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Sample records for call composition vary

  1. Titi monkey call sequences vary with predator location and type

    PubMed Central

    Cäsar, Cristiane; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Young, Robert J.; Byrne, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Animal alarm calls can encode information about a predator's category, size, distance or threat level. In non-human primates, alarm calls typically refer to broad classes of disturbances, in some instances to specific predators. Here, we present the results of a field experiment with a New World primate, the black-fronted titi monkey (Callicebus nigrifrons), designed to explore the information conveyed by their alarm call system. Adults produced sequences consisting of two main alarm call types that conveyed, in different parts of the utterance, information about a predator's type and location. In particular, sequence compositions differed depending on whether the predator was a mammalian carnivore or a raptor, and whether it was detected in a tree or on the ground. This is the first demonstration of a sequence-based alarm call system in a non-human animal that has the capacity to encode both location and type of predatory threat. PMID:24004492

  2. Call combinations in monkeys: compositional or idiomatic expressions?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2012-03-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call series consisting of two call types in response to different events. They can also be combined into short sequences that convey a different message from those conveyed by either call type alone. Here, we investigate whether 'pyow-hack' sequences are compositional in that the individual calls contribute to their overall meaning. However, the monkeys behaved as if they perceived the sequence as an idiomatic expression rather than decoding the sequence. Nonetheless, while this communication system lacks the generative power of syntax it enables callers to increase the number of messages that can be conveyed by a small and innate call repertoire. PMID:22032914

  3. Killer whale call frequency is similar across the oceans, but varies across sympatric ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Filatova, Olga A; Miller, Patrick J O; Yurk, Harald; Samarra, Filipa I P; Hoyt, Erich; Ford, John K B; Matkin, Craig O; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G

    2015-07-01

    Killer whale populations may differ in genetics, morphology, ecology, and behavior. In the North Pacific, two sympatric populations ("resident" and "transient") specialize on different prey (fish and marine mammals) and retain reproductive isolation. In the eastern North Atlantic, whales from the same populations have been observed feeding on both fish and marine mammals. Fish-eating North Pacific "residents" are more genetically related to eastern North Atlantic killer whales than to sympatric mammal-eating "transients." In this paper, a comparison of frequency variables in killer whale calls recorded from four North Pacific resident, two North Pacific transient, and two eastern North Atlantic populations is reported to assess which factors drive the large-scale changes in call structure. Both low-frequency and high-frequency components of North Pacific transient killer whale calls have significantly lower frequencies than those of the North Pacific resident and North Atlantic populations. The difference in frequencies could be related to ecological specialization or to the phylogenetic history of these populations. North Pacific transient killer whales may have genetically inherited predisposition toward lower frequencies that may shape their learned repertoires. PMID:26233024

  4. From calls to communities: a model for time-varying social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Guillaume; Saramäki, Jari; Karsai, Márton

    2015-11-01

    Social interactions vary in time and appear to be driven by intrinsic mechanisms that shape the emergent structure of social networks. Large-scale empirical observations of social interaction structure have become possible only recently, and modelling their dynamics is an actual challenge. Here we propose a temporal network model which builds on the framework of activity-driven time-varying networks with memory. The model integrates key mechanisms that drive the formation of social ties - social reinforcement, focal closure and cyclic closure, which have been shown to give rise to community structure and small-world connectedness in social networks. We compare the proposed model with a real-world time-varying network of mobile phone communication, and show that they share several characteristics from heterogeneous degrees and weights to rich community structure. Further, the strong and weak ties that emerge from the model follow similar weight-topology correlations as real-world social networks, including the role of weak ties.

  5. A varying threshold method for ChIP peak-calling using multiple sources of information

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Bei; Zhang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Gene regulation commonly involves interaction among DNA, proteins and biochemical conditions. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technologies, protein–DNA interactions are routinely detected in the genome scale. Computational methods that detect weak protein-binding signals and simultaneously maintain a high specificity yet remain to be challenging. An attractive approach is to incorporate biologically relevant data, such as protein co-occupancy, to improve the power of protein-binding detection. We call the additional data related with the target protein binding as supporting tracks. Results: We propose a novel but rigorous statistical method to identify protein occupancy in ChIP data using multiple supporting tracks (PASS2). We demonstrate that utilizing biologically related information can significantly increase the discovery of true protein-binding sites, while still maintaining a desired level of false positive calls. Applying the method to GATA1 restoration in mouse erythroid cell line, we detected many new GATA1-binding sites using GATA1 co-occupancy data. Availability: http://stat.psu.edu/∼yuzhang/pass2.tar Contact: yuzhang@stat.psu.edu PMID:20823314

  6. Axisymmetric vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Shikanai, G.; Suzuki, K.; Kojima, M.

    1995-11-01

    An exact solution procedure is presented for solving axisymmetric free vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness. Based on the classical lamination theory neglecting shear deformation and rotary inertia, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply conical shells. Numerical studies are made for conical shells having both ends clamped to show the effects of the number of laminae, stacking sequences and other parameters upon the frequencies.

  7. Device for producing a fluid stream of varying composition

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Clark, Mark L.; Rossignol, E. John

    1982-01-01

    A device for producing a fluid stream of varying composition comprises a chamber having an inlet at one end and outlet at the other. Between the inlet and outlet there are substantially planar pans or baffles positioned normal to the bulk flow of fluid between the inlet and the outlet. These pans are arranged in pairs. Each pan, except those of the pair most remote from the inlet, is spaced from the walls of the chamber to permit air to flow past it. The pans of each pair are also spaced from each other, in a direction parallel to their planes, leaving an empty space along the mid-plane of the chamber. This produces a circulation and mixing of fluid between the pairs of pans or baffles. A secondary stream of fluid is introduced between two pairs of baffles in the intermediate portion of the chamber, so that the composition of the fluid is different in the portion adjacent to the outlet and the portion adjacent to the inlet. In a specific embodiment, the device is an exposure chamber for experimental animals, and the pans or baffles are catch pans for excrement.

  8. Experimental evidence for compositional syntax in bird calls.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N; Wheatcroft, David; Griesser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Human language can express limitless meanings from a finite set of words based on combinatorial rules (i.e., compositional syntax). Although animal vocalizations may be comprised of different basic elements (notes), it remains unknown whether compositional syntax has also evolved in animals. Here we report the first experimental evidence for compositional syntax in a wild animal species, the Japanese great tit (Parus minor). Tits have over ten different notes in their vocal repertoire and use them either solely or in combination with other notes. Experiments reveal that receivers extract different meanings from 'ABC' (scan for danger) and 'D' notes (approach the caller), and a compound meaning from 'ABC-D' combinations. However, receivers rarely scan and approach when note ordering is artificially reversed ('D-ABC'). Thus, compositional syntax is not unique to human language but may have evolved independently in animals as one of the basic mechanisms of information transmission. PMID:26954097

  9. Experimental evidence for compositional syntax in bird calls

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.; Wheatcroft, David; Griesser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Human language can express limitless meanings from a finite set of words based on combinatorial rules (i.e., compositional syntax). Although animal vocalizations may be comprised of different basic elements (notes), it remains unknown whether compositional syntax has also evolved in animals. Here we report the first experimental evidence for compositional syntax in a wild animal species, the Japanese great tit (Parus minor). Tits have over ten different notes in their vocal repertoire and use them either solely or in combination with other notes. Experiments reveal that receivers extract different meanings from ‘ABC' (scan for danger) and ‘D' notes (approach the caller), and a compound meaning from ‘ABC–D' combinations. However, receivers rarely scan and approach when note ordering is artificially reversed (‘D–ABC'). Thus, compositional syntax is not unique to human language but may have evolved independently in animals as one of the basic mechanisms of information transmission. PMID:26954097

  10. Using C.A.L.L. to Teach Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkhurst, Christine

    While artificial intelligence is far from producing a computer program that can understand English, there are computer applications for teaching composition that go beyond the electronic flashcard and other limited applications. A number of programs designed for use in college freshman English as a second language classes based on the artificial…

  11. Wear of nanofilled dental composites at varying filler concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of nanofiller concentration on the mechanisms of wear of a dental composite. Nanofilled composites were fabricated with a bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate polymer and 40 nm SiO2 filler particles at three filler loads (25, 50, and 65 wt %). The elastic modulus, flexural strength, and hardness of the composites and the unfilled resin were measured. The materials (n = 8) were tested in the modified wear testing device at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 cycles with 20N force at 1 Hz. A 33% glycerine lubricant and stainless steel antagonist were used. The worn composite and antagonist surfaces were analyzed with noncontact profilometry and SEM. The volumetric wear data indicated that there are significant differences between filler concentrations and cycles (p < 0.05). A trend was noted that increasing filler content beyond 25% decreased the wear resistance of the composites. Increasing filler content increased hardness and modulus and increased flexural strength up to 50% fill. SEM evaluation of the worn specimens indicated that the resin and 25% filled materials exhibited cracking and failed by fatigue and the 50 and 65% filled materials exhibited microcutting and failed by abrasive wear. Based on the results of this study, composite manufacturers are recommended to use a filler concentration between 25 and 50% when using nanosized filler particles. PMID:24909664

  12. Osteoblast response to dimethacrylate composites varying in composition, conversion and roughness using a combinatorial approach

    PubMed Central

    Lin-Gibson, Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Dimethacrylate polymers and composites are seeing increased usage in orthopedics. As these applications require the material to integrate with the surrounding tissues, direct contact cytotoxicity assays should be used to assess the biocompatibility. This study utilized a combinatorial testing platform to evaluate the cell response to dimethacrylate composites with a variety of properties on a single sample. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured directly on composites with varying filler content, filler type, degree of conversion (DC), and surface topography. Cell viability, density, and area depended on an interplay of the material properties, with low DC causing a reduction in cell area but having minimal effect on cell viability, high filler content causing an increase in cell density, and filler content/type altering the surface roughness as a function of DC. The combinatorial testing platform successfully quantified the effects of numerous material properties on several aspects of the osteoblast response. PMID:19520423

  13. Does Mallard clutch size vary with landscape composition?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, I.J.; Artmann, M.J.; Hoekman, S.T.

    2002-01-01

    We studied Mallards (Arias platyrhynchos) nesting in artificial nesting structures in northeastern North Dakota and compared clutch size between landscapes where proportion of cropland was either high (mean = 68.9%, cropland landscapes) or low (mean = 30.2%, grassland landscapes). Mallard clutch size was significantly related to nest initiation date and landscape composition. Mean clutch size, controlled for nest initiation date, was 1.24 ?? 0.33 SE eggs smaller on cropland landscapes than on grassland landscapes. Generality of this pattern across space, time, and type of nesting sites is unknown, as is causation. Demographic importance of variation in clutch size may be influenced by covariation with other demographic variables, such as nest success and abundance of breeding pairs, which also are negatively correlated with landscape proportion of cropland. We suggest that researchers examine relationships between clutch size and landscape composition in both structure-nesting and ground-nesting Mallards, in other geographic areas, and in other duck species.

  14. Model atmospheres for cool stars. [varying chemical composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    This report contains an extensive series of model atmospheres for cool stars having a wide range in chemical composition. Model atmospheres (temperature, pressure, density, etc.) are tabulated, along with emergent energy flux distributions, limb darkening, and information on convection for selected models. The models are calculated under the usual assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium, constancy of total energy flux (including transport both by radiation and convection) and local thermodynamic equilibrium. Some molecular and atomic line opacity is accounted for as a straight mean. While cool star atmospheres are regimes of complicated physical conditions, and these atmospheres are necessarily approximate, they should be useful for a number of kinds of spectral and atmospheric analysis.

  15. Meaningful call combinations and compositional processing in the southern pied babbler.

    PubMed

    Engesser, Sabrina; Ridley, Amanda R; Townsend, Simon W

    2016-05-24

    Language's expressive power is largely attributable to its compositionality: meaningful words are combined into larger/higher-order structures with derived meaning. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and emergence of this syntactic ability. Although previous research has shown a rudimentary capability to combine meaningful calls in primates, because of a scarcity of comparative data, it is unclear to what extent analog forms might also exist outside of primates. Here, we address this ambiguity and provide evidence for rudimentary compositionality in the discrete vocal system of a social passerine, the pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Natural observations and predator presentations revealed that babblers produce acoustically distinct alert calls in response to close, low-urgency threats and recruitment calls when recruiting group members during locomotion. On encountering terrestrial predators, both vocalizations are combined into a "mobbing sequence," potentially to recruit group members in a dangerous situation. To investigate whether babblers process the sequence in a compositional way, we conducted systematic experiments, playing back the individual calls in isolation as well as naturally occurring and artificial sequences. Babblers reacted most strongly to mobbing sequence playbacks, showing a greater attentiveness and a quicker approach to the loudspeaker, compared with individual calls or control sequences. We conclude that the sequence constitutes a compositional structure, communicating information on both the context and the requested action. Our work supports previous research suggesting combinatoriality as a viable mechanism to increase communicative output and indicates that the ability to combine and process meaningful vocal structures, a basic syntax, may be more widespread than previously thought. PMID:27155011

  16. Iterative solutions for one-dimensional diffusion with time varying surface composition and composition-dependent diffusion coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, M.; Houska, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Solutions are given for one-dimensional diffusion problems with a time varying surface composition and also a composition dependent diffusion coefficient. The most general solution does not require special mathematical functions to fit the variation in surface composition or D(C). In another solution, a series expansion may be used to fit the time dependent surface concentration. These solutions make use of iterative calculations that converge rapidly and are highly stable. Computer times are much shorter than that required for finite difference calculations and can efficiently make use of interactive graphics terminals. Existing gas carburization data were used to provide an illustration of an iterative approach with a time varying carbon composition at the free surface.

  17. Non destructive evaluation of adhesively bonded carbon fiber reinforced composite lap joints with varied bond quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, R. L.; Bhat, M. R.; Murthy, C. R. L.

    2012-05-01

    Structural adhesive bonding is widely used to execute assemblies in automobile and aerospace structures. The quality and reliability of these bonded joints must be ensured during service. In this context non destructive evaluation of these bonded structures play an important role. Evaluation of adhesively bonded composite single lap shear joints has been attempted through experimental approach. Series of tests, non-destructive as well as destructive were performed on different sets of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite lap joint specimens with varied bond quality. Details of the experimental investigations carried out and the outcome are presented in this paper.

  18. Effect of in vivo loading on bone composition varies with animal age

    PubMed Central

    Aido, Marta; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Hoerth, Rebecca; Checa, Sara; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg N.; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Willie, Bettina M.

    2015-01-01

    Loading can increase bone mass and size and this response is reduced with aging. It is unclear, however how loading affects bone mineral and matrix properties. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and high resolution synchrotron scanning small angle X-ray scattering were used to study how bone’s microscale and nanoscale compositional properties were altered in the tibial midshaft of young, adult, and elderly female C57Bl/6J mice after two weeks of controlled in vivo compressive loading in comparison to physiological loading. The effect of controlled loading on bone composition varied with animal age, since it predominantly influenced the bone composition of elderly mice. Interestingly, controlled loading led to enhanced collagen maturity in elderly mice. In addition, although the rate of bone formation was increased by controlled loading based on histomorphometry, the newly formed tissue had similar material quality to new bone tissue formed during physiological loading. Similar to previous studies, our data showed that bone composition was animal and tissue age dependent during physiological loading. The findings that the new tissue formed in response to controlled loading and physiological loading had similar bone composition and that controlled loading enhanced bone composition in elderly mice further supports the use of physical activity as a noninvasive treatment to enhance bone quality as well as maintain bone mass in individuals suffering from age-related bone loss. PMID:25639943

  19. Buckling of Laminated Composite Stiffened Panels Subjected to Linearly Varying In-Plane Edge Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallela, Upendra K.; Upadhyay, Akhil

    2014-01-01

    The presence of in-plane loading may cause buckling of stiffened panels. An accurate knowledge of critical buckling load and mode shapes is essential for reliable and lightweight structural design. This paper presents parametric studies on simply supported laminated composite blade-stiffened panels subjected to linearly varying in-plane edge/compressive loading. Studies are carried out by changing the panel orthotropy ratio, stiffener depth, pitch length (number of stiffeners), smeared extensional stiffness ratio of stiffener to that of the plate and load distribution parameter. Based on the studies, a few important parameters influencing the buckling behavior are identified and their significance is discussed. Further, the interaction equations for combined loadings are validated by carrying out numerical studies.

  20. Controlled combustion tests and bottom ash analysis using household waste with varying composition

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yanjun; Bakker, Maarten; Brem, Gerrit; Chen Guanyi

    2011-02-15

    The influence of the co-combustion of household waste with either sewage sludge, shredder fluff, electronic and electrical waste (WEEE) or PVC on the bottom ash quality and content was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions using a pot furnace. This laboratory approach avoids the interpretation problems related to large variations in input waste composition and combustion conditions that are observed in large scale MSW incinerators. The data for metals content, transfer coefficients and leaching values are presented relative to data for a base household waste composition that did not contain any of the added special wastes. The small WEEE invited direct measurement of precious metals content in the ashes, where measurement accuracy is facilitated by using only mobile phone scrap for small WEEE. The analyses were carried out for different particle size ranges that are of relevance to the recyclability of metals and minerals in the ashes. Positive correlations were found between elements content of the input waste and the bottom ashes, and also between increased levels of Cl, Mo and Cu in the input waste and their leaching in the bottom ashes. These correlations indicate that addition of PVC, small WEEE and shredder fluff in input waste can have a negative influence on the quality of the bottom ashes. Enrichment of Au and Ag occurred in the fractions between 0.15 and 6 mm. The precious metals content represents an economically interesting intrinsic value, even when the observed peak values are properly averaged over a larger volume of ashes. Overall, it has been shown that changes in quality and content of bottom ashes may be traced back to the varied input waste composition.

  1. Effect of Racial and Ethnic Composition of Neighborhoods in San Francisco on Rates of Mental-Health Related 911 Calls

    PubMed Central

    Kessell, Eric R.; Alvidrez, Jennifer; McConnell, William A.; Shumway, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the association between San Francisco neighborhoods’ racial/ethnic residential composition and the rate of mental-health-related 911 calls. Methods Calls to the San Francisco 911 system from January 2001 through June 2003 (n=1,341,608) were divided into mental-health-related and other calls. Police sector data in the call records were overlaid onto U.S. Census tracts to estimate sector demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the association between black, Asian, Latino and white resident percentage and rates of mental-health-related calls. Results Percent of black residents was associated with a lower rate of mental-health-related calls (IRR=.99, 95% CI .98–1.00). Percent of Asian and Latino residents had no significant effect. Conclusions The observed relationship between black residents and mental-health-related calls is not consistent with known emergency mental health service utilization patterns. The paradox between underutilization of the 911 system and overutilization of psychiatric emergency services deserves further investigation. PMID:19797379

  2. Identification and characterization of transcript polymorphisms in soybean lines varying in oil composition and content

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Variation in seed oil composition and content among soybean varieties is largely attributed to differences in transcript sequences and/or transcript accumulation of oil production related genes in seeds. Discovery and analysis of sequence and expression variations in these genes will accelerate soybean oil quality improvement. Results In an effort to identify these variations, we sequenced the transcriptomes of soybean seeds from nine lines varying in oil composition and/or total oil content. Our results showed that 69,338 distinct transcripts from 32,885 annotated genes were expressed in seeds. A total of 8,037 transcript expression polymorphisms and 50,485 transcript sequence polymorphisms (48,792 SNPs and 1,693 small Indels) were identified among the lines. Effects of the transcript polymorphisms on their encoded protein sequences and functions were predicted. The studies also provided independent evidence that the lack of FAD2-1A gene activity and a non-synonymous SNP in the coding sequence of FAB2C caused elevated oleic acid and stearic acid levels in soybean lines M23 and FAM94-41, respectively. Conclusions As a proof-of-concept, we developed an integrated RNA-seq and bioinformatics approach to identify and functionally annotate transcript polymorphisms, and demonstrated its high effectiveness for discovery of genetic and transcript variations that result in altered oil quality traits. The collection of transcript polymorphisms coupled with their predicted functional effects will be a valuable asset for further discovery of genes, gene variants, and functional markers to improve soybean oil quality. PMID:24755115

  3. The Effects of Varying Crustal Carbonate Composition on Assimilation and CO2 Degassing at Arc Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. B.; Holmes, A. K.; Dasgupta, R.; Tumiati, S.

    2015-12-01

    Magma-crustal carbonate interaction and subsequent decarbonation can provide an additional source of CO2 release to the exogenic system superimposed on mantle-derived CO2. Carbonate assimilation at present day volcanoes is often modeled by limestone consumption experiments [1-4]. Eruptive products, however, do not clearly display the characteristic ultracalcic melt compositions produced during limestone-magma interaction [4]. Yet estimated CO2outflux [5] and composition of volcanics in many volcanic systems may allow ~3-17% limestone- or dolostone-assimilated melt contribution. Crystallization may retain ultracalcic melts in pyroxenite cumulates. To extend our completed study on limestone assimilation, here we explore the effect of varying composition from calcite to dolomite on chemical and thermal decarbonation efficiency of crustal carbonates. Piston cylinder experiments at 0.5 GPa and 900-1200 °C demonstrate that residual mineralogy during interaction with magma shifts from CaTs cpx and anorthite/scapolite in the presence of calcite to Di cpx and Fo-rich olivine with dolomite. Silica-undersaturated melts double in magnesium content, while maintaining high (>30 wt.%) CaO values. At high-T, partial thermal breakdown of dolomite into periclase and CO2 is minimal (<5%) suggesting that in the presence of magma, CO2 is primarily released due to assimilation. Assimilated melts at identical P-T conditions depict similarly high volatile contents (10-20 wt.% by EMPA deficit at 0.5 GPa, 1150 °C with hydrous basalt) with calcite or dolomite. Analysis of the coexisting fluid phase indicates the majority of water is dissolved in the melt, while CO2 released from the carbonate is preferentially partitioned into the vapor. This suggests that although assimilated melts have a higher CO2 solubility, most of the CO2can easily degas from the vapor phase at arc volcanoes, possibly more so at volcanic plumbing systems traversing dolomite [8]. [1]Conte et al 2009 EuJMin (21) 763

  4. Neutron Radiography and Fission Mapping Measurements of Nuclear Materials with Varying Composition and Shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Mullens, James Allen; McConchie, Seth M; Hausladen, Paul; Mihalczo, John T; Grogan, Brandon R; Sword, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Neutron radiography and fission mapping measurements were performed on four measurement objects with varying composition and shielding arrangements at the Idaho National Laboratory's Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) facility. The measurement objects were assembled with ZPPR reactor plate materials comprising plutonium, natural uranium, or highly enriched uranium and were presented as unknowns for characterization. As a part of the characterization, neutron radiography was performed using a deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generator as a source of time and directionally tagged 14 MeV neutrons. The neutrons were detected by plastic scintillators placed on the opposite side of the object, using the time-correlation-based data acquisition of the Nuclear Materials Identification System developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each object was measured at several rotations with respect to the neutron source to obtain a tomographic reconstruction of the object and a limited identification of materials via measurement of the neutron attenuation. Large area liquid scintillators with pulse shape discrimination were used to detect the induced fission neutrons. A fission site map reconstruction was produced by time correlating the induced fission neutrons with each tagged neutron from the D-T neutron generator. This paper describes the experimental configuration, the ZPPR measurement objects used, and the neutron imaging and fission mapping results.

  5. Evolution of homopolymer thin-film instability on surface-anchored diblock copolymers varying in composition.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Jing; Genzer, Jan; Spontak, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    The stability of molecularly thin polymer films deposited on various material substrates is of critical importance to many contemporary nanotechnologies involving functional coatings and nano/micropatterned surfaces, in which case the causes responsible for film destabilization must be fully understood. Previous experimental studies report that factors such as film thickness and polymer molecular weight play significant roles in governing the rate, as well as mechanism, of destabilization. Complementary theoretical predictions reveal that surface heterogeneities can likewise induce (and regulate the process of) destabilization. In this study, we investigate the destabilization rate and mechanism of homopolystyrene (PS) films differing in thickness on top of poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (SM) diblock copolymer monolayers varying in chemical composition anchored to flat silica-like substrates to examine the effect of surface constitution on PS stability. Copolymers with a long M block consistently promote PS dewetting by nucleation and growth, wherein the linear dewetting rate decreases monotonically with increasing PS molecular weight, film thickness, and S fraction in the SM copolymer. In analogous studies involving a copolymer with a relatively short M block, however, PS dewetting proceeds instead by spinodal dewetting that evolves gradually into nucleation and growth as the film thickness is increased. PMID:25259655

  6. Chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane clones selected for varied lignin content

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials is a major limitation for their conversion into fermentable sugars. Lignin depletion in new cultivars or transgenic plants has been identified as a way to diminish this recalcitrance. In this study, we assessed the success of a sugarcane breeding program in selecting sugarcane plants with low lignin content, and report the chemical composition and agronomic characteristics of eleven experimental hybrids and two reference samples. The enzymatic digestion of untreated and chemically delignified samples was evaluated to advance the performance of the sugarcane residue (bagasse) in cellulosic-ethanol production processes. Results The ranges for the percentages of glucan, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractive (based on oven-dry biomass) of the experimental hybrids and reference samples were 38% to 43%, 25% to 32%, 17% to 24%, and 1.6% to 7.5%, respectively. The samples with the smallest amounts of lignin did not produce the largest amounts of total polysaccharides. Instead, a variable increase in the mass of a number of components, including extractives, seemed to compensate for the reduction in lignin content. Hydroxycinnamic acids accounted for a significant part of the aromatic compounds in the samples, with p-coumaric acid predominating, whereas ferulic acid was present only in low amounts. Hydroxycinnamic acids with ester linkage to the hemicelluloses varied from 2.3% to 3.6%. The percentage of total hydroxycinnamic acids (including the fraction linked to lignin through ether linkages) varied from 5.0% to 9.2%, and correlated to some extent with the lignin content. These clones released up to 31% of glucose after 72 hours of digestion with commercial cellulases, whereas chemically delignified samples led to cellulose conversion values of more than 80%. However, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during the enzymatic treatment

  7. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution

    PubMed Central

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Banerjee, Sourav; Shifeng, Huang

    2014-01-01

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer. PMID:25565725

  8. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Shifeng, Huang; Banerjee, Sourav

    2014-12-28

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer.

  9. Intermediate-scale Fire Performance of Composite Panels under Varying Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alexander; Jernigan, Dann A.; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    New aircraft are being designed with increasing quantities of composite materials used in their construction. Different from the more traditional metals, composites have a higher propensity to burn. This presents a challenge to transportation safety analyses, as the aircraft structure now represents an additional fuel source involved in the fire scenario. Most of the historical fire testing of composite materials is aime d at studying kinetics, flammability or yield strength under fire conditions. Most of this testing is small - scale. Heterogeneous reactions are often length - scale dependent, and this is thought to be particularly true for composites which exhibit signific ant microscopic dynamics that can affect macro - scale behavior. We have designed a series of tests to evaluate composite materials under various structural loading conditions with a consistent thermal condition. We have measured mass - loss , heat flux, and temperature throughout the experiments. Several types of panels have been tested, including simple composite panels, and sandwich panels. The main objective of the testing was to understand the importance of the structural loading on a composite to its b ehavior in response to fire - like conditions. During flaming combustion at early times, there are some features of the panel decomposition that are unique to the type of loading imposed on the panels. At load levels tested, fiber reaction rates at later t imes appear to be independent of the initial structural loading.

  10. Composition and properties of the so-called 'diamond-like' amorphous carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, J. C.; Stultz, J. E.; Shiller, P. J.; Macdonald, J. R.; Mirtich, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The composition of amorphous 'diamond-like' films made by direct low energy ion beam deposition, R.F. discharge and sputtering was determined by nuclear reaction analysis, IR spectroscopy and microcombustion chemical analysis. The nuclear reaction analysis showed very similar hydrogen depth profiles for all three types of samples. The atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon was approximately 0.2 at the film surface and rose to approximately 1.0 at a depth of 500 A. The integrated intensity of the C-H stretching band at about 2900 per cm indicates that the amount of chemically bonded hydrogen is less than the total hydrogen content. Combustion analysis confirmed the overall atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon determined by nuclear reaction analysis. The chemical state of the non-bonded hydrogen was not determined; however, the effective diffusion coefficient computed from the hydrogen depth profile was extremely low. This indicates either that the films are exceedingly impermeable or that the non-bonded hydrogen requires an additional activated step to leave the films, e.g., desorption or chemical reaction.

  11. The Effect of Stochastically Varying Creep Parameters on Residual Stresses in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Constituent properties, along with volume fraction, have a first order effect on the microscale fields within a composite material and influence the macroscopic response. Therefore, there is a need to assess the significance of stochastic variation in the constituent properties of composites at the higher scales. The effect of variability in the parameters controlling the time-dependent behavior, in a unidirectional SCS-6 SiC fiber-reinforced RBSN matrix composite lamina, on the residual stresses induced during processing is investigated numerically. The generalized method of cells micromechanics theory is utilized to model the ceramic matrix composite lamina using a repeating unit cell. The primary creep phases of the constituents are approximated using a Norton-Bailey, steady state, power law creep model. The effect of residual stresses on the proportional limit stress and strain to failure of the composite is demonstrated. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using a normal distribution for the power law parameters and the resulting residual stress distributions were predicted.

  12. SU-D-19A-02: Electron and Photon Absorbed Fractions for Tumors of Varying Sizes and Compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Olguin, E; Bolch, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To calculate absorbed fractions for mono-energetic photons and electrons in tumors of varying compositions using Monte Carlo simulations in MCNPX. Although tumor dosimetry has been previously investigated, these studies are very limited as they only consider absorbed fractions for soft-tissue tumors. Methods: The tumors were modeled as spheres with radii ranging from 0.10 cm to 6.0 cm and with compositions varying from 100% soft tissue to 100% bone. The energies of both the photons and electrons were varied from 10 keV to 10 MeV and were homogenously distributed throughout the tumor volume. Furthermore, this investigation addresses the issue of spherical versus elliptical tumors. Both prolate and oblate spheroid tumors of different compositions were modeled, and absorbed fractions were calculated for various electron and photon energies. Results: The data clearly shows an absorbed fraction dependence on tumor composition. For example, a soft-tissue model for a 3 MeV electron emitted in a 1 cm diameter bone tumor would have an 83% error, and this same assumption for a 500 keV photon would yield a 74% error. Ultimately, empirical fits were created for each of the five material compositions in order to facilitate the absorbed fraction calculation, requiring only the tumor size and particle energy. Furthermore, the data shows that absorbed fractions for moderate spheroids can be well approximated by spherical tumors of equal mass to within 8%, but in the extreme cases where the spheroid resembles more of a disk, the errors can be as high as 30%. Conclusion: This comprehensive data set is most valuable for nuclear medicine dosimetry because it incorporates particle type, particle energy, tumor size, and tumor composition. Although mono-energetic particles were modeled, absorbed fractions and S-values may be calculated for any radionuclide via linear interpolation, as long as the particle energies or spectra are known.

  13. Stress field sensitivity of a composite patch repair as a result of varying patch thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siener, Michael P.

    The feasibility of increasing the efficiency of a composite scarf joint and, hence, of the composite patch repair, was investigated by using single lap joint configurations based on a variety of patch material thicknesses and stiffnesses, and testing for the elastic response and the strength capability. Stress analyses of these configurations were carried out and compared to the results from tests. It was found that, by reorienting plies in the principal stress direction, it is possible to reduce the number of plies and thickness required to form a usable composite repair patch. The results also show that it may be necessary to incorporate the nonlinear adhesive behavior into the model to account for the extensional response of the adherends.

  14. Damage localization in composite structures with smoothly varying thickness based on the fundamental antisymmetric adiabatic wave mode.

    PubMed

    Moll, Jochen

    2016-09-01

    This work is based on the experimental observation that the phase and group velocity of the fundamental antisymmetric wave mode in a composite structure with linearly varying thickness changes as it propagates along the nonuniform waveguide (Moll et al., 2015). This adiabatic wave motion leads to systematic damage localization errors of conventional algorithms because a constant wave velocity is assumed in the reconstruction process. This paper presents a generalized beamforming approach for composite structures with nonuniform cross section that eliminates this systematic error. Damage localization results will be presented and discussed in comparison to existing techniques. PMID:27317966

  15. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

    2008-08-28

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The data was used to provide recommendations to the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) regarding blending and washing strategies in preparing SB5 based on acceptability of the glass compositions. These data were also used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of frits. Three composition projections for SB5 were developed using a model-based approach at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These compositions, referred to as SB5 Cases B, C and D, projected removal of 25, 50 and 75% (respectively) of the aluminum in Tank 51 through the low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The frits for this study (Frits 530 through 537) were selected based on their predicted operating windows (i.e., ranges of waste loadings over which the predicted properties of the glasses were acceptable) and their potential (based on historical trends) to provide acceptable melt rates for SB5. Six additional glasses were designed to evaluate alternatives for uranium in DWPF-type glasses used for variability studies and some scoping studies. Since special measures are necessary when working with uranium-containing glasses in the laboratory, it is desirable as a cost and time saving measure to find an alternative for uranium to support frit optimization efforts. Hafnium and neodymium were investigated as potential surrogates for uranium, and other glasses were made by simply excluding the radioactive components and renormalizing the glass composition. The study glasses were fabricated and characterized at SRNL. Chemical composition analyses suggested only minor difficulties in meeting the targeted compositions

  16. Tunable Electronic Transport Properties of 2D Layered Double Hydroxide Crystalline Microsheets with Varied Chemical Compositions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yibing; Hu, Hai; Yang, Xiaoxia; Yan, Dongpeng; Dai, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Transistors based on layered double hydroxides (LDH) single microcrystal are fabricated, whose conductivity of LDH can be tuned by varying metal cations or interlayer anions, but weakly affected by external electric field. The carrier mobility can reach about 1 × 10(-5) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , a value comparable to that of organic C60-based transistors. This work paves a way for future electrical applications of LDH. PMID:27416544

  17. In vitro wear of composite with varied cure, filler level, and filler treatment.

    PubMed

    Condon, J R; Ferracane, J L

    1997-07-01

    For the clinical wear of composite filing materials to be reduced, compositional factors such as degree of cure, filler level, and silanation level should be optimized. An oral-wear-stimulating machine was used to explore the effects of these factors on abrasion and attrition wear as well as on opposing enamel wear. The composites were made from Sr glass (1-2 micron avg) and a 50/50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin. Series I (A-D, E) were light-cured (Triad II) for 9, 12, 25, and 40 sec/side to produce degree of cure (DC) as measured by FTIR of 56, 60, 61, and 63%, respectively. E received an additional heat cure (120 degrees C for 10 min) to reach a DC of 66%. Series II (D, F-I) were filled to 62, 53, 48, 37, and 28 vol%, respectively. In series III (D, J-M), the portion of fillers treated with a silane coupler (MPS) was 100, 80, 60, 40, and 20%, respectively. Samples were cycled 50,000 times against an enamel antagonist in a poppy seed/PMMA slurry in the oral wear simulator to produce abrasion (load = 20 N) and attrition (load = 70 N) simultaneously. Wear depth (micron: n = 5) was measured by profilometry. Results for each series were analysed by ANOVA/Turkey's (p < or = 0.05). The wear depths did reflect cure values, though only the abrasion difference for E < A was significant. Greater wear was correlated with lower filler levels (r2 = 0.88; p < 0.05), significantly increasing below 48 vol% (G). Wear increased linearly as the percent of silane-treated fillers was reduced (r2 = 0.99; p < 0.05). Abrasion and attrition did not differ significantly for any composite. Wear of the opposing enamel was largely unchanged by these factors. Compositional factors including degree of cure, filler level, and silanation directly affected the wear resistance of dental composites evaluated in an oral wear simulator. PMID:9207774

  18. Varying rock responses as an indicator of changes in CO2-H2O fluid composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, C. R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of the late Archean charnockite zone of southern India was ascribed to dehydration recrystallization due to an influx of CO2. Pressure temperature conditions for the metamorphism were calculated at about 750 C and 7.5 Kbar. The composition of the volatile species presently contained in fluid inclusions in the rocks changes across the transition zone. The transition zone was studied at Kabbaldurga and the paths taken by the fluids were identified.

  19. Practical Analysis of materials with depth varying compositions using FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS)

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. McClelland; R.W. Jones; Siquan Luo

    2004-09-30

    FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is discussed as a nondestructive method to probe the molecular composition of materials versus depth on the basis of the analysis of layers of experimentally controllable thickness, which are measured from the sample surface to depths of some tens of micrometers, depending on optical and thermal properties. Computational methods are described to process photoacoustic amplitude and phase spectra for both semi-quantitative and quantitative depth analyses. These methods are demonstrated on layered and gradient samples.

  20. Effects of long-term drainage on microbial community composition vary between peatland types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanová, Zuzana; Barta, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands represent an important reservoir of carbon, but their functioning can be threatened by water level drawdown caused by climate or land use change. Knowledge of how microbial communities respond to long-term drainage in different peatland types could help improve predictions of the effect of climate change on these ecosystems. We investigated the effect of long-term drainage on microbial community composition in bog, fen and spruce swamp forests (SSF) in the Sumava Mountains (Czech Republic), using high-throughput barcoded sequencing, in relation to peat biochemical properties. Longterm drainage had substantial effects, which depended strongly on peatland type, on peat biochemical properties and microbial community composition. The effect of drainage was most apparent on fen, followed by SSF, and lowest on bog. Long-term drainage led to lower pH, reduced peat decomposability and increased bulk density, which was reflected by reduced microbial activity. Bacterial diversity decreased and Acidobacteria became the dominant phylum on drained sites, reflecting a convergence in bacterial community composition across peatlands after long-term drainage. The archaeal communities changed very strongly and became similar across drained peatlands. Overall, the characteristic differences between distinct peatland types under natural conditions were diminished by long-term drainage. Bog represented a relatively resilient system while fen seemed to be very sensitive to environmental changes.

  1. Characterization of MBE-grown InAlN/GaN heterostructure valence band offsets with varying In composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Wenyuan; Kong, Wei; Li, Jincheng; Collar, Kristen; Kim, Tong-Ho; Losurdo, Maria; Brown, April S.

    2016-03-01

    Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used in this work to experimentally determine the valence band offsets of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown InAlN/GaN heterostructures with varying indium composition. We find that the internal electric field resulting from polarization must be taken into account when analyzing the XPS data. Valence band offsets of 0.12 eV for In0.18Al0.82N, 0.15 eV for In0.17Al0.83N, and 0.23 eV for In0.098Al0.902N with GaN are obtained. The results show that a compositional-depended bowing parameter is needed in order to estimate the valence band energies of InAlN as a function of composition in relation to those of the binary endpoints, AlN and InN.

