocol design and analysis is recognized as advantageous. We wish to perform design decomposition in a way that permits independent design and verification of components, and preserves security and correctness goals when the ...

J. Millen J. Guttman J. Ramsdell J. Sheehy B. Sniffen

2006-01-01

165

CALL--Past, Present, and Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a critical examination and reassessment of the history of computer assisted language learning (CALL), and argues for three new strategies--restricted, open, and integrated. Offers definitions and descriptions of the three approaches and argues that they allow a more detailed analysis of institutions and classrooms than earlier analyses.…

Bax, Stephen

2003-01-01

166

Police Handling of Domestic Violence Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. This study compares the rates and correlates associated with an arrest response when police respond to domestic assault calls in one jurisdiction at one point in time through two different methodological approachespolice self-report and case record analysis. While police self-reported a high likelihood to arrest (approximately a 60% rate of arrest), police reports indicated a much lower rate of

Lynette Federa

1999-01-01

167

A Call for School Counseling Practitioner Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the repeated call to increase the number of practitioner research manuscripts being published in counseling publications, practitioner research accounts for less than five percent of all manuscripts published. This article describes the challenges faced by practitioners seeking to publish their research, defines practitioner research, and…

Kaffenberger, Carol J.

2012-01-01

168

Calling Careers: Overview and Accompanying Teachers' Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|CALLING CAREERS is a televised series of fifteen 20-minute lessons intended to acquaint fourth through eighth grade students with twelve vocational clusters and to demonstrate the opportunities contained within them, the relationships between them, and the personal characteristics and work habits they require. The series also demonstrates how…

Pinson, Nancy M.

169

School-Turnaround Call Points Up Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The U.S. secretary of education's call to "turn around" the nation's 5,000 worst-performing schools has found a warm welcome among educators and policy makers who see that focus as long overdue. But it has also sparked debate about how--and whether--such an enormous leadership and management challenge can be accomplished. U.S. Secretary of…

Gewertz, Catherine

2009-01-01

170

Hemodialysis access failure: A call to action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemodialysis access failure: A call to action. Recent evidence suggests that the cost as well as the morbidity associated with the maintenance of hemodialysis access is increasing rapidly; currently, the cost exceeds 1 billion dollars and access related hospitalization accounts for 25% of all hospital admissions in the U.S.A. This increase in cost and morbidity has been associated with several

Raymond Hakim; Jonathan Himmelfarb

1998-01-01

171

Sexual differences in cricket calling song recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonotactic behavior was studied in male crickets,Teleogryllus oceanicus. Tethered flying males were presented with electronically synthesized calling song models in a two-choice phonotaxis assay, and their song preferences were determined and compared with previous findings for females.

Gerald S. Pollack

1982-01-01

172

Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

2010-01-01

173

What is This Work Called Teaching?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In discussing the work of teachers, this paper highlights two books, William Ayers's "To Become a Teacher" and David Hansen's "The Call to Teach," examining the philosophical roots of their analyses; how they define and characterize teaching and its place in public and private spheres; and what metaphors shape and define their visions of teachers…

Irwin-DeVitis, Linda; DeVitis, Joseph L.

1998-01-01

174

Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

2013-01-01

175

Teaching Children to Make Emergency Telephone Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a behavioral procedure to teach preschool children emergency dial ing and to examine its effectiveness. The behavioral procedure was administered by the classroom teacher to examine the effectiveness of teaching 4- and 5- year-old students to dial emergency telephone calls cor rectly when directed to do so by a parent. Training was

Russell T. Jones

1980-01-01

176

Environmental factors influencing calling in sympatric anurans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anuran reproduction is influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors, of which temperature and rainfall are the best studied. Here we examine the relationship between multiple abiotic environmental variables - specifically, air and water temperature, rainfall, barometric pressure, relative humidity and wind velocity - and the calling activity of five species (Rana sylvatica, Pseudacris crucifer, Bufo americanus, Rana clamitans, and

Kerri L. Oseen; Richard J. Wassersug

2002-01-01

177

Quantitative handling based call admission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel scheme, quantitative handling based call admission control (QHB CAC) has been proposed. The main idea, functional framework, system implementation including hardware and software are presented in detail. Compared with the existing measurement-based CAC, the advantages of QHB CAC have been stated

Dong Ye; Hong Gao; Wei Ding

2001-01-01

178

Call admission control schemes: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, a substantial number of call admission control (CAC) schemes have been proposed for ATM networks. We review the salient features of some of these algorithms. Also, we quantitatively compare the performance of three of these schemes

Harry G. Perros; Khaled M. Elsayed

1996-01-01

179

Looking Back: Tracing Trends in Canadian CALL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"CCALLNET" ("The Canadian Computer-Assisted Language Learning Network at the Post-Secondary Level") was a semi-annual newsletter published from 1987 to 2002 that was distributed to colleagues across Canada who taught languages to university students. Its objective was to create a network of Canadian faculty interested in CALL by informing them…

Craven, Mary-Louise; Sinyor, Roberta

2011-01-01

180

Educational Use of Databases in CALL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the idea that databases are very useful tools for teaching languages over the Internet. Databases in Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) are commonly used in three ways: for reference sources such as dictionaries, in the management of large websites, and for data processing such as language tests and learners'…

Beaudoin, Martin

2004-01-01

181

Context-Sensitive "Help" in CALL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses design and usability issues pertaining to context-sensitive "help" in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). As part of the discussion, we present a study in which we examined the effects of three independent factors on student usage of context-sensitive "help": feedback, exercise type, and language proficiency. Forty…

Heift, Trude

2006-01-01

182

Managing Capacity at Sparsh Call Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangalore based Sparsh Call Centre was set up as a subsidiary of the major telecom software company IP-Trinity, with ambitious plans of becoming a significant player in the booming BPO (business process outsourcing) space. Its strategy, in line with that of its parent group, was to focus on telecom related services. Sparsh began its operations in 2002 with its first

T. T. Niranjan; Samir K. Srivastava

2008-01-01

183

‘South Africa On-call’: Information Technology and Labour Market Restructuring in South African Call Centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benner C. (2006) ‘South Africa on-call’: information technology and labour market restructuring in South African call centres, Regional Studies40, 1–16. The dramatic global growth of call centres represents a potentially valuable employment opportunity for South Africa, as the country is gaining visibility as a viable site for off-shored business from the USA and Europe. South Africa's growth potential, however, is

Chris Benner

2006-01-01

184

Your Call is Important to Us: Call Centres in Lethbridge, Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-bound and out-bound call centres have developed due to the spread of information and communication technologies and growing demand for information and technical support on a round-the-clock basis. Intense cost competition in the call centre sector has been the impetus for the decentralization of call centre activity to smaller peripheral cities in western Canada. Lethbridge, Alberta provides an apt case

Spencer Croil; Ian MacLachlan

2006-01-01

185

Female Responses to Ancestral Advertisement Calls in Tungara Frogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic techniques were used to estimate and reconstruct advertisement calls at ancestral nodes. These calls were used to investigate the degree of preference of female tungara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) for both extant and ancestral calls. Females did not discriminate between calls of males of their own species and calls at their most recent ancestral node. They also recognized calls of

Michael J. Ryan; A. Stanley Rand

1995-01-01

186

Actual Holding Times for Calls in a PCS Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explicit distribution function of the actual holding time of a new call in a PCS network, with general cell residence time and general requested call holding time, is obtained. The effective call holding time of an incompleted and of completed calls are shown to be the conditional actual holding time of an incompleted call and of a completed call,

Wei Li; Attahiru Sule Alfa

1998-01-01

187

Calling behaviour under climate change: geographical and seasonal variation of calling temperatures in ectotherms.  

PubMed

Calling behaviour is strongly temperature-dependent and critical for sexual selection and reproduction in a variety of ectothermic taxa, including anuran amphibians, which are the most globally threatened vertebrates. However, few studies have explored how species respond to distinct thermal environments at time of displaying calling behaviour, and thus it is still unknown whether ongoing climate change might compromise the performance of calling activity in ectotherms. Here, we used new audio-trapping techniques (automated sound recording and detection systems) between 2006 and 2009 to examine annual calling temperatures of five temperate anurans and their patterns of geographical and seasonal variation at the thermal extremes of species ranges, providing insights into the thermal breadths of calling activity of species, and the mechanisms that enable ectotherms to adjust to changing thermal environments. All species showed wide thermal breadths during calling behaviour (above 15 °C) and increases in calling temperatures in extremely warm populations and seasons. Thereby, calling temperatures differed both geographically and seasonally, both in terrestrial and aquatic species, and were 8-22 °C below the specific upper critical thermal limits (CTmax ) and strongly associated with the potential temperatures of each thermal environment (operative temperatures during the potential period of breeding). This suggests that calling behaviour in ectotherms may take place at population-specific thermal ranges, diverging when species are subjected to distinct thermal environments, and might imply plasticity of thermal adjustment mechanisms (seasonal and developmental acclimation) that supply species with means of coping with climate change. Furthermore, the thermal thresholds of calling at the onset of the breeding season were dissimilar between conspecific populations, suggesting that other factors besides temperature are needed to trigger the onset of reproduction. Our findings imply that global warming would not directly inhibit calling behaviour in the study species, although might affect other temperature-dependent features of their acoustic communication system. PMID:23712567

Llusia, Diego; Márquez, Rafael; Beltrán, Juan F; Benítez, Maribel; do Amaral, José P

2013-07-23

188

CALL from the Margins: Effective Dissemination of CALL Research and Good Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The symbolic location of EUROCALL's 2004 conference in Vienna offered to both new members from Eastern Europe and established members from the West an opportunity to review the relationship between computer assisted language learning (CALL) and language teaching in general. CALL is defined as an "academic field that explores the role of…

Coleman, James A.

2005-01-01

189

Call Completion Probability with Weibull Distributed Call Holding Time and Cell Dwell Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we derive a simple closed-form expression for the call completion probability in a wireless cellular network under Weibull distributed cell dwell time and call holding time. The derived expression is given in terms of the Meijer-G function which can be easily evaluated by commonly available computer software such as Mathematica. Numerical results are presented to show that

Suwat Pattaramalai; Valentine A. Aalo; George P. Efthymoglou

2007-01-01

190

Distributed audit with secure remote procedure calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have designed and implemented an experimental secure remote procedure call (RPC) mechanism and an RPC interface for a distributed audit mechanism running on AIX version 3 on the RISC System\\/6000. Based on the secure RPC mechanism and the network file system, the authors have designed and implemented a high-level, protocol-transparent interface for a distributed audit mechanism with centralized

Chii-Ren Tsai; V. D. Gligor

1991-01-01

191

House Calls and the ACGME Competencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) “core competencies” (patient care, medical knowledge, interpersonal and communication skills, practice-based learning, and systems-based practice) are challenging to achieve in today's complex, high-acuity, hospital-based setting. House calls provide unique clinical exposure to opportunities for learning the ACGME competencies in a single integrated experience. We review the medical literature on the educational

Jennifer Hayashi; Colleen Christmas

2009-01-01

192

Let's call it Nonlocal Quantum Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the following we undertake to derive quantum theory as a stochastic low-energy and coarse-grained theory from a more primordial discrete and basically geometric theory living on the Planck scale and which (as we argue) possibly underlies also \\\\tit{string theory}. We isolate the so-called \\\\tit{ideal elements} which represent at the same time the cornerstones of the framework of ordinary quantum

Manfred Requardt

2000-01-01

193

Russian Prime Minister Calls the Station Crew  

NASA Video Gallery

Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called the International Space Station from the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, on Jan. 11, 2011. Putin also offered his condolences to ISS Commander Scott Kelly for the tragedy in Tucson and assured Kelly "all Russians were touched by the news." Putin expressed his best wishes and prayers to Kelly's brother, Mark, and the recovery of Mark's wife, Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords.

Mark Garcia

2011-01-11

194

Call progress time measurement in IP telephony  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usually a voice call is established through multiple stages in IP telephony. In the first stage, a phone number is dialed to reach a near-end or call-originating IP-telephony gateway. The next stages involve user identification through delivering an m-digit user-id to the authentication and/or billing server, and then user authentication by using an n- digit PIN. After that, the caller is allowed (last stage dial tone is provided) to dial a destination phone number provided that authentication is successful. In this paper, we present a very flexible method for measuring call progress time in IP telephony. The proposed technique can be used to measure the system response time at every stage. It is flexible, so that it can be easily modified to include new `tone' or a set of tones, or `voice begin' can be used in every stage to detect the system's response. The proposed method has been implemented using scripts written in Hammer visual basic language for testing with a few commercially available IP telephony gateways.

Khasnabish, Bhumip

1999-11-01

195

Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species.  

PubMed

Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls. PMID:19474047

Griesser, Michael

2009-05-27

196

Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species  

PubMed Central

Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls.

Griesser, Michael

2009-01-01

197

Adoption activities on the Internet: a call for regulation.  

PubMed

There is a growing practice of adoption services on the Internet with varying degrees of regulation, depending on whether it is domestic infant adoption, public foster care adoption, or international adoption. Regulation is particularly lacking in domestic infant adoptions, with Web sites connecting prospective birth and adoptive parents, sometimes through an adoption brokerage service. International adoptions can also be plagued by unethical practices as the Internet has become available in both developed and developing countries. These activities, although offering the benefits of privacy and convenience, also pose serious problems of potential fraud, exploitation, and, most important, lack of professional consideration of the child's best interest. In this article, the authors review the landscape of current Internet-based adoption activities, examine the benefits and risks of Internet-based adoption activities, and call for social work self-regulation and leadership. PMID:20632655

Roby, Jini L; White, Holly

2010-07-01

198

Composites for high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper will treat materials which are reinforced by fibres, so-called fibre reinforced composites. Such tailorable composites are con- sidered as the most promising candidates in future materials development, especially for application at elevated and up to highest temperatures. The term high temperatures in the sense of the present paper is under- stood starting from the temperature range above the

E. Fitzer

1988-01-01

199

Energy leakage and reflection in slowly varying waveguides  

SciTech Connect

A new technique is presented which is called the method of slowly varying dispersion relations, for approximately determining the modes near cutoff in two-layer slowly varying waveguides. The depth of the upper layer is finite while the lower layer is semi-infinite. The method is presented for the penetration problem, where the density and sound speed ratios are O(1), which was analyzed previously by different methods. It was shown that all of the energy propagating in the upper layer was lost into the underlying layer. The method is also applied to the case where the lower layer is hard and fast compared to the upper layer. It is shown that in this case energy is both lost into the lower layer and reflected back into the waveguide. 11 refs., 2 figs.

Kath, W.L.; Reiss, E.L. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)); Minzoni, A.A. (Univ. of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)); Kriegsmann, G.A. (New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark (United States))

1993-01-01

200

Gene Calling Standards (GSC8 Meeting)  

SciTech Connect

The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses gene calling standards at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.

Kyrpides, Nikos (Genome Biology Program, DOE JGI)

2009-09-10

201

47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular...911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured...EIA-553-A-1999 Mobile StationâBase Station...

2011-10-01

202

47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular...911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured...EIA-553-A-1999 Mobile StationâBase Station...

2012-10-01

203

Optimizing Call Time Lags by Modeling the Probability of Call Outcomes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Knowledge of the optimal time lags following particular call outcomes in a telephone survey (e.g., callbacks, no answer, busy, refusal) are important for maximizing the number of completed interviews in a given sample and utilizing resources with maximum ...

B. J. Meekins J. F. Meekins R. L. Sangster

2005-01-01

204

Large effective call holding times for a PCS network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses two important PCS cost and performance issues: (1) are blocking probabilities (for new call blocking, forced termination or call completion) appropriate for PCS network performance measurement? (2) Should PCS service providers offer discounts to phone calls that are force terminated? In order to do that we derive the effective call holding time distributions for complete\\/incomplete calls by

Yi-Bing Lin; Imrich Chlamtac

1996-01-01

205

Preliminary results of large whale calls recorded a t low latitudes in the southwestern Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large whale calls were detected from data recorded over one year (2003\\/2004) on a hydrophone of the International Monitoring System (IMS) deployed offshore off Possession Island, Crozet Archipelago in t he Indian Ocean. The low frequency (< 100 Hz) sea noise spectrum was dominated by a band of sound at 18-35 Hz which intensity varies over one year. This band

FLORE SAMARAN; YVES CANSI; GÉRARD RUZIÉ

206

Calling at a cost: elevated nestling calling attracts predators to active nests  

PubMed Central

Begging by nestling birds has been used to test evolutionary models of signalling but theory has outstripped evidence. Eavesdropping predators potentially impose a cost on begging that ensures signal honesty, yet little experimental evidence exists for such a cost at active nests because the use of artificial nests, long playback bouts and absence of parents may have exaggerated costs. We broadcast short periods (1 h) of either nestling vocalizations or background noise at active white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, nests. Nestlings called naturally during both treatments, allowing us to test whether elevated calling increases risk, a key but rarely tested assumption of evolutionary models. Predators visited nests exclusively during periods of elevated calling. Furthermore, playbacks affected neither adult visits nor nestling activity, suggesting that calling alone attracted predators. Adults gave alarm calls and nestlings usually called less when predators approached nests. Predation risk to broods is, therefore, likely to fluctuate substantially over short periods of time, depending on nestling hunger and whether adults or young have detected predators. This study confirms a present-day cost of nestling begging, demonstrates that this cost can be incurred over short periods and supports the importance of parent–offspring antipredator strategies in reducing predation risk.

Haff, Tonya M.; Magrath, Robert D.

2011-01-01

207

Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls.  

PubMed

Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking noise reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to noise exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source levels of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking noise by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability. The source levels of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background noise were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking noise reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals. PMID:22087938

Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K

2011-11-01

208

Hydride compositions  

DOEpatents

A composition for use in storing hydrogen, and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the hydrogen equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to hydrogen and then heating at a temperature below the softening temperature of any of the. constituents so that their chemical and structural integrity is preserved. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P.sub.H.sbsb.2 and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

Lee, Myung W. (North Augusta, SC)

1995-01-01

209

Hydride compositions  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

Lee, Myung, W.

1994-01-01

210

Apoptosis: Calling Time on Apoptosome Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Apoptosis is a controlled form of cellular demolition, catalyzed by a family of cysteine proteases called caspases. In response to diverse proapoptotic stimuli, caspase-9 is recruited and activated within an oligomeric complex called the apoptosome. The apoptosome drives autocatalytic processing of caspase-9, triggering a proteolytic caspase cascade that results in the biochemical and morphological changes characteristic of cell death. It is unclear why caspase-9 undergoes autocatalytic processing following apoptosome recruitment, because interdomain processing is dispensable for caspase-9 activity. A study has shed light on this issue by demonstrating that caspase-9 processing within the apoptosome promotes its displacement from the complex, leading to inactivation of this protease. Thus, autoprocessing of caspase-9 within the apoptosome serves as a “molecular timer” that limits the proteolytic activity of this complex through displacement of bound caspase-9 molecules. This timer mechanism may enable cells to prevent low amounts of apoptosome activation from spiraling out of control unless sufficient numbers of apoptosomes are assembled within a particular time window, which would drive full-blown caspase activation and apoptosis.

Colin Adrain (Cambridge;Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology REV); Seamus J. Martin (Ireland.;Trinity College REV)

2009-10-06

211

Theology links Christian ministry with God's call.  

PubMed

Catholic health care ministry originates in and is shaped by the theme of call in the Old and New Testaments. To be specifically Catholic, health professionals and facilities must define their ministries according to the values expressed in this theological tradition. Sponsorship. The opportunity to provide health care enables religious communities to contribute to God's ongoing creation process and to reiterate Christ's call to minister to others. Although health care facility sponsorship thrusts religious communities into the arena of big business, the abandonment of the health care mission could be considered a betrayal of evangelical values. Quality of life. The implicit concern for human dignity that distinguishes Catholic health care facilities should be evident in personalized patient care, just working conditions, and a commitment to healing in the civic community. Stewardship in ethics. The development of business policies and procedures and institutional responses to social change should be carefully considered in light of the Catholic understanding of loving covenant and the Christian way of life. Shared ministry. Health care facilities have played a leading role in implementing the Second Vatican Council's vision of ministry. Sponsoring communities' continued willingness to share responsibilities with laity will be imperative in meeting the health care demands of the future. PMID:10265223

O'Connell, L J

1984-03-01

212

Time-varying Reeb Graphs: A Topological Framework Supporting the Analysis of Continuous Time-varying Data  

SciTech Connect

I present time-varying Reeb graphs as a topological framework to support the analysis of continuous time-varying data. Such data is captured in many studies, including computational fluid dynamics, oceanography, medical imaging, and climate modeling, by measuring physical processes over time, or by modeling and simulating them on a computer. Analysis tools are applied to these data sets by scientists and engineers who seek to understand the underlying physical processes. A popular tool for analyzing scientific datasets is level sets, which are the points in space with a fixed data value s. Displaying level sets allows the user to study their geometry, their topological features such as connected components, handles, and voids, and to study the evolution of these features for varying s. For static data, the Reeb graph encodes the evolution of topological features and compactly represents topological information of all level sets. The Reeb graph essentially contracts each level set component to a point. It can be computed efficiently, and it has several uses: as a succinct summary of the data, as an interface to select meaningful level sets, as a data structure to accelerate level set extraction, and as a guide to remove noise. I extend these uses of Reeb graphs to time-varying data. I characterize the changes to Reeb graphs over time, and develop an algorithm that can maintain a Reeb graph data structure by tracking these changes over time. I store this sequence of Reeb graphs compactly, and call it a time-varying Reeb graph. I augment the time-varying Reeb graph with information that records the topology of level sets of all level values at all times, that maintains the correspondence of level set components over time, and that accelerates the extraction of level sets for a chosen level value and time. Scientific data sampled in space-time must be extended everywhere in this domain using an interpolant. A poor choice of interpolant can create degeneracies that are difficult to resolve, making construction of time-varying Reeb graphs impractical. I investigate piecewise-linear, piecewise-trilinear, and piecewise-prismatic interpolants, and conclude that piecewise-prismatic is the best choice for computing time-varying Reeb graphs. Large Reeb graphs must be simplified for an effective presentation in a visualization system. I extend an algorithm for simplifying static Reeb graphs to compute simplifications of time-varying Reeb graphs as a first step towards building a visualization system to support the analysis of time-varying data.

