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1

Syllable acoustics, temporal patterns, and call composition vary with behavioral context in Mexican free-tailed bats  

E-print Network

Syllable acoustics, temporal patterns, and call composition vary with behavioral context in Mexican has shown that some bat species have rich vocal repertoires with diverse syllable acoustics. Few repertoire of Mexican free-tailed bats, T. brasiliensis, is presented. Syllable acoustics and temporal

Bohn, Kirsten

2

Receivers respond differently to chick-a-dee calls varying in note composition in Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chick-a-dee call of the avian genus Poecile is a structurally complex vocal system because it possesses a set of simple rules that governs how the notes of the call are ordered, and variable numbers of each of the note types strung together can generate an extraordinary number of unique calls. Whereas it has been hypothesized that chick-a-dee calls with

TODD M. FREEBERG; JEFFREY R. LUCAS

2002-01-01

3

Titi monkey call sequences vary with predator location and type  

PubMed Central

Animal alarm calls can encode information about a predator's category, size, distance or threat level. In non-human primates, alarm calls typically refer to broad classes of disturbances, in some instances to specific predators. Here, we present the results of a field experiment with a New World primate, the black-fronted titi monkey (Callicebus nigrifrons), designed to explore the information conveyed by their alarm call system. Adults produced sequences consisting of two main alarm call types that conveyed, in different parts of the utterance, information about a predator's type and location. In particular, sequence compositions differed depending on whether the predator was a mammalian carnivore or a raptor, and whether it was detected in a tree or on the ground. This is the first demonstration of a sequence-based alarm call system in a non-human animal that has the capacity to encode both location and type of predatory threat. PMID:24004492

Cäsar, Cristiane; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Young, Robert J.; Byrne, Richard W.

2013-01-01

4

Composite laminates with spatially varying fiber orientations - 'Variable stiffness panel concept'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solution has been obtained to the plane elasticity problem for a symmetrically laminated composite panel with spatially varying fiber orientations. Since variation of the fiber angles along the length of a composite laminate results in stiffness properties that change as a function of location, the laminates are called variable stiffness panels. An analysis of the stiffness variation and its effect on the elastic response of the panel is presented here. A numerical solution has been obtained using an iterative collocation technique. Corresponding closed-form solutions are given for three different sets of boundary conditions. Two of the cases considered have exact solutions and thus serve to validate the numerical model.

Guerdal, Zafer; Olmedo, Reynaldo

1992-01-01

5

Axisymmetric vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness  

SciTech Connect

An exact solution procedure is presented for solving axisymmetric free vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness. Based on the classical lamination theory neglecting shear deformation and rotary inertia, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply conical shells. Numerical studies are made for conical shells having both ends clamped to show the effects of the number of laminae, stacking sequences and other parameters upon the frequencies.

Shikanai, G.; Suzuki, K. [Yamagata Univ., Yonezawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kojima, M. [NEC Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

1995-11-01

6

The acoustic structure of suricates' alarm calls varies with predator type and the level of response urgency.  

PubMed Central

The variation in the acoustic structure of alarm calls appears to convey information about the level of response urgency in some species, while in others it seems to denote the type of predator. While theoretical models and studies on species with functionally referential calls have emphasized that any animal signal considered to have an external referent also includes motivational content, to our knowledge, no empirical study has been able to show this. In this paper, I present an example of a graded alarm call system that combines referential information and also information on the level of urgency. Acoustically different alarm calls in the social mongoose Suricata suricatta are given in response to different predator types, but their call structure also varies depending on the level of urgency. Low urgency calls tend to be harmonic across all predator types, while high urgency calls are noisier. There was less evidence for consistency in the acoustic parameters assigned to particular predator types across different levels of urgency. This suggests that, while suricates convey information about the level of urgency along a general rule, the referential information about each category of predator type is not encoded in an obvious way. PMID:11703871

Manser, M. B.

2001-01-01

7

A varying threshold method for ChIP peak-calling using multiple sources of information  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Gene regulation commonly involves interaction among DNA, proteins and biochemical conditions. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technologies, protein–DNA interactions are routinely detected in the genome scale. Computational methods that detect weak protein-binding signals and simultaneously maintain a high specificity yet remain to be challenging. An attractive approach is to incorporate biologically relevant data, such as protein co-occupancy, to improve the power of protein-binding detection. We call the additional data related with the target protein binding as supporting tracks. Results: We propose a novel but rigorous statistical method to identify protein occupancy in ChIP data using multiple supporting tracks (PASS2). We demonstrate that utilizing biologically related information can significantly increase the discovery of true protein-binding sites, while still maintaining a desired level of false positive calls. Applying the method to GATA1 restoration in mouse erythroid cell line, we detected many new GATA1-binding sites using GATA1 co-occupancy data. Availability: http://stat.psu.edu/?yuzhang/pass2.tar Contact: yuzhang@stat.psu.edu PMID:20823314

Chen, Kuan-Bei; Zhang, Yu

2010-01-01

8

Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call

Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

2012-01-01

9

Osteoblast response to dimethacrylate composites varying in composition, conversion and roughness using a combinatorial approach  

PubMed Central

Dimethacrylate polymers and composites are seeing increased usage in orthopedics. As these applications require the material to integrate with the surrounding tissues, direct contact cytotoxicity assays should be used to assess the biocompatibility. This study utilized a combinatorial testing platform to evaluate the cell response to dimethacrylate composites with a variety of properties on a single sample. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured directly on composites with varying filler content, filler type, degree of conversion (DC), and surface topography. Cell viability, density, and area depended on an interplay of the material properties, with low DC causing a reduction in cell area but having minimal effect on cell viability, high filler content causing an increase in cell density, and filler content/type altering the surface roughness as a function of DC. The combinatorial testing platform successfully quantified the effects of numerous material properties on several aspects of the osteoblast response. PMID:19520423

Lin-Gibson, Sheng

2009-01-01

10

Wear of nanofilled dental composites at varying filler concentrations.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of nanofiller concentration on the mechanisms of wear of a dental composite. Nanofilled composites were fabricated with a bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate polymer and 40 nm SiO2 filler particles at three filler loads (25, 50, and 65 wt %). The elastic modulus, flexural strength, and hardness of the composites and the unfilled resin were measured. The materials (n?=?8) were tested in the modified wear testing device at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 cycles with 20N force at 1 Hz. A 33% glycerine lubricant and stainless steel antagonist were used. The worn composite and antagonist surfaces were analyzed with noncontact profilometry and SEM. The volumetric wear data indicated that there are significant differences between filler concentrations and cycles (p?composites. Increasing filler content increased hardness and modulus and increased flexural strength up to 50% fill. SEM evaluation of the worn specimens indicated that the resin and 25% filled materials exhibited cracking and failed by fatigue and the 50 and 65% filled materials exhibited microcutting and failed by abrasive wear. Based on the results of this study, composite manufacturers are recommended to use a filler concentration between 25 and 50% when using nanosized filler particles. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 103B: 424-429, 2015. PMID:24909664

Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

2015-02-01

11

Female reciprocal calling in the Iberian midwife toad ( Alytes cisternasii) varies with male call rate and dominant frequency: implications for sexual selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Male midwife toads ( Alytes cisternasii) responded differently depending on the call frequency and call rate of other males. I tested female Iberian midwife toads with the same set of stimuli used earlier with males. Females responded faster to high call rates, and female vocal activity was greater in response to low-frequency male calls. Thus, in both sexes, the vocal response differs in the same direction according to signal frequency variation, but the magnitude of the response is greater in males than in females. In the light of these results, I discuss the implications for sexual selection of this reciprocal calling.

Bosch, Jaime

2001-10-01

12

The effect of schedules of reinforcement on the composition of spontaneous and evoked black-capped chickadee calls.  

PubMed

Songbirds often modify elements of their songs or calls in particular social situations (e.g. song matching, flock convergence, etc.) but whether adult individuals also make vocal modifications in response to abiotic environmental factors (e.g. food availability) is relatively unknown. In the present study we test whether two different schedules of food reinforcement, fixed ratio continuous reinforcement and variable ratio partial reinforcement, cause adult black-capped chickadees to change the structure of their chick-a-dee calls. We also examine how these calls differ in two contexts: being alone versus when experiencing an alarming event. Wild-caught black-capped chickadees were housed in isolation to prevent social interaction and recorded weekly for seven weeks. Baseline recordings on week one show that calls given alone differed from those given during an alarming event in both note type composition and frequency (i.e. pitch). Calls also changed over time between birds on the two different schedules of reinforcement. In addition, birds on different reinforcement schedules responded differently during the two recording conditions. Our results suggest that call characteristics can be modified rapidly and may reflect abiotic environmental conditions. If call structure varies consistently with particular abiotic environmental conditions, much can be gained from bioacoustic analyses of calls from wild birds. However, vocal patterns must be consistent across dialects, and we must disentangle vocal changes due to the abiotic environment from those due to social interaction. Further research is needed from natural populations and across multiple regions. PMID:19717685

Proppe, Darren S; Sturdy, Christopher B

2009-09-15

13

Does Mallard clutch size vary with landscape composition?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied Mallards (Arias platyrhynchos) nesting in artificial nesting structures in northeastern North Dakota and compared clutch size between landscapes where proportion of cropland was either high (mean = 68.9%, cropland landscapes) or low (mean = 30.2%, grassland landscapes). Mallard clutch size was significantly related to nest initiation date and landscape composition. Mean clutch size, controlled for nest initiation date, was 1.24 ?? 0.33 SE eggs smaller on cropland landscapes than on grassland landscapes. Generality of this pattern across space, time, and type of nesting sites is unknown, as is causation. Demographic importance of variation in clutch size may be influenced by covariation with other demographic variables, such as nest success and abundance of breeding pairs, which also are negatively correlated with landscape proportion of cropland. We suggest that researchers examine relationships between clutch size and landscape composition in both structure-nesting and ground-nesting Mallards, in other geographic areas, and in other duck species.

Ball, I.J.; Artmann, M.J.; Hoekman, S.T.

2002-01-01

14

Object oriented model for composite reliability evaluation including time varying load and wind generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a flexible object-oriented computational model for composite systems reliability evaluation based on Sequential and Non-Sequential Monte Carlo Simulation. The main focus of the model is in the representation of time varying components, such as the wind generation and the load. The modeling flexibility enables the representation of complex network components and the comparison of indices obtained by

Júlio Alberto Silva Dias; C. L. Tancredo Borges

2010-01-01

15

Non destructive evaluation of adhesively bonded carbon fiber reinforced composite lap joints with varied bond quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural adhesive bonding is widely used to execute assemblies in automobile and aerospace structures. The quality and reliability of these bonded joints must be ensured during service. In this context non destructive evaluation of these bonded structures play an important role. Evaluation of adhesively bonded composite single lap shear joints has been attempted through experimental approach. Series of tests, non-destructive as well as destructive were performed on different sets of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite lap joint specimens with varied bond quality. Details of the experimental investigations carried out and the outcome are presented in this paper.

Vijayakumar, R. L.; Bhat, M. R.; Murthy, C. R. L.

2012-05-01

16

Lamb-wave-based feature extraction of damage in a stiffened composite panel under varying temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a methodology for determining the existence of delaminations in complex composite structures. The changes in damage features due to changing temperature are investigated. A Lamb wave based active damage detection technique is used. The Matching Pursuit Decomposition (MPD), a time frequency based signal processing technique, is used for feature extraction. The signals from two different test structures, a healthy specimen and a specimen with seeded delamination, are compared to incorporate the effect of manufacturing variability. Tests are conducted under varying ambient temperature. The results obtained validate the effectiveness of this approach in detecting delamination.

Vizzini, Anthony J., II; Chattopadhyay, Aditi

2012-04-01

17

Identification and characterization of transcript polymorphisms in soybean lines varying in oil composition and content  

PubMed Central

Background Variation in seed oil composition and content among soybean varieties is largely attributed to differences in transcript sequences and/or transcript accumulation of oil production related genes in seeds. Discovery and analysis of sequence and expression variations in these genes will accelerate soybean oil quality improvement. Results In an effort to identify these variations, we sequenced the transcriptomes of soybean seeds from nine lines varying in oil composition and/or total oil content. Our results showed that 69,338 distinct transcripts from 32,885 annotated genes were expressed in seeds. A total of 8,037 transcript expression polymorphisms and 50,485 transcript sequence polymorphisms (48,792 SNPs and 1,693 small Indels) were identified among the lines. Effects of the transcript polymorphisms on their encoded protein sequences and functions were predicted. The studies also provided independent evidence that the lack of FAD2-1A gene activity and a non-synonymous SNP in the coding sequence of FAB2C caused elevated oleic acid and stearic acid levels in soybean lines M23 and FAM94-41, respectively. Conclusions As a proof-of-concept, we developed an integrated RNA-seq and bioinformatics approach to identify and functionally annotate transcript polymorphisms, and demonstrated its high effectiveness for discovery of genetic and transcript variations that result in altered oil quality traits. The collection of transcript polymorphisms coupled with their predicted functional effects will be a valuable asset for further discovery of genes, gene variants, and functional markers to improve soybean oil quality. PMID:24755115

2014-01-01

18

Effect of varying fluid composition on mass and energy transport in the Earth's crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of fluids flowing through a given volume of crustal rock to affect mass and energy transfer is controlled by the physical and chemical nature of the fluid. Most numerical simulations of fluid-flow and fluid-rock interaction approximate the mass and energy transfer characteristics of crustal fluids using the physical, thermodynamic and transport properties of H2O. Results of fluid inclusion studies indicate that H2O is, in fact, the dominant component of fluids from most shallow to intermediate depth crustal environments, with other components usually present in varying amounts. In many crustal environments, properties of the fluids are adequately represented by those of the system H2O-CO2-NaCl.In the pure H2O system, mass and energy transport properties reach extrema and become very sensitive to small variations in temperature or pressure in a restricted region of P-T space near the critical point. This “critical region” migrates to higher and lower temperatures as NaCl or CO2, respectively, are added to water, and mass and energy transport properties become less sensitive to temperature or pressure variations when either NaCl or CO2 are added to water.The effect of fluid composition on mass transfer is illustrated by the system SiO2-H2O-NaCl. The SiO2-H2O sub-system is characterized by a solubility maximum, or region of retrograde solubility, at temperatures and pressures slightly above the critical point of water. Addition of NaCl increases the solubility of silica and shifts the quartz solubility maximum to higher temperatures and pressures relative to pure H2O.

Bodnar, R. J.; Costain, J. K.

19

Stream sediment flux responses to varied permafrost carbon composition in the Siberian Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic systems are warming at a faster rate than lower latitudes, which is leading to significant changes in soil dynamics including deeper seasonal thaw and permafrost degradation. Deeper thaw may cause previously unprocessed and potentially more bioavailable organic carbon to be released for transport to stream networks. Arctic streams receiving this material may act as avenues for carbon export and/or processors of this material. The role that stream beds play in microbial processing of terrigenous material is poorly understood. Stream microbial response to newly thawed organic matter is important in predicting the fate of ancient carbon. Our study focused on microbial activity, measured as CO2 and CH4 flux, from stream sediments in response to inputs of carbon from ancient permafrost and modern soil horizons. To simulate the responses of stream sediment microbial communities, we incubated three distinct benthic sediment types from a small stream in the Kolyma River watershed (Siberia) with leachates from either active layer or yedoma permafrost soils that varied in carbon composition. Flux of CO2 differed strongly between sediment types, with highest respiration rates measured in sediments taken from a tussock grass dominated wetland, intermediate rates were seen in sediments underlying a pool in the stream channel, and low rates in rocky sediments from a small riffle. CH4 was only produced in grass wetland sediments. The initial rate of CH4 production was highest in the incubations receiving permafrost leachate, suggesting that input of labile carbon from thawing permafrost may increase the contribution of stream sediment processes to greenhouse gas production from high latitude streams.

Sather, K. L.; Connolly, C. T.; Mann, P.; Schade, J. D.

2013-12-01

20

Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer.

Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Banerjee, Sourav; Shifeng, Huang

2014-12-01

21

In vitro Wear of Composite with Varied Cure, Filler Level, and Filler Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the clinical wear of composite filling materials to be reduced, compositional factors such as degree of cure, filler level, and silanation level should be optimized. An oral-wear-simulating machine was used to explore the effects of these factors on abrasion and attrition wear as well as on opposing enamel wear. The composites were made from Sr glass (1-2 ?m avg)

J. R. Condon; J. L. Ferracane

1997-01-01

22

Frictional–viscous flow in mylonite with varied bimineralic composition and its effect on lithospheric strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical, composite flow law is presented for mylonite containing interconnected layers of a weak mineral undergoing power law creep and porphyroclasts of a stronger mineral undergoing fracture and frictional sliding. Such mylonite, termed clastomylonite, is said to undergo frictional–viscous (FV) mylonitic flow. Its bulk strength is expressed as a function of bimineralic composition, temperature, effective pressure, and shear strain

M. R. Handy; S. B. Wissing; L. E. Streit

1999-01-01

23

Dietary composition and echolocation call design of three sympatric insectivorous bat species from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying the diet of echolocating, insectivorous bats can provide important insights into their foraging behaviors and ecological\\u000a constraints they are facing. By examining an extensive data set covering a period of 2 years, the present study identifies\\u000a the dietary composition of three sympatric insectivorous bat species in rural areas of Beijing municipality. Each species\\u000a clearly has different preferences for particular food

Jie Ma; Bing Liang; Shuyi Zhang; Walter Metzner

2008-01-01

24

Physics-Astronomy Library Permanent Reserve Collection -Loan Periods Vary (revised 8/27/2010) AUTHOR TITLE E-BOOK CALL NUMBER  

E-print Network

Physics-Astronomy Library Permanent Reserve Collection - Loan Periods Vary (revised 8, 3rd ed. QA 931 L283 1986 Shu, F.H. Physical Universe QB 43.2 S54 1982 Chaisson, E., et al Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide to the Universe, 5th ed. QB 43.3 C43 2007 Chaisson, E., et al Astronomy Today, 5th ed. QB

Wurtele, Jonathan

25

FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The data was used to provide recommendations to the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) regarding blending and washing strategies in preparing SB5 based on acceptability of the glass compositions. These data were also used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of frits. Three composition projections for SB5 were developed using a model-based approach at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These compositions, referred to as SB5 Cases B, C and D, projected removal of 25, 50 and 75% (respectively) of the aluminum in Tank 51 through the low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The frits for this study (Frits 530 through 537) were selected based on their predicted operating windows (i.e., ranges of waste loadings over which the predicted properties of the glasses were acceptable) and their potential (based on historical trends) to provide acceptable melt rates for SB5. Six additional glasses were designed to evaluate alternatives for uranium in DWPF-type glasses used for variability studies and some scoping studies. Since special measures are necessary when working with uranium-containing glasses in the laboratory, it is desirable as a cost and time saving measure to find an alternative for uranium to support frit optimization efforts. Hafnium and neodymium were investigated as potential surrogates for uranium, and other glasses were made by simply excluding the radioactive components and renormalizing the glass composition. The study glasses were fabricated and characterized at SRNL. Chemical composition analyses suggested only minor difficulties in meeting the targeted compositions for some of the oxides for some of the glasses. Although minor differences were observed, they did not have a significant impact on the conclusions made in this study. Several of the study compositions showed retention of more than 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass. Trevorite (a spinel) was the only crystalline phase that was positively identified in a few of the study glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Spinels are not of concern as they have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. The crystallization behavior of the surrogate glasses was generally the same as that of their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. There are two pairs that were exceptions: SB5-04 (amorphous) and SB5-24 (possible trevorite), along with SB5-07 (amorphous) and SB5-25 (trevorite). In these cases, the surrogate glasses (SB5-24 and SB5-25) appear to be more conservative (more prone to crystallization) than their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized leachate (NL) values for B, Li, Na and Si for all of the study glasses were well below those of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass, regardless of heat treatment or compositional view. This indicates that all of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The highest NL [B] for the study glasses was 0.914 g/L (the quenched version of glass SB5-13), normalized using the measured, bias-correct composition. There was little practical impact of the CCC heat treatment on the PCT responses of the study glasses. The measured PCT responses were predictable by the current {Delta}G{sub p} models. In general, the PCT responses for the surrogate glasses or the glasses without U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were quite similar to their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. The average percent error in NL [B] normalized by the measured, bias-corrected compositions for the surrogate glasses compared with their radioactive counterparts was 8.8%. The largest difference in NL

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

2008-08-28

26

Flow Stress Prediction of SiCp/Al Composites at Varying Strain Rates and Elevated Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With isothermal compression tests in the Gleeble-3500 system, the hot deformation behaviors of SiCp/Al composite were studied at a wide range of temperatures from 623 K to 773 K, and strain rates ranging from 0.001 s-1 to 10 s-1. Four different modeling methods such as the modified Zerilli-Armstrong model, the strain compensation Arrhenius-type model, the double multivariate nonlinear regression (DMNR) and the artificial neural model (ANN) were used to predict the flow stress. The suitability levels of these models were evaluated by contrasting both the correlation coefficient R C and the average absolute relative error. The results show that the predictions of these four models can adequately meet the accuracy requirement according to the experimental data of this composite. With the increasing of the numbers of determined material constants and the complexity of computing methods, the predictability of these four methods is enhanced. The deformation parameters in the selected ranges such as strain rate and temperature have non-ignorable effect on predicted results of the previous two methods, while they have slight influence on DMNR and ANN.

Yuan, Zhanwei; Li, Fuguo; Ji, Guoliang; Qiao, Huijuan; Li, Jiang

2014-03-01

27

An evaluation of the effects of varying composition and processing on several encapsulating resins  

SciTech Connect

This investigation describes how a statistically designed experiment can be useful to characterize the relationship between a fundamental material property such as the glass transition temperature, Tg, and various processing parameters, e.g. composition, cure time, and temperature. To illustrate, formulation weighing errors can have a dramatic affect on material properties such as thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties. The glass transition temperature was selected for monitoring because it represents the materials state of cure and it is relatively easy to determine. Specifically, EPON 828 systems cured with diethanolamine and Shell Z, respectively, were investigated plus a mixture of the latter that employed aluminum oxide as a filler. This investigation showed that Tg changed very little with cure temperature in the DEA system compared to Shell Z, whereas the latter system appeared to display synergistic effects contrary to the DEA system. In the filled formulation, loading level had very little effect on Tg. The significance of this study is that the relationship between Tg, the composition and processing factors can be used to help diagnose the cause of misprocessed material. 2 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Wischmann, K.B.; Thomas, E.V.

1991-01-01

28

¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance monitoring of the degradation of margarines of varied compositions when heated to high temperature.  

PubMed

In this study, (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was used to monitor the evolution of three margarines of varied compositions when submitted to heating at 180°C in an oven with aeration. Heating causes degradation of polyunsaturated acyl groups and this depends not only on their unsaturation degree, but also on the concentration of the different acyl groups. The evolution of monounsaturated groups varies depending on the disappearance rate of the groups with higher unsaturation degree. Heat treatment also causes hydrolysis reactions that lead to a reduction in 1-monoglycerides and an increase in 1,2-diglycerides, especially in the margarines with higher water content, as well as degradation of some vegetable sterols. Different types of aldehydes and epoxides were identified and quantified, above all in the margarine with the highest proportion of polyunsaturated groups, especially linoleic; some of these are toxic, such as 4-hydroxy- and 4,5-epoxy-2-alkenals. PMID:25038657

Ibargoitia, María L; Sopelana, P; Guillén, María D

2014-12-15

29

Thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotopic composition  

SciTech Connect

The mirage-effect/thermal wave technique as a modern technique for thermal property characterization is described. The thermal diffusivity of a material is determined by measuring the time and space varying temperature distribution (thermal wave) in the material generated by an intensity modulated heating laser beam. These thermal waves are detected through the deflection of a probe laser beam due to modulation of gradient of the index of refraction (mirage effect) either in the air above the specimens (the in-air technique) or in the specimen itself (the in-solid technique). Three-dimensional theories, for both in-air and in-solid mirage techniques, are represented. In order to extract the material parameters by comparing the theory with experimental data, an extensive data analysis procedure based on multiparameter-least-squares has been developed. The experimental and data analysis details are discussed. Topics concerns with the quality and reliability of the measurements are addressed. This technique has been successfully applied to the thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotope contents. The results showed a 50% enhancement in the thermal conductivity by removal of C[sup 13] content from 1.1% to 0.1% in diamond at room temperature. The technique has also been adapted to function in cryogenic temperatures. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in the temperature range 80-378K for natural IIA specimen and 187-375K for isotopically enriched specimen are obtained, the former results agree with previous works and the latter results demonstrate the isotope effect on the thermal conductivity of single crystal diamond consistently in a large temperature range. The physical source of this enhancement in diffusivity due to the isotope effect in diamond is discussed. The discussion is based on the full Callaway's theory with emphasizing the role of N-processes in the phonon scattering mechanism.

Wei, L.

1993-01-01

30

Varying the concentration of single walled carbon nanotubes in thin film polymer composites, and its effect on thermoelectric power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistivity and thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements were conducted on single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT), polyvinylidene fluoride composite thin films of varying SWNT concentrations. This heterogeneous material was used in order to utilize the good electrical conductance of the nanotubes and the poor thermal conductance of the polymer to increase the figure of merit (ZT). As the nanotube weight percent decreased from 100% to 5%, the beneficial effects of the TEP increase and thermal conductivity decrease outweighed the negative effect of decreased electrical conductivity, resulting in an increase in ZT by a factor of 100.

Hewitt, C. A.; Kaiser, A. B.; Roth, S.; Craps, M.; Czerw, R.; Carroll, D. L.

2011-05-01

31

Modeled and Measured Dynamics of a Composite Beam with Periodically Varying Foam Core  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of a sandwich beam with carbon fiber composite facesheets and foam core with periodic variations in material properties are studied. The purpose of the study is to compare finite element predictions with experimental measurements on fabricated beam specimens. For the study, three beams were fabricated: one with a compliant foam core, a second with a stiffer core, and a third with the two cores alternating down the length of the beam to create a periodic variation in properties. This periodic variation produces a bandgap in the frequency domain where vibrational energy does not readily propagate down the length of the beam. Mode shapes and natural frequencies are compared, as well as frequency responses from point force input to velocity response at the opposite end of the beam.

Cabell, Randolph H.; Cano, Roberto J.; Schiller, Noah H.; Roberts Gary D.

2012-01-01

32

Oxygen Consumption Constrains Food Intake in Fish Fed Diets Varying in Essential Amino Acid Composition  

PubMed Central

Compromisation of food intake when confronted with diets deficient in essential amino acids is a common response of fish and other animals, but the underlying physiological factors are poorly understood. We hypothesize that oxygen consumption of fish is a possible physiological factor constraining food intake. To verify, we assessed the food intake and oxygen consumption of rainbow trout fed to satiation with diets which differed in essential amino acid (methionine and lysine) compositions: a balanced vs. an imbalanced amino acid diet. Both diets were tested at two water oxygen levels: hypoxia vs. normoxia. Trout consumed 29% less food under hypoxia compared to normoxia (p<0.001). Under both hypoxia and normoxia trout significantly reduced food intake by 11% and 16% respectively when fed the imbalanced compared to the balanced amino acid diet. Oxygen consumption of the trout per unit body mass remained identical for both diet groups not only under hypoxia but also under normoxia (p>0.05). This difference in food intake between diets under normoxia together with the identical oxygen consumption supports the hypothesis that food intake in fish can be constrained by a set-point value of oxygen consumption, as seen here on a six-week time scale. PMID:23991148

Saravanan, Subramanian; Geurden, Inge; Figueiredo-Silva, A. Cláudia; Nusantoro, Suluh; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Verreth, Johan; Schrama, Johan W.

2013-01-01

33

Orientation and dynamics of melittin in membranes of varying composition utilizing NBD fluorescence.  

PubMed

Melittin is a cationic hemolytic peptide isolated from the European honey bee, Apis mellifera. The organization of membrane-bound melittin has earlier been shown to be dependent on the physical state and composition of membranes. In this study, we covalently labeled the N-terminal (Gly-1) and Lys-7 of melittin with an environment-sensitive fluorescent probe, the NBD group, to monitor the influence of negatively charged lipids and cholesterol on the organization and dynamics of membrane-bound melittin. Our results show that the NBD group of melittin labeled at its N-terminal end does not exhibit red edge excitation shift in DOPC and DOPC/DOPG membranes, whereas the NBD group of melittin labeled at Lys-7 exhibits REES of approximately 8 nm. This could be attributed to difference in membrane microenvironment experienced by the NBD groups in these analogs. Interestingly, the membrane environment of the NBD groups is sensitive to the presence of cholesterol, which is supported by time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Importantly, the orientation of melittin is found to be parallel to the membrane surface as determined by membrane penetration depth analysis using the parallax method in all cases. Our results constitute the first report to our knowledge describing the orientation of melittin in cholesterol-containing membranes. These results assume significance in the overall context of the role of membrane lipids in the orientation and function of membrane proteins and peptides. PMID:17114219

Raghuraman, H; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

2007-02-15

34

Tension in Skinned Frog Muscle Fibers in Solutions of Varying Ionic Strength and Neutral Salt Composition  

PubMed Central

The maximal calcium-activated isometric tension produced by a skinned frog single muscle fiber falls off as the ionic strength of the solution bathing this fiber is elevated declining to zero near 0.5 M as the ionic strength is varied using KCl. When other neutral salts are used, the tension always declines at high ionic strength, but there is some difference between the various neutral salts used. The anions and cations can be ordered in terms of their ability to inhibit the maximal calcium-activated tension. The order of increasing inhibition of tension (decreasing tension) at high ionic strength for anions is propionate- ? SO4-- < Cl- < Br-. The order of increasing inhibition of calcium-activated tension for cations is K+ ? Na+ ? TMA+ < TEA+ < TPrA+ < TBuA+. The decline of maximal calcium-activated isometric tension with elevated salt concentration (ionic strength) can quantitatively explain the decline of isometric tetanic tension of a frog muscle fiber bathed in a hypertonic solution if one assumes that the internal ionic strength of a muscle fiber in normal Ringer's solution is 0.14–0.17 M. There is an increase in the base-line tension of a skinned muscle fiber bathed in a relaxing solution (no added calcium and 3 mM EGTA) of low ionic strength. This tension, which has no correlate in the intact fiber in hypotonic solutions, appears to be a noncalcium-activated tension and correlates more with a declining ionic strength than with small changes in [MgATP], [Mg], pH buffer, or [EGTA]. It is dependent upon the specific neutral salts used with cations being ordered in increasing inhibition of this noncalcium-activated tension (decreasing tension) as TPrA+ < TMA+ < K+ ? Na+. Measurements of potentials inside these skinned muscle fibers bathed in relaxing solutions produced occasional small positive values (<6 mV) which were not significantly different from zero. PMID:4543066

Gordon, A. M.; Godt, R. E.; Donaldson, S. K. B.; Harris, C. E.

1973-01-01

35

Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of indigenous Caribbean goats under varying nutritional densities.  

PubMed

The effects of a concentrate diet on growth, carcass fat, and fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle (supraspinatus), perirenal, and intermuscular adipose tissues of Creole goats (n = 32) were evaluated. Goats were fed a tropical green forage Digitaria decumbens ad libitum with no concentrate (G0) or 1 of 3 levels of concentrate: 140 (G100), 240 (G200), and 340 g•d(-1) (G300), respectively. Goats were slaughtered according to the standard procedure at the commercial BW (22 to 24 kg of BW). Goats fed the concentrate diets (G100, G200, and G300) had greater ADG (P < 0.001), cold carcass weights (P < 0.001), and omental (P < 0.01), perirenal (P < 0.01), and intermuscular (P < 0.01) adipose tissues weights. Dietary intake of C18:0, C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6 increased as concentrate supplementation increased (P < 0.001), whereas C18:3n-3 intake was not affected (P > 0.05). Increased concentrate supplementation did not affect (P > 0.05) the proportion of MUFA in all tissues and had very little effect on SFA in perirenal tissue, but increased the PUFA proportion in muscle (P < 0.05). The major effect of feeding increased concentrate was an increase in n-6 PUFA proportions in all tissues (P < 0.001) and, surprisingly, a decrease in n-3 PUFA (P < 0.001). Focusing on FA, which are supposed to have a beneficial or an adverse effect on human health, feeding increased concentrate did not increase the content of any cholesterol-increasing SFA in meat, but increased the n-6/n-3 ratio above 4 when more than 240 g of concentrate was fed per day. PMID:22274862

Liméa, L; Alexandre, G; Berthelot, V

2012-02-01

36

Bonobos extract meaning from call sequences.  

PubMed

Studies on language-trained bonobos have revealed their remarkable abilities in representational and communication tasks. Surprisingly, however, corresponding research into their natural communication has largely been neglected. We address this issue with a first playback study on the natural vocal behaviour of bonobos. Bonobos produce five acoustically distinct call types when finding food, which they regularly mix together into longer call sequences. We found that individual call types were relatively poor indicators of food quality, while context specificity was much greater at the call sequence level. We therefore investigated whether receivers could extract meaning about the quality of food encountered by the caller by integrating across different call sequences. We first trained four captive individuals to find two types of foods, kiwi (preferred) and apples (less preferred) at two different locations. We then conducted naturalistic playback experiments during which we broadcasted sequences of four calls, originally produced by a familiar individual responding to either kiwi or apples. All sequences contained the same number of calls but varied in the composition of call types. Following playbacks, we found that subjects devoted significantly more search effort to the field indicated by the call sequence. Rather than attending to individual calls, bonobos attended to the entire sequences to make inferences about the food encountered by a caller. These results provide the first empirical evidence that bonobos are able to extract information about external events by attending to vocal sequences of other individuals and highlight the importance of call combinations in their natural communication system. PMID:21556149

Clay, Zanna; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2011-01-01

37

Bonobos Extract Meaning from Call Sequences  

PubMed Central

Studies on language-trained bonobos have revealed their remarkable abilities in representational and communication tasks. Surprisingly, however, corresponding research into their natural communication has largely been neglected. We address this issue with a first playback study on the natural vocal behaviour of bonobos. Bonobos produce five acoustically distinct call types when finding food, which they regularly mix together into longer call sequences. We found that individual call types were relatively poor indicators of food quality, while context specificity was much greater at the call sequence level. We therefore investigated whether receivers could extract meaning about the quality of food encountered by the caller by integrating across different call sequences. We first trained four captive individuals to find two types of foods, kiwi (preferred) and apples (less preferred) at two different locations. We then conducted naturalistic playback experiments during which we broadcasted sequences of four calls, originally produced by a familiar individual responding to either kiwi or apples. All sequences contained the same number of calls but varied in the composition of call types. Following playbacks, we found that subjects devoted significantly more search effort to the field indicated by the call sequence. Rather than attending to individual calls, bonobos attended to the entire sequences to make inferences about the food encountered by a caller. These results provide the first empirical evidence that bonobos are able to extract information about external events by attending to vocal sequences of other individuals and highlight the importance of call combinations in their natural communication system. PMID:21556149

Clay, Zanna; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2011-01-01

38

Seasonal cycles in whole-body proximate composition and energy content of forage fish vary with water depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying the nutritional quality of forage fish is integral for understanding upper trophic levels as forage fish are the\\u000a dominant prey for top predator fish, marine mammals, and sea birds. Many existing reports documenting body composition of\\u000a forage species are not comparable due to confounding effects. This study systematically assessed the variability in proximate\\u000a composition and energy content of 16

Johanna J. Vollenweider; Ron A. Heintz; Lawrence Schaufler; Robert Bradshaw

2011-01-01

39

Investigation of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with composition-varying AlGaN multilayer barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the characteristics of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) with composition-varying AlGaN multilayer barriers are investigated numerically. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed DUV-LEDs have better device performances, i.e., higher light output power and internal quantum efficiency, over their counterparts with typical single-layer AlGaN barriers. These improvements are attributed to the reduced markedly polarization-induced electrostatic field within the quantum wells (QWs), which is beneficial to enhance the electron-hole spatial overlap in QWs, suppress the electron leakage and increase the hole injection efficiency. Furthermore, the efficiency droop is also reduced significantly when the composition-varying AlGaN multilayer barriers are adopted.

Yin, Yi An; Wang, Naiyin; Fan, Guanghan; Zhang, Yong

2014-12-01

40

Energy losses in a thin-wall tube multifilament composite superconductor carrying a transport current in a time-varying transverse magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach and formulae are given to calculate the hysteresis, coupling, eddy-current and Ohmic losses in a thin-wall tube multifilament composite superconductor carrying a transport current under low excitation by a homogeneous transverse time-varying magnetic field, taking into account possible filament saturation and current sharing effects. The technique can be applied to a single layer superconducting cable twisted around a thin-wall normal conducting tube.

Egorov, S.; Astrov, M.; Fedotova, S.

1998-12-01

41

Energy losses in a thin-wall tube multifilament composite superconductor carrying a transport current in a time-varying transverse magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach and formulae are given to calculate the hysteresis, coupling, eddy-current and Ohmic losses in a thin-wall tube multifilament composite superconductor carrying a transport current under low excitation by a homogeneous transverse time-varying magnetic field, taking into account possible filament saturation and current sharing effects. The technique can be applied to a single layer superconducting cable twisted around a

S. Egorov; M. Astrov; S. Fedotova

1998-01-01

42

Nonlinear and threshold responses of grassland productivity and species composition to increased CO2 vary with soil type  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Climate change is likely to cause non-linear responses in ecosystem function and threshold changes in species composition. Here we report aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) responses to a continuous CO2 concentration gradient (250 to 500 µL L-1) in experimental grassland communities on...