  2. The in vivo performance of CaP/PLGA composites with varied PLGA microsphere sizes and inorganic compositions.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Jan Willem M; Ma, Jinling; Plachokova, Adelina S; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Bohner, Marc; Pan, Juli; Meijer, Gert J; Jansen, John A; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P

    2013-07-01

    Enrichment of calcium phosphate (CaP) bone substitutes with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres to create porosity overcomes the problem of poor CaP degradation. The degradation of CaP-PLGA composites can be customized by changing the physical and chemical properties of PLGA and/or CaP. However, the effect of the size of dense (solid rather than hollow) PLGA microspheres in CaP has not previously been described. The present study aimed at determining the effect of different dense (i.e. solid) PLGA microsphere sizes (small (S) ~20μm vs. large (L) ~130μm) and of CaP composition (CaP with either anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCP) or calcium sulphate dihydrate (CSD)) on CaP scaffold biodegradability and subsequent bone in-growth. To this end mandibular defects in minipigs were filled with pre-set CaP-PLGA implants, with autologous bone being used as a control. After 4weeks the autologous bone group outperformed all CaP-PLGA groups in terms of the amount of bone present at the defect site. On the other hand, at 12weeks substantial bone formation was observed for all CaP-PLGA groups (ranging from 47±25% to 62±15%), showing equal amounts of bone compared with the autologous bone group (82±9%), except for CaP with DCP and large PLGA microspheres (47±25%). It was concluded that in the current study design the difference in PLGA microsphere size and CaP composition led to similar results with respect to scaffold degradation and subsequent bone in-growth. Further, after 12weeks all CaP-PLGA composites proved to be effective for bone substitution. PMID:23511808

  3. Effect of varying pH on protein composition and yield of amaranth seed (Amaranthus blitum).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Reema; Roy, Bijoy K

    2011-09-01

    The isolation procedure of the seed proteins of Amaranthus blitum have been analyzed at different pH conditions. Qualitative studies were carried out by using electrophoretic technique sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Mainly four protein fractions i.e. albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin were obtained. Protein isolates were prepared by (a) extraction at different alkaline pH (9, 10, 11 and 12) and precipitation atpH 5 and (b) extraction at pH 9 and precipitation atdifferentpH (4, 5, 6 and 7). The composition of isolates, prepared by method (a), depended on extraction pH. The isolate extracted at pH 8 was mainly composed of albumin and globulin, whereas at pH 9, 10 and 11 showed the presence of prolamin and glutelin. Electrophoretic pattern of different isolates had five major bands with molecular weight of 30, 45, 72, 84 and 90 kDt respectively. The increase of the extraction pH led to the increase in protein yield. With method (b) isolates obtained were variable in composition. At pH 7 albumin and prolamine were present, whereas at pH 4, 5 and 6 all 4 protein fractions were precipitated. According to the quantitative estimation of the albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin in the seed flour the contents were 26.4, 25, 5.81 and 42.7%, respectively. The results suggest that composition of protein isolates could be controlled by different extraction and precipitation pH. PMID:22319880

  4. The instability theory of drumlin formation and its explanation of their varied composition and internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Chris R.; Fowler, Andrew C.; Clark, Chris D.; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Spagnolo, Matteo

    2013-02-01

    Despite their importance in understanding glaciological processes and constraining large-scale flow patterns in palaeo-glaciology, there is little consensus as to how drumlins are formed. Attempts to solve the 'drumlin problem' often fail to address how they are created from an initially flat surface in the absence of obvious cores or obstacles. This is a key strength of the instability theory, which has been described in a suite of physically-based mathematical models and proposes that the coupled flow of ice and till causes spontaneous formation of relief in the till surface. Encouragingly, model predictions of bedform height and length are consistent with observations and, furthermore, the theory has been applied to a range of subglacial bedforms and not just drumlins. However, it has yet to confront the myriad observations relating to the composition and internal structure of drumlins and this could be seen as a major deficiency. This paper is a first attempt to assess whether the instability theory is compatible with the incredible diversity of sediments and structures found within drumlins. We summarise the underlying principles of the theory and then describe and attempt to explain the main types of drumlin composition (e.g. bedrock, till, glaciofluvial sediments, and combinations thereof). Contrary to a view which suggests that the presence of some sedimentary sequences (e.g. horizontally stratified cores) is inconsistent with the theory, we suggest that one would actually expect a diverse range of constituents depending on the inheritance of sediments that pre-date drumlin formation, the duration and variability of ice flow, and the balance between erosion and deposition (till continuity) at the ice-bed interface. We conclude that the instability theory is compatible with (and potentially strengthened by) what is known about drumlin composition and, as such, offers the most complete and promising solution to the drumlin problem to date.

  5. Thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, L.

    1993-01-01

    The mirage-effect/thermal wave technique as a modern technique for thermal property characterization is described. The thermal diffusivity of a material is determined by measuring the time and space varying temperature distribution (thermal wave) in the material generated by an intensity modulated heating laser beam. These thermal waves are detected through the deflection of a probe laser beam due to modulation of gradient of the index of refraction (mirage effect) either in the air above the specimens (the in-air technique) or in the specimen itself (the in-solid technique). Three-dimensional theories, for both in-air and in-solid mirage techniques, are represented. In order to extract the material parameters by comparing the theory with experimental data, an extensive data analysis procedure based on multiparameter-least-squares has been developed. The experimental and data analysis details are discussed. Topics concerns with the quality and reliability of the measurements are addressed. This technique has been successfully applied to the thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotope contents. The results showed a 50% enhancement in the thermal conductivity by removal of C[sup 13] content from 1.1% to 0.1% in diamond at room temperature. The technique has also been adapted to function in cryogenic temperatures. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in the temperature range 80-378K for natural IIA specimen and 187-375K for isotopically enriched specimen are obtained, the former results agree with previous works and the latter results demonstrate the isotope effect on the thermal conductivity of single crystal diamond consistently in a large temperature range. The physical source of this enhancement in diffusivity due to the isotope effect in diamond is discussed. The discussion is based on the full Callaway's theory with emphasizing the role of N-processes in the phonon scattering mechanism.

  6. Modeled and Measured Dynamics of a Composite Beam with Periodically Varying Foam Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Cano, Roberto J.; Schiller, Noah H.; Roberts Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of a sandwich beam with carbon fiber composite facesheets and foam core with periodic variations in material properties are studied. The purpose of the study is to compare finite element predictions with experimental measurements on fabricated beam specimens. For the study, three beams were fabricated: one with a compliant foam core, a second with a stiffer core, and a third with the two cores alternating down the length of the beam to create a periodic variation in properties. This periodic variation produces a bandgap in the frequency domain where vibrational energy does not readily propagate down the length of the beam. Mode shapes and natural frequencies are compared, as well as frequency responses from point force input to velocity response at the opposite end of the beam.

  7. Properties of excited A = 40 nuclear systems with varying matter composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K.; Natowitz, J. B.; Barbui, M.; Hagel, K.; Bonasera, A.; Giuliani, G.; Zheng, H.; Rodrigues, M.; Wada, R.; Huang, M.; Botosso, C.; Kowalski, S.

    2016-05-01

    There exists an intriguing problem when bosonic clusters as bound states of fermions are produced in the reaction, and the Bose character of the composite clusters competes with the fermionic properties of their constituents. In the analysis of 40Ca + 40Ca reactions at 35MeV/A we selected classes of projectile-like sources with exit channels consisting of only bosons, only fermions, only even-even nuclei, only odd - odd nuclei, only even - odd nuclei and only alpha-conjugate nuclei, respectively and searched for kinematic characteristics of these systems which might differ depending upon the type of matter selected. The distributions of various observables for the different classes of matter and comparisons between them will be presented and discussed.

  8. Coral and macroalgal exudates vary in neutral sugar composition and differentially enrich reef bacterioplankton lineages

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Craig E; Goldberg, Stuart J; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Haas, Andreas F; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest; Carlson, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Increasing algal cover on tropical reefs worldwide may be maintained through feedbacks whereby algae outcompete coral by altering microbial activity. We hypothesized that algae and coral release compositionally distinct exudates that differentially alter bacterioplankton growth and community structure. We collected exudates from the dominant hermatypic coral holobiont Porites spp. and three dominant macroalgae (one each Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta) from reefs of Mo'orea, French Polynesia. We characterized exudates by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fractional dissolved combined neutral sugars (DCNSs) and subsequently tracked bacterioplankton responses to each exudate over 48 h, assessing cellular growth, DOC/DCNS utilization and changes in taxonomic composition (via 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing). Fleshy macroalgal exudates were enriched in the DCNS components fucose (Ochrophyta) and galactose (Rhodophyta); coral and calcareous algal exudates were enriched in total DCNS but in the same component proportions as ambient seawater. Rates of bacterioplankton growth and DOC utilization were significantly higher in algal exudate treatments than in coral exudate and control incubations with each community selectively removing different DCNS components. Coral exudates engendered the smallest shift in overall bacterioplankton community structure, maintained high diversity and enriched taxa from Alphaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured representatives with relatively few virulence factors (VFs) (Hyphomonadaceae and Erythrobacteraceae). In contrast, macroalgal exudates selected for less diverse communities heavily enriched in copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured pathogens with increased VFs (Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae). Our results demonstrate that algal exudates are enriched in DCNS components, foster rapid growth of bacterioplankton and select for bacterial populations with more potential VFs than

  9. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  10. Assembly route toward raspberry-like composite particles and their controlled surface wettability through varied dual-size binary roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xin; Niu, Lin; Wu, Yuehuan; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

    2015-03-01

    Sulfonated PS template/aniline medium method was used to assemble raspberry-like composite particles with varied dual-size binary morphology. The assembly efficiency of SiO2 particles on templates was found to increase with sulfonation temperature as well as sulfuric acid concentration. For sulfonation time one turning point appeared because there existed one balance between microgel structure formation and PSS chains detachment. The optimal preparation condition was finally obtained and proved effective for other types of anionic particles. Wettability of surfaces with varied binary roughness was studied and the results showed that dual-size structure could further improve the hydrophobic performance. The contact angles were found to increase with the size ratio of template particles/outer particles.

  11. ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance monitoring of the degradation of margarines of varied compositions when heated to high temperature.

    PubMed

    Ibargoitia, María L; Sopelana, P; Guillén, María D

    2014-12-15

    In this study, (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was used to monitor the evolution of three margarines of varied compositions when submitted to heating at 180°C in an oven with aeration. Heating causes degradation of polyunsaturated acyl groups and this depends not only on their unsaturation degree, but also on the concentration of the different acyl groups. The evolution of monounsaturated groups varies depending on the disappearance rate of the groups with higher unsaturation degree. Heat treatment also causes hydrolysis reactions that lead to a reduction in 1-monoglycerides and an increase in 1,2-diglycerides, especially in the margarines with higher water content, as well as degradation of some vegetable sterols. Different types of aldehydes and epoxides were identified and quantified, above all in the margarine with the highest proportion of polyunsaturated groups, especially linoleic; some of these are toxic, such as 4-hydroxy- and 4,5-epoxy-2-alkenals. PMID:25038657

  12. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of stress distribution in composite resin cores with fiber posts of varying diameters.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kazuhiko; Ino, Teruno; Iwase, Naoki; Shimizu, Eitaroh; Suzuki, Megumi; Satoh, Goh; Ohkawa, Shuji; Fujisawa, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA), stress distributions in the remaining radicular tooth structure were investigated under the condition of varying diameters of fiber post for fiber post-reinforced composite resin cores (fiber post and core) in maxillary central incisors. Four 3D-FEA models were constructed: (1) fiber post (ø1.2, ø1.4, and ø1.6 mm) and composite resin core; and (2) gold-cast post and core. Maximum stresses in the tooth structure for fiber post and core were higher than that for gold-cast post and core. In the former models, stresses in the tooth structure as well as in the composite resin were slightly reduced with increase in fiber post diameter. These results thus suggested that to reduce stress in the remaining radicular tooth with a large coronal defect, it is recommended to accompany a composite resin core with a fiber post of a large diameter. PMID:18309611

  13. Structure and composition of the distant lunar exosphere: Constraints from ARTEMIS observations of ion acceleration in time-varying fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Poppe, A. R.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    By analyzing the trajectories of ionized constituents of the lunar exosphere in time-varying electromagnetic fields, we can place constraints on the composition, structure, and dynamics of the lunar exosphere. Heavy ions travel slower than light ions in the same fields, so by observing the lag between field rotations and the response of ions from the lunar exosphere, we can place constraints on the composition of the ions. Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) provides an ideal platform to utilize such an analysis, since its two-probe vantage allows precise timing of the propagation of field discontinuities in the solar wind, and its sensitive plasma instruments can detect the ion response. We demonstrate the utility of this technique by using fully time-dependent charged particle tracing to analyze several minutes of ion observations taken by the two ARTEMIS probes ~3000-5000 km above the dusk terminator on 25 January 2014. The observations from this time period allow us to reach several interesting conclusions. The ion production at altitudes of a few hundred kilometers above the sunlit surface of the Moon has an unexpectedly significant contribution from species with masses of 40 amu or greater. The inferred distribution of the neutral source population has a large scale height, suggesting that micrometeorite impact vaporization and/or sputtering play an important role in the production of neutrals from the surface. Our observations also suggest an asymmetry in ion production, consistent with either a compositional variation in neutral vapor production or a local reduction in solar wind sputtering in magnetic regions of the surface.

  14. Proton radiotherapy dose perturbations caused by esophageal stents of varying material composition are negligible in an experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Jalaj, Sujai; Lee, Sang Yeob; McGaw, Camille; John, Bijo K; Li, Zuofeng; Awad, Ziad T; Scolapio, James S; Munoz, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-expanding metal and plastic esophageal stents (SEMS and SEPS, respectively) are used in conjunction with chemoradiation for palliation of malignant dysphagia. To date, the dosimetric effects of stents undergoing proton radiotherapy are not known. Study aim: To investigate the proton radiotherapy dose perturbations caused by esophageal stents of varying designs and materials undergoing external beam treatment for esophageal cancer. Patients and methods: Simulated clinical protocol. Solid acrylic phantom was used to mimic the esophageal tissue environment. Stents made of nitinol, stainless steel and polyester were tested. Proton beam dose of 2 Gy-E was delivered to each stent in a single anterior to posterior field. Film and image based evidence of dose perturbation were main outcomes measured. Results: Only the stainless steel and plastic stents demonstrated slight overall dose attenuations (– 0.5 % and – 0.4 %, respectively). All the nitinol-based stents demonstrated minimal overall dose perturbations ranging from 0.0 % to 1.2 %. Negligible dose perturbations were observed on each of the stent surfaces proximal to the radiation source, ranging from – 0.8 % (stainless steel stent) to 1.0 % (nitinol stent). Negligible dose effects were also observed on the distal surfaces of each stent ranging from – 0.5 % (plastic and stainless steel stents) to 1.0 % (nitinol stent). Conclusion: Proton radiotherapy dose perturbations caused by stents of varying designs and material composition are negligible. Negligible dose perturbation is in keeping with the inherent advantage of proton therapy over traditional radiotherapy composed of photons – given its relative large mass, protons have little side scatter. PMID:26134771

  15. The effect of varying ingredient composition on the sensory and nutritional properties of a pureed meat and vegetable.

    PubMed

    Ilhamto, Nila; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of ingredients and preparation methods on the sensory and nutritional properties of pureed turkey and carrots. Turkey samples varying in added liquid and muscle composition were developed. Seasoning application methods were also studied. Pureed carrots were formulated with no added thickener, added modified corn starch, rice cereal, or skim milk powder. Small changes in added liquid and seasoning application altered the perceived texture of the turkey. Pureed carrots with added modified corn starch were more slippery and firm than other samples. The addition of skim milk powder or rice cereal did not alter sensory properties but led to higher protein contents when compared to unthickened carrots. In-house formulations did not differ in sensory ratings of appearance and flavor when compared to commercial products but contained more carbohydrates. Modest changes in recipes for pureed products can improve sensory appeal and nutrient density; quality in-house products are feasible with only minor alterations. PMID:25105717

  16. Bonobos Extract Meaning from Call Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Zanna; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Studies on language-trained bonobos have revealed their remarkable abilities in representational and communication tasks. Surprisingly, however, corresponding research into their natural communication has largely been neglected. We address this issue with a first playback study on the natural vocal behaviour of bonobos. Bonobos produce five acoustically distinct call types when finding food, which they regularly mix together into longer call sequences. We found that individual call types were relatively poor indicators of food quality, while context specificity was much greater at the call sequence level. We therefore investigated whether receivers could extract meaning about the quality of food encountered by the caller by integrating across different call sequences. We first trained four captive individuals to find two types of foods, kiwi (preferred) and apples (less preferred) at two different locations. We then conducted naturalistic playback experiments during which we broadcasted sequences of four calls, originally produced by a familiar individual responding to either kiwi or apples. All sequences contained the same number of calls but varied in the composition of call types. Following playbacks, we found that subjects devoted significantly more search effort to the field indicated by the call sequence. Rather than attending to individual calls, bonobos attended to the entire sequences to make inferences about the food encountered by a caller. These results provide the first empirical evidence that bonobos are able to extract information about external events by attending to vocal sequences of other individuals and highlight the importance of call combinations in their natural communication system. PMID:21556149

  17. A survey of biofilms on wastewater aeration diffusers suggests bacterial community composition and function vary by substrate type and time.

    PubMed

    Noble, Peter A; Park, Hee-Deung; Olson, Betty H; Asvapathanagul, Pitiporn; Hunter, M Colby; Garrido-Baserba, Manel; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Rosso, Diego

    2016-07-01

    Aeration diffusers in wastewater treatment plants generate air bubbles that promote mixing, distribution of dissolved oxygen, and microbial processing of dissolved and suspended matter in bulk solution. Biofouling of diffusers represents a significant problem to wastewater treatment plants because biofilms decrease oxygen transfer efficiency and increase backpressure on the blower. To better understand biofouling, we conducted a pilot study to survey the bacterial community composition and function of biofilms on different diffuser substrates and compare them to those in the bulk solution. DNA was extracted from the surface of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM), polyurethane, and silicone diffusers operated for 15 months in a municipal treatment plant and sampled at 3 and 9 months. The bacterial community composition and function of the biofilms and bulk solution were determined by amplifying the 16S rRNA genes and pyrosequencing the amplicons and raw metagenomic DNA. The ordination plots and dendrograms of the 16S rRNA and functional genes showed that while the bacterial community composition and function of the bulk solution was independent of sampling time, the composition and function of the biofilms differed by diffuser type and testing time. For the EPDM and silicone diffusers, the biofilm communities were more similar in composition to the bulk solution at 3 months than 9 months. In contrast, the bacteria on the polyurethane diffusers were more dissimilar to the bulk solution at 3 months than 9 months. Taken together, the survey showed that the community composition and function of bacterial biofilms depend on the diffuser substrate and testing time, which warrants further elucidation. PMID:27294381

  18. Nonlinear and threshold responses of grassland productivity and species composition to increased CO2 vary with soil type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change is likely to cause non-linear responses in ecosystem function and threshold changes in species composition. Here we report aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) responses to a continuous CO2 concentration gradient (250 to 500 µL L-1) in experimental grassland communities on...

  19. Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breath

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jonathan; Stönner, Christof; Wicker, Jörg; Krauter, Nicolas; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Klüpfel, Thomas; Kramer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Human beings continuously emit chemicals into the air by breath and through the skin. In order to determine whether these emissions vary predictably in response to audiovisual stimuli, we have continuously monitored carbon dioxide and over one hundred volatile organic compounds in a cinema. It was found that many airborne chemicals in cinema air varied distinctively and reproducibly with time for a particular film, even in different screenings to different audiences. Application of scene labels and advanced data mining methods revealed that specific film events, namely “suspense” or “comedy” caused audiences to change their emission of specific chemicals. These event-type synchronous, broadcasted human chemosignals open the possibility for objective and non-invasive assessment of a human group response to stimuli by continuous measurement of chemicals in air. Such methods can be applied to research fields such as psychology and biology, and be valuable to industries such as film making and advertising. PMID:27160439

  20. Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jonathan; Stönner, Christof; Wicker, Jörg; Krauter, Nicolas; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Klüpfel, Thomas; Kramer, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Human beings continuously emit chemicals into the air by breath and through the skin. In order to determine whether these emissions vary predictably in response to audiovisual stimuli, we have continuously monitored carbon dioxide and over one hundred volatile organic compounds in a cinema. It was found that many airborne chemicals in cinema air varied distinctively and reproducibly with time for a particular film, even in different screenings to different audiences. Application of scene labels and advanced data mining methods revealed that specific film events, namely “suspense” or “comedy” caused audiences to change their emission of specific chemicals. These event-type synchronous, broadcasted human chemosignals open the possibility for objective and non-invasive assessment of a human group response to stimuli by continuous measurement of chemicals in air. Such methods can be applied to research fields such as psychology and biology, and be valuable to industries such as film making and advertising.

  1. Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breath.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan; Stönner, Christof; Wicker, Jörg; Krauter, Nicolas; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Klüpfel, Thomas; Kramer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Human beings continuously emit chemicals into the air by breath and through the skin. In order to determine whether these emissions vary predictably in response to audiovisual stimuli, we have continuously monitored carbon dioxide and over one hundred volatile organic compounds in a cinema. It was found that many airborne chemicals in cinema air varied distinctively and reproducibly with time for a particular film, even in different screenings to different audiences. Application of scene labels and advanced data mining methods revealed that specific film events, namely "suspense" or "comedy" caused audiences to change their emission of specific chemicals. These event-type synchronous, broadcasted human chemosignals open the possibility for objective and non-invasive assessment of a human group response to stimuli by continuous measurement of chemicals in air. Such methods can be applied to research fields such as psychology and biology, and be valuable to industries such as film making and advertising. PMID:27160439

  2. Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Ganesh, Siva; Jonker, Arjan; Young, Wayne; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was determined in 742 samples from 32 animal species and 35 countries, to estimate if this was influenced by diet, host species, or geography. Similar bacteria and archaea dominated in nearly all samples, while protozoal communities were more variable. The dominant bacteria are poorly characterised, but the methanogenic archaea are better known and highly conserved across the world. This universality and limited diversity could make it possible to mitigate methane emissions by developing strategies that target the few dominant methanogens. Differences in microbial community compositions were predominantly attributable to diet, with the host being less influential. There were few strong co-occurrence patterns between microbes, suggesting that major metabolic interactions are non-selective rather than specific. PMID:26449758

  3. Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Ganesh, Siva; Jonker, Arjan; Young, Wayne; Abecia, Leticia; Angarita, Erika; Aravena, Paula; Nora Arenas, Graciela; Ariza, Claudia; Attwood, Graeme T.; Mauricio Avila, Jose; Avila-Stagno, Jorge; Bannink, André; Barahona, Rolando; Batistotti, Mariano; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Brown-Kav, Aya; Carvajal, Andres M.; Cersosimo, Laura; Vieira Chaves, Alexandre; Church, John; Clipson, Nicholas; Cobos-Peralta, Mario A.; Cookson, Adrian L.; Cravero, Silvio; Cristobal Carballo, Omar; Crosley, Katie; Cruz, Gustavo; Cerón Cucchi, María; de la Barra, Rodrigo; De Menezes, Alexandre B.; Detmann, Edenio; Dieho, Kasper; Dijkstra, Jan; dos Reis, William L. S.; Dugan, Mike E. R.; Hadi Ebrahimi, Seyed; Eythórsdóttir, Emma; Nde Fon, Fabian; Fraga, Martín; Franco, Francisco; Friedeman, Chris; Fukuma, Naoki; Gagić, Dragana; Gangnat, Isabelle; Javier Grilli, Diego; Guan, Le Luo; Heidarian Miri, Vahideh; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Gomez, Alma Ximena Ibarra; Isah, Olubukola A.; Ishaq, Suzanne; Jami, Elie; Jelincic, Juan; Kantanen, Juha; Kelly, William J.; Kim, Seon-Ho; Klieve, Athol; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Koike, Satoshi; Kopecny, Jan; Nygaard Kristensen, Torsten; Julie Krizsan, Sophie; LaChance, Hannah; Lachman, Medora; Lamberson, William R.; Lambie, Suzanne; Lassen, Jan; Leahy, Sinead C.; Lee, Sang-Suk; Leiber, Florian; Lewis, Eva; Lin, Bo; Lira, Raúl; Lund, Peter; Macipe, Edgar; Mamuad, Lovelia L.; Cuquetto Mantovani, Hilário; Marcoppido, Gisela Ariana; Márquez, Cristian; Martin, Cécile; Martinez, Gonzalo; Eugenia Martinez, Maria; Lucía Mayorga, Olga; McAllister, Tim A.; McSweeney, Chris; Mestre, Lorena; Minnee, Elena; Mitsumori, Makoto; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Molina, Isabel; Muenger, Andreas; Munoz, Camila; Murovec, Bostjan; Newbold, John; Nsereko, Victor; O’Donovan, Michael; Okunade, Sunday; O’Neill, Brendan; Ospina, Sonia; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Parra, Diana; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; Pinares-Patino, Cesar; Pope, Phil B.; Poulsen, Morten; Rodehutscord, Markus; Rodriguez, Tatiana; Saito, Kunihiko; Sales, Francisco; Sauer, Catherine; Shingfield, Kevin; Shoji, Noriaki; Simunek, Jiri; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica; Stres, Blaz; Sun, Xuezhao; Swartz, Jeffery; Liang Tan, Zhi; Tapio, Ilma; Taxis, Tasia M.; Tomkins, Nigel; Ungerfeld, Emilio; Valizadeh, Reza; van Adrichem, Peter; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Van Hoven, Woulter; Waghorn, Garry; John Wallace, R.; Wang, Min; Waters, Sinéad M.; Keogh, Kate; Witzig, Maren; Wright, Andre-Denis G.; Yamano, Hidehisa; Yan, Tianhai; Yanez-Ruiz, David R.; Yeoman, Carl J.; Zambrano, Ricardo; Zeitz, Johanna; Zhou, Mi; Wei Zhou, Hua; Xia Zou, Cai; Zunino, Pablo; Janssen, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was determined in 742 samples from 32 animal species and 35 countries, to estimate if this was influenced by diet, host species, or geography. Similar bacteria and archaea dominated in nearly all samples, while protozoal communities were more variable. The dominant bacteria are poorly characterised, but the methanogenic archaea are better known and highly conserved across the world. This universality and limited diversity could make it possible to mitigate methane emissions by developing strategies that target the few dominant methanogens. Differences in microbial community compositions were predominantly attributable to diet, with the host being less influential. There were few strong co-occurrence patterns between microbes, suggesting that major metabolic interactions are non-selective rather than specific. PMID:26449758

  4. Different Assembly Processes Drive Shifts in Species and Functional Composition in Experimental Grasslands Varying in Sown Diversity and Community History

    PubMed Central

    Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Gerighausen, Uta; Schmid, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of different biotic processes (limiting similarity, weaker competitor exclusion) and historical contingency due to priority effects are in the focus of ongoing discussions about community assembly and non-random functional trait distributions. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally manipulated assembly history in a grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment) by applying two factorially crossed split-plot treatments to all communities: (i) duration of weeding (never weeded since sowing or cessation of weeding after 3 or 6 years); (ii) seed addition (control vs. seed addition 4 years after sowing). Spontaneous colonization of new species in the control treatment without seed addition increased realized species richness and functional richness (FRic), indicating continuously denser packing of niches. Seed addition resulted in forced colonization and increased realized species richness, FRic, functional evenness (FEve) and functional divergence (FDiv), i.e. higher abundances of species with extreme trait values. Furthermore, the colonization of new species led to a decline in FEve through time, suggesting that weaker competitors were reduced in abundance or excluded. Communities with higher initial species richness or with longer time since cessation of weeding were more restricted in the entry of new species and showed smaller increases in FRic after seed addition than other communities. The two assembly-history treatments caused a divergence of species compositions within communities originally established with the same species. Communities originally established with different species converged in species richness and functional trait composition over time, but remained more distinct in species composition. Conclusions/Significance Contrasting biotic processes (limiting similarity, weaker competitor exclusion) increase functional convergence between communities initially established with different species. Historical

  5. Archaeosomes varying in lipid composition differ in receptor-mediated endocytosis and differentially adjuvant immune responses to entrapped antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sprott, G. Dennis; Sad, Subash; Fleming, L. Perry; DiCaire, Chantal J.; Patel, Girishchandra B.; Krishnan, Lakshmi

    2003-01-01

    Archaeosomes prepared from total polar lipids extracted from six archaeal species with divergent lipid compositions had the capacity to deliver antigen for presentation via both MHC class I and class II pathways. Lipid extracts from Halobacterium halobium and from Halococcus morrhuae strains 14039 and 16008 contained archaetidylglycerol methylphosphate and sulfated glycolipids rich in mannose residues, and lacked archaetidylserine, whereas the opposite was found in Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanococcus jannaschii. Annexin V labeling revealed a surface orientation of phosphoserine head groups in M. smithii, M. mazei and M. jannaschii archaeosomes. Uptake of rhodamine-labeled M. smithii or M. jannaschii archaeosomes by murine peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by unlabeled liposomes containing phosphatidylserine, by the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide, and by ATP depletion using azide plus fluoride, but not by H. halobium archaeosomes. In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide failed to inhibit uptake of the four other rhodamine-labeled archaeosome types, and azide plus fluoride did not inhibit uptake of H. halobium or H. morrhuae archaeosomes. These results suggest endocytosis ofarchaeosomes rich in surface-exposed phosphoserine head groups via a phosphatidylserine receptor, and energy-independent surface adsorption of certain other archaeosome composition classes. Lipid composition affected not only the endocytic mechanism, but also served to differentially modulate the activation of dendritic cells. The induction of IL-12 secretion from dendritic cells exposed to H. morrhuae 14039 archaeosomes was striking compared with cells exposed to archaeosomes from 16008. Thus, archaeosome types uniquely modulate antigen delivery and dendritic cell activation. PMID:15803661

  6. Nonlinear and Threshold Responses of Grassland Productivity and Species Composition to Increased CO2 Vary with Soil Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, P. A.; Jin, V.; Jackson, R. B.; Gill, R. A.; Way, D.; Polley, W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is likely to cause nonlinear responses in ecosystem function and threshold changes in species composition. Here we report aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) responses to a continuous CO2 concentration gradient (250 to 500 μL L-1,) in experimental grassland communities on three soils differing in water holding capacity and other properties. Communities consisting of four C4 grasses, two C3 forbs, and one legume were established on a lowland clay (vertisol, n=32), an upland clay (mollisol, n=32), and an alluvial sand (alfisol, n=16). The communities were positioned in a stratified random design in the CO2 gradient for five growing seasons, and were irrigated to mimic the average growing season rainfall regime for the study site in Central Texas. ANPP increased with CO2 almost two-fold more on the upland clay and alluvial sand than on the lowland clay (p < 0.0001), because of strong linear responses to CO2 on these soils (R2 = 0.50 to 0.59, p < 0.002) compared to a saturating response to CO2 on the lowland clay (R2 = 0.48, p= 0.01). On the two more responsive soils, the mesic tallgrass Sorghastrum nutans replaced the more drought adapted mid-grass Bouteloua curtipendula at elevated CO2, while B. curtipendula largely replaced S. nutans at low CO2, especially on the upland clay. Evidence for a similar composition change was not found on the lowland clay. Thus, two soils displayed a threshold change in community composition that accounted for up to 57% of variation in ANPP for those soils. Variation in ANPP and species composition with CO2 were accompanied by linear increases in soil water content (SWC, 0 - 20 cm, volumetric), most strongly on the alluvial sand (R2 = 0.39, p < 0.009) and by weak decreases with CO2 in soil N. Structural equation models explained 34 to 52% of the variation in ANPP, and indicated that CO2 effects on ANPP on the upland clay were primarily explained by CO2 effects on species composition, and on the alluvial sand by CO

  7. Computational study of multi-color InGaN/GaN nanowire LEDs with continuously varied indium composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppner, Marcus; Bjelica, Marko; Römer, Friedhard; Witzigmann, Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Gallium nitride based light emitting diodes have emerged as powerful devices which could replace incandescent and fluorescent lamps within the next years. The development of phosphor-free white LEDs is an ongoing field of research because of the lack of high efficiency green LEDs. A promising approach is the growth of InGaN/GaN nanowires with a continuously varied Indium content along the structure. The graded mole fraction profile is supposed to yield a multitude of emission colors due to many emission levels which can sum up to white light emission. The formation of strain and polarization charges is reduced because of the incremental varying lattice constants in combination with the facility of lateral relaxation of the wire. We report on the computational analysis of those nanowire structures in order to understand the electroluminescent behavior. The simulation software calculates the electrostatic potential and the carrier densities in the entire structure by solving the Poisson and the drift/diffusion equations in three dimensions. The luminescence is determined on the basis of a free carrier theory and enters the continuity equations as recombination term with strain and polarization effects included. This comprehensive physical model is employed to analyze carrier injection and luminescence for a white light-emitter design.

  8. Engineering articular cartilage with spatially-varying matrix composition and mechanical properties from a single stem cell population using a multi-layered hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lonnissa H; Kudva, Abhijith K; Saxena, Neha S; Roy, Krishnendu

    2011-10-01

    Despite significant advances in stem cell differentiation and tissue engineering, directing progenitor cells into three-dimensionally (3D) organized, native-like complex structures with spatially-varying mechanical properties and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) composition has not yet been achieved. The key innovations needed to achieve this would involve methods for directing a single stem cell population into multiple, spatially distinct phenotypes or lineages within a 3D scaffold structure. We have previously shown that specific combinations of natural and synthetic biomaterials can direct marrow-derived stem cells (MSC) into varying phenotypes of chondrocytes that resemble cells from the superficial, transitional, and deep zones of articular cartilage. In this current study, we demonstrate that layer-by-layer organization of these specific biomaterial compositions creates 3D niches that allow a single MSC population to differentiate into zone-specific chondrocytes and organize into a complex tissue structure. Our results indicate that a three-layer polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogel with chondroitin sulfate (CS) and matrix metalloproteinase-sensitive peptides (MMP-pep) incorporated into the top layer (superficial zone, PEG:CS:MMP-pep), CS incorporated into the middle layer (transitional zone, PEG:CS) and hyaluronic acid incorporated in the bottom layer (deep zone, PEG:HA), creates native-like articular cartilage with spatially-varying mechanical and biochemical properties. Specifically, collagen II levels decreased gradually from the superficial to the deep zone, while collagen X and proteoglycan levels increased, leading to an increasing gradient of compressive modulus from the superficial to the deep zone. We conclude that spatially-varying biomaterial compositions within single 3D scaffolds can stimulate efficient regeneration of multi-layered complex tissues from a single stem cell population. PMID:21723599

  9. A qualitative comparison of secondary organic aerosol yields and composition from ozonolysis of monoterpenes at varying concentrations of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, D. C.; Farmer, D. K.; Desyaterik, Y.; Fry, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of NO2 on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from ozonolysis of α-pinene, β-pinene, Δ3-carene, and limonene was investigated using a dark flow-through reaction chamber. SOA mass yields were calculated for each monoterpene from ozonolysis with varying NO2 concentrations. Kinetics modeling of the first-generation gas-phase chemistry suggests that differences in observed aerosol yields for different NO2 concentrations are consistent with NO3 formation and subsequent competition between O3 and NO3 to oxidize each monoterpene. α-Pinene was the only monoterpene studied that showed a systematic decrease in both aerosol number concentration and mass concentration with increasing [NO2]. β-Pinene and Δ3-carene produced fewer particles at higher [NO2], but both retained moderate mass yields. Limonene exhibited both higher number concentrations and greater mass concentrations at higher [NO2]. SOA from each experiment was collected and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS, enabling comparisons between product distributions for each system. In general, the systems influenced by NO3 oxidation contained more high molecular weight products (MW > 400 amu), suggesting the importance of oligomerization mechanisms in NO3-initiated SOA formation. α-Pinene, which showed anomalously low aerosol mass yields in the presence of NO2, showed no increase in these oligomer peaks, suggesting that lack of oligomer formation is a likely cause of α-pinene's near 0 % yields with NO3. Through direct comparisons of mixed-oxidant systems, this work suggests that NO3 is likely to dominate nighttime oxidation pathways in most regions with both biogenic and anthropogenic influences. Therefore, accurately constraining SOA yields from NO3 oxidation, which vary substantially with the volatile organic compound precursor, is essential in predicting nighttime aerosol production.

  10. A comparison of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields and composition from ozonolysis of monoterpenes at varying concentrations of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, D. C.; Farmer, D. K.; Desyaterik, Y.; Fry, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of NO2 on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from ozonolysis of α-pinene, β-pinene, Δ3-carene, and limonene was investigated using a dark flow-through reaction chamber. SOA mass yields were calculated for each monoterpene from ozonolysis with varying NO2 concentrations. Kinetics modeling of the first generation gas-phase chemistry suggests that differences in observed aerosol yields for different NO2 concentrations are consistent with NO3 formation and subsequent competition between O3 and NO3 to oxidize each monoterpene. α-pinene was the only monoterpene studied that showed a systematic decrease in both aerosol number concentration and mass concentration with increasing [NO2]. β-pinene and Δ3-carene produced fewer particles at higher [NO2], but both retained moderate mass yields. Limonene exhibited both higher number concentrations and greater mass concentrations at higher [NO2]. SOA from each experiment was collected and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS, enabling comparisons between product distributions for each system. In general, the systems influenced by NO3 oxidation contained more high molecular weight products (MW >400 amu), suggesting the importance of oligomerization mechanisms in NO3-initiated SOA formation. α-pinene, which showed anomalously low aerosol mass yields in the presence of NO2, showed no increase in these oligomer peaks, suggesting that lack of oligomer formation is a likely cause of α-pinene's near 0% yields with NO3. Through direct comparisons of mixed-oxidant systems, this work suggests that NO3 is likely to dominate nighttime oxidation pathways in most regions with both biogenic and anthropogenic influences. Therefore, accurately constraining SOA yields from NO3 oxidation, which vary substantially with the VOC precursor, is essential in predicting nighttime aerosol production.

  11. Changes in Fungal Community Composition in Response to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization Varies with Soil Horizon.