Mascarenhas, A

2006-11-28

213

Call recognition in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana: Generalization along the duration continuuma)  

PubMed Central

Male bullfrogs emit multicroak, quasiharmonic advertisement calls that function in mate attraction and neighbor recognition. The degree of variability of acoustic features in these calls can influence perceptual decisions by conspecific receivers. Analysis of duration of individual croaks in spontaneous advertisement calls of a sample of males shows considerable intraindividual variability in this feature, even within short chorusing bouts. The influence of this intraindividual variability on behavior was examined in a series of evoked calling experiments. When presented with synthetic calls whose croak durations varied over the range of the natural variability in this feature, males responded similarly to intermediate and long duration croaks, but significantly less to short duration croaks. When presented with playbacks of calls with croak durations outside the natural range of variability, males again responded significantly less to shorter durations. The response gradient for duration is thus asymmetrical, with stimuli at the shorter end of the continuum evoking fewer responses than stimuli at the longer end. This asymmetry may be related to the biological demands of rejecting perception of heterospecific advertisement calls, and of mediating appropriate responses to conspecific aggressive calls. The shape of the response gradient for duration may reflect a process of stimulus generalization.

Simmons, Andrea Megela

2005-01-01

214

47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Emergency Call Center Service. 25.284 Section...Operations § 25.284 Emergency Call Center Service. (a) Providers...subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center service to the extent...

2010-10-01

215

47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Emergency Call Center Service. 25.284 Section...Operations § 25.284 Emergency Call Center Service. (a) Providers...subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center service to the extent...

2009-10-01

216

Variation in chick-a-dee calls of a Carolina chickadee population, Poecile carolinensis: Identity and redundancy within note types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chick-a-dee calls of chickadee species are structurally complex because calls possess a rudimentary syntax governing the ordering of their different note types. Chick-a-dee calls were recorded in an aviary from female and male birds from two field sites. This paper reports sources of variation of acoustical parameters of notes in these calls. There were significant sex and microgeographic differences in some of the measured parameters of the notes in the calls. In addition, the syntax of the call itself influenced characteristics of each of the notes. For example, calls with many introductory notes began with a note of higher frequency and longer duration, relative to calls with few introductory notes. Furthermore, the number of introductory notes influenced frequency and duration components of notes later in the call. Thus, single notes are predictive of the note composition of the signaler's call. This suggests that a receiver might gain the meaning in the call even if it hears only part of the call. Further, single notes within these complex calls can contain information enabling receivers to predict the sex of the signaler, and whether it is from the local population.

Freeberg, Todd M.; Lucas, Jeffrey R.; Clucas, Barbara

2003-04-01

217

The Call-by-Need Lambda Calculus (Unabridged)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a calculus that captures the operational semantics of call-by-need. Wedemonstrate that the calculus is confluent and standardizable and entails the sameobservational equivalences as call-by-name lambda calculus.1 IntroductionProcedure calls come in three styles: call-by-value, call-by-name and call-by-need. Thefirst two of these possess elegant models in the form of corresponding lambda calculi. Thispaper shows that the third may be equipped

1994-01-01

218

Another call to increase STEM education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education becomes increasingly important, U.S. students are lagging behind other nations on international assessments, according to a recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science study. A 22 June report from the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) calls for increasing the focus on STEM education in the United States. “To make progress in improving STEM education for all students, policy makers at the national, state, and local levels should elevate science to the same level of importance as reading and mathematics,” states the report, “Successful K-12 STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.” It outlines several goals: expand the number of students who pursue advanced degrees and careers in STEM fields; expand the STEM-capable workforce, while also broadening the participation of women and minorities; and increase STEM literacy for all students, whether or not they pursue STEM-related careers or additional study in those areas.

Showstack, Randy

2011-07-01

219

Scientific American Frontiers: Calls of the Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As always, PBS offers a fantastic companion Web site to its popular series Scientific American Frontiers, this time for the episode "Calls of the Wild" (aired April 1, 2003). Viewers join researchers as they "listen in on animal communication as birds, bees, bugs, bats and elephants flirt, eavesdrop, and even give directions." Three lesson plans are available, as well as an answer key and a quiz based on the program, each for grades 5-8. The site also includes a number of Web-exclusive features, such as an in-depth interview with a spider biologist (cool audio clip of spider songs provided), a chance to email the scientists featured in the program (before April 8, 2003), and an interactive quiz about pair-bonding rituals (complete with detailed answers and related links for each question). As usual, visitors may view the entire episode online, and this is one that shouldn't be missed!

2003-01-01

220

[Reviewing the so-called ?Living Will?].  

PubMed

Cases like those of Terry Schiavo or Eluana Englaro have given rise to a lot of discussions at all levels. What both of them have in common is that, beyond the reasons given for terminating their lives and the methods used to achieve it, their destiny was not decided by them. This has resulted in a lot of heated debates in the public sphere as well as in the juridical, political, medical and speculative-ethical fields. Many people have been led to ask themselves: ?Wouldn't a better solution have been found if the desire of both persons had been known without any shadow of doubt, in the case that they had foreseen the situation in which they eventually found themselves in??. The concept of the so-called Living Will appears to be a good solution for such cases. However, in the years in which attempts have been made to introduce this into practice, important ethical questions regarding end-of-life situations have come up: Can everything in my life, including when and how I die, be part of a legacy? Is a person who enjoys good health in a position to autonomously determine how he would like to be treated if, in an uncertain future, he ends up in a situation where he is incapable of communicating his wishes? Is the ordinary citizen capable of domineering the multiplicity of treatments, diagnosis and prognosis which medical science has to offer? Is it the same thing to forego a complicated treatment as to renounce artificial feeding and hydration? This article examines all these arguments, offering at the same time the case for and the case against the so-called Living Will. PMID:20886910

Agulles Simó, Pau

221

Singularities of varying light speed cosmologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the possible singularities of isotropic cosmological models that have a varying speed of light as well as a varying gravitational constant. The field equations typically reduce to two dimensional systems which are then analyzed both by dynamical systems techniques in phase space and by applying the method of asymptotic splittings. In the general case we find initially expanding

John Miritzis; Spiros Cotsakis

2007-01-01

222

Speed of call delivery is related to context and caller identity in Campbell's monkey males  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call rate can be a salient feature in animal communication. Depending on the species, different psychological variables appear to influence call rates but the exact nature of these relationships remains poorly explored. Here, we demonstrate for free-ranging Campbell’s monkeys that the call rates of four different alarm series (termed H, K, K+, and B series) vary systematically as a function of context, associated behaviour, and identity of the caller. K+ series were given more rapidly to predation than non-predation events, K+ and K series more rapidly to visual than auditory predator detection, and H series more rapidly while counterattacking an eagle than staying put. Finally, there were individual differences in B series, suggesting that call rate potentially provides listeners with cues about the caller’s anti-predator behaviour, event type experienced, and his identity.

Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Bouchet, Hélène; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2010-11-01

223

Neural Correlates of Threat Perception: Neural Equivalence of Conspecific and Heterospecific Mobbing Calls Is Learned  

PubMed Central

Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise [1]–[2]. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators [3]. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more “D” notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators [4]. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned.

Avey, Marc T.; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K.; Bloomfield, Laurie L.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

224

Neural correlates of threat perception: neural equivalence of conspecific and heterospecific mobbing calls is learned.  

PubMed

Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more "D" notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned. PMID:21909363

Avey, Marc T; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B

2011-08-29

225

Hypertension in diabetes: A call to action  

PubMed Central

The Canadian Hypertension Education Program, Blood Pressure Canada, Canadian Hypertension Society, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Canadian Diabetes Association, College of Family Physicians of Canada, Canadian Pharmacists Association and the Canadian Council of Cardiovascular Nurses call on Canadian health care professionals to redouble efforts to help patients achieve treatment targets (blood pressure less than 130 mmHg systolic and less than 80 mmHg diastolic) in people with diabetes. Treatment of high blood pressure in people with diabetes results in large reductions in death and disability within a short period of time and needs to be a therapeutic priority. Achieving blood pressure targets requires sustained lifestyle modification, and three or more drugs including a diuretic are often required. Antihypertensive treatment in people with diabetes is one of the few medical treatments estimated to reduce overall health costs. The cost of treatment is less than the cost of complications prevented. Blood pressure needs to be assessed at all visits and home blood pressure assessment is encouraged. Management strategies need to include assessment and management of cardiovascular risks including smoking, unhealthy eating, physical inactivity, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia as well as dysglycemia. The risks and benefits of acetylsalicylic acid in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease are uncertain in people with hypertension and diabetes. Intensive individualized lifestyle modification is recommended to prevent and treat hypertension, dyslipidemia, dysglycemia and other vascular risks in people with diabetes.

Campbell, Norman RC; Leiter, Lawrence A; Larochelle, Pierre; Tobe, Sheldon; Chockalingam, Arun; Ward, Richard; Morris, Dorothy; Tsuyuki, Ross

2009-01-01

226

Advertisement-call modification, male competition and female preference in the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca  

PubMed Central

Senders and receivers influence dynamic characteristics of the signals used for mate attraction over different time scales. On a moment-to-moment basis, interactions among senders competing for a mate influence dynamic characteristics, whereas the preferences of receivers of the opposite gender exert an influence over evolutionary time. We observed and recorded the calling patterns of the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca, to assess how the dynamic characters of calls vary during interactions among groups of males in a chorus. This question was also addressed using playback experiments with males. Playback experiments with females showed how changes in dynamic call properties are likely to affect male mating success. Frogs calling in pairs, groups, or in response to playbacks produced longer calls than did isolated males. During call overlap, males often increased the duration of the silent interval (gaps) between the pulses of their calls so that the pulses of the calls of two neighbors interdigitated. This change resulted in increased variability of pulse rate, a traditionally static acoustic property; however, males also produced high proportions of non-overlapped calls in which variability in pulse rate was low and had species-typical values. Females preferred long calls to short and average-duration calls, and non-overlapped calls to overlapped calls. Given a choice between pairs of overlapped calls, females preferred pairs in which the proportion of overlap was low and pairs in which the pulses of such calls interdigitated completely. The observed patterns of vocal competition thus reflect the preferences of conspecific females, which have influenced the evolution of the calling behavior of H. avivoca.

Martinez-Rivera, Carlos Cesar; Gerhardt, H. Carl

2009-01-01

227

In situ source levels of mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) calls.  

PubMed

Mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) in Mosman Bay, Western Australia produce three call categories associated with spawning behavior. The determination of call source levels and their contribution to overall recorded sound pressure levels is a significant step towards estimating numbers of calling fish within the detection range of a hydrophone. The source levels and ambient noise also provide significant information on the impacts anthropogenic activity may have on the detection of A. japonicus calls. An array of four hydrophones was deployed to record and locate individual fish from call arrival-time differences. Successive A. japonicus calls produced samples at various ranges between 1 and 100 m from one of the array hydrophones. The three-dimensional localization of calls, together with removal of ambient noise, allowed the determination of source levels for each call category using observed trends in propagation losses and interference. Mean source levels (at 1 m from the hydrophone) of the three call categories were calculated as 163 ± 16 dB re 1 ?Pa for Category 1 calls (short call of 2-5 pulses); 172 ± 4 dB re 1 ?Pa for Category 2 calls (long calls of 11-32 pulses); and 157 ± 5 dB re 1 ?Pa for Category 3 calls (series of successive calls of 1-4 pulses, increasing in call rate). PMID:23145635

Parsons, Miles J G; McCauley, Robert D; Mackie, Michael C; Siwabessy, Paulus J; Duncan, Alec J

2012-11-01

228

Introducing Psychometrical Validation of Questionnaires in CALL Research: The Case of Measuring Attitude towards CALL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The great majority of questionnaires measuring non-observable constructs such as attitude towards CALL are often developed from a specific point of view and are seldom followed by psychometrical validation. Psychometrical properties of the questionnaire, such as construct validity and reliability, then remain unanswered too often, laying a heavy…

Vandewaetere, M.; Desmet, P.

2009-01-01

229

Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives.  

PubMed

Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise. PMID:21345867

Jensen, Frants H; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T

2011-02-23

230

New, Varying-Capacitance, Electrical Machine,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research demonstrated that introduction of dielectric material into the working gap of a varying capacitance, rotating machine, in combination with a novel arrangement of machine elements, increased the power of the machine by an order of magnitude. U...

S. F. Philp

1983-01-01

231

Game Theoretic Analysis of Call-by-Value Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We present a general semantic universe of call-by-value computation based on elements of game semantics, and validate its appropriateness as a semantic universe by the full abstraction result for call-by-value PCF, a generic typed programming language with call-by-value evaluation. The key idea is to consider the distinction between call-by-name and call-by-value as that of the structure of information flow,

Kohei Honda; Nobuko Yoshida

1997-01-01

232

Calling SNPs without a reference sequence  

PubMed Central

Background The most common application for the next-generation sequencing technologies is resequencing, where short reads from the genome of an individual are aligned to a reference genome sequence for the same species. These mappings can then be used to identify genetic differences among individuals in a population, and perhaps ultimately to explain phenotypic variation. Many algorithms capable of aligning short reads to the reference, and determining differences between them have been reported. Much less has been reported on how to use these technologies to determine genetic differences among individuals of a species for which a reference sequence is not available, which drastically limits the number of species that can easily benefit from these new technologies. Results We describe a computational pipeline, called DIAL (De novo Identification of Alleles), for identifying single-base substitutions between two closely related genomes without the help of a reference genome. The method works even when the depth of coverage is insufficient for de novo assembly, and it can be extended to determine small insertions/deletions. We evaluate the software's effectiveness using published Roche/454 sequence data from the genome of Dr. James Watson (to detect heterozygous positions) and recent Illumina data from orangutan, in each case comparing our results to those from computational analysis that uses a reference genome assembly. We also illustrate the use of DIAL to identify nucleotide differences among transcriptome sequences. Conclusions DIAL can be used for identification of nucleotide differences in species for which no reference sequence is available. Our main motivation is to use this tool to survey the genetic diversity of endangered species as the identified sequence differences can be used to design genotyping arrays to assist in the species' management. The DIAL source code is freely available at http://www.bx.psu.edu/miller_lab/.

2010-01-01

233

The Impact of Student Ability and Method for Varying the Position of Correct Answers in Classroom Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice item-writing guideline research is in its infancy. Haladyna (2004) calls for a science of item-writing guideline research. The purpose of this study is to respond to such a call. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student ability and method for varying the location of correct answers in classroom multiple-choice…

Joseph, Dane Christian

2010-01-01

234

Arginine Vasotocin Injection Increases Probability of Calling in Cricket Frogs, but Causes Call Changes Characteristic of Less Aggressive Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male cricket frogs,Acris crepitanscommunicate to males and females using advertisement calls, which are arranged into call groups. Calls at the middle and end, but not beginning of the call group, are modified in response to male–male aggressive interactions. We found in this field study of male cricket frogs in natural breeding choruses that the peptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) not

Catherine A. Marler; Joanne Chu; Walter Wilczynski

1995-01-01

235

Framework for Modeling Call Holding Time for VoIP Tandem Networks: Introducing the Call Cease Rate Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach to modeling call holding time of VoIP traffic on tandem networks. Call holding time is a key variable of traffic engineering models, and the traditional Erlang-B model uses the negative exponential function to model call holding time. Our study of hundreds of millions of telephone calls shows that the exponential assumption is not valid

Imad Al Ajarmeh; James Yu; Mohamed Amezziane

2011-01-01

236

Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

Guest Editors:

Lena Wosinska, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) / ICT Sweden Madeleine Glick, Intel Research, Cambridge, UK

Technologies based on DWDM systems allow data transmission with bit rates of Tbit/s on a single fiber. To facilitate this enormous transmission volume, high-capacity and high-speed network nodes become inevitable in the optical network. Wideband switching, WDM switching, optical burst switching (OBS), and optical packet switching (OPS) are promising technologies for harnessing the bandwidth of WDM optical fiber networks in a highly flexible and efficient manner. As a number of key optical component technologies approach maturity, photonics in switching is becoming an increasingly attractive and practical solution for the next-generation of optical networks. The scope of this special issue is focused on the technology and architecture of optical switching nodes, including the architectural and algorithmic aspects of high-speed optical networks.

Scope of Submission

The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following topics:
  • WDM node architectures
  • Novel device technologies enabling photonics in switching, such as optical switch fabrics, optical memory, and wavelength conversion
  • Routing protocols
  • WDM switching and routing
  • Quality of service
  • Performance measurement and evaluation
  • Next-generation optical networks: architecture, signaling, and control
  • Traffic measurement and field trials
  • Optical burst and packet switching
  • OBS/OPS node architectures
  • Burst/Packet scheduling and routing algorithms
  • Contention resolution/avoidance strategies
  • Services and applications for OBS/OPS (e.g., grid networks, storage-area networks, etc.)
  • Burst assembly and ingress traffic shaping
  • Hybrid OBS/TDM or OBS/wavelength routing

Manuscript Submission

To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON and select ``Photonics in Switching' in the features indicator of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Photonics in Switching.' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/journal/jon/author.cfm. Submission Deadline: 15 September 2006

Wosinska, Lena; Glick, Madeleine

2006-04-01

237

Multi-component separation and analysis of bat echolocation calls.  

PubMed

The vast majority of animal vocalizations contain multiple frequency modulated (FM) components with varying amounts of non-linear modulation and harmonic instability. This is especially true of biosonar sounds where precise time-frequency templates are essential for neural information processing of echoes. Understanding the dynamic waveform design by bats and other echolocating animals may help to improve the efficacy of man-made sonar through biomimetic design. Bats are known to adapt their call structure based on the echolocation task, proximity to nearby objects, and density of acoustic clutter. To interpret the significance of these changes, a method was developed for component separation and analysis of biosonar waveforms. Techniques for imaging in the time-frequency plane are typically limited due to the uncertainty principle and interference cross terms. This problem is addressed by extending the use of the fractional Fourier transform to isolate each non-linear component for separate analysis. Once separated, empirical mode decomposition can be used to further examine each component. The Hilbert transform may then successfully extract detailed time-frequency information from each isolated component. This multi-component analysis method is applied to the sonar signals of four species of bats recorded in-flight by radiotelemetry along with a comparison of other common time-frequency representations. PMID:23297925

DiCecco, John; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, James A

2013-01-01

238

Mutual selection in time-varying networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-varying networks play an important role in the investigation of the stochastic processes that occur on complex networks. The ability to formulate the development of the network topology on the same time scale as the evolution of the random process is important for a variety of applications, including the spreading of diseases. Past contributions have investigated random processes on time-varying networks with a purely random attachment mechanism. The possibility of extending these findings towards a time-varying network that is driven by mutual attractiveness is explored in this paper. Mutual attractiveness models are characterized by a linking function that describes the probability of the existence of an edge, which depends mutually on the attractiveness of the nodes on both ends of that edge. This class of attachment mechanisms has been considered before in the fitness-based complex networks literature but not on time-varying networks. Also, the impact of mutual selection is investigated alongside opinion formation and epidemic outbreaks. We find closed-form solutions for the quantities of interest using a factorizable linking function. The voter model exhibits an unanticipated behavior as the network never reaches consensus in the case of mutual selection but stays forever in its initial macroscopic configuration, which is a further piece of evidence that time-varying networks differ markedly from their static counterpart with respect to random processes that take place on them. We also find that epidemic outbreaks are accelerated by uncorrelated mutual selection compared to previously considered random attachment.

Hoppe, K.; Rodgers, G. J.

2013-10-01

239

Visualization of Time-Varying Volumetric Data using Differential Time-Histogram Table  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a novel data structure called Differential Time- Histogram Table (DTHT) for visualization of time-varying scalar data. This data structure only stores voxels that are changing be- tween time-steps or during transfer function updates. It allows ef- cient updates of data necessary for rendering during a sequence of queries common during data exploration and visualization. The table is used

Hamid Younesyt; Torsten Möller; Hamish Carr

2005-01-01

240

Time-varying RCS modeling algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE) has developed high-fidelity exoatmospheric time-varying radar cross section (RCS) models for use in the Warning Information Correlation (WIC) threat development effort. These models have been developed for the objects of six USSR ICBM and SIBM weapon systems. This report describes the five TBE developed time-varying RCS modeling algorithms that were utilized for these models. Part of the validation of these models consisted of comparisons of selected discrimination signatures calculated from model and recorded data. The definition of these signatures is also presented.

Gruner, W. J.

1981-12-01

241

78 FR 17469 - Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...called for the submission of Large Position Reports by those entities whose reportable positions in the 2% Treasury Notes of February...

2013-03-21

242

47 CFR 64.1505 - Restrictions on collect telephone calls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restrictions on collect telephone calls. 64.1505 Section 64.1505 Telecommunication...Information Services § 64.1505 Restrictions on collect telephone calls. (a) No common carrier shall provide...

2011-10-01

243

47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Universal Emergency Telephone Number § 64.3001 Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls...

2011-10-01

244

1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH PLATFORM AND TOWER ON RIGHT IS CALLED LAUNCH UMBILICAL TOWER, (LUT). - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

245

Impacts of Varying Penetration of Distributed Resources with & without Volt/Var Control: Case Study of Varying Load Types  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a follow-up to an earlier one on impacts of distributed energy resources (DR) on distribution feeders. As DR penetration level on the feeder increases, there can be impacts to distribution system/feeder capacity, line losses, and voltage regulation. These can vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system or loading. The question is how high of a DR level can be accommodated without any major changes to system operation, system design and protection. Our objective for this work was to address the question of how the DR impacts vary in regards to both DR voltage regulation capability and load mix. A dynamic analysis was used to focus on the impacts of DR with and without volt/var control with different load composition on the distribution feeder. The study considered an example 10MVA distribution feeder in which two inverter-based DRs were used to provide voltage regulation. The results due to DR without voltage regulation capability are compared with DR capable of providing local (at its bus) voltage regulation. The analysis was repeated for four different feeder load compositions consisting of (1) constant power, (2) constant impedance, (3) constant current and (4) ZIP (equal combination of previous three).

Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL

2011-01-01

246

Flexible work in call centres: Working hours, work-life conflict & health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Call-centre workers encounter major psychosocial pressures, including high work intensity and undesirable working hours. Little is known, however, about whether these pressures vary with employment status and how they affect work-life conflict and health. Questionnaire data were collected from 179 telephone operators in Sydney, Australia, of whom 124 (69.3%) were female and 54 (30.2%) were male. Ninety-three (52%) were permanent

Philip Bohle; Harold Willaby; Michael Quinlan; Maria McNamara

2011-01-01

247

FUZZY-LOGIC BASED CALL ADMISSION CONTROL FOR A HETEROGENEOUS RADIO ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel call admission control (CAC) algorithm that considers various types of applications with various QoS parameters requested by a user and provides the required QoS to newly admitted users without a degradation of the QoS to already admitted ones. The proposed CAC is evaluated for a heterogeneous radio access technologies (RATs) scenario. The QoS parameters vary

M. V. Ramkumar; Albena Mihovska; Neeli R Prasad; Ramjee Prasad

2009-01-01

248

Home visits: why do rates vary so much?  