43

Nonlinear and Threshold Responses of Grassland Productivity and Species Composition to Increased CO2 Vary with Soil Type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is likely to cause nonlinear responses in ecosystem function and threshold changes in species composition. Here we report aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) responses to a continuous CO2 concentration gradient (250 to 500 ?L L-1,) in experimental grassland communities on three soils differing in water holding capacity and other properties. Communities consisting of four C4 grasses, two C3 forbs, and one legume were established on a lowland clay (vertisol, n=32), an upland clay (mollisol, n=32), and an alluvial sand (alfisol, n=16). The communities were positioned in a stratified random design in the CO2 gradient for five growing seasons, and were irrigated to mimic the average growing season rainfall regime for the study site in Central Texas. ANPP increased with CO2 almost two-fold more on the upland clay and alluvial sand than on the lowland clay (p < 0.0001), because of strong linear responses to CO2 on these soils (R2 = 0.50 to 0.59, p < 0.002) compared to a saturating response to CO2 on the lowland clay (R2 = 0.48, p= 0.01). On the two more responsive soils, the mesic tallgrass Sorghastrum nutans replaced the more drought adapted mid-grass Bouteloua curtipendula at elevated CO2, while B. curtipendula largely replaced S. nutans at low CO2, especially on the upland clay. Evidence for a similar composition change was not found on the lowland clay. Thus, two soils displayed a threshold change in community composition that accounted for up to 57% of variation in ANPP for those soils. Variation in ANPP and species composition with CO2 were accompanied by linear increases in soil water content (SWC, 0 - 20 cm, volumetric), most strongly on the alluvial sand (R2 = 0.39, p < 0.009) and by weak decreases with CO2 in soil N. Structural equation models explained 34 to 52% of the variation in ANPP, and indicated that CO2 effects on ANPP on the upland clay were primarily explained by CO2 effects on species composition, and on the alluvial sand by CO2 effects on SWC. Responses to elevated CO2 in SWC, ANPP, and species composition were explained by reduced stomatal conductance and increased photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE) in both grasses. In addition, S. nutans gained more in WUE at elevated CO2 than B. curtipendula, while B. curtipendula at elevated CO2 had lower light saturated photosynthetic capacity, quantum use efficiency, and dark respiration than S. nutans. Thus, at elevated CO2, shading by the taller S. nutans likely lowered B. curtipendula carbon assimilation and growth. We conclude that elevated CO2 strongly increased ANPP on upland clay and alluvial sand soils where there were also gains in soil moisture and threshold changes in species composition driven by physiological differences in the two dominant grass species. As a result, CO2 effects on ANPP will likely differ with soil type across the landscape.

Fay, P. A.; Jin, V.; Jackson, R. B.; Gill, R. A.; Way, D.; Polley, W.

2011-12-01

44

Computational study of multi-color InGaN/GaN nanowire LEDs with continuously varied indium composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gallium nitride based light emitting diodes have emerged as powerful devices which could replace incandescent and fluorescent lamps within the next years. The development of phosphor-free white LEDs is an ongoing field of research because of the lack of high efficiency green LEDs. A promising approach is the growth of InGaN/GaN nanowires with a continuously varied Indium content along the structure. The graded mole fraction profile is supposed to yield a multitude of emission colors due to many emission levels which can sum up to white light emission. The formation of strain and polarization charges is reduced because of the incremental varying lattice constants in combination with the facility of lateral relaxation of the wire. We report on the computational analysis of those nanowire structures in order to understand the electroluminescent behavior. The simulation software calculates the electrostatic potential and the carrier densities in the entire structure by solving the Poisson and the drift/diffusion equations in three dimensions. The luminescence is determined on the basis of a free carrier theory and enters the continuity equations as recombination term with strain and polarization effects included. This comprehensive physical model is employed to analyze carrier injection and luminescence for a white light-emitter design.

Deppner, Marcus; Bjelica, Marko; Römer, Friedhard; Witzigmann, Bernd

2012-02-01

45

Evaluation of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) containing copolymer networks of varied composition as sustained metoprolol tartrate delivery systems.  

PubMed

Segmented copolymer networks (SCN) based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, and/or methyl methacrylate segments have been evaluated as potential sustained release systems of the water soluble cardioselective ?-blocker metoprolol tartrate. The structure and properties of the drug carriers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Swelling kinetics of SCNs in various media was followed, and the conditions for effective MT loading were specified. MT-loaded SCNs with drug content up to 80 wt.% were produced. The release kinetics of metoprolol tartrate from the systems was studied and it was shown that the conetworks of different structure and composition are able to sustain the metoprolol tartrate release without additional excipients. PMID:24789663

Kostova, Bistra; Ivanova, Sijka; Balashev, Konstantin; Rachev, Dimitar; Christova, Darinka

2014-08-01

46

Wettability of the morphologically and compositionally varied surfaces prepared from blends of well ordered comb-like polymer and polystyrene.  

PubMed

Phase-separated surfaces of blends of polystyrene (PS) and well ordered comb-like polymer, poly[(oxy(decylsulfonylmethyl)ethylene)] (CH(3)-10SE), were prepared by spin casting polymer mixtures. Various surface morphologies, such as holes, islands, connected islands and pillars, were prepared by changing the blend compositions. Due to the influence of the CH(3)-10SE domain with a well ordered molecular conformation, a very low energy surface (?22mN/m) was created, which is close to the value of the pure polymer (?20mN/m), even when the blends contained only 20wt.% of the pure polymer. Furthermore, by selective etching the PS domain in the blend surfaces, the advancing contact angles of water and n-hexadecane were highly increased from 113.5° and 43.2° for the pure CH(3)-10SE surface to 133.3° and 67.2° for the CH(3)-10SE structural surfaces with holes prepared using the solvent etching method, respectively. The result of the water advancing contact angles measured on the samples immersed in water over 20days showed that the film stability of CH(3)-10SE could be improved considerably by even adding small amounts of PS. PMID:21129752

Sohn, Eun-Ho; Kim, Byoung Gak; Chung, Jae-Seung; Kang, Hyo; Lee, Jong-Chan

2011-02-15

47

Mineral particles of varying composition induce differential chemokine release from epithelial lung cells: importance of physico-chemical characteristics.  

PubMed

Presently, little is known about the potential health effects of mineral particles other than asbestos and quartz. In this study, a human epithelial lung cell line (A549), primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) and primary rat type 2 (T2) cells were exposed to stone quarry particles of two size fractions (<10 and <2.5 microm) from nine different rock samples. The ability to induce the release of chemokines from lung cells was investigated and compared with the particles' mineral and element composition and the amount of soluble elements. The stone particles induced the release of only low levels of interleukin (IL)-8 from A549 cells. In contrast, some of the other particles induced the release of high levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 from T2 cells, and high levels of IL-8 from SAECs. Differences in particle surface area could account for differences in activity between the <10 and <2.5 microm fractions of six out of the nine rock samples. For two samples the <2.5 microm fraction was most active and for one sample the <10 microm fraction was most active. Content of the mineral plagioclase displayed a strong, negative correlation with the potential to induce MIP-2, whereas the mineral pyroxene was positively correlated with MIP-2 induction. However, neither plagioclase nor pyroxene content was sufficient to explain differences in bioactivity between the particles. No statistically significant correlation was found between the amounts of total or soluble elements and MIP-2 release. In conclusion, the results suggest that mineral particles with a high content of plagioclase have a low potential to induce a pro-inflammatory response. However, a particular mineral or element responsible for eliciting strong increases in chemokine release could not be identified. Thus, at present it appears that analysing mineral and element content is insufficient to predict stone particle bioactivity, and that biological testing is a necessity. PMID:15640311

Ovrevik, J; Myran, T; Refsnes, M; Låg, M; Becher, R; Hetland, R B; Schwarze, P E

2005-04-01

48

Sediment accretion rates and sediment composition in Prairie Pothole wetlands under varying land use practices, Montana, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increased sedimentation and nutrient cycle changes in Prairie Pothole Region wetlands associated with agriculture threaten the permanence and ecological functionality of these important resources. To determine the effects of land use on sedimentation and nutrient cycling, soil cores were analyzed for cesium-137 (137Cs), lead-210 (210Pb), and potassium-40 (40K) activities; textural composition; organic and inorganic carbon (C); and total nitrogen (N) from twelve wetlands surrounded by cropland, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands, or native prairie uplands. Separate soil cores from nine of these wetlands were also analyzed for phosphorus (P), nitrate (NO3), and ammonium (NH4) concentrations. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had significantly greater linear sediment accretion rates than wetlands surrounded by CRP or native prairie. Linear sediment accretion rates from wetlands surrounded by cropland were 2.7 and 6 times greater than wetlands surrounded by native prairie when calculated from the initial and peak occurrence of 137Cs, respectively, and 0.15 cm y?1 (0.06 in yr?1) greater when calculated from 210Pb. Relative to wetlands surrounded by CRP, linear sediment accretion rates for wetlands surrounded by cropland were 4.4 times greater when calculated from the peak occurrence of 137Cs. No significant differences existed between the linear sediment accretion rates between wetlands surrounded by native prairie or CRP uplands. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had increased clay, P, NO3, and NH4, and decreased total C and N concentrations compared to wetlands surrounded by native prairie. Wetlands surrounded by CRP had the lowest P and NO3 concentrations and had clay, NH4, C, and N concentrations between those of cropland and native prairie wetlands. We documented increased linear sediment accretion rates and changes in the textural and chemical properties of sediments in wetlands with cultivated uplands relative to wetlands with native prairie uplands. These findings demonstrate the value of the CRP at protecting wetland catchments to reduce sedimentation.

Preston, T.M.; Sojda, R.S.; Gleason, R.A.

2013-01-01

49

Seed bank and vegetation composition of forest stands of varying age in central Belgium: consequences for regeneration of ancient forest vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation composition differs significantly between ancient and recent forest, due to slow colonization capacity of typical forest species and the higher abundance of early successional species in recent forest. However, little is known about differences in persistent seed bank composition between ancient and recent forest and about the interaction between seed bank and vegetation in relation with forest age. We

B. Bossuyt; M. Heyn; M. Hermy

2002-01-01

50

Call title: "The ocean of tomorrow" Call identifier: FP7-OCEAN-2010  

E-print Network

1 Call title: "The ocean of tomorrow" · Call identifier: FP7-OCEAN-2010 · Date of publication: 30 budget awarded to actions implemented through this call for proposals may vary: · The final budget The three topics of 'The ocean of tomorrow' call are implemented jointly by the Themes 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8

Milano-Bicocca, Università

51

Urea metabolism in beef steers grazing bermudagrass, caucasian bluestem, or gamagrass pastures varying in plant morphology, protein content, and protein composition.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to evaluate pastures of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon, BG), caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica, CBS), and gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides, GG) from the perspectives of forage composition, selection during grazing, and N metabolism in beef steers. All pastures were ferti...

52

Seed bank and vegetation composition of forest stands of varying age in central Belgium: consequences for regeneration of ancient forest vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation composition differs significantly between ancientand recent forest, due to slow colonization capacity of typical forest speciesand the higher abundance of early successional species in recent forest.However, little is known about differences in persistent seed bank compositionbetween ancient and recent forest and about the interaction between seed bankand vegetation in relation with forest age. We surveyed the seed bank and

B. Bossuyt; M. Heyn; M. Hermy

2002-01-01

53

Effects of varying the level of palm oil on feed intake, milk yield and composition and postpartum weight changes of Red Sokoto goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five pregnant Red Sokoto goats (average liveweight, 33.14±1.75kg) were used from the last month of pregnancy until 118 day of lactation to evaluate the effect of varying the level of palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) oil (PO) in concentrate supplement on lactation performance. The goats were fed one of five iso-nitrogenous (16% CP) supplements containing 0% PO (control), 4% PO, 8%

S. M. Otaru; A. M. Adamu; O. W. Ehoche; H. J. Makun

2011-01-01

54

Integrated literature review of postdischarge telephone calls.  

PubMed

This systematic review of the literature assessed the impact of a postdischarge telephone call on patient outcomes. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and an evidence table was developed. The content, timing, and professional placing the call varied across studies. Study strength was low and findings were inconsistent. Measures varied across studies, many sample sizes were small, and studies differed by patient population. Evidence is inconclusive for use of phone calls to decrease readmission, emergency department use, patient satisfaction, scheduled and unscheduled follow-up, and physical and emotional well-being. Among these studies, there was limited support for medication-focused calls by pharmacists but no support for decreasing readmission. Health care providers benefited from feedback but did not need to place the call to realize this benefit. Inpatient nurses were unable to manage the volume of calls. There was no standardized approach to the call, training, or documentation requirements. PMID:23833254

Bahr, Sarah J; Solverson, Susan; Schlidt, Andrea; Hack, Deborah; Smith, Jeri Lynn; Ryan, Polly

2014-01-01

55

Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition vary in relation to nectary anatomy and location within individual flowers of several species of Brassicaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymology\\u000a in nine species from five tribes of the Brassicaceae. In six species (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Brassica napus L., B. rapa L., Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv., Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L.) that produced nectar from both lateral nectaries (associated with the short stamens) and median nectaries

Arthur R. Davis; Jeffrey D. Pylatuik; Joelle C. Paradis; Nicholas H. Low

1998-01-01

56

Dietary composition of the blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus L. Does it vary with body size and shell state and between estuaries?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the diets of Portunus pelagicus in the large Peel-Harvey and Leschenault estuaries in south-western Australia in order to ascertain whether the dietary composition of this crab changes with body size during two different moult stages and differs between the two estuaries. Portunus pelagicus, ranging in age and carapace width from ca. 2 months and 12 mm to ca. 112 years and 159 mm, were collected from the shallow basins of the Peel-Harvey and Leschenault estuaries. Examination of the cardiac stomachs of these crabs showed that P. pelagicus does not feed just before or immediately after moulting and that the stomachs of recently-moulted crabs contained significantly more food than those of intermoult crabs. Although the volumetric contribution made by calcareous material to the stomach contents was similarly high in all size classes of recently-moulted crabs, i.e. 47 to 55%, the volumetric contributions made by small bivalves decreased with body size, whereas the reverse occurred with shell fragments of large decapods and, to a lesser extent, polychaetes. The dietary compositions of intermoult crabs were shown by classification and multi-dimensional scaling ordination to differ markedly from those of recently-moulted crabs and to undergo similar progressive ontogenetic changes in both the Peel-Harvey and Leschenault estuaries. Thus, the contribution made by small benthic and epibenthic crustaceans, such as amphipods and tanaids, declined with increasing body size, whereas the reverse occurred with larger prey, such as nereid polychaetes, small decapods and teleosts. The dietary composition of P. pelagicus was influenced more by moult stage, i.e. recently moulted vs. intermoult, than by body size. Although the dietary compositions of P. pelagicus in the two estuaries were not significantly different, they did differ from those recorded from coastal marine waters in the same region, thereby reflecting differences in the potential prey in those two environments. PMID:10713279

de Lestang S; Platell; Potter

2000-04-01

57

Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how composites work by creating and testing their own composite for an imaginary company. This activity shows learners that composites are simply materials that are made up of two or more visibly distinct substances. Use this activity to talk about how composites are everywhere in our lives.

Research, Cornell C.

2003-01-01

58

Milk composition varies in relation to the presence and abundance of Balantidium coli in the mother in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).  

PubMed

Primate infants require extensive maternal investment, and lactation is the most expensive aspect of this investment. However, the relationship between maternal condition and milk composition has been largely uninvestigated in primates. To better understand this relationship, I collected mid-lactation milk samples from 46 captive multiparous rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the Caribbean Primate Research Center, Sabana Seca Field Station, Puerto Rico. The maternal variables assessed were age, weight, weight for crown-rump length (CRL), and presence of parasites. Additionally the analysis included infant age, weight, and sex. Protein concentration in milk showed little interindividual variation, whereas fat had a high variance. Mothers without the lower intestinal parasite Balantidium coli had a significantly higher fat concentration in milk than mothers with B. coli, but other parasite species (Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides fulleborni) were not associated with milk fat concentration. Females with younger infants had a higher fat concentration in their milk than mothers with older infants; however, the association between B. coli and milk fat remained significant after controlling for infant age. These results, obtained from a well fed captive population, indicate that even small differences among mothers are associated with milk composition. PMID:17245767

Hinde, Katherine

2007-06-01

59

Bird calls: their potential for behavioral neurobiology.  

PubMed

Birdsongs are always part of larger set of sound signals. Every bird uses a repertoire of calls for communication. Calls are shorter and simpler than songs, with a much larger range of functions. Whereas songs are specialized for application in reproduction and territoriality, calls also serve such functions as signaling about food, maintaining social cohesion, contact calls, synchronizing and coordinating flight, and the resolution of aggressive and sexual conflicts. Alarm calls of various kinds are a major component, including distress, mobbing, and hawk alarm calls. Call repertoires vary greatly in size, up to 20 or so distinct call types. Rough estimates for songbirds range between 5 and 10, but some birds, especially galliforms, may have twice as many. Call usage is often sexually dimorphic and commonly varies seasonally and with physiological state. Most calls appear to be innate, but more and more examples of developmental plasticity in bird calls are emerging. Some display well-defined local dialects. A case is made for the value to avian behavioral neurobiology of including bird calls in studies of the psychophysics and sensory physiology of signal perception. They may also help to extend the range of neurobiological investigations of the song system to include circuitry controlling such functionally related behaviors as aggression and reproduction. PMID:15313768

Marler, Peter

2004-06-01

60

Effect of varying dietary zinc intake of weanling mouse pups during recovery from early undernutrition on tissue mineral concentrations, relative organ weights, hematological variables and muscle composition.  

PubMed

Because growth is an early sign of zinc (Zn) deficiency in young animals, it is often assumed that the occurrence of normal growth indicates adequate Zn status. In an earlier study we found that both marginal (10 micrograms Zn/g) and low (5 micrograms Zn/g) dietary Zn intake resulted in altered composition of gain in mouse pups that had been previously undernourished (L) from d 10 to 21 of suckling and rehabilitated from d 21 to 40 with high protein recovery diets. Therefore we examined several tissues, organs and biochemical measures to identify other variables that might be sensitive to either marginal or low dietary Zn intake in mice. After undernutrition in the suckling animal, liver Zn concentrations were lower; they normalized when the pups were subsequently fed recovery diets irrespective of dietary Zn intake (5-110 micrograms Zn/g). Bone Zn was 30% lower in pups fed low Zn, and 30% higher in pups given Zn-supplemented recovery diets (110 micrograms Zn/g) compared with controls (40 micrograms Zn/g). Thus bone Zn concentration was highly correlated with dietary Zn intake and lower liver Zn was highly correlated with undernutrition. Most organs of L pups recovered in proportion to body weight; the exceptions were brain, kidney and gastrocnemius muscle. At d 21 or 40, brain weight was most conserved and kidney weight was stunted during either protein or Zn deprivation. Gastrocnemius muscle weight in L pups was stunted to a much greater degree than other tissues, although proximate analysis showed muscle composition was similar among groups. These data support previous reports that adequate dietary Zn is essential for optimal recovery from early undernutrition. PMID:3373334

Morgan, P N; Keen, C L; Lönnerdal, B

1988-06-01

61

Binding of the Biogenic Polyamines to Deoxyribonucleic Acids of Varying Base Composition: Base Specificity and the Associated Energetics of the Interaction  

PubMed Central

Background The thermodynamics of the base pair specificity of the binding of the polyamines spermine, spermidine, putrescine, and cadaverine with three genomic DNAs Clostridium perfringens, 27% GC, Escherichia coli, 50% GC and Micrococcus lysodeikticus, 72% GC have been studied using titration calorimetry and the data supplemented with melting studies, ethidium displacement and circular dichroism spectroscopy results. Methodology/Principal Findings Isothermal titration calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, optical melting studies, ethidium displacement, circular dichroism spectroscopy are the various techniques employed to characterize the interaction of four polyamines, spermine, spermidine, putersine and cadaverine with the DNAs. Polyamines bound stronger with AT rich DNA compared to the GC rich DNA and the binding varied depending on the charge on the polyamine as spermine>spermidine >putrescine>cadaverine. Thermodynamics of the interaction revealed that the binding was entropy driven with small enthalpy contribution. The binding was influenced by salt concentration suggesting the contribution from electrostatic forces to the Gibbs energy of binding to be the dominant contributor. Each system studied exhibited enthalpy-entropy compensation. The negative heat capacity changes suggested a role for hydrophobic interactions which may arise due to the non polar interactions between DNA and polyamines. Conclusion/Significance From a thermodynamic analysis, the AT base specificity of polyamines to DNAs has been elucidated for the first time and supplemented by structural studies. PMID:23894663

Kabir, Ayesha; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

2013-01-01

62

Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.  

PubMed

Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and C16:0 yield. Dietary linoleic acid content also had a positive coefficient for milk trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid yield. These results demonstrate that even when total dietary FA are below 3%, free oils rich in linoleic acid can reduce milk fat yield by reducing secretion of milk FA with fewer than 18 carbons. Fatty acid composition of fat supplements is important even at this low level of total dietary fat. PMID:25468700

Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

2015-01-01

63

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST Date: Time: Time Caller Phone Number Where Hung Up: Call Received:Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act

Guo, Ting

64

Exposures Information Totals Calls  

E-print Network

Information Call Type Totals Calls 2010: 30,979 2011: 29,916 #12;0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 1 2 3 4 5 Analgesics Sedative/hypnotics/antipsych Topical preparations Antidepressants Cardiovascular drugs

Oliver, Douglas L.

65

Determination of the second virial coefficient of bovine serum albumin under varying pH and ionic strength by composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering.  

PubMed

Composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering (CG-MALS) is an emerging technique for the determination of intermolecular interactions via the second virial coefficient B22. With CG-MALS, detailed studies of the second virial coefficient can be carried out more accurately and effectively than with traditional methods. In addition, automated mixing, delivery and measurement enable high speed, continuous, fluctuation-free sample delivery and accurate results. Using CG-MALS we measure the second virial coefficient of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solutions at various values of pH and ionic strength of a univalent salt (NaCl). The systematic variation of the second virial coefficient as a function of pH and NaCl strength reveals the net charge change and the isoelectric point of BSA under different solution conditions. The magnitude of the second virial coefficient decreases to 1.13 x 10(-5) ml*mol/g(2) near the isoelectric point of pH 4.6 and 25 mM NaCl. These results illuminate the role of fundamental long-range electrostatic and van der Waals forces in protein-protein interactions, specifically their dependence on pH and ionic strength. PMID:25403822

Ma, Yingfang; Acosta, Diana M; Whitney, Jon R; Podgornik, Rudolf; Steinmetz, Nicole F; French, Roger H; Parsegian, V Adrian

2015-01-01

66

Reduction of an E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella composite on fresh strawberries by varying antimicrobial washes and vacuum perfusion.  

PubMed

A 2011 outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis, which resulted in the death of two individuals, was associated with contaminated strawberries. A study was conducted to identify antimicrobial washes effective at reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica from the surface of fresh whole strawberries during two-minute immersion washes. Twenty-seven antimicrobial treatments were tested. Vacuum perfusion was applied to strawberries during chlorine and peracetic acid treatments to promote infiltration of sanitizer into porous strawberry tissue. Strawberries were inoculated to 7.1logCFU/strawberry with a seven-strain bacterial composite, consisting of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 and four serovars of Salmonella enterica. Berries were air-dried for 2h and immersed in circulating antimicrobial solutions for 120s at 22°C. Four treatments reduced ?3.0logCFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% acetic acid+1% H2O2, (b) 30% ethanol+1% H2O2, (c) 90ppm peracetic acid, and (d) 1% lactic acid+1% H2O2. Two additional treatments that reduced 2.8logCFU/strawberry were (a) 40% ethanol, and (b) 1% each of phosphoric+fumaric acids. Eight treatments reduced 2.0-2.6logCFU/strawberry. Five treatments reduced <1.45CFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% citric acid, (b) 1% lactic acid, (c) 1% acetic acid, (d) 0.5% each of acetic+citric acids and (e) 0.5% each of acetic+lactic acids. The use of vacuum perfusion with 200ppm chlorine or 90ppm peracetic acid did not reduce greater populations of pathogens than did the same treatments without vacuum perfusion. Fourteen treatments reduced no more pathogens (p<0.05) than did sterile deionized water. Results from this study provide some options for end-point decontamination of strawberries for retail operations just prior to serving to customers. PMID:25146462

Gurtler, Joshua B; Bailey, Rebecca B; Jin, Tony Z; Fan, Xuetong

2014-10-17

67

Observations and projections of visibility and aerosol optical thickness (1956–2100) in the Netherlands: impacts of time-varying aerosol composition and hygroscopicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time series of visibility and aerosol optical thickness for the Netherlands have been constructed for 1956–2100 based on observations and aerosol mass scenarios. Aerosol optical thickness from 1956 to 2013 has been reconstructed by converting time series of visibility to visible extinction which in turn are converted to aerosol optical thickness using an appropriate scaling depth. The reconstruction compares closely with remote sensing observations of aerosol optical thickness between 1960 and 2013. It appears that aerosol optical thickness was relatively constant over the Netherlands in the years 1955–1985. After 1985, visibility has improved, while at the same time aerosol optical thickness has decreased. Based on aerosol emission scenarios for the Netherlands three aerosol types have been identified: (1) a constant background consisting of sea salt and mineral dust, (2) a hydrophilic anthropogenic inorganic mixture, and (3) a partly hydrophobic mixture of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OAs). A reduction in overall aerosol concentration turns out to be the most influential factor in the reduction in aerosol optical thickness. But during 1956–1985, an upward trend in hydrophilic aerosols and associated upward trend in optical extinction has partly compensated the overall reduction in optical extinction due to the reduction in less hydrophilic BC and OAs. A constant optical thickness ensues. This feature highlights the influence of aerosol hygroscopicity on time-varying signatures of atmospheric optical properties. Within the hydrophilic inorganic aerosol mixture there is a gradual shift from sulfur-based (1956–1985) to a nitrogen-based water aerosol chemistry (1990 onwards) but always modulated by the continual input of sodium from sea salt. From 2013 to 2100, visibility is expected to continue its increase, while at the same time optical thickness is foreseen to continue to decrease. The contribution of the hydrophilic mixture to the aerosol optical thickness will increase from 30% to 35% in 1956 to more than 70% in 2100. At the same time the contribution of black and organic aerosols will decrease by more than 80%.

Boers, R.; van Weele, M.; van Meijgaard, E.; Savenije, M.; Siebesma, A. P.; Bosveld, F.; Stammes, P.

2015-01-01

68

Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition vary in relation to nectary anatomy and location within individual flowers of several species of Brassicaceae.  

PubMed

Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymology in nine species from five tribes of the Brassicaceae. In six species (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Brassica napus L., B. rapa L., Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv., Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L.) that produced nectar from both lateral nectaries (associated with the short stamens) and median nectaries (outside the long stamens), on average 95% of the total nectar carbohydrate was collected from the lateral ones. Nectar from these glands possessed a higher glucose/fructose ratio (usually 1.0-1.2) than that from the median nectaries (0.2-0.9) within the same flower. Comparatively little sucrose was detected in any nectar samples except from Matthiola bicornus (Sibth. et Sm.) DC., which possessed lateral nectaries only and produced a sucrose-dominant exudate. The anatomy of the nectarial tissue in nectar-secreting flowers of six species, Hesperis matronalis L., L. maritima, M. bicornus, R. sativus, S. arvensis, and Sisymbrium loeselii L., was studied by light and scanning-electron microscopy. Phloem alone supplied the nectaries. However, in accordance with their overall nectar-carbohydrate production, the lateral glands received relatively rich quantities of phloem that penetrated far into the glandular tissue, whereas median glands were supplied with phloem that often barely innervated them. All nectarial tissue possessed modified stomata (with the exception of the median glands of S. loeselii, which did not produce nectar); further evidence was gathered to indicate that these structures do not regulate nectar flow by guard-cell movements. The numbers of modified stomata per gland showed no relation to nectar-carbohydrate production. Taken together, the data on nectar biochemistry and nectary anatomy indicate the existence of two distinct nectary types in those Brassicacean species that possess both lateral and median nectaries, regardless of whether nectarial tissue is united around the entire receptacle or not. It is proposed that the term "nectarium" be used to represent collectively the multiple nectaries that can be found in individual flowers. PMID:9637073

Davis, A R; Pylatuik, J D; Paradis, J C; Low, N H

1998-06-01

69

Air Call-Accept  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We've all had our hands in the dishwater when an important call comes in. The Air Call-Accept application gives users the ability to just wave their hand across the proximity sensor, and voila: the call is accepted. It's quite useful for people who are driving around quite a bit, though others will certainly find it efficacious. This version is compatible with devices running Android 1.6 and newer.

2013-08-15

70

Time Varying Feature Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrastructure to gather, store and access information about our environment is improving and growing rapidly. The increasing amount of information allows us to get a better understanding of the current state of our environment, historical processes and to simulate and predict the future state of the environment. Finer grained spatial and temporal data and more reliable communications make it easier to model dynamic states and ephemeral features. The exchange of information within and across geospatial domains is facilitated through the use of harmonized information models. The Observations & Measurements (O&M) developed through OGC and standardised by ISO is an example of such a cross-domain information model. It is used in many domains, including meteorology, hydrology as well as the emergency management. O&M enables harmonized representation of common metadata that belong to the act of determining the state of a feature property, whether by sensors, simulations or humans. In addition to the resulting feature property value, information such as the result quality but especially the time that the result applies to the feature property can be represented. Temporal metadata is critical to modelling past and future states of a feature. The features, and the semantics of each property, are defined in domain specific Application Schema using the General Feature Model (GFM) from ISO 19109 and usually encoded following ISO 19136. However, at the moment these standards provide only limited support for the representation and handling of time varying feature data. Features like rivers, wildfires or gas plumes have a defined state - for example geographic extent - at any given point in time. To keep track of changes, a more complex model for example using time-series coverages is required. Furthermore, the representation and management of feature property value changes via the service interfaces defined by OGC and ISO - namely: WFS and WCS - would be rather complex. Keeping track of feature property value corrections or even feature (state change) cancellations for auditing purposes is also not easy to achieve. The aviation domain has strong requirements to represent and manage the state of aeronautical features through time. Being able to efficiently encode and manage feature state changes, keeping track of all changes for auditing purposes and being able to determine the future state of an aeronautical feature as currently known to the system are vital for aeronautical applications. In order to support these requirements, the Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AIXM) which has been developed by the aviation domain is based on the so called AIXM Temporality Model (AIXM-TM). The AIXM-TM defines various rules for modeling, representing and handling the state of aeronautical features through time. This is a promising approach that can be incorporated into the GFM so that ultimately the modeling and management of time varying feature data is supported in an interoperable and harmonized way in all geospatial domains. This presentation gives an introduction to the main concepts of the AIXM-TM. It also shows how the GFM can be extended to support time varying feature data. Finally, the relationship of O&M and time varying features is discussed.

Echterhoff, J.; Simonis, I.; Atkinson, R.

2012-04-01

71

Web Interface Call Simulator  

E-print Network

-premises equipment IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem IP PBX IP (Internet Protocol) PBX (Private branch exchange) - businessWeb Interface Call Simulator Stage Description Web Interface for VoIP Call Simulator Net IP 2. Introduction NetAxis Solutions has a long expertise in carrier grade voice solution and more

Ernst, Damien

72

When Crises Call  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural disasters, as well as crises of the man-made variety, call on leaders of school districts to manage scenarios impossible to predict and for which no amount of training can adequately prepare. One thing all major crises hold in common is their far-reaching effects, which can run the gamut from personal safety and mental well-being to the…

Kisch, Marian

2012-01-01

73

Wake-Up Call.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the artist, Laquita Thomson, whose inspiration are the stars and space. Discusses her series called, "Celestial Happenings: Stars Fell on Alabama." Describes one event that inspired an art work when a meteor crashed into an Alabama home. Includes lessons for various subject areas. (CMK)

Sartorius, Tara Cady

2002-01-01

74

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES WHO TO CONTACT (select one) · Follow your local guidelines · Federal Protective Service (FPS) Police 1-877-4-FPS-411 (1-877-437-7411) · 911 Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act quickly, but remain calm and obtain

Boyce, Richard L.

75

Call of the Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will evaluate informational text and build background knowledge about the American Author Jack London. Procedures: Click on the links below and read the biographical information about Jack London, the historical time period in which he wrote, and his writing by reading a few excerpts from Call of The Wild, Sea Wolf, and more tales. London is highly demanding on his readers; ...

Mrs. Whaley

2009-04-19

76

Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-N?dza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

2014-11-01

77

What is this thing called MixedWhat is this thing called Mixed Conifer Forest?Conifer Forest?  

E-print Network

What is this thing called MixedWhat is this thing called Mixed Conifer Forest?Conifer Forest? Bill;Variability in Forest CompositionVariability in Forest Composition UncompahgreUncompahgre Plateau Conifer Forests of SW ColoradoConifer Forests of SW Colorado How to restore & maintain the natural

78

Varying constants quantum cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss minisuperspace models within the framework of varying physical constants theories including ?-term. In particular, we consider the varying speed of light (VSL) theory and varying gravitational constant theory (VG) using the specific ansätze for the variability of constants: c(a) = c0 an and G(a)=G0 aq. We find that most of the varying c and G minisuperspace potentials are of the tunneling type which allows to use WKB approximation of quantum mechanics. Using this method we show that the probability of tunneling of the universe ``from nothing'' (a=0) to a Friedmann geometry with the scale factor at is large for growing c models and is strongly suppressed for diminishing c models. As for G varying, the probability of tunneling is large for G diminishing, while it is small for G increasing. In general, both varying c and G change the probability of tunneling in comparison to the standard matter content (cosmological term, dust, radiation) universe models.

Leszczy?ska, Katarzyna; Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P.

2015-02-01

79

What is called symptom?  

PubMed

There is one concept in medicine which is prominent, the symptom. The omnipresence of the symptom seems, however, not to be reflected by an equally prominent curiosity aimed at investigating this concept as a phenomenon. In classic, traditional or conventional medical diagnostics and treatment, the lack of distinction with respect to the symptom represents a minor problem. Faced with enigmatic conditions and their accompanying labels such as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, medically unexplained symptoms, and functional somatic syndromes, the contestation of the symptom and its origin is immediate and obvious and calls for further exploration. Based on a description of the diagnostic framework encompassing medically unexplained conditions and a brief introduction to how such symptoms are managed both within and outside of the medical clinic, we argue on one hand how unexplained conditions invite us to reconsider and re-think the concept we call a "symptom" and on the other hand how the concept "symptom" is no longer an adequate and necessary fulcrum and must be enriched by socio-cultural, phenomenological and existential dimensions. Consequently, our main aim is to expand both our interpretative horizon and the linguistic repertoire in the face of those appearances we label medically unexplained symptoms. PMID:23877313

Eriksen, Thor Eirik; Risør, Mette Bech

2014-02-01

80

Call Imitation and Call Modification in Red Crossbills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open-ended learning of flight calls has been found consistently in the subfamily Carduelinae. Understanding call learning is especially important in Red Crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) because calls appear to play an instrumental role in assortative mating, perhaps by acting as a marker trait that signals ecological adaptation for foraging on a particular species of conifer. We analyzed flight call recordings

T. L Parchman; CRAIG W. BENKMAN; B. Jenkins; C. S Buerkle

2008-01-01

81

Inbound and outbound calls assignment for an efficient call center  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to provide the solution for call center providers to overcome the problem of optimizing the call center's efficiency, while ensuring satisfactory customer service. By formulating a simulation to represent call center model based optimization approach helps eliminating the cost of uncertainty that might occur when the call center model is actually applied to the real life situation.

P. Chuchual; N. Chongpravatisakul; T. Kusolmanomai; S. Komolavanij

2010-01-01

82

Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs.  

PubMed

For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types - click, burst and trill - that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

Tobias, Martha L; Evans, Ben J; Kelley, Darcy B

2011-01-01

83

Call title: Call for INFLUENZA Call identifier: FP7-INFLUENZA-2010  

E-print Network

1 Call title: Call for INFLUENZA Call identifier: FP7-INFLUENZA-2010 Date of publication: 30 July of this Call is to address research needs in human and animal influenza in view of the recent outbreak of a novel human influenza virus containing swine and avian gene sequences, and taking into account

Milano-Bicocca, Università

84

Call title: ICT call 6 Call identifier: FP7-ICT-2009-6  

E-print Network

Call title: ICT call 6 · Call identifier: FP7-ICT-2009-6 · Date of publication1 : 24 November 2009 indicative budget breakdown in section 5 of the ICT work programme. · Topics called: Challenge Objectives Funding schemes4 Challenge 2: Cognitive systems, interaction, robotics ICT 2009.2.1 Cognitive Systems

Milano-Bicocca, Università

85

Call title: ICT call 5 Call identifier: FP7-ICT -2009-5  

E-print Network

1 Call title: ICT call 5 · Call identifier: FP7- ICT -2009-5 · Date of publication: 30 July 2009 See indicative budget breakdown in Section 5 of the ICT work programme. · Topics called: Challenge Objectives Funding schemes5 Challenge 1: Pervasive and Trusted Network and Service Infrastructures ICT 2009

Milano-Bicocca, Università

86

Nearest Neighbour Algorithms for Forecasting Call Arrivals in Call Centers  

E-print Network

. These goals are often defined as, 80% of all calls answered within a waiting time of 20 seconds, or an average waiting time of x seconds. Call centers want to reach these goals with minimal costs (e.g., loan wages, overhead costs). Stochastic queuing models are used to model call centers. Frequently used models, using

Bhulai, Sandjai

87

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places.  

PubMed

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

Collier, Travis C; Blumstein, Daniel T; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E

2010-12-01

88

Prompting in CALL: A Longitudinal Study of Learner Uptake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research presents a longitudinal study of learner uptake in a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) environment. Over the course of 3 semesters, 10 second language learners of German at a Canadian university used an online, parser-based CALL program that, for the purpose of this research, provided 2 different types of feedback of varying

Heift, Trude

2010-01-01

89

Time-Varying Quantiles  

E-print Network

¤erence between Q (:05) and the median, Q (:5), may be slowly changing, or even time invariant, even though the individual quantiles are changing rapidly. How do the q0s vary with #28;? The Monte Carlo experiments reported below are designed to throw some light... size, results in an estimator that is very close to these infeasible estimators. Table 2 illustrates a Monte Carlo experiment with the same design as in table 1 except that the sample size increased from 100 to 500. It is reas- suring that the median...