    PubMed

    Weber, Carolyn F; Vilgalys, Rytas; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2013-01-01

    Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and rates of nitrogen (N)-deposition to forest ecosystems are predicted to alter the structure and function of soil fungal communities, but the spatially heterogeneous distribution of soil fungi has hampered investigations aimed at understanding such impacts. We hypothesized that soil physical and chemical properties and fungal community composition would be differentially impacted by elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) and N-fertilization in spatially separated field samples, in the forest floor, 0-2, 2-5, and 5-10 cm depth intervals in a loblolly pine Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment. In all soils, quantitative PCR-based estimates of fungal biomass were highest in the forest floor. Fungal richness, based on pyrosequencing of the fungal ribosomal large subunit gene, increased in response to N-fertilization in 0-2 cm and forest floor intervals. Composition shifted in forest floor, 0-2 and 2-5 cm intervals in response to N-fertilization, but the shift was most distinct in the 0-2 cm interval, in which the largest number of statistically significant changes in soil chemical parameters (i.e., phosphorus, organic matter, calcium, pH) was also observed. In the 0-2 cm interval, increased recovery of sequences from the Thelephoraceae, Tricholomataceae, Hypocreaceae, Clavicipitaceae, and Herpotrichiellaceae families and decreased recovery of sequences from the Amanitaceae correlated with N-fertilization. In this same depth interval, Amanitaceae, Tricholomataceae, and Herpotriciellaceae sequences were recovered less frequently from soils exposed to eCO2 relative to ambient conditions. These results demonstrated that vertical stratification should be taken into consideration in future efforts to elucidate environmental impacts on fungal communities and their feedbacks on ecosystem processes. PMID:23641237

  12. Changes in Fungal Community Composition in Response to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization Varies with Soil Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Carolyn F.; Vilgalys, Rytas; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and rates of nitrogen (N)-deposition to forest ecosystems are predicted to alter the structure and function of soil fungal communities, but the spatially heterogeneous distribution of soil fungi has hampered investigations aimed at understanding such impacts. We hypothesized that soil physical and chemical properties and fungal community composition would be differentially impacted by elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) and N-fertilization in spatially separated field samples, in the forest floor, 0–2, 2–5, and 5–10 cm depth intervals in a loblolly pine Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment. In all soils, quantitative PCR-based estimates of fungal biomass were highest in the forest floor. Fungal richness, based on pyrosequencing of the fungal ribosomal large subunit gene, increased in response to N-fertilization in 0–2 cm and forest floor intervals. Composition shifted in forest floor, 0–2 and 2–5 cm intervals in response to N-fertilization, but the shift was most distinct in the 0–2 cm interval, in which the largest number of statistically significant changes in soil chemical parameters (i.e., phosphorus, organic matter, calcium, pH) was also observed. In the 0–2 cm interval, increased recovery of sequences from the Thelephoraceae, Tricholomataceae, Hypocreaceae, Clavicipitaceae, and Herpotrichiellaceae families and decreased recovery of sequences from the Amanitaceae correlated with N-fertilization. In this same depth interval, Amanitaceae, Tricholomataceae, and Herpotriciellaceae sequences were recovered less frequently from soils exposed to eCO2 relative to ambient conditions. These results demonstrated that vertical stratification should be taken into consideration in future efforts to elucidate environmental impacts on fungal communities and their feedbacks on ecosystem processes. PMID:23641237

  13. The supramolecular structure of LPS-chitosan complexes of varied composition in relation to their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Davydova, V N; Volod'ko, A V; Sokolova, E V; Chusovitin, E A; Balagan, S A; Gorbach, V I; Galkin, N G; Yermak, I M; Solov'eva, T F

    2015-06-01

    The complexes of chitosan (Ch) with lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from Escherichia coli O55:B5 (E-LPS) and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 1B 598 (Y-LPS) of various weight compositions were investigated using quasi-elastic light scattering, ζ-potential distribution assay and atomic force microscopy. The alteration of ζ-potential of E-LPS-Ch complexes from negative to positive values depending on Ch content was detected. The Y-LPS-Ch complexes had similar positive ζ-potentials regardless of Ch content. The transformation of the supramolecular structure of E-LPS after binding with to Ch was revealed. Screening of E-LPS and Y-LPS particles by Ch in the complexes with high polycation was detected. The ability of LPS-Ch complex to induce biosynthesis of TNF-α and reactive oxygen species in stimulated human mononuclear cells was studied. A significant decrease in activity complexes compared to that of the initial LPS was observed only for E-LPS-Ch complexes. PMID:25843841

  14. Sediment accretion rates and sediment composition in Prairie Pothole wetlands under varying land use practices, Montana, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, T.M.; Sojda, R.S.; Gleason, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedimentation and nutrient cycle changes in Prairie Pothole Region wetlands associated with agriculture threaten the permanence and ecological functionality of these important resources. To determine the effects of land use on sedimentation and nutrient cycling, soil cores were analyzed for cesium-137 (137Cs), lead-210 (210Pb), and potassium-40 (40K) activities; textural composition; organic and inorganic carbon (C); and total nitrogen (N) from twelve wetlands surrounded by cropland, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands, or native prairie uplands. Separate soil cores from nine of these wetlands were also analyzed for phosphorus (P), nitrate (NO3), and ammonium (NH4) concentrations. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had significantly greater linear sediment accretion rates than wetlands surrounded by CRP or native prairie. Linear sediment accretion rates from wetlands surrounded by cropland were 2.7 and 6 times greater than wetlands surrounded by native prairie when calculated from the initial and peak occurrence of 137Cs, respectively, and 0.15 cm y−1 (0.06 in yr−1) greater when calculated from 210Pb. Relative to wetlands surrounded by CRP, linear sediment accretion rates for wetlands surrounded by cropland were 4.4 times greater when calculated from the peak occurrence of 137Cs. No significant differences existed between the linear sediment accretion rates between wetlands surrounded by native prairie or CRP uplands. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had increased clay, P, NO3, and NH4, and decreased total C and N concentrations compared to wetlands surrounded by native prairie. Wetlands surrounded by CRP had the lowest P and NO3 concentrations and had clay, NH4, C, and N concentrations between those of cropland and native prairie wetlands. We documented increased linear sediment accretion rates and changes in the textural and chemical properties of sediments in wetlands with cultivated uplands relative to wetlands with native prairie uplands. These

  15. Brain response to images of food varying in energy density is associated with body composition in 7- to 10-year-old children: Results of an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; English, Laural K; Lasschuijt, Marlou; Wilson, Stephen J; Savage, Jennifer S; Fisher, Jennifer O; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L

    2016-08-01

    Energy balance is regulated by a multifaceted system of physiological signals that influence energy intake and expenditure. Therefore, variability in the brain's response to food may be partially explained by differences in levels of metabolically active tissues throughout the body, including fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that children's body composition would be related to their brain response to food images varying in energy density (ED), a measure of energy content per weight of food. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain response to High (>1.5kcal/g) and Low (<1.5kcal/g) ED food images, and Control images, in 36 children ages 7-10years. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multi-subject random effects general linear model (GLM) and two-factor repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to test for main effects of ED (High ED vs. Low ED) in a priori defined brain regions of interest previously implicated in energy homeostasis and reward processing. Pearson's correlations were then calculated between activation in these regions for various contrasts (High ED-Low ED, High ED-Control, Low ED-Control) and child body composition (FFM index, FM index, % body fat). Relative to Low ED foods, High ED foods elicited greater BOLD activation in the left thalamus. In the right substantia nigra, BOLD activation for the contrast of High ED-Low ED foods was positively associated with child FFM. There were no significant results for the High ED-Control or Low ED-Control contrasts. Our findings support literature on FFM as an appetitive driver, such that greater amounts of lean mass were associated with greater activation for High ED foods in an area of the brain associated with dopamine signaling and reward (substantia nigra). These results confirm our hypothesis that brain response to foods varying in energy content is related to measures

  16. Cellulose-Enriched Microbial Communities from Leaf-Cutter Ant (Atta colombica) Refuse Dumps Vary in Taxonomic Composition and Degradation Ability

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lewin, Gina R.; Johnson, Amanda L.; Soto, Rolando D. Moreira; Perry, Kailene; Book, Adam J.; Horn, Heidi A.; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2016-03-21

    Deconstruction of the cellulose in plant cell walls is critical for carbon flow through ecosystems and for the production of sustainable cellulosic biofuels. Our understanding of cellulose deconstruction is largely limited to the study of microbes in isolation, but in nature, this process is driven by microbes within complex communities. In Neotropical forests, microbes in leaf-cutter ant refuse dumps are important for carbon turnover. These dumps consist of decaying plant material and a diverse bacterial community, as shown here by electron microscopy. To study the portion of the community capable of cellulose degradation, we performed enrichments on cellulose using materialmore » from five Atta colombica refuse dumps. The ability of enriched communities to degrade cellulose varied significantly across refuse dumps. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of enriched samples identified that the community structure correlated with refuse dump and with degradation ability. Overall, samples were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. Half of abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) across samples were classified within general containing known cellulose degraders, including Acidovorax, the most abundant OTU detected across samples, which was positively correlated with cellulolytic ability. Lastly, a representative Acidovorax strain was isolated, but did not grow on cellulose alone. Phenotypic and compositional analyses of enrichment cultures, such as those presented here, help link community composition with cellulolytic ability and provide insight into the complexity of community-based cellulose degradation.« less

  17. Cellulose-Enriched Microbial Communities from Leaf-Cutter Ant (Atta colombica) Refuse Dumps Vary in Taxonomic Composition and Degradation Ability

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Gina R.; Johnson, Amanda L.; Soto, Rolando D. Moreira; Perry, Kailene; Book, Adam J.; Horn, Heidi A.; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2016-01-01

    Deconstruction of the cellulose in plant cell walls is critical for carbon flow through ecosystems and for the production of sustainable cellulosic biofuels. Our understanding of cellulose deconstruction is largely limited to the study of microbes in isolation, but in nature, this process is driven by microbes within complex communities. In Neotropical forests, microbes in leaf-cutter ant refuse dumps are important for carbon turnover. These dumps consist of decaying plant material and a diverse bacterial community, as shown here by electron microscopy. To study the portion of the community capable of cellulose degradation, we performed enrichments on cellulose using material from five Atta colombica refuse dumps. The ability of enriched communities to degrade cellulose varied significantly across refuse dumps. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of enriched samples identified that the community structure correlated with refuse dump and with degradation ability. Overall, samples were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. Half of abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) across samples were classified within genera containing known cellulose degraders, including Acidovorax, the most abundant OTU detected across samples, which was positively correlated with cellulolytic ability. A representative Acidovorax strain was isolated, but did not grow on cellulose alone. Phenotypic and compositional analyses of enrichment cultures, such as those presented here, help link community composition with cellulolytic ability and provide insight into the complexity of community-based cellulose degradation. PMID:26999749

  18. Cellulose-Enriched Microbial Communities from Leaf-Cutter Ant (Atta colombica) Refuse Dumps Vary in Taxonomic Composition and Degradation Ability.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Gina R; Johnson, Amanda L; Soto, Rolando D Moreira; Perry, Kailene; Book, Adam J; Horn, Heidi A; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A; Currie, Cameron R

    2016-01-01

    Deconstruction of the cellulose in plant cell walls is critical for carbon flow through ecosystems and for the production of sustainable cellulosic biofuels. Our understanding of cellulose deconstruction is largely limited to the study of microbes in isolation, but in nature, this process is driven by microbes within complex communities. In Neotropical forests, microbes in leaf-cutter ant refuse dumps are important for carbon turnover. These dumps consist of decaying plant material and a diverse bacterial community, as shown here by electron microscopy. To study the portion of the community capable of cellulose degradation, we performed enrichments on cellulose using material from five Atta colombica refuse dumps. The ability of enriched communities to degrade cellulose varied significantly across refuse dumps. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of enriched samples identified that the community structure correlated with refuse dump and with degradation ability. Overall, samples were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. Half of abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) across samples were classified within genera containing known cellulose degraders, including Acidovorax, the most abundant OTU detected across samples, which was positively correlated with cellulolytic ability. A representative Acidovorax strain was isolated, but did not grow on cellulose alone. Phenotypic and compositional analyses of enrichment cultures, such as those presented here, help link community composition with cellulolytic ability and provide insight into the complexity of community-based cellulose degradation. PMID:26999749

  19. Co-Sputtered and Rapid-Thermal-Annealed CIAS Thin Films Using CuSe2/ln/Al Triple Targets of Varying Ln/Al Compositions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Hoon; Jun, Young-Kil; Lee, Woo-Sun

    2016-02-01

    The 20.9% conversion efficiency of I-III-VI chalcopyrite-based solar cells, the highest in the world, makes them promising candidates for high-efficiency thin film solar cells. However, Ga is one of the most expensive rare materials with the critical degradation in device efficiency. Cu(ln(1-X)Al(X))Se2 (CIAS) is considered an alternative to Cu(ln(1-X)Ga(X))Se2 because of its good structural suitability and the low cost of Al. CIAS thin films were formed using triple targets of CuSe2/ln/Al in a co-sputtering system to control the composition ratio, x = [Al]/([ln]+[Al), by varying each RF power for In/Al with rapid thermal annealing. The chalcopyrite peaks shifted toward higher 2theta as x increased. The CIAS thin films had 74.24-86.81% absorption with band gap, Eg, of 2.28-2.50 eV in the 400-1600 nm range. A low resistivity of 1.1 x 10(-2) omega(-cm) was obtained in the CIAS thin films with x of 0.74. PMID:27433625

  20. Influence of atmospheric properties on detection of wood-warbler nocturnal flight calls.

    PubMed

    Horton, Kyle G; Stepanian, Phillip M; Wainwright, Charlotte E; Tegeler, Amy K

    2015-10-01

    Avian migration monitoring can take on many forms; however, monitoring active nocturnal migration of land birds is limited to a few techniques. Avian nocturnal flight calls are currently the only method for describing migrant composition at the species level. However, as this method develops, more information is needed to understand the sources of variation in call detection. Additionally, few studies examine how detection probabilities differ under varying atmospheric conditions. We use nocturnal flight call recordings from captive individuals to explore the dependence of flight call detection on atmospheric temperature and humidity. Height or distance from origin had the largest influence on call detection, while temperature and humidity also influenced detectability at higher altitudes. Because flight call detection varies with both atmospheric conditions and flight height, improved monitoring across time and space will require correction for these factors to generate standardized metrics of songbird migration. PMID:25601781

  1. Influence of atmospheric properties on detection of wood-warbler nocturnal flight calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Kyle G.; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Tegeler, Amy K.

    2015-10-01

    Avian migration monitoring can take on many forms; however, monitoring active nocturnal migration of land birds is limited to a few techniques. Avian nocturnal flight calls are currently the only method for describing migrant composition at the species level. However, as this method develops, more information is needed to understand the sources of variation in call detection. Additionally, few studies examine how detection probabilities differ under varying atmospheric conditions. We use nocturnal flight call recordings from captive individuals to explore the dependence of flight call detection on atmospheric temperature and humidity. Height or distance from origin had the largest influence on call detection, while temperature and humidity also influenced detectability at higher altitudes. Because flight call detection varies with both atmospheric conditions and flight height, improved monitoring across time and space will require correction for these factors to generate standardized metrics of songbird migration.

  2. Urea metabolism in beef steers grazing bermudagrass, caucasian bluestem, or gamagrass pastures varying in plant morphology, protein content, and protein composition.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate pastures of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon, BG), caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica, CBS), and gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides, GG) from the perspectives of forage composition, selection during grazing, and N metabolism in beef steers. All pastures were ferti...

  3. Effect of temporal and spectral noise features on gap detection behavior by calling green treefrogs.

    PubMed

    Höbel, Gerlinde

    2014-10-01

    Communication plays a central role in the behavioral ecology of many animals, yet the background noise generated by large breeding aggregations may impair effective communication. A common behavioral strategy to ameliorate noise interference is gap detection, where signalers display primarily during lulls in the background noise. When attempting gap detection, signalers have to deal with the fact that the spacing and duration of silent gaps is often unpredictable, and that noise varies in its spectral composition and may thus vary in the degree in which it impacts communication. I conducted playback experiments to examine how male treefrogs deal with the problem that refraining from calling while waiting for a gap to appear limits a male's ability to attract females, yet producing calls during noise also interferes with effective sexual communication. I found that the temporal structure of noise (i.e., duration of noise and silent gap segments) had a stronger effect on male calling behavior than the spectral composition. Males placed calls predominantly during silent gaps and avoided call production during short, but not long, noise segments. This suggests that male treefrogs use a calling strategy that maximizes the production of calls without interference, yet allows for calling to persist if lulls in the background noise are infrequent. PMID:25242723

  4. Experimental study on the effect of varying syngas composition on the emissions of dual fuel CI engine operating at various engine speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahgoub, B. K. M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Karim, Z. A. A.; Hagos, F. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Using syngas as a supplement fuel of diesel in dual fuel mode is a proposed solution in the effort to protect the environment and control the serious threats posed by greenhouse gas emissions from compression ignition engines. The objective of this study was to experimentally examine the effect of syngas composition on the exhaust emission of dual fuel compression ignition (CI) engine at various engine speeds, and to compare the operating ranges of imitated syngas versus pure diesel. The study was conducted using a naturally aspirated, two strokes, single cylinder 3.7 kW diesel engine operated at speeds of 1200, 2000 and 3000 rpm. The engine was tested with three different syngas compositions. Diesel fuel was partially substituted by syngas through the air inlet. The test results disclose the impact of using syngas in CI engines on emission of CO2, NOx, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The experimental measurements confirmed that all syngas compositions are capable of reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOX compared with diesel fuel. Wide range of diesel replacement ratios (up to 72%) was attained without any penalty. Syngas with composition of 49% N2, 12% CO2, 25% CO, 10% H2, and 4% CH4 reduced the emissions of CO2 and NOx at engine speed of 1200 rpm up to 1% and 108 ppm, respectively. The lowest emission of UHC and NOx was emitted when the engine was operating at speed of 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm, respectively with composition of 38% N2, 8% Co2, 29% CO, 19% H2, and 6% CH4. Therefore, syngas could be a promising technique for controlling NOx emissions in CI engines. However, hydrogen content in syngas is important parameter that needs to be further investigation for its effect.

  5. Electric-Field Modulation of Curie Temperature in (Ga, Mn)As Field-Effect Transistor Structures with Varying Channel Thickness and Mn Compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Nishitani, Y.; Endo, M.; Chiba, D.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2010-01-04

    We have investigated the change of T{sub C} of ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga, Mn)As by changing hole concentration p. The field effect transistor structure was utilized to change p. The relation T{sub C}propor top{sup 0.2} is obtained for three samples, despite the difference of their Mn composition and thickness, indicating that the relation holds over 2 decades of p.

  6. Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Mg (AM60)/Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composites with Varying Volume Fractions of Fiber Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Fang, Li; Xiong, Bojun; Hu, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium alloy AM60 matrix-based composite reinforced with 7, 9, 11, 22, and 35 vol.% of Al2O3 fibers was squeeze cast. The microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated in comparison with the matrix alloy AM60. The results of tensile testing indicated that the addition of Al2O3 fibers to magnesium alloy AM60 led to a significant improvement in mechanical properties. As the fiber volume fraction increased, the strengths and moduli of the composites were enhanced considerably. However, the notable increase in strengths was at sacrifice in elongation. Microstructural analyses via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the grain size decreased with increasing volume fractions of reinforcement. The restriction of grain growth by the limited inter-fiber spacing could be the primary mechanism for a reduction in the grain size of the matrix alloy. The SEM fractography evidently reveals that the debonding of fibers from the matrix alloy and the fiber cracking were two primary mechanisms for the tensile failure of the composites.

  7. Calling All Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Mary D.; Doyle, John C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how to establish and operate a call center that handles customer service, telemarketing, collections, and other customer-focused areas. Discusses the advantages of a call center, the new opportunities that will arise as a result of emerging technologies, and the challenges of recruiting, training, and retaining personnel. (JOW)

  8. Modeling precipitation thermodynamics and kinetics in type 316 austenitic stainless steels with varying composition as an initial step toward predicting phase stability during irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae-Hyeok; Povoden-Karadeniz, Erwin; Kozeschnik, Ernst; Wirth, Brian D.

    2015-07-01

    The long-term evolution of precipitates in type 316 austenitic stainless steels at 400 °C has been simulated using a numerical model based on classical nucleation theory and the thermodynamic extremum principle. Particular attention has been paid to the precipitation of radiation-induced phases such as γ‧ and G phases. In addition to the original compositions, the compositions for radiation-induced segregation at a dose level of 5, 10 or 20 dpa have been used in the simulation. In a 316 austenitic stainless steel, γ‧ appears as the main precipitate with a small amount of G phase forming at 10 and 20 dpa. On the other hand, G phase becomes relatively dominant over γ‧ at the same dose levels in a Ti-stabilized 316 austenitic stainless steel, which tends to suppress the formation of γ‧. Among the segregated alloying elements, the concentration of Si seems to be the most critical for the formation of radiation-induced phases. An increase in dislocation density as well as increased diffusivity of Mn and Si significantly enhances the precipitation kinetics of the radiation-induced phases within this model.

  9. Head-group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a common stress response, and the acyl-galactose acyl composition varies with the plant species and applied stress

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Hieu Sy; Roth, Mary R.; Tamura, Pamela; Samarakoon, Thilani; Shiva, Sunitha; Honey, Samuel; Lowe, Kaleb; Schmelz, Eric A.; Williams, Todd D.; Welti, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Formation of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols has been shown to be induced by leaf homogenization, mechanical wounding, avirulent bacterial infection, and thawing after snap-freezing. Here, lipidomic analysis using mass spectrometry showed that galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, formed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves upon wounding, have acyl-galactose profiles that differ from those of wounded Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that different plant species accumulate different acyl-galactose components in response to the same stress. Additionally, the composition of the acyl-galactose component of Arabidopsis acMGDG depends on the stress treatment. After sub-lethal freezing treatment, acMGDG contained mainly non-oxidized fatty acids esterified to galactose, whereas mostly oxidized fatty acids accumulated on galactose after wounding or bacterial infection. Compositional data are consistent with acMGDG being formed in vivo by transacylation with fatty acids from digalactosyldiacylglycerols. Oxophytodienoic acid, an oxidized fatty acid, was more concentrated on the galactosyl ring of acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols than in galactolipids in general. Also, oxidized fatty acid-containing acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols increased cumulatively when wounded Arabidopsis leaves were wounded again. These findings suggest that, in Arabidopsis, the pool of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols may serve to sequester oxidized fatty acids during stress responses. PMID:24286212

  10. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and

  11. Numerical study on the quench propagation in a 1.5 T MgB2 MRI magnet design with varied wire compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Charles; Baig, Tanvir; Deissler, Robert J.; Doll, David; Tomsic, Michael; Martens, Michael

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the usage of liquid helium in MRI magnets, magnesium diboride (MgB2), a high temperature superconductor, has been considered for use in a design of conduction cooled MRI magnets. Compared to NbTi wires the normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV) in MgB2 is much slower leading to a higher temperature rise and the necessity of active quench protection. The temperature rise, resistive voltage, and NZPV during a quench in a 1.5 T main magnet design with MgB2 superconducting wire was calculated for a variety of wire compositions. The quench development was modeled using the Douglas-Gunn method to solve the 3D heat equation. It was determined that wires with higher bulk thermal conductivity and lower electrical resistivity reduced the hot-spot temperature rise near the beginning of a quench. These improvements can be accomplished by increasing the copper fraction inside the wire, using a sheath material (such as Glidcop) with a higher thermal conductivity and lower electrical resistivity, and by increasing the thermal conductivity of the wire’s insulation. The focus of this paper is on the initial stages of quench development, and does not consider the later stages of the quench or magnet protection.

  12. Coating morphology and surface composition of acrylic terpolymers with pendant catechol, OEG and perfluoroalkyl groups in varying ratio and the effect on protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jun; Ji, Hua; Duan, Jiang; Tu, Haiyang; Zhang, Aidong

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at developing versatile low-biofouling polymeric coatings by using acrylic terpolymers (DOFs) that bear pendant catechol (D), oligo(ethylene glycol) (O), and perfluoroalkyl (F) groups in varying ratios. The polymers were endowed with the ability to form firmly coatings on virtually any surfaces and undergo surface microphase separation and self-assembly, as revealed by the surface enrichment of F pendants and the morphology variation from irregular solid domains to discrete crater-type aggregates of different size. The effect on protein adsorption was investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and adhesive fibrinogen (Fib) as model proteins. The coating of DOF164 (low F content), which has morphology of discrete crater-type aggregates of ∼ 400 nm in size, adsorbed a least amount of protein but with a highest protein unit activity as determined by SPR and immunosorbent assay; whereas the coating of DOF1612 (high F content) showed a 12.3-fold higher adsorption capacity toward Fib. Interestingly, a 2.2-fold lower adsorption amount but with a 1.8-fold higher unit activity was found for Fib adsorbed on the DOF164 surface than on DOF250 (without F fraction), whose OEG segments being a widely recognized protein compatible material. The features of the DOF164 terpolymer presenting a robust coating ability and a minimal protein adsorption capacity while with a high protein unit activity suggest its potential application as a non-fouling surface-modifier for medical antifouling coatings and as a matrix material for selective protein immobilization and activity preservation in biosensor construction. PMID:26764109

  13. Reduction of an E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella composite on fresh strawberries by varying antimicrobial washes and vacuum perfusion.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Bailey, Rebecca B; Jin, Tony Z; Fan, Xuetong

    2014-10-17

    A 2011 outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis, which resulted in the death of two individuals, was associated with contaminated strawberries. A study was conducted to identify antimicrobial washes effective at reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica from the surface of fresh whole strawberries during two-minute immersion washes. Twenty-seven antimicrobial treatments were tested. Vacuum perfusion was applied to strawberries during chlorine and peracetic acid treatments to promote infiltration of sanitizer into porous strawberry tissue. Strawberries were inoculated to 7.1logCFU/strawberry with a seven-strain bacterial composite, consisting of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 and four serovars of Salmonella enterica. Berries were air-dried for 2h and immersed in circulating antimicrobial solutions for 120s at 22°C. Four treatments reduced ≥3.0logCFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% acetic acid+1% H2O2, (b) 30% ethanol+1% H2O2, (c) 90ppm peracetic acid, and (d) 1% lactic acid+1% H2O2. Two additional treatments that reduced 2.8logCFU/strawberry were (a) 40% ethanol, and (b) 1% each of phosphoric+fumaric acids. Eight treatments reduced 2.0-2.6logCFU/strawberry. Five treatments reduced <1.45CFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% citric acid, (b) 1% lactic acid, (c) 1% acetic acid, (d) 0.5% each of acetic+citric acids and (e) 0.5% each of acetic+lactic acids. The use of vacuum perfusion with 200ppm chlorine or 90ppm peracetic acid did not reduce greater populations of pathogens than did the same treatments without vacuum perfusion. Fourteen treatments reduced no more pathogens (p<0.05) than did sterile deionized water. Results from this study provide some options for end-point decontamination of strawberries for retail operations just prior to serving to customers. PMID:25146462

  14. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  15. Wake-Up Call.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the artist, Laquita Thomson, whose inspiration are the stars and space. Discusses her series called, "Celestial Happenings: Stars Fell on Alabama." Describes one event that inspired an art work when a meteor crashed into an Alabama home. Includes lessons for various subject areas. (CMK)

  16. When Crises Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisch, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters, as well as crises of the man-made variety, call on leaders of school districts to manage scenarios impossible to predict and for which no amount of training can adequately prepare. One thing all major crises hold in common is their far-reaching effects, which can run the gamut from personal safety and mental well-being to the…

  17. Call it Worm Sleep.

    PubMed

    Trojanowski, Nicholas F; Raizen, David M

    2016-02-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans stops feeding and moving during a larval transition stage called lethargus and following exposure to cellular stressors. These behaviors have been termed 'sleep-like states'. We argue that these behaviors should instead be called sleep. Sleep during lethargus is similar to sleep regulated by circadian timers in insects and mammals, and sleep in response to cellular stress is similar to sleep induced by sickness in other animals. Sleep in mammals and Drosophila shows molecular and functional conservation with C. elegans sleep. The simple neuroanatomy and powerful genetic tools of C. elegans have yielded insights into sleep regulation and hold great promise for future research into sleep regulation and function. PMID:26747654

  18. Just call it "treatment".

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Peter D; Schwartz, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Although many in the addiction treatment field use the term "medication-assisted treatment" to describe a combination of pharmacotherapy and counseling to address substance dependence, research has demonstrated that opioid agonist treatment alone is effective in patients with opioid dependence, regardless of whether they receive counseling. The time has come to call pharmacotherapy for such patients just "treatment". An explicit acknowledgment that medication is an essential first-line component in the successful management of opioid dependence. PMID:23186149

  19. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  20. Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge. PMID:17251105

  1. Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2007-04-01

    Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of 'good design' through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge. PMID:17251105

  2. Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin" concern the state of composition instruction at the secondary and college levels. The titles and authors are "Monologues or Dialogues? A Plea for Literacy" by Dr. Alfred J. Lindsey, "Teaching Composition: Curiouser and Curiouser" by Denny Brandon, and "Teaching Writing to High…

  3. A place called Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, J. K.

    1986-04-01

    Voyager 2 observations of Uranus are discussed. The helium concentrations, temperature of the gases at various depths, the upper atmospheric temperatures, the light from Gamma Pegasi, and the cloud features are evaluated. A strong magnetic field with a magnetic axis tipped 60 deg to the rotation axis is detected. The corkscrew-like turns in the lobes of the magnetic field that result as the planet rotates, and the period of the magnetic field's wobble are examined. An electromagnetic bubble, and the rings and satellites of Uranus are contained in the Uranian magnetosphere. An ultraviolet emission from H2 molecules related to both auroras and airglows referred to as electroglow, which is the source for protons of the upper atmosphere, is studied. The ten narrow, dark, and sharply defined rings of the system are observed; their light fluctuations and composition are described.

  4. Varying constants quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczyńska, Katarzyna; Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P. E-mail: abalcerz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2015-02-01

    We discuss minisuperspace models within the framework of varying physical constants theories including Λ-term. In particular, we consider the varying speed of light (VSL) theory and varying gravitational constant theory (VG) using the specific ansätze for the variability of constants: c(a) = c{sub 0} a{sup n} and G(a)=G{sub 0} a{sup q}. We find that most of the varying c and G minisuperspace potentials are of the tunneling type which allows to use WKB approximation of quantum mechanics. Using this method we show that the probability of tunneling of the universe ''from nothing'' (a=0) to a Friedmann geometry with the scale factor a{sub t} is large for growing c models and is strongly suppressed for diminishing c models. As for G varying, the probability of tunneling is large for G diminishing, while it is small for G increasing. In general, both varying c and G change the probability of tunneling in comparison to the standard matter content (cosmological term, dust, radiation) universe models.

  5. Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, T.; McCullough, R.L.; Pipes, R.B.

    1986-10-01

    The degree of control over material properties that is typified by hybrid composites is transforming engineering design. In part because homogeneous materials such as metals and alloys do not offer comparable control, specifying a material and designing a component have traditionally taken place separately. As composites begin to replace traditional materials in fields and such as aerospace, component design and the specification of a material are merging and becoming aspects of a single process. The controllable microstructure of a composite allows it to be tailored to match the distribution of stresses to which it will be subject. At the same time components must come to reflect the distinctive nature of composites: their directional properties and the intricate forms they can be given through processes such as injection molding, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. The complexity inherent in conceiving components and their materials at the same time suggests engineering design will grow increasingly dependent on computers and multidisciplinary teams. Such an approach will harness the full potential of composites for the technologies of the future. 10 figures.

  6. Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

  7. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Martha L.; Evans, Ben J.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types — click, burst and trill — that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

  8. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Martha L; Evans, Ben J; Kelley, Darcy B

    2011-01-01

    For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types - click, burst and trill - that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

  9. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  10. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    PubMed

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate. PMID:26627784

  11. Time-varying BRDFs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K

    2007-01-01

    The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials. PMID:17356224

  12. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-Nędza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  13. Comparison of acid-detergent lignin, alkaline-peroxide lignin, and acid-detergent insoluble ash as internal markers for predicting fecal output and digestibility by cattle offered bermudagrass hays of varying nutrient composition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential for acid-detergent insoluble ash (ADIA), alkaline-peroxide lignin (APL), and acid-detergent lignin (ADL) to predict fecal output (FO) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) by cattle offered bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hays of different qualities was evaluated. Eight ruminally cannulated cows (594 ± 35.5 kg) were allocated randomly to 4 hay diets: low (L), medium low (ML), medium high (MH), and high (H) crude protein (CP) concentration (79, 111, 131, and 164 g CP/kg on a DM basis, respectively). Diets were offered in 3 periods with 2 diet replicates per period and were rotated across cows between periods. Cows were individually fed 20 g DM/kg of body weight in equal feedings at 08:00 and 16:00 h for a 10-d adaptation followed by a 5-d total fecal collection. Actual DM intake (DMI), DMD, and FO were determined based on hay offered, ort, and feces excreted. These components were then analyzed for ADL, APL, and ADIA concentration to determine marker recovery and marker-based estimates of FO and DMD. Results Forage DMI was affected by diet (P = 0.02), and DMI from MH and H was greater (P < 0.05) than from L. Apparent DMD tended (P = 0.08) to differ among diets while FO (P = 0.20) was not affected by diet treatments. Average ADL recovery (1.16) was greater (P < 0.05) than that of ADIA (1.03) and APL (1.06), but ADIA and APL did not differ (P = 0.42). Estimates of FO and DMD derived using APL and ADIA were not different (P ≥ 0.05) from total fecal collection while those using ADL differed (P < 0.05). There was no diet by marker interaction (P ≥ 0.22) for either FO or DMD. Conclusion Acid-detergent insoluble ash and APL accurately predicted FO and DMD of cattle fed bermudagrass hay of varying nutrient composition. These internal markers may facilitate studies involving large numbers of animals and forages. Results from such studies may be used to develop improved equations to predict energy values of

  14. Bridging a High School Science Fair Experience with First Year Undergraduate Research: Using the E-SPART Analyzer to Determine Electrostatic Charge Properties of Compositionally Varied Rock Dust Particles as Terrestrial Analogues to Mars Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. G.; Williams, W. J. W.; Mazumder, M. K.; Biris, A.; Srirama, P. K.

    2005-03-01

    More is known about Mars from data collected in 2004. We present particle size and electrostatic data for particles derived from various terrestrial materials to provide analogue studies for what also appears to be present: sedimentary compositions.

  15. CALL Essentials: Principles and Practice in CALL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy

    2005-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer innovative teachers exciting ways to enhance their pedagogy and capture their students' attention. These technologies have created a growing field of inquiry, computer-assisted language learning (CALL). As new technologies have emerged, teaching professionals have adapted them to support teachers and learners in…

  16. Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

  17. Close Call: Breaking the Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Contrary to a rule to never teach students to lead climb, an instructor taught several youth to lead climb at a parent's request. These students planned to pursue rock climbing on their own after they left school, and preparing them was deemed a safety precaution. Analysis of this "close call" offers guidelines for introducing students to lead…

  18. Formative Considerations Using Integrative CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Philip; Shaver, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Addresses technical and learning issues relating to a formative implementation of a computer assisted language learning (CALL) browser-based intermediate Russian program. Instruction took place through a distance education implementation and in a grouped classroom using a local-area network. Learners indicated the software was clear, motivating,…

  19. Learning as Calling and Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jons, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    According to Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue, our being-in-the-world is to be conceived of as an existential dialogue. Elsewhere, I have conceptualized the teacher-student-relation accordingly (see Jons 2008), as a matter of calling and responding. The conceptualization rests on a secularised notion of vocation, paving way for…

  20. Nursing care as a calling.

    PubMed

    Raatikainen, R

    1997-06-01

    A calling is a deep desire to devote oneself to serving people according to the high values of the task or profession. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between a calling experience and professional knowledge, nursing action and motivation. The data were collected from all the registered nurses (n = 179) at five hospitals. The response was 70%. The nurses who were committed to their profession and experienced their job as a calling, had a good knowledge about the ill feeling and maladjustment of their patients and were also good sources of support for their patients. They understood the importance of family ties and offered support to their patients' families. They were aware of the needs of dying patients and their concern with spiritual questions, and satisfied these needs well. It was characteristic for them to collaborate closely within a team, to experience the content of their work as enriching and to possess proficient professional abilities. They were therefore excellent in supporting both the individual patient and his or her family. They had a deep understanding of the whole process of patient care. According to these results the calling experience is not in conflict with professional principles. PMID:9181405

  1. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings.

    PubMed

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions. PMID:27055205

  2. Call to Restore Mesopotamian Marshlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Call to restore Mesopotamian marshlands When the current military conflict in Iraq has concluded, a rehabilitation of that country should include a full assessment and action plan for restoring the marshlands of Mesopotamia, the United Nations Environment Programme said on 22 March. The marshlands, also known as the Fertile Crescent, could disappear within three to five years, according to UNEP. UNEP Executive Director Klaus Toepfer said the loss of the marshlands ``is an environmental catastrophe for this region and underscores the huge pressures facing wetlands and freshwater ecosystems across the world.''

  3. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F.; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls—the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)—across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal. PMID:26274816

  4. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  5. [Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)].

    PubMed

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2013-03-01

    The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of

  6. The association between advertising and calls to a tobacco quitline

    PubMed Central

    Mosbaek, Craig H; Austin, Donald F; Stark, Michael J; Lambert, Lori C

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the cost effectiveness of different types of television and radio advertisements and the time of day in which advertisements were placed in generating calls to the Oregon tobacco quitline. Design Cost effectiveness was measured by cost per call, calculated as the cost of advertising divided by the number of quitline calls generated by that advertising. Advertising was bought in one‐week or two‐week blocks and included 27 daytime television buys, 22 evening television buys and 31 radio buys. Results Cost effectiveness varied widely by medium, time of day and advertisement used. Daytime television was seven times more cost effective than evening television and also more cost effective than radio. The most effective advertisements at generating quitline calls were real life testimonials by people who lost family members to tobacco and advertisements that deal practically with how to quit. Conclusions Placement of television advertisements during the day versus the evening can increase an advertisement's effectiveness in generating calls to a quitline. Some advertising messages were more effective than others in generating calls to a quitline. Quitline providers can apply findings from previous research when planning media campaigns. In addition, call volume should be monitored in order to assess the cost effectiveness of different strategies to promote use of the quitline. PMID:18048626

  7. Digital varying-frequency generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Generator employs up/down counters, digital-to-analog converters, and integrator to determine frequency and time duration of output. Circuit can be used where varying signal must be controlled accurately over long period of time.

  8. Effects of calcium oxide treatment at varying moisture concentrations on the chemical composition, in situ degradability, in vitro digestibility and gas production kinetics of anaerobically stored corn stover.

    PubMed

    Shi, H T; Cao, Z J; Wang, Y J; Li, S L; Yang, H J; Bi, Y L; Doane, P H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for calcium oxide (CaO) treatment of anaerobically stored corn stover by in situ and in vitro methods. Four ruminally cannulated, non-lactating, non-pregnant Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ effective degradabilities of dry matter (ISDMD), organic matter (ISOMD), neutral detergent fibre (ISNDFD), in vitro organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) and gas production in 72 h (GP72h ) of corn stover. A completely randomized design involving a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement was adopted. Ground corn stover was treated with different levels of CaO (3%, 5% and 7% of dry stover) at varying moisture contents (40%, 50% and 60%) and stored under anaerobic conditions for 15 days before analysis. Compared with untreated corn stover, the CaO-treated stover had increased ash and calcium (Ca) contents but decreased aNDF and OM contents. The moisture content, CaO level and their interaction affected (p < 0.01) the content of aNDF, ash and OM, and the ratio of aNDF/OM. The greatest ISDMD, ISOMD and ISNDFD were observed when stover was treated with 7% CaO and 60% moisture, while no differences (p > 0.01) in these in situ degradability parameters were observed between the stover treated with 5% CaO at 60% moisture content and those treated with 7% CaO at 60% moisture content. Corn stover treated with 5% CaO at 50% moisture had the maximum IVOMD and GP72 h among the treatments, and there was no difference (p > 0.01) between 50% and 60% moisture. Results from this study suggested that 5% CaO applied at 60% moisture could be an effective and economical treatment combination. PMID:26300078

  9. Function of loud calls in wild bonobos.

    PubMed

    White, Frances; Waller, Michel; Boose, Klaree; Merrill, Michelle; Wood, Kimberley

    2015-07-20

    Under the social origins hypothesis, human language is thought to have evolved within the framework of non-human primate social contexts and relationships. Our two closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, however, have very different social relationships and this may be reflected in their use of loud calls. Much of loud calling in the male-bonded and aggressive chimpanzee functions for male alliance formation and intercommunity aggression. Bonobos, however, are female bonded and less aggressive and little is known on the use and function of their loud calls. Data on frequencies, context, and locations of vocalizations were collected for wild bonobos, Pan paniscus, at the Lomako Forest study site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1983 to 2009. Both males and females participated in loud calls used for inter-party communication. Calling and response rates by both males and females were higher during party fusion than party fission and were common at evening nesting. The distribution of loud calls within the community range of loud calls was not random with males calling significantly more towards the periphery of the range and females calling significantly more in central areas. Calling and party fission were common at food patches. Responses were more frequent for female calls than for male calls. Calling, followed by fusion, was more frequent when a small party called from a large patch. We conclude that bonobo females and males loud calls can function in inter-party communication to call others to large food patches. Females call to attract potential allies and males call to attract potential mates. Our results support the social hypothesis of the origin of language because differences in the function and use of loud calls reflect the differing social systems of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobo loud calls are important for female communication and function in party coordination and, unlike chimpanzees, are less important in male cooperative aggression

  10. Energetic composites

    DOEpatents

    Danen, Wayne C.; Martin, Joe A.