PubMed

Data including information on patient age, gender, who initiated the visit and call classification was collected during office hours from 12 G.P. rural teaching practices with a combined GMS patient population of 24,720, over a 2 month period. There were a total of 603 home visits, giving an annual visiting rate of 143/1000. Visiting rates varied between practices from 45 to 305/1000 per year. When high visiting practices (>210/1000/year) were compared to low visiting rate practices (>90/1000/year), patients tended to be older (79.7 v. 74.5 years) and calls were 12 times more likely to be doctor initiated (16.6% v. 1.4%) or classified as routine( 50.7% v. 44.9%). The variation between practices was related in part to patient age but appears largely due to differences in doctor home visiting behaviour. There are no recent figures on home visiting in Ireland. PMID:22558815

Stewart, P; Stewart, R

2012-03-01

249

Listen to Your Heart? Calling and Receptivity to Career Advice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores calling in the context of career decision making. Specifically, the authors examine receptivity to advice that discourages individuals from pursuing a professional path in their calling’s domain. The authors hypothesize that people with a strong calling will be more likely to ignore negative career advice. In Study 1, a four-wave, 7-year longitudinal study following 450 amateur musicians

Shoshana R. Dobrow; Jennifer Tosti-Kharas

2012-01-01

250

Modeling VoIP Call Holding Times for Telecommunications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voice over IP is one of the most popular applications in broadband access networks. It is anticipated that the characteristics of call holding times (CHTs) for VoIP calls will be quite different from traditional phone calls. This article analyzes the CHTs for mobile VoIP calls based on measured data collected from commercial operation. Previous approaches directly used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S)

Whai-en Chen; Hui-nien Hung; Yi-bing Lin

2007-01-01

251

Towards Stochastic Time-Varying Geological Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of subsurface geometry and properties is a key element to understand Earth processes and manage natural hazards\\u000a and resources. In this paper, we suggest this field should evolve beyond pure data fitting approaches by integrating geological\\u000a concepts to constrain interpretations or test their consistency. This process necessarily calls for adding the time dimension\\u000a to 3D modeling, both at

Guillaume Caumon

2010-01-01

252

Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX), a clinical program designed to assess the degree to which an individual is able to demonstrate self-control for overall general relaxation. The program is designed for use with the Cassel Biosensors biofeedback equipment. (JAC)|

Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

1983-01-01

253

Compressed sensing of time-varying signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed sensing (CS) lowers the number of measurements required for reconstruction and estimation of signals that are sparse when expanded over a proper basis. Traditional CS approaches deal with time-invariant sparse signals, meaning that, during the measurement process, the signal of interest does not exhibit variations. However, many signals encountered in practice are varying with time as the observation window

D. Angelosante; G. B. Giannakis; E. Grossi

2009-01-01

254

The Varied Uses of Readability Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Readability formulas have varied uses. In education they are used to match children's reading ability to the difficulty level of material, select stories and books for classroom use and for individual students' particular needs, select textbooks and other reading materials, aid educational research, and check reading materials of newly literate…

Fry, Edward

255

Cosmology with Time-Varying G  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that a Universe with a time-varying gravitational ``constant'' G necessarily implies creation if the rest mass of matter particles m p is constant. In this case, from Einstein's field equations, the conditions for energy-momentum propagation are ? ·( GT mu v ) from which matter and photon propagation equations are derived. Free matter particle propagation is not

Antonio Alfonso-Faus

1986-01-01

256

Induction Heating of a Varying Diameter Preform.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A proposal to use a varying diameter preform for forging the 120-mm M256 gun tube required a modification to the induction heating system power control to provide uniform heating of the preform. In addition, there was a need to automate the heating proces...

D. Concordia

1992-01-01

257

Lymphoma Risk Varies for Celiac Disease Patients  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Lymphoma Risk Varies for Celiac Disease Patients Blood cancer more common for those with ... Preidt Monday, August 5, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Celiac Disease Diets Lymphoma MONDAY, Aug. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Celiac ...

258

Time-Varying World Market Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a measure of capital market integration arising from a conditional regime-switching model. Our measure allows us to describe expected returns in countries that are segmented from world capital markets in one part of the sample and become integrated later in the sample. We find that a number of emerging markets exhibit time-varying integration. Some markets appear more integrated

Geert Bekaert; Campbell R Harvey

1995-01-01

259

Hydrodynamics of tubes of varying cross section  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is suggested of reducing the hydrodynamic resistance by replacing circular cylindrical tubes (CT) by socalled asymmetrical wavy tubes of varying cross section with long exist cone and short nozzle portions. Mathematical simulation of laminar motion of an incompressible fluid (the Navier-Stokes equations) has shown that a change in geometric parameters can change the resistance substantially, making it larger

I. L. Povkh; N. V. Finoshin

1992-01-01

260

Trauma calls: role of the general surgeon and CT scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objective: General surgeons are required in only a minority of trauma call cases to assess for abdominal injuries. Computed tomography (CT) accurately detects blunt abdominal injuries and may have replaced the need for general surgeons at trauma calls. This study evaluated the role of general surgeons at trauma calls and assessed use of CT in cases of suspected

R G Dattani; T Richards; C D Smith; T R Magee

2005-01-01

261

Clinal variation in anuran advertisement calls: basis for acoustic isolation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calls of male treefrogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui) were studied along an altitudinal gradient in the Luquillo Mountains in eastern Puerto Rico. The fundamental frequency of each note in the advertisement call was highly negatively correlated with altitude. Although males responded vigorously to playbacks of calls of other males recorded at their own altitude, males at high altitudes responded less frequently

Peter M. Narins; Sheila L. Smith

1986-01-01

262

Communicating about danger: urgency alarm calling in a bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate flee alarm calls can provide information about the type of predator, and some mammalian alarm calls also appear to communicate the degree of danger and therefore urgency of escape. However, because predators are usually rare, it has proved difficult to obtain observations differing only in the degree of danger, or to record sufficient naturally provoked alarm calls for fully

Adam J. Leavesley; Robert D. Magrath

2005-01-01

263

Call Accounting in a VoIP Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

An H.323 CDR collecting and consolidating architecture based on Radius is presented. The important fields involved in the consolidation process for Cisco gateways and GnuGK CDRs are investigated and a unique record format is defined. From the database, various statistics are extracted including disconnection causes, call distribution over a day, number of calls over a day period, call quality along

João Carlos; Aguiar Rodrigues; Rodrigo Moreira Silveira; Arza Lobo da Costa; Caixa Postal

264

Path Models of Vocational Calling in Christian College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the Christian college environment, students are encouraged to understand their vocational calling, yet quantitative research on how college students conceptualize calling is sparse. This correlational study extends the research literature significantly by empirically examining variables that affect sense of vocational calling in 270 college…

Phillips, Sheri L.

2011-01-01

265

The Call for an African University: A Critical Reflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, we draw on philosophy (particularly African philosophy) to analyse the call for an African university. The call for an African university may be viewed as a call that insists that all critical and transformative educators in Africa embrace an indigenous African worldview and root their nation's educational paradigms in an…

van Wyk, Berte; Higgs, Philip

2007-01-01

266

Video call, or not, that is the question  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies have made video calling in vehicles possible. Results from a driving simulator experiment indicate that video calling reduces visual attention on the road. While in some situations drivers would refrain from engaging in this activity, our results should serve as a warning to interface designers, lawmakers, transportation officials, and drivers that video calling presents a real distraction from

Andrew L. Kun; Zeljko Medenica

2012-01-01

267

47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791 Telecommunication...Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for...

2012-10-01

268

Listen to Your Heart? Calling and Receptivity to Career Advice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores calling in the context of career decision making. Specifically, the authors examine receptivity to advice that discourages individuals from pursuing a professional path in their calling's domain. The authors hypothesize that people with a strong calling will be more likely to ignore negative career advice. In Study 1, a…

Dobrow, Shoshana R.; Tosti-Kharas, Jennifer

2012-01-01

269

Change point detection based on call detail records  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a method for combining wavelet denoising and sequential approach for detecting change points on mobile phone based on detailed call records. The Minmax method is used to estimate the thresholds of frequency and call duration for denoising. This work is useful to enhance homeland security, detecting unwanted calls (e.g., spam) and commercial purposes. For validation

Huiqi Zhang; Ram Dantu; João W. Cangussu

2009-01-01

270

Mining of Business-Oriented Conversations at a Call Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently it has become feasible to transcribe textual records from telephone conversations at call centers by using automatic speech recognition. In this research, we extended a text mining system for call summary records and constructed a conversation mining system for the business-oriented conversations at the call center. To acquire useful business insights from the conversational data through the text mining

Hironori Takeuchi; Tetsuya Nasukawa; Hideo Watanabe

2008-01-01

271

Heterospecific Acoustic Interference: Effects on Calling in Oophaga pumilio  

PubMed Central

Call rate suppression is a common short-term solution for avoiding acoustic interference in animals. It has been widely documented between and within frog species, but the effects of non-anuran calling on frog vocalizations is less well known. Heterospecific acoustic interference on the calling of Oophaga pumilio (Bauer, 1994) (formerly Dendrobates pumilio) males was studied in a lowland, wet tropical forest in SE Nicaragua. Acoustic playback experiments were conducted to characterize the responses of O. pumilio males to interfering calls of cicadas, two species of crickets and a sympatric dendrobatid frog, Phyllobates lugubris. Call rate, call bout duration, percent of time calling, dominant frequency and latency to first-call were analyzed. Significant call rate suppression was observed during all stimulus playbacks, yet no significant differences were found in spontaneous call rates during pre- and post-playback trials. Dominant frequency significantly decreased after P. lugubris playback and first-call latency significantly decreased in response to both cicada and tree cricket playbacks. These results provide robust evidence that O. pumilio males can dynamically modify their calling pattern in unique ways, depending on the source of the heterospecific acoustic interference.

Wong, Stefanie; Parada, Humberto; Narins, Peter M.

2010-01-01

272

Web-Based CALL for Arabic: Constraints and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first section of this paper gives a brief overview of the experiences with LAN-based CALL programs for Arabic in the past 7 years at Leiden University (The Netherlands). The second section discusses constraints and technical challenges related to the use of Web-based CALL for Arabic, focusing in particular on a new Web-based CALL application,…

Corda, Alessandra; van der Stel, Mieke

2004-01-01

273

Call Completion in Wireless Networks Over Lossy Link  

Microsoft Academic Search

The call completion characteristics in wireless networks with the presence of an inherently lossy wireless link are presented in this paper. The closed-form formula for the significant performance metric in terms of the call completion probability is developed under the generalized wireless channel model and the general call holding time distribution based on the complex theory and transform techniques (Laplace-Stieltjes

Yan Zhang; Maode Ma; Masayuki Fujise

2007-01-01

274

RADIATION SHIELDING COMPOSITION  

DOEpatents

A light weight radiation shielding composition is described whose mechanical and radiological properties can be varied within wide limits. The composition of this shielding material consists of four basic ingredients: powder of either Pb or W, a plastic resin, a resin plasticizer, and a polymerization catalyst to promote an interaction of the plasticizer with the plastic resin. Air may be mixed into the above ingredients in order to control the density of the final composition. For equivalent gamma attenuation, the shielding composition weighs one-third to one-half as much as conventional Pb shielding. (AEC)

Dunegan, H.L.

1963-01-29

275

Evaluating multivariate visualizations on time-varying data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multivariate visualization techniques have been applied to a wide variety of visual analysis tasks and a broad range of data types and sources. Their utility has been evaluated in a modest range of simple analysis tasks. In this work, we extend our previous task to a case of time-varying data. We implemented ve visualizations of our synthetic test data: three previously evaluated techniques (Data-driven Spots, Oriented Slivers, and Attribute Blocks), one hybrid of the rst two that we call Oriented Data-driven Spots, and an implementation of Attribute Blocks that merges the temporal slices. We conducted a user study of these ve techniques. Our previous nding (with static data) was that users performed best when the density of the target (as encoded in the visualization) was either highest or had the highest ratio to non-target features. The time-varying presentations gave us a wider range of density and density gains from which to draw conclusions; we now see evidence for the density gain as the perceptual measure, rather than the absolute density.

Livingston, Mark A.; Decker, Jonathan W.; Ai, Zhuming

2013-01-01

276

Threshold regression for survival data with time-varying covariates.  

PubMed

Time-to-event data with time-varying covariates pose an interesting challenge for statistical modeling and inference, especially where the data require a regression structure but are not consistent with the proportional hazard assumption. Threshold regression (TR) is a relatively new methodology based on the concept that degradation or deterioration of a subject's health follows a stochastic process and failure occurs when the process first reaches a failure state or threshold (a first-hitting-time). Survival data with time-varying covariates consist of sequential observations on the level of degradation and/or on covariates of the subject, prior to the occurrence of the failure event. Encounters with this type of data structure abound in practical settings for survival analysis and there is a pressing need for simple regression methods to handle the longitudinal aspect of the data. Using a Markov property to decompose a longitudinal record into a series of single records is one strategy for dealing with this type of data. This study looks at the theoretical conditions for which this Markov approach is valid. The approach is called threshold regression with Markov decomposition or Markov TR for short. A number of important special cases, such as data with unevenly spaced time points and competing risks as stopping modes, are discussed. We show that a proportional hazards regression model with time-varying covariates is consistent with the Markov TR model. The Markov TR procedure is illustrated by a case application to a study of lung cancer risk. The procedure is also shown to be consistent with the use of an alternative time scale. Finally, we present the connection of the procedure to the concept of a collapsible survival model. PMID:20213704

Lee, Mei-Ling Ting; Whitmore, G A; Rosner, Bernard A

2010-03-30

277

The Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service: High Frequency of Nontransported Calls  

PubMed Central

Objectives. There are no published studies on the Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service and no assessment of the calls that end in nontransported individuals. We describe reasons for the nontransport of potential clients. Methods. We used the Emergency Medical Dispatch (Medical Priority Dispatch System) instrument, augmented with five local call types, to collect information on types of calls. The calls were categorised under 7 headings. Correlations between call types and response time were calculated. Results. Most calls were from the category medical (54%). Nineteen (19%) percent of calls were in the non-transported category. Calls from call type Cancelled accounted for most of these and this was related to response time, while Refused service was inversely related (P = 0.01). Conclusions. The Barbados Ambulance Service is mostly used by people with a known illness and for trauma cases. One-fifth of calls fall into a category where the ambulance is not used often due to cancellation which is related to response time. Other factors such as the use of alternative transport are also important. Further study to identify factors that contribute to the non-transported category of calls is necessary if improvements in service quality are to be made.

Phillips, Sherwin E.; Gaskin, Pamela S.; Byer, David; Cadogan, W. L.; Brathwaite, Andrew; Nielsen, Anders L.

2012-01-01

278

Divergence of a stereotyped call in northern resident killer whales.  

PubMed

Northern resident killer whale pods (Orcinus orca) have distinctive stereotyped pulsed call repertoires that can be used to distinguish groups acoustically. Repertoires are generally stable, with the same call types comprising the repertoire of a given pod over a period of years to decades. Previous studies have shown that some discrete pulsed calls can be subdivided into variants or subtypes. This study suggests that new stereotyped calls may result from the gradual modification of existing call types through subtypes. Vocalizations of individuals and small groups of killer whales were collected using a bottom-mounted hydrophone array in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia in 2006 and 2007. Discriminant analysis of slope variations of a predominant call type, N4, revealed the presence of four distinct call subtypes. Similar to previous studies, there was a divergence of the N4 call between members of different matrilines of the same pod. However, this study reveals that individual killer whales produced multiple subtypes of the N4 call, indicating that divergence in the N4 call is not the result of individual differences, but rather may indicate the gradual evolution of a new stereotyped call. PMID:21361462

Grebner, Dawn M; Parks, Susan E; Bradley, David L; Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Capone, Dean E; Ford, John K B

2011-02-01

279

The barbados emergency ambulance service: high frequency of nontransported calls.  

PubMed

Objectives. There are no published studies on the Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service and no assessment of the calls that end in nontransported individuals. We describe reasons for the nontransport of potential clients. Methods. We used the Emergency Medical Dispatch (Medical Priority Dispatch System) instrument, augmented with five local call types, to collect information on types of calls. The calls were categorised under 7 headings. Correlations between call types and response time were calculated. Results. Most calls were from the category medical (54%). Nineteen (19%) percent of calls were in the non-transported category. Calls from call type Cancelled accounted for most of these and this was related to response time, while Refused service was inversely related (P = 0.01). Conclusions. The Barbados Ambulance Service is mostly used by people with a known illness and for trauma cases. One-fifth of calls fall into a category where the ambulance is not used often due to cancellation which is related to response time. Other factors such as the use of alternative transport are also important. Further study to identify factors that contribute to the non-transported category of calls is necessary if improvements in service quality are to be made. PMID:23198147

Phillips, Sherwin E; Gaskin, Pamela S; Byer, David; Cadogan, W L; Brathwaite, Andrew; Nielsen, Anders L

2012-11-07

280

Daily variations in ambulance calls for selected causes in Arkhangelsk, Russia: potential role of excessive alcohol consumption on weekends  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess daily variations in ambulance calls for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), mental and behavioral disorders, and external causes in Arkhangelsk, Northwest Russia, in 2000–2008. Study design A population-based study. Methods Data about all ambulance calls during the years 2000–2008 were obtained from the Arkhangelsk ambulance station. Information about patient's gender, age, doctor's diagnosis according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, and the date of call were recorded. Pearson's Chi-squared tests were used for comparing proportions of ambulance calls across the week for CVDs (I00-99), mental and behavioral disorders (F00-F99), and external causes (S00-T98, V01-Y98). The ratio of incidence of ambulance calls on Saturday, Sunday, and Monday versus the rest of week was also calculated. Results There is a significant daily variation (p < 0.001) in calls for CVDs in men and women aged 18–59 and women aged 60 years and older, with increased numbers of calls on weekends and Mondays varying between 2 and 3% excess calls. For mental and behavioral disorders, a similar pattern was found in the age group of 18–59 year-olds. Ratios for the number of calls during weekends and Mondays vs. the rest of the week were 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02–1.08) among women and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00–1.05) among men. For external causes, a significant variation and an increase in ambulance calls during Saturdays, Sundays, and Mondays from 4 to 17% excess calls was observed for both age and gender groups. Conclusions The observed daily variations in ambulance calls with an increased number of calls on weekends and Mondays for CVDs, mental and behavioral disorders, and external causes may be associated with excessive alcohol consumption on the weekends. Further research using data on individual levels of alcohol consumption are warranted.

Drachev, Sergei N.; Unguryanu, Tatiana N.; Grjibovski, Andrej M.

2012-01-01

281

The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers  

SciTech Connect

The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

Luminosu, I.; Pop, N. [Department of Physical Foundation of Engineering, 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara, B-dul V. Parvan, No. 2, Timisoara, 300223 (Romania)

2010-08-04

282

A Simple Varying-alpha Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the cosmological consequences of a simple theory in which the\\u000aelectric charge $e$ is allowed to vary. The theory is locally gauge and Lorentz\\u000ainvariant, and satisfies general covariance. We find that in this theory the\\u000afine structure 'constant', $\\\\alpha $, remains almost constant in the radiation\\u000aera, undergoes small increase in the matter era, but approaches a

John D. Barrow; Joao Magueijo

2001-01-01

283

Cosmology with time-varying G  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that a Universe with a time-varying gravitational “constant”G necessarily implies creation if the rest mass of matter particlesmp is constant. In this case, from Einstein's field equations, the conditions for energy-momentum propagation are ? ·(GTµv) from which matter and photon propagation equations are derived. Free matter particle propagation is not affected by creation that is given byGNpmp=const,

Antonio Alfonso-Faus

1986-01-01

284

Service-interruption costs vary widely  

SciTech Connect

The costs of interruptions in electricity service by class of customer on a worldwide basis is examined, as well as factors relating to these costs. Residential capacity-related outage costs vary from 5 cents/kWh to $1.50/kWh; energy-shortfall outage costs between zero and 50 cents/kWh. Industrial capacity-related costs are typically $1 to $7/kWh; energy-shortfall costs between 5 cents and $1/kWh.

Sanghvi, A.P.

1982-09-01

285

Dark energy from mass varying neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that mass varying neutrinos (MaVaNs) can behave as a negative pressure fluid which could be the origin of the cosmic acceleration. We derive a model independent relation between the neutrino mass and the equation of state parameter of the neutrino dark energy, which is applicable for general theories of mass varying particles. The neutrino mass depends on the local neutrino density and the observed neutrino mass can exceed the cosmological bound on a constant neutrino mass. We discuss microscopic realizations of the MaVaN acceleration scenario, which involve a sterile neutrino. We consider naturalness constraints for mass varying particles, and find that both eV cut-offs and eV mass particles are needed to avoid fine-tuning. In microscopic realizations of this scenario with a sterile neutrino, these considerations give the sterile neutrino a maximum mass today of order an eV, which could be detectable at MiniBooNE. Because the sterile neutrino was much heavier at earlier times, constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis on additional states are not problematic. We consider regions of high neutrino density and find that the most likely place today to find neutrino masses which are significantly different from the neutrino masses in our solar system is in a supernova. The possibility of different neutrino mass in different regions of the galaxy and the local group could be significant for Z-burst models of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We also consider the cosmology of and the constraints on the 'acceleron', the scalar field which is responsible for the varying neutrino mass, and briefly discuss neutrino density dependent variations in other constants, such as the fine structure constant.

Fardon, Rob; Nelson, Ann E.; Weiner, Neal

2004-10-01

286

Long wave interaction over varying topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propagation of long waves on the surface of a three-dimensional fluid domain bounded below by slowly varying topography is considered. There are two important limits: If the initial data can be written in terms of a discrete set of one-dimensional wavefronts, the resulting wave field is described by a set of variable coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations for each

P. Milewski

1998-01-01

287

Elliptical varied line-space (EVLS) gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging spectroscopy at wavelengths below 2000 Å offers an especially powerful method for studying many extended high-temperature astronomical objects, like the Sun and its outer layers. But the technology to make such measurements is also especially challenging, because of the poor reflectance of all standard materials at these wavelengths, and because the observation must be made from above the absorbing effects of the Earth's atmosphere. To solve these problems, single-reflection stigmatic spectrographs for XUV wavelengths have bee flown on several space missions based on designs with toroidal uniform line-space (TULS) or spherical varied line-space (SVLS) gratings that operate at near normal-incidence. More recently, three solar EUV/UV instruments have been selected that use toroidal varied line-space (TVLS) gratings; these are SUMI and RAISE, both sounding rocket payloads, and NEXUS, a SMEX satellite-mission. The next logical extension to such designs is the use of elliptical surfaces for varied line-space (EVLS) rulings. In fact, EVLS designs are found to provide superior imaging even at very large spectrograph magnifications and beam-speeds, permitting extremely high-quality performance in remarkably compact instrument packages. In some cases, such designs may be optimized even further by using a hyperbolic surface for the feeding telescope. The optical characteristics of two solar EUV spectrometers based on these concepts are described: EUS and EUI, both being developed as possible instruments for ESA's Solar Orbiter mission by consortia led by RAL and by MSSL, respectively.