Harvey, Andrew C; De Rossi, Giuliano

90

Using a Bull Call Spread  

E-print Network

The Bull Call Spread can be used to hedge against or to benefit from a rising market. The user buys a call option at a particular strike price and sells a call option at a higher strike price. Margin requirements, advantages and disadvantages...

Bevers, Stan; Amosson, Stephen H.; Waller, Mark L.; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.

2008-10-07

91

The information that receivers extract from alarm calls in suricates.  

PubMed Central

Field observations and acoustic analyses have shown that suricate (Suricata suricatta) alarm calls vary in their acoustic structure depending on predator type. In this study, we tested whether receivers respond appropriately when hearing a call in the absence of a predator. Although the only way for suricates to escape from predators is to retreat to boltholes, responses to playbacks could be divided into distinct categories. The subjects responded differently to alarm calls given in response to aerial or terrestrial predators and to recruitment calls emitted in response to snakes and deposits on the ground. Suricates also showed rather distinct responses to low, medium and high urgency aerial calls. Differences in the responses were less obvious for different levels of urgency in the terrestrial and recruitment calls. Suricate receivers thus gain information about both the predator type and level of urgency from the acoustic structures of their calls. PMID:11747568

Manser, M B; Bell, M B; Fletcher, L B

2001-01-01

92

Compositional C++: Compositional Parallel Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compositional parallel program is a program constructed by composing component programs in parallel, where the composed program inherits properties of its components. In this paper, we describe a small extension of C++ called Compositional C++ or CC++ which is an object-oriented notation that supports compositional parallel programming. CC++ integrates different paradigms of parallel programming: data-parallel, task-parallel and object-parallel paradigms;

K. Mani Chandy; Carl Kesselman

1992-01-01

93

Nearest Neighbour Algorithms for Forecasting Call Arrivals in Call Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study a nearest neighbour algorithm for forecasting call arrivals to call centers. The algorithm does not require an underlying model for the arrival rates and it can be applied to historical data without pre-processing it. We show that this class of algorithms provides a more accurate forecast when compared to the conven- tional method that simply

Sandjai Bhulai; Wing Hong Kan; Elena Marchiori

94

Energetic composites  

DOEpatents

A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application. 3 figures.

Danen, W.C.; Martin, J.A.

1993-11-30

95

Energetic composites  

DOEpatents

A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application.

Danen, Wayne C. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, Joe A. (Espanola, NM)

1993-01-01

96

Acoustic adaptation in pygmy marmoset contact calls: Locational cues vary with distances between conspecifics  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea, has four trill variants in its vocal repertoire. One of these trills has a different behavioral message from the other three. However, the remaining trills, which were physically different from each other, did not seem to differ in their behavioral messages.2.The three trills can be ordered according to their acoustic cues for sound localization. This

Charles T. Snowdon; Alexandra Hodun

1981-01-01

97

Call for Papers Workshop at  

E-print Network

of component composition · Industrial experience, such as adoption issues, with formal techniques for component · Component-based specification languages · Static analysis of components and component compositions · Verification-oriented design methodologies for components · Dynamic checking techniques, including run

Leavens, Gary T.

98

Call for Papers Workshop at  

E-print Network

checking of components and component compositions · Verification-oriented design methodologies/formal verification, scalability/coverage, etc.) · Theories of component composition · Industrial experience techniques to component based systems · Educational experience or tactics for formal approaches to component

Leavens, Gary T.

99

Structure of the mating calls and relationships of the European tree frogs (Hylidae, anura)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an extension of earlier investigations, the mating calls ofHyla arborea kretensis, Hyla a. molleri, andHyla a. sarda were studied, and variations in the calls with air temperature were determined. The mating calls of these species exhibit the typical structure, made up of short pulses of varying amplitude. The call duration and the inter-call interval decrease linearly with increasing temperature

Hans Schneider

1974-01-01

100

Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

2006-05-01

101

CALL Essentials: Principles and Practice in CALL Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computers and the Internet offer innovative teachers exciting ways to enhance their pedagogy and capture their students' attention. These technologies have created a growing field of inquiry, computer-assisted language learning (CALL). As new technologies have emerged, teaching professionals have adapted them to support teachers and learners in…

Egbert, Joy

2005-01-01

102

Flocking and signaling: the role of calling in swift aggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent landmark studies of flocking and other collective behavior have focused on trajectories and internal flock structure, not how perception and communications relate to flock dynamics. Using video and bioacoustic techniques, we investigated the role of referential signaling in flock formation by chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica) through field studies of native populations during the breeding and nesting seasons. These aerial insectivores forage individually and in flocks of varying size while emitting only two distinct types of calls with simple spectral structures. Video-based tracking of their flight trajectories and spectrographic analysis of their calls showed that specific calls are correlated with the onset of flock formation. We present results from a study of how the sequence of the two types of calls, the call repetition rate and duration, and other factors relate to the initiation of flocking and other aspects of collective motion.

Mayo, Alyssa; Zamani, Marjon; Amador Kane, Suzanne

2013-03-01

103

Learning as Calling and Responding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue, our being-in-the-world is to be conceived of as an existential dialogue. Elsewhere, I have conceptualized the teacher-student-relation accordingly (see Jons 2008), as a matter of calling and responding. The conceptualization rests on a secularised notion of vocation, paving way for…

Jons, Lotta

2014-01-01

104

Call for Papers Web Graphics  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Web Graphics Special Issue of IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications Guest Editors a migration of traditional applications to run on the Web environment and a growing demand for more powerful web-based applications. Fused by the increasing availability and dramatic reduction in the cost of 3D

Lau, W. H. Nynson

105

CALL FOR ARTISTS Alumni Exhibition  

E-print Network

CALL FOR ARTISTS Alumni Exhibition: WSU Art Education & Art Therapy The WSU Art Education and Art planned to take place in the showcases along the hallway and exit stairwell of the Art Education & Art Education Program, in conjunction with the Art and Art History Department, has won a grant to start

Berdichevsky, Victor

106

Preparation of Carbon Nanotube-Composite  

E-print Network

A composite is made up of two distinct materials and the resulted properties are different from the individual precursors. Composite combines a huge or bulkier element called matrix and reinforcement called filler or fiber. Fiber is added...

Sharma, Sundeep

2011-08-08

107

Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).  

PubMed

Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species. PMID:23966949

Wright, Genevieve S; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Moss, Cynthia F

2013-01-01

108

Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)  

PubMed Central

Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species. PMID:23966949

Wright, Genevieve S.; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Moss, Cynthia F.

2013-01-01

109

Look who is calling: a comparison of genotype calling algorithms  

PubMed Central

In genome-wide association studies, high-level statistical analyses rely on the validity of the called genotypes, and different genotype calling algorithms (GCAs) have been proposed. We compared the GCAs Bayesian robust linear modeling using Mahalanobis distance (BRLMM), Chiamo++, and JAPL using the autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the 500 k Affymetrix Array Set data of the Framingham Heart Study as provided for the Genetic Analysis Workshop 16, Problem 2, and prepared standard quality control (sQC) for each algorithm. Using JAPL, most individuals were retained for the analysis. The lowest number of SNPs that successfully passed sQC was observed for BRLMM and the highest for Chiamo++. All three GCAs fulfilled all sQC criteria for 79% of the SNPs but at least one GCA failed for 18% of the SNPs. Previously undetected errors in strand coding were identified by comparing genotype concordances between GCAs. Concordance dropped with the number of GCAs failing sQC. We conclude that JAPL and Chiamo++ are the GCAs of choice if the aim is to keep as many subjects and SNPs as possible, respectively. PMID:20018052

2009-01-01

110

Look who is calling: a comparison of genotype calling algorithms.  

PubMed

In genome-wide association studies, high-level statistical analyses rely on the validity of the called genotypes, and different genotype calling algorithms (GCAs) have been proposed. We compared the GCAs Bayesian robust linear modeling using Mahalanobis distance (BRLMM), Chiamo++, and JAPL using the autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the 500 k Affymetrix Array Set data of the Framingham Heart Study as provided for the Genetic Analysis Workshop 16, Problem 2, and prepared standard quality control (sQC) for each algorithm. Using JAPL, most individuals were retained for the analysis. The lowest number of SNPs that successfully passed sQC was observed for BRLMM and the highest for Chiamo++. All three GCAs fulfilled all sQC criteria for 79% of the SNPs but at least one GCA failed for 18% of the SNPs. Previously undetected errors in strand coding were identified by comparing genotype concordances between GCAs. Concordance dropped with the number of GCAs failing sQC. We conclude that JAPL and Chiamo++ are the GCAs of choice if the aim is to keep as many subjects and SNPs as possible, respectively. PMID:20018052

Vens, Maren; Schillert, Arne; König, Inke R; Ziegler, Andreas

2009-01-01

111

Stability of Call Sequence in Dugongs' Vocalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dugongs (Dugong dugon) produce different types of vocalization such as chirp, trill, and barks. Previous reports showed that dugongs have two kinds of phonemes: long duration calls (trill) and short duration calls (chirp-squeaks hereinafter called chirp). Especially, the chirp and trill calls were widely reported in different populations. However, characteristics of call patterns in dugongs have never been reported. Moreover,

N. Okumura; K. Ichikawa; T. Akamatsu; N. Arai; T. Shinke; T. Hara; K. Adulyanukosol

2006-01-01

112

[Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)].  

PubMed

The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of temperature in acoustic components. The results suggest that acoustic variables show geographic variation to compare data with previous works. PMID:23894980

Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

2013-03-01

113

Individual, contextual, and age-related acoustic variation in Simakobu (Simias concolor) loud calls.  

PubMed

Primate loud calls have the potential to encode information about the identity, arousal, age, or physical condition of the caller, even at long distances. In this study, we conducted an analysis of the acoustic features of the loud calls produced by a species of Asian colobine monkey (simakobu, Simias concolor). Adult male simakobu produce loud calls spontaneously and in response to loud sounds and other loud calls, which are audible more than 500 m. Individual differences in calling rates and durations exist, but it is unknown what these differences signal and which other acoustic features vary among individuals. We aimed to describe the structure and usage of calls and to examine acoustic features that vary within and among individuals. We determined the context of 318 loud calls and analyzed 170 loud calls recorded from 10 adult males at an undisturbed site, Pungut, Siberut Island, Indonesia. Most calls (53%) followed the loud call of another male, 31% were spontaneous, and the remaining 16% followed a loud environmental disturbance. The fundamental frequency (F0) decreased while inter-unit intervals (IUI) increased over the course of loud call bouts, possibly indicating caller fatigue. Discriminant function analysis indicated that calls were not well discriminated by context, but spontaneous calls had higher peak frequencies, suggesting a higher level of arousal. Individual calls were distinct and individuals were mainly discriminated by IUI, call duration, and F0. Loud calls of older males had shorter IUI and lower F0, while middle-aged males had the highest peak frequencies. Overall, we found that calls were individually distinct and may provide information about the age, stamina, and arousal of the calling male, and could thus be a way for males and females to assess competitors and mates from long distances. PMID:24376651

Erb, Wendy M; Hodges, J Keith; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

2013-01-01

114

Individual, Contextual, and Age-Related Acoustic Variation in Simakobu (Simias concolor) Loud Calls  

PubMed Central

Primate loud calls have the potential to encode information about the identity, arousal, age, or physical condition of the caller, even at long distances. In this study, we conducted an analysis of the acoustic features of the loud calls produced by a species of Asian colobine monkey (simakobu, Simias concolor). Adult male simakobu produce loud calls spontaneously and in response to loud sounds and other loud calls, which are audible more than 500 m. Individual differences in calling rates and durations exist, but it is unknown what these differences signal and which other acoustic features vary among individuals. We aimed to describe the structure and usage of calls and to examine acoustic features that vary within and among individuals. We determined the context of 318 loud calls and analyzed 170 loud calls recorded from 10 adult males at an undisturbed site, Pungut, Siberut Island, Indonesia. Most calls (53%) followed the loud call of another male, 31% were spontaneous, and the remaining 16% followed a loud environmental disturbance. The fundamental frequency (F0) decreased while inter-unit intervals (IUI) increased over the course of loud call bouts, possibly indicating caller fatigue. Discriminant function analysis indicated that calls were not well discriminated by context, but spontaneous calls had higher peak frequencies, suggesting a higher level of arousal. Individual calls were distinct and individuals were mainly discriminated by IUI, call duration, and F0. Loud calls of older males had shorter IUI and lower F0, while middle-aged males had the highest peak frequencies. Overall, we found that calls were individually distinct and may provide information about the age, stamina, and arousal of the calling male, and could thus be a way for males and females to assess competitors and mates from long distances. PMID:24376651

Erb, Wendy M.; Hodges, J. Keith; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

2013-01-01

115

Open-loop control of IPMC actuators under varying temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of size and complexity concerns, implementing feedback control for ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators is often difficult or costly in many of their envisioned biomedical and robotic applications. It is thus of interest to develop open-loop control strategies for these actuators. Such strategies, however, are susceptible to change of IPMC dynamics under varying environmental conditions, a predominant example being

Roy Dong; Xiaobo Tan

2011-01-01

116

Calling behavior of blue and fin whales off California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive acoustic monitoring is an effective means for evaluating cetacean presence in remote regions and over long time periods, and may become an important component of cetacean abundance surveys. To use passive acoustic recordings for abundance estimation, an understanding of the behavioral ecology of cetacean calling is crucial. In this dissertation, I develop a better understanding of how blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin (B. physalus ) whales use sound with the goal of evaluating passive acoustic techniques for studying their populations. Both blue and fin whales produce several different call types, though the behavioral and environmental context of these calls have not been widely investigated. To better understand how calling is used by these whales off California I have employed both new technologies and traditional techniques, including acoustic recording tags, continuous long-term autonomous acoustic recordings, and simultaneous shipboard acoustic and visual surveys. The outcome of these investigations has led to several conclusions. The production of blue whale calls varies with sex, behavior, season, location, and time of day. Each blue whale call type has a distinct behavioral context, including a male-only bias in the production of song, a call type thought to function in reproduction, and the production of some calls by both sexes. Long-term acoustic records, when interpreted using all call types, provide a more accurate measure of the local seasonal presence of whales, and how they use the region annually, seasonally and daily. The relative occurrence of different call types may indicate prime foraging habitat and the presence of different segments of the population. The proportion of animals heard calling changes seasonally and geographically relative to the number seen, indicating the calibration of acoustic and visual surveys is complex and requires further study on the motivations behind call production and the behavior of calling whales. These findings will play a role in the future development of acoustic census methods and habitat studies for these species, and will provide baseline information for the determination of anthropogenic impacts on these populations.

Oleson, Erin Marie

117

Supplementary Table 1 status number of regions calls in A calls in B calls in C calls in D calls in E average  

E-print Network

called as CNVs in three replicate comparisons of NA15510 versus the HapMap reference set using the 500K NA15510 compared to the 270 HapMap samples. The total number of CNVs detected by each replicate in size window minimum SNPs 500K EA NA15510 vs NA10851 500K EA NA15510 vs HapMap 500K EA NA10851 vs HapMap

Pennsylvania, University of

118

Varying-? and K-essence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a model which allows the fine structure constant (?) to vary throughout space and time due to a coupling to a scalar field with a non-canonical kinetic structure. This provided a new extension of the Bekenstein-Sandvik-Barrow-Magueijo model of ? variations. The background cosmology is studied in detail using dynamical systems techniques for a scalar field of ghost condensate type. We show generically that if the kinetic terms are chosen to allow an accelerated late-time attractor for the expansion scale factor then ? will not asymptote to a constant at late times.

Graham, Alexander A. H.

2015-01-01

119

Hydride compositions  

DOEpatents

A composition for use in storing hydrogen, and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the hydrogen equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to hydrogen and then heating at a temperature below the softening temperature of any of the. constituents so that their chemical and structural integrity is preserved. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P.sub.H.sbsb.2 and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

Lee, Myung W. (North Augusta, SC)

1995-01-01

120

NOCTURNAL FLIGHT CALL OF BICKNELL'S THRUSH  

Microsoft Academic Search

AnsraAcr. -Audio recordings of nocturnal flight calls of migrating birds along the east- central Florida coast in May have documented calls that sound similar to those from Gray- cheeked Thrushes (Cutharus minimus). Spectrographic comparison of these \\

WILLIAM R. EVANS

121

Qualitative Strategy for Inbound Call Center Outsourcing  

E-print Network

An analysis of the various challenges of the call center industry, together with the challenges of outsourcing, revealed a need for developing a strategy that acts as a guide for organizations that are willing to outsource their call center...

Sankaranaraynan, Meenakshi

2010-05-14

122

Local Varying-Alpha Theories  

E-print Network

In a recent paper we demonstrated how the simplest model for varying alpha may be interpreted as the effect of a dielectric material, generalized to be consistent with Lorentz invariance. Unlike normal dielectrics, such a medium cannot change the speed of light, and its dynamics obey a Klein-Gordon equation. This work immediately suggests an extension of the standard theory, even if we require compliance with Lorentz invariance. Instead of a wave equation, the dynamics may satisfy a local algebraic relation involving the permittivity and the properties of the electromagnetic field, in analogy with more conventional dielectric (but still preserving Lorentz invariance). We develop the formalism for such theories and investigate some phenomenological implications. The problem of the divergence of the classical self-energy can be solved, or at least softened, in this framework. Some interesting new cosmological solutions for the very early universe are found, including the possibility of a bounce, inflation and e...

Barrow, John D

2014-01-01

123

Perceiving a Calling, Living a Calling, and Job Satisfaction: Testing a Moderated, Multiple Mediator Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated…

Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Dik, Bryan J.

2012-01-01

124

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sign to each station in a different class. (In addition to the U.S. call sign allocations listed below, call sign blocks AAA through AEZ and ALA through ALZ have been assigned to the Department of the Army; call sign block AFA through AKZ has...

2010-10-01

125

Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication  

PubMed Central

Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal. PMID:23034703

Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

2012-01-01

126

Temporal stability and change in the social call repertoire of migrating humpback whales.  

PubMed

Quantifying the stability of a species vocal repertoire is fundamental for further investigations into repertoire function and geographic variation. Changes to the repertoire of sounds used in the song displays of male humpback whales have been well studied. In contrast, little is known about the stability of this species' non-song vocal calls. The stability of the social call repertoire of east Australian humpback whales was investigated from 1997, 2003-2004, and 2008. Out of 46 qualitatively defined call types, 19 were classified as "song-unit calls" that tended to change with the song, and 15 were "inconsistent" and only found in one or two years. Twelve call types were "stable" and present in all years and were commonly produced (64.2% of calls). Stable calls tended to vary in some of the measured call parameters but there was no clear trend between years. This result could indicate that minor changes to calls are not permanent, but reflect individual differences in call production or the graded nature of calls within different social environments. This research has clearly identified stable calls in the call repertoire of humpback whales and while their function is not well understood, their stability suggests an important role in social interactions. PMID:23464047

Rekdahl, Melinda L; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Noad, Michael J; Goldizen, Anne W

2013-03-01

127

Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties.  

PubMed

In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks. PMID:24510159

Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

2014-01-01

128

Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties  

PubMed Central

In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks. PMID:24510159

Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

2014-01-01

129

Local Varying-Alpha Theories  

E-print Network

In a recent paper we demonstrated how the simplest model for varying alpha may be interpreted as the effect of a dielectric material, generalized to be consistent with Lorentz invariance. Unlike normal dielectrics, such a medium cannot change the speed of light, and its dynamics obey a Klein-Gordon equation. This work immediately suggests an extension of the standard theory, even if we require compliance with Lorentz invariance. Instead of a wave equation, the dynamics may satisfy a local algebraic relation involving the permittivity and the properties of the electromagnetic field, in analogy with more conventional dielectric (but still preserving Lorentz invariance). We develop the formalism for such theories and investigate some phenomenological implications. The problem of the divergence of the classical self-energy can be solved, or at least softened, in this framework. Some interesting new cosmological solutions for the very early universe are found, including the possibility of a bounce, inflation and expansion with a loitering phase, all of which are induced by early variations in alpha.

John D. Barrow; Joao Magueijo

2015-01-30

130

Scaled Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 18, 2003, an historic event in space travel was marked by the unveiling of the first private manned spacecraft and launch platform (called SpaceShipOne and White Knight, respectively). Already constructed and in the test flight stage of its development, the project was hidden from the public in order to reveal a finished product rather than just schematics. Scaled Composites, the private company that developed the spacecraft, gives data sheets and photos on its homepage. A detailed list of frequently asked questions addresses many issues regarding the project and its implications.

131

Lunar Phases and Crisis Center Telephone Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls.

James E. Wilson II; Jerome J. Tobacyk

1990-01-01

132

Buckling response of laminates with spatially varying fiber orientations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The buckling response of a symmetrically laminated composite panel with a spatially varying fiber orientation has been analyzed. Variation of the fiber orientation angle as a function of the position in the panel results in a composite laminate with stiffness properties that are functions of the panel coordinates. The laminates are therefore termed variable stiffness panels. The fiber orientation is assumed to vary only in one spatial direction, although the analysis can be extended to fiber orientations that vary in two spatial directions. The Ritz Method has been used to find the buckling loads and buckling modes for the variable stiffness panels for two different cases. In one of the cases the fiber orientation is assumed to change in the direction of the applied load. The other case is the one in which the fiber orientation varies in a direction perpendicular to the loading direction. Improvements in the buckling load of up to 80 percent over straight fiber configurations were found. Results for three different panel aspect ratios are presented.

Olmedo, Reynaldo; Gurdal, Zafer

1993-01-01

133

Eliminating Virtual Function Calls in C++ Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and implemented an optimizing source-to- source C++ compiler that reduces the frequency of virtual function calls. Our prototype implementation demonstrates the value of OO-specific optimization for C++. Despite some limitations of our system, and despite the low frequency of virtual function calls in some of the programs, optimization improves the performance of a suite of large C++

Gerald Aigner; Urs Hölzle

1996-01-01

134

Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

2009-01-01

135

Call by Contract for Cryptographic Protocols?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Call by contract is a way to specify and use interchangeable services in secure protocols, so that protocols and services can be inde- pendently designed and verified. A selection algorithm is given to test whether a candidate service is uniformly selectable. To facilitate inde- pendent security verification of the calling protocol and its services, con- tracts and requests also provide

Jonathan Millen; Joshua Guttman; John Ramsdell; Justin Sheehy; Brian Snien

136

A CALL for Improved School Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comprehensive Assessment of Leadership for Learning (CALL) is a formative assessment that provides feedback to schools on the research-based leadership practices necessary to improve teaching and learning. Instead of focusing on an individual leader, CALL measures leadership practices in tasks carried out by actors across the school and…

Halverson, Richard; Kelley, Carolyn; Shaw, James

2014-01-01

137

Engine knock and combustion characteristics of a spark ignition engine operating with varying hydrogen and carbon monoxide proportions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varying proportions of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (synthesis gas) have been investigated as a spark ignition (SI) engine fuel in this paper. It is important to understand how various synthesis gas compositions effect important SI combustion fundamentals, such as knock and burn duration, because in synthesis gas production applications, the compositions can vary significantly depending on the feedstock and production

Anil Singh Bika; Luke Franklin; David B. Kittelson

2011-01-01

138

A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics.  

PubMed

Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

Magrath, Robert D; Bennett, Thomas H

2012-03-01

139

Perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction: testing a moderated, multiple mediator model.  

PubMed

The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated the relations of perceiving a calling with career commitment and work meaning, such that these relations were more robust for those with a stronger sense they were living their calling. Additionally, a moderated, multiple mediator model was run to examine the mediating role of career commitment and work meaning in the relation of perceiving a calling and job satisfaction, while accounting for the moderating role of living a calling. Results indicated that work meaning and career commitment fully mediated the relation between perceiving a calling and job satisfaction. However, the indirect effects of work meaning and career commitment were only significant for individuals with high levels of living a calling, indicating the importance of living a calling in the link between perceiving a calling and job satisfaction. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:22059426

Duffy, Ryan D; Bott, Elizabeth M; Allan, Blake A; Torrey, Carrie L; Dik, Bryan J

2012-01-01

140

Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.  

PubMed

The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group. PMID:2325400

Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

1990-02-01

141

Acoustic similarity to parental calls promotes response to unfamiliar calls in zebra finch fledglings  

E-print Network

Acoustic similarity to parental calls promotes response to unfamiliar calls in zebra finch: acoustic communication acoustic similarity individual recognition Taeniopygia guttata zebra finch influences the occurrence of false responses. We used acoustic parenteoffspring recognition in zebra finches

Richner, Heinz

142

Call for PapersCall for Papers Annals of Operations Research  

E-print Network

of Operations Research seeks submissions for a special volume on Stochastic Methods in Reliability and RiskCall for PapersCall for Papers Annals of Operations Research Special Volume: Stochastic Methods in Reliability and Risk Management _______________________________________________________________ The Annals

143

Time-varying Reeb Graphs: A Topological Framework Supporting the Analysis of Continuous Time-varying Data  

SciTech Connect

I present time-varying Reeb graphs as a topological framework to support the analysis of continuous time-varying data. Such data is captured in many studies, including computational fluid dynamics, oceanography, medical imaging, and climate modeling, by measuring physical processes over time, or by modeling and simulating them on a computer. Analysis tools are applied to these data sets by scientists and engineers who seek to understand the underlying physical processes. A popular tool for analyzing scientific datasets is level sets, which are the points in space with a fixed data value s. Displaying level sets allows the user to study their geometry, their topological features such as connected components, handles, and voids, and to study the evolution of these features for varying s. For static data, the Reeb graph encodes the evolution of topological features and compactly represents topological information of all level sets. The Reeb graph essentially contracts each level set component to a point. It can be computed efficiently, and it has several uses: as a succinct summary of the data, as an interface to select meaningful level sets, as a data structure to accelerate level set extraction, and as a guide to remove noise. I extend these uses of Reeb graphs to time-varying data. I characterize the changes to Reeb graphs over time, and develop an algorithm that can maintain a Reeb graph data structure by tracking these changes over time. I store this sequence of Reeb graphs compactly, and call it a time-varying Reeb graph. I augment the time-varying Reeb graph with information that records the topology of level sets of all level values at all times, that maintains the correspondence of level set components over time, and that accelerates the extraction of level sets for a chosen level value and time. Scientific data sampled in space-time must be extended everywhere in this domain using an interpolant. A poor choice of interpolant can create degeneracies that are difficult to resolve, making construction of time-varying Reeb graphs impractical. I investigate piecewise-linear, piecewise-trilinear, and piecewise-prismatic interpolants, and conclude that piecewise-prismatic is the best choice for computing time-varying Reeb graphs. Large Reeb graphs must be simplified for an effective presentation in a visualization system. I extend an algorithm for simplifying static Reeb graphs to compute simplifications of time-varying Reeb graphs as a first step towards building a visualization system to support the analysis of time-varying data.

Mascarenhas, A

2006-11-28

144

Process Industries Division CALL FOR PAPERS  

E-print Network

Process Industries Division CALL FOR PAPERS The Process Industries Division of ASME is sponsoring a series of sessions on issues facing Process industries, such as Heat Exchangers Performance, Compression Technology, Water Purification / Treatment Technologies, Low Temperature Industrial Applications, etc

Müller, Norbert

145

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research Special Volume: Advances in Computational, the emerging research incorporating advances in computational optimization has been proven to be useful Volume of the Annals of Operations Research on Advances in Computational Optimization and Logistics

146

CALL FOR PAPERS Elsevier -Computer Communications Journal  

E-print Network

users' behaviour and its evolution over time · Comparison of human social CALL FOR PAPERS Elsevier - Computer Communications Journal Special the human behavior. It spans a number of disciplines, across numerous fields

Fu, Xiaoming

147

Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls  

PubMed Central

In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/97 PMID:23206277

2012-01-01

148

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS LIFE WITH DEMENTIA: RELATIONS  

E-print Network

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS LIFE WITH DEMENTIA: RELATIONS 2nd International Conference Centre for Dementia Research Linköping University Norrköping WITH DEMENTIA: RELATIONS is to bring together scholars from a broad range

Zhao, Yuxiao

149

Calling cards for DNA-binding proteins  

PubMed Central

Identifying genomic targets of transcription factors is fundamental for understanding transcriptional regulatory networks. Current technology enables identification of all targets of a single transcription factor, but there is no realistic way to achieve the converse: identification of all proteins that bind to a promoter of interest. We have developed a method that promises to fill this void. It employs the yeast retrotransposon Ty5, whose integrase interacts with the Sir4 protein. A DNA-binding protein fused to Sir4 directs insertion of Ty5 into the genome near where it binds; the Ty5 becomes a “calling card” the DNA-binding protein leaves behind in the genome. We constructed customized calling cards for seven transcription factors of yeast by including in each Ty5 a unique DNA sequence that serves as a “molecular bar code.” Ty5 transposition was induced in a population of yeast cells, each expressing a different transcription factor–Sir4 fusion and its matched, bar-coded Ty5, and the calling cards deposited into selected regions of the genome were identified, revealing the transcription factors that visited that region of the genome. In each region we analyzed, we found calling cards for only the proteins known to bind there: In the GAL1–10 promoter we found only calling cards for Gal4; in the HIS4 promoter we found only Gcn4 calling cards; in the PHO5 promoter we found only Pho4 and Pho2 calling cards. We discuss how Ty5 calling cards might be implemented for mapping all targets of all transcription factors in a single experiment. PMID:17623806

Wang, Haoyi; Johnston, Mark; Mitra, Robi David

2007-01-01

150

Performance analysis of several call launching schemes in an outbound call management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbound call management (OCM) system is used in launching calls to customers in a company or service center for the purpose or application of, for example, bill processing. Preliminary study of OCM systems has been done in a few prior studies. This paper conducts performance analysis of several new call launching schemes for an OCM system. An empirical scheme

Jin-Fu Chang; Yuh-Yuan Wang

1996-01-01

151

Twelve years of tracking 52-Hz whale calls from a unique source in the North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique whale call with 50-52 Hz emphasis from a single source has been tracked over 12 years in the central and eastern North Pacific. These calls, referred to as 52-Hz calls, were monitored and analyzed from acoustic data recorded by hydrophones of the US Navy Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) and other arrays. The calls were noticed first in 1989, and have been detected and tracked since 1992. No other calls with similar characteristics have been identified in the acoustic data from any hydrophone system in the North Pacific basin. Only one series of these 52-Hz calls has been recorded at a time, with no call overlap, suggesting that a single whale produced the calls. The calls were recorded from August to February with most in December and January. The species producing these calls is unknown. The tracks of the 52-Hz whale were different each year, and varied in length from 708 to 11,062 km with travel speeds ranging from 0.7 to 3.8 km/h. Tracks included (A) meandering over short ranges, (B) predominantly west-to-east movement, and (C) mostly north-to-south travel. These tracks consistently appeared to be unrelated to the presence or movement of other whale species (blue, fin and humpback) monitored year-round with the same hydrophones.

Watkins, William A.; Daher, Mary Ann; George, Joseph E.; Rodriguez, David

2004-12-01

152

Persistent identification of time-varying systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of time-varying systems, especially slowly time-varying systems, is of importance in the development of a comprehensive theory of adaptation. The persistent identification measures employed in this paper capture a main characterization in such identification problems, namely, one input signal must be used for identification of all possible observation windows. This paper establishes several essential features in persistent identification problems

Le Yi Wang

1997-01-01

153

Fractal analysis of time varying data  

DOEpatents

Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN); Sadana, Ajit (Oxford, MS)

2002-01-01

154

Adult Vampire Bats Produce Contact Calls When Isolated: Acoustic Variation by Species, Population, Colony, and Individual  

PubMed Central

Background Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae) would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. Methods/Principal Findings We assessed variation in contact calls recorded from isolated captive and wild-caught adult common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). We compared species-typical contact call structure, and used information theory and permuted discriminate function analyses to examine call structure variation, and to determine if the individuality of contact calls is encoded by different call features across species and populations. We found that isolated adult vampire bats produce contact calls that vary by species, population, colony, and individual. However, much variation occurred within a single context and individual. We estimated signature information for captive Diaemus (same colony), captive Desmodus (same colony), and wild Desmodus (different colonies) at 3.21, 3.26, and 3.88 bits, respectively. Contact calls from a captive colony of Desmodus were less individually distinct than calls from wild-caught Desmodus from different colonies. Both the degree of individuality and parameters encoding individuality differed between the bats from a single captive colony and the wild-caught individuals from different groups. This result is consistent with, but not sufficient evidence of, vocal convergence in groups. Conclusion Our results show that adult vampire bats of all three species produce highly variable contact calls when isolated. Contact calls contain sufficient information for vocal discrimination, but also possess more intra-individual variation than is required for the sole purpose of identifying individuals. PMID:22719947

Carter, Gerald G.; Logsdon, Ryane; Arnold, Bryan D.; Menchaca, Angelica; Medellin, Rodrigo A.

2012-01-01

155

Speech privacy in customer service call centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Customer service call centers are a special type of open plan office with different design considerations and different acoustical goals. Workers want a high degree of visual and verbal contact with adjacent members of their team, but customers do not want to hear crosstalk from other conversations. Achieving the correct balance between these conflicting goals is a challenge for the architect and acoustic consultant. This paper will present several case studies of different call centers with acoustic measurements, user comments, and other subjective assessment methods.

Foulkes, Timothy

2005-09-01

156

47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for voluntary digital selective calling (DSC) equipment and selective calling equipment...Standards for Digital Selective Calling (DSC) Equipment Providing Minimum Distress and Safety...Class ‘D’ Digital Selective Calling (DSC)—Methods of testing...

2010-10-01

157

Is the Frequency Content of the Calls in North American Treefrogs Limited by Their Larynges?  

PubMed Central

A high diversity of mating calls is found among frogs. The calls of most species, however, are simple, in comparison to those of mammals and birds. In order to determine if the mechanics of the larynx could explain the simplicity of treefrog calls, the larynges of euthanized males were activated with airflow. Laryngeal airflow, sound frequency, and sound intensity showed a positive direct relationship with the driving air pressure. While the natural calls of the studied species exhibit minimal frequency modulation, their larynges produced about an octave of frequency modulation in response to varying pulmonary pressure. Natural advertisement calls are produced near the higher extreme of frequency obtained in the laboratory and at a slightly higher intensity (6?dB). Natural calls also exhibit fewer harmonics than artificial ones, because the larynges were activated with the mouth of the animal open. The results revealed that treefrog larynges allow them to produce calls spanning a much greater range of frequencies than observed in nature; therefore, the simplicity of the calls is not due to a limited frequency range of laryngeal output. Low frequencies are produced at low intensities, however, and this could explain why treefrogs concentrate their calling at the high frequencies. PMID:25332838

2014-01-01

158

Passivity-preserving model order reduction of linear time-varying macromodels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study model order reduction (MOR) of continuous-time linear time-varying (LTV) systems. Examples include circuit or interconnect models found in VLSI marco-modeling. Specifically, a time-varying version of positive-real balanced truncation (PRBT), called LTV-PRBT, is proposed, which preserves the passivity of LTV systems for stable global simulation. Implementation details are discussed together with a brief outline of a discrete-time counterpart of

Yansong Liu; Ngai Wong

2007-01-01

159

Parental alarm calls suppress nestling vocalization.  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary models suggest that the cost of a signal can ensure its honesty. Empirical studies of nestling begging imply that predator attraction can impose such a cost. However, parents might reduce or abolish this cost by warning young of the presence of danger. We tested, in a controlled field playback experiment, whether alarm calls cause 5-, 8- and 11-day-old nestlings of the white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, to suppress vocalization. In this species, nestlings vocalize when parents visit the nest ('begging') and when they are absent ('non-begging'), so we measured effects on both types of vocalization. Playback of parental alarm calls suppressed non-begging vocalization almost completely but only slightly reduced begging calls during a playback of parental feeding calls that followed. The reaction of nestlings was largely independent of age. Our results suggest two reasons why experiments ignoring the role of parents probably overestimate the real cost of nestling vocalizations. Parents can warn young from a distance about the presence of danger and so suppress non-begging vocalizations that might otherwise be overheard, and a parent's presence at the nest presumably indicates when it is safe to beg. PMID:15306351

Platzen, Dirk; Magrath, Robert D.

2004-01-01

160

HARDROCK MINING 2002 CALL FOR ABSTRACTS: ANNOUNCEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1539 Martin, A. Hardrock Mining 2002 Call for Abstracts. Hardrock Mining 2002, Westminster, CO, 5/7-9/2002. EPA/625/F- 01/003. and future environmental issues shaping the mining industry with emphasis on case study analysis and technology verification. This flyer is a...

161

Call for Papers Journal of Energy Engineering  

E-print Network

2 policies is crucial for the power sector to develop effective strategies. The Journal of EnergyCall for Papers Journal of Energy Engineering Special Issue on Implications of CO2 Emissions.g., CO2 leakage) · risk management associated with CO2 emissions policies · renewable energy development

Tseng, Chung-Li

162

Don't Call It School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Homeschooling," "deschooling," and "unschooling" are commonly used terms in the alternative-education world, but each lacks specificity. In this article, the author describes what he discovered during several visits to North Star. Known officially as North Star: Self-Directed Learning for Teens, it is not as structured as a so-called "free"…

Robb, Daniel

2006-01-01

163

Tesla TechFair Call for Proposals  

E-print Network

are celebrating Nikola Tesla, in conjunction with Tesla in New York, an opera by filmmaker Jim Jarmusch & composer | 4:00-6:00 PM | Spanos Auditorium/Great Hall, Thayer | Free Discover how Nikola Tesla's inventionsTesla TechFair Call for Proposals Thayer School of Engineering and the Hopkins Center

164

Why We Like to Call Ourselves Latinas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the complex and subtle reasons why many people of Spanish-speaking ancestry, both Latin Americans and Spaniards, like to call themselves Latinos. Among other things, this word, coined by the Mediterranean countries to resist Anglo dominance in the 19th century, is currently being used by people of Spanish-speaking ancestry…

Gonzlez, Christina; Gandara, Patricia

2005-01-01

165

Mutual calling between C and FORTRAN program.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interface method between programs written in C and FORTRAN computer languages is introduced. Using this method, both C and FORTRAN programs can call the processes or functions written by the other computer language simply. When developing a system software package for a special function, one can comprehensively utilize the superiority of two computer languages.