    1993-01-01

    A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application.

  11. Energetic composites

    DOEpatents

    Danen, W.C.; Martin, J.A.

    1993-11-30

    A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application. 3 figures.

  12. Calling behavior of blue and fin whales off California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleson, Erin Marie

    Passive acoustic monitoring is an effective means for evaluating cetacean presence in remote regions and over long time periods, and may become an important component of cetacean abundance surveys. To use passive acoustic recordings for abundance estimation, an understanding of the behavioral ecology of cetacean calling is crucial. In this dissertation, I develop a better understanding of how blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin (B. physalus ) whales use sound with the goal of evaluating passive acoustic techniques for studying their populations. Both blue and fin whales produce several different call types, though the behavioral and environmental context of these calls have not been widely investigated. To better understand how calling is used by these whales off California I have employed both new technologies and traditional techniques, including acoustic recording tags, continuous long-term autonomous acoustic recordings, and simultaneous shipboard acoustic and visual surveys. The outcome of these investigations has led to several conclusions. The production of blue whale calls varies with sex, behavior, season, location, and time of day. Each blue whale call type has a distinct behavioral context, including a male-only bias in the production of song, a call type thought to function in reproduction, and the production of some calls by both sexes. Long-term acoustic records, when interpreted using all call types, provide a more accurate measure of the local seasonal presence of whales, and how they use the region annually, seasonally and daily. The relative occurrence of different call types may indicate prime foraging habitat and the presence of different segments of the population. The proportion of animals heard calling changes seasonally and geographically relative to the number seen, indicating the calibration of acoustic and visual surveys is complex and requires further study on the motivations behind call production and the behavior of calling whales

  13. Individual, Contextual, and Age-Related Acoustic Variation in Simakobu (Simias concolor) Loud Calls

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Wendy M.; Hodges, J. Keith; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Primate loud calls have the potential to encode information about the identity, arousal, age, or physical condition of the caller, even at long distances. In this study, we conducted an analysis of the acoustic features of the loud calls produced by a species of Asian colobine monkey (simakobu, Simias concolor). Adult male simakobu produce loud calls spontaneously and in response to loud sounds and other loud calls, which are audible more than 500 m. Individual differences in calling rates and durations exist, but it is unknown what these differences signal and which other acoustic features vary among individuals. We aimed to describe the structure and usage of calls and to examine acoustic features that vary within and among individuals. We determined the context of 318 loud calls and analyzed 170 loud calls recorded from 10 adult males at an undisturbed site, Pungut, Siberut Island, Indonesia. Most calls (53%) followed the loud call of another male, 31% were spontaneous, and the remaining 16% followed a loud environmental disturbance. The fundamental frequency (F0) decreased while inter-unit intervals (IUI) increased over the course of loud call bouts, possibly indicating caller fatigue. Discriminant function analysis indicated that calls were not well discriminated by context, but spontaneous calls had higher peak frequencies, suggesting a higher level of arousal. Individual calls were distinct and individuals were mainly discriminated by IUI, call duration, and F0. Loud calls of older males had shorter IUI and lower F0, while middle-aged males had the highest peak frequencies. Overall, we found that calls were individually distinct and may provide information about the age, stamina, and arousal of the calling male, and could thus be a way for males and females to assess competitors and mates from long distances. PMID:24376651

  14. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public:...

  15. Potential Paradigms and Possible Problems for CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Martin

    1987-01-01

    Describes three models of CALL (computer assisted language learning) activity--games, the expert system, and the prosthetic approaches. A case is made for CALL development within a more instrumental view of the role of computers. (Author/CB)

  16. An empirical analysis of the corporate call decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Murray Dean

    1998-12-01

    conclude that the managers of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company clearly take into account the value of the option to delay the call when making their call decisions. Overall, the model seems to be robust to tests of its specification and does a better job of describing the data than do simpler models of the decision making process. Limitations in the data do not allow us to perform the same tests in a larger cross-section of utility companies. However, we are able to estimate transaction cost parameters for many firms and these do not seem to vary significantly from those of PGE. This evidence does not cause us to reject our hypothesis that managerial behavior is consistent with a model in which managers maximize shareholder value.

  17. Calling in Work: Secular or Sacred?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steger, Michael F.; Pickering, N. K.; Shin, J. Y.; Dik, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent scholarship indicates that people who view their work as a calling are more satisfied with their work and their lives. Historically, calling has been regarded as a religious experience, although modern researchers frequently have adopted a more expansive and secular conceptualization of calling, emphasizing meaning and personal fulfillment…

  18. 78 FR 76218 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...In this document the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) improves its ability to monitor problems with completing calls to rural areas, and enforce restrictions against blocking, choking, reducing, or restricting calls. The Report and Order applies the new rules to providers of long-distance voice service that make the initial long-distance call path choice for more than 100,000......

  19. CALL Environments: Research, Practice, and Critical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy, Ed.; Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Essays on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include: "Computer-Enhanced Language Learning Environments" (Joy Egbert, Chin-chi Chao, Elizabeth Hanson-Smith); "Theory and Research Interaction via Computers" (Joy Kreeft Peyton); "Classroom Practice: Creating Interactive CALL Activities" (Joy Egbert); "CALL Issues: Building a…

  20. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 2.302, see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of this... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Call signs. 2.302 Section 2.302... RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call...

  1. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 2.302, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Call signs. 2.302 Section 2.302... RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call...

  2. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 2.302, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Call signs. 2.302 Section 2.302... RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call...

  3. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 2.302, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Call signs. 2.302 Section 2.302... RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call...

  4. 20 CFR 702.313 - Informal conferences; how called; when called.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informal conferences; how called; when called... Adjudication Procedures Action by District Directors § 702.313 Informal conferences; how called; when called. Informal conferences may be called upon not less than 10 days' notice to the parties, unless the...

  5. Perceiving a Calling, Living a Calling, and Job Satisfaction: Testing a Moderated, Multiple Mediator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Dik, Bryan J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated…

  6. Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication

    PubMed Central

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal. PMID:23034703

  7. The effects of strain rate and CCVC interfacial layer on mechanical behaviours of CALL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiguo, Rao; Yuanming, Xia; Kang, Sun

    1994-07-01

    In this paper, the loading and loading-unloading tests of CALL and CALL (CCVC) under tensile impact have been carried out by a self-designed Rotating Circular Disk Tensile impact Apparatus. The quasi-static tension and short beam bending tests are performed on the Shimadzu-5000 testing apparatus. Experiment results show that both CALL and CALL (CCVC) have positive hybrid effect. Under quasi-static tension, the two composites have no obvious yielding until fracture, but have an obvious yielding point on the dynamic tensile stress-strain curves. The dynamic unstable fracture strain is about three times the static unstable fracture strain. The interlaminar shear strength (ISS) of CALL (CCVC) is 10 more than that of CALL. At the same time, the tensile strength and unstable fracture strain of CALL (CCVC) are also higher than that of CALL. In this paper, some conclusions are also drawn from the SEM observation of the fracture specimen surfaces.

  8. Classification and automatic transcription of primate calls.

    PubMed

    Versteegh, Maarten; Kuhn, Jeremy; Synnaeve, Gabriel; Ravaux, Lucie; Chemla, Emmanuel; Cäsar, Cristiane; Fuller, James; Murphy, Derek; Schel, Anne; Dunbar, Ewan

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports on an automated and openly available tool for automatic acoustic analysis and transcription of primate calls, which takes raw field recordings and outputs call labels time-aligned with the audio. The system's output predicts a majority of the start times of calls accurately within 200 milliseconds. The tools do not require any manual acoustic analysis or selection of spectral features by the researcher. PMID:27475207

  9. Development and Validation of the Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and Brief Calling Scale (BCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dik, Bryan J.; Eldridge, Brandy M.; Steger, Michael F.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    Research on work as a calling is limited by measurement concerns. In response, the authors introduce the multidimensional Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Brief Calling scale (BCS), instruments assessing presence of, and search for, a calling. Study 1 describes CVQ development using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis…

  10. Disentangling the Link between Perceiving a Calling and Living a Calling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Autin, Kelsey L.

    2013-01-01

    Research has suggested there is an important distinction between perceiving a calling and living a calling. With a sample of 542 working adults, the current study examined (a) the degree to which perceiving a calling and living a calling differed according to yearly income and level of educational attainment and (b) potential mediators that may…

  11. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. 22.921 Section 22.921 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode....

  12. When They Talk about CALL: Discourse in a Required CALL Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates preservice teachers' discourse about CALL in a required CALL class which combines theory and practice. Thirty-three students in a Linguistics MA program CALL course were observed over a 10-week quarter. For all of these students, it was their first formal exposure to CALL as a discipline. Communication in the class…

  13. Applying Pedagogical Principles to CALL Courseware Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, David H.

    This paper on the application of principles to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) first clarifies the the relationships between the capabilities of the computer (and computer-controlled technology) and the main approaches to second language learning. Fourteen common types of CALL programs are briefly reviewed. A "relational" classification…

  14. Coaching "Callings" throughout the Adult Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Frederic M.

    2001-01-01

    The process of "callings" continues throughout life. Coaching can connect the present to the future in a meaningful way. Callings represent a value shift requiring revision of the nature and scope of one's central purpose in life and meaningful activities. (JOW)

  15. Integrated Language Skills CALL Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kevin; Agawa, Grant

    2013-01-01

    The importance of a structured learning framework or interrelated frameworks is the cornerstone of a solid English as a foreign language (EFL) computer-assisted language learning (CALL) curriculum. While the benefits of CALL are widely promoted in the literature, there is often an endemic discord separating theory and practice. Oftentimes the…

  16. Bat echolocation calls: Orientation to communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, M. Brock

    2001-05-01

    Bats hunting flying insects adjust the design of their echolocation calls according to the situation in which they forage and stage in an attack. Changes in call design across attack sequences alert other bats within earshot to the presence of prey, demonstrating a continuum in roles for biosonar signals between orientation and communication. Many aerial-feeding bats change the design of their echolocation calls in the presence of echolocating conspecifics. Bats may change frequency parameters, durations, and/or intensities of their calls. While a variety of free-tailed bats (Molossidae Otomops martiensseni, Tadarida teniotis, Molossus molossus) consistently change their echolocation calls when more than one bat is flying in an area, at least one sheath-tailed bat (Emballonuridae Taphozous perforatus) does not. Changes in echolocation calls may maximize jamming avoidance and/or enhance the communicative function of the calls. The data for molossids support the hypothesis that when hunting some species fly in formation. Here, variation in individual call design could provide positional information and reduce the chances of mid-air collisions.

  17. 33 CFR 401.64 - Calling in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Center. (d) After obtaining the situation report referred to in paragraph (c) of this section, the... lower approach wall of St. Lambert Lock, the master of the vessel shall call “Seaway Beauharnois” and... downbound vessel shall call “Seaway Beauharnois” before switching to channel 10 (156.5 MHz). (68 Stat....

  18. Promotion in Call Centres: Opportunities and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjup, Maria Tatiana; Valverde, Mireia; Ryan, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of jobs in call centres by focusing on the opportunities for promotion in this sector. More specifically, the research questions focus on discovering whether promotion is common practise in the call centre sector and on identifying the factors that affect this.…

  19. A CALL for Improved School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Richard; Kelley, Carolyn; Shaw, James

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Assessment of Leadership for Learning (CALL) is a formative assessment that provides feedback to schools on the research-based leadership practices necessary to improve teaching and learning. Instead of focusing on an individual leader, CALL measures leadership practices in tasks carried out by actors across the school and…

  20. 78 FR 76257 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...In this document the FCC seeks comments on additional measures that may help the Commission ensure a reasonable and nondiscriminatory level of service for completing long-distance calls to rural areas. This document also; seeks to improve the Commission's ability to monitor problems with completing calls to rural areas, and enhance our ability to enforce restrictions against blocking, choking,......

  1. The Call for Collaboration in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Judith; Blanton, Linda

    2005-01-01

    As the number of students who are struggling in school grows, the need for general and special education to come together to create the vision and capacity to educate all students becomes more and more pronounced. Collaboration by teachers is called for in the schools, likewise, it is called for in teacher education. Collaboration between general…

  2. The function of Barbary macaque copulation calls.

    PubMed Central

    Semple, S

    1998-01-01

    In a wide variety of animal species, females produce vocalizations specific to mating contexts. It has been proposed that these copulation calls function to incite males to compete for access to the calling female. Two separate advantages of inciting male-male competition in this way have been put forward. The first suggests that as a result of calling, females are only mated by the highest ranking male in the vicinity (indirect mate choice hypothesis). The second proposes that copulation calling results in a female being mated by many males, thus promoting competition at the level of sperm (sperm competition hypothesis). In this paper, I give results from the first experimental study to test these hypotheses. Playback was used to examine the function of copulation calls of female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Gibraltar. Although rank did not affect lone males' likelihood of approaching copulation calls, when playbacks were given to pairs of males only the higher ranking individual approached. Moreover, females were mated significantly sooner after playback of their copulation call than after playback of a control stimulus. These results suggest that the copulation calls of female Barbary macaques play a key role in affecting patterns of male reproductive behaviour, not only providing an indirect mechanism of female choice, but also promoting sperm competition by reducing the interval between copulations. Potential fitness benefits of inciting male-male competition at these two levels are discussed. PMID:9523431

  3. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Margin calls. 31.18 Section 31....18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of a margin deficiency without effecting personal contact with the leverage customer. If a...

  4. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Margin calls. 31.18 Section 31....18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of a margin deficiency without effecting personal contact with the leverage customer. If a...

  5. Peafowl antipredator calls encode information about signalers.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2014-02-01

    Animals emit vocalizations that convey information about external events. Many of these vocalizations, including those emitted in response to predators, also encode information about the individual that produced the call. The relationship between acoustic features of antipredator calls and information relating to signalers (including sex, identity, body size, and social rank) were examined in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). The "bu-girk" antipredator calls of male and female peafowl were recorded and 20 acoustic parameters were automatically extracted from each call. Both the bu and girk elements of the antipredator call were individually distinctive and calls were classified to the correct signaler with over 90% and 70% accuracy in females and males, respectively. Females produced calls with a higher fundamental frequency (F0) than males. In both females and males, body size was negatively correlated with F0. In addition, peahen rank was related to the duration, end mean frequency, and start harmonicity of the bu element. Peafowl antipredator calls contain detailed information about the signaler and can potentially be used by receivers to respond to dangerous situations. PMID:25234902

  6. Wild birds learn to eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; McLachlan, Jessica R; Igic, Branislav

    2015-08-01

    Many vertebrates gain critical information about danger by eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls [1], providing an excellent context in which to study information flow among species in animal communities [2-4]. A fundamental but unresolved question is how individuals recognize other species' alarm calls. Although individuals respond to heterospecific calls that are acoustically similar to their own, alarms vary greatly among species, and eavesdropping probably also requires learning [1]. Surprisingly, however, we lack studies demonstrating such learning. Here, we show experimentally that individual wild superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize previously unfamiliar alarm calls. We trained individuals by broadcasting unfamiliar sounds while simultaneously presenting gliding predatory birds. Fairy-wrens in the experiment originally ignored these sounds, but most fled in response to the sounds after two days' training. The learned response was not due to increased responsiveness in general or to sensitization following repeated exposure and was independent of sound structure. Learning can therefore help explain the taxonomic diversity of eavesdropping and the refining of behavior to suit the local community. In combination with previous work on unfamiliar predator recognition (e.g., [5]), our results imply rapid spread of anti-predator behavior within wild populations and suggest methods for training captive-bred animals before release into the wild [6]. A remaining challenge is to assess the importance and consequences of direct association of unfamiliar sounds with predators, compared with social learning-such as associating unfamiliar sounds with conspecific alarms. PMID:26190077

  7. Loud calls of adult male red howling monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).

    PubMed

    Schön Ybarra, M A

    1986-01-01

    Loud calls of adult male red howlers (Alouatta seniculus) inhabiting a deciduous and semideciduous open woodland site in Venezuela were recorded opportunistically and categorized by ear and sonographically as barks and roars. Five to six different bark syllables were identified as occurring singly or in sequences of doublets and triplets. In barks, spectral energy was concentrated in bands at 350-400 Hz, 900-1,100 Hz, 1,800-2,200 Hz and 3,000-3,500 Hz, but not all higher bands were present in each syllable. Roars appeared sonographically like prolonged barks composed of a pulsated preface, a long legato climax and a brief, fractionated and at times pulsated coda; each part varied internally to the ear and in acoustic structure. All loud calls were of the noisy type (nonharmonic energy over a broad frequency range). Acoustic characteristics of the calls are interpreted in terms of the subserving vocal tract anatomy. I compare loud calls of red howlers with those of mantled (A. palliata) and black (A. caraya) howlers. PMID:3609972

  8. Patterns of call communication between group-housed zebra finches change during the breeding cycle.

    PubMed

    Gill, Lisa F; Goymann, Wolfgang; Ter Maat, Andries; Gahr, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Vocal signals such as calls play a crucial role for survival and successful reproduction, especially in group-living animals. However, call interactions and call dynamics within groups remain largely unexplored because their relation to relevant contexts or life-history stages could not be studied with individual-level resolution. Using on-bird microphone transmitters, we recorded the vocalisations of individual zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaving freely in social groups, while females and males previously unknown to each other passed through different stages of the breeding cycle. As birds formed pairs and shifted their reproductive status, their call repertoire composition changed. The recordings revealed that calls occurred non-randomly in fine-tuned vocal interactions and decreased within groups while pair-specific patterns emerged. Call-type combinations of vocal interactions changed within pairs and were associated with successful egg-laying, highlighting a potential fitness relevance of calling dynamics in communication systems. PMID:26441403

  9. Echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially in the brainstem of the bat Phyllostomus discolor

    PubMed Central

    Fenzl, Thomas; Schuller, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Background Echolocating bats emit vocalizations that can be classified either as echolocation calls or communication calls. Neural control of both types of calls must govern the same pool of motoneurons responsible for vocalizations. Electrical microstimulation in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) elicits both communication and echolocation calls, whereas stimulation of the paralemniscal area (PLA) induces only echolocation calls. In both the PAG and the PLA, the current thresholds for triggering natural vocalizations do not habituate to stimuli and remain low even for long stimulation periods, indicating that these structures have relative direct access to the final common pathway for vocalization. This study intended to clarify whether echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially below the level of the PAG via separate vocal pathways before converging on the motoneurons used in vocalization. Results Both structures were probed simultaneously in a single experimental approach. Two stimulation electrodes were chronically implanted within the PAG in order to elicit either echolocation or communication calls. Blockade of the ipsilateral PLA site with iontophoretically application of the glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid did not impede either echolocation or communication calls elicited from the PAG. However, blockade of the contralateral PLA suppresses PAG-elicited echolocation calls but not communication calls. In both cases the blockade was reversible. Conclusion The neural control of echolocation and communication calls seems to be differentially organized below the level of the PAG. The PLA is an essential functional unit for echolocation call control before the descending pathways share again the final common pathway for vocalization. PMID:16053533

  10. Responsiveness to conspecific distress calls is influenced by day-roost proximity in bats (Saccopteryx bilineata)

    PubMed Central

    Eckenweber, Maria; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Distress calls signal extreme physical distress, e.g. being caught by a predator. In many bat species, distress calls attract conspecifics. Because bats often occupy perennial day-roosts, they might adapt their responsiveness according to the social relevance in which distress calls are broadcast. Specifically, we hypothesized that conspecific distress calls broadcast within or in proximity to the day-roost would elicit a stronger responsiveness than distress calls broadcast at a foraging site. We analysed the distress calls and conducted playback experiments with the greater sac-winged bat, Saccopteryx bilineata, which occupies perennial day-roosts with a stable social group composition. S. bilineata reacted significantly differently depending on the playback's location. Bats were attracted to distress call playbacks within the day-roost and in proximity to it, but showed no obvious response to distress call playbacks at a foraging site. Hence, the bats adapted their responsiveness towards distress calls depending on the social relevance in which distress calls were broadcast. Distress calls within or in proximity to the day-roost are probably perceived as a greater threat and thus have a higher behavioural relevance than distress calls at foraging sites, either because bats want to assess the predation risk or because they engage in mobbing behaviour. PMID:27293797

  11. Responsiveness to conspecific distress calls is influenced by day-roost proximity in bats (Saccopteryx bilineata).

    PubMed

    Eckenweber, Maria; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2016-05-01

    Distress calls signal extreme physical distress, e.g. being caught by a predator. In many bat species, distress calls attract conspecifics. Because bats often occupy perennial day-roosts, they might adapt their responsiveness according to the social relevance in which distress calls are broadcast. Specifically, we hypothesized that conspecific distress calls broadcast within or in proximity to the day-roost would elicit a stronger responsiveness than distress calls broadcast at a foraging site. We analysed the distress calls and conducted playback experiments with the greater sac-winged bat, Saccopteryx bilineata, which occupies perennial day-roosts with a stable social group composition. S. bilineata reacted significantly differently depending on the playback's location. Bats were attracted to distress call playbacks within the day-roost and in proximity to it, but showed no obvious response to distress call playbacks at a foraging site. Hence, the bats adapted their responsiveness towards distress calls depending on the social relevance in which distress calls were broadcast. Distress calls within or in proximity to the day-roost are probably perceived as a greater threat and thus have a higher behavioural relevance than distress calls at foraging sites, either because bats want to assess the predation risk or because they engage in mobbing behaviour. PMID:27293797

  12. Russian Prime Minister Calls the Station Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called the International Space Station from the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, on Jan. 11, 2011. Putin also offered his condolences to ISS ...

  13. President Obama Calls Atlantis and Station Crews

    NASA Video Gallery

    President Barack Obama called the crews of Atlantis and the International Space Station today, noting that the final shuttle mission also "ushers in an exciting new era to push the frontiers of spa...

  14. Administrator Bolden Calls Underwater NEEMO Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    From outside their underwater laboratory in Florida, NASA Astronaut and NEEMO 16 Commander Dottie Metcalf-Lindenburger and European Space Agency astronaut Timothy Peake took a call from NASA Admini...

  15. Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158362.html Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change They say respiratory illnesses, heat stroke and infectious ... 18, 2016 MONDAY, April 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change is already harming people's health by promoting illnesses ...

  16. Engineers call for US nuclear safety fix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Seven Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) engineers have called on the commission to force the owners of US nuclear reactors to repair a design flaw that could affect the safe operation of emergency core cooling systems.

  17. Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. PMID:23206277

  18. Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158362.html Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change They say respiratory illnesses, heat stroke and ... 18, 2016 MONDAY, April 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change is already harming people's health by promoting ...

  19. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... after contact is effected in which to respond to a margin call. Twenty-four hours, excluding Saturdays... contract for a period of 5 business days at the then prevailing bid price in the case of a long...

  20. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... after contact is effected in which to respond to a margin call. Twenty-four hours, excluding Saturdays... contract for a period of 5 business days at the then prevailing bid price in the case of a long...

  1. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... after contact is effected in which to respond to a margin call. Twenty-four hours, excluding Saturdays... contract for a period of 5 business days at the then prevailing bid price in the case of a long...

  2. Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/97 PMID:23206277

  3. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must...

  4. Scaling of echolocation call parameters in bats.

    PubMed

    Jones, G

    1999-12-01

    I investigated the scaling of echolocation call parameters (frequency, duration and repetition rate) in bats in a functional context. Low-duty-cycle bats operate with search phase cycles of usually less than 20 %. They process echoes in the time domain and are therefore intolerant of pulse-echo overlap. High-duty-cycle (>30 %) species use Doppler shift compensation, and they separate pulse and echo in the frequency domain. Call frequency scales negatively with body mass in at least five bat families. Pulse duration scales positively with mass in low-duty-cycle quasi-constant-frequency (QCF) species because the large aerial-hawking species that emit these signals fly fast in open habitats. They therefore detect distant targets and experience pulse-echo overlap later than do smaller bats. Pulse duration also scales positively with mass in the Hipposideridae, which show at least partial Doppler shift compensation. Pulse repetition rate corresponds closely with wingbeat frequency in QCF bat species that fly relatively slowly. Larger, fast-flying species often skip pulses when detecting distant targets. There is probably a trade-off between call intensity and repetition rate because 'whispering' bats (and hipposiderids) produce several calls per predicted wingbeat and because batches of calls are emitted per wingbeat during terminal buzzes. Severe atmospheric attenuation at high frequencies limits the range of high-frequency calls. Low-duty-cycle bats that call at high frequencies must therefore use short pulses to avoid pulse-echo overlap. Rhinolophids escape this constraint by Doppler shift compensation and, importantly, can exploit advantages associated with the emission of both high-frequency and long-duration calls. Low frequencies are unsuited for the detection of small prey, and low repetition rates may limit prey detection rates. Echolocation parameters may therefore constrain maximum body size in aerial-hawking bats. PMID:10562518

  5. Communication cliques in mobile phone calling networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Xia; Xie, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-11-01

    People in modern societies form different social networks through numerous means of communication. These communication networks reflect different aspects of human's societal structure. The billing records of calls among mobile phone users enable us to construct a directed calling network (DCN) and its Bonferroni network (SVDCN) in which the preferential communications are statistically validated. Here we perform a comparative investigation of the cliques of the original DCN and its SVDCN constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that the statistical properties of the cliques of the two calling networks are qualitatively similar and the clique members in the DCN and the SVDCN exhibit idiosyncratic behaviors quantitatively. Members in large cliques are found to be spatially close to each other. Based on the clique degree profile of each mobile phone user, the most active users in the two calling networks can be classified in to several groups. The users in different groups are found to have different calling behaviors. Our study unveils interesting communication behaviors among mobile phone users that are densely connected to each other.

  6. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks.

  7. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties.

    PubMed

    Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks. PMID:24510159

  8. Energetic cost of calling: general constraints and species-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Ophir, A G; Schrader, S B; Gillooly, J F

    2010-07-01

    The energetic cost of acoustic signalling varies tremendously among species. Understanding factors responsible for this heterogeneity is important for understanding the costs and benefits of signalling. Here, we present a general model, based on well-established principles of bioenergetics, which predicts the energetic cost of call production across species. We test model predictions using an extensive database of resting and calling metabolic rates of insects, amphibians and birds. Results are largely supportive of model predictions. Calling metabolic rates scale predictably with body mass and temperature such that calling and resting metabolic rates are directly proportional to each other. The cost of acoustic signalling is approximately 8 times higher than resting metabolic rate in ectotherms, and approximately 2 times higher in birds. Differences in the increase in metabolic rate during calling are explained by the relative size of species' sound-producing muscles. Combined with published work, we quantify call efficiency and discuss model implications. PMID:20456573

  9. The communicative content of the common marmoset phee call during antiphonal calling

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cory T.; Mandel, Katherine; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    Vocalizations are a dominant means of communication for numerous species, including nonhuman primates. These acoustic signals are encoded with a rich array of information available to signal receivers that can be used to guide species-typical behaviors. Here we examined the communicative content of common marmoset phee calls, the species-typical long distance contact call, during antiphonal calling. This call type has a relatively stereotyped acoustic structure, consisting of a series of long tonal pulses. Analyses revealed that calls could be reliably classified based on the individual identity and social group of the caller. Our analyses did not, however, correctly classify phee calls recorded under different social contexts, though differences were evident along individual acoustic parameters. Further tests of antiphonal calling interactions showed that spontaneously produced phee calls differ from antiphonal phee calls in their peak and end frequency, which may be functionally significant. Overall, this study shows that the marmoset phee call has a rich communicative content encoded in its acoustic structure available to conspecifics during antiphonal calling exchanges. PMID:20549761

  10. A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics.

    PubMed

    Magrath, Robert D; Bennett, Thomas H

    2012-03-01

    Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

  11. A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics

    PubMed Central

    Magrath, Robert D.; Bennett, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

  12. Comparing responses of four ungulate species to playbacks of baboon alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Dawn M; Bergman, Thore J; Cheney, Dorothy L; Nicholson, James R; Seyfarth, Robert M

    2010-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that a wide range of animals can recognize and respond appropriately to calls produced by other species. Social learning has been implicated as a possible mechanism by which heterospecific call recognition might develop. To examine whether familiarity and/or shared vulnerability with the calling species might influence the ability of sympatric species to distinguish heterospecific alarm calls, we tested whether four ungulate species (impala: Aepyceros melampus; tsessebe: Damaliscus lunatus; zebra: Equus burchelli; wildebeest: Connochaetes taurinus) could distinguish baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) alarm calls from other loud baboon calls produced during intra-specific aggressive interactions ('contest' calls). Overall, subjects' responses were stronger following playback of alarm calls than contest calls. Of the species tested, impala showed the strongest responses and the greatest difference in composite response scores, suggesting they were best able to differentiate call types. Compared with the other ungulate species, impala are the most frequent associates of baboons. Moreover, like baboons, they are susceptible to both lion and leopard attacks, whereas leopards rarely take the larger ungulates. Although it seems possible that high rates of association and/or shared vulnerability may influence impala's greater ability to distinguish among baboon call types, our results point to a stronger influence of familiarity. Ours is the first study to compare such abilities among several community members with variable natural histories, and we discuss future experiments that would more systematically examine development of these skills in young ungulates. PMID:20607576

  13. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  14. Variation in call pitch among killer whale ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew D; Nystuen, Jeffrey A

    2008-03-01

    Vocal structure can vary between populations due to variation in ecology-dependent selection pressures, such as masking by background noise and the presence of eavesdroppers. Signalers can overcome these obstacles to effective communication by avoiding frequencies that overlap with background noise or the audible range of eavesdroppers. In the Northeastern Pacific three "ecotypes" of killer whale coexist in sympatry, but differ from one another in their diet and habitat use. The minimum frequency (F(min)) and the frequency containing the peak energy between 0 and 10 kHz (F(peak)) of a random sample of calls produced by a population of each ecotype was measured. The offshore ecotype produced calls with a significantly higher F(min) than the other ecotypes, which could be a strategy to avoid masking by low frequency chronic bandlimited wind noise found in the offshore environment. The resident ecotype produced calls with a significantly higher F(min) and F(peak) than the transient ecotype. This could be to reduce detection by their salmonid prey, which has a narrow band, low frequency auditory range. PMID:18345862

  15. Adjusting Permittivity by Blending Varying Ratios of SWNTs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tour, James M.; Stephenson, Jason J.; Higginbotham, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    A new composite material of singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) displays radio frequency (0 to 1 GHz) permittivity properties that can be adjusted based upon the nanotube composition. When varying ratios of raw to functionalized SWNTs are blended into the silicone elastomer matrix at a total loading of 0.5 percent by weight, a target real permittivity value can be obtained between 70 and 3. This has particular use for designing materials for microwave lenses, microstrips, filters, resonators, high-strength/low-weight electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, antennas, waveguides, and low-loss magneto-dielectric products for applications like radome construction.

  16. Addressing the call-back problem

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, R.

    1985-08-01

    Service recalls or call-backs are one of the costliest and most persistent of service management problems. Although all service industries have call-back problems each time the oilburner breaks down, the customer has what could be a costly inconvenience. Every customer complaint reduces loyalty and makes the industry more and more vulnerable to competition, not just from each other but, from the utilities and the discounters. A customer who gets prompt, capable service will usually stay with his present company and, just as importantly, he stays with fuel oil. If the industry were to place the blame for call-backs on a particular person or area it would probably be in the individual serviceman. The lack of training, lack of motivation, lack of compassion for the customer or lack of company spirit, is discussed.

  17. Smarter clustering methods for SNP genotype calling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan; Tseng, George C.; Cheong, Soo Yeon; Bean, Lora J. H.; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Feingold, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Most genotyping technologies for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers use standard clustering methods to ‘call’ the SNP genotypes. These methods are not always optimal in distinguishing the genotype clusters of a SNP because they do not take advantage of specific features of the genotype calling problem. In particular, when family data are available, pedigree information is ignored. Furthermore, prior information about the distribution of the measurements for each cluster can be used to choose an appropriate model-based clustering method and can significantly improve the genotype calls. One special genotyping problem that has never been discussed in the literature is that of genotyping of trisomic individuals, such as individuals with Down syndrome. Calling trisomic genotypes is a more complicated problem, and the addition of external information becomes very important. Results: In this article, we discuss the impact of incorporating external information into clustering algorithms to call the genotypes for both disomic and trisomic data. We also propose two new methods to call genotypes using family data. One is a modification of the K-means method and uses the pedigree information by updating all members of a family together. The other is a likelihood-based method that combines the Gaussian or beta-mixture model with pedigree information. We compare the performance of these two methods and some other existing methods using simulation studies. We also compare the performance of these methods on a real dataset generated by the Illumina platform (www.illumina.com). Availability: The R code for the family-based genotype calling methods (SNPCaller) is available to be downloaded from the following website: http://watson.hgen.pitt.edu/register. Contact: liny@upmc.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:18826959

  18. Speech privacy in customer service call centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulkes, Timothy

    2005-09-01

    Customer service call centers are a special type of open plan office with different design considerations and different acoustical goals. Workers want a high degree of visual and verbal contact with adjacent members of their team, but customers do not want to hear crosstalk from other conversations. Achieving the correct balance between these conflicting goals is a challenge for the architect and acoustic consultant. This paper will present several case studies of different call centers with acoustic measurements, user comments, and other subjective assessment methods.

  19. What is this thing called pain?

    PubMed

    Woolf, Clifford J

    2010-11-01

    To paraphrase Cole Porter's famous 1926 song, "What is this thing called pain? This funny thing called pain, just who can solve its mystery?" Pain, like love, is all consuming: when you have it, not much else matters, and there is nothing you can do about it. Unlike love, however, we are actually beginning to tease apart the mystery of pain. The substantial progress made over the last decade in revealing the genes, molecules, cells, and circuits that determine the sensation of pain offers new opportunities to manage it, as revealed in this Review series by some of the foremost experts in the field. PMID:21041955

  20. Intra- and interspecific responses to Rafinesque’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) social calls.

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, Susan, C.; Britzke, Eric, R.

    2010-07-01

    Bats respond to the calls of conspecifics as well as to calls of other species; however, few studies have attempted to quantify these responses or understand the functions of these calls. We tested the response of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) to social calls as a possible method to increase capture success and to understand the function of social calls. We also tested if calls of bats within the range of the previously designated subspecies differed, if the responses of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats varied with geographic origin of the calls, and if other species responded to the calls of C. rafinesquii. We recorded calls of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats at two colony roost sites in South Carolina, USA. Calls were recorded while bats were in the roosts and as they exited. Playback sequences for each site were created by copying typical pulses into the playback file. Two mist nets were placed approximately 50–500 m from known roost sites; the net with the playback equipment served as the Experimental net and the one without the equipment served as the Control net. Call structures differed significantly between the Mountain and Coastal Plains populations with calls from the Mountains being of higher frequency and longer duration. Ten of 11 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats were caught in the Control nets and, 13 of 19 bats of other species were captured at Experimental nets even though overall bat activity did not differ significantly between Control and Experimental nets. Our results suggest that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats are not attracted to conspecifics’ calls and that these calls may act as an intraspecific spacing mechanism during foraging.

  1. Twelve years of tracking 52-Hz whale calls from a unique source in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, William A.; Daher, Mary Ann; George, Joseph E.; Rodriguez, David

    2004-12-01

    A unique whale call with 50-52 Hz emphasis from a single source has been tracked over 12 years in the central and eastern North Pacific. These calls, referred to as 52-Hz calls, were monitored and analyzed from acoustic data recorded by hydrophones of the US Navy Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) and other arrays. The calls were noticed first in 1989, and have been detected and tracked since 1992. No other calls with similar characteristics have been identified in the acoustic data from any hydrophone system in the North Pacific basin. Only one series of these 52-Hz calls has been recorded at a time, with no call overlap, suggesting that a single whale produced the calls. The calls were recorded from August to February with most in December and January. The species producing these calls is unknown. The tracks of the 52-Hz whale were different each year, and varied in length from 708 to 11,062 km with travel speeds ranging from 0.7 to 3.8 km/h. Tracks included (A) meandering over short ranges, (B) predominantly west-to-east movement, and (C) mostly north-to-south travel. These tracks consistently appeared to be unrelated to the presence or movement of other whale species (blue, fin and humpback) monitored year-round with the same hydrophones.

  2. Hydride compositions

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Myung W.

    1995-01-01

    A composition for use in storing hydrogen, and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the hydrogen equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to hydrogen and then heating at a temperature below the softening temperature of any of the. constituents so that their chemical and structural integrity is preserved. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P.sub.H.sbsb.2 and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  3. Hydride compositions

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Myung, W.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  4. Using Software Design Methods in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The phrase "software design" is not one that arouses the interest of many CALL practitioners, particularly those from a humanities background. However, software design essentials are simply logical ways of going about designing a system. The fundamentals include modularity, anticipation of change, generality and an incremental approach. While CALL…

  5. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request for... Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board) with the requested materials in response to...

  6. The TATL Framework for CALL Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Chiaráin, Neasa; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2015-01-01

    The Theory Actions Technology Learner context (TATL) framework provides an initial analysis tool to guide Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) development. It entails joint consideration of four key factors that need to be considered prior and during development activities: (1) the underlying pedagogical theory; (2) the learning tasks…

  7. Relabeling the Medications We Call Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Antonuccio, David; Healy, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper raises the question about whether the data on the medications we call antidepressants justify the label of antidepressant. The authors argue that a true antidepressant should be clearly superior to placebo, should offer a risk/benefit balance that exceeds that of alternative treatments, should not increase suicidality, should not increase anxiety and agitation, should not interfere with sexual functioning, and should not increase depression chronicity. Unfortunately, these medications appear to fall short on all of these dimensions. Many of the “side effects” of these medications have larger effect sizes than the antidepressant effect size. To call these medications antidepressants may make sense from a marketing standpoint but may be misleading from a scientific perspective. Consumers deserve a label that more accurately reflects the data on the largest effects and helps them understand the range of effects from these medications. In other words, it may make just as much sense to call these medications antiaphrodisiacs as antidepressants because the negative effects on libido and sexual functioning are so common. It can be argued that a misleading label may interfere with our commitment to informed consent. Therefore, it may be time to stop calling these medications antidepressants. PMID:24278764

  8. 78 FR 21891 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed... government officials to receive calls compromises the integrity and reliability of the public switched... in any way, including to avoid termination charges. Noting that the ubiquity and reliability of...