Thomas, Roger J.

2004-10-01

288

Adaptive, template moderated, spatially varying statistical classification.  

PubMed

A novel image segmentation algorithm was developed to allow the automatic segmentation of both normal and abnormal anatomy from medical images. The new algorithm is a form of spatially varying statistical classification, in which an explicit anatomical template is used to moderate the segmentation obtained by statistical classification. The algorithm consists of an iterated sequence of spatially varying classification and nonlinear registration, which forms an adaptive, template moderated (ATM), spatially varying statistical classification (SVC). Classification methods and nonlinear registration methods are often complementary, both in the tasks where they succeed and in the tasks where they fail. By integrating these approaches the new algorithm avoids many of the disadvantages of each approach alone while exploiting the combination. The ATM SVC algorithm was applied to several segmentation problems, involving different image contrast mechanisms and different locations in the body. Segmentation and validation experiments were carried out for problems involving the quantification of normal anatomy (MRI of brains of neonates) and pathology of various types (MRI of patients with multiple sclerosis, MRI of patients with brain tumors, MRI of patients with damaged knee cartilage). In each case, the ATM SVC algorithm provided a better segmentation than statistical classification or elastic matching alone. PMID:10972320

Warfield, S K; Kaus, M; Jolesz, F A; Kikinis, R

2000-03-01

289

Ambient noise induces independent shifts in call frequency and amplitude within the Lombard effect in echolocating bats  

PubMed Central

The Lombard effect, an involuntary rise in call amplitude in response to masking ambient noise, represents one of the most efficient mechanisms to optimize signal-to-noise ratio. The Lombard effect occurs in birds and mammals, including humans, and is often associated with several other vocal changes, such as call frequency and duration. Most studies, however, have focused on noise-dependent changes in call amplitude. It is therefore still largely unknown how the adaptive changes in call amplitude relate to associated vocal changes such as frequency shifts, how the underlying mechanisms are linked, and if auditory feedback from the changing vocal output is needed. Here, we examined the Lombard effect and the associated changes in call frequency in a highly vocal mammal, echolocating horseshoe bats. We analyzed how bandpass-filtered noise (BFN; bandwidth 20 kHz) affected their echolocation behavior when BFN was centered on different frequencies within their hearing range. Call amplitudes increased only when BFN was centered on the dominant frequency component of the bats’ calls. In contrast, call frequencies increased for all but one BFN center frequency tested. Both amplitude and frequency rises were extremely fast and occurred in the first call uttered after noise onset, suggesting that no auditory feedback was required. The different effects that varying the BFN center frequency had on amplitude and frequency rises indicate different neural circuits and/or mechanisms underlying these changes.

Hage, Steffen R.; Jiang, Tinglei; Berquist, Sean W.; Feng, Jiang; Metzner, Walter

2013-01-01

290

Ambient noise induces independent shifts in call frequency and amplitude within the Lombard effect in echolocating bats.  

PubMed

The Lombard effect, an involuntary rise in call amplitude in response to masking ambient noise, represents one of the most efficient mechanisms to optimize signal-to-noise ratio. The Lombard effect occurs in birds and mammals, including humans, and is often associated with several other vocal changes, such as call frequency and duration. Most studies, however, have focused on noise-dependent changes in call amplitude. It is therefore still largely unknown how the adaptive changes in call amplitude relate to associated vocal changes such as frequency shifts, how the underlying mechanisms are linked, and if auditory feedback from the changing vocal output is needed. Here, we examined the Lombard effect and the associated changes in call frequency in a highly vocal mammal, echolocating horseshoe bats. We analyzed how bandpass-filtered noise (BFN; bandwidth 20 kHz) affected their echolocation behavior when BFN was centered on different frequencies within their hearing range. Call amplitudes increased only when BFN was centered on the dominant frequency component of the bats' calls. In contrast, call frequencies increased for all but one BFN center frequency tested. Both amplitude and frequency rises were extremely fast and occurred in the first call uttered after noise onset, suggesting that no auditory feedback was required. The different effects that varying the BFN center frequency had on amplitude and frequency rises indicate different neural circuits and/or mechanisms underlying these changes. PMID:23431172

Hage, Steffen R; Jiang, Tinglei; Berquist, Sean W; Feng, Jiang; Metzner, Walter

2013-02-19

291

Environment matting and compositing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new process, environment matting ,w hich captures not just a foreground object and its traditional opacity matte from a real-world scene, but also a description of how that ob- ject refracts and reflects light, which we call an environment matte. The foreground object can then be placed in a new environment, us- ing environment compositing, where

Douglas E. Zongker; Dawn M. Werner; Brian Curless; David H. Salesin

1999-01-01

292

Fibrous composite materials in dentistry and orthopaedics: review and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, the usage of fibrous composite materials in dentistry and orthopaedics is reviewed. Furthermore, the authors introduced functionally graded composite dental post, aesthetic composite archwires and brackets, and braided carbon\\/PEEK composite compression bone plate. Functionally graded composite dental post has continuously varied stiffness and this function successfully solved stress concentration at the root. Aesthetic composite archwires made of

K Fujihara; K Teo; R Gopal; P. L Loh; V. K Ganesh; S Ramakrishna; K. W. C Foong; C. L Chew

2004-01-01

293

Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality.  

PubMed

Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration). PMID:21928067

Guillette, Lauren M; Sturdy, Christopher B

2011-09-18

294

Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

2011-11-01

295

Benefits of organic farming to biodiversity vary among taxa.  

PubMed

Habitat and biodiversity differences between matched pairs of organic and non-organic farms containing cereal crops in lowland England were assessed by a large-scale study of plants, invertebrates, birds and bats. Habitat extent, composition and management on organic farms was likely to favour higher levels of biodiversity and indeed organic farms tended to support higher numbers of species and overall abundance across most taxa. However, the magnitude of the response varied; plants showed larger and more consistent responses than other taxa. Variation in response across taxa may be partly a consequence of the small size and isolated context of many organic farms. Extension of organic farming could contribute to the restoration of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. PMID:17148225

Fuller, R J; Norton, L R; Feber, R E; Johnson, P J; Chamberlain, D E; Joys, A C; Mathews, F; Stuart, R C; Townsend, M C; Manley, W J; Wolfe, M S; Macdonald, D W; Firbank, L G

2005-12-22

296

Benefits of organic farming to biodiversity vary among taxa  

PubMed Central

Habitat and biodiversity differences between matched pairs of organic and non-organic farms containing cereal crops in lowland England were assessed by a large-scale study of plants, invertebrates, birds and bats. Habitat extent, composition and management on organic farms was likely to favour higher levels of biodiversity and indeed organic farms tended to support higher numbers of species and overall abundance across most taxa. However, the magnitude of the response varied; plants showed larger and more consistent responses than other taxa. Variation in response across taxa may be partly a consequence of the small size and isolated context of many organic farms. Extension of organic farming could contribute to the restoration of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes.

Fuller, R.J; Norton, L.R; Feber, R.E; Johnson, P.J; Chamberlain, D.E; Joys, A.C; Mathews, F; Stuart, R.C; Townsend, M.C; Manley, W.J; Wolfe, M.S; Macdonald, D.W; Firbank, L.G

2005-01-01

297

The importance of calling song and courtship song in female mate choice in the variable field cricket.  

PubMed

Male field crickets produce calling songs, courtship songs, tactile signals and chemical signals. Although calling songs are known to play an important role in female mate choice, the importance of the other signals in mate choice is poorly understood. In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, females select mates, in part, based on variation in male calling song. Females prefer higher chirp rates, a trait which is partially dependent on male nutrient intake, and females prefer longer chirp durations, a trait which appears to be independent of male nutrient intake. We tested whether females also have preferences based on variation in male courtship song, and whether the structure of male courtship song varies with nutrient intake. First, we reexamined female preference for calling song chirp rate. Then, we examined: (1) female preference based on courtship song chirp rate; (2) the relative importance of calling song and courtship song chirp rate; (3) the nutrition dependence of courtship song chirp rate; and (4) the correlation between calling song and courtship song chirp rate. As reported previously, females preferred higher calling song chirp rates, and in addition, preferred higher courtship song chirp rates. Females were more likely to switch from a speaker broadcasting more attractive calling song to a speaker broadcasting less attractive calling song when the attractive calling song was associated with an unattractive courtship song than when it was associated with an attractive courtship song. Preferences based on courtship song may thus cause females to alter the choices that they made based on calling song. Males that received greater nutrients did not produce higher courtship song chirp rates. There was no correlation between calling song and courtship song chirp rate. As a result, the two traits may provide information to females about different aspects of male quality. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10877901

Wagner; Reiser

2000-06-01

298

Call-based species recognition in black-capped chickadees.  

PubMed

Species recognition is essential for efficient communication between conspecifics. For this to occur, species information must be unambiguously encoded in the repertoire of each species' vocalizations. Until now, the study of species recognition in songbirds has been focused mainly on male songs and male territorial behaviour. Species recognition of other learned vocalizations, such as calls, have not been explored, and could prove useful as calls are used in a wider range of contexts. Here, we present an experimental field study investigating the coding of species information in a learned vocalization, the 'chick-a-dee' call of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). By modifying natural calls in both temporal and spectral domains and by observing the vocal responses of black-capped chickadees following the playback of these modified calls, we demonstrate that species recognition in chickadees relies on several acoustic features including syntax, frequency modulation, amplitude modulation, and to a lesser extent, call rhythmicity and frequency range. PMID:16139440

Charrier, Isabelle; Sturdy, Christopher B

2005-11-01

299

Kuramoto model with time-varying parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the Kuramoto model generalized by explicit consideration of deterministically time-varying parameters. The oscillators' natural frequencies and/or couplings are influenced by external forces with constant or distributed strengths. A dynamics of the collective rhythms is observed, consisting of the external system superimposed on the autonomous one, a characteristic feature of many thermodynamically open systems. This deterministic, stable, continuously time-dependent, collective behavior is fully described, and the external impact to the original system is defined in both the adiabatic and the nonadiabatic limits.

Petkoski, Spase; Stefanovska, Aneta

2012-10-01

300

Laser lithotripsy retropulsion varies with stone mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that retropulsion varies with stone size. METHODS: Stone phantoms of uniform cube dimensions were constructed and irradiated with Ho:YAG energy (0.5 J - 3.5 J). Displacement was measured. RESULTS: At any given pulse energy, retropulsion decreased as stone size increased, p<0.05. At any given stone size, retropulsion increased as pulse energy increased, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of low pulse energy at high repetition rate is appropriate for ureteral stones. For larger bladder and renal stones, retropulsion is minimal even with high pulse energies. More study is warranted.

Robinson, Michael E.; Teichman, Joel M. H.

301

Reduction of synchronous write response time on call control server  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, call control servers use COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) components such as Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) and Carrier Grade Linux. However, the adoption of COTS components causes an increase in the maximum response time of high-priority write system call during synchronous state transitions and recording whenever IO operation is congested by normal-priority IO requests. Call control is a real-time operation;

Takashi Ikebe; Naoki Uchida; Shoichi Hirasawa; Hiroki Honda

2007-01-01

302

Social calls coordinate foraging in greater spear-nosed bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of social calls emitted by foraging bats has received little study. Here we use observations of free-ranging greater spear-nosed bats,Phyllostomus hastatus, and field playbacks to determine whether audible, broad-band ‘screech’ calls attract mates, warn conspecifics or influence access to food. Five lines of evidence suggest that screech calls enable adult females from the same roosting group to fly

GERALD S. WILKINSON; JANETTE WENRICK BOUGHMAN

1998-01-01

303

Interindividual use of echolocation calls: Eavesdropping by bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of other individual's echolocation calls by little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, was tested by observing the response of free-flying bats to presentations of recorded echolocation calls and artificial sounds. Bats responded by approaching conspecific calls while searching for food, night roosts, nursery colonies and mating\\/hibernation sites. Response was low or non-existant to other sounds. While searching for prey,

Robert M. R. Barclay

1982-01-01

304

The units of perception in the antiphonal calling behavior of cotton-top tamarins ( Saguinus oedipus ): playback experiments with long calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated how the acoustic structure of the cotton-top tamarin monkey's (Saguinus oedipus) combination long call relates to the antiphonal calling behavior of conspecifics. Combination long calls can function as contact calls and are produced by socially isolated individuals. Often conspecifics respond to these calls with their own long calls. Structurally, these calls are always composed of one or more

Asif A. Ghazanfar; Jonathan I. Flombaum; Cory T. Miller; Marc D. Hauser

2001-01-01

305

On-call work and health: a review  

PubMed Central

Many professions in the fields of engineering, aviation and medicine employ this form of scheduling. However, on-call work has received significantly less research attention than other work patterns such as shift work and overtime hours. This paper reviews the current body of peer-reviewed, published research conducted on the health effects of on-call work The health effects studies done in the area of on-call work are limited to mental health, job stress, sleep disturbances and personal safety. The reviewed research suggests that on-call work scheduling can pose a risk to health, although there are critical gaps in the literature.

Nicol, Anne-Marie; Botterill, Jackie S

2004-01-01

306

Variable Food Begging Calls Are Harbingers of Vocal Learning  

PubMed Central

Vocal learning has evolved in only a few groups of mammals and birds. The developmental and evolutionary origins of vocal learning remain unclear. The imitation of a memorized sound is a clear example of vocal learning, but is that when vocal learning starts? Here we use an ontogenetic approach to examine how vocal learning emerges in a songbird, the chipping sparrow. The first vocalizations of songbirds, food begging calls, were thought to be innate, and vocal learning emerges later during subsong, a behavior reminiscent of infant babbling. Here we report that the food begging calls of male sparrows show several characteristics associated with learned song: male begging calls are highly variable between individuals and are altered by deafening; the production of food begging calls induces c-fos expression in a forebrain motor nucleus, RA, that is involved with the production of learned song. Electrolytic lesions of RA significantly reduce the variability of male calls. The male begging calls are subsequently incorporated into subsong, which in turn transitions into recognizable attempts at vocal imitation. Females do not sing and their begging calls are not affected by deafening or RA lesion. Our results suggest that, in chipping sparrows, intact hearing can influence the quality of male begging calls, auditory-sensitive vocal variability during food begging calls is the first step in a modification of vocal output that eventually culminates with vocal imitation.

Liu, Wan-chun; Wada, Kazuhiro; Nottebohm, Fernando

2009-01-01

307

Oxygen sensitive, refractory oxide composition  

DOEpatents

Oxide compositions containing niobium pentoxide and an oxide selected from the group consisting of hafnia, titania, and zirconia have electrical conductivity characteristics which vary greatly depending on the oxygen content.

Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Smith, Douglas D. (Knoxville, TN)

1976-01-01

308

Composites with Knitted Fibre Reinforcement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential uses of composites with knitted fiber reinforcements are studied. Their superior energy absorption behavior opens up interesting application fields when stiffness and strength are of less importance. The in-plane properties can be varied ove...

F. J. Arendts K. Drechsler

1990-01-01

309

Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary? presents the major climate phenomena within the climate system to underscore the potency of dynamics in giving rise to climate change and variability. These phenomena include deep convection over the Indo-Pacific warm pool and its planetary-scale organization: the Madden-Julian Oscillation, the monsoons, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the low-frequency variability of extratropical circulations. The volume also has a chapter focusing on the discussion of the causes of the recent melting of Arctic sea ice and a chapter devoted to the discussion of the causes of recent changes in the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones. On each topic, the basic material of climate dynamics is covered to aid the understanding of the forefront research, making the volume accessible to a broad spectrum of readers. The volume highlights include • Diabatic and nonlinear aspects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation • Causes of sea ice melting in the Arctic • Impact of global warming on tropical cyclone activity • Origins of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation • Causes of climate variability of Asian monsoons The volume will be of particular interest to graduate students and young researchers in atmospheric and oceanic sciences and related disciplines such as geology and geography. The book will also be a good read for those who have a more general interest in the Earth's climate and why it varies.

Sun, De-Zheng; Bryan, Frank

310

Stereoscopic depth perception varies with hues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of color information to stereopsis is controversial, and whether the stereoscopic depth perception varies with chromaticity is ambiguous. This study examined the changes in depth perception caused by hue variations. Based on the fact that a greater disparity range indicates more efficient stereoscopic perception, the effect of hue variations on depth perception was evaluated through the disparity range with random-dot stereogram stimuli. The disparity range was obtained by constant-stimulus method for eight chromaticity points sampled from the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. Eight sample points include four main color hues: red, yellow, green, and blue at two levels of chroma. The results show that the disparity range for the yellow hue is greater than the red hue, the latter being greater than the blue hue and the disparity range for green hue is smallest. We conclude that the perceived depth is not the same for different hues for a given size of disparity. We suggest that the stereoscopic depth perception can vary with chromaticity.

Chen, Zaiqing; Shi, Junsheng; Tai, Yonghang; Yun, Lijun

2012-09-01

311

Controlling Contagion Processes in Time Varying Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of strategies aimed at controlling contagion and spreading processes on networks consider the connectivity pattern of the system as quenched. In this paper, we consider the class of activity driven networks to analytically evaluate how different control strategies perform in time-varying networks. We consider the limit in which the evolution of the structure of the network and the spreading process are simultaneous yet independent. We analyze three control strategies based on node's activity patterns to decide the removal/immunization of nodes. We find that targeted strategies aimed at the removal of active nodes outperform by orders of magnitude the widely used random strategies. In time-varying networks however any finite time observation of the network dynamics provides only incomplete information on the nodes' activity and does not allow the precise ranking of the most active nodes as needed to implement targeted strategies. Here we develop a control strategy that focuses on targeting the egocentric time-aggregated network of a small control group of nodes.The presented strategy allows the control of spreading processes by removing a fraction of nodes much smaller than the random strategy while at the same time limiting the observation time on the system.

Liu, Suyu; Perra, Nicola; Karsai, Marton; Vespignani, Alessandro

2013-03-01

312

Quantum-critical Pairing with Varying Exponents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the onset temperature T p for the pairing in cuprate superconductors at small doping, when tendency towards antiferromagnetism is strong. We consider the model of Moon and Sachdev (MS), which assumes that electron and hole pockets survive in a paramagnetic phase. Within this model, the pairing between fermions is mediated by a gauge boson, whose propagator remains massless in a paramagnet. We relate the MS model to a generic ?-model of quantum-critical pairing with the pairing kernel ?(?n)?1/?^{?}n. We show that, over some range of parameters, the MS model is equivalent to ?=1/3-model ( ?(?)??-1/3). We find, however, that the parameter range where this analogy works is bounded on both ends. At larger deviations from a magnetic phase, the MS model becomes equivalent to ? model with varying ?>1/3, whose value depends on the distance to a magnetic transition and approaches ?=1 deep in a paramagnetic phase. Very near the transition, the MS model becomes equivalent to ? model with varying ?<1/3. Right at the magnetic QCP, the MS model is equivalent to the model with ?(? n )?log ? n , which is the model for color superconductivity. Using this analogy, we verify the formula for T c derived for color superconductivity.

Moon, Eun-Gook; Chubukov, Andrey

2010-10-01

313

Varying execution discipline to increase performance  

SciTech Connect

This research investigates the relationship between execution discipline and performance. The hypothesis has two parts: 1. Different execution disciplines exhibit different performance for different computations, and 2. These differences can be effectively predicted by heuristics. A machine model is developed that can vary its execution discipline. That is, the model can execute a given program using either the control-driven, data-driven or demand-driven execution discipline. This model is referred to as a ``variable-execution-discipline`` machine. The instruction set for the model is the Program Dependence Web (PDW). The first part of the hypothesis will be tested by simulating the execution of the machine model on a suite of computations, based on the Livermore Fortran Kernel (LFK) Test (a.k.a. the Livermore Loops), using all three execution disciplines. Heuristics are developed to predict relative performance. These heuristics predict (a) the execution time under each discipline for one iteration of each loop and (b) the number of iterations taken by that loop; then the heuristics use those predictions to develop a prediction for the execution of the entire loop. Similar calculations are performed for branch statements. The second part of the hypothesis will be tested by comparing the results of the simulated execution with the predictions produced by the heuristics. If the hypothesis is supported, then the door is open for the development of machines that can vary execution discipline to increase performance.

Campbell, P.L.; Maccabe, A.B.

1993-12-22

314

Assessing batch effects of genotype calling algorithm BRLMM for the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 500 K array set using 270 HapMap samples  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) aim to identify genetic variants (usually single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) across the entire human genome that are associated with phenotypic traits such as disease status and drug response. Highly accurate and reproducible genotype calling are paramount since errors introduced by calling algorithms can lead to inflation of false associations between genotype and phenotype. Most genotype calling algorithms currently used for GWAS are based on multiple arrays. Because hundreds of gigabytes (GB) of raw data are generated from a GWAS, the samples are typically partitioned into batches containing subsets of the entire dataset for genotype calling. High call rates and accuracies have been achieved. However, the effects of batch size (i.e., number of chips analyzed together) and of batch composition (i.e., the choice of chips in a batch) on call rate and accuracy as well as the propagation of the effects into significantly associated SNPs identified have not been investigated. In this paper, we analyzed both the batch size and batch composition for effects on the genotype calling algorithm BRLMM using raw data of 270 HapMap samples analyzed with the Affymetrix Human Mapping 500 K array set. Results Using data from 270 HapMap samples interrogated with the Affymetrix Human Mapping 500 K array set, three different batch sizes and three different batch compositions were used for genotyping using the BRLMM algorithm. Comparative analysis of the calling results and the corresponding lists of significant SNPs identified through association analysis revealed that both batch size and composition affected genotype calling results and significantly associated SNPs. Batch size and batch composition effects were more severe on samples and SNPs with lower call rates than ones with higher call rates, and on heterozygous genotype calls compared to homozygous genotype calls. Conclusion Batch size and composition affect the genotype calling results in GWAS using BRLMM. The larger the differences in batch sizes, the larger the effect. The more homogenous the samples in the batches, the more consistent the genotype calls. The inconsistency propagates to the lists of significantly associated SNPs identified in downstream association analysis. Thus, uniform and large batch sizes should be used to make genotype calls for GWAS. In addition, samples of high homogeneity should be placed into the same batch.