Wu, Junqin

166

Using CALL in EFL Reading Comprehension Classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advances are constantly opening new doors toward human life; linguistics and pedagogy too, keep on renewing themselves. During the past decade, use of computers in educational settings has increased dramatically. Meanwhile, application of CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) is experiencing a renaissance in the modern language teaching and learning arena, with a high growth of popularity. The present study

Amir Marzban

167

CALL FOR PAPERS Reliability Management and Computing  

E-print Network

of Operations Research Most of the products which affect our daily lives are becoming more complex. Reliability's competitive marketplace. Articles concerning new research on product reliability management with particular CALL FOR PAPERS on Reliability Management and Computing Special Volume of the Annals

168

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research Special Volume: Stochastic Methods in Reliability of Operations Research seeks submissions for a special volume on Stochastic Methods in Reliability and Risk Management dedicated to the research areas of applied probability presented at the Seventh International

Li, Haijun

169

Women and Nature: Responding to the Call  

E-print Network

. Matter was made up of dead, inert atoms; human bodies and animals were considered to be machines., Is Nature Calling? Santa Rosa, CA: Polebridge Press, in press. In 1962, Rachel Carson published Silent worldview of #12;2 Nature as a living organism and a nurturing mother to the idea of Nature as a machine

Merchant, Carolyn

170

Hydraulic fractur ing--also called hy  

E-print Network

.S. since development of gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale has become increasingly viableHydraulic fractur ing--also called hy drofracking or frack ing--is a process where large volumes Schematic diagram of underground natural gas sources, including gasrich shale. Image: original, U

Goodman, Robert M.

171

Call for applications: International Summer School  

E-print Network

1 / 2 Call for applications: International Summer School "The city and the village: separationsMIS), Göttingen, Germany, 15 ­ 20 July 2012 For its 2012 International Summer School, the Centre for Modern Indian. The format of the International Summer School combines lectures, reading sessions and discussions based

Krivobokova, Tatyana

172

CALL FOR PROPOSALS ATLANTIC BLUEFIN TUNA RESEARCH  

E-print Network

1 CALL FOR PROPOSALS ATLANTIC BLUEFIN TUNA RESEARCH JUNE 29, 2010 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Funding Opportunity Description: Northern bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus is the object of a major international fishery. Effective fisheries management will depend upon improvements in understanding of bluefin tuna biology

Berkson, Jim

173

Call for Papers IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS  

E-print Network

Call for Papers IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS Special Issue on Visual SLAM In recent years Transactions on Robotics (T-RO) is to publish outstanding results in the rapidly progressing subject of visual with the potential of guiding autonomous robots in their exploration and operation in large and complex environments

Davison, Andrew

174

78 FR 76218 - Rural Call Completion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...discussed more fully above, the USF/ ICC Transformation Order adopted rules that should address...intrastate traffic. The USF/ICC Transformation Order expanded the scope of our call...here, as we did in the USF/ICC Transformation Order, that it would be...

2013-12-17

175

Call for Proposals Summer Undergraduate Research Program  

E-print Network

Call for Proposals Summer Undergraduate Research Program Due, March 1, 2012 Generous donations from for Purdue undergraduate students who wish to undertake a cancer research project during the summer undergraduate research programs will be eligible for funding through the Center (Faculty sponsors should

Holland, Jeffrey

176

A Call for School Counseling Practitioner Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the repeated call to increase the number of practitioner research manuscripts being published in counseling publications, practitioner research accounts for less than five percent of all manuscripts published. This article describes the challenges faced by practitioners seeking to publish their research, defines practitioner research, and…

Kaffenberger, Carol J.

2012-01-01

177

CALL FOR PAPERS International Conference on  

E-print Network

CALL FOR PAPERS 6th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Computational Biology March 24 and computational biology continue to be a vibrant research area with broadening applications and new emerging their research results and techniques. The BICoB conference seeks original and high quality papers in the fields

Grout, Vic

178

Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

2013-01-01

179

Web-Based CALL to Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated effectiveness of Web-based CALL on listening comprehension. Both students' academic performance and attitudes were examined. T-tests were used to analyze the results of students' academic performance. Descriptive statistics interpreted students' attitudes toward this learning. Students' participation was also recorded.…

Chen, Li-Mei; Zhang, Ruiming

2010-01-01

180

"The Call of the Wild": Thematic Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit intends for students to explore various literary devices such as theme, characterization, and vocabulary while they read Jack London's "The Call of the Wild." While reading this text, students will explore the relationship of these devices in connection to the unit's overall theme: survival. Students will be exposed to history, new…

Prinsen, Tammy

181

IEEE Communications Magazine Call for Papers  

E-print Network

://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/commagieee) by the deadline. Submit articles to the "March 2015/Mobile Cloud Computing" category. Important DatesIEEE Communications Magazine Call for Papers Feature Topic on Mobile Cloud Computing Mobile Cloud Computing refers to an infrastructure where both the data storage and the data processing occur

Fu, Xiaoming

182

Relabeling the Medications We Call Antidepressants  

PubMed Central

This paper raises the question about whether the data on the medications we call antidepressants justify the label of antidepressant. The authors argue that a true antidepressant should be clearly superior to placebo, should offer a risk/benefit balance that exceeds that of alternative treatments, should not increase suicidality, should not increase anxiety and agitation, should not interfere with sexual functioning, and should not increase depression chronicity. Unfortunately, these medications appear to fall short on all of these dimensions. Many of the “side effects” of these medications have larger effect sizes than the antidepressant effect size. To call these medications antidepressants may make sense from a marketing standpoint but may be misleading from a scientific perspective. Consumers deserve a label that more accurately reflects the data on the largest effects and helps them understand the range of effects from these medications. In other words, it may make just as much sense to call these medications antiaphrodisiacs as antidepressants because the negative effects on libido and sexual functioning are so common. It can be argued that a misleading label may interfere with our commitment to informed consent. Therefore, it may be time to stop calling these medications antidepressants. PMID:24278764

Antonuccio, David; Healy, David

2012-01-01

183

Why Citizen Science? Public participation in scientific research, commonly called citizen  

E-print Network

Findings Why Citizen Science? Public participation in scientific research, commonly called citizen participation in scientific research (PPSR) is on the rise. If we are to capitalize on and leverage. The landscape of public participation in scientific research is rich. Projects vary widely across each

Hall, Sharon J.

184

n the month after its release, the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops had been  

E-print Network

I n the month after its release, the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops had been played minutes of video games every day in 2009 -- a nearly threefold increase from 10 years earlier1-third are over 50. Video games are associated with a vari- ety of negative outcomes, such as obesity

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

185

Experiences of a Short Vocal Training Course for Call-Centre Customer Service Advisors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly known that occupational voice users suffer from voice symptoms to varying extents. The purpose of this study was to find out the effects of a short (2-day) vocal training course on professional speakers’ voice. The subjects were 38 female and 10 male customer advisors, who mainly use the telephone during their working hours at a call centre.

Laura Lehto; Leena Rantala; Erkki Vilkman; Paavo Alku; Tom Bäckström

2003-01-01

186

Calibrating passive acoustic monitoring: correcting humpback whale call detections for site-specific and time-dependent environmental characteristics.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates the importance of accounting for environmental effects on passive underwater acoustic monitoring results. The situation considered is the reduction in shipping off the California coast between 2008-2010 due to the recession and environmental legislation. The resulting variations in ocean noise change the probability of detecting marine mammal vocalizations. An acoustic model was used to calculate the time-varying probability of detecting humpback whale vocalizations under best-guess environmental conditions and varying noise. The uncorrected call counts suggest a diel pattern and an increase in calling over a two-year period; the corrected call counts show minimal evidence of these features. PMID:24181982

Helble, Tyler A; D'Spain, Gerald L; Campbell, Greg S; Hildebrand, John A

2013-11-01

187

Compositions of Tree Series Transformations  

E-print Network

Compositions of Tree Series Transformations A. Maletti Institute of Theoretical Computer Science Germany URL: http://www.inf.tu-dresden.de/ #12;#12;Compositions of Tree Series Transformations Andreas@tcs.inf.tu-dresden.de Abstract Tree series transformations computed by bottom-up and top-down tree series transducers are called

Reyle, Uwe

188

Solar mass-varying neutrino oscillations  

E-print Network

We propose that the solar neutrino deficit may be due to oscillations of mass-varying neutrinos (MaVaNs). This scenario elucidates solar neutrino data beautifully while remaining comfortably compatible with atmospheric neutrino and K2K data...

Marfatia, Danny; Huber, P.; Barger, V.

2005-11-18

189

Customer relations management: call center operations: modelling and simulation of a telephone call center  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a system with two types of traffic and two types of agents. Outbound calls are served only by blend agents, whereas inbound calls can be served by either inbound-only or blend agents. Our objective is to allocate a number of agents such that some service requirement is satisfied. We have taken two approaches in analyzing this staffing problem:

Juta Pichitlamken; Alexandre Deslauriers; Pierre L'Ecuyer; Athanassios N. Avramidis

2003-01-01

190

Nacogdoches Fire DepartmentNacogdoches Fire Department Service Call Density andService Call Density and  

E-print Network

Nacogdoches Fire DepartmentNacogdoches Fire Department Service Call Density andService Call Density of NFDMission of NFD ·· It is the mission of the Fire Department toIt is the mission of the Fire Department in areas of fire, rescue, medical emergencies,of fire, rescue, medical emergencies, hazardous materials

Hung, I-Kuai

191

Calling dynamics and call synchronization in a local group of unison bout callers.  

PubMed

In many species of chorusing frogs, callers can rapidly adjust their call timing with reference to neighboring callers so as to maintain call rate while minimizing acoustic interference. The rules governing the interactions, in particular, who is listening to whom are largely unknown, presumably influenced by distance between callers, caller density, and intensities of interfering calls. We report vocal interactions in a unison bout caller, the green tree frog (Hyla cinerea). Using a microphone array, we monitored bouts from a local group of six callers embedded in a larger chorus. Data were analyzed in a 21-min segment at the peak of the chorus. Callers within this group were localized and their voices were separated for analysis of spatio-temporal interactions. We show that callers in this group: (1) synchronize with one another, (2) prefer to time their calls antiphonally, almost exactly at one-third and two-thirds of the call intervals of their neighbors, (3) tolerate call collision when antiphonal calling is not possible, and (4) perform discrete phase-hopping between three preferred phases when tracking other callers. Further, call collision increases and phase-locking decreases, with increasing inter-caller spacing. We conclude that the precise phase-positioning, phase-tracking, and phase-hopping minimizes acoustic jamming while maintaining chorus synchrony. PMID:24249152

Jones, Douglas L; Jones, Russell L; Ratnam, Rama

2014-01-01

192

Designing a Call Center with Impatient Customers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common model to support workforce management of telephone call centers is the M\\/M\\/N\\/B model, in particular its special cases M\\/M\\/N (Erlang C, which models out busy signals) and M\\/M\\/N\\/N (Erlang B, disallowing waiting). All of these models lack a central prevalent feature, namely, that impatient customers might decide to leave (abandon) before their service begins. In this paper,

O. Garnet; A. Mandelbaum; M. Reiman

2002-01-01

193

Effects of dopamine agonists on calling behavior in the green tree frog, Hyla cinerea.  

PubMed

Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter involved in social behaviors, such as courtship and pair-bonding. In the green tree frog (Hyla cinerea), calling behavior is the primary social behavior used for mate attraction, and is critical for the reproductive success of the species. Our study examined how DA influences advertisement calling behavior of the green tree frog. In a field environment, calling males were treated with either a DA receptor-specific agonist (SKF-38393 or quinpirole), a non-specific DA agonist (apomorphine), or a control Ringer's solution, and vocalizations were recorded after a 20 min post-injection period. Behavioral analyses focused on if and when the frogs called (call latency), and the number of calls produced during post-injection recordings (call rate). There were significant differences in all measurements that varied with treatment and/or dose. The results demonstrate that activation of D2-like receptors has an inhibitory effect on vocalization in the green tree frog, while the D1-like and non-specific DA agonists do not affect calling behavior. These findings coincide with behavioral data from other taxa, and support the function of D2-like receptors in the inhibition of certain social behaviors. Overall, the results suggest conservation for DA in social behaviors across vertebrates. PMID:23531471

Creighton, Anna; Satterfield, Dara; Chu, Joanne

2013-05-27

194

Nonlinear mesomechanics of composites with periodic microstructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work is concerned with modeling the mechanical deformation or constitutive behavior of composites comprised of a periodic microstructure under small displacement conditions at elevated temperature. A mesomechanics approach is adopted which relates the microimechanical behavior of the heterogeneous composite with its in-service macroscopic behavior. Two different methods, one based on a Fourier series approach and the other on a Green's function approach, are used in modeling the micromechanical behavior of the composite material. Although the constitutive formulations are based on a micromechanical approach, it should be stressed that the resulting equations are volume averaged to produce overall effective constitutive relations which relate the bulk, volume averaged, stress increment to the bulk, volume averaged, strain increment. As such, they are macromodels which can be used directly in nonlinear finite element programs such as MARC, ANSYS and ABAQUS or in boundary element programs such as BEST3D. In developing the volume averaged or efective macromodels from the micromechanical models, both approaches will require the evaluation of volume integrals containing the spatially varying strain distributions throughout the composite material. By assuming that the strain distributions are spatially constant within each constituent phase-or within a given subvolume within each constituent phase-of the composite material, the volume integrals can be obtained in closed form. This simplified micromodel can then be volume averaged to obtain an effective macromodel suitable for use in the MARC, ANSYS and ABAQUS nonlinear finite element programs via user constitutive subroutines such as HYPELA and CMUSER. This effective macromodel can be used in a nonlinear finite element structural analysis to obtain the strain-temperature history at those points in the structure where thermomechanical cracking and damage are expected to occur, the so called damage critical points of the structure.

Walker, Kevin P.; Jordan, Eric H.; Freed, Alan D.

1989-01-01

195

Methanotrophic communities in Australian woodland soils of varying salinity.  

PubMed

Despite their large areas and potential importance as methane sinks, the role of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in native woodland soils is poorly understood. These environments are increasingly being altered by anthropogenic disturbances, which potentially alter ecosystem service provision. Dryland salinity is one such disturbance and is becoming increasingly prevalent in Australian soils. We used microarrays and analysis of soil physicochemical variables to investigate the methane-oxidizing communities of several Australian natural woodland soils affected to varying degrees by dryland salinity. Soils varied in terms of salinity, gravitational water content, NO(3)-N, SO(4)-S and Mg, all of which explained to a significant degree MOB community composition. Analysis of the relative abundance and diversity of the MOB communities also revealed significant differences between soils of different salinities. Type II and type Ib methanotrophs dominated the soils and differences in methanotroph communities existed between salinity groups. The low salinity soils possessed less diverse MOB communities, including most conspicuously, the low numbers or absence of type II Methylocystis phylotypes. The differences in MOB communities suggest niche separation of MOB across varying salinities, as has been observed in the closely related ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and that anthropogenic disturbance, such as dryland salinity, has the potential to alter MOB community and therefore the methane uptake rates in soils in which disturbance occurs. PMID:22375901

Bissett, Andrew; Abell, Guy C J; Bodrossy, Levente; Richardson, Alan E; Thrall, Peter H

2012-06-01

196

The growth and chemical composition of soybeans as influenced by varying sulphur applications, varying soluble salts and varying calcium: sodium ratios  

E-print Network

Salt?a and CatciumxSodium Ratto on the Yield of Toyex Yield of Recta SAlt Tet?1 Yield Of Scybeane ~ s e ~ X s ~ ~ y ~ ~ ~ 13 The Effect of t, he Combinatione of Sulphur' Soluble SaLtex and CalsiumxSodium Ratio on the Tt?ld of Tepefy Yield cf Routes...

Peters, Doyle Burne

2012-06-07

197

Impacts of Varying Penetration of Distributed Resources with & without Volt/Var Control: Case Study of Varying Load Types  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a follow-up to an earlier one on impacts of distributed energy resources (DR) on distribution feeders. As DR penetration level on the feeder increases, there can be impacts to distribution system/feeder capacity, line losses, and voltage regulation. These can vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system or loading. The question is how high of a DR level can be accommodated without any major changes to system operation, system design and protection. Our objective for this work was to address the question of how the DR impacts vary in regards to both DR voltage regulation capability and load mix. A dynamic analysis was used to focus on the impacts of DR with and without volt/var control with different load composition on the distribution feeder. The study considered an example 10MVA distribution feeder in which two inverter-based DRs were used to provide voltage regulation. The results due to DR without voltage regulation capability are compared with DR capable of providing local (at its bus) voltage regulation. The analysis was repeated for four different feeder load compositions consisting of (1) constant power, (2) constant impedance, (3) constant current and (4) ZIP (equal combination of previous three).

Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL

2011-01-01

198

Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time.  

PubMed

The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches. PMID:22690631

Rafferty, Nicole E; Ives, Anthony R

2012-04-01

199

Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time  

PubMed Central

The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches. PMID:22690631

Rafferty, Nicole E.; Ives, Anthony R.

2013-01-01

200

Speed of call delivery is related to context and caller identity in Campbell's monkey males  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call rate can be a salient feature in animal communication. Depending on the species, different psychological variables appear to influence call rates but the exact nature of these relationships remains poorly explored. Here, we demonstrate for free-ranging Campbell’s monkeys that the call rates of four different alarm series (termed H, K, K+, and B series) vary systematically as a function of context, associated behaviour, and identity of the caller. K+ series were given more rapidly to predation than non-predation events, K+ and K series more rapidly to visual than auditory predator detection, and H series more rapidly while counterattacking an eagle than staying put. Finally, there were individual differences in B series, suggesting that call rate potentially provides listeners with cues about the caller’s anti-predator behaviour, event type experienced, and his identity.

Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Bouchet, Hélène; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2010-11-01

201

Agent Based Model for Call Centers Using Knowledge Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A call center is an organizational unit where inbound calls are received or outbound calls placed for the purposes of sales, support, advice and other business transactions. By applying knowledge management solutions, we can meet call centerspsila challenges and gain benefits of reduced training costs, improved call handling and greater flexibility. This paper describes a solution to agent mediated knowledge

Farzad Peyravi; Amin Keshavarzi

2009-01-01

202

Double-smoothing for Varying Coefficient Models  

PubMed Central

Moderation analyses are widely used in biomedical and psychosocial research to investigate differential treatment effects, with moderators frequently identified through testing the significance of the interaction between the predictor and the potential moderator under strong parametric assumptions. Without imposing any parametric forms on how the moderators may affect the relationship between predictors and responses, varying coefficient models address this fundamental problem of strong parametric assumptions with current practice of moderation analysis and provide a much broader class of models for complex moderation relationships. Local polynomial, especially local linear, methods are commonly used in estimating the varying coefficient models. Recently, a double-smoothing (DS) local linear method has been proposed for nonparametric regression models, with nice properties compared to local linear and local cubic methods. In this paper, we generalize DS to varying coefficient models, and show that it holds similar advantages over local linear and local cubic methods. PMID:22121327

Tang, Wan; Zuo, Guoxin; He, Hua

2011-01-01

203

SNP calling by sequencing pooled samples  

PubMed Central

Background Performing high throughput sequencing on samples pooled from different individuals is a strategy to characterize genetic variability at a small fraction of the cost required for individual sequencing. In certain circumstances some variability estimators have even lower variance than those obtained with individual sequencing. SNP calling and estimating the frequency of the minor allele from pooled samples, though, is a subtle exercise for at least three reasons. First, sequencing errors may have a much larger relevance than in individual SNP calling: while their impact in individual sequencing can be reduced by setting a restriction on a minimum number of reads per allele, this would have a strong and undesired effect in pools because it is unlikely that alleles at low frequency in the pool will be read many times. Second, the prior allele frequency for heterozygous sites in individuals is usually 0.5 (assuming one is not analyzing sequences coming from, e.g. cancer tissues), but this is not true in pools: in fact, under the standard neutral model, singletons (i.e. alleles of minimum frequency) are the most common class of variants because P(f) ? 1/f and they occur more often as the sample size increases. Third, an allele appearing only once in the reads from a pool does not necessarily correspond to a singleton in the set of individuals making up the pool, and vice versa, there can be more than one read – or, more likely, none – from a true singleton. Results To improve upon existing theory and software packages, we have developed a Bayesian approach for minor allele frequency (MAF) computation and SNP calling in pools (and implemented it in a program called snape): the approach takes into account sequencing errors and allows users to choose different priors. We also set up a pipeline which can simulate the coalescence process giving rise to the SNPs, the pooling procedure and the sequencing. We used it to compare the performance of snape to that of other packages. Conclusions We present a software which helps in calling SNPs in pooled samples: it has good power while retaining a low false discovery rate (FDR). The method also provides the posterior probability that a SNP is segregating and the full posterior distribution of f for every SNP. In order to test the behaviour of our software, we generated (through simulated coalescence) artificial genomes and computed the effect of a pooled sequencing protocol, followed by SNP calling. In this setting, snape has better power and False Discovery Rate (FDR) than the comparable packages samtools, PoPoolation, Varscan : for N = 50 chromosomes, snape has power ? 35%and FDR ? 2.5%. snape is available at http://code.google.com/p/snape-pooled/ (source code and precompiled binaries). PMID:22992255

2012-01-01

204

Calling patterns in human communication dynamics  

PubMed Central

Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the cr-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users. PMID:23319645

Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

2013-01-01

205

Call for tighter coal ash disposal standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 200 million tons of coal ash and scrubber sludge were deposited from coal plants into ponds or landfills between 2009 and 2011, according to a 21 December report by the Environmental Integrity Project (EIP), a nonprofit organization based in Washington, D. C. EIP issued the report to mark the fourth anniversary of the dike rupture at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant, which spilled an estimated 1.1 billion gallons of coal fly ash slurry into the Tennessee River system on 22 December 2008. EIP called for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue ash disposal standards.

Showstack, Randy

2013-01-01

206

47 CFR 32.6621 - Call completion services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Call completion services. 32.6621 Section 32...CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS...32.6621 Call completion services. This account shall include...and complete calls, except directory assistance. This...

2011-10-01

207

47 CFR 32.6621 - Call completion services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Call completion services. 32.6621 Section 32...CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS...32.6621 Call completion services. This account shall include...and complete calls, except directory assistance. This...

2010-10-01

208

Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats.  

PubMed

Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships. PMID:23825208

Reber, Stephan A; Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

2013-08-22

209

Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats  

PubMed Central

Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships. PMID:23825208

Reber, Stephan A.; Townsend, Simon W.; Manser, Marta B.

2013-01-01

210

"That's why they call it practice".  

PubMed

The authors discuss how, as their residency family medicine practices are transforming into Patient-Centered Medical Homes, they are witnessing shifting expectations for everyone: medical assistant, faculty and resident physician, licensed practical nurse, behavioral health clinician. At all levels of experience and expertise, they are called on to change. In the health care context, "practice" has multiple meanings. Practice, in the sense of "the clinical scope of work we do every day" corresponds to Merriam Webster's first definition of the word, "to be professionally engaged in" or "to do or perform often, customarily, or habitually." In this editorial, the authors call upon their colleagues to recognize the second definition of "practice" and build in opportunities to "train by repeated exercises" within day to day clinical activity. By this they mean, build in mechanisms to prompt reflection on your work, every day, seeking and incorporating feedback from others on your team. Effective primary care systems protect time for practice and learning. These organizations demonstrate "adaptive reserve," consisting of action and reflection cycles, facilitative leadership, a learning culture, the ability to improvise, and effective relationships and communication. PMID:25485824

Fogarty, Colleen T; Mauksch, Larry B

2014-12-01

211

Calling by Domestic Piglets during Simulated Crushing and Isolation: A Signal of Need?  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether piglet distress vocalizations vary with age, body weight and health status, according to the predictions of the honest signalling of need evolutionary model. Vocalizations were recorded during manual squeezing (a simulation of being crushed by mother sow) and during isolation on Days 1 and 7 after birth in piglets from 15 litters. We predicted that during squeezing, younger, lighter and sick piglets would call more intensely because they are in higher risk of dying during crushing and therefore they benefit more from the sow’s reaction to intensive vocalization. For isolation, we predicted that lighter and younger piglets would call more because they are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the separation. Calls were analyzed in their time and frequency domain. The rate of calling, call duration, proportion of high-pitched calls and eight acoustic parameters characterizing frequency distribution and tonality were used as indicators of acoustic signalling intensity. Piglets that experienced “squeezing” on Day 1 produced more intense acoustic distress signalling than on Day 7. Lighter piglets called more during squeezing than heavier piglets. Health status did not significantly affect any of the indicators of intensity of vocalization during squeezing. In isolation, none of the parameters of vocalization intensity were affected either by the age or by the weight of the piglets. In summary, the model of honest signalling of need was confirmed in the squeezed situation, but not in the isolation situation. PMID:24349527

Illmann, Gudrun; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Špinka, Marek; Tallet, Céline

2013-01-01

212

Regularizing cosmological singularities by varying physical constants  

SciTech Connect

Varying physical constant cosmologies were claimed to solve standard cosmological problems such as the horizon, the flatness and the ?-problem. In this paper, we suggest yet another possible application of these theories: solving the singularity problem. By specifying some examples we show that various cosmological singularities may be regularized provided the physical constants evolve in time in an appropriate way.

D?browski, Mariusz P.; Marosek, Konrad, E-mail: mpdabfz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl, E-mail: k.marosek@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl [Institute of Physics, University of Szczecin, Wielkopolska 15, 70-451 Szczecin (Poland)

2013-02-01

213

Robust COA planning with varying durations  

Microsoft Academic Search

COA (Course of Action) planning involves resource allocation and task scheduling. Traditionally, this problem is tackled with the assumption that task duration is constant and with the objective to minimize the makespan. In contrast to this, this paper assumes task duration can vary in a time interval and the objective is to maximize the RM (Robustness Measure) given the deadline,

Luohao Tang; Cheng Zhu; Weiming Zhang; Zhong Liu

2011-01-01

214

COURBES RATIONNELLES SUR LES VARI Nicolas PERRIN  

E-print Network

cet article, nous #19;etudions le sch#19;ema de Hilbert des courbes rationnelles lisses trac#19;ees sur une vari#19;et#19;e homog#18;ene. Nous montrons que ce sch#19;ema est irr#19;eductible et lisse;equivalence rationnelle de 1-cycle, nous noterons Hom #11; (P 1 ; X) le sch#19;ema des morphismes f de P 1

Perrin, Nicolas

215

Nonlinear deterministic modeling of highly varying loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typically, the modeling of highly varying, nonlinear loads such as electric arc furnaces has involved stochastic techniques. This paper presents the use of chaotic dynamics to describe the operation of nonlinear loads. Included is a discussion of the Lyapunov exponents, a measure of chaotic behavior. The alternate approach is applied to electric arc furnaces. A tuning mode is described to

G. T. Heydt; E. J. Kostelich; S. S. Venkate; A. Sundaram

1999-01-01

216

Time-Varying World Market Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a measure of capital market integration arising from a conditional regime-switching model. Our measure allows us to describe expected returns in countries that are segmented from world capital markets in one part of the sample and become integrated later in the sample. We find that a number of emerging markets exhibit time-varying integration. Some markets appear more integrated

Geert Bekaert; Campbell R Harvey

1995-01-01

217

Evaluating multivariate visualizations on time-varying data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multivariate visualization techniques have been applied to a wide variety of visual analysis tasks and a broad range of data types and sources. Their utility has been evaluated in a modest range of simple analysis tasks. In this work, we extend our previous task to a case of time-varying data. We implemented ve visualizations of our synthetic test data: three previously evaluated techniques (Data-driven Spots, Oriented Slivers, and Attribute Blocks), one hybrid of the rst two that we call Oriented Data-driven Spots, and an implementation of Attribute Blocks that merges the temporal slices. We conducted a user study of these ve techniques. Our previous nding (with static data) was that users performed best when the density of the target (as encoded in the visualization) was either highest or had the highest ratio to non-target features. The time-varying presentations gave us a wider range of density and density gains from which to draw conclusions; we now see evidence for the density gain as the perceptual measure, rather than the absolute density.

Livingston, Mark A.; Decker, Jonathan W.; Ai, Zhuming

2013-01-01

218

Components in time-varying graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis.

Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

2012-06-01

219

Thermal diffusivity measurements on composite porosity samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phase lag technique is used to make quantitative measurements of diffusivity in composite porosity samples. Changes in through-ply diffusivity in a graphite composite due to varying porosity levels are examined. The relationship between the amount of porosity and the change in diffusivity is analyzed using an electrical analog for modeling heat flow in the composite.

Zalameda, Joseph N.; Winfree, William P.

1990-01-01

220

Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators  

DOEpatents

The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

Gennett, Thomas (Denver, CO); Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Honeoye Falls, NY); Landi, Brian J. (Rochester, NY); Heben, Michael J. (Denver, CO)

2008-04-22

221

Call center demand forecasting : improving sales calls prediction accuracy through the combination of statistical methods and judgmental forecast  

E-print Network

Call centers are important for developing and maintaining healthy relationships with customers. At Dell, call centers are also at the core of the company's renowned direct model. For sales call centers in particular, the ...

Boulin, Juan Manuel

2010-01-01

222

Why Is Earth Called the "Water Planet?"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comparing the amounts of land and water on Earth's surface leads students to discover why it is called the water planet. Students examine photos of Earth taken from space, analyze the results of a globe toss game and compare ocean sizes using pieces of clay to gain a perspective on the amount of surface area that is covered by water. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. The teacher's guide will begin with a two-page module overview and a list of all standards addressed. This is Investigation 1 of four found in the Grades K-4 Module 2 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the four investigations in Module 2, while related, can be done independently.

223

Computerized call scheduling for hospital departments.  

PubMed

A computerized system that assigns personnel to night-call and daytime duty is described. The system reduces the department's scheduling effort from days to hours each month. It provides an equitable and unbiased assignment of staff to tasks. Information about individual qualifications and availability and about the tasks to which individuals can be assigned is entered on standard forms each month. This information is transformed into a suitable format for entering into the computer via a typewriter terminal. The computer generates a series of schedules that are printed at the terminal in a number of formats, depending upon the nature of the schedule and the type of summary requested. Equitable schedules are produced with a minimum of administrative effort. The system increases accuracy and summarizes information for control and planning. PMID:10238827

Axelrod, C W

1978-01-01

224

Scientific American Frontiers: Calls of the Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As always, PBS offers a fantastic companion Web site to its popular series Scientific American Frontiers, this time for the episode "Calls of the Wild" (aired April 1, 2003). Viewers join researchers as they "listen in on animal communication as birds, bees, bugs, bats and elephants flirt, eavesdrop, and even give directions." Three lesson plans are available, as well as an answer key and a quiz based on the program, each for grades 5-8. The site also includes a number of Web-exclusive features, such as an in-depth interview with a spider biologist (cool audio clip of spider songs provided), a chance to email the scientists featured in the program (before April 8, 2003), and an interactive quiz about pair-bonding rituals (complete with detailed answers and related links for each question). As usual, visitors may view the entire episode online, and this is one that shouldn't be missed!

2003-01-01

225

Another call to increase STEM education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education becomes increasingly important, U.S. students are lagging behind other nations on international assessments, according to a recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science study. A 22 June report from the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) calls for increasing the focus on STEM education in the United States. “To make progress in improving STEM education for all students, policy makers at the national, state, and local levels should elevate science to the same level of importance as reading and mathematics,” states the report, “Successful K-12 STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.” It outlines several goals: expand the number of students who pursue advanced degrees and careers in STEM fields; expand the STEM-capable workforce, while also broadening the participation of women and minorities; and increase STEM literacy for all students, whether or not they pursue STEM-related careers or additional study in those areas.

Showstack, Randy

2011-07-01

226

Acoustic signal detection of manatee calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disc. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~=96% of the manatee vocalizations. However the system also results in a false positive rate of ~=16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

2003-04-01

227

From nestling calls to fledgling silence: adaptive timing of change in response to aerial alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Young birds and mammals are extremely vulnerable to predators and so should benefit from responding to parental alarm calls warning of danger. However, young often respond differently from adults. This difference may reflect: (i) an imperfect stage in the gradual development of adult behaviour or (ii) an adaptation to different vulnerability. Altricial birds provide an excellent model to test for adaptive changes with age in response to alarm calls, because fledglings are vulnerable to a different range of predators than nestlings. For example, a flying hawk is irrelevant to a nestling in a enclosed nest, but is dangerous to that individual once it has left the nest, so we predict that young develop a response to aerial alarm calls to coincide with fledging. Supporting our prediction, recently fledged white-browed scrubwrens, Sericornis frontalis, fell silent immediately after playback of their parents' aerial alarm call, whereas nestlings continued to calling despite hearing the playback. Young scrubwrens are therefore exquisitely adapted to the changing risks faced during development. PMID:16928636

Magrath, Robert D; Platzen, Dirk; Kondo, Junko

2006-01-01

228

Mixed lipid bilayers with locally varying spontaneous curvature and bending  

E-print Network

A model of lipid bilayers made of a mixture of two lipids with different average compositions on both leaflets, is developed. A Landau hamiltonian describing the lipid-lipid interactions on each leaflet, with two lipidic fields $\\psi_1$ and $\\psi_2$, is coupled to a Helfrich one, accounting for the membrane elasticity, via both a local spontaneous curvature, which varies as $C_0+C_1(\\psi_1-\\psi_2)/2$, and a bending modulus equal to $\\kappa_0+\\kappa_1(\\psi_1+\\psi_2)/2$. This model allows us to define curved patches as membrane domains where the asymmetry in composition, $\\psi_1-\\psi_2$, is large, and thick and stiff patches where $\\psi_1+\\psi_2$ is large. These thick patches are good candidates for being lipidic rafts, as observed in cell membranes, which are composed primarily of saturated lipids forming a liquid-ordered domain and are known to be thick and flat nano-domains. The lipid-lipid structure factors and correlation functions are computed for globally spherical membranes and planar ones. Phase diagrams are established, within a Gaussian approximation, showing the occurrence of two types of Structure Disordered phases, with correlations between either curved or thick patches, and an Ordered phase, corresponding to the divergence of the structure factor at a finite wave vector. The varying bending modulus plays a central role for curved membranes, where the driving force $\\kappa_1C_0^2$ is balanced by the line tension, to form raft domains of size ranging from 10 to 100~nm. For planar membranes, raft domains emerge via the cross-correlation with curved domains. A global picture emerges from curvature-induced mechanisms, described in the literature for planar membranes, to coupled curvature- and bending-induced mechanisms in curved membranes forming a closed vesicle.

Guillaume Gueguen; Nicolas Destainville; Manoel Manghi

2014-08-27

229

Nonlinear deterministic modeling of highly varying loads  

SciTech Connect

Typically, the modeling of highly varying, nonlinear loads such as electric arc furnaces has involved stochastic techniques. This paper presents the use of chaotic dynamics to describe the operation of nonlinear loads. Included is a discussion of the Lyapunov exponents, a measure of chaotic behavior. The alternate approach is applied to electric arc furnaces. A tuning mode is described to develop the parameters of a chaotic model. This model is trained to have time and frequency responses that are tuned to match the current from the arc furnace under study. The simulated data are compared to actual arc furnace data to validate the model. This model is used to assess the impact of various highly varying nonlinear loads that exhibit chaos in power systems.

O`Neill-Carrillo, E.; Heydt, G.T.; Kostelich, E.J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Venkate, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Sundaram, A. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1999-04-01

230

Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.  

PubMed

Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux. PMID:22399473

Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

2012-01-01

231

Soliton interaction with slowly varying potentials  

E-print Network

We study the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a slowly varying smooth potential, $V(x) = W(hx)$. We show that up to time $\\log(1/h)/h $ and errors of size $h^2$ in $H^1$, the solution is a soliton evolving according to the classical dynamics of a natural effective Hamiltonian, $ (\\xi^2 + \\sech^2 * V (x))/2 $. This provides an improvement ($ h \\to h^2 $) compared to previous works, and is strikingly confirmed by numerical simulations.

Justin Holmer; Maciej Zworski

2007-09-24

232

Serum Sclerostin Levels Vary With Season  

PubMed Central

Context: To establish the clinical utility of serum sclerostin levels, it is important to know whether there is seasonal variation in the measurements. Objective: This study was done to determine whether serum sclerostin levels vary by season in healthy older men and women. Methods: Serum sclerostin levels were measured in archived serum of 314 healthy men and women aged 65 years and older and examined for seasonal variation. Several factors known to vary by season and previously reported to be associated with serum sclerostin levels, including serum osteocalcin, physical activity, and serum PTH levels, were also measured in these subjects. Sex did not modify the association of season with sclerostin, so the men and women were analyzed together. Results: Serum sclerostin levels varied significantly by season (P < .001, after adjustment for sex). Sclerostin levels in the wintertime were 20% higher than the all-year mean, the levels gradually declined through the spring and summer, and by the fall, they were 20% below the all-year mean. Adjustment for serum osteocalcin, physical activity, and serum PTH did not alter the seasonal means. Seasonal differences in serum osteocalcin, physical activity, and serum PTH were not statistically significant. Conclusions: This study documents marked seasonal variation in serum sclerostin levels. It is important to recognize this source of biological variability when considering the potential clinical utility of sclerostin measurements. PMID:24248178

Harris, Susan S.; Ceglia, Lisa; Palermo, Nancy J.

2014-01-01

233

Adaptive, template moderated, spatially varying statistical classification.  