  9. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Akinori; Shigeta, Yoko; Eiraku, Tomohiko; Kuwano, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino)-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilino)oxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino)-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilino)thiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor. PMID:15841221

  10. School-Turnaround Call Points Up Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. secretary of education's call to "turn around" the nation's 5,000 worst-performing schools has found a warm welcome among educators and policy makers who see that focus as long overdue. But it has also sparked debate about how--and whether--such an enormous leadership and management challenge can be accomplished. U.S. Secretary of…

  11. CALL--Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bax, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Provides a critical examination and reassessment of the history of computer assisted language learning (CALL), and argues for three new strategies--restricted, open, and integrated. Offers definitions and descriptions of the three approaches and argues that they allow a more detailed analysis of institutions and classrooms than earlier analyses.…

  12. Don't Call It School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    "Homeschooling," "deschooling," and "unschooling" are commonly used terms in the alternative-education world, but each lacks specificity. In this article, the author describes what he discovered during several visits to North Star. Known officially as North Star: Self-Directed Learning for Teens, it is not as structured as a so-called "free"…

  13. "The Call of the Wild": Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsen, Tammy

    This unit intends for students to explore various literary devices such as theme, characterization, and vocabulary while they read Jack London's "The Call of the Wild." While reading this text, students will explore the relationship of these devices in connection to the unit's overall theme: survival. Students will be exposed to history, new…

  14. Calling Careers: Overview and Accompanying Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinson, Nancy M.

    CALLING CAREERS is a televised series of fifteen 20-minute lessons intended to acquaint fourth through eighth grade students with twelve vocational clusters and to demonstrate the opportunities contained within them, the relationships between them, and the personal characteristics and work habits they require. The series also demonstrates how jobs…

  15. A Call for School Counseling Practitioner Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaffenberger, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the repeated call to increase the number of practitioner research manuscripts being published in counseling publications, practitioner research accounts for less than five percent of all manuscripts published. This article describes the challenges faced by practitioners seeking to publish their research, defines practitioner research, and…

  16. Looking Back: Tracing Trends in Canadian CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Mary-Louise; Sinyor, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    "CCALLNET" ("The Canadian Computer-Assisted Language Learning Network at the Post-Secondary Level") was a semi-annual newsletter published from 1987 to 2002 that was distributed to colleagues across Canada who taught languages to university students. Its objective was to create a network of Canadian faculty interested in CALL by informing them…

  17. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... station) KAAA-FM through KZZZ--FM. WAAA-FM through WZZZ-FM. Broadcasting (television) 4 letters (plus... and television broadcasting stations using 5 letter call signs consisting of 3 letters with the suffix... citations affecting § 2.302, see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of...

  18. Becoming a Strategic Language Learner in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines what it means to be a strategic language learner in the context of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). It looks at the possible roles for language learner strategies at their crucial intersection with language learning technology. We will first consider what language learner strategies have been represented in…

  19. Educational Use of Databases in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the idea that databases are very useful tools for teaching languages over the Internet. Databases in Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) are commonly used in three ways: for reference sources such as dictionaries, in the management of large websites, and for data processing such as language tests and learners'…

  20. A History of Commitment in CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Joan

    The evolution of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is examined, focusing on what has changed and what has not changed much during that time. A variety of changes are noted: the development of multimedia capabilities, color, animation, and technical improvement of audio and video quality; availability of databases, better fit between…

  1. Modeling Learning Processes in Lexical CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Robin; Laurillard, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Studies the performance of a novice Spanish student using a Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system designed for vocabulary enlargement. Results indicate that introspective evidence may be used to validate performance data within a theoretical framework that characterizes the learning approach as "surface" or "deep." (25 references)…

  2. Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

  3. Adult Vampire Bats Produce Contact Calls When Isolated: Acoustic Variation by Species, Population, Colony, and Individual

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Gerald G.; Logsdon, Ryane; Arnold, Bryan D.; Menchaca, Angelica; Medellin, Rodrigo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae) would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. Methods/Principal Findings We assessed variation in contact calls recorded from isolated captive and wild-caught adult common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). We compared species-typical contact call structure, and used information theory and permuted discriminate function analyses to examine call structure variation, and to determine if the individuality of contact calls is encoded by different call features across species and populations. We found that isolated adult vampire bats produce contact calls that vary by species, population, colony, and individual. However, much variation occurred within a single context and individual. We estimated signature information for captive Diaemus (same colony), captive Desmodus (same colony), and wild Desmodus (different colonies) at 3.21, 3.26, and 3.88 bits, respectively. Contact calls from a captive colony of Desmodus were less individually distinct than calls from wild-caught Desmodus from different colonies. Both the degree of individuality and parameters encoding individuality differed between the bats from a single captive colony and the wild-caught individuals from different groups. This result is consistent with, but not sufficient evidence of, vocal convergence in groups. Conclusion Our results show that adult vampire bats of all three species produce highly variable contact calls when isolated. Contact calls contain sufficient information for vocal discrimination, but also possess more intra-individual variation

  4. Calling Card Analysis in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, David; Mitra, Robi D

    2016-02-01

    Calling card analysis is a high-throughput method for identifying the genomic binding sites of multiple transcription factors in a single experiment in budding yeast. By tagging a DNA-binding protein with a targeting domain that directs the insertion of the Ty5 retrotransposon, the genomic binding sites for that transcription factor are marked. The transposition locations are then identified en masse by Illumina sequencing. The calling card protocol allows for simultaneous analysis of multiple transcription factors. By cloning barcodes into the Ty5 transposon, it is possible to pair a unique barcode with every transcription factor in the experiment. The method presented here uses expression of transcription factors from their native loci; however, it can also be altered to measure binding sites of transcription factors overexpressed from a plasmid. PMID:26832687

  5. Telephone talk: effects of two access methods on phone call success.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Elizabeth K; Goldhammer, Emily; Bethard, Tanya

    2016-09-01

    The slower and unnatural timing of speech inherent to speech-generating devices (SGDs) can be a barrier to successful aided telephone calls. The timing of message delivery when using an SGD may vary depending on the type of access method used. We measured the difference in the success rate of telephone calls made with an SGD either using switch scanning or direct selection with eye gaze. The scripted calls, asking for directions, were placed to 100 randomly selected businesses. Analysis showed a statistically significant difference in the success rate between the two conditions, with eye gaze access resulting in more successful calls. Findings from this study suggest that people who use SGDs for phone calls may improve the timing of message delivery by using eye gaze access compared to switch scanning. PMID:27400281

  6. Improved multimodal admittance method in varying cross section waveguides.

    PubMed

    Maurel, Agnès; Mercier, Jean-François; Pagneux, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    An improved version of the multimodal admittance method in acoustic waveguides with varying cross sections is presented. This method aims at a better convergence with respect to the number of transverse modes that are taken into account. It is based on an enriched modal expansion of the pressure: the N first modes are the local transverse modes and a supplementary (N+1)th mode, called boundary mode, is a well-chosen transverse function orthogonal to the N first modes. This expansion leads to the classical form of the coupled mode equations where the component of the boundary mode is of evanescent character. Under this form, the multimodal admittance method based on the Riccati equation on the admittance matrix (the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator) is straightforwardly implemented. With this supplementary mode, in addition to the improvement of the convergence of the pressure field, results show a superconvergence of the scattered field outside of the varying cross sections region. PMID:24711716

  7. Quantitative classification of harbor seal breeding calls in Georgia Strait, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nikolich, Katrina; Frouin-Mouy, Héloïse; Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    During breeding season, male harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) produce underwater calls used in sexual competition and advertisement. Call characteristics vary among populations, and within-population differences are thought to represent individual variation. However, vocalizations have not been described for several populations of this widely-distributed and genetically diverse species. This study describes the vocal repertoire of harbor seals from British Columbia, Canada. Underwater recordings were made near Hornby Island during the summer of 2014 using a single hydrophone. A wide variability was detected in breeding vocalizations within this single breeding site. Four candidate call types were identified, containing six subtypes. Linear discriminant analysis showed 88% agreement with subjective classification of call types, and 74% agreement for call subtypes. Classification tree analysis gave a 92% agreement with candidate call types, with all splits made on the basis of call duration. Differences in duration may have reflected individual differences among seals. This study suggests that the vocal repertoire of harbor seals in this area comprises a vocal continuum rather than discrete call types. Further work with the ability to localize calls may help to determine whether this complexity represents variability due to propagation conditions, animal orientation, or differences among individual seals. PMID:27586756

  8. Call progress time measurement in IP telephony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasnabish, Bhumip

    1999-11-01

    Usually a voice call is established through multiple stages in IP telephony. In the first stage, a phone number is dialed to reach a near-end or call-originating IP-telephony gateway. The next stages involve user identification through delivering an m-digit user-id to the authentication and/or billing server, and then user authentication by using an n- digit PIN. After that, the caller is allowed (last stage dial tone is provided) to dial a destination phone number provided that authentication is successful. In this paper, we present a very flexible method for measuring call progress time in IP telephony. The proposed technique can be used to measure the system response time at every stage. It is flexible, so that it can be easily modified to include new `tone' or a set of tones, or `voice begin' can be used in every stage to detect the system's response. The proposed method has been implemented using scripts written in Hammer visual basic language for testing with a few commercially available IP telephony gateways.

  9. Varying electric charge in multiscale spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Magueijo, João; Fernández, David Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    We derive the covariant equations of motion for Maxwell field theory and electrodynamics in multiscale spacetimes with weighted Laplacian. An effective spacetime-dependent electric charge of geometric origin naturally emerges from the theory, thus giving rise to a varying fine-structure constant. The theory is compared with other varying-coupling models, such as those with a varying electric charge or varying speed of light. The theory is also confronted with cosmological observations, which can place constraints on the characteristic scales in the multifractional measure. We note that the model considered here is fundamentally different from those previously proposed in the literature, either of the varying-e or varying-c persuasion.

  10. Time-varying Reeb Graphs: A Topological Framework Supporting the Analysis of Continuous Time-varying Data

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenhas, A

    2006-11-28

    I present time-varying Reeb graphs as a topological framework to support the analysis of continuous time-varying data. Such data is captured in many studies, including computational fluid dynamics, oceanography, medical imaging, and climate modeling, by measuring physical processes over time, or by modeling and simulating them on a computer. Analysis tools are applied to these data sets by scientists and engineers who seek to understand the underlying physical processes. A popular tool for analyzing scientific datasets is level sets, which are the points in space with a fixed data value s. Displaying level sets allows the user to study their geometry, their topological features such as connected components, handles, and voids, and to study the evolution of these features for varying s. For static data, the Reeb graph encodes the evolution of topological features and compactly represents topological information of all level sets. The Reeb graph essentially contracts each level set component to a point. It can be computed efficiently, and it has several uses: as a succinct summary of the data, as an interface to select meaningful level sets, as a data structure to accelerate level set extraction, and as a guide to remove noise. I extend these uses of Reeb graphs to time-varying data. I characterize the changes to Reeb graphs over time, and develop an algorithm that can maintain a Reeb graph data structure by tracking these changes over time. I store this sequence of Reeb graphs compactly, and call it a time-varying Reeb graph. I augment the time-varying Reeb graph with information that records the topology of level sets of all level values at all times, that maintains the correspondence of level set components over time, and that accelerates the extraction of level sets for a chosen level value and time. Scientific data sampled in space-time must be extended everywhere in this domain using an interpolant. A poor choice of interpolant can create degeneracies that are

  11. Communication calls of Japanese pipistrelle bats: Examination by acoustic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Yoshiki; Kondo, Yoko; Nagato, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    We classified communication calls of Japanese pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus abramus) by acoustic characteristics D. The Japanese pipistrelles emitted communication calls that were completely different from FM echolocation calls. Data showed that in general duration of communication calls was longer than that of echolocation calls (e.g., echolocation call, 1 ms; long CF communication call, 50 ms) and that frequency of commu-nication calls were lower than that of echolocation calls (e.g., echolocation call, 80-40 kHz; long CF communication call, about 14 kHz). Typical classified communication calls were as follows: slightly short CF call (20 ms, 14 kHz), short CF call (5 ms, 14 kHz), slightly long CF call (30 ms, 14 kHz), long CF call (50 ms, 14 kHz), slightly long FM call (15 ms, 30-15 kHz), long FM call (20 ms, 25-15 kHz), complicated FM call (10-50 ms, 25-15 kHz), short intermittent CF call (1 ms, 14 kHz) and noise call (20-100 ms, below 60 kHz). Details will be discussed more specifically. [Research supported by a grant to RCAST at Doshisha Univ. from MEXT and by the Innovative Cluster Creation Project promoted by MEXT.

  12. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the cr-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users. PMID:23319645

  13. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-29

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the c(r)-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users. PMID:23319645

  14. [Comments on the definition of so-called "new addictions"].

    PubMed

    Wiesbeck, G A; Täschner, K L

    1993-06-01

    To apply the term "addiction" to non-substantial addiction-like behavior is both problematic and useful. It is problematic because the uncritical application of the term has led to an inflation of addictions. If everything is called addiction the term is losing its predicative power and is getting meaningless. In the field of non-substantial addicted behavior we have been given the chance to study the phenomenon addiction in "pure" form without disturbing influences of any substance. To apply the term "addiction" to non-substantial addicted behavior is possible in principle. Von Gebsattel 1954 and Giese 1962 have already referred to this. However, it requires well-defined criterias. A strictly composition of the term would be recommendable. PMID:8333099

  15. Gene Calling Standards (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Kyrpides, Nikos [Genome Biology Program, DOE JGI

    2011-04-28

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses gene calling standards at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.

  16. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella

    PubMed Central

    Hirashima, Akinori; Shigeta, Yoko; Eiraku, Tomohiko; Kuwano, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino)-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilino)oxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino)-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilino)thiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor. Abbreviation: AII 2-(arylimino)imidazolidine AIO 2-(arylimino)oxazolidine AIT 2-(arylimino)thiazolidine CBO 2-(4-chlorobenzylamino)-2-(4-phenyl)oxazoline CDM chlordimeform Confs number of conformers DIP 2-(2,6-diethylphenylimino)piperidine Features/Confs total number of features divided by the number of conformers (summed over the entire family of conformers) HBA hydrogen-bond acceptor HBAl hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid HBD hydrogen-bond donor Hp hydrophobic HpAl hydrophobic aliphatic HpAr hydrophobic aromatic mp melting point MTO 2-(3-methyl benzylthio)-2-oxazoline NI negative ionizable NIO 2-(1-naphthylimino)oxazolidine OA octopamine ODA 2-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-4H-1,3,4-oxadiazine

  17. Gene Calling Standards (GSC8 Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-09-10

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses gene calling standards at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.

  18. Fractal analysis of time varying data

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Sadana, Ajit

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

  19. Microbial growth and physiology: a call for better craftsmanship

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Virtually every microbiological experiment starts with the cultivation of microbes. Consequently, as originally pointed out by Monod (1949), handling microbial cultures is a fundamental methodology of microbiology and mastering different cultivation techniques should be part of every microbiologist’s craftsmanship. This is particularly important for research in microbial physiology, as the composition and behavior of microbes is strongly dependent on their growth environment. It has been pointed out repeatedly by eminent microbiologists that we should give more attention to the media and culturing conditions. However, this is obviously not adhered to with sufficient rigor as mistakes in basic cultivation principles are frequently found in the published research literature. The most frequent mistakes are the use of inappropriate growth media and little or no control of the specific growth rate, and some examples will be discussed here in detail. Therefore, this is a call for better microbiological craftsmanship when cultivating microbial cultures for physiological experiments. This call is not only addressed to researchers but it is probably even more important for the teaching of our discipline. PMID:25926822

  20. Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K

    2011-11-01

    Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking noise reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to noise exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source levels of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking noise by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability. The source levels of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background noise were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking noise reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals. PMID:22087938

  1. Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats

    PubMed Central

    Reber, Stephan A.; Townsend, Simon W.; Manser, Marta B.

    2013-01-01

    Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships. PMID:23825208

  2. "That's why they call it practice".

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Colleen T; Mauksch, Larry B

    2014-12-01

    The authors discuss how, as their residency family medicine practices are transforming into Patient-Centered Medical Homes, they are witnessing shifting expectations for everyone: medical assistant, faculty and resident physician, licensed practical nurse, behavioral health clinician. At all levels of experience and expertise, they are called on to change. In the health care context, "practice" has multiple meanings. Practice, in the sense of "the clinical scope of work we do every day" corresponds to Merriam Webster's first definition of the word, "to be professionally engaged in" or "to do or perform often, customarily, or habitually." In this editorial, the authors call upon their colleagues to recognize the second definition of "practice" and build in opportunities to "train by repeated exercises" within day to day clinical activity. By this they mean, build in mechanisms to prompt reflection on your work, every day, seeking and incorporating feedback from others on your team. Effective primary care systems protect time for practice and learning. These organizations demonstrate "adaptive reserve," consisting of action and reflection cycles, facilitative leadership, a learning culture, the ability to improvise, and effective relationships and communication. PMID:25485824

  3. Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats.

    PubMed

    Reber, Stephan A; Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2013-08-22

    Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships. PMID:23825208

  4. Call recognition in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana: Generalization along the duration continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Andrea Megela

    2004-03-01

    Male bullfrogs emit multicroak, quasiharmonic advertisement calls that function in mate attraction and neighbor recognition. The degree of variability of acoustic features in these calls can influence perceptual decisions by conspecific receivers. Analysis of duration of individual croaks in spontaneous advertisement calls of a sample of males shows considerable intraindividual variability in this feature, even within short chorusing bouts. The influence of this intraindividual variability on behavior was examined in a series of evoked calling experiments. When presented with synthetic calls whose croak durations varied over the range of the natural variability in this feature, males responded similarly to intermediate and long duration croaks, but significantly less to short duration croaks. When presented with playbacks of calls with croak durations outside the natural range of variability, males again responded significantly less to shorter durations. The response gradient for duration is thus asymmetrical, with stimuli at the shorter end of the continuum evoking fewer responses than stimuli at the longer end. This asymmetry may be related to the biological demands of rejecting perception of heterospecific advertisement calls, and of mediating appropriate responses to conspecific aggressive calls. The shape of the response gradient for duration may reflect a process of stimulus generalization.

  5. Calibrating passive acoustic monitoring: correcting humpback whale call detections for site-specific and time-dependent environmental characteristics.

    PubMed

    Helble, Tyler A; D'Spain, Gerald L; Campbell, Greg S; Hildebrand, John A

    2013-11-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of accounting for environmental effects on passive underwater acoustic monitoring results. The situation considered is the reduction in shipping off the California coast between 2008-2010 due to the recession and environmental legislation. The resulting variations in ocean noise change the probability of detecting marine mammal vocalizations. An acoustic model was used to calculate the time-varying probability of detecting humpback whale vocalizations under best-guess environmental conditions and varying noise. The uncorrected call counts suggest a diel pattern and an increase in calling over a two-year period; the corrected call counts show minimal evidence of these features. PMID:24181982

  6. Temporal segregation of the Australian and Antarctic blue whale call types (Balaenoptera musculus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Tripovich, Joy S.; Klinck, Holger; Nieukirk, Sharon L.; Adams, Tempe; Mellinger, David K.; Balcazar, Naysa E.; Klinck, Karolin; Hall, Evelyn J. S.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined recordings from a 15-month (May 2009–July 2010) continuous acoustic data set collected from a bottom-mounted passive acoustic recorder at a sample frequency of 6kHz off Portland, Victoria, Australia (38°33′01″S, 141°15′13″E) off southern Australia. Analysis revealed that calls from both subspecies were recorded at this site, and general additive modeling revealed that the number of calls varied significantly across seasons. Antarctic blue whales were detected more frequently from July to October 2009 and June to July 2010, corresponding to the suspected breeding season, while Australian blue whales were recorded more frequently from March to June 2010, coinciding with the feeding season. In both subspecies, the number of calls varied with time of day; Antarctic blue whale calls were more prevalent in the night to early morning, while Australian blue whale calls were detected more often from midday to early evening. Using passive acoustic monitoring, we show that each subspecies adopts different seasonal and daily call patterns which may be related to the ecological strategies of these subspecies. This study demonstrates the importance of passive acoustics in enabling us to understand and monitor subtle differences in the behavior and ecology of cryptic sympatric marine mammals. PMID:26937046

  7. Variation in chick-a-dee calls of a Carolina chickadee population, Poecile carolinensis: Identity and redundancy within note types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeberg, Todd M.; Lucas, Jeffrey R.; Clucas, Barbara

    2003-04-01

    Chick-a-dee calls of chickadee species are structurally complex because calls possess a rudimentary syntax governing the ordering of their different note types. Chick-a-dee calls were recorded in an aviary from female and male birds from two field sites. This paper reports sources of variation of acoustical parameters of notes in these calls. There were significant sex and microgeographic differences in some of the measured parameters of the notes in the calls. In addition, the syntax of the call itself influenced characteristics of each of the notes. For example, calls with many introductory notes began with a note of higher frequency and longer duration, relative to calls with few introductory notes. Furthermore, the number of introductory notes influenced frequency and duration components of notes later in the call. Thus, single notes are predictive of the note composition of the signaler's call. This suggests that a receiver might gain the meaning in the call even if it hears only part of the call. Further, single notes within these complex calls can contain information enabling receivers to predict the sex of the signaler, and whether it is from the local population.

  8. Statistical Methods with Varying Coefficient Models

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Wenyang

    2008-01-01

    The varying coefficient models are very important tool to explore the dynamic pattern in many scientific areas, such as economics, finance, politics, epidemiology, medical science, ecology and so on. They are natural extensions of classical parametric models with good interpretability and are becoming more and more popular in data analysis. Thanks to their flexibility and interpretability, in the past ten years, the varying coefficient models have experienced deep and exciting developments on methodological, theoretical and applied sides. This paper gives a selective overview on the major methodological and theoretical developments on the varying coefficient models. PMID:18978950

  9. Acoustic signal detection of manatee calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disc. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~=96% of the manatee vocalizations. However the system also results in a false positive rate of ~=16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  10. Automated DNA Base Pair Calling Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-07-07

    The procedure solves the problem of calling the DNA base pair sequence from two channel electropherogram separations in an automated fashion. The core of the program involves a peak picking algorithm based upon first, second, and third derivative spectra for each electropherogram channel, signal levels as a function of time, peak spacing, base pair signal to noise sequence patterns, frequency vs ratio of the two channel histograms, and confidence levels generated during the run. Themore » ratios of the two channels at peak centers can be used to accurately and reproducibly determine the base pair sequence. A further enhancement is a novel Gaussian deconvolution used to determine the peak heights used in generating the ratio.« less

  11. Effects of varying interfacial surface tension on macroscopic polymer lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Charlotte; White, Mason; Baylor, Martha-Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    We investigate macroscopic polymer lenses (0.5- to 2.5-cm diameter) fabricated by dropping hydrophobic photocurable resin onto the surface of various hydrophilic liquid surfaces. Due to the intermolecular forces along the interface between the two liquids, a lens shape is formed. We find that we can vary the lens geometry by changing the region over which the resin is allowed to spread and the surface tension of the substrate to produce lenses with theoretically determined focal lengths ranging from 5 to 25 mm. These effects are varied by changing the container width, substrate composition, and substrate temperature. We present data for five different variants, demonstrating that we can control the lens dimensions for polymer lens applications that require high surface quality.

  12. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A; Fuzessery, Zoltan M

    2015-10-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing. PMID:25142131

  13. From nestling calls to fledgling silence: adaptive timing of change in response to aerial alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Magrath, Robert D; Platzen, Dirk; Kondo, Junko

    2006-01-01

    Young birds and mammals are extremely vulnerable to predators and so should benefit from responding to parental alarm calls warning of danger. However, young often respond differently from adults. This difference may reflect: (i) an imperfect stage in the gradual development of adult behaviour or (ii) an adaptation to different vulnerability. Altricial birds provide an excellent model to test for adaptive changes with age in response to alarm calls, because fledglings are vulnerable to a different range of predators than nestlings. For example, a flying hawk is irrelevant to a nestling in a enclosed nest, but is dangerous to that individual once it has left the nest, so we predict that young develop a response to aerial alarm calls to coincide with fledging. Supporting our prediction, recently fledged white-browed scrubwrens, Sericornis frontalis, fell silent immediately after playback of their parents' aerial alarm call, whereas nestlings continued to calling despite hearing the playback. Young scrubwrens are therefore exquisitely adapted to the changing risks faced during development. PMID:16928636

  14. The Call of the Dark Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color rendering from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a set of darker rocks dubbed 'Toltecs' lying southeast of the rover's current position. These rocks are believed to be basaltic, or volcanic, in composition, because their spectral properties match those of other basaltic rocks studied in Gusev Crater. Scientists hope to use these presumably unaltered rocks as a geologic standard for comparison to altered rocks in the area, such as 'Clovis.' This image was taken with the panoramic camera's 600-, 530-, and 480-nanometer filters on sol 220 (Aug. 15, 2004).

  15. The Call of the Dark Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a group of darker rocks dubbed 'Toltecs,' lying to the southeast of the rover's current position. The rocks are believed to be basaltic, or volcanic, in composition because their color and spectral properties resemble those of basaltic rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater. Scientists hope to use these presumably unaltered rocks as a geologic standard for comparison to altered rocks in the area, such as 'Clovis.' This image was taken by the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters of rover's panoramic camera on sol 220 (August 15, 2004).

  16. Mass-varying massive gravity with k-essence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannukij, Lunchakorn; Wongjun, Pitayuth

    2016-01-01

    For a large class of mass-varying massive-gravity models, the graviton mass cannot provide the late-time cosmic expansion of the universe due to its vanishing at late time. In this work, we propose a new class of mass-varying massive gravity models, in which the graviton mass varies according to a kinetic term of a k-essence field. By using a more general form of the fiducial metric, we found a solution such that a non-vanishing graviton mass can drive the accelerated expansion of the universe at late time. We also perform dynamical analyses of such a model and find that without introducing the k-essence Lagrangian, the graviton mass can be responsible for both dark contents of the universe, namely dark energy, which drives the accelerated expansion of the universe, and non-relativistic matter, which plays the role of dark matter. Moreover, by including the k-essence Lagrangian, we find that it is possible to alleviate the so-called cosmic coincidence problem.

  17. Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159342.html Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age Right amount leads to ... June 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A good night's sleep makes for perkier, better-behaved children. But how ...

  18. Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159342.html Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age Right amount leads to ... June 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A good night's sleep makes for perkier, better-behaved children. But how ...

  19. Spall Strength Measurements of Concrete for Varying Aggregate Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Kipp, Marlin E.; Reinhart, William D.; Wilson, Leonard T.

    1999-05-05

    Controlled impact experiments have been performed to determine the spall strength of four different concrete compositions. The four concrete compositions are identified as, `SAC-5, CSPC', ("3/4") large, and ("3/8") small, Aggregate. They differ primarily in aggregate size but with average densities varying by less than five percent. Wave profiles from sixteen experiments, with shock amplitudes of 0.07 to 0.55 GPa, concentrate primarily within the elastic regime. Free-surface particle velocity measurements indicate consistent pullback signals in the release profiles, denoting average span strength of approximately 40 MPa. It is the purpose of this paper to present spall measurements under uniaxial strain loading. Notwithstanding considerable wave structure that is a unique characteristic to the heterogeneous nature of the scaled concrete, the spall amplitudes appear reproducible and consistent over the pressure range reported in this study.

  20. Speed of call delivery is related to context and caller identity in Campbell's monkey males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Bouchet, Hélène; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Call rate can be a salient feature in animal communication. Depending on the species, different psychological variables appear to influence call rates but the exact nature of these relationships remains poorly explored. Here, we demonstrate for free-ranging Campbell’s monkeys that the call rates of four different alarm series (termed H, K, K+, and B series) vary systematically as a function of context, associated behaviour, and identity of the caller. K+ series were given more rapidly to predation than non-predation events, K+ and K series more rapidly to visual than auditory predator detection, and H series more rapidly while counterattacking an eagle than staying put. Finally, there were individual differences in B series, suggesting that call rate potentially provides listeners with cues about the caller’s anti-predator behaviour, event type experienced, and his identity.

  1. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    PubMed

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux. PMID:22399473

  2. Neural Correlates of Threat Perception: Neural Equivalence of Conspecific and Heterospecific Mobbing Calls Is Learned

    PubMed Central

    Avey, Marc T.; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K.; Bloomfield, Laurie L.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise [1]–[2]. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators [3]. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more “D” notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators [4]. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned. PMID:21909363

  3. Nutritional effects on male calling behaviour in the variable field cricket.

    PubMed

    Wagner; Hoback

    1999-01-01

    In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, females prefer higher chirp rates and longer chirp durations in male calling song. Higher chirp rates are energetically more expensive to produce, but the energetic cost of calling does not vary with chirp duration. We tested the hypothesis that nutrition affects male chirp rate and chirp duration. Full-sibling brothers of similar age were placed on high- and low-nutrition feeding regimes. There was no effect of feeding regime on male weight; neither group showed a significant change in weight, and the two groups did not differ from each other in weight change. However, males on the high-nutrition feeding regime both called more frequently and called at higher chirp rates when they did call. The two groups did not differ in chirp duration, the duration of pulses within chirps or chirp dominant frequency. These results suggest that females select mates based on one nutrition-dependent call character (chirp rate) and one nutrition-independent call character (chirp duration). In addition, because males in the two groups did not show significant differences in weight change, and because males on the high-nutrition feeding regime engaged in energetically more expensive calling, these results suggest that males invest any excess energy above their basic maintenance requirements in the production of call types that increase their attractiveness to females. The absence of a relationship between body condition and calling song structure for males in the field may be a consequence of this pattern of energy allocation. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10053075

  4. Sex differences in the representation of call stimuli in a songbird secondary auditory area.

    PubMed

    Giret, Nicolas; Menardy, Fabien; Del Negro, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communication sounds are encoded in the central auditory system is critical to deciphering the neural bases of acoustic communication. Songbirds use learned or unlearned vocalizations in a variety of social interactions. They have telencephalic auditory areas specialized for processing natural sounds and considered as playing a critical role in the discrimination of behaviorally relevant vocal sounds. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species, forms lifelong pair bonds. Only male zebra finches sing. However, both sexes produce the distance call when placed in visual isolation. This call is sexually dimorphic, is learned only in males and provides support for individual recognition in both sexes. Here, we assessed whether auditory processing of distance calls differs between paired males and females by recording spiking activity in a secondary auditory area, the caudolateral mesopallium (CLM), while presenting the distance calls of a variety of individuals, including the bird itself, the mate, familiar and unfamiliar males and females. In males, the CLM is potentially involved in auditory feedback processing important for vocal learning. Based on both the analyses of spike rates and temporal aspects of discharges, our results clearly indicate that call-evoked responses of CLM neurons are sexually dimorphic, being stronger, lasting longer, and conveying more information about calls in males than in females. In addition, how auditory responses vary among call types differ between sexes. In females, response strength differs between familiar male and female calls. In males, temporal features of responses reveal a sensitivity to the bird's own call. These findings provide evidence that sexual dimorphism occurs in higher-order processing areas within the auditory system. They suggest a sexual dimorphism in the function of the CLM, contributing to transmit information about the self-generated calls in males and to storage of information about the

  5. Sex differences in the representation of call stimuli in a songbird secondary auditory area

    PubMed Central

    Giret, Nicolas; Menardy, Fabien; Del Negro, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communication sounds are encoded in the central auditory system is critical to deciphering the neural bases of acoustic communication. Songbirds use learned or unlearned vocalizations in a variety of social interactions. They have telencephalic auditory areas specialized for processing natural sounds and considered as playing a critical role in the discrimination of behaviorally relevant vocal sounds. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species, forms lifelong pair bonds. Only male zebra finches sing. However, both sexes produce the distance call when placed in visual isolation. This call is sexually dimorphic, is learned only in males and provides support for individual recognition in both sexes. Here, we assessed whether auditory processing of distance calls differs between paired males and females by recording spiking activity in a secondary auditory area, the caudolateral mesopallium (CLM), while presenting the distance calls of a variety of individuals, including the bird itself, the mate, familiar and unfamiliar males and females. In males, the CLM is potentially involved in auditory feedback processing important for vocal learning. Based on both the analyses of spike rates and temporal aspects of discharges, our results clearly indicate that call-evoked responses of CLM neurons are sexually dimorphic, being stronger, lasting longer, and conveying more information about calls in males than in females. In addition, how auditory responses vary among call types differ between sexes. In females, response strength differs between familiar male and female calls. In males, temporal features of responses reveal a sensitivity to the bird's own call. These findings provide evidence that sexual dimorphism occurs in higher-order processing areas within the auditory system. They suggest a sexual dimorphism in the function of the CLM, contributing to transmit information about the self-generated calls in males and to storage of information about the

  6. Calling by Domestic Piglets during Simulated Crushing and Isolation: A Signal of Need?

    PubMed Central

    Illmann, Gudrun; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Špinka, Marek; Tallet, Céline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether piglet distress vocalizations vary with age, body weight and health status, according to the predictions of the honest signalling of need evolutionary model. Vocalizations were recorded during manual squeezing (a simulation of being crushed by mother sow) and during isolation on Days 1 and 7 after birth in piglets from 15 litters. We predicted that during squeezing, younger, lighter and sick piglets would call more intensely because they are in higher risk of dying during crushing and therefore they benefit more from the sow’s reaction to intensive vocalization. For isolation, we predicted that lighter and younger piglets would call more because they are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the separation. Calls were analyzed in their time and frequency domain. The rate of calling, call duration, proportion of high-pitched calls and eight acoustic parameters characterizing frequency distribution and tonality were used as indicators of acoustic signalling intensity. Piglets that experienced “squeezing” on Day 1 produced more intense acoustic distress signalling than on Day 7. Lighter piglets called more during squeezing than heavier piglets. Health status did not significantly affect any of the indicators of intensity of vocalization during squeezing. In isolation, none of the parameters of vocalization intensity were affected either by the age or by the weight of the piglets. In summary, the model of honest signalling of need was confirmed in the squeezed situation, but not in the isolation situation. PMID:24349527

  7. Calling by domestic piglets during simulated crushing and isolation: a signal of need?

    PubMed

    Illmann, Gudrun; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Spinka, Marek; Tallet, Céline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether piglet distress vocalizations vary with age, body weight and health status, according to the predictions of the honest signalling of need evolutionary model. Vocalizations were recorded during manual squeezing (a simulation of being crushed by mother sow) and during isolation on Days 1 and 7 after birth in piglets from 15 litters. We predicted that during squeezing, younger, lighter and sick piglets would call more intensely because they are in higher risk of dying during crushing and therefore they benefit more from the sow's reaction to intensive vocalization. For isolation, we predicted that lighter and younger piglets would call more because they are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the separation. Calls were analyzed in their time and frequency domain. The rate of calling, call duration, proportion of high-pitched calls and eight acoustic parameters characterizing frequency distribution and tonality were used as indicators of acoustic signalling intensity. Piglets that experienced "squeezing" on Day 1 produced more intense acoustic distress signalling than on Day 7. Lighter piglets called more during squeezing than heavier piglets. Health status did not significantly affect any of the indicators of intensity of vocalization during squeezing. In isolation, none of the parameters of vocalization intensity were affected either by the age or by the weight of the piglets. In summary, the model of honest signalling of need was confirmed in the squeezed situation, but not in the isolation situation. PMID:24349527

  8. Advertisement-call modification, male competition and female preference in the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rivera, Carlos César; Gerhardt, H. Carl

    2009-01-01

    Senders and receivers influence dynamic characteristics of the signals used for mate attraction over different time scales. On a moment-to-moment basis, interactions among senders competing for a mate influence dynamic characteristics, whereas the preferences of receivers of the opposite gender exert an influence over evolutionary time. We observed and recorded the calling patterns of the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca, to assess how the dynamic characters of calls vary during interactions among groups of males in a chorus. This question was also addressed using playback experiments with males. Playback experiments with females showed how changes in dynamic call properties are likely to affect male mating success. Frogs calling in pairs, groups, or in response to playbacks produced longer calls than did isolated males. During call overlap, males often increased the duration of the silent interval (gaps) between the pulses of their calls so that the pulses of the calls of two neighbors interdigitated. This change resulted in increased variability of pulse rate, a traditionally static acoustic property; however, males also produced high proportions of non-overlapped calls in which variability in pulse rate was low and had species-typical values. Females preferred long calls to short and average-duration calls, and non-overlapped calls to overlapped calls. Given a choice between pairs of overlapped calls, females preferred pairs in which the proportion of overlap was low and pairs in which the pulses of such calls interdigitated completely. The observed patterns of vocal competition thus reflect the preferences of conspecific females, which have influenced the evolution of the calling behavior of H. avivoca. PMID:19789730

  9. Linking Calling Orientations to Organizational Attachment via Organizational Instrumentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardador, M. Teresa; Dane, Erik; Pratt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an emerging interest in callings, researchers know little about whether calling orientations matter in the workplace. We explore the under-examined relationship between a calling orientation and employees' attachment to their organizations. Although some theory suggests that callings may be negatively related to organizational attachment,…

  10. CALL and Less Commonly Taught Languages: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) researchers face many challenges in developing effective, high-quality CALL. CALL research has a very strong focus on the Most Commonly Taught Languages (MCLTs), particularly English. CALL researchers working with Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs) face further constraints. LCTLs can range from…

  11. McNamara calls for action now.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    Robert McNamara outlined a 6 point global family planning (FP) program he designed to expand FP services to answer unmet need. The plan calls for Fp spending to increase to US$8 billion by 2000. For the US this would mean an increase from US$800 million to US$3.5 billion. This amount is very, very small compared to the total amount spent on official development assistance projected for Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. It is easily within the capabilities of OECD countries to meet this goal. The plan would develop a system in which the World Bank and the UNFPA would work together with each developing country to establish population target levels. The World Bank would assume responsibility for organizing external financing and serve as a last resort source of financing. Japan must also begin to take a leadership role more in line with its economic power. Currently it spends only .32% of its GNP to aid developing countries, despite the fact that its per capita income is 20% larger than any other OECD member. This means raising spending form US$9 billion to US$14.5 billion. This could be done easily by raising it US$500 million/year and planning to increase this US$1 billion by 2000. PMID:12285117

  12. Another call to increase STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    As science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education becomes increasingly important, U.S. students are lagging behind other nations on international assessments, according to a recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science study. A 22 June report from the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) calls for increasing the focus on STEM education in the United States. “To make progress in improving STEM education for all students, policy makers at the national, state, and local levels should elevate science to the same level of importance as reading and mathematics,” states the report, “Successful K-12 STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.” It outlines several goals: expand the number of students who pursue advanced degrees and careers in STEM fields; expand the STEM-capable workforce, while also broadening the participation of women and minorities; and increase STEM literacy for all students, whether or not they pursue STEM-related careers or additional study in those areas.

  13. Introducing Psychometrical Validation of Questionnaires in CALL Research: The Case of Measuring Attitude towards CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewaetere, M.; Desmet, P.

    2009-01-01

    The great majority of questionnaires measuring non-observable constructs such as attitude towards CALL are often developed from a specific point of view and are seldom followed by psychometrical validation. Psychometrical properties of the questionnaire, such as construct validity and reliability, then remain unanswered too often, laying a heavy…

  14. Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Frants H.; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise. PMID:21345867

  15. Mitigating Handoff Call Dropping in Wireless Cellular Networks: A Call Admission Control Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekpenyong, Moses Effiong; Udoh, Victoria Idia; Bassey, Udoma James

    2016-06-01

    Handoff management has been an important but challenging issue in the field of wireless communication. It seeks to maintain seamless connectivity of mobile users changing their points of attachment from one base station to another. This paper derives a call admission control model and establishes an optimal step-size coefficient (k) that regulates the admission probability of handoff calls. An operational CDMA network carrier was investigated through the analysis of empirical data collected over a period of 1 month, to verify the performance of the network. Our findings revealed that approximately 23 % of calls in the existing system were lost, while 40 % of the calls (on the average) were successfully admitted. A simulation of the proposed model was then carried out under ideal network conditions to study the relationship between the various network parameters and validate our claim. Simulation results showed that increasing the step-size coefficient degrades the network performance. Even at optimum step-size (k), the network could still be compromised in the presence of severe network crises, but our model was able to recover from these problems and still functions normally.