Hong, Huixiao; Su, Zhenqiang; Ge, Weigong; Shi, Leming; Perkins, Roger; Fang, Hong; Xu, Joshua; Chen, James J; Han, Tao; Kaput, Jim; Fuscoe, James C; Tong, Weida

2008-01-01

315

Categorical perception of a natural, multivariate signal: Mating call recognition in t?ngara frogs  

PubMed Central

Categorical perception is common in humans, but it is not known whether animals perceive continuous variation in their own multidimensional social signals categorically. There are two components to categorical perception: labeling and discrimination. In the first, continuously variable stimuli on each side of a category boundary are labeled. In the second, there is strong discrimination between stimuli from opposite sides of the boundary, whereas stimuli on the same side of the boundary are not discriminated. Here, we show that female túngara frogs respond categorically to complex mating calls that vary simultaneously along multiple dimensions and are within the natural range of signal variation. In response to a transect of synthetic stimuli that varied continuously and systematically in seven dimensions, female túngara frogs label mating calls as either conspecific or not conspecific. For pairs of stimuli that differed by the same magnitude, females discriminate those in different categories but not those in the same category. In addition, latency to respond was significantly shorter when stimuli were in the same versus different categories. Because responses to mating calls are critical in generating species recognition and sexual selection, this finding has implications for both animal perception and the influences of mate choice on the tempo and mode of evolution.

Baugh, A. T.; Akre, K. L.; Ryan, M. J.

2008-01-01

316

Genotype and SNP calling from next-generation sequencing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meaningful analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, which are produced extensively by genetics and genomics studies, relies crucially on the accurate calling of SNPs and genotypes. Recently developed statistical methods both improve and quantify the considerable uncertainty associated with genotype calling, and will especially benefit the growing number of studies using low- to medium-coverage data. We review these methods and

Joshua S. Paul; Anders Albrechtsen; Rasmus Nielsen; Yun S. Song

2011-01-01

317

Liquidity Costs and Stock Price Response to Convertible Security Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firms' announcements to call in-the-money convertible securities for redemption essentially force their conversion into common stock, and such announcements are generally met with significant reductions in the calling firms' equity values. An explanation based on liquidity costs is advanced and tested. The explanation implies that investors who choose to sell their shares early in the conversion period bear liquidity costs

Michael A. Mazzeo; William T. Moore

1992-01-01

318

The Multidimensionality of Calling: Conceptualization, Measurement and a Bicultural Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The experience of a calling may be seen as the ultimate form of subjective career success that has many positive consequences for individuals and organizations. We are here concerned with the conceptualization of a new multidimensional measure of calling, the MCM. In the first two studies we employed a qualitative approach and came up with five…

Hagmaier, Tamara; Abele, Andrea E.

2012-01-01

319

Fine-scale temperature effects on cricket calling song  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature on the structure of cricket calling song were examined in the trilling field cricket Gryllus integer. A repeated-measures design was used to assess the effects of temperature and individual differences among males simultaneously. Temperature affected most aspects of calling song, specifically pulse length, interpulse length, peak frequency, trill length, intertrill length, and pulse duty cycle. Unaffected

Shannon D. Martin; David A. Gray; William H. Cade

2000-01-01

320

CALL TECHNOLOGIES: SURVEY RESPONSES CONCERNING UNIVERSITY AND SCHOOL SYSTEMS' RESPONSIBILITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) technology gains greater popularity in the language learning community, it can play a critical role in the development of language proficiency for second language learners in our public schools. However, the current state of English learners' (EL) achievement status would suggest that CALL has minimally impacted EL students' language learning. This article, which summarizes information

Hsuying C. Ward; Rita Mulholland

2006-01-01

321

The After-Death Call to Family Members: Academic Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…

LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James

2008-01-01

322

CALL: Linguistic reality and technological limitations - brains vs chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behind the somewhat pompous name of this paper hides a much more modest aim. It is an attempt at clarifying one of the major problem areas found in the field of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), specifically the use of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR). The aim of CALL is to produce tools aiding the acquisition of foreign languages and, long-term,

Thomas Hansen

323

47 CFR 80.459 - Digital selective calling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital selective calling. 80.459 Section 80.459 Telecommunication... Public Coast Stations Use of Telegraphy § 80.459 Digital selective calling. Subpart H of this part lists...

2012-10-01

324

Implications of Research on Human Memory for CALL Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a brief overview of what is generally accepted about how human memory works as it applied to computer assisted language learning (CALL). Discusses a number of interactions from various CALL products in light of the research summarized. (Author/VWL)

Forester, Lee

2002-01-01

325

Why We All Need Call Waiting on Our Phones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Have you ever noticed that you can go all day without a single call on your phone and then suddenly you get two calls at once? This is actually not as uncommon as it sounds and there is a mathematical reason for why we should expect it to happen, believe it or not.

Higbie, Jack

2013-05-01

326

29 CFR 785.17 - On-call time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false On-call time. 785.17 Section 785.17 Labor Regulations...HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Waiting Time § 785.17 On-call time. An employee who is required to remain on...

2013-07-01

327

Immunisation hotline calls as five-in-one vaccine introduced.  

PubMed

Announcement of the introduction of the five-in-one vaccine (DTaP/IPV/Hib) into the primary immunisation schedule was made on 9 August 2004. In this study all calls to the immunisation hotline were recorded between 9 August 2004 and 19 November 2004, noting who called and the nature of their enquiry. A total of 208 calls were received during the study period, and of these 23 (11.1%) related to the new vaccine. Calls were from parents (10/23, 43%), health visitors (9/23, 39%) and practice nurses (3/23, 13%). A variety of themes were covered in calls including local availability of the five-in-one vaccine, vaccine safety, mercury content and efficacy. Calls not connected with the new vaccine concerned mostly adolescent MMR (17.3%) as there was a local mumps epidemic. Others related to clarification of a child's immunisation status (13.5%), primary MMR immunisation (13.5%), vaccination scheduling or administration difficulties (12%), other schedule (12.5%) and non-schedule vaccines (2.4%), vaccine reactions (2.4%), travel vaccines (6%), BCG (6%), and a few miscellaneous queries (3%). Overall questions about the new five-in-one vaccine accounted for an extra 23 calls to the immunisation hotline during the study period (11.1% of calls). PMID:16634515

Fisher-Jeffes, Lisa; Finlay, Fiona

2006-04-01

328

Heeding the Call for Change: Suggestions for Curricular Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "call for change" issued by the Board of Governors of the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) in "A Call For Change: Recommendations for the Mathematical Preparation of Teachers of Mathematics, 1991" may appear at first glance to concern only the mathematical preparation of teachers. However, two ingredients combine to give it much…

Steen, Lynn Arthur, Ed.

329

Eyes Wide Shut? Querying the Depth of Call Centre Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An ethnographic study of customer service call centers found that both desired and unintended outcomes are influenced by personal coping and organizational sustaining mechanisms. When organizations use behavioral control, a climate of resistance ensues. An alternative is to view call centers as learning sites. (SK)|

Houlihan, Maeve

2000-01-01

330

Incremental Call Graph Reanalysis for Object-Oriented Software Maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program's call graph is an essential underlying struc- ture for performing the various interprocedural analyses used in software development tools for object-oriented soft- ware systems. For interactive software development tools and software maintenance activities, the call graph needs to remain fairly precise and be updated quickly in response to software changes. This paper presents incremental al- gorithms for updating

Amie L. Souter; Lori L. Pollock

2001-01-01

331

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eaves- dropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black- capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of

C. N. Templeton; Erick Greene

2007-01-01

332

Cost of mobbing call to breeding pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobbing signals advertise the location of a stalking predator to all prey in an area and recruit them into the inspection aggregation. Such behavior usually causes the predator to move to another area. However, mobbing calls could be eavesdropped by other predators. Because the predation cost of mobbing calls is poorly known, we investigated whether the vocalizations of the mobbing

Tatjana Krama; Indrikis Krams

2004-01-01

333

AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory taking" will provide…

Schulze, Mathias

2008-01-01

334

31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining...

2013-07-01

335

Channel reservation for handoff calls in a PCS network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some new performance measures and channel reservation for handoff calls for maximizing the service provider's revenue in a personal communications service (PCS) network, with general cell residence time and general requested call holding time, are investigated. Here, each cell within the PCS network consists M channels, but only when at least m+1 (0⩽m

Wei Li; A. S. Alfa

2000-01-01

336

The Psychological Contract in Call Centres: An Employee Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The call centre industry is a relatively recent phenomenon, which has changed the face of the service sector (Frenkel et al., 1998). For a comparatively new contender it has created a large share of internal human resource problems. Common issues of contention for call centres include high levels of churn, high levels of absenteeism, issues with motivation and commitment, lack

Christine Cross; Gillian Barry; Thomas N. Garavan

2008-01-01

337

Food calling in ravens: are yells referential signals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ravens, Corvus corax, yell when they approach rich but defended food sources. As in other species, such food-associated calls attract conspecifics. These calls may provide information about the sender, such as its behaviour or motivation, and about the type of stimuli to which the caller is responding, such as the location, quality or quantity of a food source. We investigated

Thomas Bugnyar; Maartje Kijne; Kurt Kotrschal

2001-01-01

338

Inference of temporally varying Bayesian Networks  

PubMed Central

Motivation: When analysing gene expression time series data, an often overlooked but crucial aspect of the model is that the regulatory network structure may change over time. Although some approaches have addressed this problem previously in the literature, many are not well suited to the sequential nature of the data. Results: Here, we present a method that allows us to infer regulatory network structures that may vary between time points, using a set of hidden states that describe the network structure at a given time point. To model the distribution of the hidden states, we have applied the Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden Markov Model, a non-parametric extension of the traditional Hidden Markov Model, which does not require us to fix the number of hidden states in advance. We apply our method to existing microarray expression data as well as demonstrating is efficacy on simulated test data. Contact: thomas.thorne@imperial.ac.uk

Thorne, Thomas; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

2012-01-01

339

Percolation model with continuously varying exponents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work analyzes a percolation model on the diamond hierarchical lattice (DHL), where the percolation transition is retarded by the inclusion of a probability of erasing specific connected structures. It has been inspired by the recent interest on the existence of other universality classes of percolation models. The exact scale invariance and renormalization properties of DHL leads to recurrence maps, from which analytical expressions for the critical exponents and precise numerical results in the limit of very large lattices can be derived. The critical exponents ? and ? of the investigated model vary continuously as the erasing probability changes. An adequate choice of the erasing probability leads to the result ?=?, like in some phase transitions involving vortex formation. The percolation transition is continuous, with ?>0, but ? can be as small as desired. The modified percolation model turns out to be equivalent to the Q?1 limit of a Potts model with specific long range interactions on the same lattice.

Andrade, R. F. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

2013-10-01

340

Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states.  

PubMed

We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar sphere, which we term a generalized polarization state, that is preserved. Changes to the generalized polarization state can then be used in place of the absolute polarization states that make up the generalized state, to measure the change in polarization due to a sample under investigation. We illustrate the usefulness of this analysis approach by demonstrating fiber-based ellipsometry, where the polarization state of the probe light is unknown, and, yet, the ellipsometric angles of the investigated sample (? and ?) are obtained with an accuracy comparable to that of conventional ellipsometry instruments by measuring changes to the generalized polarization state. PMID:22274433

Liu, Feng; Lee, Chris J; Chen, Juequan; Louis, Eric; van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus J; Bijkerk, Fred

2012-01-16

341

Time varying arctic climate change amplification  

SciTech Connect

During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

2009-01-01

342

Climate dynamics: Why does climate vary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, climate change has become a major focus of public and political discussion. Ongoing scientific inquiry, revolving predominantly around understanding the anthropogenic effects of rising greenhouse gas levels, coupled with how successfully findings are communicated to the public, has made climate science both contentious and exigent. In the AGU monograph Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary?, editors De-Zheng Sun and Frank Bryan reinforce the importance of investigating the complex dynamics that underlie the natural variability of the climate system. Understanding this complexity—particularly how the natural variability of climate may enhance or mask anthropogenic warming—could have important consequences for the future. In this interview, Eos talks to De-Zheng Sun.

Schultz, Colin

2011-08-01

343

Fundamental Investigation of Circumferentially Varying Stator Cascades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamentals of circumferentially varying stator cascades and their interactions with a downstream fixed pitch propeller were investigated experimentally utilizing multiple measurement techniques. The flow physics associated with the isolated circumferentially varying, or cyclic, stator cascade was studied in a wind tunnel environment through string tuft flow visualization, 2-D PIV, Stereoscopic PIV, and static surface pressure measurements. The coupled wake physics of the cyclic stator cascade with propeller were then investigated in a water tunnel using Stereo PIV. Finally, the global performance of components and the coupled system were quantified through force and moment measurements on the model in the water tunnel. A cyclic distribution of the stators' deflections resulted in non-axisymmetric distributions of the surface pressure and the flow field downstream of the stator array. In the model near wake the flow field is associated with secondary flow patterns in the form of coherent streamwise vortical structures that can be described by potential flow mechanisms. The collective pitch distribution of the stators produces a flow field that resembles a potential Rankine vortex, whereas the cyclic pitch distribution generates a flow pattern that can be described by a potential vortex pair in a cross flow. The stator distribution alone produces a significant side force that increases linearly with stator pitch amplitude. When a propeller is incorporated downstream from the cyclic cascade the side force from the stator cascade is reduced, but a small vertical force and pitching moment are created. The generation of these secondary forces and moments can be related to the redistribution of the tangential flow from the cyclic cascade into the axial direction by the retreating and advancing blade states of the fixed pitch propeller.

Farnsworth, John A. N.

344

Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the advantage of offering smooth animations, while spatial compression can handle volumes of larger dimensions.

Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

2010-01-01

345

Magnetic composite electroplating for depositing micromagnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a novel magnetic composite materials deposition technique called magnetic composite electroplating (MCE). Thin films and micromagnets arrays of a composite matrix consisting of magnetic particles and a ferromagnetic alloy have been fabricated based on this technique. In a typical MCE process, magnetic particles are electrochemically and mechanically embedded into electroplated ferromagnetic thin films to form a magnetic

Shan Guan; Bradley J. Nelson

2006-01-01

346

Lagrange constraint neural network for audio varying BSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) is a statistical-mechanical ab-initio model without assuming the artificial neural network (ANN) model at all but derived it from the first principle of Hamilton and Lagrange Methodology: H(S,A)= f(S)- (lambda) C(s,A(x,t)) that incorporates measurement constraint C(S,A(x,t))= (lambda) ([A]S-X)+((lambda) 0-1)((Sigma) isi -1) using the vector Lagrange multiplier-(lambda) and a- priori Shannon Entropy f(S) = -(Sigma) i si log si as the Contrast function of unknown number of independent sources si. Szu et al. have first solved in 1997 the general Blind Source Separation (BSS) problem for spatial-temporal varying mixing matrix for the real world remote sensing where a large pixel footprint implies the mixing matrix [A(x,t)] necessarily fill with diurnal and seasonal variations. Because the ground truth is difficult to be ascertained in the remote sensing, we have thus illustrated in this paper, each step of the LCNN algorithm for the simulated spatial-temporal varying BSS in speech, music audio mixing. We review and compare LCNN with other popular a-posteriori Maximum Entropy methodologies defined by ANN weight matrix-[W] sigmoid-(sigma) post processing H(Y=(sigma) ([W]X)) by Bell-Sejnowski, Amari and Oja (BSAO) called Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Both are mirror symmetric of the MaxEnt methodologies and work for a constant unknown mixing matrix [A], but the major difference is whether the ensemble average is taken at neighborhood pixel data X's in BASO or at the a priori sources S variables in LCNN that dictates which method works for spatial-temporal varying [A(x,t)] that would not allow the neighborhood pixel average. We expected the success of sharper de-mixing by the LCNN method in terms of a controlled ground truth experiment in the simulation of variant mixture of two music of similar Kurtosis (15 seconds composed of Saint-Saens Swan and Rachmaninov cello concerto).

Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.

2002-03-01

347

Input-output nominalization of linear systems with slow-varying uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a method to compensate slow varying disturbances and plant parameter drifts using a simple yet robust algorithm called input-output nominalization. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In case of known uncertainties, an analytical expression of pre-computed feed-forward compensation command is derived. In presence of unknown disturbances and parameter drifts, the control algorithm uses a

Alon Kuperman; Yoram Horen; Saad Tapuchi; Inna Katz; Alexander Abramovitz

2010-01-01

348

Probabilistic Tangent Subspace Method for M-QAM Signal Equalization in Time-Varying Multipath Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A new machine learning method called probabilistic tangent subspace is introduced to improve the performance of the equalization\\u000a for the M-QAM modulation signals in wireless communication systems. Due to the mobility of communicator, wireless communication\\u000a channels are time variant. The uncertainties in the time-varying channel’s coefficients cause the amplitude distortion as\\u000a well as the phase distortion of the M-QAM modulation

Jing Yang; Yunpeng Xu; Hongxing Zou

2005-01-01

349

Varied line-space gratings: past, present and future  

SciTech Connect

A classically ruled diffraction grating consists of grooves which are equidistant, straight and parallel. Conversely, the so-called ''holographic'' grating (formed by the interfering waves of coherent visible light), although severely constrained by the recording wavelength and recording geometry, has grooves which are typically neither equidistant, straight nor parallel. In contrast, a varied line-space (VLS) grating, in common nomenclature, is a design in which the groove positions are relatively unconstrained yet possess sufficient symmetry to permit mechanical ruling. Such seemingly exotic gratings are no longer only a theoretical curiosity, but have been ruled and used in a wide variety of applications. These include: (1) aberration-corrected normal incidence concave gratings for Seya-Namioka monochromators and optical de-multiplexers, (2) flat-field grazing incidence concave gratings for plasma diagnostics, (3) aberration-corrected grazing incidence plane gratings for space-borne spectrometers, (4) focusing grazing incidence plane grating for synchrotron radiation monochromators, and (5) wavefront generators for visible interferometry of optical surfaces (particularly aspheres). Future prospects of VLS gratings as dispersing elements, wavefront correctors and beamsplitters appear promising. The author discusses the history of VLS gratings, their present applications, and their potential in the future. 61 refs., 24 figs.

Hettrick, M.C.

1985-08-01

350

Spectrographic Analysis of Carrion Crow Calls and Their Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, damage to agricultural products, livestock, and power transmission systems by crows is regarded as a serious problem; countermeasures against crow damage are urgently necessary. This paper proposed a method for detecting crow calls in various environmental sounds. If detection and discernment of crow calls were possible, various actions could be undertaken to prevent the damage. Wildlife call detection, not only that for crows, should be executed in extremely noisy environments. We then introduced both a spectrograph estimation technique with AR modeling in which AR coefficients are temporally smoothed and interpolated and a background noise elimination technique to obtain higher-quality crow call templates. The input sounds are compared with these templates by DP matching in the metric vector space of a logarithmic cepstrum. Every input sound whose minimal distance to the template database is less than the specified threshold value is detected as a crow call. The maximal detection performance can be obtained when five call templates in the template database are utilized; the implication is that carrion crows have five distinguishable call patterns. It is shown that the proposed method achieves 95% detection rate when 1.66% misdetection rate is allowed.

Shibuya, Hisashi; Yokota, Yasunari

351

Stability of mass varying particle lumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical description of compact structures that share some features with mass varying particles allows for a simple analysis of the equilibrium and stability for massive stellar bodies. We investigate static, spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein equations for a system composed by nonbaryonic matter (neutrinos or dark matter) which forms stable structures through attractive forces mediated by a background scalar field (dark energy). Assuming that the dark matter, or massive neutrinos, consists of a gas of weakly interacting particles, the coupling with the scalar field is translated into an effective dependence of the mass of the compounding particle on the radial coordinate of the curved spacetime. The stability analysis reveals that these static solutions become dynamically unstable for different Buchdahl limits of the ratio between the total mass energy and the stellar radius, M/R. We also find regular solutions that for an external observer resemble Schwarzschild black holes. Our analysis leaves unanswered the question whether such solutions, which are both regular and stable, do exist.

Bernardini, A. E.; Bertolami, O.

2009-12-01

352

Microsatellites in varied arenas of research.  

PubMed

Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) or short-tandem repeats (STRs), represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world. PMID:21814449

Remya, K S; Joseph, Sigimol; Lakshmi, P K; Akhila, S

2010-04-01

353

Microsatellites in varied arenas of research  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) or short-tandem repeats (STRs), represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world.

Remya, K. S.; Joseph, Sigimol; Lakshmi, P. K.; Akhila, S.

2010-01-01

354

Vector curvaton with varying kinetic function  

SciTech Connect

A new model realization of the vector curvaton paradigm is presented and analyzed. The model consists of a single massive Abelian vector field, with a Maxwell-type kinetic term. By assuming that the kinetic function and the mass of the vector field are appropriately varying during inflation, it is shown that a scale-invariant spectrum of superhorizon perturbations can be generated. These perturbations can contribute to the curvature perturbation of the Universe. If the vector field remains light at the end of inflation it is found that it can generate substantial statistical anisotropy in the spectrum and bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. In this case the non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbation is predominantly anisotropic, which will be a testable prediction in the near future. If, on the other hand, the vector field is heavy at the end of inflation then it is demonstrated that particle production is approximately isotropic and the vector field alone can give rise to the curvature perturbation, without directly involving any fundamental scalar field. The parameter space for both possibilities is shown to be substantial. Finally, toy models are presented which show that the desired variation of the mass and kinetic function of the vector field can be realistically obtained, without unnatural tunings, in the context of supergravity or superstrings.

Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Karciauskas, Mindaugas; Wagstaff, Jacques M. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

2010-01-15

355

Varying Collimation for Dark-Field Extraction  

PubMed Central

Although x-ray imaging is widely used in biomedical applications, biological soft tissues have small density changes, leading to low contrast resolution for attenuation-based x-ray imaging. Over the past years, x-ray small-angle scattering was studied as a new contrast mechanism to enhance subtle structural variation within the soft tissue. In this paper, we present a detection method to extract this type of x-ray scattering data, which are also referred to as dark-field signals. The key idea is to acquire an x-ray projection multiple times with varying collimation before an x-ray detector array. The projection data acquired with a collimator of a sufficiently high collimation aspect ratio contain mainly the primary beam with little scattering, while the data acquired with an appropriately reduced collimation aspect ratio include both the primary beam and small-angle scattering signals. Then, analysis of these corresponding datasets will produce desirable dark-field signals; for example, via digitally subtraction. In the numerical experiments, the feasibility of our dark-field detection technology is demonstrated in Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the acquired dark field signals can clearly reveal the structural information of tissues in terms of Rayleigh scattering characteristics.

Wang, Ge; Cong, Wenxiang; Shen, Haiou; Zou, Yu

2009-01-01

356

Filtration behavior of slurries with varying compressibilities  

SciTech Connect

A novel filtration apparatus allows simultaneous measurements of filtrate volume, hydraulic pressure and cake thickness using slurry volumes on the order of 100 cm/sup 3/. Differences in interparticle interactions were studied by varying the barium chloride concentration of 0.38-..mu..m polystyrene latex and filtering at pressures between 2 and 100 psi. Cakes formed from these slurries are highly compressible for concentrations between 0.01M and 0.10M, moderately compressible for the 0.005M concentration, and incompressible for the 0.001M concentration. Plots of filtrate volume versus cake thickness were linear for the incompressible cakes, whereas the compressible cakes showed significant deviations, which were pressure dependent. The pressure distribution for the incompressible cake was found to be essentially linear as predicted from the resistance plots assuming constant ..cap alpha.. and epsilon. For the highly compressible cakes, most of the pressure drop appears to occur near the cake/medium interface with only small changes occurring at the top of the cake.