PubMed

A novel image segmentation algorithm was developed to allow the automatic segmentation of both normal and abnormal anatomy from medical images. The new algorithm is a form of spatially varying statistical classification, in which an explicit anatomical template is used to moderate the segmentation obtained by statistical classification. The algorithm consists of an iterated sequence of spatially varying classification and nonlinear registration, which forms an adaptive, template moderated (ATM), spatially varying statistical classification (SVC). Classification methods and nonlinear registration methods are often complementary, both in the tasks where they succeed and in the tasks where they fail. By integrating these approaches the new algorithm avoids many of the disadvantages of each approach alone while exploiting the combination. The ATM SVC algorithm was applied to several segmentation problems, involving different image contrast mechanisms and different locations in the body. Segmentation and validation experiments were carried out for problems involving the quantification of normal anatomy (MRI of brains of neonates) and pathology of various types (MRI of patients with multiple sclerosis, MRI of patients with brain tumors, MRI of patients with damaged knee cartilage). In each case, the ATM SVC algorithm provided a better segmentation than statistical classification or elastic matching alone. PMID:10972320

Warfield, S K; Kaus, M; Jolesz, F A; Kikinis, R

2000-03-01

234

Arthropod communities on creosote bush ( Larrea tridentata ) in desert patches of varying degrees of urbanization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of urbanization on the richness, abundance and composition of arthropod communities associated with creosote bush, Larrea tridentata [DC] Cov., in Phoenix, Arizona. Arthropod communities were sampled in two desert types varying in degree of urbanization including fringe deserts (relatively undisturbed expanses of desert outside of Phoenix) and urban deserts

Jessamy J. Rango

2005-01-01

235

KRLMM: an adaptive genotype calling method for common and low frequency variants  

PubMed Central

Background SNP genotyping microarrays have revolutionized the study of complex disease. The current range of commercially available genotyping products contain extensive catalogues of low frequency and rare variants. Existing SNP calling algorithms have difficulty dealing with these low frequency variants, as the underlying models rely on each genotype having a reasonable number of observations to ensure accurate clustering. Results Here we develop KRLMM, a new method for converting raw intensities into genotype calls that aims to overcome this issue. Our method is unique in that it applies careful between sample normalization and allows a variable number of clusters k (1, 2 or 3) for each SNP, where k is predicted using the available data. We compare our method to four genotyping algorithms (GenCall, GenoSNP, Illuminus and OptiCall) on several Illumina data sets that include samples from the HapMap project where the true genotypes are known in advance. All methods were found to have high overall accuracy (> 98%), with KRLMM consistently amongst the best. At low minor allele frequency, the KRLMM, OptiCall and GenoSNP algorithms were observed to be consistently more accurate than GenCall and Illuminus on our test data. Conclusions Methods that tailor their approach to calling low frequency variants by either varying the number of clusters (KRLMM) or using information from other SNPs (OptiCall and GenoSNP) offer improved accuracy over methods that do not (GenCall and Illuminus). The KRLMM algorithm is implemented in the open-source crlmm package distributed via the Bioconductor project (http://www.bioconductor.org). PMID:24886250

2014-01-01

236

A universal time-varying distributed H-system of degree 2.  

PubMed

A time-varying distributed H system is a splicing system which has the following feature: at different moments one uses different sets of splicing rules. The number of these sets is called the degree of the system. The passing from a set of rules to another one is specified in a cycle. It is a well known fact that any formal language can be generated by a time-varying distributed H-system of degree at least 7. Here we prove that there are universal time-varying distributed H-systems of degree 2. The question of whether or not there are universal time-varying distributed H-systems of degree 1 remains open. PMID:10636032

Margenstern, M; Rogozhin, Y

1999-10-01

237

Research on Predictive Dialing System Based on Distributed Call Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing competition in the global marketplace, the call center has become an essential part for many companies. The outbound technology of call center plays a very important role in customer relationship management (CRM) and marketing. The call center of the large service companies usually has the characteristics of wide geographical distribution, high volume of calls, high efficiency and

Linhai Qi; Suxia Ma; Keqin Liu

2006-01-01

238

Using simulation to predict market behavior for outbound call centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The call center industry has considerably grown especially the outbound call center area, such as telemarketing. The productivity of the call centers has significantly increased, but they still require improvements especially because of the need to adapt their operations in some countries, like the UK and the USA, in which the silent calls are strictly regulated. For this reason, electronic

P. J. de Freitas Filho; Geovani Ferreira da Cruz; Rui Seara; Guilherme Steinmann

2007-01-01

239

Using simulation to predict market behavior for outbound call centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, the call center industry has considerably grown especially the outbound call center area, such as telemarketing. The productivity of the call centers has significantly increased, but they still require improvements especially because of the need to adapt their operations in some countries, like the UK and the USA, in which the silent calls are strictly

Paulo J. De Freitas Filho; Geovani Ferreira Da Cruz; Rui Seara; Guilherme Steinmann

2007-01-01

240

29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Hours Worked § 778.221 “Call-back” pay. (a) General. In the interest...with respect to typical minimum “call-back” or “call-out” payments...application of these principles to call-back payments may be illustrated as...

2010-07-01

241

The Aurora Calling Tree Updated May 14, 2010  

E-print Network

The Aurora Calling Tree Updated May 14, 2010 1. If you see the Aurora first, call the next person Only circles. (However, if an early circle person happens to see the Aurora after 11:00, please CALL-529-7066 Norm Williams 406-579-1882 #12;The Aurora Calling Tree Updated May 14, 2010 1. If you see the Aurora

Maxwell, Bruce D.

242

The evolution of white dwarfs with a varying gravitational constant  

E-print Network

Within the theoretical framework of some modern unification theories the constants of nature are functions of cosmological time. White dwarfs offer the possibility of testing a possible variation of G and, thus, to place constraints to these theories. We present full white dwarf evolutionary calculations in the case that G decreases with time. White dwarf evolution is computed in a self-consistent way, including the most up-to-date physical inputs, non-gray model atmospheres and a detailed core chemical composition that results from the calculation of the full evolution of progenitor stars. We find that the mechanical structure and the energy balance of white dwarfs are strongly modified by the presence of a varying G. In particular, for certain values of the rate of change of G, the evolution of cool white dwarfs is markedly affected. The impact of a varying G is more notorious in the case of more massive white dwarfs. In view of the recent results reporting that a very accurate white dwarf cooling age can be derived for the old and metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791, our study suggests that this cluster could be a potential target to constrain or detect a ypothetical secular variation of G.

L. G. Althaus; A. H. Corsico; S. Torres; P. Loren-Aguilar; J. Isern; E. Garcia-Berro

2011-01-05

243

Composition above the knee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmic-ray spectrum exhibits a number of structures above the well-know steepening near 1015 ev called the knee. These have been dubbed "the second knee", the "ankle" and the GZK cutoff. The nature of these structures cannot be clearly elucidated without a good understanding of the cosmic ray composition and how it changes with energy. We review that status of this knowledge and describe experimental efforts to improve our understanding of this important but difficult area.

Sokolsky, Pierre

2013-02-01

244

Watching how composites grow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a powerful x-ray analysis technique that has been developed to let researchers see, in three dimensions and microscopic detail, inside a ceramic composite as it is forming. The high-resolution imaging technique, called X-ray tomographic microscopy (XTM), is similar to medical computed tomography (CT) in which physicians take X-ray images of a patient's body from different angles

Ashley

1993-01-01

245

A formal model and specification language for procedure calling conventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Procedure calling conventions are used to provide uniform proce- dure-call interfaces. Applications, such as compilers and debug- gers, which generate, or process procedures at the machine- language abstraction level require knowledge of the calling con- vention. In this paper, we develop a formal model for procedure calling conventions called P-FSA’s. Using this model, we are able to ensure several

Mark W. Bailey; Jack W. Davidson

1995-01-01

246

Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives  

PubMed Central

Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise. PMID:21345867

Jensen, Frants H.; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T.

2011-01-01

247

A new method for managing emergency calls.  

PubMed

Available methods for managing territorial medical emergencies are nowadays very effective. Nevertheless, resources are limited, and such methods are far from being perfect. It could be difficult, sometimes, to ensure adequate and prompt medical care to the community when emergency is taking place in such short times as those recommended for cardiocirculatory arrest or a trauma. The major intent of this project is to implement some drawbacks of the current management of medical rescue on the territory improving overall response times to emergencies and providing the delivery of qualified pre-hospital patient care. This may include (but not be limited to) the institution of a database, on a voluntary basis, for trained personnel. Such database should include resuscitation specialists, physicians, but also anyone who has undergone recognized training. Upon receiving a medical emergency call, an off-duty operator can be selected from the database (in a cooperative, non-competitive manner with the dedicated emergency services), based on current position of his/her cellular phone and his/her training profile. Finally, the operator who is both closest to and best prepared for the emergency is contacted via cellular phone. If the operator is available he/she can precede or join the mobile unit on site, managing the emergency according to his/her profile, possibly in cooperation with the ambulance personnel and even up to hospital admission. PMID:23439874

Landoni, G; Cabrini, L; Fochi, O; Zangrillo, A

2010-01-01

248

Multi-component separation and analysis of bat echolocation calls.  

PubMed

The vast majority of animal vocalizations contain multiple frequency modulated (FM) components with varying amounts of non-linear modulation and harmonic instability. This is especially true of biosonar sounds where precise time-frequency templates are essential for neural information processing of echoes. Understanding the dynamic waveform design by bats and other echolocating animals may help to improve the efficacy of man-made sonar through biomimetic design. Bats are known to adapt their call structure based on the echolocation task, proximity to nearby objects, and density of acoustic clutter. To interpret the significance of these changes, a method was developed for component separation and analysis of biosonar waveforms. Techniques for imaging in the time-frequency plane are typically limited due to the uncertainty principle and interference cross terms. This problem is addressed by extending the use of the fractional Fourier transform to isolate each non-linear component for separate analysis. Once separated, empirical mode decomposition can be used to further examine each component. The Hilbert transform may then successfully extract detailed time-frequency information from each isolated component. This multi-component analysis method is applied to the sonar signals of four species of bats recorded in-flight by radiotelemetry along with a comparison of other common time-frequency representations. PMID:23297925

DiCecco, John; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, James A

2013-01-01

249

Acoustic features of male baboon loud calls: Influences of context, age, and individuality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic structure of loud calls (``wahoos'') recorded from free-ranging male baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) in the Moremi Game Reserve, Botswana, was examined for differences between and within contexts, using calls given in response to predators (alarm wahoos), during male contests (contest wahoos), and when a male had become separated from the group (contact wahoos). Calls were recorded from adolescent, subadult, and adult males. In addition, male alarm calls were compared with those recorded from females. Despite their superficial acoustic similarity, the analysis revealed a number of significant differences between alarm, contest, and contact wahoos. Contest wahoos are given at a much higher rate, exhibit lower frequency characteristics, have a longer ``hoo'' duration, and a relatively louder ``hoo'' portion than alarm wahoos. Contact wahoos are acoustically similar to contest wahoos, but are given at a much lower rate. Both alarm and contest wahoos also exhibit significant differences among individuals. Some of the acoustic features that vary in relation to age and sex presumably reflect differences in body size, whereas others are possibly related to male stamina and endurance. The finding that calls serving markedly different functions constitute variants of the same general call type suggests that the vocal production in nonhuman primates is evolutionarily constrained.

Fischer, Julia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

2002-03-01

250

Combustion synthesis of boride and other composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a self-sustaining combustion synthesis process for producing hard, tough, lightweight BâC\\/TiBâ composites. It is based on the thermodynamic dependence of adiabatic temperature and product composition on the stoichiometry of the BâC and TiBâ reactants. For lightweight products the composition must be relatively rich in the BâC component. BâC-rich composites are obtained by varying the initial temperature of

D. C. Halverson; B. Y. Lum; Z. A. Munir

1989-01-01

251

Combustion synthesis of boride and other composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-sustaining combustion synthesis process for producing hard, tough, lightweight BâC\\/TiBâ composites is described. It is based on the thermodynamic dependence of adiabatic temperature and product composition on the stoichiometry of the BâC and TiBâ reactants. For lightweight products the composition must be relatively rich in the BâC component. BâC-rich composites are obtained by varying the initial temperature of the

D. C. Halverson; B. Y. Lum; Z. A. Munir

1988-01-01

252

Linear Parameter Varying Control for Actuator Failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robust linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis is carried out for an HiMAT vehicle subject to loss of control effectiveness. The scheduling parameter is selected to be a function of the estimates of the control effectiveness factors. The estimates are provided on-line by a two-stage Kalman estimator. The inherent conservatism of the LPV design is reducing through the use of a scaling factor on the uncertainty block that represents the estimation errors of the effectiveness factors. Simulations of the controlled system with the on-line estimator show that a superior fault-tolerance can be achieved.

Shin, Jong-Yeob; Wu, N. Eva; Belcastro, Christine; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

253

Diaphyseal osteosarcoma with varying histomorphologic patterns  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the skeleton involving predominantly metaphysis of the long bones. Diaphyseal osteosarcoma is a rare form, which accounts for approximately 10% of all cases of osteosarcomas. Osteosarcoma contains a family of lesions with considerable diversity in histologic features and grade. We present a case of a 29-year-old male with diaphyseal osteosarcoma of the left tibia, who presented with pain and swelling over middle one-third of the left leg. The biopsy of the lesion revealed varied histomorphologic features in a small tissue studied. This prompted us to report the various histologic patterns of osteosarcoma. PMID:24600604

Kumar, Harsh; Buch, Archana C.; Sawlani, Vinay M.; Chandanwale, Shirish S.

2014-01-01

254

Hypothermia for Stroke: call to action 2010.  

PubMed

The European Hypothermia Stroke Research Workshop was held in January 2010, in response to the alarming prospects of a significant increase of stroke expected in the coming years globally. Considering that a minority of patients (around 10%) are currently eligible for thrombolytic treatment, there is a need for an efficacious, cost-effective novel therapy that can be implemented broadly within European health care systems. Accordingly, the primary objective of the workshop was the definition of a research agenda aiming to assess the therapeutic benefits of hypothermia in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. The meeting was organised by the European Stroke Research Network for Hypothermia (EuroHyp) and attended by the representatives of World Stroke Organisation, European Stroke Organisation, Stroke Alliance for Europe, Society for Cryobiology and other organisations--specifically the European Space Agency, and small- and medium-sized enterprises based in EU member states. The participants adopted the 'Hypothermia for Stroke--Call to Action 2010', a declaration specifying the priorities for hypothermia research in acute ischaemic stroke. The research programme outlined--a clinical study programme designed to identify and validate therapeutic cooling as a novel treatment providing benefit to a large number of stroke patients--contains a well-integrated series of Phase II studies aiming to refine the intervention (depth, duration, and mode of cooling; antishivering strategy; patient selection) and a pivotal Phase III clinical trial. The proposed integrated Phase II and III clinical study programme would test the effectiveness of this optimised intervention, and would allow the development of evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines describing the optimal use of therapeutic hypothermia as a treatment strategy for stroke. PMID:21086713

Macleod, Malcolm R; Petersson, Jesper; Norrving, Bo; Hacke, Werner; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Wagner, Markus; Schwab, Stefan

2010-12-01

255

Toroidal Varied-Line Space (TVLS) Gratings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is a particular challenge to develop a stigmatic spectrograph for XUV wavelengths since the very low normal-incidence reflectance of standard materials most often requires that the design be restricted to a single optical element which must simultaneously provide both re-imaging and spectral dispersion. This problem has been solved in the past by the use of toroidal gratings with uniform line-spaced rulings (TULS). A number of solar EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) spectrometers have been based on such designs, including SOHO/CDS, Solar-B/EIS, and the sounding rockets SERTS and EUNIS. More recently, Kita, Harada, and collaborators have developed the theory of spherical gratings with varied line-space rulings (SVLS) operated at unity magnification, which have been flown on several astronomical satellite missions. We now combine these ideas into a spectrometer concept that puts varied-line space rulings onto toroidal gratings. Such TVLS designs are found to provide excellent imaging even at very large spectrograph magnifications and beam-speeds, permitting extremely high-quality performance in remarkably compact instrument packages. Optical characteristics of two solar spectrometers based on this concept are described: SUMI, proposed as a sounding rocket experiment, and NEXUS, proposed for the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission.

Thomas, Roger J.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

256

Varying execution discipline to increase performance  

SciTech Connect

This research investigates the relationship between execution discipline and performance. The hypothesis has two parts: 1. Different execution disciplines exhibit different performance for different computations, and 2. These differences can be effectively predicted by heuristics. A machine model is developed that can vary its execution discipline. That is, the model can execute a given program using either the control-driven, data-driven or demand-driven execution discipline. This model is referred to as a ``variable-execution-discipline`` machine. The instruction set for the model is the Program Dependence Web (PDW). The first part of the hypothesis will be tested by simulating the execution of the machine model on a suite of computations, based on the Livermore Fortran Kernel (LFK) Test (a.k.a. the Livermore Loops), using all three execution disciplines. Heuristics are developed to predict relative performance. These heuristics predict (a) the execution time under each discipline for one iteration of each loop and (b) the number of iterations taken by that loop; then the heuristics use those predictions to develop a prediction for the execution of the entire loop. Similar calculations are performed for branch statements. The second part of the hypothesis will be tested by comparing the results of the simulated execution with the predictions produced by the heuristics. If the hypothesis is supported, then the door is open for the development of machines that can vary execution discipline to increase performance.

Campbell, P.L.; Maccabe, A.B.

1993-12-22

257

Acoustic characteristics of the low-frequency nest call of discomfort of the house mouse ( Mus musculus) early ontogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic characteristics of the low-frequency nest call signaling discomfort of mouse pups are considered. The spectral temporal analysis of the call is realized for house mouse pups. In the structure of some calls, the frequency modulation and components of the noise are established. Signal duration varies from 20 to 170 ms. A statistically significant decrease of call duration and its fundamental frequency is shown from the 6th to 29th day of the mouse pups’ lives. The most stable parameters of the call-the harmonic structure, low-frequency range (up to 20 kHz), and location of the fundamental frequency between 4 and 8 kHz are recognized.

Egorova, M. A.; Akimov, A. G.

2010-05-01

258

Oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae derived methyl esters containing varying levels of methyl eicosapentaenoate and methyl docosahexaenoate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microalgae is currently receiving strong consideration as a potential biofuel feedstock to help meet the advanced biofuels mandate of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act because of its theoretically high yield (gallons/acre/year) in comparison to current terrestrial feedstocks. Additionally, microalgae also do not compete with food and can be cultivated with wastewater on non-arable land. Microalgae lipids can be converted into a variety of biofuels including fatty acid methyl esters (e.g. FAME biodiesel), renewable diesel, renewable gasoline, or jet fuel. For microalgae derived FAME, the fuel properties will be directly related to the fatty acid composition of the lipids produced by the given microalgae strain. Several microalgae species under consideration for wide scale cultivation, such as Nannochloropsis, produce lipids with fatty acid compositions containing substantially higher quantities of long chainpolyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in comparison to terrestrial feedstocks. It is expected that increased levels of LC-PUFA will be problematic in terms of meeting all of the current ASTM specifications for biodiesel. For example, it is known that oxidative stability and cetane number decrease with increasing levels of LC-PUFA. However, these same LC-PUFA fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6) are known to have high nutritional value thereby making separation of these compounds economically attractive. Given the uncertainty in the future value of these LC-PUFA compounds and the economic viability of the separation process, the goal of this study was to examine the oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae-based FAME with varying levels of EPA and DHA removal. Oxidative stability tests were conducted at a temperature of 110°C and airflow of 10 L/h using a Metrohm 743 Rancimat with automatic induction period determination following the EN 14112 Method from the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 Standards, which call for induction periods of at least three hours and six hours, respectively. Derived Cetane Number testing was conducted using a Waukesha FIT following the ASTM D7170 Method. Tests were conducted with synthetic algal oil blends manufactured from various sources to match the fatty acid compositions of several algae strains subjected to varying removal amounts of roughly 0 -- 100 percent LC-PUFA. In addition, tests were also conducted with real algal methyl esters produced from multiple sources. The bis-allylic position equivalent (BAPE) was calculated for each fuel sample to quantify the level of unsaturation. The induction period was then plotted as a function of BAPE, which showed that the oxidative stability varied exponentially with the amount of LC-PUFA. The results suggest that removal of 45 -- 65 percent of the LC-PUFA from Nannochloropsis-based algal methyl esters would be sufficient for meeting existing ASTM specifications for oxidative stability and 75 -- 85 percent removal would be needed to meet the EN specification. The oxidative stability additive tert-butylhydroquinone (THBQ) was found to increase Nannochloropsis-based algal methyl esters' oxidative stability to ASTM and EN specifications at only 0.03 percent and 0.06 percent additions by mass, respectively, when no LC-PUFA was removed. The ignition quality tests showed that the Derived Cetane Number varied linearly with BAPE and the algae formulations were found to pass the ASTM cetane specification of 47 only if all the LC-PUFA were removed.

Bucy, Harrison

259

On the Bohl and general exponents of the discrete time-varying linear system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many properties of dynamical systems may be characterized by certain numbers called characteristic exponents. The most important are: Lyapunov, Bohl and general exponents. In this paper we investigate relations between certain subtypes of the general exponents of discrete time-varying linear systems, namely the senior lower and the junior upper once. The main contribution of the paper is to construct an example of a system with the senior lower exponent strictly smaller than the junior upper general exponents.

Niezabitowski, Micha?

2014-12-01

260

Ensemble Control of Finite-Dimensional Time-Varying Linear Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we investigate the problem of simultaneously steering an\\u000auncountable family of finite dimensional time-varying linear systems. We call\\u000athis class of control problems Ensemble Control, a notion coming from the study\\u000aof spin dynamics in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging\\u000a(MRI). This subject involves controlling a continuum of parameterized dynamical\\u000asystems with the same open-loop

Jr-Shin Li

2011-01-01

261

Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the advantage of offering smooth animations, while spatial compression can handle volumes of larger dimensions.

Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

2010-01-01

262

THE IMPACT OF RETRIALS ON CALL CENTER PERFORMANCE  

E-print Network

that disregarding the retrial phenomenon in call centers can lead to huge distortions in subsequent forecasting concern. At the same time, the mobile telephony market within which this call center operates is a highly

Karaesmen, Fikri

263

Modeling and frequency tracking of marine mammal whistle calls  

E-print Network

Marine mammal whistle calls present an attractive medium for covert underwater communications. High quality models of the whistle calls are needed in order to synthesize natural-sounding whistles with embedded information. ...

Severson, Jared

2009-01-01

264

31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining...

2013-07-01

265

31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.  

...Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining...

2014-07-01

266

31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining...

2011-07-01

267

Modeling of cryogen leakage through composite laminates  

E-print Network

such as hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures. Exposure to varying temperatures and mechanical loads resulting from ?ight cycle, containment of pressurized cryogen causes thermo-mechanical loading of the composite. The thermo-mechanical loading cycles combined...

Peddiraju, Naga Venkata Satya Pravin Kumar

2005-02-17

268

A practical mimicry attack against powerful system-call monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

System-call monitoring has become the basis for many host-based intrusion detection as well as policy enforce- ment techniques. Previous work on mimicry attacks showed that system-call monitors can be evaded, but these attacks are effective primarily against relatively weak sy stem-call monitors, e.g., those that ignore system-call ar gu- ments. As more powerful monitoring techniques continue to be discovered, a

Chetan Parampalli; R. Sekar; Rob Johnson

2008-01-01

269

Compressive sensing: a strategy for fluttering target discrimination employed by bats emitting broadband calls.  

PubMed

When foraging, so-called FM-bats emit sequences of frequency modulated (FM) calls in order to detect, identify, and localize edible prey. Once a potential target has been detected, various call and call sequence parameters, such as frequency sweep, pulse duration, and inter pulse interval (IPI) vary. In this paper, the possible functions of the variation of the IPI are studied. In particular, it is conjectured that the IPI patterns are an adaptive behavior that optimizes the signal design parameters in order to improve information retrieval. Such an irregular sampling strategy would be useful whenever bats need to characterize signal modulation (e.g., the wing beat of an insect) using a call emission rate lower than the signal modulation of interest. This problem can be recast as extracting features, in this case the joint acoustic and modulation frequency representation, from signals sampled at frequencies well below the Nyquist cut-off frequency. To study the possibility of such target classification using a sub-Nyquist sampling scheme, results derived in the context of compressive sensing are used. Processing echoes collected from both rotating computer fans and fluttering locusts, it is shown that such a strategy would allow FM-bats to discriminate between targets based on their different fluttering rates. PMID:21361466

Fontaine, Bertrand; Peremans, Herbert

2011-02-01

270

Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

2011-11-01

271

Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality.  

PubMed

Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration). PMID:21928067

Guillette, Lauren M; Sturdy, Christopher B

2011-11-01

272

Varied line-space gratings: past, present and future  

SciTech Connect

A classically ruled diffraction grating consists of grooves which are equidistant, straight and parallel. Conversely, the so-called ''holographic'' grating (formed by the interfering waves of coherent visible light), although severely constrained by the recording wavelength and recording geometry, has grooves which are typically neither equidistant, straight nor parallel. In contrast, a varied line-space (VLS) grating, in common nomenclature, is a design in which the groove positions are relatively unconstrained yet possess sufficient symmetry to permit mechanical ruling. Such seemingly exotic gratings are no longer only a theoretical curiosity, but have been ruled and used in a wide variety of applications. These include: (1) aberration-corrected normal incidence concave gratings for Seya-Namioka monochromators and optical de-multiplexers, (2) flat-field grazing incidence concave gratings for plasma diagnostics, (3) aberration-corrected grazing incidence plane gratings for space-borne spectrometers, (4) focusing grazing incidence plane grating for synchrotron radiation monochromators, and (5) wavefront generators for visible interferometry of optical surfaces (particularly aspheres). Future prospects of VLS gratings as dispersing elements, wavefront correctors and beamsplitters appear promising. The author discusses the history of VLS gratings, their present applications, and their potential in the future. 61 refs., 24 figs.

Hettrick, M.C.

1985-08-01

273

Listen to Your Heart? Calling and Receptivity to Career Advice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores calling in the context of career decision making. Specifically, the authors examine receptivity to advice that discourages individuals from pursuing a professional path in their calling's domain. The authors hypothesize that people with a strong calling will be more likely to ignore negative career advice. In Study 1, a…

Dobrow, Shoshana R.; Tosti-Kharas, Jennifer

2012-01-01

274

The Additional Uses of CALL in the Endangered Language Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the additional uses of CALL in the Endangered Language (EL) context. It briefly reviews ELs and reports on CALL for ELs in general. It then reviews the extra uses of CALL for ELs; these include changing negative attitudes towards the language, arousing interest in the language and contributing to language maintenance and…

Ward, Monica

2004-01-01

275

CSC 2400: Computing Systems X86 Assembly: Function Calls  

E-print Network

# Call R Rtn point1: ... jmp Rtn_point1 # Return 4 Rtn_point1: ... #12;Challenge: Where to Return?g P: # Function P R: # Function R ... jmp R # Call R Rtn point1: ... jmp ??? # Return _p ... Q: # Function Q ... What should the return jmp R # Call R Rtn_point2: What should the return instruction in R jump to??? 5

276

CSC 2400: Computing Systems X86 Assembly: Function Calls"  

E-print Network

P ... jmp R # Call R Rtn_point1: ... R: # Function R ... jmp Rtn_point1 # Return #12;3 5 Challenge: Where to Return?! P: # Function P ... jmp R # Call R Rtn_point1: ... Q: # Function Q ... jmp R # Call R Rtn_point2: ... R: # Function R ... jmp ??? # Return What should the return instruction in R jump to

277

Interday Forecasting and Intraday Updating of Call Center Arrivals  

E-print Network

vector time series. We propose to first reduce the dimensionality by singular value decomposition decomposition, vector time series. 1. Introduction Call centers have become a primary contact point between, and in particular human resource costs (Gans et al. 2003). Effective management of a call center requires call

Huang, Jianhua

278

NATURAL LANGUAGE CALL ROUTING: A Robust, SelfOrganizing Approach  

E-print Network

NATURAL LANGUAGE CALL ROUTING: A Robust, Self­Organizing Approach Bob Carpenter Jennifer Chu and unambiguous calls when given either accurate transcriptions or fairly noisy real­time speech recognizer output of Caller Requests 2. RELATED WORK Call routing is similar to topic identification (see McDonough et al

Carpenter, Bob

279

Performance Analysis of the Outbound Call Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Outbound Call Management (OCM) system automatically dials phone numbers from a long predetermined list for human agents. A technique is provided to determine the number of calls to launch for the Outbound Call Management system to achieve a good agent efficiency performance measure, giving the queuing tolerance level. Subsequently, an approximate method is introduced that calculates the efficiency of

Mohsen Sarraf

1989-01-01

280

Fair and efficient call routing and admission control algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of call routing and admission control in general topology networks. Given a network, a call request consists of an origin-destination pair, and a bandwidth requirement. For each request, the routing algorithm must find a path in the network satisfying the bandwidth requirement, and the admission control algorithm must decide whether or not to accept the call.

Lata Narayanan; Yves Saintillan

1999-01-01

281

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in China: Some Common Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In February 2004, Chinese Ministry of Education launched a teaching reform featuring the integration of the computer and networking in College English learning to stimulate students' motivation and to improve their communicative competence. Up to now, Chinese CALL is still in infancy. This article reviews the CALL literature and identifies some common concerns for CALL initiative. The article finally points

LIU Meng; HUO Hong

282

Path Models of Vocational Calling in Christian College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Christian college environment, students are encouraged to understand their vocational calling, yet quantitative research on how college students conceptualize calling is sparse. This correlational study extends the research literature significantly by empirically examining variables that affect sense of vocational calling in 270 college students as they near graduation. Relationships among demographic variables (gender, race, resident status, GPA, and

Sheri L. Phillips

2011-01-01

283

Clinal variation in anuran advertisement calls: basis for acoustic isolation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calls of male treefrogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui) were studied along an altitudinal gradient in the Luquillo Mountains in eastern Puerto Rico. The fundamental frequency of each note in the advertisement call was highly negatively correlated with altitude. Although males responded vigorously to playbacks of calls of other males recorded at their own altitude, males at high altitudes responded less frequently

Peter M. Narins; Sheila L. Smith

1986-01-01

284

Heterospecific Acoustic Interference: Effects on Calling in Oophaga pumilio  

PubMed Central

Call rate suppression is a common short-term solution for avoiding acoustic interference in animals. It has been widely documented between and within frog species, but the effects of non-anuran calling on frog vocalizations is less well known. Heterospecific acoustic interference on the calling of Oophaga pumilio (Bauer, 1994) (formerly Dendrobates pumilio) males was studied in a lowland, wet tropical forest in SE Nicaragua. Acoustic playback experiments were conducted to characterize the responses of O. pumilio males to interfering calls of cicadas, two species of crickets and a sympatric dendrobatid frog, Phyllobates lugubris. Call rate, call bout duration, percent of time calling, dominant frequency and latency to first-call were analyzed. Significant call rate suppression was observed during all stimulus playbacks, yet no significant differences were found in spontaneous call rates during pre- and post-playback trials. Dominant frequency significantly decreased after P. lugubris playback and first-call latency significantly decreased in response to both cicada and tree cricket playbacks. These results provide robust evidence that O. pumilio males can dynamically modify their calling pattern in unique ways, depending on the source of the heterospecific acoustic interference. PMID:20953296

Wong, Stefanie; Parada, Humberto; Narins, Peter M.

2010-01-01

285

Web-Based CALL for Arabic: Constraints and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first section of this paper gives a brief overview of the experiences with LAN-based CALL programs for Arabic in the past 7 years at Leiden University (The Netherlands). The second section discusses constraints and technical challenges related to the use of Web-based CALL for Arabic, focusing in particular on a new Web-based CALL application,…

Corda, Alessandra; van der Stel, Mieke

2004-01-01

286

Bats aloft: Variation in echolocation call structure at high altitudes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bats alter their echolocation calls in response to changes in ecological and behavioral conditions, but little is known about how they adjust their call structure in response to changes in altitude. This study examines altitudinal variation in the echolocation calls of Brazilian free-tailed bats, T...

287

The Call for an African University: A Critical Reflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we draw on philosophy (particularly African philosophy) to analyse the call for an African university. The call for an African university may be viewed as a call that insists that all critical and transformative educators in Africa embrace an indigenous African worldview and root their nation's educational paradigms in an indigenous…

van Wyk, Berte; Higgs, Philip

2007-01-01

288

The So-Called 'Face on Mars'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north-facing slopes. The presence of water ice in these layers is a likely possibility to account for their preservation only on the colder surfaces. Alternatively, these unique features could be the result of the slow downslope motion of the surface layer, possibly enhanced by the presence of ground ice. One argument against downslope motion is the observation that the uppermost rounded boundary of these layers typically occurs at approximately the same distance below the ridge crest. This would suggest the (seemingly) unlikely possibility that all of these layers had moved downslope the same amount regardless of where they are located. In either case, ground ice likely plays an important role in the formation and preservation of these deposits because they only occur on the cold slopes facing away from the Sun where ground ice is more stable and may still be present today. The Story Nature is an imaginative artist, creating all kinds of wonderful landforms, cloud shapes, and other patterned features that remind people of familiar things in our lives. We see a 'man in the moon' when it is full in the night sky, and dream of a dromedary-dotted desert when coming upon Arizona's Camelback Mountain or Colorado's 'Kissing Camels' in the 'Garden of the Gods.' Near Ludlow, California, a lonely prospector once noticed that the appealing outline of the mountains resembled a reclining woman, and named the place Sleeping Beauty. And this naming delight isn't limited to Earth. The Mars Pathfinder mission team couldn't help but name the rocks at the landing site, including a bear-headed-looking one named Yogi. Part of the fun of exploration is not just visiting a strange world, but relating to it in human terms. On Mars, we've already seen a valentine heart-shaped crater, a happy-faced crater, and even a murky and mysterious 'face' on Mars. This face (seen here about halfway down the image and to the right) is really just a hill with slopes and ridges that are shadowed in a way that can sometimes resemble a face from far away. The first picture of

2002-01-01

289

Composite solders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of composite solders has been performed, specifically on tin\\/lead\\/Cu6Sn5 composition. This characterization includes both microstructural and mechanical analysis. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization of cross sections of the composite solder was preferred over optical inspection, owing to the similar appearance of the Sn and Cu6Sn5 phases by the latter method. The mechanical properties of composites were examined and

James L. Marshall; Jose Calderon; Jennifer Sees; George Lucey; Jennie S. Hwang

1991-01-01

290

Representation of individual elements of a complex call sequence in primary auditory cortex  

PubMed Central

Conspecific communication calls can be rhythmic or contain extended, discontinuous series of either constant or frequency modulated harmonic tones and noise bursts separated by brief periods of silence. In the guinea pig, rhythmic calls can produce isomorphic responses within the primary auditory cortex (AI) where single units respond to every call element. Other calls such as the chutter comprise a series of short irregular syllables that vary in their spectral content and are more like human speech. These calls can also evoke isomorphic responses, but may only do so in fields in the auditory belt and not in AI. Here we present evidence that cells in AI treat the individual elements within a syllable as separate auditory objects and respond selectively to one or a subset of them. We used a single chutter exemplar to compare single/multi-unit responses in the low-frequency portion of AI—AI(LF) and the low-frequency part of the thalamic medial geniculate body—MGB(LF) in urethane anaesthetized guinea pigs. Both thalamic and cortical cells responded with brief increases in firing rate to one, or more, of the 8 main elements present in the chutter call. Almost none of the units responded to all 8 elements. While there were many different combinations of responses to between one and five of the elements, MBG(LF) and AI(LF) neurons exhibited the same specific types of response combinations. Nearby units in the upper layers of the cortex tended to respond to similar combinations of elements while the deep layers were less responsive. Thus, the responses from a number of AI units would need to be combined in order to represent the entire chutter call. Our results don't rule out the possibility of constructive convergence but there was no evidence that a convergence of inputs within AI led to a complete representation of all eight elements. PMID:24198766

Wallace, Mark N.; Grimsley, Jasmine M. S.; Anderson, Lucy A.; Palmer, Alan R.

2013-01-01

291

Asphaltic compositions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an asphaltic composition of enhanced utility for vehicular pavement which composition comprises a road paving grade of asphalt in admixture with at least one alkylene dithiocarbamate. The composition is characterized by having a reduced increase in absolute viscosity to original absolute viscosity after thin film aging as measured by ASTM Test D 1754 at 140/sup 0/F.

Wright, W.E.; Zaweski, E.F.

1987-02-24

292

Pediatric lupus: varied haematological picture and presentation.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem, autoimmune disease characterized by periods of increased disease activity caused by inflammation of blood vessels and connective tissue. Pediatric patients with SLE have a more severe clinical course when compared with adults. Patients commonly present with rash, fever, and arthritis, although the presentation may be unpredictable. Hematological findings are more predominant in children than adults. Thirty-nine percent of children with SLE will develop hematological abnormalities, one of the American Rheumatic Association criteria for classifying the disease. In our case series we found varied hematological picture and presentation. We present here four case reports of SLE cases with interesting hematological features. Our first case is a 13 month old female child who was initially diagnosed as Evans syndrome and 2 years later diagnosed as SLE. Second case is a 3 year old male child who had SLE with warm antibody AIHA. Third case is a 6 year old female child who presented with AIHA and was diagnosed with SLE 6 years later. Fourth case is a 6 year old female child diagnosed as SLE with aplastic anemia. Hematological findings should be carefully assessed and treated in order to decrease disease related morbidity. PMID:25548448

Thakur, Neha; Chandra, Jagdish; Dhingra, Bhavna; Singh, V

2015-03-01

293

Memristive biosensors under varying humidity conditions.  