  16. Glucocorticoid and androgen signaling pathways diverge between advertisement calling and non-calling fish.

    PubMed

    Genova, Rachel M; Marchaterre, Margaret A; Knapp, Rosemary; Fergus, Daniel; Bass, Andrew H

    2012-09-01

    Behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms of social vocalization in teleost fish are influenced by the glucocorticoid cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11kT). The relative abundance of both 11kT, which binds to androgen receptors (ARα, ARβ), and cortisol, which binds to glucocorticoid receptors (GR-1, GR-2), is regulated by 11β-hydroxylase (11βH) that converts 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and testosterone to 11β-OH-testosterone, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) that converts cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone and 11β-OH-testosterone to 11kT. In midshipman fish, we tested the hypothesis that plasma steroid levels, mRNA abundance for 11βH and 11βHSD in the vocal muscle and testis (known site of 11kT synthesis), and mRNA abundances for ARs and GRs in vocal muscle, would differ between males that did or did not recently produce 'hum' advertisement calls. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that non-calling male vocal muscle had significantly higher mRNA levels for all receptors except ARα, and a strong trend for higher 11βHSD; 11βH was similar to that in calling males. Calling males had higher plasma and testis 11kT, but lower plasma cortisol, levels. Testis enzyme levels did not differ between male groups, although calling males showed a positive linear correlation between plasma 11kT and testis 11βHSD mRNA levels, consistent with testis being the main source of plasma 11kT. We propose that higher vocal muscle 11βHSD levels in non-calling males reflect increased local conversion of elevated cortisol to cortisone, providing protection from cortisol-related toxicity, while increased receptor expression in non-calling males functions as a preparatory mechanism for meeting the physiological demands of future vocalization. PMID:22884426

  17. Patterns of call communication between group-housed zebra finches change during the breeding cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Lisa F; Goymann, Wolfgang; Ter Maat, Andries; Gahr, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Vocal signals such as calls play a crucial role for survival and successful reproduction, especially in group-living animals. However, call interactions and call dynamics within groups remain largely unexplored because their relation to relevant contexts or life-history stages could not be studied with individual-level resolution. Using on-bird microphone transmitters, we recorded the vocalisations of individual zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaving freely in social groups, while females and males previously unknown to each other passed through different stages of the breeding cycle. As birds formed pairs and shifted their reproductive status, their call repertoire composition changed. The recordings revealed that calls occurred non-randomly in fine-tuned vocal interactions and decreased within groups while pair-specific patterns emerged. Call-type combinations of vocal interactions changed within pairs and were associated with successful egg-laying, highlighting a potential fitness relevance of calling dynamics in communication systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07770.001 PMID:26441403

  18. Study of W/WC Coatings Varying the Substrate Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina, R.; Restrepo, E.; Arango, Y. C.; Castillo, H.; Devia, A.

    2006-12-01

    Tungsten carbide is considered a very important material used for industrial applications due to their high hardness. In this work the production of W/WC coatings used a repetitive pulsed arc system is employed. During the grown process, the substrate temperature is varied in order to identify the influence of this parameter in the structure, composition and morphology of the coatings. The layer of W is grown to improve the adherence of the WC material on the stainless steel 304. To grown the coatings, it was used a W target in the cathode. The gas of work is methane and as it is knew, to use a gas as precursor for WC production causes the apparition of different phases as WC and W2C. The power supply allows varying the active and passive time of pulses, which in this case have a value of 1 s. the coatings produced are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM). All of these techniques allow determining properties such as chemical composition, structure, stoichiometry, thickness and grain size.

  19. Effect modification by time-varying covariates.

    PubMed

    Robins, James M; Hernán, Miguel A; Rotnitzky, Andrea

    2007-11-01

    Marginal structural models (MSMs) allow estimation of effect modification by baseline covariates, but they are less useful for estimating effect modification by evolving time-varying covariates. Rather, structural nested models (SNMs) were specifically designed to estimate effect modification by time-varying covariates. In their paper, Petersen et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2007;166:985-993) describe history-adjusted MSMs as a generalized form of MSM and argue that history-adjusted MSMs allow a researcher to easily estimate effect modification by time-varying covariates. However, history-adjusted MSMs can result in logically incompatible parameter estimates and hence in contradictory substantive conclusions. Here the authors propose a more restrictive definition of history-adjusted MSMs than the one provided by Petersen et al. and compare the advantages and disadvantages of using history-adjusted MSMs, as opposed to SNMs, to examine effect modification by time-dependent covariates. PMID:17875581

  20. RADIATION SHIELDING COMPOSITION

    DOEpatents

    Dunegan, H.L.

    1963-01-29

    A light weight radiation shielding composition is described whose mechanical and radiological properties can be varied within wide limits. The composition of this shielding material consists of four basic ingredients: powder of either Pb or W, a plastic resin, a resin plasticizer, and a polymerization catalyst to promote an interaction of the plasticizer with the plastic resin. Air may be mixed into the above ingredients in order to control the density of the final composition. For equivalent gamma attenuation, the shielding composition weighs one-third to one-half as much as conventional Pb shielding. (AEC)

  1. Varying G. [in Einstein gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Owen, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the variation of the gravitational constant with cosmological time is critically analyzed. Since Einstein's equation does not allow G to vary on any time scale, no observational data can be analyzed within the context of the standard theory. The recently proposed scale covariant theory, which allows (but does not demand) G to vary, and which has been shown to have passed several standard cosmological tests, is employed to discuss some recent nonnull observational results which indicate a time variation of G.

  2. Controlling Contagion Processes in Time-Varying Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perra, Nicola; Liu, Suyu; Karsai, Marton; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-03-01

    The vast majority of strategies aimed at controlling contagion processes on networks considers the connectivity pattern of the system as either quenched or annealed. However, in the real world many networks are highly dynamical and evolve in time concurrently to the contagion process. Here, we derive an analytical framework for the study of control strategies specifically devised for time-varying networks. We consider the removal/immunization of individual nodes according the their activity in the network and develop a block variable mean-field approach that allows the derivation of the equations describing the evolution of the contagion process concurrently to the network dynamic. We derive the critical immunization threshold and assess the effectiveness of the control strategies. Finally, we validate the theoretical picture by simulating numerically the information spreading process and control strategies in both synthetic networks and a large-scale, real-world mobile telephone call dataset.

  3. Genomic effects on advertisement call structure in diploid and triploid hybrid waterfrogs (Anura, Pelophylax esculentus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In anurans, differences in male mating calls have intensively been studied with respect to taxonomic classification, phylogeographic comparisons among different populations and sexual selection. Although overall successful, there is often much unexplained variation in these studies. Potential causes for such variation include differences among genotypes and breeding systems, as well as differences between populations. We investigated how these three factors affect call properties in male water frogs of Pelophylax lessonae (genotype LL), P. ridibundus (RR) and their interspecific hybrid P. esculentus which comes in diploid (LR) and triploid types (LLR, LRR). Results We investigated five call parameters that all showed a genomic dosage effect, i.e. they either decreased or increased with the L/R ratio in the order LL-LLR-LR-LRR-RR. Not all parameters differentiated equally well between the five genotypes, but combined they provided a good separation. Two of the five call parameters were also affected by the breeding system. Calls of diploid LR males varied, depending on whether these males mated with one or both of the parental species (diploid systems) or triploid hybrids (mixed ploidy systems). With the exception of the northernmost mixed-ploidy population, call differences were not related to the geographic location of the population and they were not correlated with genetic distances in the R and L genomes. Conclusions We found an influence of all three tested factors on call parameters, with the effect size decreasing from genotype through breeding system to geographic location of the population. Overall, results were in line with predictions from a dosage effect in L/R ratios, but in three call parameters all three hybrid types were more similar to one or the other parental species. Also calls of diploid hybrids varied between breeding systems in agreement with the sexual host required for successful reproduction. The lack of hybrid call differences

  4. KRLMM: an adaptive genotype calling method for common and low frequency variants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SNP genotyping microarrays have revolutionized the study of complex disease. The current range of commercially available genotyping products contain extensive catalogues of low frequency and rare variants. Existing SNP calling algorithms have difficulty dealing with these low frequency variants, as the underlying models rely on each genotype having a reasonable number of observations to ensure accurate clustering. Results Here we develop KRLMM, a new method for converting raw intensities into genotype calls that aims to overcome this issue. Our method is unique in that it applies careful between sample normalization and allows a variable number of clusters k (1, 2 or 3) for each SNP, where k is predicted using the available data. We compare our method to four genotyping algorithms (GenCall, GenoSNP, Illuminus and OptiCall) on several Illumina data sets that include samples from the HapMap project where the true genotypes are known in advance. All methods were found to have high overall accuracy (> 98%), with KRLMM consistently amongst the best. At low minor allele frequency, the KRLMM, OptiCall and GenoSNP algorithms were observed to be consistently more accurate than GenCall and Illuminus on our test data. Conclusions Methods that tailor their approach to calling low frequency variants by either varying the number of clusters (KRLMM) or using information from other SNPs (OptiCall and GenoSNP) offer improved accuracy over methods that do not (GenCall and Illuminus). The KRLMM algorithm is implemented in the open-source crlmm package distributed via the Bioconductor project (http://www.bioconductor.org). PMID:24886250

  5. Impacts of Varying Penetration of Distributed Resources with & without Volt/Var Control: Case Study of Varying Load Types

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Li, Fangxing; Xu, Yan; Adhikari, Sarina; Irminger, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a follow-up to an earlier one on impacts of distributed energy resources (DR) on distribution feeders. As DR penetration level on the feeder increases, there can be impacts to distribution system/feeder capacity, line losses, and voltage regulation. These can vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system or loading. The question is how high of a DR level can be accommodated without any major changes to system operation, system design and protection. Our objective for this work was to address the question of how the DR impacts vary in regards to both DR voltage regulation capability and load mix. A dynamic analysis was used to focus on the impacts of DR with and without volt/var control with different load composition on the distribution feeder. The study considered an example 10MVA distribution feeder in which two inverter-based DRs were used to provide voltage regulation. The results due to DR without voltage regulation capability are compared with DR capable of providing local (at its bus) voltage regulation. The analysis was repeated for four different feeder load compositions consisting of (1) constant power, (2) constant impedance, (3) constant current and (4) ZIP (equal combination of previous three).

  6. Chiral Sensor for Enantiodiscrimination of Varied Acids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huayin; Bian, Guangling; Zong, Hua; Wang, Yabai; Yang, Shiwei; Yue, Huifeng; Song, Ling; Fan, Hongjun

    2016-06-01

    A chiral thiophosphoroamide 4 derived from (1R,2R)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane is used as a highly effective chiral sensor for the chiral recognition of varied acids via ion-pairing and hydrogen-bonding interactions using (1)H, (19)F and (31)P NMR. PMID:27192021

  7. Regularizing cosmological singularities by varying physical constants

    SciTech Connect

    Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Marosek, Konrad E-mail: k.marosek@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2013-02-01

    Varying physical constant cosmologies were claimed to solve standard cosmological problems such as the horizon, the flatness and the Λ-problem. In this paper, we suggest yet another possible application of these theories: solving the singularity problem. By specifying some examples we show that various cosmological singularities may be regularized provided the physical constants evolve in time in an appropriate way.

  8. Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX), a clinical program designed to assess the degree to which an individual is able to demonstrate self-control for overall general relaxation. The program is designed for use with the Cassel Biosensors biofeedback equipment. (JAC)

  9. The Varied Uses of Readability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward

    Readability formulas have varied uses. In education they are used to match children's reading ability to the difficulty level of material, select stories and books for classroom use and for individual students' particular needs, select textbooks and other reading materials, aid educational research, and check reading materials of newly literate…

  10. Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosinska, Lena; Glick, Madeleine

    2006-04-01

    Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    Guest Editors:

    Lena Wosinska, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) / ICT Sweden Madeleine Glick, Intel Research, Cambridge, UK

    Technologies based on DWDM systems allow data transmission with bit rates of Tbit/s on a single fiber. To facilitate this enormous transmission volume, high-capacity and high-speed network nodes become inevitable in the optical network. Wideband switching, WDM switching, optical burst switching (OBS), and optical packet switching (OPS) are promising technologies for harnessing the bandwidth of WDM optical fiber networks in a highly flexible and efficient manner. As a number of key optical component technologies approach maturity, photonics in switching is becoming an increasingly attractive and practical solution for the next-generation of optical networks. The scope of this special issue is focused on the technology and architecture of optical switching nodes, including the architectural and algorithmic aspects of high-speed optical networks.

    Scope of Submission

    The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following topics:
    • WDM node architectures
    • Novel device technologies enabling photonics in switching, such as optical switch fabrics, optical memory, and wavelength conversion
    • Routing protocols
    • WDM switching and routing
    • Quality of service
    • Performance measurement and evaluation
    • Next-generation optical networks: architecture, signaling, and control
    • Traffic measurement and field trials
    • Optical burst and packet switching
    • OBS/OPS node architectures
    • Burst/Packet scheduling and routing algorithms
    • Contention resolution/avoidance strategies
    • Services and applications for OBS/OPS (e.g., grid networks, storage-area networks, etc.)
    • Burst assembly and ingress traffic shaping

    • Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales

      PubMed Central

      Rekdahl, Melinda L.; Dunlop, Rebecca A.; Goldizen, Anne W.; Garland, Ellen C.; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J.

      2015-01-01

      The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9 s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined. PMID:26093396

    • Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales.

      PubMed

      Rekdahl, Melinda L; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Goldizen, Anne W; Garland, Ellen C; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J

      2015-06-01

      The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9 s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined. PMID:26093396

    • Effectiveness of the call in beach volleyball attacking play.

      PubMed

      Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

      2014-12-01

      In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a "call". The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent's court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women's and men's Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ(2)(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women's beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ(2)(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women's beach volleyball, while its effect in men's game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

    • Components in time-varying graphs.

      PubMed

      Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

      2012-06-01

      Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis. PMID:22757508

    • Components in time-varying graphs

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

      2012-06-01

      Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis.

    • Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time

      PubMed Central

      Rafferty, Nicole E.; Ives, Anthony R.

      2013-01-01

      The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches. PMID:22690631

    • Acoustic features of male baboon loud calls: Influences of context, age, and individuality

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Fischer, Julia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

      2002-03-01

      The acoustic structure of loud calls (``wahoos'') recorded from free-ranging male baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) in the Moremi Game Reserve, Botswana, was examined for differences between and within contexts, using calls given in response to predators (alarm wahoos), during male contests (contest wahoos), and when a male had become separated from the group (contact wahoos). Calls were recorded from adolescent, subadult, and adult males. In addition, male alarm calls were compared with those recorded from females. Despite their superficial acoustic similarity, the analysis revealed a number of significant differences between alarm, contest, and contact wahoos. Contest wahoos are given at a much higher rate, exhibit lower frequency characteristics, have a longer ``hoo'' duration, and a relatively louder ``hoo'' portion than alarm wahoos. Contact wahoos are acoustically similar to contest wahoos, but are given at a much lower rate. Both alarm and contest wahoos also exhibit significant differences among individuals. Some of the acoustic features that vary in relation to age and sex presumably reflect differences in body size, whereas others are possibly related to male stamina and endurance. The finding that calls serving markedly different functions constitute variants of the same general call type suggests that the vocal production in nonhuman primates is evolutionarily constrained.

    • The Sound of Danger: Threat Sensitivity to Predator Vocalizations, Alarm Calls, and Novelty in Gulls

      PubMed Central

      MacLean, Sarah A.; Bonter, David N.

      2013-01-01

      The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

    • The sound of danger: threat sensitivity to predator vocalizations, alarm calls, and novelty in gulls.

      PubMed

      MacLean, Sarah A; Bonter, David N

      2013-01-01

      The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

    • Evaluating multivariate visualizations on time-varying data

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Livingston, Mark A.; Decker, Jonathan W.; Ai, Zhuming

      2013-01-01

      Multivariate visualization techniques have been applied to a wide variety of visual analysis tasks and a broad range of data types and sources. Their utility has been evaluated in a modest range of simple analysis tasks. In this work, we extend our previous task to a case of time-varying data. We implemented ve visualizations of our synthetic test data: three previously evaluated techniques (Data-driven Spots, Oriented Slivers, and Attribute Blocks), one hybrid of the rst two that we call Oriented Data-driven Spots, and an implementation of Attribute Blocks that merges the temporal slices. We conducted a user study of these ve techniques. Our previous nding (with static data) was that users performed best when the density of the target (as encoded in the visualization) was either highest or had the highest ratio to non-target features. The time-varying presentations gave us a wider range of density and density gains from which to draw conclusions; we now see evidence for the density gain as the perceptual measure, rather than the absolute density.

  1. [Ringer solution: osmolarity and composition revisited].

    PubMed

    Kees, M G; Schlotterbeck, H; Passemard, R; Pottecher, T; Diemunsch, P

    2005-06-01

    The composition of Ringer solution, a crystalloid fluid that is often used in anaesthesia and intensive care, varies depending on the manufacturer. The knowledge of the actual content in electrolytes and of the characteristics of this fluid is necessary before it is used. We call attention to a certain Ringer solution (Ringer Maco Pharma, Maco Pharma), for which the manufacturer's information about the tonicity and the osmolarity was incorrect. Contrary to what is written on the bag and in the product description (isotonicity, osmolarity of 276.8 mOsm/l), the theoretical osmolarity was 221.4 mOsm/l and the measured osmolality was about 208 mmol/kg, exposing the hypotonic characteristics of this fluid. The use of this product is potentially dangerous in patients with pathologies where the infusion of free water is especially badly supported. PMID:15876513

  2. North Pacific right whale up-call source levels and propagation distance on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf.

    PubMed

    Munger, Lisa M; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2011-06-01

    Call source levels, transmission loss, and ambient noise levels were estimated for North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica) up-calls recorded in the southeastern Bering Sea in autumn of 2000 and 2001. Distances to calling animals, needed to estimate source levels, were based on two independent techniques: (1) arrival-time differences on three or more hydrophones and (2) shallow-water dispersion of normal modes on a single receiver. Average root-mean-square (rms) call source levels estimated by the two techniques were 178 and 176 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m, respectively, over the up-call frequency band, which was determined per call and averaged 90 to 170 Hz. Peak-to-peak source levels were 14 to 22 dB greater than rms levels. Transmission loss was approximately 15∗log(10)(range), intermediate between cylindrical and spherical spreading. Ambient ocean noise within the up-call band varied from 72 to 91 dB re 1 μPa(2)/Hz. Under average noise conditions, call spectrograms were detectable for whales at distances up to 100 km, but propagation and detection distance may vary depending on environmental parameters and anthropogenic noise. Obtaining distances to animals and acoustic detection range is a step toward using long-term passive acoustic recordings to estimate abundance for this critically endangered whale population. PMID:21682425

  3. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    PubMed Central

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

  4. Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2008-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells and the built-up composite structure global fracture are enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads.

  5. Varying potential silicon carbide gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B. (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrocarbon gas detection device operates by dissociating or electro-chemically oxidizing hydrocarbons adsorbed to a silicon carbide detection layer. Dissociation or oxidation are driven by a varying potential applied to the detection layer. Different hydrocarbon species undergo reaction at different applied potentials so that the device is able to discriminate among various hydrocarbon species. The device can operate at temperatures between 100.degree. C. and at least 650.degree. C., allowing hydrocarbon detection in hot exhaust gases. The dissociation reaction is detected either as a change in a capacitor or, preferably, as a change of current flow through an FET which incorporates the silicon carbide detection layers. The silicon carbide detection layer can be augmented with a pad of catalytic material which provides a signal without an applied potential. Comparisons between the catalytically produced signal and the varying potential produced signal may further help identify the hydrocarbon present.

  6. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    SciTech Connect

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-04

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  7. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  8. Force Measurements of a varying camber hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najdzin, Derek; Bardet, Philippe M.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2013-11-01

    The swimming motion of cetaceans (dolphins, whales) is capable of producing large amounts of thrust as observed in nature. This project aims to determine the propulsive efficiency of this swimming motion through force and power measurements. A mechanism was constructed to replicate this motion by applying a combination of pitching and heaving motions to a varying camber hydrofoil. A novel force balance allows the measurement of three direction force and moments as the fin oscillates. A range of Reynolds and Strouhal numbers were tested to identify the most efficient conditions. Allowing the camber of the hydrofoil to vary has shown to increase lift generated, while generating similar thrust forces when compared to a constant camber hydrofoil.

  9. Learning Time-Varying Coverage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Du, Nan; Liang, Yingyu; Balcan, Maria-Florina; Song, Le

    2015-01-01

    Coverage functions are an important class of discrete functions that capture the law of diminishing returns arising naturally from applications in social network analysis, machine learning, and algorithmic game theory. In this paper, we propose a new problem of learning time-varying coverage functions, and develop a novel parametrization of these functions using random features. Based on the connection between time-varying coverage functions and counting processes, we also propose an efficient parameter learning algorithm based on likelihood maximization, and provide a sample complexity analysis. We applied our algorithm to the influence function estimation problem in information diffusion in social networks, and show that with few assumptions about the diffusion processes, our algorithm is able to estimate influence significantly more accurately than existing approaches on both synthetic and real world data. PMID:25960624

  10. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH PLATFORM AND TOWER ON RIGHT IS CALLED LAUNCH UMBILICAL TOWER, (LUT). - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  11. Purpose, Mission, and Context: The Call for Educating Future Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunoo, Vivechkanand; Osteen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This chapter calls on higher education to reclaim its role in leadership education. Specifically it examines higher education's purpose, context, and mission as clarion calls to embed leadership education throughout higher education institutions and focuses on why this is important.

  12. Holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Setare, M. R.

    2009-08-01

    We investigate the holographic dark energy scenario with a varying gravitational constant, in flat and non-flat background geometry. We extract the exact differential equations determining the evolution of the dark energy density-parameter, which include G-variation correction terms. Performing a low-redshift expansion of the dark energy equation of state, we provide the involved parameters as functions of the current density parameters, of the holographic dark energy constant and of the G-variation.

  13. Elliptical varied line-space (EVLS) gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Roger J.

    2004-10-01

    Imaging spectroscopy at wavelengths below 2000 Å offers an especially powerful method for studying many extended high-temperature astronomical objects, like the Sun and its outer layers. But the technology to make such measurements is also especially challenging, because of the poor reflectance of all standard materials at these wavelengths, and because the observation must be made from above the absorbing effects of the Earth's atmosphere. To solve these problems, single-reflection stigmatic spectrographs for XUV wavelengths have bee flown on several space missions based on designs with toroidal uniform line-space (TULS) or spherical varied line-space (SVLS) gratings that operate at near normal-incidence. More recently, three solar EUV/UV instruments have been selected that use toroidal varied line-space (TVLS) gratings; these are SUMI and RAISE, both sounding rocket payloads, and NEXUS, a SMEX satellite-mission. The next logical extension to such designs is the use of elliptical surfaces for varied line-space (EVLS) rulings. In fact, EVLS designs are found to provide superior imaging even at very large spectrograph magnifications and beam-speeds, permitting extremely high-quality performance in remarkably compact instrument packages. In some cases, such designs may be optimized even further by using a hyperbolic surface for the feeding telescope. The optical characteristics of two solar EUV spectrometers based on these concepts are described: EUS and EUI, both being developed as possible instruments for ESA's Solar Orbiter mission by consortia led by RAL and by MSSL, respectively.

  14. Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangquan

    2011-01-01

    Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. PMID:21143474

  15. 29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCall-backâ pay. 778.221 Section 778.221 Labor Regulations...Regular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.221 “Call-back” pay. (a) General. In the interest of... minimum “call-back” or “call-out” payments made pursuant to employment agreements. Typically, such...

  16. The So-Called 'Face on Mars'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north

  17. The So-Called 'Face on Mars'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north

  18. Contact Calls of the Northern and Southern White Rhinoceros Allow for Individual and Species Identification

    PubMed Central

    Cinková, Ivana; Policht, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Inter-individual relationships particularly in socially living mammals often require a well-developed communication system. Vocal and olfactory signals are the most important for the communication of rhinos, however, their vocal communication has been investigated to a very limited extent so far. White rhinos have the most developed social system out of all the rhinoceros species and vocal signals might therefore play an important role in their social interactions. We recorded repetitive contact pant calls from six captive northern white rhinos (Ceratotherium cottoni) and 14 captive and free-ranging southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) and examined if they transmit information about individual identity, species, social context and age class. Discriminant analyses revealed that a high percentage of the pant calls of both species could be classified to a correct individual. We calculated signature information capacity of pant calls recorded from adult animals in isolation at 3.19 bits for the northern white rhinos and at 3.15 bits for the southern white rhinos, which can potentially allow for a vocal discrimination of nine individuals of both species. We found that pant calls varied by species. Northern white rhinos had longer calls and also differed from the southern white rhinos in several frequency parameters of their calls. We also analysed the pant calls of southern white rhinos for the differences between the age classes and between social contexts in which they were recorded. Our results show that pant calls carry information about individual, species, age class and context. The ability to recognize this information would allow rhinos, in addition to olfactory cues, to communicate with highly increased accuracy. A better understanding of communication of white rhinos has potential practical use in their management and conservation particularly because of the low breeding success of white rhinos in captivity. PMID:24901244

  19. The Additional Uses of CALL in the Endangered Language Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the additional uses of CALL in the Endangered Language (EL) context. It briefly reviews ELs and reports on CALL for ELs in general. It then reviews the extra uses of CALL for ELs; these include changing negative attitudes towards the language, arousing interest in the language and contributing to language maintenance and…

  20. Listen to Your Heart? Calling and Receptivity to Career Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrow, Shoshana R.; Tosti-Kharas, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study explores calling in the context of career decision making. Specifically, the authors examine receptivity to advice that discourages individuals from pursuing a professional path in their calling's domain. The authors hypothesize that people with a strong calling will be more likely to ignore negative career advice. In Study 1, a…

  1. 76 FR 17933 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate... significant consequences on a regional or national scale. The IP Data Call is administered out of the IP Infrastructure Information Collection Division (IICD). The IP Data Call provides opportunities for states...

  2. Path Models of Vocational Calling in Christian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sheri L.

    2011-01-01

    In the Christian college environment, students are encouraged to understand their vocational calling, yet quantitative research on how college students conceptualize calling is sparse. This correlational study extends the research literature significantly by empirically examining variables that affect sense of vocational calling in 270 college…

  3. Web-Based CALL for Arabic: Constraints and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corda, Alessandra; van der Stel, Mieke

    2004-01-01

    The first section of this paper gives a brief overview of the experiences with LAN-based CALL programs for Arabic in the past 7 years at Leiden University (The Netherlands). The second section discusses constraints and technical challenges related to the use of Web-based CALL for Arabic, focusing in particular on a new Web-based CALL application,…

  4. Bats aloft: Variation in echolocation call structure at high altitudes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bats alter their echolocation calls in response to changes in ecological and behavioral conditions, but little is known about how they adjust their call structure in response to changes in altitude. This study examines altitudinal variation in the echolocation calls of Brazilian free-tailed bats, T...

  5. 28 CFR 540.103 - Inmate telephone calls to attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate telephone calls to attorneys. 540.103 Section 540.103 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL... calls to attorneys. The Warden may not apply frequency limitations on inmate telephone calls...

  6. 31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50... PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial or recalculated PRLPs, Treasury may issue a data call to insurers for insured loss information. Submission of...

  7. 76 FR 17429 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of FHA Debenture Call AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces a debenture call of... the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, announces the call of all FHA debentures, with a...

  8. 29 CFR 1912.25 - Call of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Call of meetings. 1912.25 Section 1912.25 Labor Regulations...) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Operation of Advisory Committees § 1912.25 Call of meetings. No advisory committee shall hold any meeting except at the call of, or with the advance approval, of the...

  9. 29 CFR 785.17 - On-call time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-call time. 785.17 Section 785.17 Labor Regulations... On-call time. An employee who is required to remain on call on the employer's premises or so close thereto that he cannot use the time effectively for his own purposes is working while “on call”....

  10. 28 CFR 540.102 - Monitoring of inmate telephone calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of inmate telephone calls. 540... inmate telephone calls. The Warden shall establish procedures that enable monitoring of telephone... call to an attorney. The Warden shall notify an inmate of the proper procedures to have an...

  11. 47 CFR 64.1505 - Restrictions on collect telephone calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on collect telephone calls. 64... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1505 Restrictions on collect telephone calls. (a) No common carrier shall...

  12. 22 CFR 214.32 - Calling of advisory committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calling of advisory committee meetings. 214.32... Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.32 Calling of advisory committee meetings. (a) No advisory committee is to hold any meetings except at the call, or with the advance approval, of the designated...

  13. 77 FR 18258 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of FHA Debenture Call AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces a debenture call of... impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at...

  14. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP,...

  15. Linguistics, Procedure and Technique in CALL Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torsani, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Research in CALL education has identified a series of goals and constraints for technology in language education that need to be taken into account when designing a CALL syllabus. This article presents a theoretical framework for syllabus design based on the identification of three areas of expertise within CALL: linguistic knowledge, procedural…

  16. Correlates of Gay-Related Name-Calling in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaatten, Hilde; Hetland, Jørn; Anderssen, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether attitudes about gay-related name-calling, social norms concerning gay-related name-calling among co-students, teacher intervention, and school-related support would predict whether secondary school pupils had called another pupil a gay-related name during the last month. A total of 921 ninth-grade…

  17. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  18. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  19. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  20. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  1. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  2. The Call for an African University: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte; Higgs, Philip

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on philosophy (particularly African philosophy) to analyse the call for an African university. The call for an African university may be viewed as a call that insists that all critical and transformative educators in Africa embrace an indigenous African worldview and root their nation's educational paradigms in an indigenous…

  3. 25 CFR 81.5 - Request to call election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request to call election. 81.5 Section 81.5 Indians... FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.5 Request to call election. (a) The Secretary shall authorize the calling of an... single constitutional or charter provision are submitted, that proposal first received by the officer...

  4. Oxygen sensitive, refractory oxide composition

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Smith, Douglas D.

    1976-01-01

    Oxide compositions containing niobium pentoxide and an oxide selected from the group consisting of hafnia, titania, and zirconia have electrical conductivity characteristics which vary greatly depending on the oxygen content.

  5. Does Vessel Noise Affect Oyster Toadfish Calling Rates?

    PubMed

    Luczkovich, Joseph J; Krahforst, Cecilia S; Hoppe, Harry; Sprague, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    The question we addressed in this study is whether oyster toadfish respond to vessel disturbances by calling less when vessels with lower frequency spectra are present in a sound recording and afterward. Long-term data recorders were deployed at the Neuse (high vessel-noise site) and Pamlico (low vessel-noise site) Rivers. There were many fewer toadfish detections at the high vessel-noise site than the low-noise station. Calling rates were lower in the high-boat traffic area, suggesting that toadfish cannot call over loud vessel noise, reducing the overall calling rate, and may have to call more often when vessels are not present. PMID:26611015

  6. Inbreeding and courtship calling in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    PubMed

    Drayton, J M; Milner, R N C; Hall, M D; Jennions, M D

    2011-01-01

    Male field crickets produce two acoustic signals for mating: advertisement calls and courtship calls. While the importance of advertisement calling in mate attraction is well understood, the function of courtship calling is less clear. Here, we tested if the courtship call of male crickets Teleogryllus commodus signals aspects of male quality by comparing the calls of inbred and outbred males. We examined the effect of one generation of full sibling mating on fine-scale call structure, along with several life history traits. Inbreeding reduced nymph survival but had no significant effect on weight or development time. Inbreeding resulted in a small but significant change in two of the six call parameters measured. We then tested if inbreeding affects call trait combinations that are important to females by using the results of a previous selection analysis to compare the multivariate attractiveness of the calls of inbred and outbred males. There was no difference. We conclude that the courtship call of T. commodus is not a reliable signal of aspects of male quality that are affected by inbreeding (which generally reduces fitness-enhancing traits). It might, however, signal components of male fitness that are not affected by changes in heterozygosity. PMID:21054622

  7. Individual Distinctiveness in Call Types of Wild Western Female Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Roberta; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo). Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC) was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized), suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication. PMID:25029238

  8. Divergence of a stereotyped call in northern resident killer whales.

    PubMed

    Grebner, Dawn M; Parks, Susan E; Bradley, David L; Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Capone, Dean E; Ford, John K B

    2011-02-01

    Northern resident killer whale pods (Orcinus orca) have distinctive stereotyped pulsed call repertoires that can be used to distinguish groups acoustically. Repertoires are generally stable, with the same call types comprising the repertoire of a given pod over a period of years to decades. Previous studies have shown that some discrete pulsed calls can be subdivided into variants or subtypes. This study suggests that new stereotyped calls may result from the gradual modification of existing call types through subtypes. Vocalizations of individuals and small groups of killer whales were collected using a bottom-mounted hydrophone array in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia in 2006 and 2007. Discriminant analysis of slope variations of a predominant call type, N4, revealed the presence of four distinct call subtypes. Similar to previous studies, there was a divergence of the N4 call between members of different matrilines of the same pod. However, this study reveals that individual killer whales produced multiple subtypes of the N4 call, indicating that divergence in the N4 call is not the result of individual differences, but rather may indicate the gradual evolution of a new stereotyped call. PMID:21361462

  9. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibret, B.; Premaratne, M.; Lewis, P. M.; Thomson, R.; Fitzgerald, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications.

  10. Linear Parameter Varying Control for Actuator Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Wu, N. Eva; Belcastro, Christine; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A robust linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis is carried out for an HiMAT vehicle subject to loss of control effectiveness. The scheduling parameter is selected to be a function of the estimates of the control effectiveness factors. The estimates are provided on-line by a two-stage Kalman estimator. The inherent conservatism of the LPV design is reducing through the use of a scaling factor on the uncertainty block that represents the estimation errors of the effectiveness factors. Simulations of the controlled system with the on-line estimator show that a superior fault-tolerance can be achieved.

  11. Campbell's Monkeys Use Affixation to Alter Call Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Karim; Lemasson, Alban; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Human language has evolved on a biological substrate with phylogenetic roots deep in the primate lineage. Here, we describe a functional analogy to a common morphological process in human speech, affixation, in the alarm calls of free-ranging adult Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli). We found that male alarm calls are composed of an acoustically variable stem, which can be followed by an acoustically invariable suffix. Using long-term observations and predator simulation experiments, we show that suffixation in this species functions to broaden the calls' meaning by transforming a highly specific eagle alarm to a general arboreal disturbance call or by transforming a highly specific leopard alarm call to a general alert call. We concluded that, when referring to specific external events, non-human primates can generate meaningful acoustic variation during call production that is functionally equivalent to suffixation in human language. PMID:19915663

  12. Acoustic characteristics of the low-frequency nest call of discomfort of the house mouse ( Mus musculus) early ontogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, M. A.; Akimov, A. G.

    2010-05-01

    Acoustic characteristics of the low-frequency nest call signaling discomfort of mouse pups are considered. The spectral temporal analysis of the call is realized for house mouse pups. In the structure of some calls, the frequency modulation and components of the noise are established. Signal duration varies from 20 to 170 ms. A statistically significant decrease of call duration and its fundamental frequency is shown from the 6th to 29th day of the mouse pups’ lives. The most stable parameters of the call-the harmonic structure, low-frequency range (up to 20 kHz), and location of the fundamental frequency between 4 and 8 kHz are recognized.

  13. Controlling Contagion Processes in Time Varying Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Suyu; Perra, Nicola; Karsai, Marton; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    The vast majority of strategies aimed at controlling contagion and spreading processes on networks consider the connectivity pattern of the system as quenched. In this paper, we consider the class of activity driven networks to analytically evaluate how different control strategies perform in time-varying networks. We consider the limit in which the evolution of the structure of the network and the spreading process are simultaneous yet independent. We analyze three control strategies based on node's activity patterns to decide the removal/immunization of nodes. We find that targeted strategies aimed at the removal of active nodes outperform by orders of magnitude the widely used random strategies. In time-varying networks however any finite time observation of the network dynamics provides only incomplete information on the nodes' activity and does not allow the precise ranking of the most active nodes as needed to implement targeted strategies. Here we develop a control strategy that focuses on targeting the egocentric time-aggregated network of a small control group of nodes.The presented strategy allows the control of spreading processes by removing a fraction of nodes much smaller than the random strategy while at the same time limiting the observation time on the system.

  14. Transient, spatially varied groundwater recharge modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Kibreab Amare; Woodbury, Allan D.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work is to integrate field data and modeling tools in producing temporally and spatially varying groundwater recharge in a pilot watershed in North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using the Richards equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D), ArcGIS™, ROSETTA, in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture, and a long-term gridded climate data. The public version of HYDUS-1D and another version with detailed freezing and thawing module are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack, and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGIS™ to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8 mm/year. Previous studies in the Okanagan Basin used Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance without any attempt of model performance evaluation, notwithstanding its inherent limitations. Thus, climate change impact results from this previous study and similar others, such as Jyrkama and Sykes (2007), need to be interpreted with caution.

  15. Varying execution discipline to increase performance

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.L.; Maccabe, A.B.

    1993-12-22

    This research investigates the relationship between execution discipline and performance. The hypothesis has two parts: 1. Different execution disciplines exhibit different performance for different computations, and 2. These differences can be effectively predicted by heuristics. A machine model is developed that can vary its execution discipline. That is, the model can execute a given program using either the control-driven, data-driven or demand-driven execution discipline. This model is referred to as a ``variable-execution-discipline`` machine. The instruction set for the model is the Program Dependence Web (PDW). The first part of the hypothesis will be tested by simulating the execution of the machine model on a suite of computations, based on the Livermore Fortran Kernel (LFK) Test (a.k.a. the Livermore Loops), using all three execution disciplines. Heuristics are developed to predict relative performance. These heuristics predict (a) the execution time under each discipline for one iteration of each loop and (b) the number of iterations taken by that loop; then the heuristics use those predictions to develop a prediction for the execution of the entire loop. Similar calculations are performed for branch statements. The second part of the hypothesis will be tested by comparing the results of the simulated execution with the predictions produced by the heuristics. If the hypothesis is supported, then the door is open for the development of machines that can vary execution discipline to increase performance.

  16. Nonlinear mesomechanics of composites with periodic microstructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Kevin P.; Jordan, Eric H.; Freed, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    This work is concerned with modeling the mechanical deformation or constitutive behavior of composites comprised of a periodic microstructure under small displacement conditions at elevated temperature. A mesomechanics approach is adopted which relates the microimechanical behavior of the heterogeneous composite with its in-service macroscopic behavior. Two different methods, one based on a Fourier series approach and the other on a Green's function approach, are used in modeling the micromechanical behavior of the composite material. Although the constitutive formulations are based on a micromechanical approach, it should be stressed that the resulting equations are volume averaged to produce overall effective constitutive relations which relate the bulk, volume averaged, stress increment to the bulk, volume averaged, strain increment. As such, they are macromodels which can be used directly in nonlinear finite element programs such as MARC, ANSYS and ABAQUS or in boundary element programs such as BEST3D. In developing the volume averaged or efective macromodels from the micromechanical models, both approaches will require the evaluation of volume integrals containing the spatially varying strain distributions throughout the composite material. By assuming that the strain distributions are spatially constant within each constituent phase-or within a given subvolume within each constituent phase-of the composite material, the volume integrals can be obtained in closed form. This simplified micromodel can then be volume averaged to obtain an effective macromodel suitable for use in the MARC, ANSYS and ABAQUS nonlinear finite element programs via user constitutive subroutines such as HYPELA and CMUSER. This effective macromodel can be used in a nonlinear finite element structural analysis to obtain the strain-temperature history at those points in the structure where thermomechanical cracking and damage are expected to occur, the so called damage critical points of

  17. Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2011-11-01

    Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

  18. Disciplinary Articulation in Rhetoric and Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babb, Jacob Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines how nomenclature and the act of naming shapes disciplinary identities for scholars and teachers of rhetoric and composition. The discipline is named differently by many of its members, sometimes called "composition studies," "writing studies," "composition and rhetoric," "rhetorical…

  19. Novel Microstructures for Polymer-Liquid Crystal Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magda, Jules J.

    2004-01-01

    There are a number of interface-dominated composite materials that contain a liquid crystalline (LC) phase in intimate contact with an isotropic phase. For example, polymer- dispersed liquid crystals, used in the fabrication of windows with switchable transparency, consist of micron size LC droplets dispersed in an isotropic polymer matrix. Many other types of liquid crystal composite materials can be envisioned that might have outstanding optical properties that could be exploited in novel chemical sensors, optical switches, and computer displays. This research project was based on the premise that many of these potentially useful LC composite materials can only be fabricated under microgravity conditions where gravity driven flows are absent. In the ground-based research described below, we have focused on a new class of LC composites that we call thermotropic- lyotropic liquid crystal systems (TLLCs). TLLCs consist of nanosize droplets of water dispersed in an LC matrix, with surfactants at the interface that stabilize the structure. By varying the type of surfactant one can access almost an infinite variety of unusual LC composite microstructures. Due to the importance of the interface in these types of systems, we have also developed molecular simulation models for liquid crystals at interfaces, and made some of the first measurements of the interfacial tension between liquid crystals and water.