Massuda, M.; Bridger, K.; Harvey, M.; Tiller, F.M.

1988-10-01

357

Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.  

PubMed

Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C.?albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C.?albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T.?rubrum growth, whereas T.?mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T.?mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric. PMID:21914005

Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

2011-09-13

358

Run-time analysis for loops containing procedure calls  

SciTech Connect

Loops containing procedure calls are usually very difficult to analyze at compile time. This often causes loops to be executed serially because the information needed for analysis is not available at compile time. Currently, procedure calls are either expanded in line, or are analyzed using very complicated data flow analysis. In this paper, we propose a run-time for loops containing procedure calls. It is done by checking cross-iteration dependences in those loops. Using efficient synchronization primitives, the test can be performed quite efficiently at run time. It provides a viable alternative when compile time analysis fails. 23 refs., 7 figs.

Li, Zhiyuan; Yew, Pen-Chung

1987-01-20

359

Heart rate variability changes in physicians working on night call  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Adverse effects by night-call duty have become an important occupational health issue. The aim of this study was to investigate\\u000a whether the heart rate variability (HRV) differed during recovery from day work and night-call duty between distinct physician\\u000a specialities.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We studied the impact of a 16-h night-call duty on autonomic balance, measured by HRV, among two physician groups differing\\u000a with

Birgitta Malmberg; Roger Persson; Per Flisberg; Palle Ørbaek

2011-01-01

360

Hidden Markov and Gaussian mixture models for automatic call classification.  

PubMed

Automatic methods of classification of animal sounds offer many advantages including speed and consistency in processing massive quantities of data. Calculations have been carried out on a set of 75 calls of Northern Resident killer whales, previously classified perceptually (human classification) into seven call types, using, hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). Neither of these methods has been used previously for classification of marine mammal call types. With cepstral coefficients as features both HMMs and GMMs give over 90% agreement with the perceptual classification, with the HMM over 95% for some cases. PMID:19507925

Brown, Judith C; Smaragdis, Paris

2009-06-01

361

CALL and the Man/Machine Interface. Proceedings of the Annual Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Workshop (4th, London, England, 1985). CALL Report 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of the workshop on the interface between humans and machines in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include the texts of four papers, descriptions of the software demonstrated, an information exchange section, a report of the plenary session, a comment on the workshop, a list of participants, a review of current research in…

Brown, Eric, Comp.

362

A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.

Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.

1971-01-01

363

Immigration Services: Better Contracting Practices Needed at Call Centers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) bureau within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) provides toll-free telephone assistance through call centers to immigrants, their attorneys, and others seeking information about U.S. immigratio...

2005-01-01

364

28 CFR 540.103 - Inmate telephone calls to attorneys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...540.103 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Telephone Regulations for Inmates § 540.103 Inmate telephone calls to...

2013-07-01

365

Prospective Work Design for Call Centers - a Practical New Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report the CCall project in this paper, which was primarily aimed at developing a webbased tool for evaluating the work conditions in call centers. A practical approach for tool development is described in this paper.

R. Schweer A. Genz U. Flowerday

2004-01-01

366

Casino Smoking Ban Tied to Drop in Ambulance Calls  

MedlinePLUS

... Smoking Ban Tied to Drop in Ambulance Calls Colorado county law likely reduced illness from secondhand smoke, ... destination with 26 casinos, the largest concentration in Colorado. A statewide smoking ban in all other public ...

367

Should physicians be allowed to use alcohol while on call?  

PubMed

Although physician alcohol use that leads to impairment has been extensively discussed, few statements address the issue of alcohol use of physicians who are on call. In this paper the authors review recent information on physicians' perceptions of alcohol use by themselves and their colleagues while on call. It is argued that conflicts in physicians' perceptions are due to the fact that the larger society has not addressed the question of whether drinking on call is public or private behaviour. The authors argue that when medicine is understood as a practice defined partly in terms of standards of excellence, the present approach of the American Medical Association to prohibit practicing medicine under the influence of alcohol requires a prohibition of drinking alcohol while on call, unless studies determine a clear threshold for drinking alcohol without placing patients at risk. PMID:15634748

Peterman, J F; Desbiens, N A

2005-01-01

368

National Call to Action to Promote Oral Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Call To Action To Promote Oral Health is addressed to professional organizations and individuals concerned with the health of their fellow Americans. It is an invitation to expand plans, activities, and programs designed to promote oral healt...

2003-01-01

369

Should physicians be allowed to use alcohol while on call?  

PubMed Central

Although physician alcohol use that leads to impairment has been extensively discussed, few statements address the issue of alcohol use of physicians who are on call. In this paper the authors review recent information on physicians' perceptions of alcohol use by themselves and their colleagues while on call. It is argued that conflicts in physicians' perceptions are due to the fact that the larger society has not addressed the question of whether drinking on call is public or private behaviour. The authors argue that when medicine is understood as a practice defined partly in terms of standards of excellence, the present approach of the American Medical Association to prohibit practicing medicine under the influence of alcohol requires a prohibition of drinking alcohol while on call, unless studies determine a clear threshold for drinking alcohol without placing patients at risk.

Peterman, J; Desbiens, N

2005-01-01

370

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls.  

PubMed

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific "chick-a-dee" alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N; Greene, Erick

2007-03-19

371

60 FR 12745 - Presidio Leadership Center Call for Public Participation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Presidio Leadership Center Call for Public Participation...Corporation) has established the Presidio Leadership Center (PLC) to train and develop...implementation, and evaluation of leadership development and leadership...

1995-03-08

372

Open-loop control of IPMC actuators under varying temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of size and complexity concerns, implementing feedback control for ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators is often difficult or costly in many of their envisioned biomedical and robotic applications. It is thus of interest to develop open-loop control strategies for these actuators. Such strategies, however, are susceptible to change of IPMC dynamics under varying environmental conditions, a predominant example being the temperature. In this paper we present a novel approach to open-loop control of IPMC actuators in the presence of ambient temperature changes. First, a method is proposed for modeling the temperature-dependent actuation dynamics. The empirical frequency response of an IPMC actuator, submerged in a water bath with controlled temperature, is obtained for a set of temperatures. For each temperature, a transfer function of a given structure is found to fit the measured data. A temperature-dependent transfer function model is then derived by curve-fitting each zero or pole as a simple polynomial function of the temperature. Open-loop control is then realized by inverting the model at a given temperature based on the auxiliary temperature measurement. However, the obtained model for IPMC actuators is of non-minimum phase and cannot be inverted directly. A stable but non-causal algorithm is adopted to implement the inversion. Furthermore, a finite-preview algorithm is proposed to enable near real-time tracking of desired outputs. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is effective in improving the tracking performance of IPMC actuators under varying temperatures.

Dong, Roy; Tan, Xiaobo

2011-03-01

373

SPAID: software prefetching in pointer and call-intensive environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software prefetching, typically in the context of numeric- or loop-intensive benchmarks, has been proposed as one remedy for the performance bottleneck imposed on computer systems by the cost of servicing cache misses. This paper proposes a new heuristic-SPAID-for utilizing prefetch instructions in pointer- and call-intensive environments. We use trace-driven cache simulation of a number of pointer- and call-intensive benchmarks to

Mikko H. Lipasti; William J. Schmidt; Steven R. Kunkel; Robert R. Roediger

1995-01-01

374

Heterospecific alarm call recognition in a non-vocal reptile.  

PubMed

The ability to recognize and respond to the alarm calls of heterospecifics has previously been described only in species with vocal communication. Here we provide evidence that a non-vocal reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), can eavesdrop on the alarm call of the Galápagos mockingbird (Nesomimus parvulus) and respond with anti-predator behaviour. Eavesdropping on complex heterospecific communications demonstrates a remarkable degree of auditory discrimination in a non-vocal species. PMID:17911047

Vitousek, Maren N; Adelman, James S; Gregory, Nathan C; Clair, James J H St

2007-12-22

375

Called to NursingPerceptions of Student Nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:This study uncovers reasons students report for wanting to become nurses, to quantify those who feel that they are called to nursing, and to learn what “being called” means to them. Method:A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted with all students enrolled in nursing courses at one program in a private, faith-based university. Findings:Most students decided to go to nursing school

Lyn Prater; Melanie McEwen

2006-01-01

376

Investigating intrusion detection systems that use trails of system calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three intrusion detection systems that use trails of system calls have been investigated. The three techniques used to generate the pattern database have been adapted from sequence method, lookahead-pairs method and variable-length-with-overlap-relationship method. Testing against Trojan horse and denial of service attacks was analyzed. None of the systems is capable of defeating the system-call denial-of-service-attack. Modification is necessary to indicate

Suhair Hafez Amer; John A. Hamilton

2008-01-01

377

On-call work and health: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many professions in the fields of engineering, aviation and medicine employ this form of scheduling. However, on-call work has received significantly less research attention than other work patterns such as shift work and overtime hours. This paper reviews the current body of peer-reviewed, published research conducted on the health effects of on-call work The health effects studies done in the

Anne-Marie Nicol; Jackie S Botterill

2004-01-01

378

Towards model-driven end-user development in CALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to introduce end-user development (EUD) processes to the CALL software development community. EUD refers to the active participation of end-users, as non-professional developers, in the software development life cycle. Unlike formal software engineering approaches, the focus in EUD on means\\/ends development is especially relevant to CALL application design, which traditionally suffers from idiosyncratic development

Rod Farmer; Paul Gruba

2006-01-01

379

Infrasonic calls of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calls at frequencies below the range of human hearing were recorded from two groups of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Most of the calls ranged in frequency from 14 to 24 Hz, with durations of 10–15 s (Fig. 1). With the nearest elephant 5 m from the microphone, sound pressure levels were 85 to 90 dB (re 20 µPa). These

Katharine B. Payne; William R. Langbauer Jr; Elizabeth M. Thomas

1986-01-01

380

Processing of communication calls in Guinea pig auditory cortex.  

PubMed

Vocal communication is an important aspect of guinea pig behaviour and a large contributor to their acoustic environment. We postulated that some cortical areas have distinctive roles in processing conspecific calls. In order to test this hypothesis we presented exemplars from all ten of their main adult vocalizations to urethane anesthetised animals while recording from each of the eight areas of the auditory cortex. We demonstrate that the primary area (AI) and three adjacent auditory belt areas contain many units that give isomorphic responses to vocalizations. These are the ventrorostral belt (VRB), the transitional belt area (T) that is ventral to AI and the small area (area S) that is rostral to AI. Area VRB has a denser representation of cells that are better at discriminating among calls by using either a rate code or a temporal code than any other area. Furthermore, 10% of VRB cells responded to communication calls but did not respond to stimuli such as clicks, broadband noise or pure tones. Area S has a sparse distribution of call responsive cells that showed excellent temporal locking, 31% of which selectively responded to a single call. AI responded well to all vocalizations and was much more responsive to vocalizations than the adjacent dorsocaudal core area. Areas VRB, AI and S contained units with the highest levels of mutual information about call stimuli. Area T also responded well to some calls but seems to be specialized for low sound levels. The two dorsal belt areas are comparatively unresponsive to vocalizations and contain little information about the calls. AI projects to areas S, VRB and T, so there may be both rostral and ventral pathways for processing vocalizations in the guinea pig. PMID:23251604

Grimsley, Jasmine M S; Shanbhag, Sharad J; Palmer, Alan R; Wallace, Mark N

2012-12-12

381

Endophyte communities vary in the needles of Norway spruce clones.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi show no symptoms of their presence but can influence the performance and vitality of host trees. The potential use of endophytes to indicate vitality has been previously realized, but a standard protocol has yet to be developed due to an incomplete understanding of the factors that regulate endophyte communities. Using a culture-free molecular approach, we examined the extent to which host genotype influences the abundance, species richness, and community composition of endophytic fungi in Norway spruce needles. Briefly, total DNA was extracted from the surface-sterilized needles of 30 clones grown in a nursery field and the copy number of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA was estimated by quantitative PCR. Fungal species richness and community composition were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. We found that community structure and ITS copy number varied among spruce clones, whereas species richness did not. Host traits interacting with endophyte communities included needle surface area and the location of cuttings in the experimental area. Although Lophodermium piceae is considered the dominant needle endophyte of Norway spruce, we detected this species in only 33% of samples. The most frequently observed fungus (66%) was the potentially pathogenic Phoma herbarum. Interestingly, ITS copy number of endophytic fungi correlated negatively with the richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi and thus potential interactions between fungal communities and their influence on the host tree are discussed. Our results suggest that in addition to environmental factors, endophyte communities of spruce needles are determined by host tree identity and needle surface area. PMID:23537875

Rajala, Tiina; Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Tuomivirta, Tero; Haapanen, Matti; Müller, Michael; Pennanen, Taina

2013-01-30

382

Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

2003-05-01

383

Individual recognition during bouts of antiphonal calling in common marmosets  

PubMed Central

Many vocalizations are encoded with a diversity of acoustic information about the signal producer. Amongst this information content are social categories related to the identity of the caller that are important for determining if and how a signal receiver may interact with that individual. Here we employed a novel playback method in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to test individual recognition during bouts of antiphonal calling. These experiments utilized custom, interactive playback software that effectively engaged subjects in antiphonal calling using vocalizations produced by a single individual and presented ‘probe’ vocalization stimuli representing a different individual at specific points within bouts of calling. The aim here was to test whether marmosets would recognize that the probe stimulus was a phee call produced by a different individual. Data indicated that marmosets were able to detect the change in caller identity; subjects produced significantly fewer antiphonal call responses to probe than control stimuli and, in some conditions, exhibited a shorter latency to produce the vocal response. These data suggest that marmosets recognize the identity of the individual during bouts of antiphonal calling. Furthermore, these results provide a methodological foundation for implementing the probe playback procedure to examine a broader range of social categorization during vocal interactions.

Miller, Cory T.; Thomas, A. Wren

2013-01-01

384

A method for calling copy number polymorphism using haplotypes  

PubMed Central

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variation (CNV) are both widespread characteristic of the human genome, but are often called separately on common genotyping platforms. To capture integrated SNP and CNV information, methods have been developed for calling allelic specific copy numbers or so called copy number polymorphism (CNP), using limited inter-marker correlation. In this paper, we proposed a haplotype-based maximum likelihood method to call CNP, which takes advantage of the valuable multi-locus linkage disequilibrium (LD) information in the population. We also developed a computationally efficient algorithm to estimate haplotype frequencies and optimize individual CNP calls iteratively, even at presence of missing data. Through simulations, we demonstrated our model is more sensitive and accurate in detecting various CNV regions, compared with commonly-used CNV calling methods including PennCNV, another hidden Markov model (HMM) using CNP, a scan statistic, segCNV, and cnvHap. Our method often performs better in the regions with higher LD, in longer CNV regions, and in common CNV than the opposite. We implemented our method on the genotypes of 90 HapMap CEU samples and 23 patients with acute lung injury (ALI). For each ALI patient the genotyping was performed twice. The CNPs from our method show good consistency and accuracy comparable to others.

Ho Jang, Gun; Christie, Jason D.; Feng, Rui

2013-01-01

385

Cosmology with Time-Varying G  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that a Universe with a time-varying gravitational “constant” G necessarily implies creation if the rest mass of matter particles m p is constant. In this case, from Einstein's field equations, the conditions for energy-momentum propagation are ? ·( GT ? v ) from which matter and photon propagation equations are derived. Free matter particle propagation is not affected by creation that is given by GN pmp=const, where N p is the number of matter particles within a proper volume. This relation introduces explicitly the rest mass of the Universe into the field equations. Free photon propagation is affected by creation that is given by GT ? v R=const, where N ? is the number of photons within a proper volume, which is the cosmic red shift law. Conservation of the cosmic background photon distribution determines photon creation as G 3 N {?/4}. The results are applied to the case G ? t -1 equivalent to N p ÷ t. It is found that at an age t=1, 0-40 t o, of the order light takes to travel a proton size, Planck's units become of the order of the proton's mass m p, size r p, and time r p/c. Hence, matter particles at this age are quantum black holes. Evaporation of these quantum black holes at this age gives a background blackbody radiation that, red shifted to present time t 0, gives the present cosmic microwave background. A cosmological model of the Friedmann type is constructed. The red shift versus distance relation is derived taking into account creation. Using a Hubble's constant H obs=50 km sec-1 Mpc-1 and a deceleration parameter q obs=1.0 the model is of the type k=1 and gives a present age t 0=6.81×109 yr, consistent with Uranium model ages. Thus, the three results for the age of the Universe, i.e., radioactive decay, Hubble's constant, and stellar evolution are brought together in this creation model. The matter-dominated era occurs for t>7.6×10-3 t 0, while the radiation-dominated era occurs for 7.6×10-3 t o> t>10-40 t o. The origin of the Universe is placed at this last limit, which is Planck's time at the corresponding G, consisting of quantum black holes at a temperature Ti?=3×1011K.

Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

1986-03-01

386

Counting rises, levels, and drops in compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composition of $n\\\\in\\\\NN$ is an ordered collection of one or more positive\\u000aintegers whose sum is $n$. The number of summands is called the number of parts\\u000aof the composition. A palindromic composition of $n$ is a composition of $n$ in\\u000awhich the summands are the same in the given or in reverse order. In this paper\\u000awe study

Silvia Heubach; Toufik Mansour

2005-01-01

387

Automotive crashworthiness of adhesively bonded carbon fiber polymer composite structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In passenger vehicles, the ability to absorb impact energy and be survivable for the occupant is called the "crashworthiness" of the structure. The ACC (Automotive Composite Consortium) has been and continues to be very interested in investigating the use of fiber-reinforced composites as crash energy absorbers. It would have been ideal if the composite structure to be used as a crash energy absorber were manufactured as an integral, monolithic component, but limitations in the present day manufacturing technology necessitate the presence of joints in composite structures. While many scientists have investigated the energy absorption characteristics in various fiber reinforced composite materials, there is no literature available on the energy absorption and crushing characteristics of these materials when they are used in a bonded structure. The influence of having a bonded joint within the crush zone of a composite structure has not been adequately characterized in the past. After reviewing the existing literature and based on our own work done in automotive crashworthiness studies it can be concluded that investigating the strain rate dependence of fiber reinforced polymer composites and bonded structures made from them are also very important since the amount of energy they absorb and their performance properties vary with loading rate. The above is the last stage in crashworthiness research, where in one would like to determine how best fiber composite structures can be bonded together in the pursuit of designing the most crashworthy adhesively bonded automotive composite structure. Hence, a comprehensive experimental methodology to analyze and design adhesively bonded automotive composite structures made of carbon fiber polymer composites to sustain axial, off-axis and lateral crash/impact loads is developed and strain rate effects on the crashworthiness of these bonded carbon fiber composite structures are studied. The experimental results from this work are being used to provide the building blocks for model developments---first the coupon level, then progressing in complexity to component level. Correlation with experimental results will provide the basis for which the analytical developments including development of constitutive laws, materials models, damage algorithms and new finite elements, are made.

Jacob, George Chennakattu

388

Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2003-05-01

389

BayesCall: A model-based base-calling algorithm for high-throughput short-read sequencing.  

PubMed

Extracting sequence information from raw images of fluorescence is the foundation underlying several high-throughput sequencing platforms. Some of the main challenges associated with this technology include reducing the error rate, assigning accurate base-specific quality scores, and reducing the cost of sequencing by increasing the throughput per run. To demonstrate how computational advancement can help to meet these challenges, a novel model-based base-calling algorithm, BayesCall, is introduced for the Illumina sequencing platform. Being founded on the tools of statistical learning, BayesCall is flexible enough to incorporate various features of the sequencing process. In particular, it can easily incorporate time-dependent parameters and model residual effects. This new approach significantly improves the accuracy over Illumina's base-caller Bustard, particularly in the later cycles of a sequencing run. For 76-cycle data on a standard viral sample, phiX174, BayesCall improves Bustard's average per-base error rate by approximately 51%. The probability of observing each base can be readily computed in BayesCall, and this probability can be transformed into a useful base-specific quality score with a high discrimination ability. A detailed study of BayesCall's performance is presented here. PMID:19661376

Kao, Wei-Chun; Stevens, Kristian; Song, Yun S

2009-08-06

390

To call or not to call: parents assess the vulnerability of their young before warning them about predators.  

PubMed

Communication about predators can reveal the effects of both conspecific and heterospecific audiences on signalling strategy, providing insight into signal function and animal cognition. In species that alarm call to their young, parents face a fundamental dilemma: calling can silence noisy offspring and so make them less likely to be overheard, but can also alert predators that young are nearby. Parents could resolve this dilemma by being sensitive to the current vulnerability of offspring, and calling only when young are most at risk. Testing whether offspring vulnerability affects parental strategy has proved difficult, however, because more vulnerable broods are often also more valuable. We tested experimentally whether parent white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, assessed brood noisiness when alarm calling near nests. When a model predator was nearby, parents gave more alarm calls when playbacks simulated noisy broods, yet brood noisiness did not affect adult calling when only a control model was present. Parents were therefore sensitive to the tradeoff between silencing young and alerting predators to the presence of nests. Our study demonstrates that receiver vulnerability can affect signalling decisions in species other than primates. PMID:24132098

Haff, Tonya M; Magrath, Robert D

2013-10-16

391

Energy Absorption in Chopped Carbon Fiber Compression Molded Composites  

SciTech Connect

In passenger vehicles the ability to absorb energy due to impact and be survivable for the occupant is called the ''crashworthiness'' of the structure. To identify and quantify the energy absorbing mechanisms in candidate automotive composite materials, test methodologies were developed for conducting progressive crush tests on composite plate specimens. The test method development and experimental set-up focused on isolating the damage modes associated with the frond formation that occurs in dynamic testing of composite tubes. Quasi-static progressive crush tests were performed on composite plates manufactured from chopped carbon fiber with an epoxy resin system using compression molding techniques. The carbon fiber was Toray T700 and the epoxy resin was YLA RS-35. The effect of various material and test parameters on energy absorption was evaluated by varying the following parameters during testing: fiber volume fraction, fiber length, fiber tow size, specimen width, profile radius, and profile constraint condition. It was demonstrated during testing that the use of a roller constraint directed the crushing process and the load deflection curves were similar to progressive crushing of tubes. Of all the parameters evaluated, the fiber length appeared to be the most critical material parameter, with shorter fibers having a higher specific energy absorption than longer fibers. The combination of material parameters that yielded the highest energy absorbing material was identified.