PubMed

We attempt to examine the potential of silicon nanowire memristors in the field of nanobiosensing. The memristive devices are crystalline Silicon (Si) Nanowires (NWs) with Nickel Silicide (NiSi) terminals. The nanowires are fabricated on a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer by an Ebeam Lithography Technique (EBL) process that allows high resolution at the nanoscale. A Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) technique is used to define free-standing nanowires. The close alignment between Silicon (Si) and Nickel-Silicide (NiSi) terminals forms a Schottky-barrier at their junction. The memristive effect of the fabricated devices matches well with the memristor theory. An equivalent circuit reproducing the memristive effect in current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of our silicon nanowires is presented too. The memristive silicon nanowire devices are then functionalized with anti-human VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) antibody and I-V characteristics are examined for the nanowires prior to and after protein functionalization. The uptake of bio-molecules linked to the surface of the memristive NWs is confirmed by the increased voltage gap in the hysteresis curve. The effects of varying humidity conditions on the conductivity of bio-modified memristive silicon nanowires are deeply investigated. PMID:24594511

Puppo, Francesca; Dave, Akshat; Doucey, Marie-Agnès; Sacchetto, Davide; Baj-Rossi, Camilla; Leblebici, Yusuf; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro

2014-03-01

294

Extracting Laterally Varying Attenuation from Microseisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise cross-correlation (NCC) has been successfully used in constructing empirical Green's functions (EGFs) for seismic velocity tomography. However, extracting reliable EGF amplitudes for attenuation estimation remains a challenge despite the fact that there are studies that derive spatially averaged attenuation from noise. In this work we use microseisms recorded by the USArray stations to explore the techniques that may accomplish the task to accurately measure EGF amplitudes and thus provide reliable input to the tomographic mapping of the laterally varying attenuation. Traditional NCC processing often trades amplitude information for phases with a better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). An equally efficient method, temporal flattening, which removes the dominance of high-level noise in particular time intervals, and yet keeps the relative amplitudes among stations, is to normalize the narrow-band signals at each station by an average of the noise energy level at all stations. In addition to the effect of traditional NCC processing, EGF amplitude can also be biased by the uneven distribution of noise-field intensity in space, time and direction. To mitigate the effect of anisotropic noise field, we calculate EGFs using beam cross-correlation (BCC). Namely we construct beams according to the strike of a station pair and the surface-wave velocity, so that the beam signal contains mainly the energy flux along the strike. We validate our methods by comparing the surface-wave amplitudes from an earthquake with relative EGF amplitudes from a "source" station near the earthquake.

Zhang, J.; Yang, X.; Weaver, R. L.

2011-12-01

295

Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

1990-01-01

296

Honeybee odometry: performance in varying natural terrain.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that honeybees flying through short, narrow tunnels with visually textured walls perform waggle dances that indicate a much greater flight distance than that actually flown. These studies suggest that the bee's "odometer" is driven by the optic flow (image motion) that is experienced during flight. One might therefore expect that, when bees fly to a food source through a varying outdoor landscape, their waggle dances would depend upon the nature of the terrain experienced en route. We trained honeybees to visit feeders positioned along two routes, each 580 m long. One route was exclusively over land. The other was initially over land, then over water and, finally, again over land. Flight over water resulted in a significantly flatter slope of the waggle-duration versus distance regression, compared to flight over land. The mean visual contrast of the scenes was significantly greater over land than over water. The results reveal that, in outdoor flight, the honeybee's odometer does not run at a constant rate; rather, the rate depends upon the properties of the terrain. The bee's perception of distance flown is therefore not absolute, but scene-dependent. These findings raise important and interesting questions about how these animals navigate reliably. PMID:15252454

Tautz, Juergen; Zhang, Shaowu; Spaethe, Johannes; Brockmann, Axel; Si, Aung; Srinivasan, Mandyam

2004-07-01

297

Individual Distinctiveness in Call Types of Wild Western Female Gorillas  

PubMed Central

Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo). Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC) was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized), suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication. PMID:25029238

Salmi, Roberta; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M.

2014-01-01

298

Failure models for textile composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of this investigation were to: (1) identify mechanisms of failure and determine how the architecture of reinforcing fibers in 3D woven composites controlled stiffness, strength, strain to failure, work of fracture, notch sensitivity, and fatigue life; and (2) to model composite stiffness, strength, and fatigue life. A total of 11 different angle and orthogonal interlock woven composites were examined. Composite properties depended on the weave architecture, the tow size, and the spatial distributions and strength of geometrical flaws. Simple models were developed for elastic properties, strength, and fatigue life. A more complicated stochastic model, called the 'Binary Model,' was developed for damage tolerance and ultimate failure. These 3D woven composites possessed an extraordinary combination of strength, damage tolerance, and notch insensitivity.

Cox, Brian

1995-01-01

299

The Chemical Composition of Honey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution, created by bees, and used by human beings as a sweetener. However, honey is more than just a supersaturated sugar solution; it also contains acids, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids in varying quantities. In this article, we will briefly explore the chemical composition of honey. (Contains 2 figures and…

Ball, David W.

2007-01-01

300

On current compositing algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several techniques exist for compositing the multitemporal NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data for vegetation studies. The major pixel selection criteria of these techniques rely on the characteristics of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetative Index): appearance of clouds, poor atmospheric conditions, and off-nadir viewing geometries would depress the NDVI values. Consequently, selecting the pixels with the maximum value of NDVI would presumably eliminate these external perturbating effects. However, the maximum NDVI does not always correspond to these ideal conditions. In fact, the NDVI varies with these external factors in an unpredictable way. There was an indication that the maximum NDVI tended to favor the off-nadir view in the forward direction. The resultant composite product would be consequently affected. To improve the multitemporal data via compositing, therefore, both the pixel selection criteria and the classifier NDVI need to be modified or corrected for external factors. The current compositing algorithms were reviewed, and alternatives were proposed to use the combinations of the red and near infrared channels and biological characteristics of vegetation as second criteria in pixel selections. The traditional classifier NDVI was replaced with different vegetation indices. The approach was applied to an AVHRR data set over the HAPEX study site in Niger in 1992. The results showed that the approach improved the AVHRR time series quality and was promising towards the development of an efficient compositing algorithm.

Qi, J.; Kerr, Y.

1994-01-01

301

Neural Activity Patterns in Response to Interspecific and Intraspecific Variation in Mating Calls in the Túngara Frog  

PubMed Central

Background During mate choice, individuals must classify potential mates according to species identity and relative attractiveness. In many species, females do so by evaluating variation in the signals produced by males. Male túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) can produce single note calls (whines) and multi-note calls (whine-chucks). While the whine alone is sufficient for species recognition, females greatly prefer the whine-chuck when given a choice. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand how the brain responds to variation in male mating signals, we mapped neural activity patterns evoked by interspecific and intraspecific variation in mating calls in túngara frogs by measuring expression of egr-1. We predicted that egr-1 responses to conspecific calls would identify brain regions that are potentially important for species recognition and that at least some of those brain regions would vary in their egr-1 responses to mating calls that vary in attractiveness. We measured egr-1 in the auditory brainstem and its forebrain targets and found that conspecific whine-chucks elicited greater egr-1 expression than heterospecific whines in all but three regions. We found no evidence that preferred whine-chuck calls elicited greater egr-1 expression than conspecific whines in any of eleven brain regions examined, in contrast to predictions that mating preferences in túngara frogs emerge from greater responses in the auditory system. Conclusions Although selectivity for species-specific signals is apparent throughout the túngara frog brain, further studies are necessary to elucidate how neural activity patterns vary with the attractiveness of conspecific mating calls. PMID:20877560

Burmeister, Sabrina S.

2010-01-01

302

Historical Gasoline Composition Data 1976 - 2010  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

303

Do social networks of female northern long-eared bats vary with reproductive period and age?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social structure, which is a function of the patterns of interactions among individuals, is particularly variable in fission–fusion\\u000a societies. The underlying factors that drive this variation are poorly understood. Female northern long-eared bats (Myotis septentrionalis) live in fission–fusion societies where females form preferred associations within groups that vary daily in size and composition\\u000a as individuals switch roosts. The goal of

Krista J. Patriquin; Marty L. Leonard; Hugh G. Broders; Colin J. Garroway

2010-01-01

304

Cosmology with Time-Varying G  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that a Universe with a time-varying gravitational “constant” G necessarily implies creation if the rest mass of matter particles m p is constant. In this case, from Einstein's field equations, the conditions for energy-momentum propagation are ? ·( GT ? v ) from which matter and photon propagation equations are derived. Free matter particle propagation is not affected by creation that is given by GN pmp=const, where N p is the number of matter particles within a proper volume. This relation introduces explicitly the rest mass of the Universe into the field equations. Free photon propagation is affected by creation that is given by GT ? v R=const, where N ? is the number of photons within a proper volume, which is the cosmic red shift law. Conservation of the cosmic background photon distribution determines photon creation as G 3 N {?/4}. The results are applied to the case G ? t -1 equivalent to N p ÷ t. It is found that at an age t=1, 0-40 t o, of the order light takes to travel a proton size, Planck's units become of the order of the proton's mass m p, size r p, and time r p/c. Hence, matter particles at this age are quantum black holes. Evaporation of these quantum black holes at this age gives a background blackbody radiation that, red shifted to present time t 0, gives the present cosmic microwave background. A cosmological model of the Friedmann type is constructed. The red shift versus distance relation is derived taking into account creation. Using a Hubble's constant H obs=50 km sec-1 Mpc-1 and a deceleration parameter q obs=1.0 the model is of the type k=1 and gives a present age t 0=6.81×109 yr, consistent with Uranium model ages. Thus, the three results for the age of the Universe, i.e., radioactive decay, Hubble's constant, and stellar evolution are brought together in this creation model. The matter-dominated era occurs for t>7.6×10-3 t 0, while the radiation-dominated era occurs for 7.6×10-3 t o> t>10-40 t o. The origin of the Universe is placed at this last limit, which is Planck's time at the corresponding G, consisting of quantum black holes at a temperature Ti?=3×1011K.

Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

1986-03-01

305

Reducing juvenile delinquency with automated cell phone calls.  

PubMed

Using a sample of 70 juvenile probationers (39 treatment and 31 controls), we evaluated the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program that combined cognitive-behavioral training and automated phone calls. The cognitive-behavioral training contained six 90-min sessions, one per week, and the phone calls occurred twice per day for the year following treatment. Recidivism was measured by whether they were rearrested and the total number of rearrests during the 1st year. To test the impact of the phone calls, those who received phone calls were divided into high and low groups depending on whether they answered more or less than half of their phone calls. Those who completed the class and answered at least half of their phone calls were less likely to have been arrested and had fewer total arrests. PMID:23486755

Burraston, Bert O; Bahr, Stephen J; Cherrington, David J

2014-05-01

306

Call-based species recognition in black-capped chickadees.  

PubMed

Species recognition is essential for efficient communication between conspecifics. For this to occur, species information must be unambiguously encoded in the repertoire of each species' vocalizations. Until now, the study of species recognition in songbirds has been focused mainly on male songs and male territorial behaviour. Species recognition of other learned vocalizations, such as calls, have not been explored, and could prove useful as calls are used in a wider range of contexts. Here, we present an experimental field study investigating the coding of species information in a learned vocalization, the 'chick-a-dee' call of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). By modifying natural calls in both temporal and spectral domains and by observing the vocal responses of black-capped chickadees following the playback of these modified calls, we demonstrate that species recognition in chickadees relies on several acoustic features including syntax, frequency modulation, amplitude modulation, and to a lesser extent, call rhythmicity and frequency range. PMID:16139440

Charrier, Isabelle; Sturdy, Christopher B

2005-11-01

307

Modeling synchronized calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally observed synchronized calling behavior of male Japanese tree frogs Hyla japonica; namely, while isolated single frogs called nearly periodically, a pair of interacting frogs called synchronously almost in antiphase or inphase. In this study, we propose two types of phase-oscillator models on different degrees of approximations, which can quantitatively explain the phase and frequency properties in the experiment. Moreover, it should be noted that, although the second model is obtained by fitting to the experimental data of the two synchronized states, the model can also explain the transitory dynamics in the interactive calling behavior, namely, the shift from a transient inphase state to a stable antiphase state. We also discuss the biological relevance of the estimated parameter values to calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs and the possible biological meanings of the synchronized calling behavior.

Aihara, Ikkyu

2009-07-01

308

Multiscale Multifunctional Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells. Global fracture is enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads. The old reference denotes that nothing has been added to this comprehensive report since then.

Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

2012-01-01

309

Variable Food Begging Calls Are Harbingers of Vocal Learning  

PubMed Central

Vocal learning has evolved in only a few groups of mammals and birds. The developmental and evolutionary origins of vocal learning remain unclear. The imitation of a memorized sound is a clear example of vocal learning, but is that when vocal learning starts? Here we use an ontogenetic approach to examine how vocal learning emerges in a songbird, the chipping sparrow. The first vocalizations of songbirds, food begging calls, were thought to be innate, and vocal learning emerges later during subsong, a behavior reminiscent of infant babbling. Here we report that the food begging calls of male sparrows show several characteristics associated with learned song: male begging calls are highly variable between individuals and are altered by deafening; the production of food begging calls induces c-fos expression in a forebrain motor nucleus, RA, that is involved with the production of learned song. Electrolytic lesions of RA significantly reduce the variability of male calls. The male begging calls are subsequently incorporated into subsong, which in turn transitions into recognizable attempts at vocal imitation. Females do not sing and their begging calls are not affected by deafening or RA lesion. Our results suggest that, in chipping sparrows, intact hearing can influence the quality of male begging calls, auditory-sensitive vocal variability during food begging calls is the first step in a modification of vocal output that eventually culminates with vocal imitation. PMID:19529766

Liu, Wan-chun; Wada, Kazuhiro; Nottebohm, Fernando

2009-01-01

310

CALL FOR PAPERS INDIANA UNDERGRADUATE JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE SCIENCE  

E-print Network

CALL FOR PAPERS INDIANA UNDERGRADUATE JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE SCIENCE An Online Journal of Research, anthropology, biology, computer science, linguistics, philosophy, psychology and neuroscience. Submissions

Indiana University

311

Isosurface Extraction in Time-Varying Fields Using a Temporal Hierarchical Index Tree  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many high-performance isosurface extraction algorithms have been proposed in the past several years as a result of intensive research efforts. When applying these algorithms to large-scale time-varying fields, the storage overhead incurred from storing the search index often becomes overwhelming. this paper proposes an algorithm for locating isosurface cells in time-varying fields. We devise a new data structure, called Temporal Hierarchical Index Tree, which utilizes the temporal coherence that exists in a time-varying field and adoptively coalesces the cells' extreme values over time; the resulting extreme values are then used to create the isosurface cell search index. For a typical time-varying scalar data set, not only does this temporal hierarchical index tree require much less storage space, but also the amount of I/O required to access the indices from the disk at different time steps is substantially reduced. We illustrate the utility and speed of our algorithm with data from several large-scale time-varying CID simulations. Our algorithm can achieve more than 80% of disk-space savings when compared with the existing techniques, while the isosurface extraction time is nearly optimal.

Shen, Han-Wei; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

312

Composition: What's Love Got To Do with It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent trend in composition studies has been a call for the "feminization" of composition pedagogy. Collaborative learning pedagogues have sought to reconstruct the classroom as a site of social cooperation, connectedness, and nurturance and have re-envisioned composition as an act of understanding rather than of agonistics. Reconstituting the…

Ballif, Michelle

313

Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism  

SciTech Connect

The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results.

G. Rewoldt

2003-09-08

314

TIME-VARYING CHANNEL MODEL EFFICIENCY Scott Rickard  

E-print Network

School of Electronic, Electrical & Mechanical Engineering University College Dublin IRELAND School one path time-varying channel in the time-varying impulse re- sponse, time-frequency characterization-varying impulse response), a time- frequency characterization, and a time-scale characteriza- tion. The time

Drakakis, Konstantinos

315

With whom to dine? Ravens' responses to food-associated calls depend on individual characteristics of the caller  

PubMed Central

Upon discovering food, common ravens, Corvus corax, produce far-reaching ‘haa’ calls or yells, which are individually distinct and signal food availability to conspecifics. Here, we investigated whether ravens respond differently to ‘haa’ calls of known and unknown individuals. In a paired playback design, we tested responses to ‘haa’ call sequences in a group containing individually marked free-ranging ravens. We simultaneously played call sequences of a male and a female raven in two different locations and varied familiarity (known or unknown to the local group). Ravens responded strongest to dyads containing familiar females, performing more scan flights above and by perching in trees near the respective speaker. Acoustic analysis of the calls used as stimuli showed no sex-, age- or familiarity-specific acoustic cues, but highly significant classification results at the individual level. Taken together, our findings indicate that ravens respond to individual characteristics in ‘haa’ calls, and choose whom to approach for feeding, i.e. join social allies and avoid dominant conspecifics. This is the first study to investigate responses to ‘haa’ calls under natural conditions in a wild population containing individually marked ravens. PMID:25598542

Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Wascher, Claudia A.F.; Spreafico, Michela; Bugnyar, Thomas

2015-01-01

316

St. Lawrence blue whale vocalizations revisited: characterization of calls detected from 1998 to 2001.  

PubMed

From 1998 to 2001, 115 h of acoustic recordings were made in the presence of the well-studied St. Lawrence population of blue whales, using a calibrated omnidirectional hydrophone [flat (+/- 3 dB) response from 5 to 800 Hz] suspended at 50 m depth from a surface isolation buoy. The primary field site for this study was the estuary region of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada), with most recordings made between mid-August and late October. During the recordings, detailed field notes were taken on all cetaceans within sight. Characterization of the more than 1000 blue whale calls detected during this study revealed that the St. Lawrence repertoire is much more extensive than previously reported. Three infrasonic (<20 Hz) and three audible range (30-200 Hz) call types were detected, with much time/frequency variation seen within each type. Further variation is seen in the form of call segmentation, which appears (through examination of Lloyd's Mirror interference effects) to be controlled at least partially by the whales. Although St. Lawrence blue whale call characteristics are similar to those of the North Atlantic, comparisons of phrase composition and spacing among studies suggest the possibility of population dialects within the North Atlantic. PMID:17069329

Berchok, Catherine L; Bradley, David L; Gabrielson, Thomas B

2006-10-01

317

PARENTAL CALLS AND NESTLING BEHAVIOR IN TREE SWALLOWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents in many passerines are reported to produce a vocalization at the nest that stimulates nestling begging. Although this phenomenon has been well documented, rel- atively few studies have systematically examined the use of this call. The purpose of our study was to examine the role of Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) contact calls in the stim- ulation of nestling begging.

MARTY L. LEONARD; NICOLE FERNANDEZ; GLEN BROWN

1997-01-01

318

Privacy and Marketing Externalities: Evidence from Do Not Call  

E-print Network

in the context of the U.S. Do Not Call (DNC) registry by exploiting the exogenous timing of the enforcement of the registry. Supported by multiple robustness tests, and validation and falsification exercises, we conclude@nus.edu.sg. We thank Hal Varian for pointing us to the federal Do Not Call registry. We thank audiences

Hui, Kai-Lung

319

MARGIN CALL STOCK LOANS ERIK EKSTR OM AND HENRIK WANNTORP  

E-print Network

MARGIN CALL STOCK LOANS ERIK EKSTR ¨OM AND HENRIK WANNTORP Abstract. We study margin call stock loans, i.e. loans in which a stock acts as collateral, and the borrower is obliged to pay back parts of the loan in case the value of the stock falls below the loan amount. We show that such a stock loan can

Ekström, Erik

320

When You Call The phone will be answered  

E-print Network

...on what to do for a poisoning, bite or sting, or tips on poison-proofing your home · Call 1 of medications Call the Poison Center 24 hours a day for: · Treatment for poisoning · Bites and stings-in-law tongue/Snake Plant* (Sansevieria trifasciata) Palms (Palmaceae species) Palo Verde (Cercidum species

Arizona, University of

321

Campbell's Monkeys Use Affixation to Alter Call Meaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human language has evolved on a biological substrate with phylogenetic roots deep in the primate lineage. Here, we describe a functional analogy to a common morphological process in human speech, affixation, in the alarm calls of free-ranging adult Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli). We found that male alarm calls are composed of an acoustically variable stem, which can be followed

Karim Ouattara; Alban Lemasson; Klaus Zuberbühler

2009-01-01

322

Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

Nesbitt, Dallas

2013-01-01

323

Call for Essays: HiiL Young Talent Essay competition  

E-print Network

Call for Essays: HiiL Young Talent Essay competition For the most original and thought provokingL Young Talent Essay Competition 2 Call for Essays 1. Introduction Within the broader framework of the Hii.hiil.org) invites young scholars and graduate students to enter into the "HiiL Young Talent Essay Competition

Galis, Frietson

324

AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory taking" will provide…

Schulze, Mathias

2008-01-01

325

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eaves- dropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black- capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of

C. N. Templeton; Erick Greene

2007-01-01

326

Flexible Calling Context Reification for Aspect-Oriented Programming  

E-print Network

representation of the complete calling context. To highlight the benefits of our ap- proach, we present ReCrash as an aspect using a stack-based call- ing context representation; ReCrash is an existing tool that gener- ates unit tests to reproduce program failures. In comparison with the original ReCrash tool, our aspect

Binder, Walter

327

UCI Emergency Procedures UCI Emergency Call 9-1-1  

E-print Network

, weekends, holidays), call 714.456.7890 and request the Infectious Disease Fellow On-Call. · If you clear" is given and you are directed to do so. Blood, Body Fluid, or Infectious Agent Exposure An exposure means a specific eye, mouth, or other mucous membrane, non-intact skin or contact exposure

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

328

GUIDE FOR APPLICANTS CALL 'THE OCEAN OF TOMORROW'  

E-print Network

i GUIDE FOR APPLICANTS CALL 'THE OCEAN OF TOMORROW' Food, Agriculture and Fisheries-economic Sciences and Humanities COLLABORATIVE PROJECT FP7-OCEAN-2010 Further copies of this Guide, together-site: http://cordis.europa.eu/ #12;call 'THE OCEAN OF TOMORROW' Guide for Applicants: Collaborative projects

Milano-Bicocca, Università

329

Jamaican Call-In Radio: A Uses and Gratification Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that radio call-in programs seem to contain the elements for active audience involvement and participation, a study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that information gain and surveillance are the primary gratifications sought through call-in radio programs, especially in a culture that has a strong oral tradition and relatively few…

Surlin, Stuart H.

330

Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

Berry, John N., III

2010-01-01

331

Knowledge structures and their applications in CALL systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The paper describes two approaches towards knowledge assessment which can be applied within any CALL application. The first approach uses test items to define a universe of empirical knowledge states. We show that the relations between items (‘are about equal’, ‘is harder than’) and subjects (‘are about equal’, ‘is better than’) can be easily computed within a CALL system,

Ivo Duntsch; Gunther Gediga

1998-01-01

332

Verifying Heap-Manipulating Programs with Unknown Procedure Calls  

E-print Network

prog contains calls to some un- known procedure unknown, we infer a specification mspecu for unknownVerifying Heap-Manipulating Programs with Unknown Procedure Calls Shengchao Qin1 , Chenguang Luo2 to unknown pro- cedures is a practical problem, because in many scenarios not all codes of programs

Qin, Shengchao

333

Electrode compositions  

DOEpatents

An electrode composition for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5-4.5 volts.

Block, Jacob (Rockville, MD); Fan, Xiyun (Orange, TX)

1998-01-01

334

Addressee Errors in ATC Communications: The Call Sign Problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Communication errors involving aircraft call signs were portrayed in reports of 462 hazardous incidents voluntarily submitted to the ASRS during an approximate four-year period. These errors resulted in confusion, disorder, and uncoordinated traffic conditions and produced the following types of operational anomalies: altitude deviations, wrong-way headings, aborted takeoffs, go arounds, runway incursions, missed crossing altitude restrictions, descents toward high terrain, and traffic conflicts in flight and on the ground. Analysis of the report set resulted in identification of five categories of errors involving call signs: (1) faulty radio usage techniques, (2) call sign loss or smearing due to frequency congestion, (3) confusion resulting from similar sounding call signs, (4) airmen misses of call signs leading to failures to acknowledge or readback, and (5) controller failures regarding confirmation of acknowledgements or readbacks. These error categories are described in detail and several associated hazard mitigating measures that might be aken are considered.

Monan, W. P.

1983-01-01

335

Frequency synchronization of blue whale calls near Pioneer Seamount.  

PubMed

Vocalizations of blue whales were recorded with a cabled hydrophone array at Pioneer Seamount, 50 miles off the California coast. Most calls occurred in repeated sequences of two-call pairs (A, then B). The B call is a frequency-modulated tone highly repeatable in form and pitch. A model of this sound is described which permits detecting very small frequency shifts. B calls are found to be aligned in frequency to about one part in 180. This requires very fine pitch discrimination and control over calling frequency, and suggests that synchronizing to a common frequency pattern carries some adaptive advantage. Some possibilities for acoustic sensing by whales requiring this fine frequency resolution are discussed. PMID:20649243

Hoffman, Michael D; Garfield, Newell; Bland, Roger W

2010-07-01

336

The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.  

PubMed

Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively. PMID:20659926

Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

2011-02-23

337

Composite Z'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the possibility of a composite Z' vector boson. For the compositeness, the required gauge coupling g in low energy is not so big, g2/(4 ? )?0.015 in the case of the U (1 )B -L model. We show that the Stückelberg model is effectively induced in low energy via the fermion loop from the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model having the vectorial four-fermion interaction. In terms of the renormalization group equations, this situation is expressed by the compositeness conditions. We find that the solutions of the renormalization group equations with the compositeness conditions are determined by the infrared fixed points. As a result, the ratio of the masses of the extra electroweak singlet scalar and the right-handed neutrino is fixed. The mass of the composite Z' boson contains the contribution ? of the Stückelberg mass term. This nonzero ? might be a remnant of a strongly interacting theory in high energy.

Hashimoto, Michio

2014-11-01

338

[The microflora of sour dough. IV. Communication: bacterial composition of sourdough starters genus Lactobacillus beijerinck (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The bacterial composition of three so called pure culture sourdough starters of varying origin was investigated. 245 isolates were obtained all belonging to the genus Beijerinck. According to their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics they were classified into the subgroups: Thermobacterium (L. acidophilus), Streptobacterium (L. casei, L. plantarum, L. farciminis, L. alimentarius) and Betabacterium (L. brevis, L. brevis var. lindneri, L buchneri, L. fermentum, L. fructi vorans). In the three sourdough starters the identified lactic organisms varied in number and proportion. In starter preparation "A" only the varieties L. fructi vorans and L. fermentum were present. Preparation "B" contained a great variety of microorganisms with L. brevis and L. brevis L. lindneri predominating. In starter "C" L. brevis, L. plantarum and L. alimentarius predominated. PMID:735416

Spicher, G; Schröder, R

1978-11-28

339

Metabolic and Appetite Hormone Responses of Hyperinsulinemic Normoglycemic Males to Meals with Varied Macronutrient Compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the appetite hormones and metabolic responses of hyperinsulinemic subjects to high-protein (HP) meals as compared to high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) meals. Design: Fifteen hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic men received, on 3 separate occasions, HP, HC, or HF meals in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected before and after the ingestion

Dalia El Khoury; Nahla Hwalla

2010-01-01

340

Quantitative Analysis of Content Organization in Some Biology Texts Varying in Textual Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated is a reader's ability to comprehend written text that is highly novel with few semantic cues. The theoretical perspective, assessment theory, materials and methods, and the results of this study are discussed. (KR)

Anderson, O. Roger; Botticelli, Steven

1990-01-01

341

Uropygial gland size and composition varies according to experimentally modified microbiome in Great tits  

PubMed Central

Background Parasites exert important selective pressures on host life history traits. In birds, feathers are inhabited by numerous microorganisms, some of them being able to degrade feathers or lead to infections. Preening feathers with secretions of the uropygial gland has been found to act as an antimicrobial defence mechanism, expected to regulate feather microbial communities and thus limit feather abrasion and infections. Here, we used an experimental approach to test whether Great tits (Parus major) modify their investment in the uropygial gland in response to differences in environmental microorganisms. Results We found that males, but not females, modified the size of their gland when exposed to higher bacterial densities on feathers. We also identified 16 wax esters in the uropygial gland secretions. The relative abundance of some of these esters changed in males and females, while the relative abundance of others changed only in females when exposed to greater bacterial loads on feathers. Conclusion Birds live in a bacterial world composed of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. This study provides the first experimental evidence for modifications of investment in the defensive trait that is the uropygial gland in response to environmental microorganisms in a wild bird. PMID:24938652

2014-01-01

342

The seasonally varying isotopic composition of the sources of carbon monoxide at Barbados, West Indies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have collected and analyzed air samples for 13CO, C18O, and CO concentration at Barbados, West Indies (13°N, 59°W), from July 1996 to May 2000. The ?13C values during the summer of 1996 and 1997 are among the lowest values reported for atmospheric CO, at less than -34‰ (Peedee belemnite-CO2), but seasonal maxima are close to that reported at other stations. Seasonal lows for 1998 and 1999 are between -32.5‰ and -33‰, which is also lower than observations at higher-latitude sites. Such low values are difficult to simulate by considering the well-established CO sources alone, and may indicate a small, but very isotopically depleted, source of CO from the marine boundary layer, such as chlorine-catalyzed destruction of CH4. We directly compare the observations at Barbados with data from middle-latitude and high-latitude Northern Hemisphere sites and construct a latitudinal dependence in the seasonal amplitude of both 13CO and C18O. We then investigate the source strengths of CO at this site using a three-dimensional inverse model analysis, which has also been used to simulate the other data sets. Model simulations reproduce the seasonal variations in [CO], ?13C, and ?18O but do not predict the large amplitude of ?13C (which is due to the very depleted summertime ?13C values) or the absolute values for 18O. We also include a calculation of the relative strengths of certain sources based on the model inversion.

Mak, John E.; Kra, Gabriel; Sandomenico, Theodore; Bergamaschi, Peter

2003-10-01

343

Permeability of composite chondrocyte-culture-millipore membranes to solutes of varying size and shape.  

PubMed Central

A model connective-tissue system was developed that is amenable to the determination of permeability coefficients of diffusing solutes. The system involves the culture of 13-day chick-embryo chondrocytes on a Millipore filter (HA:0.45 micron pore size) to form what is, in effect, a confluent, extremely thin cartilage slice of uniform thickness. These cultured chondrocyte membranes were used to measure the steady-state flux of radioactively labelled low-molecular-weight solutes and micro-ions. Similarly, the permeability coefficients of either radioactively labelled or enzymically active proteins across the membranes were determined. The membrane was found to have no marked effects on the diffusional behaviour of low-molecular-weight non-electrolytes (water, proline, ribose, glucose, sorbitol, raffinose). For micro-ions (Na+, SO42-, Cl-, glutamate, glucuronate,), the diffusive behaviour was found to be markedly affected by the ionic strength of the solvent used in a manner which was consistent with a Donnan distribution resulting from the immobilized proteoglycans. Globular proteins permeated the membrane at rates which decreased as the molecular size of the diffusing solute increased. The apparent diffusion rates of fibrinogen and of collagen through the membranes were greater than would be expected on the basis of their diffusion coefficients in free solution. Reasons for this behaviour are discussed. Images PLATE 1 PMID:496889

Cumming, G J; Handley, C J; Preston, B N

1979-01-01

344

Nutritional value of diets that vary in fatty acid composition for larval Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-light grown cells of Thalassiosira pseudonana and Pavlova lutheri constituted a superior diet for larval Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) relative to the same phytoplankton species grown under low-light. Growth rates were higher and mortality was lower for those larvae fed high-light (HL) versus low-light (LL) grown phytoplankton cells of the same species. Based upon larval growth rates, these diets could

Peter A. Thompson; Ming-xin Guo; Paul J. Harrison

1996-01-01

345

Win32API InterceptorWin32API Interceptor Monitoring Windows API callsMonitoring Windows API calls  

E-print Network

Win32API InterceptorWin32API Interceptor Monitoring Windows API callsMonitoring Windows API calls using the Detours technology, that was developed by Microsoft researchers. #12;Win32API InterceptorWin32API Interceptor ­­ ArchitectureArchitecture Win32API Interceptor (MS Access Data Base) Dll

Segall, Adrian

346

Cooperative Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization with Dynamic Varying Search Areas and Lévy Flight Disturbance  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a novel variant of cooperative quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (CQPSO) algorithm with two mechanisms to reduce the search space and avoid the stagnation, called CQPSO-DVSA-LFD. One mechanism is called Dynamic Varying Search Area (DVSA), which takes charge of limiting the ranges of particles' activity into a reduced area. On the other hand, in order to escape the local optima, Lévy flights are used to generate the stochastic disturbance in the movement of particles. To test the performance of CQPSO-DVSA-LFD, numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed algorithm with different variants of PSO. According to the experimental results, the proposed method performs better than other variants of PSO on both benchmark test functions and the combinatorial optimization issue, that is, the job-shop scheduling problem. PMID:24851085

Li, Desheng

2014-01-01

347

Spectrographic Analysis of Carrion Crow Calls and Their Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, damage to agricultural products, livestock, and power transmission systems by crows is regarded as a serious problem; countermeasures against crow damage are urgently necessary. This paper proposed a method for detecting crow calls in various environmental sounds. If detection and discernment of crow calls were possible, various actions could be undertaken to prevent the damage. Wildlife call detection, not only that for crows, should be executed in extremely noisy environments. We then introduced both a spectrograph estimation technique with AR modeling in which AR coefficients are temporally smoothed and interpolated and a background noise elimination technique to obtain higher-quality crow call templates. The input sounds are compared with these templates by DP matching in the metric vector space of a logarithmic cepstrum. Every input sound whose minimal distance to the template database is less than the specified threshold value is detected as a crow call. The maximal detection performance can be obtained when five call templates in the template database are utilized; the implication is that carrion crows have five distinguishable call patterns. It is shown that the proposed method achieves 95% detection rate when 1.66% misdetection rate is allowed.

Shibuya, Hisashi; Yokota, Yasunari

348

Influence of socioeconomic factors on medically unnecessary ambulance calls  

PubMed Central

Background Unnecessary ambulance use has become a socioeconomic problem in Japan. We investigated the possible relations between socioeconomic factors and medically unnecessary ambulance calls, and we estimated the incremental demand for unnecessary ambulance use produced by socioeconomic factors. Methods We conducted a self-administered questionnaire-based survey targeting residents of Yokohama, Japan. The questionnaire included questions pertaining to socioeconomic characteristics, dichotomous choice method questions pertaining to ambulance calls in hypothetical nonemergency situations, and questions on the city's emergency medical system. The probit model was used to analyze the data. Results A total of 2,029 out of 3,363 targeted recipients completed the questionnaire (response rate, 60.3%). Probit regression analyses showed that several demographic and socioeconomic factors influence the decision to call an ambulance. Male respondents were more apt than female respondents to state that they would call an ambulance in nonemergency situations (p < 0.05). Age was an important factor influencing the hypothetical decision to call an ambulance (p < 0.05); elderly persons were more apt than younger persons to state that they would call an ambulance. Possession of a car and hesitation to use an ambulance negatively influenced the hypothetical decision to call an ambulance (p < 0.05). Persons who do not have a car were more likely than those with a car to state that they would call an ambulance in unnecessary situations. Conclusion Results of the study suggest that several socioeconomic factors, i.e., age, gender, household income, and possession of a car, influence a person's decision to call an ambulance in nonemergency situations. Hesitation to use an ambulance and knowledge of the city's primary emergency medical center are likely to be important factors limiting ambulance overuse. It was estimated that unnecessary ambulance use is increased approximately 10% to 20% by socioeconomic factors. PMID:17655772

Kawakami, Chihiro; Ohshige, Kenji; Kubota, Katsuaki; Tochikubo, Osamu

2007-01-01

349

The effects of varied grazing management on epigeal spiders, harvestmen and pseudoscorpions of Nardus stricta grassland in upland Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypothesis that epigeal arachnid assemblages benefit more from greater vegetation structure than botanical species composition in upland grasslands was tested. The test was carried out within a grazing experiment, initiated in 1991, to investigate vegetation dynamics in response to stocking with mixed livestock at varied rates. The experimental treatments comprised: no livestock, sheep only or sheep with cattle. Livestock

Peter Dennis; Mark R Young; Christopher Bentley

2001-01-01

350

The emergence and role of strong ties in time-varying communication networks  

E-print Network

In most social, information, and collaboration systems the complex activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. Temporal changes in the network structure and the dynamical processes occurring on its fabric are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset describing the activity of millions of individuals and investigate the temporal evolution of their egocentric networks. We empirically observe a simple statistical law characterizing the memory of agents that quantitatively signals how much interactions are more likely to happen again on already established connections. We encode the observed dynamics in a reinforcement process defining a generative computational network model with time-varying connectivity patterns. This activity-driven network model spontaneously generates the basic dynamic process for the differentiation between strong and weak ties. The model is used to study the effect of time-varyi...

Karsai, Márton; Vespignani, Alessandro

2014-01-01

351

A receding horizon scheme for discrete-time polytopic linear parameter varying systems in networked architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy to address regulation problems for constrained polytopic Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems subject to input and state constraints in which both plant measurements and command signals in the loop are sent through communication channels subject to time-varying delays (Networked Control System (NCS)). The results here proposed represent a significant extension to the LPV framework of a recent Receding Horizon Control (RHC) scheme developed for the so-called robust case. By exploiting the parameter availability, the pre-computed sequences of one- step controllable sets inner approximations are less conservative than the robust counterpart. The resulting framework guarantees asymptotic stability and constraints fulfilment regardless of plant uncertainties and time-delay occurrences. Finally, experimental results on a laboratory two-tank test-bed show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Franzè, Giuseppe; Lucia, Walter; Tedesco, Francesco

2014-12-01

352

Varying Instructional Methods and Assessment of Students in High School Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New content standards call for the implementation of new and varied pedagogical interventions and instructional techniques. An experimental project in which chemistry was taught using new pedagogical and assessment standards with 10th- to 12th-grade students showed that students who participated in the project expressed satisfaction with the way they learned chemistry. This approach to assessment caused a significant decline in the student anxiety that accompanies the Israeli matriculation examinations. Teachers reported that participating in this project changed their teaching habits, moving them from delivering information to guiding students in the learning process.