  20. Varied Clinical Manifestations of Amebic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Chad J; Fleming, Rhonda; Boman, Darius A; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-11-01

    Invasive amebiasis is common worldwide, but infrequently observed in the United States. It is associated with considerable morbidity in patients residing in or traveling to endemic areas. We review the clinical and endoscopic manifestations of amebic colitis to alert physicians to the varied clinical manifestations of this potentially life-threatening disease. Copyright ©Most patients present with watery or bloody diarrhea. Less common presentations of amebic colitis include abdominal pain, overt gastrointestinal bleeding, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, or the incidental association with colon cancer. Amebic liver abscesses are the most frequent complication. Rectosigmoid involvement may be found on colonoscopy; however, most case series have reported that the cecum is the most commonly involved site, followed by the ascending colon. Endoscopic evaluation should be used to assist in the diagnosis, with attention to the observation of colonic inflammation, ulceration, and amebic trophozoites on histopathological examination. PMID:26539949

  1. Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Amit; Kumar, Manish; Senthilkumaran, P.; Joseph, Joby

    2016-04-01

    We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.

  2. Climate dynamics: Why does climate vary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, climate change has become a major focus of public and political discussion. Ongoing scientific inquiry, revolving predominantly around understanding the anthropogenic effects of rising greenhouse gas levels, coupled with how successfully findings are communicated to the public, has made climate science both contentious and exigent. In the AGU monograph Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary?, editors De-Zheng Sun and Frank Bryan reinforce the importance of investigating the complex dynamics that underlie the natural variability of the climate system. Understanding this complexity—particularly how the natural variability of climate may enhance or mask anthropogenic warming—could have important consequences for the future. In this interview, Eos talks to De-Zheng Sun.

  3. Fractional diffusions with time-varying coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garra, Roberto; Orsingher, Enzo; Polito, Federico

    2015-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the fractionalized diffusion equations governing the law of the fractional Brownian motion BH(t). We obtain solutions of these equations which are probability laws extending that of BH(t). Our analysis is based on McBride fractional operators generalizing the hyper-Bessel operators L and converting their fractional power Lα into Erdélyi-Kober fractional integrals. We study also probabilistic properties of the random variables whose distributions satisfy space-time fractional equations involving Caputo and Riesz fractional derivatives. Some results emerging from the analysis of fractional equations with time-varying coefficients have the form of distributions of time-changed random variables.

  4. Experiences from a Varied Career in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, Katherine

    2006-04-01

    I received my doctorate in Experimental High Energy Physics from Michigan State Univeristy. My thesis was based on my work with QCD jet physics at the D0 collider experiment at Fermi National Laboratory. My first postdoctoral position was with Oxford University working on solar neutrino oscillations at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). Following this, I joined what is now the Nuclear Nonproliferation Safeguards, Science and Technology group (N-1) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Over this time, I've worked on a wide range of physics topics in a wide range of physical and social environments. I would like to share some of the experiences I've had working in such varied environment and the thoughts that have guided me on my path that eventually led me from basic research to a more applied field.

  5. Varying ghost dark energy and particle creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, M.

    2016-02-01

    One of the models of dark energy is the ghost dark energy, which has a geometrical origin. Recently, a certain type of phenomenological modification of ghost dark energy has been suggested which motivated us for this work. The goal of this paper is twofold. First, we would like to study the cosmological scenario involving interacting varying ghost dark energy. A cosmographic analysis of a non-interacting model is also performed. Then, we study the particle creation following the straight analogy between quantization in Minkowski background and canonical quantization of a scalar field in curved dynamical backgrounds. Particular attention will be paid to massless-particle production from a radiation-dominated universe (according to our toy model) which evolves to our large-scale universe. Constraints on the parameters of the models obtained during the cosmographic analysis did allow to demonstrate the possibility of a massless-particle creation in a radiation-dominated universe.

  6. Random walk with an exponentially varying step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, A. C.; Maltz, A.; Mártin, H. O.; Catuogno, P.; García-Mata, I.

    2000-12-01

    A random walk with exponentially varying step, modeling damped or amplified diffusion, is studied. Each step is equal to the previous one multiplied by a step factor s (01/s relating different processes. For s<1/2 and s>2, the process is retrodictive (i.e., every final position can be reached by a unique path) and the set of all possible final points after infinite steps is fractal. For step factors in the interval [1/2,2], some cases result in smooth density distributions, other cases present overlapping self-similarity and there are values of the step factor for which the distribution is singular without a density function.

  7. Motion Editing for Time-Varying Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Yamasaki, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Kiyoharu

    2008-12-01

    Recently, time-varying mesh (TVM), which is composed of a sequence of mesh models, has received considerable interest due to its new and attractive functions such as free viewpoint and interactivity. TVM captures the dynamic scene of the real world from multiple synchronized cameras. However, it is expensive and time consuming to generate a TVM sequence. In this paper, an editing system is presented to reuse the original data, which reorganizes the motions to obtain a new sequence based on the user requirements. Hierarchical motion structure is observed and parsed in TVM sequences. Then, the representative motions are chosen into a motion database, where a motion graph is constructed to connect those motions with smooth transitions. After the user selects some desired motions from the motion database, the best paths are searched by a modified Dijkstra algorithm to achieve a new sequence. Our experimental results demonstrate that the edited sequences are natural and smooth.

  8. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Dubey, Manvendra K; Lesins, Glen; Wang, Muyin

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  9. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  10. Fundamental Investigation of Circumferentially Varying Stator Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, John A. N.

    2011-12-01

    The fundamentals of circumferentially varying stator cascades and their interactions with a downstream fixed pitch propeller were investigated experimentally utilizing multiple measurement techniques. The flow physics associated with the isolated circumferentially varying, or cyclic, stator cascade was studied in a wind tunnel environment through string tuft flow visualization, 2-D PIV, Stereoscopic PIV, and static surface pressure measurements. The coupled wake physics of the cyclic stator cascade with propeller were then investigated in a water tunnel using Stereo PIV. Finally, the global performance of components and the coupled system were quantified through force and moment measurements on the model in the water tunnel. A cyclic distribution of the stators' deflections resulted in non-axisymmetric distributions of the surface pressure and the flow field downstream of the stator array. In the model near wake the flow field is associated with secondary flow patterns in the form of coherent streamwise vortical structures that can be described by potential flow mechanisms. The collective pitch distribution of the stators produces a flow field that resembles a potential Rankine vortex, whereas the cyclic pitch distribution generates a flow pattern that can be described by a potential vortex pair in a cross flow. The stator distribution alone produces a significant side force that increases linearly with stator pitch amplitude. When a propeller is incorporated downstream from the cyclic cascade the side force from the stator cascade is reduced, but a small vertical force and pitching moment are created. The generation of these secondary forces and moments can be related to the redistribution of the tangential flow from the cyclic cascade into the axial direction by the retreating and advancing blade states of the fixed pitch propeller.

  11. The importance of calling song and courtship song in female mate choice in the variable field cricket.

    PubMed

    Wagner; Reiser

    2000-06-01

    Male field crickets produce calling songs, courtship songs, tactile signals and chemical signals. Although calling songs are known to play an important role in female mate choice, the importance of the other signals in mate choice is poorly understood. In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, females select mates, in part, based on variation in male calling song. Females prefer higher chirp rates, a trait which is partially dependent on male nutrient intake, and females prefer longer chirp durations, a trait which appears to be independent of male nutrient intake. We tested whether females also have preferences based on variation in male courtship song, and whether the structure of male courtship song varies with nutrient intake. First, we reexamined female preference for calling song chirp rate. Then, we examined: (1) female preference based on courtship song chirp rate; (2) the relative importance of calling song and courtship song chirp rate; (3) the nutrition dependence of courtship song chirp rate; and (4) the correlation between calling song and courtship song chirp rate. As reported previously, females preferred higher calling song chirp rates, and in addition, preferred higher courtship song chirp rates. Females were more likely to switch from a speaker broadcasting more attractive calling song to a speaker broadcasting less attractive calling song when the attractive calling song was associated with an unattractive courtship song than when it was associated with an attractive courtship song. Preferences based on courtship song may thus cause females to alter the choices that they made based on calling song. Males that received greater nutrients did not produce higher courtship song chirp rates. There was no correlation between calling song and courtship song chirp rate. As a result, the two traits may provide information to females about different aspects of male quality. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID

  12. Circular motion analysis of time-varying bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, B; Louarroudi, E; Rutkove, S B; Pintelon, R

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a step forward towards the analysis of a linear periodically time-varying (PTV) bioimpedance ZPTV(jw, t), which is an important subclass of a linear time-varying (LTV) bioimpedance. Similarly to the Fourier coefficients of a periodic signal, a PTV impedance can be decomposed into frequency dependent impedance phasors, [Formula: see text], that are rotating with an angular speed of wr = 2πr/TZ. The vector length of these impedance phasors corresponds to the amplitude of the rth-order harmonic impedance |Zr( jw)| and the initial phase is given by Φr(w, t0) = [Symbol: see text]Zr( jw) + 2πrt0/TZ, with t0∈[0, T] being a time instant within the measurement time T. The impedance period TZ stands for the cycle length of the bio-system under investigation; for example, the elapsed time between two consecutive R-waves in the electrocardiogram or the breathing periodicity in case of the heart or lungs, respectively. First, it is demonstrated that the harmonic impedance phasor [Formula: see text], at a particular measured frequency k, can be represented by a rotating phasor, leading to the so-called circular motion analysis technique. Next, the two dimensional (2D) representation of the harmonic impedance phasors is then extended to a three-dimensional (3D) coordinate system by taking into account the frequency dependence. Finally, we introduce a new visualizing tool to summarize the frequency response behavior of ZPTV( jw, t) into a single 3D plot using the local Frenet-Serret frame. This novel 3D impedance representation is then compared with the 3D Nyquist representation of a PTV impedance. The concepts are illustrated through real measurements conducted on a PTV RC-circuit. PMID:26489699

  13. Reducing juvenile delinquency with automated cell phone calls.

    PubMed

    Burraston, Bert O; Bahr, Stephen J; Cherrington, David J

    2014-05-01

    Using a sample of 70 juvenile probationers (39 treatment and 31 controls), we evaluated the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program that combined cognitive-behavioral training and automated phone calls. The cognitive-behavioral training contained six 90-min sessions, one per week, and the phone calls occurred twice per day for the year following treatment. Recidivism was measured by whether they were rearrested and the total number of rearrests during the 1st year. To test the impact of the phone calls, those who received phone calls were divided into high and low groups depending on whether they answered more or less than half of their phone calls. Those who completed the class and answered at least half of their phone calls were less likely to have been arrested and had fewer total arrests. PMID:23486755

  14. 40 CFR 155.48 - Data Call-In.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data Call-In. 155.48 Section 155.48... STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.48 Data Call-In. The Agency may issue a Data Call-In notice under FIFRA section 3(c)(2)(B) at any time if the Agency believes that...

  15. 40 CFR 155.48 - Data Call-In.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data Call-In. 155.48 Section 155.48... STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.48 Data Call-In. The Agency may issue a Data Call-In notice under FIFRA section 3(c)(2)(B) at any time if the Agency believes that...

  16. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The promise of filamentary composite materials, whose development may be considered as entering its second generation, continues to generate intense interest and applications activity. Fiber reinforced composite materials offer substantially improved performance and potentially lower costs for aerospace hardware. Much progress has been achieved since the initial developments in the mid 1960's. Rather limited applications to primary aircraft structure have been made, however, mainly in a material-substitution mode on military aircraft, except for a few experiments currently underway on large passenger airplanes in commercial operation. To fulfill the promise of composite materials completely requires a strong technology base. NASA and AFOSR recognize the present state of the art to be such that to fully exploit composites in sophisticated aerospace structures, the technology base must be improved. This, in turn, calls for expanding fundamental knowledge and the means by which it can be successfully applied in design and manufacture.

  17. Does the Newtonian Gravity "Constant" G Vary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noerdlinger, Peter D.

    2015-08-01

    A series of measurements of Newton's gravity constant, G, dating back as far as 1893, yielded widely varying values, the variation greatly exceeding the stated error estimates (Gillies, 1997; Quinn, 2000, Mohr et al 2008). The value of G is usually said to be unrelated to other physics, but we point out that the 8B Solar Neutrino Rate ought to be very sensitive. Improved pulsar timing could also help settle the issue as to whether G really varies. We claim that the variation in measured values over time (1893-2014 C.E.) is a more serious problem than the failure of the error bars to overlap; it appears that challenging or adjusting the error bars hardly masks the underlying disagreement in central values. We have assessed whether variations in the gravitational potential due to (for example) local dark matter (DM) could explain the variations. We find that the required potential fluctuations could transiently accelerate the Solar System and nearby stars to speeds in excess of the Galactic escape speed. Previous theories for the variation in G generally deal with supposed secular variation on a cosmological timescale, or very rapid oscillations whose envelope changes on that scale (Steinhardt and Will 1995). Therefore, these analyses fail to support variations on the timescale of years or spatial scales of order parsecs, which would be required by the data for G. We note that true variations in G would be associated with variations in clock rates (Derevianko and Pospelov 2014; Loeb and Maoz 2015), which could mask changes in orbital dynamics. Geringer-Sameth et al (2014) studied γ-ray emission from the nearby Reticulum dwarf galaxy, which is expected to be free of "ordinary" (stellar, black hole) γ-ray sources and found evidence for DM decay. Bernabei et al (2003) also found evidence for DM penetrating deep underground at Gran Sasso. If, indeed, variations in G can be tied to variations in gravitational potential, we have a new tool to assess the DM density.

  18. Varied line-space gratings: past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Hettrick, M.C.

    1985-08-01

    A classically ruled diffraction grating consists of grooves which are equidistant, straight and parallel. Conversely, the so-called ''holographic'' grating (formed by the interfering waves of coherent visible light), although severely constrained by the recording wavelength and recording geometry, has grooves which are typically neither equidistant, straight nor parallel. In contrast, a varied line-space (VLS) grating, in common nomenclature, is a design in which the groove positions are relatively unconstrained yet possess sufficient symmetry to permit mechanical ruling. Such seemingly exotic gratings are no longer only a theoretical curiosity, but have been ruled and used in a wide variety of applications. These include: (1) aberration-corrected normal incidence concave gratings for Seya-Namioka monochromators and optical de-multiplexers, (2) flat-field grazing incidence concave gratings for plasma diagnostics, (3) aberration-corrected grazing incidence plane gratings for space-borne spectrometers, (4) focusing grazing incidence plane grating for synchrotron radiation monochromators, and (5) wavefront generators for visible interferometry of optical surfaces (particularly aspheres). Future prospects of VLS gratings as dispersing elements, wavefront correctors and beamsplitters appear promising. The author discusses the history of VLS gratings, their present applications, and their potential in the future. 61 refs., 24 figs.

  19. Redescription of the Advertisement Call of Five Species of Thoropa (Anura, Cycloramphidae), Including Recordings of Rare and Endangered Species.

    PubMed

    Nunes-de-Almeida, Carlos H L; Assis, Clodoaldo L; Feio, Renato N; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Frogs of the genus Thoropa comprise six endemic Brazilian species on the Eastern side of the country. Little is known about their natural history, especially about their acoustic communication. Therefore, aiming to provide an overview of their vocalizations, we analyzed and redescribed male advertisement calls of three living and two possibly extinct species. The smaller species, T. petropolitana and T. lutzi, produce simple calls (one single note) with a higher frequency range than the remaining larger ones. On the other hand, the larger species present complex calls, with more than one note: T. megatympanum calls have three notes, T. taophora calls have four notes, and T. miliaris calls varies from three to six notes. Population snout-vent length negatively correlated with peak of dominant frequency as expected. However, highlighted differences between two populations of T. lutzi, which could indicate need of further taxonomic evaluation of those lineages. Peculiar morphology, such as the absence of vocal sacs and slits, may have contributed to their call variation and highly banded frequency structure. If the observed population differences reflect species-level differences, T. lutzi may be classified as a critically endangered species, as T. petropolitana. Furthermore, we provided a suggestion to an unusual behavior in frogs: calling with the mouth open in the smaller species of the genus. PMID:27617833

  20. Fast space-varying convolution using matrix source coding with applications to camera stray light reduction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianing; Bouman, Charles A; Allebach, Jan P

    2014-05-01

    Many imaging applications require the implementation of space-varying convolution for accurate restoration and reconstruction of images. Here, we use the term space-varying convolution to refer to linear operators whose impulse response has slow spatial variation. In addition, these space-varying convolution operators are often dense, so direct implementation of the convolution operator is typically computationally impractical. One such example is the problem of stray light reduction in digital cameras, which requires the implementation of a dense space-varying deconvolution operator. However, other inverse problems, such as iterative tomographic reconstruction, can also depend on the implementation of dense space-varying convolution. While space-invariant convolution can be efficiently implemented with the fast Fourier transform, this approach does not work for space-varying operators. So direct convolution is often the only option for implementing space-varying convolution. In this paper, we develop a general approach to the efficient implementation of space-varying convolution, and demonstrate its use in the application of stray light reduction. Our approach, which we call matrix source coding, is based on lossy source coding of the dense space-varying convolution matrix. Importantly, by coding the transformation matrix, we not only reduce the memory required to store it; we also dramatically reduce the computation required to implement matrix-vector products. Our algorithm is able to reduce computation by approximately factoring the dense space-varying convolution operator into a product of sparse transforms. Experimental results show that our method can dramatically reduce the computation required for stray light reduction while maintaining high accuracy. PMID:24710398

  1. Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.

  2. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  3. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  4. Microsatellites in varied arenas of research

    PubMed Central

    Remya, K. S.; Joseph, Sigimol; Lakshmi, P. K.; Akhila, S.

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) or short-tandem repeats (STRs), represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world. PMID:21814449

  5. Device for varying engine valve timing

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, K.

    1988-07-05

    A device is described for angularly displacing a camshaft relative to the crankshaft of an IC engine to vary the engine valve timing, comprising; a hub member; means to attach the hub member to the engine crankshaft; a drive member rotatably mounted on the hub member, and means connecting the drive member in driving relationship with the engine crankshaft; an advancing member; a first means interconnecting the advancing member with the hub member affecting limited axial movement of the advancing member relative to the hub member; a second means interconnecting the advancing member with the drive member which upon axial movement of the advancing member causes limited rotation of the drive member relative to the hub member; an annular means mounted on the hub member, the advancing member mounted on the annular means; coacting meshing means formed in part on the annular means for moving the advancing member axially relative to the hub upon limited rotation of the annular means relative to the hub; and a non-rotational retarder means which when actuated applies a retarding torque to the annular means causing limited rotation of the annular means relative to the hub and thus cause the advancing member to move axially of the hub whereby the drive member is moved a limited angular distance relative to the hub member.

  6. Vector curvaton with varying kinetic function

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Karciauskas, Mindaugas; Wagstaff, Jacques M.

    2010-01-15

    A new model realization of the vector curvaton paradigm is presented and analyzed. The model consists of a single massive Abelian vector field, with a Maxwell-type kinetic term. By assuming that the kinetic function and the mass of the vector field are appropriately varying during inflation, it is shown that a scale-invariant spectrum of superhorizon perturbations can be generated. These perturbations can contribute to the curvature perturbation of the Universe. If the vector field remains light at the end of inflation it is found that it can generate substantial statistical anisotropy in the spectrum and bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. In this case the non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbation is predominantly anisotropic, which will be a testable prediction in the near future. If, on the other hand, the vector field is heavy at the end of inflation then it is demonstrated that particle production is approximately isotropic and the vector field alone can give rise to the curvature perturbation, without directly involving any fundamental scalar field. The parameter space for both possibilities is shown to be substantial. Finally, toy models are presented which show that the desired variation of the mass and kinetic function of the vector field can be realistically obtained, without unnatural tunings, in the context of supergravity or superstrings.

  7. Enhancement of fluoroscopic images with varying contrast.

    PubMed

    Ozanian, T O; Phillips, R

    2001-04-01

    A heuristic algorithm for enhancement of fluoroscopic images of varying contrast is proposed. The new technique aims at identifying a suitable type of enhancement for different locations in an image. The estimation relies on simple preliminary classification of image parts into one of the following types: uniform, sharp (with sufficient contrast), detail-containing (structure present) and unknown (for the cases where it is difficult to make a decision). Different smoothing techniques are applied locally in the different types of image parts. For those parts that are classified as detail-containing, probable object boundaries are identified and local sharpening is carried out to increase the contrast at these places. The adopted approach attempts to improve the quality of an image by reducing available noise and simultaneously increasing the contrast at probable object boundaries without increasing the overall dynamic range. In addition, it allows noise to be cleaned, that at some locations is stronger than the fine structure at other locations, whilst preserving the details. PMID:11223147

  8. 31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified covered calls. 1.1092(c)-1 Section 1.1092(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-1 Qualified covered calls. (a)...

  10. Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Dallas

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

  11. 7 CFR 7.7 - Calling of elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calling of elections. 7.7 Section 7.7 Agriculture... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.7 Calling of elections. (a) Each election of community... not later than December 30 each year. Each such election shall be held in accordance with...

  12. 7 CFR 7.7 - Calling of elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calling of elections. 7.7 Section 7.7 Agriculture... COMMITTEES § 7.7 Calling of elections. (a) The Secretary will establish a county committee in each county or area under the jurisdiction of a multiple county office. (b) Each election of county committee...

  13. Jamaican Call-In Radio: A Uses and Gratification Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    Noting that radio call-in programs seem to contain the elements for active audience involvement and participation, a study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that information gain and surveillance are the primary gratifications sought through call-in radio programs, especially in a culture that has a strong oral tradition and relatively few…

  14. Enhancing Online CALL Design: The Case for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemard, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Whilst the potential of online Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in terms of access, immediacy and exposure is widely acknowledged, as yet remarkably little is known about its impact on the user population, be they language teachers or learners. Indeed, beyond its technological development, online CALL design is still affected by a dearth…

  15. 75 FR 31458 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Data Call Survey. DHS previously published this information collection request (ICR) in the Federal Register on December 22, 2009, at 74 FR 68070-68071, for a 60-day public comment period. DHS received no... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey...

  16. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call box operations. (a) The frequencies in the 72-76...

  17. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call box operations. (a) The frequencies in the 72-76...

  18. House Call Training in the Family Practice Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Samuel W.; Sadler, Georgia R.

    1977-01-01

    Since practicing New Jersey family physicians still consider house calls important in the delivery of quality primary care, the Department of Family Medicine of the College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers Medical School is assisting in revising program curricula to provide house call training. (Author/LBH)

  19. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  20. Eyes Wide Shut? Querying the Depth of Call Centre Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlihan, Maeve

    2000-01-01

    An ethnographic study of customer service call centers found that both desired and unintended outcomes are influenced by personal coping and organizational sustaining mechanisms. When organizations use behavioral control, a climate of resistance ensues. An alternative is to view call centers as learning sites. (SK)

  1. Results from Organizational Development Interventions in a Technology Call Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Call center staff answered calls in 4 treatments: alignment job design (n=35), autonomous work teams (n=35), high-involvement work processes (n=43), and controls (n=36). Job satisfaction improved in alignment job design and high-involvement treatments, most significantly in the latter. Skill level and attitude toward autonomous work might have…

  2. Evaluating a CALL Software on the Learning of English Prepositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Rethinasamy, Soubakeavathi

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of using a CALL lesson (Computer Assisted Language Learning) over a conventional lesson to facilitate learning of English prepositions at Bario, Malaysia. CALL was developed by the Ministry of Education, Malaysia as support material to enhance learning of English prepositions. Both the conventional and the…

  3. Structure of Calling and Vocation across Gender and Age Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Brandy M.

    2010-01-01

    The Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) is a measure based on Dik and Duffy's (2009) theoretical conceptualization of calling, which includes three dimensions: (1) a transcendent summons, (2) deriving or expressing meaning or purpose through work, and (3) a prosocial orientation in work. Additionally, this definition posits two overarching…

  4. Dialogue-Based CALL: An Overview of Existing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibauw, Serge; François, Thomas; Desmet, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Dialogue-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) covers applications and systems allowing a learner to practice the target language in a meaning-focused conversational activity with an automated agent. We first present a common definition for dialogue-based CALL, based on three features: dialogue as the activity unit, computer as the…

  5. 47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for selective calling equipment. 80.225 Section 80.225 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.225 Requirements for selective calling equipment. This...

  6. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call box operations. (a) The frequencies in the 72-76...

  7. 47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of these standards can be inspected at the Federal... for selective calling equipment. This section specifies the requirements for voluntary digital... Mobile Service,” with Annex, 1995; ITU-R Recommendation M.493-11, “Digital Selective-calling System...

  8. 47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for selective calling equipment. 80.225 Section 80.225 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.225 Requirements for selective calling equipment. This...

  9. CALL in the Year 2000: A Look Back from 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    This commentary offers a brief reflection on the state of CALL in 1997, when "Language Learning & Technology" was launched with my paper entitled "CALL in the year 2000: Still in search of research paradigms?" The point of my 1997 paper was to suggest the potential value of research on second language learning for the study…

  10. Implications of Research on Human Memory for CALL Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of what is generally accepted about how human memory works as it applied to computer assisted language learning (CALL). Discusses a number of interactions from various CALL products in light of the research summarized. (Author/VWL)

  11. 16 CFR 1018.21 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calling of meetings. 1018.21 Section 1018.21 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 1018.21 Calling of meetings. Advisory committees shall, as a general rule, meet...

  12. 39 CFR 6.4 - Attendance by conference telephone call.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attendance by conference telephone call. 6.4 Section 6.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.4 Attendance by conference telephone call. For regularly scheduled meetings...

  13. 47 CFR 32.6621 - Call completion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Call completion services. 32.6621 Section 32... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6621 Call completion services. This account shall include costs incurred in helping customers place and complete...

  14. Sustainability in CALL Learning Environments: A Systemic Functional Grammar Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to define a sustainable resource in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). In order for a CALL resource to be sustainable it must work within existing educational curricula. This feature is a necessary prerequisite of sustainability because, despite the potential for educational change that digitalization has offered since…

  15. 78 FR 35956 - Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Advisory Council (RAC) Subgroup will host a conference call. DATES: The Utah RAC Subgroup will host a... person must meet at the BLM, Utah State Office, 440 West 200 South, Salt Lake City, Utah, in the...

  16. 75 FR 77955 - Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... ``Treasury'') called for the submission of Large Position Reports by those entities whose reportable... business December 8, 2010. DATES: Large Position Reports must be received before noon Eastern Time...

  17. Calls to Teen Line: Representative Concerns of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Kathryn E.; Schondel, Connie K.; Ivoska, William J.; Marlowe, Alison L.; Manke-Mitchell, Laurie

    1998-01-01

    Study examines whether the concerns of teenagers calling a peer listening service are representative of the concerns of teenagers in the area served. Results indicate that students' biggest concerns involve family problems, peer relationships, self-esteem, and school problems. Concludes that calls to the teen line are representative. (Author/GCP)

  18. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  19. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  20. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  1. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  2. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  3. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    PubMed

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution. PMID:26960074

  4. Radio advertising increases hospital call center volume by 48%.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Since the fall of 2005, call volume at University of Southern California University Hospital of Los Angeles' call center has increased by nearly 50%. How? The hospital embarked on a long-term radio campaign to promote its presence as a premier academic medical center and to increase patient volume. PMID:17186899

  5. The Multidimensionality of Calling: Conceptualization, Measurement and a Bicultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmaier, Tamara; Abele, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    The experience of a calling may be seen as the ultimate form of subjective career success that has many positive consequences for individuals and organizations. We are here concerned with the conceptualization of a new multidimensional measure of calling, the MCM. In the first two studies we employed a qualitative approach and came up with five…

  6. Why We All Need Call Waiting on Our Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbie, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever noticed that you can go all day without a single call on your phone and then suddenly you get two calls at once? This is actually not as uncommon as it sounds and there is a mathematical reason for why we should expect it to happen, believe it or not.

  7. Impact of Using CALL on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Melor Md; Salehi, Hadi; Amini, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) integration in EFL contexts has intensified noticeably in recent years. This integration might be in different ways and for different purposes such as vocabulary acquisition, grammar learning, phonology, writing skills, etc. More explicitly, this study is an attempt to explore the effect of using CALL on…

  8. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payphone call tracking system audits. 64.1320... call tracking system audits. (a) Unless it has entered into an alternative compensation arrangement pursuant to § 64.1310(a) that relieves it of its § 64.1310(a)(1) tracking system obligation,...

  9. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payphone call tracking system audits. 64.1320... call tracking system audits. (a) Unless it has entered into an alternative compensation arrangement pursuant to § 64.1310(a) that relieves it of its § 64.1310(a)(1) tracking system obligation,...

  10. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payphone call tracking system audits. 64.1320... call tracking system audits. (a) Unless it has entered into an alternative compensation arrangement pursuant to § 64.1310(a) that relieves it of its § 64.1310(a)(1) tracking system obligation,...

  11. 43 CFR 1784.4-1 - Calls for nominations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calls for nominations. 1784.4-1 Section 1784.4-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.4-1 Calls for nominations. Except...

  12. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of mobile...

  13. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of mobile...

  14. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of mobile...

  15. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Mobile-Satellite Service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of...

  16. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Mobile-Satellite Service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of...

  17. AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory taking" will provide…

  18. Addressee Errors in ATC Communications: The Call Sign Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monan, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Communication errors involving aircraft call signs were portrayed in reports of 462 hazardous incidents voluntarily submitted to the ASRS during an approximate four-year period. These errors resulted in confusion, disorder, and uncoordinated traffic conditions and produced the following types of operational anomalies: altitude deviations, wrong-way headings, aborted takeoffs, go arounds, runway incursions, missed crossing altitude restrictions, descents toward high terrain, and traffic conflicts in flight and on the ground. Analysis of the report set resulted in identification of five categories of errors involving call signs: (1) faulty radio usage techniques, (2) call sign loss or smearing due to frequency congestion, (3) confusion resulting from similar sounding call signs, (4) airmen misses of call signs leading to failures to acknowledge or readback, and (5) controller failures regarding confirmation of acknowledgements or readbacks. These error categories are described in detail and several associated hazard mitigating measures that might be aken are considered.

  19. Evidence That Calls-Based and Mobility Networks Are Isomorphic.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Michele; Hausmann, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Social relations involve both face-to-face interaction as well as telecommunications. We can observe the geography of phone calls and of the mobility of cell phones in space. These two phenomena can be described as networks of connections between different points in space. We use a dataset that includes billions of phone calls made in Colombia during a six-month period. We draw the two networks and find that the call-based network resembles a higher order aggregation of the mobility network and that both are isomorphic except for a higher spatial decay coefficient of the mobility network relative to the call-based network: when we discount distance effects on the call connections with the same decay observed for mobility connections, the two networks are virtually indistinguishable. PMID:26713730

  20. Frequency synchronization of blue whale calls near Pioneer Seamount.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Michael D; Garfield, Newell; Bland, Roger W

    2010-07-01

    Vocalizations of blue whales were recorded with a cabled hydrophone array at Pioneer Seamount, 50 miles off the California coast. Most calls occurred in repeated sequences of two-call pairs (A, then B). The B call is a frequency-modulated tone highly repeatable in form and pitch. A model of this sound is described which permits detecting very small frequency shifts. B calls are found to be aligned in frequency to about one part in 180. This requires very fine pitch discrimination and control over calling frequency, and suggests that synchronizing to a common frequency pattern carries some adaptive advantage. Some possibilities for acoustic sensing by whales requiring this fine frequency resolution are discussed. PMID:20649243

  1. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2011-02-23

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively. PMID:20659926

  2. Evidence That Calls-Based and Mobility Networks Are Isomorphic

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, Michele; Hausmann, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Social relations involve both face-to-face interaction as well as telecommunications. We can observe the geography of phone calls and of the mobility of cell phones in space. These two phenomena can be described as networks of connections between different points in space. We use a dataset that includes billions of phone calls made in Colombia during a six-month period. We draw the two networks and find that the call-based network resembles a higher order aggregation of the mobility network and that both are isomorphic except for a higher spatial decay coefficient of the mobility network relative to the call-based network: when we discount distance effects on the call connections with the same decay observed for mobility connections, the two networks are virtually indistinguishable. PMID:26713730

  3. Using direct mail to prompt smokers to call a quitline.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Richard J; Carlin-Menter, Shannon M; Celestino, Paula B; Bax, Patricia; Brown, Anthony; Cummings, K Michael; Bauer, Joseph E

    2008-07-01

    Telephone quitlines efficiently deliver cessation services, but few smokers use them. This article describes an unsolicited direct mail campaign designed to increase calls to the New York State Smokers' Quitline. Two post-cards advertising the quitline and the availability of free nicotine patches were sent to 77,527 smoker households between August and October 2005. One postcard emphasized the effectiveness of the nicotine patch, whereas the other contrasted the risks of smoking and patch use. Response was evaluated using geographically linked calls to the quitline 15 days before and after each mailing. The postcard campaign increased call volume by 36%, with no difference between the two postcard versions. Those who reported calling the quitline in response to a mailing were more likely to request nicotine patches (91% versus 82%, p < .001). Direct mail can be used to increase quitline call volume and should be one of the promotional tools used by quitlines. PMID:18308952

  4. Audibility of time-varying signals in time-varying backgrounds: Model and data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Brian C. J.; Glasberg, Brian R.

    2001-05-01

    We have described a model for calculating the partial loudness of a steady signal in the presence of a steady background sound [Moore et al., J. Audio Eng. Soc. 45, 224-240 (1997)]. We have also described a model for calculating the loudness of time-varying signals [B. R. Glasberg and B. C. J. Moore, J. Audio Eng. Soc. 50, 331-342 (2002)]. These two models have been combined to allow calculation of the partial loudness of a time-varying signal in the presence of a time-varying background. To evaluate the model, psychometric functions for the detection of a variety of time-varying signals (e.g., telephone ring tones) have been measured in a variety of background sounds sampled from everyday listening situations, using a two-alternative forced-choice task. The different signals and backgrounds were interleaved, to create stimulus uncertainty, as would occur in everyday life. The data are used to relate the detectability index, d', to the calculated partial loudness. In this way, the model can be used to predict the detectability of any signal, based on its calculated partial loudness. [Work supported by MRC (UK) and by Nokia.

  5. How specific halide adsorption varies hydrophobic interactions.

    PubMed

    Stock, Philipp; Müller, Melanie; Utzig, Thomas; Valtiner, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Hydrophobic interactions (HI) are driven by the water structure around hydrophobes in aqueous electrolytes. How water structures at hydrophobic interfaces and how this influences the HI was subject to numerous studies. However, the effect of specific ion adsorption on HI and hydrophobic interfaces remains largely unexplored or controversial. Here, the authors utilized atomic force microscopy force spectroscopy at well-defined nanoscopic hydrophobic interfaces to experimentally address how specific ion adsorption of halide ions as well as NH4 (+), Cs(+), and Na(+) cations alters interaction forces across hydrophobic interfaces. Our data demonstrate that iodide adsorption at hydrophobic interfaces profoundly varies the hydrophobic interaction potential. A long-range and strong hydration repulsion at distances D > 3 nm, is followed by an instability which could be explained by a subsequent rapid ejection of adsorbed iodides from approaching hydrophobic interfaces. In addition, the authors find only a weakly pronounced influence of bromide, and as expected no influence of chloride. Also, all tested cations do not have any significant influence on HI. Complementary, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quartz-crystal-microbalance with dissipation monitoring showed a clear adsorption of large halide ions (Br(-)/I(-)) onto hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Interestingly, iodide can even lead to a full disintegration of SAMs due to specific and strong interactions of iodide with gold. Our data suggest that hydrophobic surfaces are not intrinsically charged negatively by hydroxide adsorption, as it was generally believed. Hydrophobic surfaces rather interact strongly with negatively charged large halide ions, leading to a surface charging and significant variation of interaction forces. PMID:26753786

  6. Saccadic adaptation to a systematically varying disturbance.

    PubMed

    Cassanello, Carlos R; Ohl, Sven; Rolfs, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Saccadic adaptation maintains the correct mapping between eye movements and their targets, yet the dynamics of saccadic gain changes in the presence of systematically varying disturbances has not been extensively studied. Here we assessed changes in the gain of saccade amplitudes induced by continuous and periodic postsaccadic visual feedback. Observers made saccades following a sequence of target steps either along the horizontal meridian (Two-way adaptation) or with unconstrained saccade directions (Global adaptation). An intrasaccadic step-following a sinusoidal variation as a function of the trial number (with 3 different frequencies tested in separate blocks)-consistently displaced the target along its vector. The oculomotor system responded to the resulting feedback error by modifying saccade amplitudes in a periodic fashion with similar frequency of variation but lagging the disturbance by a few tens of trials. This periodic response was superimposed on a drift toward stronger hypometria with similar asymptotes and decay rates across stimulus conditions. The magnitude of the periodic response decreased with increasing frequency and was smaller and more delayed for Global than Two-way adaptation. These results suggest that-in addition to the well-characterized return-to-baseline response observed in protocols using constant visual feedback-the oculomotor system attempts to minimize the feedback error by integrating its variation across trials. This process resembles a convolution with an internal response function, whose structure would be determined by coefficients of the learning model. Our protocol reveals this fast learning process in single short experimental sessions, qualifying it for the study of sensorimotor learning in health and disease. PMID:27098027

  7. Time varied gain functions for pulsed sonars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLennan, D. N.

    1986-11-01

    The time varied gain (TVG) of a sonar is intended to remove the range dependence of echo strength. The conventional "40 log R" and "20 log R" TVG functions, which apply to single and distributed targets respectively, provide exact compensation only at infinite range. At short range, the conventional functions are inexact due to bandwidth related delays and the change in receiver gain over a pulse length. The theory of echo formation is used to derive exact gain functions which make the echo energy integral independent of the target range. In the case of randomly distributed targets, the linear form of the exact function is shown to be ( t)= ct exp (α ct/2)√{(1- T 1/t ) 2-( T 2/t ) 2}, for sound speed c and absorption coefficient α. T1 and T2 are constants for a given sonar and target. The ct exp ( αct/2) term is equivalent to "20 log R+2 αR". The single target function is similarly the conventional function multiplied by a polynomial expression in 1/ t. Analytic functions are derived for systems with simple transfer functions. As the pulse length bandwidth product increases, the exact function tends to that of the wideband ideal system for which T1= T/2 and T2 = T/√(12), T being the transmitter pulse length. Exact TVG functions are derived numerically for two echo sounders used in fishery research and are compared with the measured gain variation. The TVG function realized in sonars may depart considerably from the exact form. Delaying the start of the TVG ramp may reduce the error. The delay required for exact compensation depends upon the target range and is at least half the pulse length.