Starbuck, J.M.

2001-07-20

392

Multifunctional Self-Healing and Morphing Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Highly innovative work towards development of a new class of materials called 'Multifunctional Composites (MCs)' for multi-role structural aircraft skin applications possessing both self-healing and morphing functionality has been achieved. Proof of conce...

A. Mal E. Bolanos E. Murphy F. Wudl T. Duenas

2006-01-01

393

Voice over internet protocol with prepaid calling card solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VoIP technology is growing up rapidly, it has big network impact on PT Telkom Indonesia, the bigger telecommunication operator in Indonesia. Telkom has adopted VoIP and one other technology, Intelligent Network (IN). We develop those technologies together in one service product, called Internet Prepaid Calling Card (IPCC). IPCC is becoming new breakthrough for the Indonesia telecommunication services especially on VoIP and Prepaid Calling Card solutions. Network architecture of Indonesia telecommunication consists of three layer, Local, Tandem and Trunck Exchange layer. Network development researches for IPCC architecture are focus on network overlay hierarchy, Internet and PSTN. With this design hierarchy the goal of Interworking PSTN, VoIP and IN calling card, become reality. Overlay design for IPCC is not on Trunck Exchange, this is the new architecture, these overlay on Tandem and Local Exchange, to make the faster call processing. The nodes added: Gateway (GW) and Card Management Center (CMC) The GW do interfacing between PSTN and Internet Network used ISDN-PRA and Ethernet. The other functions are making bridge on circuit (PSTN) with packet (VoIP) based and real time billing process. The CMC used for data storage, pin validation, report activation, tariff system, directory number and all the administration transaction. With two nodes added the IPCC service offered to the market.

Gunadi, Tri

2001-07-01

394

A generalized baleen whale call detection and classification system.  

PubMed

Passive acoustic monitoring allows the assessment of marine mammal occurrence and distribution at greater temporal and spatial scales than is now possible with traditional visual surveys. However, the large volume of acoustic data and the lengthy and laborious task of manually analyzing these data have hindered broad application of this technique. To overcome these limitations, a generalized automated detection and classification system (DCS) was developed to efficiently and accurately identify low-frequency baleen whale calls. The DCS (1) accounts for persistent narrowband and transient broadband noise, (2) characterizes temporal variation of dominant call frequencies via pitch-tracking, and (3) classifies calls based on attributes of the resulting pitch tracks using quadratic discriminant function analysis (QDFA). Automated detections of sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) downsweep calls and North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) upcalls were evaluated using recordings collected in the southwestern Gulf of Maine during the spring seasons of 2006 and 2007. The accuracy of the DCS was similar to that of a human analyst: variability in differences between the DCS and an analyst was similar to that between independent analysts, and temporal variability in call rates was similar among the DCS and several analysts. PMID:21568392

Baumgartner, Mark F; Mussoline, Sarah E

2011-05-01

395

Correlated evolution between hearing sensitivity and social calls in bats  

PubMed Central

Echolocating bats are auditory specialists, with exquisite hearing that spans several octaves. In the ultrasonic range, bat audiograms typically show highest sensitivity in the spectral region of their species-specific echolocation calls. Well-developed hearing in the audible range has been commonly attributed to a need to detect sounds produced by prey. However, bat pups often emit isolation calls with low-frequency components that facilitate mother–young reunions. In this study, we examine whether low-frequency hearing in bats exhibits correlated evolution with (i) body size; (ii) high-frequency hearing sensitivity or (iii) pup isolation call frequency. Using published audiograms, we found that low-frequency hearing sensitivity is not dependent on body size but is related to high-frequency hearing. After controlling for high-frequency hearing, we found that low-frequency hearing exhibits correlated evolution with isolation call frequency. We infer that detection and discrimination of isolation calls have favoured enhanced low-frequency hearing because accurate parental investment is critical: bats have low reproductive rates, non-volant altricial young and must often identify their pups within large crèches.

Bohn, Kirsten M; Moss, Cynthia F; Wilkinson, Gerald S

2006-01-01

396

[A relational database to store Poison Centers calls].  

PubMed

Italian Poison Centers answer to approximately 100,000 calls per year. Potentially, this activity is a huge source of data for toxicovigilance and for syndromic surveillance. During the last decade, surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks have drawn the attention of public health institutions due to the threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks. Poisoning surveillance needs the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of harmonised data about poisonings from all Poison Centers for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health. The entity-relationship model for a Poison Center relational database is extremely complex and not studied in detail. For this reason, not harmonised data collection happens among Italian Poison Centers. Entities are recognizable concepts, either concrete or abstract, such as patients and poisons, or events which have relevance to the database, such as calls. Connectivity and cardinality of relationships are complex as well. A one-to-many relationship exist between calls and patients: for one instance of entity calls, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity patients. At the same time, a one-to-many relationship exist between patients and poisons: for one instance of entity patients, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity poisons. This paper shows a relational model for a poison center database which allows the harmonised data collection of poison centers calls. PMID:17124355

Barelli, Alessandro; Biondi, Immacolata; Tafani, Chiara; Pellegrini, Aristide; Soave, Maurizio; Gaspari, Rita; Annetta, Maria Giuseppina

2006-01-01

397

Call-related factors influencing output power from mobile phones.  

PubMed

Mobile phone use is increasing but there is also concern for adverse health effects. Well-designed prospective studies to assess several health outcomes are required. In designing a study of mobile phone use, it is important to assess which factors need to be considered in classifying the exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF). A pilot study was performed in Sweden and in the UK 2002 to 2003 to test the feasibility of recruiting a cohort of mobile phone users from a random population sample and from mobile phone subscription lists for a prospective study. As one part of this pilot study, different factors were evaluated regarding possible influence on the output power of the phones. By local switch logging, information on calls made from predefined subscriptions or dedicated handsets were obtained and the output power of phones during calls made indoors and outdoors, in moving and stationary mode, and in rural as well in urban areas were compared. In this experiment, calls were either 1, 1.5 or 5 min long. The results showed that high mobile phone output power is more frequent in rural areas whereas the other factors (length of call, moving/stationary, indoor/outdoor) were of less importance. Urban and rural area should be considered in an exposure index for classification of the exposure to RF from mobile phones and may be assessed by first base station during mobile phone calls or, if this information is not available, possibly by using home address as a proxy. PMID:16670713

Hillert, Lena; Ahlbom, Anders; Neasham, David; Feychting, Maria; Järup, Lars; Navin, Roshan; Elliott, Paul

2006-05-03

398

Chimpanzee Alarm Call Production Meets Key Criteria for Intentionality  

PubMed Central

Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language.

Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W.; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbuhler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E.

2013-01-01

399

A Sinister Bias for Calling Fouls in Soccer  

PubMed Central

Distinguishing between a fair and unfair tackle in soccer can be difficult. For referees, choosing to call a foul often requires a decision despite some level of ambiguity. We were interested in whether a well documented perceptual-motor bias associated with reading direction influenced foul judgments. Prior studies have shown that readers of left-to-right languages tend to think of prototypical events as unfolding concordantly, from left-to-right in space. It follows that events moving from right-to-left should be perceived as atypical and relatively debased. In an experiment using a go/no-go task and photographs taken from real games, participants made more foul calls for pictures depicting left-moving events compared to pictures depicting right-moving events. These data suggest that two referees watching the same play from distinct vantage points may be differentially predisposed to call a foul.

Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matthew; Bromberger, Bianca; Chatterjee, Anjan

2010-01-01

400

Selected Aspects of the eCall Emergency Notification System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article describes problems associated with the road collision detection for the purpose of the automatic emergency call. At the moment collision is detected, the eCall device installed in the vehicle will automatically make contact with Emergency Notification Centre and send the set of essential information on the vehicle and the place of the accident. To activate the alarm, the information about the deployment of the airbags will not be used, because connection of the eCall device might interfere with the vehicle’s safety systems. It is necessary to develop a method enabling detection of the road collision, similar to the one used in airbag systems, and based on the signals available from the acceleration sensors.

Kaminski, Tomasz; Nowacki, Gabriel; Mitraszewska, Izabella; Niezgoda, Micha?; Kruszewski, Miko?aj; Kaminska, Ewa; Filipek, Przemys?aw

2012-02-01

401

Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality.  

PubMed

Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language. PMID:24146908

Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E

2013-10-16

402

NMDAR-Dependent Control of Call Duration in Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Many rhythmic behaviors, such as locomotion and vocalization, involve temporally dynamic patterns. How does the brain generate temporal complexity? Here, we use the vocal central pattern generator (CPG) of Xenopus laevis to address this question. Isolated brains can elicit fictive vocalizations, allowing us to study the CPG in vitro. The X. laevis advertisement call is temporally modulated; calls consist of rhythmic click trills that alternate between fast (?60 Hz) and slow (?30 Hz) rates. We investigated the role of two CPG nuclei—the laryngeal motor nucleus (n.IX–X) and the dorsal tegmental area of the medulla (DTAM)—in setting rhythm frequency and call durations. We discovered a local field potential wave in DTAM that coincides with fictive fast trills and phasic activity that coincides with fictive clicks. After disrupting n.IX–X connections, the wave persists, whereas phasic activity disappears. Wave duration was temperature dependent and correlated with fictive fast trills. This correlation persisted when wave duration was modified by temperature manipulations. Selectively cooling DTAM, but not n.IX–X, lengthened fictive call and fast trill durations, whereas cooling either nucleus decelerated the fictive click rate. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist dAPV blocked waves and fictive fast trills, suggesting that the wave controls fast trill activation and, consequently, call duration. We conclude that two functionally distinct CPG circuits exist: 1) a pattern generator in DTAM that determines call duration and 2) a rhythm generator (spanning DTAM and n.IX–X) that determines click rates. The newly identified DTAM pattern generator provides an excellent model for understanding NDMAR-dependent rhythmic circuits.

Katzen, Abraham W.; Rhodes, Heather J.; Yamaguchi, Ayako

2010-01-01

403

Seasonal variability and detection range modeling of baleen whale calls in the Gulf of Alaska, 1999-2002.  

PubMed

Five species of large whales, including the blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (B. physalus), sei (B. borealis), humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), and North Pacific right (Eubalaena japonica), were the target of commercial harvests in the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) during the 19th through mid-20th Centuries. Since this time, there have been a few summer time visual surveys for these species, but no overview of year-round use of these waters by endangered whales primarily because standard visual survey data are difficult and costly. From October 1999-May 2002, moored hydrophones were deployed in six locations in the GoA to record whale calls. Reception of calls from fin, humpback, and blue whales and an unknown source, called Watkins' whale, showed seasonal and geographic variation. Calls were detected more often during the winter than during the summer, suggesting that animals inhabit the GoA year-round. To estimate the distance at which species-diagnostic calls could be heard, parabolic equation propagation loss models for frequencies characteristic of each of each call type were run. Maximum detection ranges in the subarctic North Pacific ranged from 45 to 250 km among three species (fin, humpback, blue), although modeled detection ranges varied greatly with input parameters and choice of ambient noise level. PMID:18247747

Stafford, Kathleen M; Mellinger, David K; Moore, Sue E; Fox, Christopher G

2007-12-01

404

Kitchen surgery and house calls in old Fort Smith.  

PubMed

Medical practice in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries consisted largely of kitchen surgery and house calls. The practices of Dr. St. Cloud Cooper and other Fort Smith doctors reflected the standards of practice in Arkansas and the nation as the principles of aseptic surgery gradually gained acceptance. The doctor's black bag used on house calls still lacked the effective agents which became available during the mid-twentieth century, leaving the physician to rely on personal inner resources in order to perform a useful service. PMID:24079057

Prewitt, Taylor

2013-09-01

405

Host-Based Data Exfiltration Detection via System Call Sequences  

SciTech Connect

The host-based detection of malicious data exfiltration activities is currently a sparse area of research and mostly limited to methods that analyze network traffic or signature based detection methods that target specific processes. In this paper we explore an alternative method to host-based detection that exploits sequences of system calls and new collection methods that allow us to catch these activities in real time. We show that system calls sequences can be found to reach a steady state across processes and users, and explore the viability of new methods as heuristics for profiling user behaviors.

Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Jewell, Brian C [ORNL

2011-01-01

406

Black-capped chickadee call dialects along a continuous habitat corridor.  

PubMed

The gargle call, a vocalization used in agonistic encounters by black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus, was examined for evidence of geographical variation along a corridor of continuous riparian habitat in northern Colorado. We captured birds from three different sites during the nonbreeding season and brought them into the laboratory, where their gargle calls were recorded. We sorted sonagrams produced from these vocalizations visually into distinct gargle types having similar compositions of individual units, or syllables. This allowed us to characterize both individual and population repertoires. The majority (88.7%) of gargle types analysed were found to be unique to individual populations rather than shared among or between populations. Examination of individual repertoires showed that chickadees shared a higher proportion of gargle types with birds from their own sites compared with birds from either of the two other sites. Thus, gargle dialects occurred among these chickadee populations despite the absence of geographical barriers to blending of vocal traditions. As the birds studied were obtained from sites along an uninterrupted dispersal corridor, the results of this study suggest that behavioural mechanisms are responsible for maintenance of dialects in this aggressive call. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10373265

Miyasato; Baker

1999-06-01

407

New, Varying-Capacitance, Electrical Machine. Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The varying-capacitance accomplishes energy conversion through the electro-mechanical coupling which is inherent when the capacitance between rotor and stator varies periodically as the rotor turns. The concept developed in the work achieves a very high e...

S. F. Philp

1989-01-01

408

Adaptive Equalization of Time-Varying MIMO Channels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper addresses the problem of adaptive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) equalization of time-varying channels (TVC). The proposed technique is based on Kalman filtering and decision feedback equalization. The authors show how a time-varying cha...

M. Enescu M. Sirbu V. Koivunen

2002-01-01

409

Social Learning: Medical Student Perceptions of Geriatric House Calls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bandura's social learning theory provides a useful conceptual framework to understand medical students' perceptions of a house calls experience at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine. Social learning and role modeling reflect Liaison Committee on Medical Education guidelines for "Medical schools (to) ensure that the learning…

Abbey, Linda; Willett, Rita; Selby-Penczak, Rachel; McKnight, Roberta

2010-01-01

410

Toward an Ecological CALL: Update to Garrett (1991)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This introduction to the 2009 "Modern Language Journal" Focus Issue uses the lens of an ecological perspective on the acquisition of second languages to provide additional insights into the contributions by various computer-assisted language learning (CALL) scholars to this update on Garrett (1991), "Technology in the service of language…

Lafford, Barbara A.

2009-01-01

411

A Topical Bibliography on Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography aims to serve the language teacher educators who are working in the field of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) by making a collection of 1732 bibliographic entries, which stem from mainly books and journal articles in English that date back to 1980 and provide good discussions on the theory of technology in language…

Kilickaya, Ferit

2009-01-01

412

Analysis of Computer Intrusions Using Sequences of Function Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the value of analyzing sequences of function calls for forensic analysis. Although this approach has been used for intrusion detection (that is, determining that a system has been attacked), its value in isolating the cause and effects of the attack has not previously been shown. We also look for not only the presence of unexpected events but

Sean Peisert; Matt Bishop; Sidney Karin; Keith Marzullo

2007-01-01

413

INTERSPECIFIC VARIATION IN THE CALLS OF SPHENISCUS PENGUINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

we compared the vocal repertoires of Jackass (Spheniscus demersus), Hum- boldt (S. humboldti), and Magellanic (S. magellanicus) penguins. Discriminant and cluster analyses of the bray call indicate that Jackass and Magellanic penguins are more similar to each other than either is to the Humboldt penguin, and all three are distinct from the Rock- hopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome). The congruence of

NINA N. THUMSER; JEFFREY D. KARRON; MILLICENT S. FICKEN

1996-01-01

414

Large-scale malware indexing using function-call graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge of the anti-virus (AV) industry is how to ef- fectively process the huge influx of malware samples they receive every day. One possible solution to this problem is to quickly de- termine if a new malware sample is similar to any previously-seen malware program. In thispaper, we design, implement and evaluate a malware database management system called

Xin Hu; Tzi-cker Chiueh; Kang G. Shin

2009-01-01

415

Texters not Talkers: Phone Call Aversion among Mobile Phone Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that there are two types of mobile phone user. The study focused on the interactional experience of mobile phone calls and text messages. The research involved 32 UK mobile phone users and included extended interviews, 24-hour communication diaries, mobile phone bills and an analysis of text messages. The sample was evenly divided between men and women, and

Ruth Rettie

2007-01-01

416

Gender Turnover and Roll Call Voting in the US Senate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies looking at the roll call voting behavior of female legislators have investigated this phenomenon at the state legislative level and for the US House of Representatives. Very little research has looked at the impact of gender on the policy records of US senators. With the number of female senators continuing to increase it is now possible to undertake

Brian Frederick

2011-01-01

417

Educational Leadership and Social Activism: A Call for Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to argue for a social activist stance in educational leadership that fundamentally addresses social change and human emancipation. This call for social activism is framed within neoliberal, neoconservative, and authoritarian populist discourses in the USA, which to social justice educators and leaders had devastating…

Hoffman, Lauren P.

2009-01-01

418

Self-Help in Calls for Help With Problem Neighbors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In telephone calls to United Kingdom mediation centers for disputing neighbors, participants deal with clients' prior efforts at resolving the problem. Where no such efforts are mentioned in initial complaint narratives, there follows a typical sequence of actions. On the evident completion of the complaint, mediators (M) ask whether efforts have been made to speak with the problem neighbor. Clients

Derek Edwards; Elizabeth Stokoe

2007-01-01

419

A Call for Outcomes Research in Medical Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of medical education is to produce physicians who deliver high-quality health care. Recent calls for greater accountability in medical education and the development of outcomes research methodologies should encourage a new research effort to examine the effects of medical training upon clinical outcomes. The authors offer a research agenda that links medical educa- tion and quality of

Frederick M. Chen; Howard Bauchner; Helen Burstin

2004-01-01

420

Developmental venous anomalies (DVA): The so-called venous angioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Following a review of the literature it is possible to demonstrate the “normality” of the so called venous angiomas. They should be named Developmental Venous Anomaly (DVA). They illustrate in their two extreme types (superfical and deep) the hemodynamic equilibrium of the transcortical venous drainage in the periependymal zones. Venous ectasias and varices which can be encountered, associated with

Pierre Lasjaunias; Patricia Burrows; Chantal Planet

1986-01-01

421

Vocation as Personal Calling: A Question for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the historical meaning of vocation as a spiritual calling to manifest personal gifts and contribute to the common good. Discusses the modern quest for meaning in work in terms of the self and others. Describes the difficulties of actualizing a sense of vocation. Offers suggestions for the future of vocational education. (DMM)|

Rehm, Marsha

1990-01-01

422

School Social Workers and a Renewed Call to Advocacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article calls for school social workers to work in schools to reform school systems that have historically failed and are currently failing African American children. While the hope of education is to assist students to realize their potential, school systems across the nation are not reaching this goal. School social work has a duty, a…

Joseph, Alfred L., Jr.; Slovak, Karen; Broussard, C. Anne

2010-01-01

423

Mother goats do not forget their kids' calls.  

PubMed

Parent-offspring recognition is crucial for offspring survival. At long distances, this recognition is mainly based on vocalizations. Because of maturation-related changes to the structure of vocalizations, parents have to learn successive call versions produced by their offspring throughout ontogeny in order to maintain recognition. However, because of the difficulties involved in following the same individuals over years, it is not clear how long this vocal memory persists. Here, we investigated long-term vocal recognition in goats. We tested responses of mothers to their kids' calls 7-13 months after weaning. We then compared mothers' responses to calls of their previous kids with their responses to the same calls at five weeks postpartum. Subjects tended to respond more to their own kids at five weeks postpartum than 11-17 months later, but displayed stronger responses to their previous kids than to familiar kids from other females. Acoustic analyses showed that it is unlikely that mothers were responding to their previous kids simply because they confounded them with the new kids they were currently nursing. Therefore, our results provide evidence for strong, long-term vocal memory capacity in goats. The persistence of offspring vocal recognition beyond weaning could have important roles in kin social relationships and inbreeding avoidance. PMID:22719031

Briefer, Elodie F; Padilla de la Torre, Monica; McElligott, Alan G

2012-06-20

424

RESPONDING TO SUICIDAL CALLS: DOES TRAIT ANXIETY HINDER OR HELP?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To see if trait anxiety and suicidality interfered with the ability to respond to suicidal crisis calls, 279 undergraduates completed measures of trait anxiety and suicidality in the past week, and the revised Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-2). Unexpectedly, trait anxiety (but not suicidality) correlated with better SIRI-2 scores. In addition, students scored significantly more like the experts on the

MARCELINE MOULIN BROWN; LILLIAN M. RANGE

2005-01-01

425

Social Learning: Medical Student Perceptions of Geriatric House Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bandura's social learning theory provides a useful conceptual framework to understand medical students' perceptions of a house calls experience at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine. Social learning and role modeling reflect Liaison Committee on Medical Education guidelines for “Medical schools (to) ensure that the learning environment for medical students promotes the development of explicit and appropriate professional attributes (attitudes,

Linda Abbey; Rita Willett; Rachel Selby-Penczak; Roberta Mcknight

2010-01-01

426

Dream Catchers: "Margin Call," "Boss," and Climbing the Beanstalk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two recent popular entertainments, "Margin Call" (Barnum, Dodson, Jenckes, Moosa, Quinto & Chandor, 2011) and "Boss" (Safinia, 2011), depict powerful and successful groups of bosses confronting sudden, extreme threats. They are forced to react quickly and sacrifice important values to achieve survival of their organizations. In these emergencies,…

Beck, Bernard

2012-01-01

427

An automated device for provoking and capturing wildlife calls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some animals exhibit call-and-response behaviors that can be exploited to facilitate detection. Traditionally, acoustic surveys that use call-and-respond techniques have required an observer's presence to perform the broadcast, record the response, or both events. This can be labor-intensive and may influence animal behavior and, thus, survey results. We developed an automated acoustic survey device using commercially available hardware (e.g., laptop computer, speaker, microphone) and an author-created (JS) software program ("HOOT") that can be used to survey for any animal that calls. We tested this device to determine 1) deployment longevity, 2) effective sampling area, and 3) ability to detect known packs of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Idaho, USA. Our device was able to broadcast and record twice daily for 6–7 days using the internal computer battery and surveyed an area of 3.3–17.5 km2 in relatively open habitat depending on the hardware components used. We surveyed for wolves at 2 active rendezvous sites used by closely monitored, radiocollared wolf packs and obtained 4 responses across both packs over 3 days of sampling. We confirmed reproduction in these 2 packs by detecting pup howls aurally from the resulting device recordings. Our device can broadcast and record animal calls and the computer software is freely downloadable. This automated survey device can be used to collect reliable data while reducing the labor costs traditionally associated with acoustic surveys.