Avi Hofstein

2006-01-01

353

CALL and the Man/Machine Interface. Proceedings of the Annual Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Workshop (4th, London, England, 1985). CALL Report 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of the workshop on the interface between humans and machines in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include the texts of four papers, descriptions of the software demonstrated, an information exchange section, a report of the plenary session, a comment on the workshop, a list of participants, a review of current research in…

Brown, Eric, Comp.

354

Composition of MRI phantom equivalent to human tissues  

SciTech Connect

We previously developed two new MRI phantoms (called the CAG phantom and the CAGN phantom), with T1 and T2 relaxation times equivalent to those of any human tissue at 1.5 T. The conductivity of the CAGN phantom is equivalent to that of most types of human tissue in the frequency range of 1 to 130 MHz. In this paper, the relaxation times of human tissues are summarized, and the composition of the corresponding phantoms are provided in table form. The ingredients of these phantoms are carrageenan as the gelling agent, GdCl{sub 3} as a T1 modifier, agarose as a T2 modifier, NaCl (CAGN phantom only) as a conductivity modifier, NaN{sub 3} as an antiseptic, and distilled water. The phantoms have T1 values of 202-1904 ms and T2 values of 38-423 ms when the concentrations of GdCl{sub 3} and agarose are varied from 0-140 {mu}mol/kg, and 0%-1.6%, respectively, and the CAGN phantom has a conductivity of 0.27-1.26 S/m when the NaCl concentration is varied from 0%-0.7%. These phantoms have sufficient strength to replicate a torso without the use of reinforcing agents, and can be cut by a knife into any shape. We anticipate the CAGN phantom to be highly useful and practical for MRI and hyperthermia-related research.

Kato, Hirokazu; Kuroda, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Shibuya, Koichi; Kanazawa, Susumu [Department of Radiological Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Department of Radiological Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

2005-10-15

355

Seawater Composition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference discusses the composition and chemistry of seawater, and how they affect organisms in the sea. Topics include salinity, temperature, density, dissolved gases, dissolved nutrients, and pH.

356

Fuel composition  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a motor fuel composition. It comprises: a mixture of hydrocarbons in the gasoline boiling range containing a deposit preventing or reducing effective amount of poly(olefin)-N-substituted- carbamate.

Johnson, T.H.

1990-06-26

357

Fuel composition  

SciTech Connect

A composition useful, inter alia, as a fuel, is based on ethyl alcohol denatured with methylisobutyl alcohol and kerosene, which is mixed with xylenes and isopropyl alcohol. The xylenes and isopropyl alcohol act with the denaturizing agents to raise the flash point above that of ethyl alcohol alone and also to mask the odor and color the flame, thus making the composition safer for use as a charcoal lighter or as a fuel for e.g. patio lamps.

Badger, S.L.

1983-09-20

358

16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNINGSTRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNING-STRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP HOUSE Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

359

29 CFR 785.17 - On-call time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR...DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Waiting Time § 785.17 On-call time....

2010-07-01

360

29 CFR 785.17 - On-call time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR...DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Waiting Time § 785.17 On-call time....

2013-07-01

361

47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...designed to generate a digital maritime distress and safety signal to facilitate search...M.493-11, “Digital Selective-calling...audio frequency, tone signals, and other signalling...for general purpose digital selective...

2011-10-01

362

Sensory biology: echolocation from click to call, mouth to wing.  

PubMed

Echolocators use echoes of sounds they produce, clicks or calls, to detect objects. Usually, these signals originate from the head. New work reveals that three species of bats use their wings to generate echolocation signals. PMID:25514006

Fenton, M Brock; Ratcliffe, John M

2014-12-15

363

76 FR 67747 - Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee; Call for Nominations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institutes of Health Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee; Call for Nominations...with Public Law 112-32, The Combating Autism Reauthorization Act the Department of...to continue to support the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC)...

2011-11-02

364

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

2007-01-01

365

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls.  

PubMed

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific "chick-a-dee" alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N; Greene, Erick

2007-03-27

366

47 CFR 80.459 - Digital selective calling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Public Coast Stations Use of Telegraphy § 80.459 Digital selective calling. Subpart H of this part lists frequencies assignable for...

2010-10-01

367

Subpart W Stakeholders Conference Call April 3, 2014  

E-print Network

Uranium Industry/Other: Jim Cain, Cotter; Scott Bakken, Cameco; Richard Bluebaugh, Powertech; Darrel Lyles, SENES; Richard Potter UPDATE Reid began the call with a welcome and by taking attendance. Reid had

368

Hidden Markov Modeling for humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) call classification  

E-print Network

with variations in the call durations, which is a common feature in humpback whale vocalizations. Another of computational load and storage. Training stage requires minimal manual input and once trained the recognition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

369

9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

370

Pittsburgh Center Unveils a Bigger, Faster Supercomputer Called "Big Ben"  

NSF Publications Database

... a Bigger, Faster Supercomputer Called "Big Ben" NSF's Bement says the machine is "a significant ... Big Ben" -- only this technological bellwether rings out in teraflops. PSC acquired Big Ben, the ...

371

Administrator Bolden Calls Underwater NEEMO Crew - Duration: 16:00.  

NASA Video Gallery

From outside their underwater laboratory in Florida, NASA Astronaut and NEEMO 16 Commander Dottie Metcalf-Lindenburger and European Space Agency astronaut Timothy Peake took a call from NASA Admini...

372

All “chick-a-dee” calls are not created equally  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers trained 24 black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and 12 mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in an operant conditioning task to determine if they use open-ended categorization to classify “chick-a-dee” calls, and whether black-capped chickadees that had experience with mountain chick-a-dee calls (sympatric group) would perform this task differently than inexperienced black-capped chickadees (allopatric group). All experimental birds learned to discriminate between species’

Laurie L. Bloomfield; Christopher B. Sturdy

2008-01-01

373

All “chick-a-dee” calls are not created equally  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘chick-a-dee’ call, common to all members of the genus Poecile, is used by both sexes throughout the year to putatively co-ordinate flock movements and register alarm. In some regions, two or more chickadee species occupy overlapping territories, and therefore it is essential that these sympatric species learn to discriminate between the acoustically similar calls of the species. Previous work

L. L. Bloomfield; T. M. Farrell; C. B. Sturdy

2008-01-01

374

Prairie dog alarm calls encode labels about predator colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some animals have the cognitive capacity to differentiate between different species of predators and generate different alarm\\u000a calls in response. However, the presence of any addition information that might be encoded into alarm calls has been largely\\u000a unexplored. In the present study, three similar-sized human females walked through a Gunnison’s prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni) colony wearing each of three different-colored

C. N. Slobodchikoff; Andrea Paseka; Jennifer L. Verdolin

2009-01-01

375

Infrasonic calls of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calls at frequencies below the range of human hearing were recorded from two groups of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Most of the calls ranged in frequency from 14 to 24 Hz, with durations of 10–15 s (Fig. 1). With the nearest elephant 5 m from the microphone, sound pressure levels were 85 to 90 dB (re 20 µPa). These

Katharine B. Payne; William R. Langbauer Jr; Elizabeth M. Thomas

1986-01-01

376

Processing of Communication Calls in Guinea Pig Auditory Cortex  

PubMed Central

Vocal communication is an important aspect of guinea pig behaviour and a large contributor to their acoustic environment. We postulated that some cortical areas have distinctive roles in processing conspecific calls. In order to test this hypothesis we presented exemplars from all ten of their main adult vocalizations to urethane anesthetised animals while recording from each of the eight areas of the auditory cortex. We demonstrate that the primary area (AI) and three adjacent auditory belt areas contain many units that give isomorphic responses to vocalizations. These are the ventrorostral belt (VRB), the transitional belt area (T) that is ventral to AI and the small area (area S) that is rostral to AI. Area VRB has a denser representation of cells that are better at discriminating among calls by using either a rate code or a temporal code than any other area. Furthermore, 10% of VRB cells responded to communication calls but did not respond to stimuli such as clicks, broadband noise or pure tones. Area S has a sparse distribution of call responsive cells that showed excellent temporal locking, 31% of which selectively responded to a single call. AI responded well to all vocalizations and was much more responsive to vocalizations than the adjacent dorsocaudal core area. Areas VRB, AI and S contained units with the highest levels of mutual information about call stimuli. Area T also responded well to some calls but seems to be specialized for low sound levels. The two dorsal belt areas are comparatively unresponsive to vocalizations and contain little information about the calls. AI projects to areas S, VRB and T, so there may be both rostral and ventral pathways for processing vocalizations in the guinea pig. PMID:23251604

Grimsley, Jasmine M. S.; Shanbhag, Sharad J.; Palmer, Alan R.; Wallace, Mark N.

2012-01-01

377

Analytical model for multi agent - call admission in wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource allocation and its planning are major issues in wireless networks. Distributed call admission control requires calls to be admitted by considering local as well as global view of the network so as to reduce overall congestion. The paper proposes MA-CAC (Multi Agent-CAC) scheme which models a D-CAC problem using multiagent system (MAS) where each cell comprises of agents. These

Nupur Giri; Shrikant Bodhe

2007-01-01

378

Processing of communication calls in Guinea pig auditory cortex.  

PubMed

Vocal communication is an important aspect of guinea pig behaviour and a large contributor to their acoustic environment. We postulated that some cortical areas have distinctive roles in processing conspecific calls. In order to test this hypothesis we presented exemplars from all ten of their main adult vocalizations to urethane anesthetised animals while recording from each of the eight areas of the auditory cortex. We demonstrate that the primary area (AI) and three adjacent auditory belt areas contain many units that give isomorphic responses to vocalizations. These are the ventrorostral belt (VRB), the transitional belt area (T) that is ventral to AI and the small area (area S) that is rostral to AI. Area VRB has a denser representation of cells that are better at discriminating among calls by using either a rate code or a temporal code than any other area. Furthermore, 10% of VRB cells responded to communication calls but did not respond to stimuli such as clicks, broadband noise or pure tones. Area S has a sparse distribution of call responsive cells that showed excellent temporal locking, 31% of which selectively responded to a single call. AI responded well to all vocalizations and was much more responsive to vocalizations than the adjacent dorsocaudal core area. Areas VRB, AI and S contained units with the highest levels of mutual information about call stimuli. Area T also responded well to some calls but seems to be specialized for low sound levels. The two dorsal belt areas are comparatively unresponsive to vocalizations and contain little information about the calls. AI projects to areas S, VRB and T, so there may be both rostral and ventral pathways for processing vocalizations in the guinea pig. PMID:23251604

Grimsley, Jasmine M S; Shanbhag, Sharad J; Palmer, Alan R; Wallace, Mark N

2012-01-01

379

Individual differences and within-flock convergence in chickadee calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed sound analysis of the Chick-adee call of the black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus) was performed in order to determine a basis for individual recognition and for imitation within winter flocks. During the winter of 1978–1979 members of five free-living black-capped chickadee flocks were uniquely marked for individual identification, and their calls were recorded in the field. Nested analysis of

Dorothy L. Mammen; Stephen Nowicki

1981-01-01

380

Combustion synthesis of boride and other composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-sustaining combustion synthesis process for producing hard, tough, lightweight B.sub.4 C\\/TiB.sub.2 composites is based on the thermodynamic dependence of adiabatic temperature and product composition on the stoichiometry of the B.sub.4 C and TiB.sub.2 reactants. For lightweight products the composition must be relatively rich in the B.sub.4 C component. B.sub.4 C-rich composites are obtained by varying the initial temperature of

Danny C. Halverson; Beverly Y. Lum; Zuhair A. Munir

1989-01-01

381

Site specific probability of passive acoustic detection of humpback whale calls from single fixed hydrophones.  

PubMed

Passive acoustic monitoring of marine mammal calls is an increasingly important method for assessing population numbers, distribution, and behavior. A common mistake in the analysis of marine mammal acoustic data is formulating conclusions about these animals without first understanding how environmental properties such as bathymetry, sediment properties, water column sound speed, and ocean acoustic noise influence the detection and character of vocalizations in the acoustic data. The approach in this paper is to use Monte Carlo simulations with a full wave field acoustic propagation model to characterize the site specific probability of detection of six types of humpback whale calls at three passive acoustic monitoring locations off the California coast. Results show that the probability of detection can vary by factors greater than ten when comparing detections across locations, or comparing detections at the same location over time, due to environmental effects. Effects of uncertainties in the inputs to the propagation model are also quantified, and the model accuracy is assessed by comparing calling statistics amassed from 24,690 humpback units recorded in the month of October 2008. Under certain conditions, the probability of detection can be estimated with uncertainties sufficiently small to allow for accurate density estimates. PMID:23968053

Helble, Tyler A; D'Spain, Gerald L; Hildebrand, John A; Campbell, Gregory S; Campbell, Richard L; Heaney, Kevin D

2013-09-01

382

Diurnal distribution of loud calls in sympatric wild indris (Indri indri) and ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata): implications for call functions.  

PubMed

We carried out a short study on the diurnal call distribution of two sympatric lemurs in the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale Zahamena (eastern Madagascar). Whereas indris (Indri) song bouts were clearly concentrated in the early morning hours, the roar/shriek choruses of ruffed lemurs (Varecia) exhibited a much more even distribution throughout the day. These differences in distribution pattern support earlier claims that indri song bouts are more likely to serve territorial functions, whereas ruffed lemur loud calls may serve both spacing and/or alarm call functions. PMID:16736264

Geissmann, Thomas; Mutschler, Thomas

2006-10-01

383

Dialects in pygmy marmosets? Population variation in call structure.  

PubMed

Population variation in primate vocal structure has been rarely observed. Here, we report significant population differences in the structure of two vocalizations in wild pygmy marmosets (Trills and J calls). We studied 14 groups of pygmy marmosets Callithrix (Cebuella) pygmaea pygmaea from five populations in northeastern Ecuador. We analyzed the acoustic structure of Trills and J calls recorded from two adult animals in each group through focal samples. Although individuals and groups within a population differed in call structure, we found consistent structural differences at a population level for Trills and J calls. Pair-wise comparisons for the two call types point to San Pablo and Amazoonico as the populations that differed the most, whereas Hormiga and Zancudococha showed the least differences. Discriminant function analysis indicates that calls from each population could be classified accurately at rates significantly above chance. Habitat acoustics, social factors and genetic drift may explain interpopulation vocal differences. This is the first evidence of within-subspecies vocal differences, or dialects, in wild populations of a neotropical primate species. PMID:19132731

de la Torre, Stella; Snowdon, Charles T

2009-04-01

384

Leveraging Call Center Logs for Customer Behavior Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most major businesses use business process outsourcing for performing a process or a part of a process including financial services like mortgage processing, loan origination, finance and accounting and transaction processing. Call centers are used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests through outbound and inbound calls to customers on behalf of a business. In this paper we deal specifically with the call centers notes from banks. Banks as financial institutions provide loans to non-financial businesses and individuals. Their call centers act as the nuclei of their client service operations and log the transactions between the customer and the bank. This crucial conversation or information can be exploited for predicting a customer’s behavior which will in turn help these businesses to decide on the next action to be taken. Thus the banks save considerable time and effort in tracking delinquent customers to ensure minimum subsequent defaulters. Majority of the time the call center notes are very concise and brief and often the notes are misspelled and use many domain specific acronyms. In this paper we introduce a novel domain specific spelling correction algorithm which corrects the misspelled words in the call center logs to meaningful ones. We also discuss a procedure that builds the behavioral history sequences for the customers by categorizing the logs into one of the predefined behavioral states. We then describe a pattern based predictive algorithm that uses temporal behavioral patterns mined from these sequences to predict the customer’s next behavioral state.

Parvathy, Anju G.; Vasudevan, Bintu G.; Kumar, Abhishek; Balakrishnan, Rajesh

385

Testosterone modulates stimulation-induced calling behavior in Japanese quails.  

PubMed

Japanese quails have a variety of calling patterns depending on sex and age. Sexually mature adult males emit a characteristic crow which has a frequency-modulated acoustical trill element. Recently we reported that the intercollicular nucleus of the mesencephalon is the vocal neural system for producing the distress call in untreated chick and the crowing vocalization in testosterone-treated chick in Japanese quails. We postulated that the intercollicular nucleus could mediate this testosterone action on vocal behavior. The present study showed histologically that the intercollicular nucleus neurons of adult males have many more dendrites than those of females. The adult males produced the call with trill element with electrical stimulation of the intercollicular nucleus alone. Females produced the simple call, which has no frequency modulation, with electrical stimulation; 4 days after the testosterone treatment together with electrical stimulation, they also produced the call with trill element, the characteristic call of males. We suggest that the vocal neural system in the intercollicular nucleus is modulated by testosterone during development and produces the crow in males, and the intercollicular nucleus neurons in adults mediate the action of testosterone on vocal behavior. The crow of adult males could therefore be due to effects of testosterone on the neural mechanism in the intercollicular nucleus. PMID:10077861

Yazaki, Y; Matsushima, T; Aoki, K

1999-01-01

386

Alarm calls elicit predator-specific physiological responses.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids regulate glucose concentrations and responses to unpredictable events, while also modulating cognition. Juvenile Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi) learn to respond to whistle and trill alarm calls, warning of aerial and terrestrial predators, respectively, shortly after emerging from natal burrows at one month of age. Alarm calls can cause physiological reactions and arousal, and this arousal, coupled with watching adult responses, might help juveniles learn associations between calls and behavioural responses. I studied whether young show differential cortisol responses to alarm and non-alarm calls, using playbacks of U. beldingi whistles, trills, squeals (a conspecific control vocalization) and silent controls. Trills elicited very high cortisol responses, and, using an individual's response to the silent control as baseline, only their response to a trill was significantly higher than baseline. This cortisol increase would provide glucose for extended vigilance and escape efforts, which is appropriate for evading terrestrial predators which hunt for long periods. Although whistles do not elicit a cortisol response, previous research has shown that they do result in bradycardia, which enhances attention and information processing. This is a novel demonstration of two physiological responses to two alarm calls, each appropriate to the threats represented by the calls. PMID:20236965

Mateo, Jill M

2010-10-23

387

Seasonal variability and detection range modeling of baleen whale calls in the Gulf of Alaska, 1999-2002.  

PubMed

Five species of large whales, including the blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (B. physalus), sei (B. borealis), humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), and North Pacific right (Eubalaena japonica), were the target of commercial harvests in the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) during the 19th through mid-20th Centuries. Since this time, there have been a few summer time visual surveys for these species, but no overview of year-round use of these waters by endangered whales primarily because standard visual survey data are difficult and costly. From October 1999-May 2002, moored hydrophones were deployed in six locations in the GoA to record whale calls. Reception of calls from fin, humpback, and blue whales and an unknown source, called Watkins' whale, showed seasonal and geographic variation. Calls were detected more often during the winter than during the summer, suggesting that animals inhabit the GoA year-round. To estimate the distance at which species-diagnostic calls could be heard, parabolic equation propagation loss models for frequencies characteristic of each of each call type were run. Maximum detection ranges in the subarctic North Pacific ranged from 45 to 250 km among three species (fin, humpback, blue), although modeled detection ranges varied greatly with input parameters and choice of ambient noise level. PMID:18247747

Stafford, Kathleen M; Mellinger, David K; Moore, Sue E; Fox, Christopher G

2007-12-01

388

Herbaceous Forage and Selection Patterns by Ungulates across Varying Herbivore Assemblages in a South African Savanna  

PubMed Central

Herbivores generally have strong structural and compositional effects on vegetation, which in turn determines the plant forage species available. We investigated how selected large mammalian herbivore assemblages use and alter herbaceous vegetation structure and composition in a southern African savanna in and adjacent to the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We compared mixed and mono-specific herbivore assemblages of varying density and investigated similarities in vegetation patterns under wildlife and livestock herbivory. Grass species composition differed significantly, standing biomass and grass height were almost twice as high at sites of low density compared to high density mixed wildlife species. Selection of various grass species by herbivores was positively correlated with greenness, nutrient content and palatability. Nutrient-rich Urochloa mosambicensis Hack. and Panicum maximum Jacq. grasses were preferred forage species, which significantly differed in abundance across sites of varying grazing pressure. Green grasses growing beneath trees were grazed more frequently than dry grasses growing in the open. Our results indicate that grazing herbivores appear to base their grass species preferences on nutrient content cues and that a characteristic grass species abundance and herb layer structure can be matched with mammalian herbivory types. PMID:24358228

Treydte, Anna Christina; Baumgartner, Sabine; Heitkönig, Ignas M. A.; Grant, Catharina C.; Getz, Wayne M.

2013-01-01

389

Herbaceous forage and selection patterns by ungulates across varying herbivore assemblages in a South African Savanna.  

PubMed

Herbivores generally have strong structural and compositional effects on vegetation, which in turn determines the plant forage species available. We investigated how selected large mammalian herbivore assemblages use and alter herbaceous vegetation structure and composition in a southern African savanna in and adjacent to the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We compared mixed and mono-specific herbivore assemblages of varying density and investigated similarities in vegetation patterns under wildlife and livestock herbivory. Grass species composition differed significantly, standing biomass and grass height were almost twice as high at sites of low density compared to high density mixed wildlife species. Selection of various grass species by herbivores was positively correlated with greenness, nutrient content and palatability. Nutrient-rich Urochloa mosambicensis Hack. and Panicum maximum Jacq. grasses were preferred forage species, which significantly differed in abundance across sites of varying grazing pressure. Green grasses growing beneath trees were grazed more frequently than dry grasses growing in the open. Our results indicate that grazing herbivores appear to base their grass species preferences on nutrient content cues and that a characteristic grass species abundance and herb layer structure can be matched with mammalian herbivory types. PMID:24358228

Treydte, Anna Christina; Baumgartner, Sabine; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; Grant, Catharina C; Getz, Wayne M

2013-01-01

390

Bayesian semiparametric model with spatially-temporally varying coefficients selection  

PubMed Central

In spatio-temporal analysis, the effect of a covariate on the outcome usually varies across areas and time. The spatial configuration of the areas may potentially depend on not only the structured random intercept but also spatially varying coefficients of covariates. In addition, the normality assumption of the distribution of spatially varying coefficients could lead to potential biases of estimations. In this article, we propose a Bayesian semiparametric space-time model where the spatially-temporally varying coefficient is decomposed as fixed, spatially varying and temporally varying coefficients. The spatially varying coefficients of space-time covariates are modeled nonparametrically by using the area-specific Dirichlet process prior with weights transformed via a generalized transformation. Temporally varying coefficients of covariates are modeled through the dynamic model. Uncertainty of inclusion of the spatially-temporally varying coefficients is also taken into account by variable selection procedure through determining the probabilities of different effects for each covariate. The proposed semiparametric approach shows the improvement compared to the Bayesian spatial-temporal models with normality assumption on spatial random effects and the Bayesian model with the Dirichlet process prior on the random intercept. A simulation example is presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach with the competing models. An application to low birth weight data in South Carolina is used for an illustration. PMID:23526312

Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew B.; Hossain, Md. Monir; Choi, Jungsoon; Kirby, Russell S.; Liu, Jihong

2013-01-01

391

47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...designed to generate a digital maritime distress and safety signal to facilitate search...The range of the signal may vary but under...audio frequency, tone signals, and other signalling...for general purpose digital selective...

2012-10-01

392

47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designed to generate a digital maritime distress and safety signal to facilitate search...The range of the signal may vary but under...audio frequency, tone signals, and other signalling...for general purpose digital selective...

2013-10-01

393

Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions  

SciTech Connect

Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Yen, William; Yen, Laurel C.; Jia, George D.

2012-12-04

394

Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions  

DOEpatents

Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Jia, George D.; Lewis, Linda; Yen, Laurel C.

2014-06-24

395

Black-capped chickadee call dialects along a continuous habitat corridor.  

PubMed

The gargle call, a vocalization used in agonistic encounters by black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus, was examined for evidence of geographical variation along a corridor of continuous riparian habitat in northern Colorado. We captured birds from three different sites during the nonbreeding season and brought them into the laboratory, where their gargle calls were recorded. We sorted sonagrams produced from these vocalizations visually into distinct gargle types having similar compositions of individual units, or syllables. This allowed us to characterize both individual and population repertoires. The majority (88.7%) of gargle types analysed were found to be unique to individual populations rather than shared among or between populations. Examination of individual repertoires showed that chickadees shared a higher proportion of gargle types with birds from their own sites compared with birds from either of the two other sites. Thus, gargle dialects occurred among these chickadee populations despite the absence of geographical barriers to blending of vocal traditions. As the birds studied were obtained from sites along an uninterrupted dispersal corridor, the results of this study suggest that behavioural mechanisms are responsible for maintenance of dialects in this aggressive call. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10373265

Miyasato; Baker

1999-06-01

396

Featuring Of Odor By Metal Oxide Sensor Response To Varying Gas Mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report the responses of metal oxide sensors to varying amount of gas in air are used for multiparameter featuring of volatile compounds. The composition of the atmosphere is varied by time dependent release of gas from a SPME fiber into flow of synthetic air. Sensor outputs are described by sets of parameters related to the characteristics of gas injection and the sensor response kinetics. The sets of sensor parameters are processed by explorative data analysis (EDA) software comprising customizable feature, correlation and principal component analysis (PCA). This method is applied for distinguishing between four volatile compounds acetone, acetic acid, acetaldehyde and butyric acid, and is aimed at recognition of compounds emitted from infected wounds that is the subject of the WOUNDMONITOR project. The amounts of the target compounds can be evaluated by the EDA analysis if the magnitudes of signals are processed. Analysis of pure dynamic parameters results in separation between the types of the volatile compounds.

Šetkus, Arunas; Olekas, Andrius; Senulien?, Daiva; Falasconi, Matteo; Pardo, Matteo; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

2009-05-01

397

Elasticity theory equations and fracture condition for materials of varying moduli  

SciTech Connect

Many massive rocks and composite materials belong to the class of materials of varying moduli with definite distinct deformation and strength properties under tension and compression. The results of experiments indicate that the difference between the properties of materials of different moduli is not limited to tension and compression cases but can also appear clearly for any change in the form of the state of stress. Elasticity theory equations are constructed here to describe the strain of materials of varying moduli as well as the dependence of the strength properties on the form of the state of strain. Tests were done on coal, limestone, diabase and cement and results are shown. Using the dependencies obtained, Poisson's ratio and the elastic modulus can be calculated for these rocks. The equations and conditions of fracture proposed, are written in a simple invariant form.

Oleinikov, A.I.

1986-11-01

398

Ultrasonic determination of fish composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to ascertain the relationship between the ultrasonic properties of fish and their composition. Fish analogs with varying protein (15–25 wt%), lipid (0–25 wt%) and moisture (55–80 wt%) contents were prepared by mixing dried cod powder, sunflower oil and distilled water. The temperature dependence of the ultrasonic velocity of fish analogs was measured from 5 to 35 °C.

Reza Ghaedian; John Neil Coupland; Eric Andrew Decker; David Julian McClements

1998-01-01

399

Dynamic Factor Analysis Models with Time-Varying Parameters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dynamic factor analysis models with time-varying parameters offer a valuable tool for evaluating multivariate time series data with time-varying dynamics and/or measurement properties. We use the Dynamic Model of Activation proposed by Zautra and colleagues (Zautra, Potter, & Reich, 1997) as a motivating example to construct a dynamic factor model…

Chow, Sy-Miin; Zu, Jiyun; Shifren, Kim; Zhang, Guangjian

2011-01-01

400

Pull Production Cycle-Time under Varying Product Mixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To satisfy customer requirements and simultaneously fully utilize the production machines, there is a need to determine appropriate cycle time. Especially in pull systems with varying product mixes, accurate cycle time is even more crucial. Accurate cycle time also reduces the need for buffers. When the product mix varies, especially in a pull production system with parallel flow, determination of

Chakkaphan Athapornmongkon; Jochen Deuse; Chee Yew Wong

2006-01-01

401

Fault diagnosis for linear time-varying descriptor systems  

E-print Network

Fault diagnosis for linear time-varying descriptor systems Abdouramane Moussa Ali Qinghua Zhang, qinghua.zhang@}@inria.fr) Abstract In this paper fault diagnosis is studied for linear time varying on this result, fault diagnosis is performed by estimating the parameters characterizing actuator and sensor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of varying thinning regimes on carbon uptake,  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of varying thinning regimes on carbon uptake, total stem wood growth was employed to study how varying thinning scenarios (nine different plus one unthinned) may affect the net the case on the site with low water moisture if no thinning was applied. Thinning increased the amount

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

403

Composite material  

DOEpatents

A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

Hutchens, Stacy A. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Solihull, GB); Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-02-07

404

Composite piston  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A composite piston structure is disclosed which provides a simple and reliable means for joining a carbon-carbon or ceramic piston cap with a metallic piston body. Attachment is achieved by means of a special geometry which compensates for differences in thermal expansion without complicated mechanical fastening devices. The shape employs a flange created by opposed frustoconical shapes with coincident vertices intersecting on the radial centerline of the piston in order to retain the piston cap. The use of carbon-carbon for the piston cap material allows a close fit between the piston and a cylinder wall, eliminating the need for piston rings. The elimination of extra mechanical parts of previous composite pistons provides a lightweight composite piston capable of extended high temperature operation.

Taylor, Allan H. (inventor)

1988-01-01

405

Haploid to diploid alignment for variation calling assessment  

PubMed Central

Motivation Variation calling is the process of detecting differences between donor and consensus DNA via high-throughput sequencing read mapping. When evaluating the performance of different variation calling methods, a typical scenario is to simulate artificial (diploid) genomes and sample reads from those. After variation calling, one can then compute precision and recall statistics. This works reliably on SNPs but on larger indels there is the problem of invariance: a predicted deletion/insertion can differ slightly from the true one, yet both make the same change to the genome. Also exactly correct predictions are rare, especially on larger insertions, so one should consider some notion of approximate predictions for fair comparison. Results We propose a full genome alignment-based strategy that allows for fair comparison of variation calling predictions: First, we apply the predicted variations to the consensus genome to create as many haploid genomes as are necessary to explain the variations. Second, we align the haploid genomes to the (aligned) artificial diploid genomes allowing arbitrary recombinations. The resulting haploid to diploid alignments tells how much the predictions differ from the true ones, solving the invariance issues in direct variation comparison. In an effort to make the approach scalable to real genomes, we develop a simple variant of the classical edit distance dynamic programming algorithm and apply the diagonal doubling technique to optimise the computation. We experiment with the approach on simulated predictions and also on real prediction data from a variation calling challenge. PMID:24564537

2013-01-01

406

Call-related factors influencing output power from mobile phones.  

PubMed

Mobile phone use is increasing but there is also concern for adverse health effects. Well-designed prospective studies to assess several health outcomes are required. In designing a study of mobile phone use, it is important to assess which factors need to be considered in classifying the exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF). A pilot study was performed in Sweden and in the UK 2002 to 2003 to test the feasibility of recruiting a cohort of mobile phone users from a random population sample and from mobile phone subscription lists for a prospective study. As one part of this pilot study, different factors were evaluated regarding possible influence on the output power of the phones. By local switch logging, information on calls made from predefined subscriptions or dedicated handsets were obtained and the output power of phones during calls made indoors and outdoors, in moving and stationary mode, and in rural as well in urban areas were compared. In this experiment, calls were either 1, 1.5 or 5 min long. The results showed that high mobile phone output power is more frequent in rural areas whereas the other factors (length of call, moving/stationary, indoor/outdoor) were of less importance. Urban and rural area should be considered in an exposure index for classification of the exposure to RF from mobile phones and may be assessed by first base station during mobile phone calls or, if this information is not available, possibly by using home address as a proxy. PMID:16670713

Hillert, Lena; Ahlbom, Anders; Neasham, David; Feychting, Maria; Järup, Lars; Navin, Roshan; Elliott, Paul

2006-11-01

407

Definitions of climate and climate change under varying external conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commonly, definitions of climate are endorsed where the external conditions are held constant. This paper argues that these definitions risk being empirically void because in reality the external conditions vary. As a consequence, analogous definitions for varying external conditions are explored with help of the recently developed theory of non-autonomous dynamical systems, and the similarities and differences between the cases of constant and varying external conditions are discussed. It is argued that there are analogous definitions for varying external conditions which are preferable to the definitions where the external conditions are held constant. In this context, a novel definition is proposed (namely, climate as the distribution over time under a regime of varying external conditions), which is argued to be promising.

Werndl, C.

2014-06-01

408

Composite Riflescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bushnell Division of Bausch & Lomb's Armor-Sight riflescope combines the company's world-renowned optics with a graphite composite (Graphlon VI) developed for space applications. The riflescope is 10 percent lighter than aluminum scopes, and, because its thermal expansion coefficient is near zero, optical distortion from heat and cold extremes is eliminated. It is fogproof and waterproof; advanced multicoated optics provide maximum light transmission to brighten target ranges. Bushnell was assisted by NIAC/USC in searching for technical information on graphic composites and in overcoming difficulties with bonding and porosity.

1989-01-01

409

Nitrogen balance in mature working horses fed varying levels of protein  

E-print Network

of the experiment and remained constant throughout the experiment. Treatments consisted of feeding one of four oat-corn based concentrates with hay in a 60:40 ratio. Rations varied in crude protein, with rations 1, 2, 3 and 4 supplying 10. 7, 10. 7, 12. 8 and 14... Analyses Composite feed and fecal samples were made for each horse during each treatment and were dried at 55 C in a forced air drying oven for 96 hours. Dry matter was determined gravimetrically by differences in weight of wet and dry samples...

Hinkle, Diana Karen

1982-01-01

410

Predator stimuli and calling behavior of Carolina chickadees ( Poecile carolinensis ), tufted titmice ( Baeolophus bicolor ), and white-breasted nuthatches ( Sitta carolinensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from different chickadee species (Poecile genus) indicates that birds can modify the note composition of their “chick-a-dee” calls in the presence of predator stimuli.\\u000a Here, we tested the effects of predator models and the distance of those models on calls of three species foraging together\\u000a at feeding stations: Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis) and tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor), both members

Julia Bartmess-LeVasseur; Carrie L. Branch; Sheri A. Browning; Jessica L. Owens; Todd M. Freeberg

2010-01-01

411

Distributed Feature Composition: A Virtual Architecture for Telecommunications Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Feature Composition (DFC) is a new technology for feature specification and composition, based on a virtual architecture offering benefits analogous to those of a pipe-and-filter architecture. In the DFC architecture, customer calls are processed by dynamically assembled configurations of filter-like components: each component implements an applicable feature, and communicates with its neighbors by featureless internal calls that are connected

Michael Jackson; Pamela Zave

1998-01-01

412

CCall--healthy and successful work in call centres.  

PubMed

Call centre workplaces are in many ways a challenge to occupational health and safety. The occupation itself can be described as an IT information technology-supported, communication-intensive form of work with often unusual working hours and a high rate of part-time employment. Data on the employee turnover as well as absenteeism related to occupational disability is quite contradictory. Occupational safety and its proponents still have to find new ways into the corporate structures and cultures of this relatively new and rapidly growing branch of industry. In a 2-year research and development project, using a holistic approach and under consideration of all the relevant disciplines, call centre workplaces were studied, and organisational measures were developed and field tested by putting them into practice. Practical help was developed for a sustainable strategy for successful and healthy work in call centres. PMID:16329784

Benninghoven, Alfred; Bindzius, Fritz; Braun, Detlef; Cramer, Jutta; Ellegast, Rolf; Flowerday, Udo; Genz, Andreas; von der Heyden, Thomas; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang; Schittly, Dagmar; Schweer, Ralf; Stamm, Roger

2005-01-01

413

Individual right whales call louder in increased environmental noise.  

PubMed

The ability to modify vocalizations to compensate for environmental noise is critical for successful communication in a dynamic acoustic environment. Many marine species rely on sound for vital life functions including communication, navigation and feeding. The impacts of significant increases in ocean noise levels from human activities are a current area of concern for the conservation of marine mammals. Here, we document changes in calling behaviour by individual endangered North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in increased background noise. Right whales, like several bird and primate species, respond to periods of increased noise by increasing the amplitude of their calls. This behaviour may help maintain the communication range with conspecifics during periods of increased noise. These call modifications have implications for conservation efforts for right whales, affecting both the way whales use sound to communicate and our ability to detect them with passive acoustic monitoring systems. PMID:20610418

Parks, Susan E; Johnson, Mark; Nowacek, Douglas; Tyack, Peter L

2011-02-23

414

Making judgment calls. The ultimate act of leadership.  