  8. Statistical method using operating room information system data to determine anesthetist weekend call requirements.

    PubMed

    Dexter, F; Macario, A; Traub, R D

    2000-02-01

    We present a statistical method that uses data from surgical services information systems to determine the minimum number of anesthetists to be scheduled for weekend call in an operating room suite. The staffing coverage is predicted that provides for sufficient anesthetists to cover each hour of a 24-hour weekend period, while satisfying a specified risk for being understaffed. The statistical method incorporates shifts of varying start times and durations, as well as historical weekend operating room caseload data. By using this method to schedule weekend staff, an anesthesia group can assure as few anesthetists are on call as possible, and for as few hours as possible, while maintaining the level of risk of understaffing that the anesthesia group is willing to accept. An anesthesia group also can use the method to calculate its risk of being understaffed in the surgical suite based on its existing weekend staffing plan. PMID:10876448

  9. Refilling and Composition at Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, R. E.; Takahashi, K.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Here we examine the apparent long-term refilling (change in density at a particular position over days) of electron density and mass density. At solar maximum, the changes in these quantities following a period of large geomagnetic activity can be very different. For instance, for events during 2001 we used both the ion density measured by the Los Alamos National Lab (LANL) Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MPA) instrument and mass density inferred from Alfven wave frequencies measured by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to show that the mass density varied comparatively little while the electron density dropped down to a low value and recovered slowly. During this event, the composition changed dramatically, from a high concentration of O+ very soon after large geomagnetic activity to a very low concentration of O+ after a long quiet period. This result suggests that at solar maximum O+ is quickly distributed to the region outside the plasmasphere sometimes called the warm plasma cloak while H+ refills this region much more slowly. Here we use a large database of mass density measurements based on Alfven waves observed by GOES to examine statistically the behavior of the mass density during periods of quiet following large geomagnetic activity and to see how this behavior varies over the solar cycle. We will compare with previous results for refilling of electron density.

  10. Oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae derived methyl esters containing varying levels of methyl eicosapentaenoate and methyl docosahexaenoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucy, Harrison

    Standards, which call for induction periods of at least three hours and six hours, respectively. Derived Cetane Number testing was conducted using a Waukesha FIT following the ASTM D7170 Method. Tests were conducted with synthetic algal oil blends manufactured from various sources to match the fatty acid compositions of several algae strains subjected to varying removal amounts of roughly 0 -- 100 percent LC-PUFA. In addition, tests were also conducted with real algal methyl esters produced from multiple sources. The bis-allylic position equivalent (BAPE) was calculated for each fuel sample to quantify the level of unsaturation. The induction period was then plotted as a function of BAPE, which showed that the oxidative stability varied exponentially with the amount of LC-PUFA. The results suggest that removal of 45 -- 65 percent of the LC-PUFA from Nannochloropsis-based algal methyl esters would be sufficient for meeting existing ASTM specifications for oxidative stability and 75 -- 85 percent removal would be needed to meet the EN specification. The oxidative stability additive tert-butylhydroquinone (THBQ) was found to increase Nannochloropsis-based algal methyl esters' oxidative stability to ASTM and EN specifications at only 0.03 percent and 0.06 percent additions by mass, respectively, when no LC-PUFA was removed. The ignition quality tests showed that the Derived Cetane Number varied linearly with BAPE and the algae formulations were found to pass the ASTM cetane specification of 47 only if all the LC-PUFA were removed.

  11. Spectrographic Analysis of Carrion Crow Calls and Their Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, Hisashi; Yokota, Yasunari

    In recent years, damage to agricultural products, livestock, and power transmission systems by crows is regarded as a serious problem; countermeasures against crow damage are urgently necessary. This paper proposed a method for detecting crow calls in various environmental sounds. If detection and discernment of crow calls were possible, various actions could be undertaken to prevent the damage. Wildlife call detection, not only that for crows, should be executed in extremely noisy environments. We then introduced both a spectrograph estimation technique with AR modeling in which AR coefficients are temporally smoothed and interpolated and a background noise elimination technique to obtain higher-quality crow call templates. The input sounds are compared with these templates by DP matching in the metric vector space of a logarithmic cepstrum. Every input sound whose minimal distance to the template database is less than the specified threshold value is detected as a crow call. The maximal detection performance can be obtained when five call templates in the template database are utilized; the implication is that carrion crows have five distinguishable call patterns. It is shown that the proposed method achieves 95% detection rate when 1.66% misdetection rate is allowed.

  12. Lar gibbon (Hylobates lar) great call reveals individual caller identity.

    PubMed

    Terleph, Thomas A; Malaivijitnond, S; Reichard, U H

    2015-07-01

    Gibbons (family Hylobatidae) produce loud, elaborate vocalizations (songs), often in well-coordinated male/female duets. The female's great call, the most conspicuous phrase of the gibbon vocal repertoire, functions primarily to mediate territorial defense. Despite the fact that lar gibbons (Hylobates lar) are the most widely distributed and well researched hylobatid species and produce a rich vocal repertoire, the individual-specificity of their great calls has not previously been quantified. In addition, spectral and temporal features of notes occurring at specific locations within the lar great call have not been described. Here we provide such a description, and test the hypothesis that great calls are statistically discriminable between a large sample of individual callers. We compared recordings of great calls from 14 wild lar females in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Our analyses of principal components derived from spectral and temporal measures, as well as spectrograms from the entire great call, indicate that acoustic variation is sufficient to allow identification of individual callers (83.5% discriminability based on principal components, and inter-individual call variation exceeding intra-individual variation in overall spectrogram). These vocalizations potentially allow individual recognition of animals. PMID:25800578

  13. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (<10 cm) tephra (17-20 species). Gravel rain (preexisting rock ejected by eruption initiation), gravel rain + pumice and flooded forests (fluvially reworked volcanic material entrained by heavy rains) were species-rich (25-42 species). In 2014, the blast and deep tephra had regained 2-3 times the number of lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to

  14. Thermal diffusivity measurements on composite porosity samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Winfree, William P.

    1990-01-01

    A phase lag technique is used to make quantitative measurements of diffusivity in composite porosity samples. Changes in through-ply diffusivity in a graphite composite due to varying porosity levels are examined. The relationship between the amount of porosity and the change in diffusivity is analyzed using an electrical analog for modeling heat flow in the composite.

  15. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    DOEpatents

    Gennett, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-04-22

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  16. St. Lawrence blue whale vocalizations revisited: characterization of calls detected from 1998 to 2001.

    PubMed

    Berchok, Catherine L; Bradley, David L; Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2006-10-01

    From 1998 to 2001, 115 h of acoustic recordings were made in the presence of the well-studied St. Lawrence population of blue whales, using a calibrated omnidirectional hydrophone [flat (+/- 3 dB) response from 5 to 800 Hz] suspended at 50 m depth from a surface isolation buoy. The primary field site for this study was the estuary region of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada), with most recordings made between mid-August and late October. During the recordings, detailed field notes were taken on all cetaceans within sight. Characterization of the more than 1000 blue whale calls detected during this study revealed that the St. Lawrence repertoire is much more extensive than previously reported. Three infrasonic (<20 Hz) and three audible range (30-200 Hz) call types were detected, with much time/frequency variation seen within each type. Further variation is seen in the form of call segmentation, which appears (through examination of Lloyd's Mirror interference effects) to be controlled at least partially by the whales. Although St. Lawrence blue whale call characteristics are similar to those of the North Atlantic, comparisons of phrase composition and spacing among studies suggest the possibility of population dialects within the North Atlantic. PMID:17069329

  17. Correlates of negative physical health in call center shift workers.

    PubMed

    Rameshbabu, Anjali; Reddy, Diane M; Fleming, Raymond

    2013-05-01

    The call center industry, a burgeoning sector is characterized by unique job demands, which render it susceptible to high attrition rates and negative health concerns. This study examined the relationship between job stress from interpersonal factors, job stress from work factors, coping, inadequate sleep, and negative physical health reports among call center shift workers (n = 239), a relatively under-researched population. Inadequate sleep and job stress from interpersonal factors were associated with negative physical health outcome for the participants in this study. Further, spending longer in the call center industry was associated with negative health outcome for the shift worker participants. PMID:23040668

  18. Rethinking Metaphor: Figurative Language and First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Peter Wayne

    2011-01-01

    A brief review of composition theory shows metaphor is often underused and misrepresented in the composition classroom. Approaches to teaching metaphor in composition courses do not go far enough in acknowledging the key role metaphor can play in argumentation, and very little composition theory heeds Andrea Lunsford's call to teach metaphor as…

  19. Energy Absorption in Chopped Carbon Fiber Compression Molded Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Starbuck, J.M.

    2001-07-20

    In passenger vehicles the ability to absorb energy due to impact and be survivable for the occupant is called the ''crashworthiness'' of the structure. To identify and quantify the energy absorbing mechanisms in candidate automotive composite materials, test methodologies were developed for conducting progressive crush tests on composite plate specimens. The test method development and experimental set-up focused on isolating the damage modes associated with the frond formation that occurs in dynamic testing of composite tubes. Quasi-static progressive crush tests were performed on composite plates manufactured from chopped carbon fiber with an epoxy resin system using compression molding techniques. The carbon fiber was Toray T700 and the epoxy resin was YLA RS-35. The effect of various material and test parameters on energy absorption was evaluated by varying the following parameters during testing: fiber volume fraction, fiber length, fiber tow size, specimen width, profile radius, and profile constraint condition. It was demonstrated during testing that the use of a roller constraint directed the crushing process and the load deflection curves were similar to progressive crushing of tubes. Of all the parameters evaluated, the fiber length appeared to be the most critical material parameter, with shorter fibers having a higher specific energy absorption than longer fibers. The combination of material parameters that yielded the highest energy absorbing material was identified.

  20. With whom to dine? Ravens' responses to food-associated calls depend on individual characteristics of the caller

    PubMed Central

    Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Wascher, Claudia A.F.; Spreafico, Michela; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Upon discovering food, common ravens, Corvus corax, produce far-reaching ‘haa’ calls or yells, which are individually distinct and signal food availability to conspecifics. Here, we investigated whether ravens respond differently to ‘haa’ calls of known and unknown individuals. In a paired playback design, we tested responses to ‘haa’ call sequences in a group containing individually marked free-ranging ravens. We simultaneously played call sequences of a male and a female raven in two different locations and varied familiarity (known or unknown to the local group). Ravens responded strongest to dyads containing familiar females, performing more scan flights above and by perching in trees near the respective speaker. Acoustic analysis of the calls used as stimuli showed no sex-, age- or familiarity-specific acoustic cues, but highly significant classification results at the individual level. Taken together, our findings indicate that ravens respond to individual characteristics in ‘haa’ calls, and choose whom to approach for feeding, i.e. join social allies and avoid dominant conspecifics. This is the first study to investigate responses to ‘haa’ calls under natural conditions in a wild population containing individually marked ravens. PMID:25598542

  1. Spatially Varying Spectrally Thresholds for MODIS Cloud Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, S. L.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Lafontaine, F.

    2004-01-01

    The EOS science team has developed an elaborate global MODIS cloud detection procedure, and the resulting MODIS product (MOD35) is used in the retrieval process of several geophysical parameters to mask out clouds. While the global application of the cloud detection approach appears quite robust, the product has some shortcomings on the regional scale, often over determining clouds in a variety of settings, particularly at night. This over-determination of clouds can cause a reduction in the spatial coverage of MODIS derived clear-sky products. To minimize this problem, a new regional cloud detection method for use with MODIS data has been developed at NASA's Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC). The approach is similar to that used by the GHCC for GOES data over the continental United States. Several spatially varying thresholds are applied to MODIS spectral data to produce a set of tests for detecting clouds. The thresholds are valid for each MODIS orbital pass, and are derived from 20-day composites of GOES channels with similar wavelengths to MODIS. This paper and accompanying poster will introduce the GHCC MODIS cloud mask, provide some examples, and present some preliminary validation.

  2. The Pope's encyclical as a call for democratic social change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Anabela

    2015-10-01

    The climate change encyclical represents a decisive democratic act. It calls on citizens to challenge dominant politics, power, and consumer culture in the name of tackling one of the world's great socio-environmental issues.

  3. Vocal complexity influences female responses to gelada male calls.

    PubMed

    Gustison, Morgan L; Bergman, Thore J

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that inter-sexual selection drives the evolution of complex vocal communication in birds, but parallel lines of evidence are almost entirely absent in mammals. This dearth of evidence, particularly among primates, limits our understanding of the link between sociality and vocal complexity. Here, we use a playback experiment to quantify how wild female geladas (Theropithecus gelada) respond to three call types that are 'derived' (i.e., unique to geladas) and made by males during various affiliative contexts. These derived calls appeared to be highly salient and preferable to females: they looked longer towards and spent more time in proximity to playbacks of male vocal sequences containing one of the derived calls than to sequences containing only common and less elaborate 'grunt' calls. Our results provide the first experimental evidence for vocal elaboration as a male-specific strategy to maintain social bonds with females in non-human primates. PMID:26790770

  4. 75 FR 30832 - National Biodefense Science Board; Call for Nominees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Biodefense Science Board; Call for Nominees AGENCY: Department of Health and... the National Biodefense Science Board. Six members have membership expiration dates of December 31... organizations representing other appropriate stakeholders. Submit a resume or curriculum vitae to...

  5. 16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNINGSTRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNING-STRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP HOUSE Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  7. FDA Calls for Less Salt in Processed Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159136.html FDA Calls for Less Salt in Processed Foods Agency sets short- and long- ... the food industry to cut back on the salt. In draft voluntary guidelines issued Wednesday, the agency ...

  8. Vocal complexity influences female responses to gelada male calls

    PubMed Central

    Gustison, Morgan L.; Bergman, Thore J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that inter-sexual selection drives the evolution of complex vocal communication in birds, but parallel lines of evidence are almost entirely absent in mammals. This dearth of evidence, particularly among primates, limits our understanding of the link between sociality and vocal complexity. Here, we use a playback experiment to quantify how wild female geladas (Theropithecus gelada) respond to three call types that are ‘derived’ (i.e., unique to geladas) and made by males during various affiliative contexts. These derived calls appeared to be highly salient and preferable to females: they looked longer towards and spent more time in proximity to playbacks of male vocal sequences containing one of the derived calls than to sequences containing only common and less elaborate ‘grunt’ calls. Our results provide the first experimental evidence for vocal elaboration as a male-specific strategy to maintain social bonds with females in non-human primates. PMID:26790770

  9. 9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.

    1971-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.

  11. From Checklist to Awareness: Hearing God's Call to Missions.

    PubMed

    Snead, Victoria; Moss, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    This student experience of international community health nursing in Cape Town, South Africa, illustrates the value of missions that provide health training and education to lay persons, and the calling of God to serve him through nursing. PMID:27295232

  12. Suzanne Newton's "I Will Call it Georgie's Blues".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Pat

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes Suzanne Newton's children's book, "I Will Call It Georgie's Blues." Includes discussion questions about the book, and a list of activities. Provides an annotated bibliography of fiction, picture books, nonfiction, and biography titles about jazz and jazz musicians. (AEF)

  13. FDA Calls for Less Salt in Processed Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... html FDA Calls for Less Salt in Processed Foods Agency sets short- and long-term goals in ... WEDNESDAY, June 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration wants the food industry to ...

  14. Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159168.html Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer ... THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With the Zika threat growing in the United States, people need ...

  15. Paying for call coverage: what you should know.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jen

    2009-07-01

    Hospitals are finding they must pay for call coverage because of physician's growing unwillingness to provide such coverage without compensation. In light of a July 2007 Office of Inspector General advisory opinion and federal regulations surrounding payments to physicians, it is critically important that call coverage arrangements be structured appropriately and at a fair market value (FMV) rate. Failure to set compensation at FMV could result in criminal and/or civil penalties based on healthcare fraud and abuse laws. PMID:19588817

  16. On-call emergency workload of a general surgical team

    PubMed Central

    Jawaid, Masood; Raza, Syed Muhammad; Alam, Shams Nadeem; Manzar, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: To examine the on-call emergency workload of a general surgical team at a tertiary care teaching hospital to guide planning and provision of better surgical services. Patients and Methods: During six months period from August to January 2007; all emergency calls attended by general surgical team of Surgical Unit II in Accident and Emergency department (A and E) and in other units of Civil, Hospital Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recorded. Data recorded includes timing of call, diagnosis, operation performed and outcome apart from demography. Results: Total 456 patients (326 males and 130 females) were attended by on-call general surgery team during 30 emergency days. Most of the calls, 191 (41.9%) were received from 8 am to 5 pm. 224 (49.1%) calls were of abdominal pain, with acute appendicitis being the most common specific pathology in 41 (9.0%) patients. Total 73 (16.0%) calls were received for trauma. Total 131 (28.7%) patients were admitted in the surgical unit for urgent operation or observation while 212 (46.5%) patients were discharged from A and E. 92 (20.1%) patients were referred to other units with medical referral accounts for 45 (9.8%) patients. Total 104 (22.8%) emergency surgeries were done and the most common procedure performed was appendicectomy in 34 (32.7%) patients. Conclusion: Major workload of on-call surgical emergency team is dealing with the acute conditions of abdomen. However, significant proportion of patients are suffering from other conditions including trauma that require a holistic approach to care and a wide range of skills and experience. These results have important implications in future healthcare planning and for the better training of general surgical residents. PMID:19561950

  17. Song Trait Similarity in Great Tits Varies with Social Structure

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Lysanne; van der Eijk, Jerine; van Rooij, Erica P.; de Goede, Piet; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc

    2015-01-01

    For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership) with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called “dear enemy” relations). Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major) in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping variation in

  18. Individual recognition during bouts of antiphonal calling in common marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cory T.; Thomas, A. Wren

    2013-01-01

    Many vocalizations are encoded with a diversity of acoustic information about the signal producer. Amongst this information content are social categories related to the identity of the caller that are important for determining if and how a signal receiver may interact with that individual. Here we employed a novel playback method in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to test individual recognition during bouts of antiphonal calling. These experiments utilized custom, interactive playback software that effectively engaged subjects in antiphonal calling using vocalizations produced by a single individual and presented ‘probe’ vocalization stimuli representing a different individual at specific points within bouts of calling. The aim here was to test whether marmosets would recognize that the probe stimulus was a phee call produced by a different individual. Data indicated that marmosets were able to detect the change in caller identity; subjects produced significantly fewer antiphonal call responses to probe than control stimuli and, in some conditions, exhibited a shorter latency to produce the vocal response. These data suggest that marmosets recognize the identity of the individual during bouts of antiphonal calling. Furthermore, these results provide a methodological foundation for implementing the probe playback procedure to examine a broader range of social categorization during vocal interactions. PMID:22277952

  19. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  20. Leveraging Call Center Logs for Customer Behavior Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvathy, Anju G.; Vasudevan, Bintu G.; Kumar, Abhishek; Balakrishnan, Rajesh

    Most major businesses use business process outsourcing for performing a process or a part of a process including financial services like mortgage processing, loan origination, finance and accounting and transaction processing. Call centers are used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests through outbound and inbound calls to customers on behalf of a business. In this paper we deal specifically with the call centers notes from banks. Banks as financial institutions provide loans to non-financial businesses and individuals. Their call centers act as the nuclei of their client service operations and log the transactions between the customer and the bank. This crucial conversation or information can be exploited for predicting a customer’s behavior which will in turn help these businesses to decide on the next action to be taken. Thus the banks save considerable time and effort in tracking delinquent customers to ensure minimum subsequent defaulters. Majority of the time the call center notes are very concise and brief and often the notes are misspelled and use many domain specific acronyms. In this paper we introduce a novel domain specific spelling correction algorithm which corrects the misspelled words in the call center logs to meaningful ones. We also discuss a procedure that builds the behavioral history sequences for the customers by categorizing the logs into one of the predefined behavioral states. We then describe a pattern based predictive algorithm that uses temporal behavioral patterns mined from these sequences to predict the customer’s next behavioral state.

  1. Fine control of call frequency by horseshoe bats.

    PubMed

    Smotherman, M; Metzner, W

    2003-06-01

    The auditory system of horseshoe bats is narrowly tuned to the sound of their own echoes. During flight these bats continuously adjust the frequency of their echolocation calls to compensate for Doppler-effects in the returning echo. Horseshoe bats can accurately compensate for changes in echo frequency up to 5 kHz, but they do so through a sequence of small, temporally-independent, step changes in call frequency. The relationship between an echo's frequency and its subsequent impact on the frequency of the very next call is fundamental to how Doppler-shift compensation behavior works. We analyzed how horseshoe bats control call frequency by measuring the changes occurring between many successive pairs of calls during Doppler-shift compensation and relating the magnitude of these changes to the frequency of each intervening echo. The results indicate that Doppler-shift compensation is mediated by a pair of (echo)frequency-specific sigmoidal functions characterized by a threshold, a slope, and an upper limit to the maximum change in frequency that may occur between successive calls. The exact values of these parameters necessarily reflect properties of the underlying neural circuitry of Doppler-shift compensation and the motor control of vocalization, and provide insight into how neural feedback can accommodate the need for speed without sacrificing stability. PMID:12761645

  2. Perceptual specificity in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Kiriazis, Judith; Slobodchikoff, C N

    2006-07-01

    Gunnison's prairie dogs have a complex alarm communication system. We show that the escape responses of prairie dogs to naturally occurring live predators differed depending upon the species of predator. We also show that playbacks of alarm calls that were elicited originally by the live predators produced the same escape responses as the live predators themselves. The escape responses fell into two qualitatively different categories: running to the burrow and diving inside for hawks and humans, and standing upright outside the burrow for coyotes and dogs. Within these two categories there were differences in response. For hawks, only the prairie dogs that were in the direct flight path of a stooping red-tailed hawk ran to their burrows and dove inside, while for humans and human alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and diving inside. For coyotes and coyote alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and standing alert at the burrow rims, while for domestic dogs and playbacks of alarm calls for domestic dogs the prairie dogs assumed an alert posture wherever they were feeding, but did not run to their burrows. These responses to both the live predators and to predator-elicited alarm calls suggest that the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs contain meaningful referential information about the categories of predators that approach a colony of prairie dogs. PMID:16529880

  3. Seasonal and diurnal calling patterns of Ross and leopards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Tracey L.; Rowney, Gayle A.; Ciaglia, Michaela B.; Cato, Douglas H.

    2005-09-01

    The temporal calling patterns of two Antarctic pack ice seals, the leopard and Ross seal, were examined. This included seasonal onset and decline of calling (coinciding with their breeding season) as well as diurnal changes. Understanding of calling behavior has important implications for acoustic surveying, since this allows the number of calls to be related to an index of the number of animals present and to estimate abundance. The monthly changes in diurnal calling and haul-out patterns (measured via satellite telemetry) were compared. Underwater acoustic recordings were made between 14 October 2003 and 10 January 2004 off Mawson, Eastern Antarctica (660 44.243S and 690 48.748E). Recordings were made using an Acoustics Recording Package (ARP by Dr. John Hildebrand, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA) which is designed to sit on the seafloor and passively record acoustic signals. The package was deployed at a depth of 1320.7 m. The sampling rate was 500 Hz and the effective bandwidth from 10 to 250 Hz, covering the bandwidth of only the low-frequency calls of the Ross and leopard seal.

  4. Reproducibility of Variant Calls in Replicate Next Generation Sequencing Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yuan; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Chang-gong; Wang, Bailing; Hess, Kenneth R.; Symmans, W. Fraser; Shi, Weiwei; Pusztai, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide alterations detected by next generation sequencing are not always true biological changes but could represent sequencing errors. Even highly accurate methods can yield substantial error rates when applied to millions of nucleotides. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of nucleotide variant calls in replicate sequencing experiments of the same genomic DNA. We performed targeted sequencing of all known human protein kinase genes (kinome) (~3.2 Mb) using the SOLiD v4 platform. Seventeen breast cancer samples were sequenced in duplicate (n=14) or triplicate (n=3) to assess concordance of all calls and single nucleotide variant (SNV) calls. The concordance rates over the entire sequenced region were >99.99%, while the concordance rates for SNVs were 54.3-75.5%. There was substantial variation in basic sequencing metrics from experiment to experiment. The type of nucleotide substitution and genomic location of the variant had little impact on concordance but concordance increased with coverage level, variant allele count (VAC), variant allele frequency (VAF), variant allele quality and p-value of SNV-call. The most important determinants of concordance were VAC and VAF. Even using the highest stringency of QC metrics the reproducibility of SNV calls was around 80% suggesting that erroneous variant calling can be as high as 20-40% in a single experiment. The sequence data have been deposited into the European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA) with accession number EGAS00001000826. PMID:26136146

  5. Ultrasonic frogs show hyperacute phonotaxis to female courtship calls.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun-Xian; Feng, Albert S; Xu, Zhi-Min; Yu, Zu-Lin; Arch, Victoria S; Yu, Xin-Jian; Narins, Peter M

    2008-06-12

    Sound communication plays a vital role in frog reproduction, in which vocal advertisement is generally the domain of males. Females are typically silent, but in a few anuran species they can produce a feeble reciprocal call or rapping sounds during courtship. Males of concave-eared torrent frogs (Odorrana tormota) have demonstrated ultrasonic communication capacity. Although females of O. tormota have an unusually well-developed vocal production system, it is unclear whether or not they produce calls or are only passive partners in a communication system dominated by males. Here we show that before ovulation, gravid females of O. tormota emit calls that are distinct from males' advertisement calls, having higher fundamental frequencies and harmonics and shorter call duration. In the field and in a quiet, darkened indoor arena, these female calls evoke vocalizations and extraordinarily precise positive phonotaxis (a localization error of <1 degrees ), rivalling that of vertebrates with the highest localization acuity (barn owls, dolphins, elephants and humans). The localization accuracy of O. tormota is remarkable in light of their small head size (interaural distance of <1 cm), and suggests an additional selective advantage of high-frequency hearing beyond the ability to avoid masking by low-frequency background noise. PMID:18469804

  6. Element stoichiometry of a mixotrophic protist grown under varying resource conditions.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowski, Thomas H; Lukomski, Natalie C; Grover, James P

    2010-01-01

    The balance of essential elements (e.g. carbon [C], nitrogen [N], and phosphorus [P]) between consumers and their resources influences not only the growth and reproduction of the consumers but also the nutrients they regenerate. Flagellate protists are significant predators of aquatic bacteria and directly influence nutrient flow to higher trophic levels and, through excretion, influence the mineral element composition of dissolved nutrients. Because the element stoichiometry of protists is poorly characterized, we varied the resource composition of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and used it to grow the mixotrophic bacterivorous flagellate Ochromonas danica. Using a mass balance approach, the element composition of O. danica was found to vary depending upon the nutrient composition of the prey and ranged between 482:36:1 and 80:12:1 (C:N:P molar). Homeostasis plots suggested that flagellate protists weakly regulate their element composition and are likely to regenerate different elements depending upon the nature of the element limiting growth of their prey. PMID:20561118

  7. Genetic divergence is more tightly related to call variation than landscape features in the Amazonian frogs Physalaemus petersi and P. freibergi.

    PubMed

    Funk, W C; Cannatella, D C; Ryan, M J

    2009-09-01

    Behavioural isolation from divergence in male advertisement calls and female preferences is hypothesized to cause genetic divergence and speciation in the Amazonian frogs Physalaemus petersi and P. freibergi, yet the importance of call variation and landscape features in genetic divergence is unresolved. We tested for correlations between genetic divergence at microsatellite loci and (1) call variables; and (2) landscape variables among 10 populations of these frogs. Genetic divergence was not correlated with geographical distance, rivers or elevation. There was a strong positive relationship, however, between genetic divergence and inter-population differences in one call variable, whine dominant frequency. Effective population sizes varied among sites (range = 15-846) and were often small, suggesting that genetic drift could influence call evolution. Evidence for fine-scale genetic structure within sites was also found. Our results support the hypothesis that behavioural isolation from divergence in male calls and female preferences causes genetic divergence and speciation. PMID:19583696

  8. Consumer concerns about paracetamol: a retrospective analysis of a medicines call centre

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Stephanie M; McGuire, Treasure M; van Driel, Mieke L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify consumer information needs about paracetamol, the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic worldwide. Design Retrospective analysis of medicines questions from the public. Setting Australian consumer medicines call centre. Participants Callers to National Prescribing Service Medicines Line between September 2002 and June 2010 (n=123 217). Main outcome measures Enquiry profile: demographics, enquiry type and concurrent medicines included in paracetamol calls; question themes derived from subset of call narratives. Results Paracetamol comprised part of the enquiry in 5.2% of calls (n=6367). The caller age distribution for paracetamol calls was skewed towards a younger cohort, with 45.2% made by those aged 25–44 vs 37.5% in ‘rest of calls’. Significantly more paracetamol-related calls were made for a child (23.7%) compared with ‘rest of calls’ (12.7%, p<0.001). The most frequent concurrently asked about medicines were codeine (11%, n=1521) and ibuprofen (6.4%, n=884). Questions underpinned by paracetamol risk (interaction, use in pregnancy/lactation or other safety concerns) predominated (55.8%). When individual paracetamol enquiry types were compared with ‘rest of calls’, efficacy was most frequent (24.9% vs 22.8%); however, interaction (21.5% vs 14.8%), administration (15.5% vs 11%) and pregnancy/lactation (13.8% vs 8.3%) categories were more prevalent for paracetamol calls (all p<0.001). Enquiry type frequency also varied by patient age group, with questions about administration more common in younger groups and efficacy dominating in those over 45. Narrative analysis of over-represented paracetamol enquiry types showed specific concerns relevant to life stages: young children, those of reproductive age and the elderly. Conclusions Consumers have many concerns about the use of paracetamol that may be under-recognised by healthcare providers, with the nature of enquiries differing across life stages. These concerns are not

  9. Essays and Addresses on Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Geoffrey, Ed.

    The following book on composition in the elementary school grows out of the activities of the Tri-University Project (now called the Nebraska TTT Institute in Elementary Education). The project is concerned with improving the education of young children by working to improve the education of the teachers in Higher Education who educate the…

  10. The So-Called 'Face on Mars' in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 24 July 2002) This set of THEMIS infrared images shows the so-called 'face on Mars' landform located in the northern plains of Mars near 40o N, 10o W (350 o E). The 'face' is located near the center of the image approximately 1/6 of the way down from the top, and is one of a large number of knobs, mesas, hills, and buttes that are visible in this THEMIS image. The THEMIS infrared camera has ten different filters between 6.2 and 15 micrometers - nine view the surface and one views the CO2 atmosphere. The calibrated and geometrically projected data from all of the nine surface-viewing filters are shown in this figure. The major differences seen in this region are due to temperature effects -- sunlit slopes are warm (bright), whereas those in shadow are cold (dark), The temperature in this scene ranges from 50 oC (darkest) to 15 oC (brightest). The major differences between the different filters are due to the expected variation in the amount of energy emitted from the surface at different wavelengths. Minor spectral differences (infrared 'color') also exist between the different filters, but these differences are small in this region due to the uniform composition of the rocks and soils exposed at the surface. The THEMIS infrared camera provides an excellent regional view of Mars - this image covers an area 32 kilometers (20 miles) by approximately 200 kilometers (125 miles) at a resolution of 100 meters per picture element ('pixel'). This image provides a broad perspective of the landscape and geology of the Cydonia region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. In this 'big picture' view the Cydonia region is seen to be covered with dozens of interesting knobs and mesas that are similar in many ways to the knob named the 'face' - so many in fact that it requires care to discover the 'face' among this jumble of knobs and hills. The 3-km

  11. Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10, 2012 Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity When pregnant women use alcohol, tobacco, ... indicate that substance use during pregnancy varies by race and ethnicity and suggest that health care providers ...

  12. Voice over internet protocol with prepaid calling card solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunadi, Tri

    2001-07-01

    The VoIP technology is growing up rapidly, it has big network impact on PT Telkom Indonesia, the bigger telecommunication operator in Indonesia. Telkom has adopted VoIP and one other technology, Intelligent Network (IN). We develop those technologies together in one service product, called Internet Prepaid Calling Card (IPCC). IPCC is becoming new breakthrough for the Indonesia telecommunication services especially on VoIP and Prepaid Calling Card solutions. Network architecture of Indonesia telecommunication consists of three layer, Local, Tandem and Trunck Exchange layer. Network development researches for IPCC architecture are focus on network overlay hierarchy, Internet and PSTN. With this design hierarchy the goal of Interworking PSTN, VoIP and IN calling card, become reality. Overlay design for IPCC is not on Trunck Exchange, this is the new architecture, these overlay on Tandem and Local Exchange, to make the faster call processing. The nodes added: Gateway (GW) and Card Management Center (CMC) The GW do interfacing between PSTN and Internet Network used ISDN-PRA and Ethernet. The other functions are making bridge on circuit (PSTN) with packet (VoIP) based and real time billing process. The CMC used for data storage, pin validation, report activation, tariff system, directory number and all the administration transaction. With two nodes added the IPCC service offered to the market.

  13. Isosurface Extraction in Time-Varying Fields Using a Temporal Hierarchical Index Tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Han-Wei; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Many high-performance isosurface extraction algorithms have been proposed in the past several years as a result of intensive research efforts. When applying these algorithms to large-scale time-varying fields, the storage overhead incurred from storing the search index often becomes overwhelming. this paper proposes an algorithm for locating isosurface cells in time-varying fields. We devise a new data structure, called Temporal Hierarchical Index Tree, which utilizes the temporal coherence that exists in a time-varying field and adoptively coalesces the cells' extreme values over time; the resulting extreme values are then used to create the isosurface cell search index. For a typical time-varying scalar data set, not only does this temporal hierarchical index tree require much less storage space, but also the amount of I/O required to access the indices from the disk at different time steps is substantially reduced. We illustrate the utility and speed of our algorithm with data from several large-scale time-varying CID simulations. Our algorithm can achieve more than 80% of disk-space savings when compared with the existing techniques, while the isosurface extraction time is nearly optimal.

  14. CIT in Context: The Impact of Mental Health Resource Availability and District Saturation on Call Dispositions

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Amy C; Ottati, Victor C.; Draine, Jeff; Morabito, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The goals of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) programs include improving safety during encounters between police and persons with mental illnesses, diverting persons with mental illnesses away from the criminal justice system, and increasing referral and access to mental health services. CIT is a systemic intervention, and as such, its implementation and effectiveness are influenced by existing practices and infrastructures. However, little research has considered the context in which CIT programs are implemented. In this paper, we present research on CIT in four Chicago police districts that vary in terms of two contextual factors hypothesized to influence the impact of CIT training on how calls involving persons with mental illnesses are resolved. Using data from 112 patrol officers in four Chicago police districts, we consider the impact of mental health services availability and CIT saturation (the percentage of district personnel that are CIT certified). Findings indicate that CIT training increased direction to mental health services primarily in districts with greater availability of mental health services. In districts with low service availability, higher CIT saturation increased direction to mental services. The opposite pattern emerged for contact only or informal call resolution. No effects were found for arrest as a call outcome. PMID:21820177

  15. Language XX: What shall it be called and why does it matter?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nickola Wolf

    2016-06-01

    Terms suggested for unexpected language learning difficulty include specific language impairment, primary language disorder and language learning disability; however, none of them represents the critical element of literacy. Some experts have suggested that debating what to call language disorders is parallel to debating what to call reading disorders and dyslexia. In contrast, it is argued here that reading disorders are language disorders and not separate or parallel. Evidence is presented for quadrant models that explain language disorders and dyslexia along two dimensions-sound/word level (phonological) knowledge and sentence/discourse level (non-phonological) knowledge. Support for these two dimensions comes from factor analysis of a new assessment tool called the Test of Integrated Language and Literacy Skills (TILLS). Two case studies illustrate how a quadrant model can be used to explain patterns of abilities that vary along these two dimensions to parents and teachers. The article concludes with a recommendation to adopt a label that reflects language/literacy commonalities rather than differences, such as language/literacy disorder or specific language/literacy impairment. PMID:27110684

  16. Site specific probability of passive acoustic detection of humpback whale calls from single fixed hydrophones.

    PubMed

    Helble, Tyler A; D'Spain, Gerald L; Hildebrand, John A; Campbell, Gregory S; Campbell, Richard L; Heaney, Kevin D

    2013-09-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring of marine mammal calls is an increasingly important method for assessing population numbers, distribution, and behavior. A common mistake in the analysis of marine mammal acoustic data is formulating conclusions about these animals without first understanding how environmental properties such as bathymetry, sediment properties, water column sound speed, and ocean acoustic noise influence the detection and character of vocalizations in the acoustic data. The approach in this paper is to use Monte Carlo simulations with a full wave field acoustic propagation model to characterize the site specific probability of detection of six types of humpback whale calls at three passive acoustic monitoring locations off the California coast. Results show that the probability of detection can vary by factors greater than ten when comparing detections across locations, or comparing detections at the same location over time, due to environmental effects. Effects of uncertainties in the inputs to the propagation model are also quantified, and the model accuracy is assessed by comparing calling statistics amassed from 24,690 humpback units recorded in the month of October 2008. Under certain conditions, the probability of detection can be estimated with uncertainties sufficiently small to allow for accurate density estimates. PMID:23968053

  17. Empirical mode decomposition as a time-varying multirate signal processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yanli

    2016-08-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) can adaptively split composite signals into narrow subbands termed intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Although an analytical expression of IMFs extracted by EMD from signals is introduced in Yang et al. (2013) [1], it is only used for the case of extrema spaced uniformly. In this paper, the EMD algorithm is analyzed from digital signal processing perspective for the case of extrema spaced nonuniformly. Firstly, the extrema extraction is represented by a time-varying extrema decimator. The nonuniform extrema extraction is analyzed through modeling the time-varying extrema decimation at a fixed time point as a time-invariant decimation. Secondly, by using the impulse/summation approach, spline interpolation for knots spaced nonuniformly is shown as two basic operations, time-varying interpolation and filtering by a time-varying spline filter. Thirdly, envelopes of signals are written as the output of the time-varying spline filter. An expression of envelopes of signals in both time and frequency domain is presented. The EMD algorithm is then described as a time-varying multirate signal processing system. Finally, an equation to model IMFs is derived by using a matrix formulation in time domain for the general case of extrema spaced nonuniformly.

  18. Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rewoldt

    2003-09-08

    The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results.

  19. Nitrogen fertility and irrigation effects on cottonseed composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed products have become a valuable secondary revenue source for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) producers, but how production practices impact cottonseed composition is not clear. This research evaluated how cottonseed composition was altered by varying irrigation and nitrogen fertilization ...

  20. CCall--healthy and successful work in call centres.

    PubMed

    Benninghoven, Alfred; Bindzius, Fritz; Braun, Detlef; Cramer, Jutta; Ellegast, Rolf; Flowerday, Udo; Genz, Andreas; von der Heyden, Thomas; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang; Schittly, Dagmar; Schweer, Ralf; Stamm, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Call centre workplaces are in many ways a challenge to occupational health and safety. The occupation itself can be described as an IT information technology-supported, communication-intensive form of work with often unusual working hours and a high rate of part-time employment. Data on the employee turnover as well as absenteeism related to occupational disability is quite contradictory. Occupational safety and its proponents still have to find new ways into the corporate structures and cultures of this relatively new and rapidly growing branch of industry. In a 2-year research and development project, using a holistic approach and under consideration of all the relevant disciplines, call centre workplaces were studied, and organisational measures were developed and field tested by putting them into practice. Practical help was developed for a sustainable strategy for successful and healthy work in call centres. PMID:16329784