Ausband, David E.; Skrivseth, Jesse; Mitchell, Michael S.

2011-01-01

428

Maritime Mobile Digital Selective Calling. (Equipment Development and Operational Test).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six digital selective calling units were produced which were representative of the U.S. concept proposed to the CCIR for international adoption by ITO. The equipment operates with all authorized classes of emission in the maritime mobile service, MF/HF/VH...

E. Johnson C. Kump E. Turner

1974-01-01

429

Mobile termination charges: Calling Party Pays versus Receiving Party Pays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries there is widespread concern at the level of mobile termination charges. This is attributable to the bottleneck monopoly created by the Calling Party Pays (CPP) principle. It has led to increasingly severe price controls on termination charges. Regulatory experience in the three foremost such countries (UK, Australia and New Zealand) suggests that price controls are of limited

S. C. Littlechild

2006-01-01

430

Work–Life Imbalance in Call Centres and Software Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe paper evaluates the centrality of work to employees in two growing employment sectors, call-centres and software development. It then examines evidence for extensions of work into household and family life in these two sectors. Extensions are identified as tangible, such as unpaid overtime, or intangible, represented by incursions imported from work, such as exhaustion and stress. The study finds

Jeff Hyman; Chris Baldry; Dora Scholarios; Dirk Bunzel

2003-01-01

431

Dimensioning Large Call Centers. Probability, Networks and Algorithms (PNA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Worldwide, telephone-based services have been expanding dramatically in both volume and scope. This has given rise to a huge growth industry--the (telephone) call center industry. Indeed, some assess that 70% of all customer-business interactions in the U...

A. Mandelbaum M. I. Reiman S. C. Borst

2000-01-01

432

A Call for Student Involvement in the Push for Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As readers of "Assessment Update" know, the call for assessment is sweeping over the globe, so much so that faculty and administrators are finding it difficult to ignore it--though many may wish they could. Unfortunately, awareness does not lead to an increase in assessment implementation because fear of assessment is still widespread. The push…

Rodgers, Megan

2011-01-01

433

29 CFR 778.221 - âCall-backâ pay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...paid at the rate of $5 an hour works 1 hour overtime or a total of 9 hours on Monday...and of $5 for the 2 hours of overtime work on the call, plus an extra...premiums paid for actual hours of overtime work on Monday and on the Friday...

2013-07-01

434

1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

435

Fast static analysis of C++ virtual function calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual functions make code easier for programmers to reuse but also make it harder for compilers to analyze. We investigate the ability of three static analysis algorithms to improve C++ programs by resolving virtual function calls, thereby reducing compiled code size and reducing program complexity so as to improve both human and automated program understanding and analysis. In measurements of

David F. Bacon; Peter F. Sweeney

1996-01-01

436

The direct cost of virtual function calls in C++  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the direct cost of virtual function calls in C++ programs, assuming the standard implementation using virtual function tables. We measure this overhead experimentally for a number of large benchmark programs, using a combination of executable inspection and processor simulation. Our results show that the C++ programs measured spend a median of 5.2% of their time and 3.7% of

Karel Driesen; Urs Hijlzle

1996-01-01

437

Spectral analysis of the call of the male killer whale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poulter previously presented sonagram analyses of underwater sound recordings of various sea mammals, calling attention to the apparent harmonic progression of components of these signals. Other workers have questioned the presence of these harmonics in the original data and have suggested that they may instead be introduced during the analysis. In this paper we use underwater sound recordings of the

R. Singleton; T. Poulter

1967-01-01

438

Reconceptualizing call?in talk radio as listening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars approach a particular phenomenon by their understanding of that phenomenon. In the case of call?in talk radio, the research has focused primarily on callers and hosts as the active participants in the process. This paper reconsiders that research paradigm by offering a theory of talk radio based on the audience, the listeners. Using the work of Fiumara and Pearce,

Jonathan David Tankel

1998-01-01

439

National Commission calls for increased CIA, NSA, FBI powers  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 5, 2000, the National Commission on Terrorism, established by Congress in 1999, released its final report entitled ‘Countering The Changing Threat Of International Terrorism’. Among other recommendations, the Commission calls for increased powers for the FBI and NSA to conduct electronic eavesdropping. Specifically, the Commission wants streamlined procedures for FBI surveillance requests to be presented to the Foreign

Wayne Madsen

2000-01-01

440

Dream Catchers: "Margin Call," "Boss," and Climbing the Beanstalk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two recent popular entertainments, "Margin Call" (Barnum, Dodson, Jenckes, Moosa, Quinto & Chandor, 2011) and "Boss" (Safinia, 2011), depict powerful and successful groups of bosses confronting sudden, extreme threats. They are forced to react quickly and sacrifice important values to achieve survival of their organizations. In these emergencies,…

Beck, Bernard

2012-01-01

441

Call-based species recognition in black-capped chickadees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species recognition is essential for efficient communication between conspecifics. For this to occur, species information must be unambiguously encoded in the repertoire of each species’ vocalizations. Until now, the study of species recognition in songbirds has been focused mainly on male songs and male territorial behaviour. Species recognition of other learned vocalizations, such as calls, have not been explored, and

Isabelle Charrier; Christopher B. Sturdy

2005-01-01

442

Panel Calls for Systematic, Basic Approach to Math  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The influence of a federal report calling for a more orderly approach to teaching mathematics in the early grades will hinge largely on whether its message is accepted by the nation's diverse and often fiercely divided math community. Released this week, the report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel recommends that schools present…

Cavanagh, Sean

2008-01-01

443

States Mull Obama's Call to Raise Compulsory-Attendance Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|President Barack Obama's call for every state to require school attendance until age 18 may spark a flurry of action in some statehouses, but changing attendance laws will do little by itself to drive down the nation's dropout rates, experts on the issue say. In his State of the Union address last month, President Obama said states should require…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2012-01-01

444

Call center employee personality factors and service performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The challenge of attracting and retaining high performing call center employees is significant. Research in general has shown a link between personality factors and job performance. This study aims to focus on examining the relationship between personality factors and performance using service performance indicators and further, to study the role of emotional exhaustion in this relationship in the

Olukemi O. Sawyerr; Shanthi Srinivas; Sijun Wang

2009-01-01

445

Call admission algorithms in multiservice and multiclass ATM network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of new ATM service categories increases the benefits of ATM, making the technology suitable for a virtually unlimited range of applications. Connection Admission Control (CAC) is defined as the set of actions taken by the network during the call (virtual connection) set-up phase, or during call re-negotiation phase, to determine whether a connection request can be accepted or rejected. Network resources (port bandwidth and buffer space) are reserved to the incoming connection at each switching element traversed, if so required, by the service category. The major focus of this paper is call admission in the context of multi-service, multi-class ATM networks. Several strategies suggesting rules on bandwidth sharing are found in the litterature. This study investigates particularly the Complete Sharing approach. Two service categories are concerned, namely, Constant Bit rate/Deterministic Bit Rate (CBR/DBR) and Variable Bit Rate/Statistical Bit Rate (VBR/SBR). Each service category is represented by a set of call classes corresponding to different bandwidth needs. We propose two algorithms to solve the underlying Markovian system: Product-form and Recursive solutions. A performance study based on the latter algorithm is implemented. We analyze the results of this very sharing strategy and set the not-to-violate limits for a beneficial use of it.

Hamma, Salima; Hébuterne, Gérard

2004-10-01

446

BUSINESS AS A CALLING: AN MBA ELECTIVE EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catholic Schools and Colleges of Business have an opportunity to help their students recognize the importance of seeing their chosen business profession as a spiritual calling. Capitalizing on this opportunity would not only help students integrate their work life and personal life but also see their work as more than just a means for income and advancement. This paper discusses

Victor Forlani; Joseph F. Castellano

447

Report Calls for Improvements to "Human Capital" Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A report from a high-powered education task force called last week for states and school districts to overhaul how they recruit, prepare, evaluate, and compensate teachers. Released by Strategic Management of Human Capital, the series of 20 policy recommendations for state and district policymakers is aimed primarily at improving the teaching…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2009-01-01

448

Inmarsat overtakes the German sea distress call system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German-developed sea distress call system which has been selected by Inmarsat as a worldwide standard for commercial shipping is discussed. The system is briefly described and the history of its development is briefly recapitulated. Its mode of operation and its preoperational demonstration are described. Data from the latter are presented.

Goebel, Walter

1991-04-01

449

Aurorae during the so-called Spoerer minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that such data that exist on auroral observations in the period between 1450 and 1550 do not provide the conclusive evidence that some authors have claimed for the so-called 'Spoerer minimum' in solar activity in this time.

Schroder, Wilfried

1994-04-01

450

Spotlight: Online Learners of Macedonian with Self-Instructed CALL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While much is known about the characteristics of adult learners and even adult learners in online and distance education settings, very little CALL research is focused on online self-instructed learners, and even fewer studies focus on learners of less commonly taught languages (LCTLs), such as Macedonian, for whom traditional or even distance…

Wilsey, Biljana Belamaric

2013-01-01

451

Mother goats do not forget their kids' calls  

PubMed Central

Parent–offspring recognition is crucial for offspring survival. At long distances, this recognition is mainly based on vocalizations. Because of maturation-related changes to the structure of vocalizations, parents have to learn successive call versions produced by their offspring throughout ontogeny in order to maintain recognition. However, because of the difficulties involved in following the same individuals over years, it is not clear how long this vocal memory persists. Here, we investigated long-term vocal recognition in goats. We tested responses of mothers to their kids’ calls 7–13 months after weaning. We then compared mothers’ responses to calls of their previous kids with their responses to the same calls at five weeks postpartum. Subjects tended to respond more to their own kids at five weeks postpartum than 11–17 months later, but displayed stronger responses to their previous kids than to familiar kids from other females. Acoustic analyses showed that it is unlikely that mothers were responding to their previous kids simply because they confounded them with the new kids they were currently nursing. Therefore, our results provide evidence for strong, long-term vocal memory capacity in goats. The persistence of offspring vocal recognition beyond weaning could have important roles in kin social relationships and inbreeding avoidance.

Briefer, Elodie F.; Padilla de la Torre, Monica; McElligott, Alan G.

2012-01-01

452

Telephone Call Centers: Tutorial, Review, and Research Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telephone call centers are an integral part of many businesses, and their economic role is significant and growing. They are also fascinating sociotechnical systems in which the behavior of customers and employees is closely intertwined with physical performance measures. In these environments traditional operational models are of great value---and at the same time fundamentally limited---in their ability to characterize system

Noah Gans; Ger Koole; Avishai Mandelbaum

2003-01-01

453

Evaluation of a Pharmacy Resident Inpatient On-Call Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 440 interventions completed by pharmacy residents in an inpatient on-call program were analyzed for their source (self-initiated, solicited by physician or staff pharmacist), type (selection of dosage, schedule, drug level monitoring, route of administration), impact on quality of care, cost of care, and clinical significance. (Author/MSE)

Hatoum, Hind T.

1993-01-01

454

78 FR 35956 - Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLUT980300-L11200000-PH0000-24-1A] Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference...the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) Utah Resource Advisory Council (RAC) Subgroup will host a conference call. DATES: The Utah RAC Subgroup will host a conference...

2013-06-14

455

Faculty Sense of Religious Calling at a Christian University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sense of calling is often described with language steeped in religious tradition. It is variously described as a spiritual process or endeavor or as a summons by God to fulfill a specific purpose or task in life. This ethnographic case study examines how 18 senior faculty members of differing faith traditions expressed a religious sense of…

Swezey, James A.

2009-01-01

456

Physical Activity Promotion in Call Centres: Employers' Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews…

Renton, Sheila J.; Lightfoot, Nancy E.; Maar, Marion A.

2011-01-01

457

An ELT's Solution to Combat Plagiarism: "Birth" of CALL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One English-as-a Second-Language professor fought plagiarism using computer assisted language learning (CALL). She succeeded in getting half of her class to write documented research papers free of plagiarism. Although all of the students claimed to know how to avoid plagiarizing, 35 percent presented the work with minor traces of plagiarism. The…

Sabieh, Christine

458

"Cold calling" in psychiatric follow up studies: is it justified?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To decide if cold calling was ethically justifiable and, if so, to set guidelines for researchers. Design: The study was a cohort study of patients with neurotic disorder treated initially for 10 weeks in a randomised controlled trial. Findings: At follow up by a research medical practitioner 18 of the 210 patients had died and of the remaining 192 patients 186 (97%) were seen or had a telephone interview. Four patients refused and two others did not have interviews but agreed to some data being obtained. However, only 104 patients (54%) responded to letters inviting them to make an appointment or to refuse contact and the remainder were followed up by cold calling, with most patients agreeing readily to the research interview. The findings illustrate the dilemma of the need to get the maximum possible data from such studies to achieve scientific validity (and thereby justify the ethics of the study) and the protection of subjects' privacy and autonomy. Conclusions: More attention needs to be paid to consent procedures if cold calling is to be defended on ethical grounds but it is unreasonable to expect this to be obtained at the beginning of a research study in a way that satisfies the requirements for informed consent. A suggested way forward is to obtain written consent for the research at the time that cold calling takes place before beginning the research.

Tyrer, P; Seivewright, H; Ferguson, B; Johnson, T

2003-01-01

459

Call 1-800-4-CANCER (African American communities)  

Cancer.gov

Call 1-800-4-CANCER (African American communities) You will need Adobe Flash Player 8 or later and JavaScript enabled to view this video. You can view the movie here Robyn Bason, of NCI’s Office of Communications and Education, explains how NCI's toll-free

460

Do mortgage rates vary by neighborhood? Implications for loan pricing and redlining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a nationally representative sample of conventional single-family mortgage loans that originated during 1992–1995 with detailed loan pricing information, this paper examines whether interest rates vary by neighborhood income and racial composition. The estimates suggest that borrowers financing homes in low- and moderate-income neighborhoods generally paid 2–4 basis points more for 30-year loans, but there was no difference for 15-year

Frank E. Nothaft; Vanessa G. Perry

2002-01-01

461

The Barrier Domain for Solute Permeation Varies With Lipid Bilayer Phase Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The chemical selectivities of the transport barriers in lipid bilayers varying in composition and phase structure (gel-phase\\u000a DPPC and DHPC bilayers and liquid-crystalline DPPC\\/CHOL\\/50:50 mol% bilayers) have been investigated by determining functional\\u000a group contributions to transport of a series of ?-substituted p-toluic acid analogs obtained in vesicle efflux experiments. Linear free energy relationships are established between the\\u000a free energies

T.-X. Xiang; Y.-H. Xu; B. D. Anderson

1998-01-01

462

VARiD: A variation detection framework for color-space and letter-space platforms  

PubMed Central

Motivation: High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies are transforming the study of genomic variation. The various HTS technologies have different sequencing biases and error rates, and while most HTS technologies sequence the residues of the genome directly, generating base calls for each position, the Applied Biosystem's SOLiD platform generates dibase-coded (color space) sequences. While combining data from the various platforms should increase the accuracy of variation detection, to date there are only a few tools that can identify variants from color space data, and none that can analyze color space and regular (letter space) data together. Results: We present VARiD—a probabilistic method for variation detection from both letter- and color-space reads simultaneously. VARiD is based on a hidden Markov model and uses the forward-backward algorithm to accurately identify heterozygous, homozygous and tri-allelic SNPs, as well as micro-indels. Our analysis shows that VARiD performs better than the AB SOLiD toolset at detecting variants from color-space data alone, and improves the calls dramatically when letter- and color-space reads are combined. Availability: The toolset is freely available at http://compbio.cs.utoronto.ca/varid Contact: varid@cs.toronto.edu

Dalca, Adrian V.; Rumble, Stephen M.; Levy, Samuel; Brudno, Michael

2010-01-01

463

What does CALL have to offer computer science and what does computer science have to offer CALL?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will argue that CALL can usefully be viewed as a subset of computer software engineering and can profit from adopting some of the recent progress in software development theory. The unified modelling language has become the industry standard modelling technique and the accompanying unified process is rapidly gaining acceptance. The manner in which these can be used as a

Steve Cushion

2006-01-01

464

Time-Varying Quadratic Programming by Zhang Neural Network Equipped with a Time-Varying Design Parameter  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, a recurrent neural network termed Zhang neural network (ZNN) with a time-varying design parameter ?(t) is developed and presented to solve time-varying quadratic programs subject to time-varying linear equalities. The updated\\u000a design formula for the ZNN model possesses more generality because the design parameter considered is actually (e.g., in hardware\\u000a implementation) time-varying, i.e., ?(t). The state vector

Zhan Li; Yunong Zhang

2011-01-01

465

New type of compositional zoning in calcite: Insights into crystal-growth mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compositional zoning of trace elements is observed in time-equivalent regions within 1014 growth sectors of natural and synthetic calcite single crystals, and has been called "intrasectoral zoning" to distinguish it from conventional sectoral zoning. Differential interference contrast microscopy shows that {10114} faces grow by the spiral mechanism. Cathodoluminescence microscopy and electron probe microanalyses reveal that trace element partitioning differences on {10114} faces correspond exactly to crystallographically controlled orientations of growth steps. Effective partitioning of Mg and Mn varies up to a factor of four between time-correlative growth steps spreading in different directions. Effective Sr partitioning varies by approximately 20% and is inversely correlated with enrichment trends of Mg and Mn. Preferential incorporation of different aqueous species at different growth steps may provide an explanation for morphological and chemical variation in natural calcites.

Paquette, Jeanne; Reeder, Richard J.

1990-12-01

466

Essays and Addresses on Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following book on composition in the elementary school grows out of the activities of the Tri-University Project (now called the Nebraska TTT Institute in Elementary Education). The project is concerned with improving the education of young children by working to improve the education of the teachers in Higher Education who educate the…

Summerfield, Geoffrey, Ed.

467

Essays and Addresses on Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The following book on composition in the elementary school grows out of the activities of the Tri-University Project (now called the Nebraska TTT Institute in Elementary Education). The project is concerned with improving the education of young children by working to improve the education of the teachers in Higher Education who educate the…

Summerfield, Geoffrey, Ed.

468

Assessment of composite motif discovery methods  

PubMed Central

Background Computational discovery of regulatory elements is an important area of bioinformatics research and more than a hundred motif discovery methods have been published. Traditionally, most of these methods have addressed the problem of single motif discovery – discovering binding motifs for individual transcription factors. In higher organisms, however, transcription factors usually act in combination with nearby bound factors to induce specific regulatory behaviours. Hence, recent focus has shifted from single motifs to the discovery of sets of motifs bound by multiple cooperating transcription factors, so called composite motifs or cis-regulatory modules. Given the large number and diversity of methods available, independent assessment of methods becomes important. Although there have been several benchmark studies of single motif discovery, no similar studies have previously been conducted concerning composite motif discovery. Results We have developed a benchmarking framework for composite motif discovery and used it to evaluate the performance of eight published module discovery tools. Benchmark datasets were constructed based on real genomic sequences containing experimentally verified regulatory modules, and the module discovery programs were asked to predict both the locations of these modules and to specify the single motifs involved. To aid the programs in their search, we provided position weight matrices corresponding to the binding motifs of the transcription factors involved. In addition, selections of decoy matrices were mixed with the genuine matrices on one dataset to test the response of programs to varying levels of noise. Conclusion Although some of the methods tested tended to score somewhat better than others overall, there were still large variations between individual datasets and no single method performed consistently better than the rest in all situations. The variation in performance on individual datasets also shows that the new benchmark datasets represents a suitable variety of challenges to most methods for module discovery.

Klepper, Kjetil; Sandve, Geir K; Abul, Osman; Johansen, Jostein; Drablos, Finn

2008-01-01

469

Inspection of Composites - Current Status and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common inspection needs for composite structures and the currently available solutions are reviewed. A continuing problem with composites inspection is the need to cover large areas of structure. This has been addressed with laser ultrasound, thermography and holography\\/shearography and the pros and cons of these approaches are addressed, together with recent work on sonic-IR (sometimes called thermosonics) that has

Peter CAWLEY

2006-01-01

470

Verbalization effects in facial composite production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describing a person's face can temporarily interfere with face recognition ability. We explored whether this so-called ‘verbal overshadowing effect’ (VOE) might interfere with the construction of a traditional facial composite, a face produced by the selection of individual features: hair, eyes, mouth, etc. Participants looked at an unfamiliar target and two days later constructed a single composite after (a) describing

Charlie D. Frowd; Stephen Fields

2011-01-01

471

Analytical method for micromechanics of textile composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method called the selective averaging method (SAM) is proposed for prediction of the thermoelastic constants of textile composite materials. The unit cell of the composite is divided into slices (mesoscale), and the slices are subdivided into elements (microscale). The elastic constants of the homogenized medium are found by averaging the elastic constants of the elements selectively for both

Bhavani V. Sankar; Ramesh V. Marrey

1997-01-01

472

Suicide among indigenous peoples: introduction and call to action.  

PubMed

Indigenous people around the world have the highest suicide risk of any identifiable cultural (or ethnic) group. It is a youth epidemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for action; this special issue of Archives of Suicide Research (ASR) is an attempt to heed this call. Scholars, indigenous and non-indigenous, present data from the Arctic, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, and other regions. It is concluded that not only data, but also explanations are needed. Suicide is multi determined. Colonialism and its associated genocide are, however, cited as a common factor. Yet, much greater cooperative international efforts are needed to not only understand, but also predict and control the epidemic. PMID:16574610

Leenaars, Antoon A

2006-01-01

473

[Critique of so-called outsider methods in medical therapy].  

PubMed

The manifold forms of the therapy always are of a complex nature. In pharmacological animal experiments, one can determine the parameters of the effect of a drug exactly, in humans there is often a discrepancy between these results and the actual therapy effect. Here the psychophysical mode of reaction has to be taken into account. For humans, not only the word is psychophysically effective because of its semantic property, similar effects are brought about by symbols, objects and pictures. These effects are known from the field of pre-scientific medicine and are in most cases the basis of the so-called miracle cures. Analogue effects can be seen in the field of outsider methods. They can be tolerated as long as they are not understood otherwise than as psychotherapeutic techniques with certain instrumental aids or as a psychophysical therapy with harmless substances or so-called placebos. Problems will arise when a thought process is developing. PMID:7089120

Quandt, J

1982-02-01

474

Near Real-Time Call Detail Record ETL Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Telecommunication companies face significant business challenges as they strive to reduce subscriber churn and increase average\\u000a revenue per user (ARPU) by offering new services and incorporating new functionality into existing services. The increased\\u000a number of service offerings and available functionality result in an ever growing volume of call detail records (CDRs). For\\u000a many services (e.g., pre-paid), CDRs need to be

Munir Cochinwala; Euthimios Panagos