PubMed

According to the traditional view, judgment is an event: You make a decision and then move on. Yet Tichy, of the University of Michigan's Ross School of Business, and Bennis, of the University of Southern California's Marshall School of Business, found that good leadership judgment occurs not in a single moment but throughout a process. From their research into the complex phenomenon of leadership judgment, the authors also found that most important judgment calls reside in one of three domains: people, strategy, and crisis. Understanding the essence of leadership judgment is crucial. A leader's calls determine an organization's success or failure and deliver the verdict on his or her career. The first phase of the judgment process is preparation--identifying and framing the issue that demands a decision and aligning and mobilizing key stakeholders. Second is the call itself, And third is acting on the call, learning and adjusting along the way. Good leaders use a "story line"--an articulation of a company's identity, direction, and values--to inform their actions throughout the judgment process. Boeing CEO Jim McNerney, for instance, focused on a story line of Boeing as a world-class competitor and ethical leader to make a judgment call that launched the company's recovery from a string of ethical crises. Good leaders also take advantage of "redo loops" throughout the process, reconsidering the parameters of the decision, relabeling the problem, and redefining the goal in a way that more and more people can accept. Procter & Gamble's A.G. Lafley and Best Buy's Brad Anderson have both used redo loops--in preparation and execution, respectively--to strengthen not only support for their calls but also the outcomes. PMID:17972498

Tichy, Noel M; Bennis, Warren G

2007-10-01

415

NMDAR-dependent control of call duration in Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

Many rhythmic behaviors, such as locomotion and vocalization, involve temporally dynamic patterns. How does the brain generate temporal complexity? Here, we use the vocal central pattern generator (CPG) of Xenopus laevis to address this question. Isolated brains can elicit fictive vocalizations, allowing us to study the CPG in vitro. The X. laevis advertisement call is temporally modulated; calls consist of rhythmic click trills that alternate between fast (approximately 60 Hz) and slow (approximately 30 Hz) rates. We investigated the role of two CPG nuclei--the laryngeal motor nucleus (n.IX-X) and the dorsal tegmental area of the medulla (DTAM)--in setting rhythm frequency and call durations. We discovered a local field potential wave in DTAM that coincides with fictive fast trills and phasic activity that coincides with fictive clicks. After disrupting n.IX-X connections, the wave persists, whereas phasic activity disappears. Wave duration was temperature dependent and correlated with fictive fast trills. This correlation persisted when wave duration was modified by temperature manipulations. Selectively cooling DTAM, but not n.IX-X, lengthened fictive call and fast trill durations, whereas cooling either nucleus decelerated the fictive click rate. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist dAPV blocked waves and fictive fast trills, suggesting that the wave controls fast trill activation and, consequently, call duration. We conclude that two functionally distinct CPG circuits exist: 1) a pattern generator in DTAM that determines call duration and 2) a rhythm generator (spanning DTAM and n.IX-X) that determines click rates. The newly identified DTAM pattern generator provides an excellent model for understanding NDMAR-dependent rhythmic circuits. PMID:20393064

Zornik, Erik; Katzen, Abraham W; Rhodes, Heather J; Yamaguchi, Ayako

2010-06-01

416

NMDAR-Dependent Control of Call Duration in Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Many rhythmic behaviors, such as locomotion and vocalization, involve temporally dynamic patterns. How does the brain generate temporal complexity? Here, we use the vocal central pattern generator (CPG) of Xenopus laevis to address this question. Isolated brains can elicit fictive vocalizations, allowing us to study the CPG in vitro. The X. laevis advertisement call is temporally modulated; calls consist of rhythmic click trills that alternate between fast (?60 Hz) and slow (?30 Hz) rates. We investigated the role of two CPG nuclei—the laryngeal motor nucleus (n.IX–X) and the dorsal tegmental area of the medulla (DTAM)—in setting rhythm frequency and call durations. We discovered a local field potential wave in DTAM that coincides with fictive fast trills and phasic activity that coincides with fictive clicks. After disrupting n.IX–X connections, the wave persists, whereas phasic activity disappears. Wave duration was temperature dependent and correlated with fictive fast trills. This correlation persisted when wave duration was modified by temperature manipulations. Selectively cooling DTAM, but not n.IX–X, lengthened fictive call and fast trill durations, whereas cooling either nucleus decelerated the fictive click rate. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist dAPV blocked waves and fictive fast trills, suggesting that the wave controls fast trill activation and, consequently, call duration. We conclude that two functionally distinct CPG circuits exist: 1) a pattern generator in DTAM that determines call duration and 2) a rhythm generator (spanning DTAM and n.IX–X) that determines click rates. The newly identified DTAM pattern generator provides an excellent model for understanding NDMAR-dependent rhythmic circuits. PMID:20393064

Katzen, Abraham W.; Rhodes, Heather J.; Yamaguchi, Ayako

2010-01-01

417

High-Level Synthesis of Software Function Calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter presents a novel framework in high-level synthesis where hardware modules synthesized from functions in a given ANSI-C program can call the other software functions in the program. This enables high-level synthesis from C programs that contains calls to hard-to-synthesize functions, such as dynamic memory management, I/O request, or very large and complex functions. A single-thread implementation scheme is shown, whose correctness has been verified through register transfer level simulation.

Nishimura, Masanari; Ishiura, Nagisa; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Kanbara, Hiroyuki; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki

418

Host-Based Data Exfiltration Detection via System Call Sequences  

SciTech Connect

The host-based detection of malicious data exfiltration activities is currently a sparse area of research and mostly limited to methods that analyze network traffic or signature based detection methods that target specific processes. In this paper we explore an alternative method to host-based detection that exploits sequences of system calls and new collection methods that allow us to catch these activities in real time. We show that system calls sequences can be found to reach a steady state across processes and users, and explore the viability of new methods as heuristics for profiling user behaviors.

Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Jewell, Brian C [ORNL

2011-01-01

419

Sex differences in source effectiveness in cold-call selling  

E-print Network

SEX DIFFERENCES IN SOURCE EFFECTIVENESS IN COLD-CALL SELLING A Thesis by SHARON RENEE LUNDGREN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1991 Major Subject: Psychology SEX DIFFERENCES IN SOURCE EFFECTIVENESS IN COLD-CALL SELLING A Thesis by SHARON RENEE LUNDGREN Approved as to style and content by: Wend 0 ttee) Ste e (me orchel r) ames h (member) Steven Worchel (Head...

Lundgren, Sharon Renee

2012-06-07

420

Copyright Literacy Standards for Graduate Education: A Call to Action!  

E-print Network

Copyright?Literacy?Standards?for?Graduate?Education?? A?Call?to?Action!?by?G.?Clement is?licensed?under?a?Creative?Commons? Attribution?NonCommercial?NoDerivs 3.0?Unported License.?Permissions?beyond...?the?scope?of?this?license?may?be?available?at? http://library.tamu.edu/directory/gclement. Copyright?Literacy?Standards? f G d t Ed ti USETD?Association?Conference,??Orlando,?Florida?May?19,?2011 or? ra ua e? uca on: A?Call?To?Action!? Gail?Clement Librarian?&??Associate?Professor Digital...

Clement, Gail

2011-05-19

421

The 193 call center, a meaningful public service!  

PubMed

This article is the first part of an on-going ergonomic work analysis with the emergency services call center set up by the Fire Department of the Military Police of São Paulo. The final objective of the research is to identify the prescribed task, the real work executed and strategies used by workers to meet the demands of the job. Starting by identifying the tasks and activities developed, this article analyzes the work of the emergency services call center which is of vital importance to the organizational structure, since it is the start point for the process that results in fulfilling the corporation's mission. PMID:22316697

Eickhoff, Maud; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal

2012-01-01

422

Prank Call to Fidel Castro Draws $4000 Fine From FCC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past several decades, many jokesters have developed a penchant for prank phone calls, including that animated Peck's Bad Boy of the 1990s, Bart Simpson, and of course the often coarse approach to telephony adopted by the Jerky Boys. The achievements of these individuals may have recently been bested by two Miami disc jockeys' who successfully completed a prank phone call to none other than Cuban President Fidel Castro last year. Not surprisingly, an "informal complaint" lodged to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has garnered the Spanish language radio station WXDJ-FM (which broadcasted the call) a $4,000 fine. The fine was announced last week and in response the two radio hosts who completed the prank call (Enrique Santos and Joe Ferrero) remarked that they plan to pay the fine solely with pennies. Earlier this week Santos remarked "We prank-called a head of state in a country that is considered hostile to the United States. He's a violator of human rights and they're fining us $4,000. We just find it absurd." In the initial ruling issued by the FCC last week, the notice indicated that the radio station violated a regulation requiring that participants in phone conversations be told in advance if the call is being broadcast.The first link leads to a news piece from the Miami Herald regarding the recent controversy surrounding the prank phone call to Fidel Castro. The second link will take visitors to an online article that talks about the recent decision of these radio personalities to pay the FCC's fine with pennies alone. The third link will take visitors to a complete text document from the FCC regarding their decision to fine the Miami radio station. For persons interested in what this prank call actually entailed, the fourth link provides a complete transcript of the conversation between the two radio personalities and Castro. The fifth link leads to an online database of speeches made by Castro from 1959 to 1996, which includes a number of search options, including date, subject, and type of speech. The sixth link leads to a profile of the current Venezuelan President, Hugo Chavez, who happened to be one of the persons that the radio personalities impersonated in order to reach President Castro on the phone.

423

Do Post Discharge Phone Calls Improve Care Transitions? A Cluster-Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Importance The transition from hospital to home can expose patients to adverse events during the post discharge period. Post discharge care including phone calls may provide support for patients returning home but the impact on care transitions is unknown. Objective To examine the effect of a 72-hour post discharge phone call on the patient's transition of care experience. Design Cluster-randomized control trial. Setting Urban, academic medical center. Participants General medical patients age 18 and older discharged home after hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcome measure was the Care Transition Measure (CTM-3) score, a validated measure of the quality of care transitions. Secondary measures included self-reported adherence to medication and follow up plans, and 30-day composite of emergency department (ED) visits and hospital readmission. Results 328 patients were included in the study over an 6-month period. 114 (69%) received a post discharge phone call, and 214 of all patients in the study completed the follow outcome survey (65% response rate). A small difference in CTM-3 scores was observed between the intervention and control groups (1.87 points, 95% CI 0.47–3.27, p?=?0.01). Self-reported adherence to treatment plans, ED visits, and emergency readmission rates were similar between the two groups (odds ratio 0.57, 95% CI 0.13–2.45, 1.20, 95% CI 0.61–2.37, and 1.18, 95% CI 0.53–2.61, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance A single post discharge phone call had a small impact on the quality of care transitions and no effect on hospital utilization. Higher intensity post discharge support may be required to improve the patient experience upon returning home. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01580774 PMID:25386678

Soong, Christine; Kurabi, Bochra; Wells, David; Caines, Lesley; Morgan, Matthew W.; Ramsden, Rebecca; Bell, Chaim M.

2014-01-01

424

Model reference adaptive control system for discrete linear time-varying systems with periodically varying parameters and time delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for designing a model reference adaptive control system for a class of discrete linear time-varying systems with periodically varying parameters and time delay, Based on Lyapunov's stability theorem, adaptive control algorithms guarantee the asymptotic stability of the error between the plant output and the reference sequence using no anticipative value of the plant output.

FUJIO OHKAWA

1986-01-01

425

Pigmented compositions  

SciTech Connect

Poly(arylene sulfide) compositions are pigmented with black carbonaceous pigments selected from at least one of finely divided bituminous coal, carbonized rice hulls, bone blacks, and micropulverized petroleum coke in an amount sufficient to provide the black pigmentation desired with little or no deleterious effect on the mechanical propertiers such as flexural and tensile strengths of the resin.

Blackwell Jr., J. P.

1984-10-09

426

Transformation Composition  

E-print Network

Proc. AGTIVE'99, to appear in LNCS Graph Transformation Modules and their Composition ? Frank,knirsch,kreo,kuskeg@informatik.uni-bremen.de Abstract. In this paper, we investigate the notion of transformation modules as a structuring principle. Based on the notion of transformation units, a concept that allows to specify binary relations on graphs

Drewes, Frank

427

Fuel composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composition useful, inter alia, as a fuel, is based on ethyl alcohol denatured with methylisobutyl alcohol and kerosene, which is mixed with xylenes and isopropyl alcohol. The xylenes and isopropyl alcohol act with the denaturizing agents to raise the flash point above that of ethyl alcohol alone and also to mask the odor and color the flame, thus making

Badger

1983-01-01

428

A VARI-Based Relative Greenness from MODIS Data for Computing the Fire Potential Index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fire Potential Index (FPI) relies on relative greenness (RG) estimates from remote sensing data. The Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI), derived from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery is currently used to calculate RG operationally. Here we evaluated an alternate measure of RG using the Visible Atmospheric Resistant Index (VARI) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data. VARI was chosen because it has previously been shown to have the strongest relationship with Live Fuel Moisture (LFM) out of a wide selection of MODIS-derived indices in southern California shrublands. To compare MODIS-based NDVI-FPI and VARI-FPI, RG was calculated from a 6-year time series of MODIS composites and validated against in-situ observations of LFM as a surrogate for vegetation greenness. RG from both indices was then compared in terms of its performance for computing the FPI using historical wildfire data. Computed RG values were regressed against ground-sampled LFM at 14 sites within Los Angeles County. The results indicate the VARI-based RG consistently shows a stronger relationship with observed LFM than NDVI-based RG. With an average R2 of 0.727 compared to a value of only 0.622 for NDVI-RG, VARI-RG showed stronger relationships at 13 out of 14 sites. Based on these results, daily FPI maps were computed for the years 2001 through 2005 using both NDVI-RG and VARI-RG. These were then validated against 12,490 fire detections from the MODIS active fire product using logistic regression. Deviance of the logistic regression model was 408.8 for NDVI-FPI and 176.2 for VARI-FPI. The c-index was found to be 0.69 and 0.78, respectively. The results show that VARI-FP outperforms NDVI-FPI in distinguishing between fire and no-fire events for historical wildfire data in southern California for the given time period.

Schneider, P.; Roberts, D. A.; Kyriakidis, P. C.

2008-01-01

429

Estimation of Time-Varying Pilot Model Parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human control behavior is rarely completely stationary over time due to fatigue or loss of attention. In addition, there are many control tasks for which human operators need to adapt their control strategy to vehicle dynamics that vary in time. In previous studies on the identification of time-varying pilot control behavior wavelets were used to estimate the time-varying frequency response functions. However, the estimation of time-varying pilot model parameters was not considered. Estimating these parameters can be a valuable tool for the quantification of different aspects of human time-varying manual control. This paper presents two methods for the estimation of time-varying pilot model parameters, a two-step method using wavelets and a windowed maximum likelihood estimation method. The methods are evaluated using simulations of a closed-loop control task with time-varying pilot equalization and vehicle dynamics. Simulations are performed with and without remnant. Both methods give accurate results when no pilot remnant is present. The wavelet transform is very sensitive to measurement noise, resulting in inaccurate parameter estimates when considerable pilot remnant is present. Maximum likelihood estimation is less sensitive to pilot remnant, but cannot detect fast changes in pilot control behavior.

Zaal, Peter M. T.; Sweet, Barbara T.

2011-01-01

430

Wrinkling in Cellular Structured Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many structured composites found in nature possess undulating and wrinkled interfacial layers that regulate mechanical, chemical, acoustic, adhesive, thermal, electrical and optical functions of the material. This research focused on the formation of wrinkling patterns in cellular structured composites and the effect of the wrinkling pattern on the overall structural response. The cellular composites consisted of stiffer interfacial layers constructing a network submerged in a soft matrix. Analytical and finite element models were developed to capture various aspects of the wrinkling mechanism. The characteristics of the undulation patterns and the instability modes were investigated as functions of model geometry and material composition. Mechanical experiments were designed to further explore the modeling results. The cellular composite samples were fabricated by using different types of elastomers and by varying the geometry and the material properties. The experimental and numerical results were consistent with the analytical predictions. The results in this research improve understanding of the mechanisms governing the undulation pattern formation in cellular composites and can be used to enable on-demand tunability of different functions to provide, among others, active control of wave propagation, mechanical stiffness and deformation, and material swelling and growth.

Kaynia, Narges; Li, Yaning; Boyce, Mary C.

2013-03-01

431

Mechanical property characterization of intraply hybrid composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to characterize the mechanical properties of intraply hybrids made from graphite fiber/epoxy matrix (primary composites) hybridized with varying amounts of secondary composites made from S-glass or Kevlar 49 fibers. The tests were conducted using thin laminates having the same thickness. The specimens for these tests were instrumented with strain gages to determine stress-strain behavior. Significant results are included.

Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sinclair, J. H.

1979-01-01

432

NANOCELLULOSE REINFORCEMENT OF TRANSPARENT COMPOSITES  

E-print Network

In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study composites were reinforced using dispersed nanoparticles as well as continuous architecture developed from hydrogel-based processes. Poly(methyl methacrylate) and Bisphenol F resin systems were integrated with nanocellulose of varying crystallinity, fiber size, and surface functionalization. Mechanical performance was determined from dual cantilever dynamic analysis, tensile, and charpy tests following ASTM standards. Optical properties were evaluated for transmittance and scattering behavior, and compared to baseline studies of aqueous and organic solvent dispersions. 1.

Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

433

Laser glass composition and the possibility of eliminating electrostrictive effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many authors have stated that electrostrictive self-trapping of the light beam initiates laser damage in solid transparent dielectrics. By systematically varying composition, it may be possible to find a glass in which electrostrictive effects are eliminated.

R. Waxler

1971-01-01

434

Coupled heat conduction and deformation in a viscoelastic composite cylinder  

E-print Network

This study analyzes the thermo-mechanical response of a composite cylinder made up of two layers of linear isotropic viscoelastic materials that belong to the class of non-Thermorheologically Simple Material. The effect of time-varying temperature...

Shah, Sneha

2010-01-16

435

Lengthscale effects in the damage and failure of composites  

E-print Network

The primary objective of this work is to investigate and identify lengthscale effects associated with damage in composite materials and their structures, and to determine how these lengthscales vary across levels of ...

Chambers, Jeffrey Thomas

2014-01-01

436

Electrodes patterning on ionic polymer metal composite for making smooth surface on tunable mirrors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformable mirror is a very important reflective component in optical system, which can vary the focal length while the surface deform. Nowadays several type of material were used as deformable mirror, such as liquid lens and MEMS deformable mirror. MEMS deformable mirror have been developed in our group and shows the potential. However, the problem of high actuation voltage is not easy to solve. In this thesis, we proposed using low voltage applied material, which is called Ioic-Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) with the advantage of low applied voltage but high actuation performance. Arbitrary-shaped electrode IPMC was successfully fabricated by simply covering a shadow mask during electroless plating. Maximum central displacement of ellipsoid-shaped electrode IPMC can be achieved up to 350 ?m under 2.5 volts applied. We believe this technique can be used in optical system as a deformable mirror in the future.

Cheng, Wei; Su, Guo-Dung J.

2012-10-01

437

Machines With a Different Calling Marc Bhlen 1  

E-print Network

Machines With a Different Calling Marc Böhlen 1 , Michael Mateas 2 1 Department of Media Study the social sciences and the arts in the design of robots for intimate social environments. An example into cultural spaces. 1. Introduction If robots are to become ubiquitous in personal spaces they must be able

Mateas, Michael

438

Wireless sensor and actuator network system for calling home robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and implementation of a wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN) system for calling home robots in indoor environments. The proposed system consists of a network of wireless pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor nodes and a mobile actuator node. The PIR sensor nodes are deployed on the ceiling of a room to form a grid topology. The

Guangming Song; Jun Zhang; Xiaofeng Ye; Yanpeng Niu; Aiguo Song

2010-01-01

439

The Missouri Statement: A Student Call to Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leaders of state student associations from 22 states met in July, 1977 in Columbia, Missouri at the first national conference of state student associations. This document represents the consensus of the conference. It is a call to action for Congress, the President, state legislatures, governing boards of colleges and universities, and state…

Associated Students of the Univ. of Missouri, Columbia.

440

The direct cost of virtual function calls in C++  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the direct cost of virtual function calls in C++ programs, assuming the standard implementation using virtual function tables. We measure this overhead experimentally for a number of large benchmark programs, using a combination of executable inspection and processor simulation. Our results show that the C++ programs measured spend a median of 5.2% of their time and 3.7% of

Karel Driesen; Urs Hijlzle

1996-01-01

441

1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

442

Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats.  

PubMed

To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. PMID:24860509

Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

2014-01-01

443

An automated device for provoking and capturing wildlife calls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some animals exhibit call-and-response behaviors that can be exploited to facilitate detection. Traditionally, acoustic surveys that use call-and-respond techniques have required an observer's presence to perform the broadcast, record the response, or both events. This can be labor-intensive and may influence animal behavior and, thus, survey results. We developed an automated acoustic survey device using commercially available hardware (e.g., laptop computer, speaker, microphone) and an author-created (JS) software program ("HOOT") that can be used to survey for any animal that calls. We tested this device to determine 1) deployment longevity, 2) effective sampling area, and 3) ability to detect known packs of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Idaho, USA. Our device was able to broadcast and record twice daily for 6–7 days using the internal computer battery and surveyed an area of 3.3–17.5 km2 in relatively open habitat depending on the hardware components used. We surveyed for wolves at 2 active rendezvous sites used by closely monitored, radiocollared wolf packs and obtained 4 responses across both packs over 3 days of sampling. We confirmed reproduction in these 2 packs by detecting pup howls aurally from the resulting device recordings. Our device can broadcast and record animal calls and the computer software is freely downloadable. This automated survey device can be used to collect reliable data while reducing the labor costs traditionally associated with acoustic surveys.

Ausband, David E.; Skrivseth, Jesse; Mitchell, Michael S.

2011-01-01

444

An automated device for provoking and capturing Wildlife calls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some animals exhibit call-and-response behaviors that can be exploited to facilitate detection. Traditionally, acoustic surveys that use call-and-respond techniques have required an observer's presence to perform the broadcast, record the response, or both events. This can be labor-intensive and may influence animal behavior and, thus, survey results. We developed an automated acoustic survey device using commercially available hardware (e.g., laptop computer, speaker, microphone) and an author-created (JS) software program ("HOOT") that can be used to survey for any animal that calls. We tested this device to determine 1) deployment longevity, 2) effective sampling area, and 3) ability to detect known packs of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Idaho, USA. Our device was able to broadcast and record twice daily for 6-7 days using the internal computer battery and surveyed an area of 3.3-17.5 km in relatively open habitat depending on the hardware components used. We surveyed for wolves at 2 active rendezvous sites used by closely monitored, radiocollared wolf packs and obtained 4 responses across both packs over 3 days of sampling. We confirmed reproduction in these 2 packs by detecting pup howls aurally from the resulting device recordings. Our device can broadcast and record animal calls and the computer software is freely downloadable. This automated survey device can be used to collect reliable data while reducing the labor costs traditionally associated with acoustic surveys. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

Ausband, D.E.; Skrivseth, J.; Mitchell, M.S.

2011-01-01

445

Humanities, Classics, and Comparative Michael J. Call, Chair  

E-print Network

Humanities, Classics, and Comparative Literature Michael J. Call, Chair 3008 JFSB, (801) 422-4448 College of Humanities Advisement Center 1175 JFSB, (801) 422-4789 Admission to Degree Program All degree programs in the Department of Humanities, Classics, and Comparative Literature are open enrollment. However

Hart, Gus

446

The Horizon Project Call to Scholarship: 2007-8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the release of the fourth edition in the annual "Horizon Report, the New Media Consortium (NMC) has undertaken a concerted, international effort to describe a research agenda and call to scholarship based on the six practices and technologies featured in the report. The community was invited to participate in this process, contribute to the…

New Media Consortium, 2007

2007-01-01

447

Group Calls for More Focus on Potentially Hazardous Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A group of astronauts, scientists, business leaders, and artists are calling for a dramatic increase in detecting and monitoring asteroids that could potentially strike the Earth catastrophically. They have announced that 30 June 2015 will be a global asteroid awareness day.

Showstack, Randy

2014-12-01

448

Call for Papers Journal of Universal Computer Science  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Journal of Universal Computer Science Special Issue on "Multimedia Security paper. Submission The Journal of Universal Computer Science is a high-quality electronic publication · Information hiding in multimedia content · Multimedia forensics · Secure multimedia adaptation · Multimedia

Zhang, Yan

449

Breathing and Calling: Neuronal Networks in the Xenopus laevis  

E-print Network

Breathing and Calling: Neuronal Networks in the Xenopus laevis Hindbrain ERIK ZORNIK* AND DARCY B; hindbrain The frog Xenopus laevis relies on underwater vocal sig- naling to coordinate courtship and male. KELLEY Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 ABSTRACT Xenopus

Kelley, Darcy B.

450

78 FR 35956 - Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DATES: The Utah RAC Subgroup will host a conference call on Monday, June 24, 2013, from 10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m., MST. ADDRESSES: Those attending in person must meet at the BLM, Utah State Office, 440 West 200 South, Salt Lake City,...

2013-06-14

451

2012 Holocaust Education Week (HEW) CALL FOR PROPOSALS  

E-print Network

2012 Holocaust Education Week (HEW) CALL FOR PROPOSALS The Sarah and Chaim Neuberger Holocaust Education Centre seeks proposals for programs to be featured during the 32nd Annual Holocaust Education Week (HEW): November 1 ­ 8, 2012. HOLOCAUST EDUCATION WEEK For eight extraordinary days in November

O'Toole, Alice J.

452

Nursing's Call to Transform the Health Care Delivery  

E-print Network

Nursing's Call to Transform the Health Care Delivery System Mary Ann Christopher, MSN, RN, FAAN President & CEO Visiting Nurse Service of New York Hunter Bellevue School of Nursing Spring Forum March 14, 2012 #12;2 VNSNY: Who We Are The "Henry Street Family" (c. 1900) Visiting nurses in a row (date unknown

Qiu, Weigang

453

Got any stories, tips or photos? Call our News Hotline  

E-print Network

Got any stories, tips or photos? Call our News Hotline 2565 2252 Classified Advertising enquiries for runners in the10km race,14,000 in two half-marathons and 8,000 in the marathon. Full report C18 National and democracy. Full report A5 HK & Delta Government proposes obscenity revamp In the wake of the celebrity sex

Gollin, George

454

Call for Nominations The Department of Entomology, College of  

E-print Network

Call for Nominations 2014 The Department of Entomology, College of Food, Agricultural and Natural of the Department of Entomology. The Award will be presented during the Department's Honors Day which also pays tribute to the achievements of students in the Entomology Graduate Program. Nominations are invited based

Aukema, Brian

455

Educational Leadership and Social Activism: A Call for Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to argue for a social activist stance in educational leadership that fundamentally addresses social change and human emancipation. This call for social activism is framed within neoliberal, neoconservative, and authoritarian populist discourses in the USA, which to social justice educators and leaders had devastating…

Hoffman, Lauren P.

2009-01-01

456

Collaboration in translational neuroscience: a call to arms.  

PubMed

Neurological and psychiatric disorders present an immediate and growing challenge. The scale and complexity of this unmet need calls for a concomitantly large and sophisticated response. Here the author discusses just one element of such a response, the power of collaboration, and presents a personal account of how a variety of collaborative structures can advance science. PMID:25442928

Ivinson, Adrian J

2014-11-01

457

An asymptotic analysis of the so called intelligent PID controller  

E-print Network

An asymptotic analysis of the so called intelligent PID controller Laurent Praly april, 2009 Model-free control and intelligent PID controllers: towards a possible trivialization of nonlinear control? that can be obtained at http://arxiv.org/abs/0904.0322 Unfortunately in that paper, the authors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

458

Call 877.937.PENN (7366). Provide contact info and  

E-print Network

facilitates patient arrival and physician communication at Penn Medicine Traumatology, Surgical Critical Care) · American College of Surgeons' ultrasound course. For general inquiries about the division of traumatology transportation, eliminating the need for multiple calls and time delay. Penn Traumatology, Surgical Critical Care

Bushman, Frederic

459

CALL FOR PAPERS EXTENDED TO APRIL 18, 2014  

E-print Network

. This collaborative event is being jointly sponsored by the University of the Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension for local sustainability · The impact of pesticides on bee behavior and bee products. Please e for submission. For further information, please call/email Mr. Stafford Crossman at (340) 692- 4071/ scrossm

Jawitz, James W.

460

A Call for Student Involvement in the Push for Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As readers of "Assessment Update" know, the call for assessment is sweeping over the globe, so much so that faculty and administrators are finding it difficult to ignore it--though many may wish they could. Unfortunately, awareness does not lead to an increase in assessment implementation because fear of assessment is still widespread. The push…

Rodgers, Megan

2011-01-01

461

www.mrs.org/fall2006/ CALL FOR PAPERS  

E-print Network

and computational techniques in solid-state chemistry Joint sessions with Symposia T: Ferroelectricswww.mrs.org/fall2006/ CALL FOR PAPERS MRS Symposium QQ: Solid-State Chemistry of Inorganic potential authors, late abstracts will not be accepted. The scope and importance of solid-state chemistry

Akhmedov, Azer

462

Towards Model-Driven End-User Development in CALL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to introduce end-user development (EUD) processes to the CALL software development community. EUD refers to the active participation of end-users, as non-professional developers, in the software development life cycle. Unlike formal software engineering approaches, the focus in EUD on means/ends development is…

Farmer, Rod; Gruba, Paul

2006-01-01

463

A Call for Change: Providing Solutions for Black Male Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In October 2010, the Council of the Great City Schools released a major report on the academic status of African American males, "A Call for Change: The Social and Educational Factors Contributing to the Outcomes of Black Males in Urban Schools." The report was the first phase of the Council's efforts to recommit the energies of the nation's urban…

Casserly, Michael; Lewis, Sharon; Simon, Candace; Uzzell, Renata; Palacios, Moses

2012-01-01

464

Call for Proposals "Scientific Research in Biomedicine" EVALUATION GRID  

E-print Network

Arguments #12;4. INNOVATION Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches or methods? Are the aimsCall for Proposals "Scientific Research in Biomedicine" EVALUATION GRID Reference number Applicant arguments and don't fill in the other fields of the evaluation grid (with the exception of the last field

De Cindio, Fiorella

465

The Infant & Toddler Assessment Clinic When: Please call for appointment.  

E-print Network

541.346.0738 Parents and caregivers of infants/toddlers who have an older sibling with autism the development of young children who may be at risk for autism. Research study: eirb #000958 Research Study Have a Child with Autism? with a younger sibling 6 months to 18 months old? Call for Information

466

Call for Papers! Art History Graduate Student Conference!  

E-print Network

Call for Papers! Art History Graduate Student Conference! Tufts University, Medford MA! This year&*"#$#%&%4""'+1$&1)*18&=61)&6+%"'*$6+,& "*06Art History Graduate Student Conference Tufts University, Medford MA Tufts University Art History Graduate Program invites proposals for its graduate

Tufts University

467

Desert Symposium 2014 Information/Call for Papers/Registration  

E-print Network

that have produced Ice Age fossils then Desert Center. Obtain food from IndioDesert Symposium 2014 Information/Call for Papers/Registration The 28th Annual Desert Symposium April 18­21, 2014 at the Desert Studies Center, Zzyzx, CA

de Lijser, Peter

468

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL: Radiation Safety Officer (479) 263 iii FOREWORD RADIATION SAFETY is the responsibility of all faculty, staff and students who are directly or indirectly involved in the use of radionuclides or radiation-producing machines. The Radiation

Li, Jiali

469

Call for Proposals John Lee Pratt Animal Nutrition Program  

E-print Network

Call for Proposals John Lee Pratt Animal Nutrition Program College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Virginia Tech Background The John Lee Pratt Endowment, established to support animal nutrition research nutrition programs. In an effort to better meet the original goals of the Endowment in enhancing animal

Liskiewicz, Maciej

470

Telephone Call Centers: a Tutorial and Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telephone call centers are an integral part of many businesses, and their economic role is significant and growing. They are also fascinating socio-technical systems in which the behavior of customers and employees is closely intertwined with physical performance measures. In these environments traditional operational models are of great value - and at the same time fundamentally limited - in their

Noah Gans; Ger Koole; Avishai Mandelbaum

471

Queueing time for the outbound call management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outbound call management (OCM) system was introduced by M. Sarraf (1989), and its performance was analyzed. In that work, although the probability of joining the queue by a random customer was given, the time spent in the queue was not addressed. The average time to empty a queue, once it is formed, is given, along with the average time

M. Sarraf

1989-01-01

472

Call-based species recognition in black-capped chickadees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species recognition is essential for efficient communication between conspecifics. For this to occur, species information must be unambiguously encoded in the repertoire of each species’ vocalizations. Until now, the study of species recognition in songbirds has been focused mainly on male songs and male territorial behaviour. Species recognition of other learned vocalizations, such as calls, have not been explored, and

Isabelle Charrier; Christopher B. Sturdy

2005-01-01

473

Report Calls for Improvements to "Human Capital" Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report from a high-powered education task force called last week for states and school districts to overhaul how they recruit, prepare, evaluate, and compensate teachers. Released by Strategic Management of Human Capital, the series of 20 policy recommendations for state and district policymakers is aimed primarily at improving the teaching…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2009-01-01

474

Spotlight: Online Learners of Macedonian with Self-Instructed CALL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While much is known about the characteristics of adult learners and even adult learners in online and distance education settings, very little CALL research is focused on online self-instructed learners, and even fewer studies focus on learners of less commonly taught languages (LCTLs), such as Macedonian, for whom traditional or even distance…

Wilsey, Biljana Belamaric

2013-01-01

475

Campbell's monkeys concatenate vocalizations into context-specific call sequences  

PubMed Central

Primate vocal behavior is often considered irrelevant in modeling human language evolution, mainly because of the caller's limited vocal control and apparent lack of intentional signaling. Here, we present the results of a long-term study on Campbell's monkeys, which has revealed an unrivaled degree of vocal complexity. Adult males produced six different loud call types, which they combined into various sequences in highly context-specific ways. We found stereotyped sequences that were strongly associated with cohesion and travel, falling trees, neighboring groups, nonpredatory animals, unspecific predatory threat, and specific predator classes. Within the responses to predators, we found that crowned eagles triggered four and leopards three different sequences, depending on how the caller learned about their presence. Callers followed a number of principles when concatenating sequences, such as nonrandom transition probabilities of call types, addition of specific calls into an existing sequence to form a different one, or recombination of two sequences to form a third one. We conclude that these primates have overcome some of the constraints of limited vocal control by combinatorial organization. As the different sequences were so tightly linked to specific external events, the Campbell's monkey call system may be the most complex example of ‘proto-syntax’ in animal communication known to date. PMID:20007377

Ouattara, Karim; Lemasson, Alban; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2009-01-01

476

NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION ENDOWMENT GRANT 2013 CALL FOR PROPOSALS  

E-print Network

NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION ENDOWMENT GRANT 2013 CALL FOR PROPOSALS PURPOSE The Natural Resource projects related to conservation of renewable and non-renewable natural resources, including biotic Conservation Endowment Fund was established by Jane P. Conrad and entrusted to Washington State University

Collins, Gary S.

477

A Topical Bibliography on Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography aims to serve the language teacher educators who are working in the field of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) by making a collection of 1732 bibliographic entries, which stem from mainly books and journal articles in English that date back to 1980 and provide good discussions on the theory of technology in language…

Kilickaya, Ferit

2009-01-01

478

Nest predation and the evolution of nestling begging calls  

PubMed Central

Begging by nestling birds can be conspicuous and loud. Such displays are thought to function in signalling nestling condition and securing parental care, but they also may inadvertently attract the attention of predators. We compared the structure of nestling begging calls to the risk of predation among 24 species of birds breeding in a forest community in central Arizona. After controlling for body size and phylogeny, we found that species subject to greater nest predation had calls with higher frequency (pitch) and lower amplitude (loudness) than species subject to lower rates of nest predation. As these acoustic features make it difficult for potential predators to pinpoint the source of a sound, our results suggest that an increased risk of predation has led to the evolution of begging calls that minimize locatability. The relationship between call structure and the risk of predation also supports the hypothesis that attracting predators is a direct cost of begging and that such costs can constrain any evolutionary escalation in the intensity of nestling begging.

Briskie, J. V.; Martin, P. R.; Martin, T. E.

1999-01-01

479

78 FR 31977 - NASA Asteroid Initiative Call for Ideas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Notice: 13-060] NASA Asteroid Initiative Call for Ideas AGENCY: National...to provide a status on the agency's asteroid initiative planning and to encourage...will be posted at www.nasa.gov/asteroid prior to the event. The agenda...

2013-05-28

480

Call For Submissions The Journal of Undergraduate Research at  

E-print Network

Call For Submissions Pursuit The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee Pursuit is dedicated to publishing the scholarly work of undergraduates and is supported by the University of Tennessee Office of Research and Engagement and the Chancellor's Honors Program. The editors and review

Russell, Lynn

481

Call for Proposals for Undergraduate Research Grants for  

E-print Network

Call for Proposals for Undergraduate Research Grants for Spring and/or Summer 2013 The Office of Undergraduate Research through the Division of Academic and Student Affairs (DASA) will provide grants (based upon quality and merit) to a selected number of undergraduate students for undergraduate research

Liu, Paul

482

Calling-song function in male haglids (Orthoptera: Haglidae, Cyphoderris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the response of males to the singing of nearby male conspecifics in two species of the orthopteran genus Cyphoderris, primitive relatives of crickets and katydids. Lone male Cyphoderris buckelli stridulating in a large cage made a phonotactic approach to a nearby speaker broadcasting conspecific calling song. But in field experiments no phonotaxis to song broadcasts occurred; rather, a

Glenn K. Morris; Paul A. DeLuca; Matthew Norton; Andrew C. Mason

2002-01-01

483

Call for Applications! Master of Science in Program Management  

E-print Network

Call for Applications! Master of Science in Program Management Commencing 30 September 2014 By Distributed Learning using a Web-based, Virtual Classroom Environment The Naval Postgraduate School and its-time Master of Science in Program Management by distributed learning beginning 30 September 2014. Students

484

Call for Applications! Master of Science in Program Management (836)  

E-print Network

Call for Applications! Master of Science in Program Management (836) Commencing Tuesday 29 September 2015 By Distance Learning using a Web-based, Virtual Classroom Environment The Naval Postgraduate quarter part-time Master of Science in Program Management by distance learning commencing Tuesday 29

485

Call for Applications! Master of Science in Program Management  

E-print Network

Call for Applications! Master of Science in Program Management Commencing 1 October 2013 By Distributed Learning using a Web-based, Virtual Classroom Environment The Naval Postgraduate School and its-time Master of Science in Program Management by distributed learning beginning Tuesday, 1October 2013

486

Call for Applications! Master of Science in Program Management  

E-print Network

Call for Applications! Master of Science in Program Management Commencing 31 March 2014 By Distributed Learning using a Web-based, Virtual Classroom Environment The Naval Postgraduate School and its-time Master of Science in Program Management by distributed learning beginning 31March 2014. Students

487

Fast static analysis of C++ virtual function calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual functions make code easier for programmers to reuse but also make it harder for compilers to analyze. We investigate the ability of three static analysis algorithms to improve C++ programs by resolving virtual function calls, thereby reducing compiled code size and reducing program complexity so as to improve both human and automated program understanding and analysis. In measurements of

David F. Bacon; Peter F. Sweeney

1996-01-01

488

Call for Papers and Panels Unleashing the Black Erotic  

E-print Network

Call for Papers and Panels Unleashing the Black Erotic: Gender and Sexuality--Passion, Power as people. The question remains, however: can we unleash the erotic? As a Black woman, lesbian, feminist blackness. Black scholars still wrestle with the ghosts of slavery, the mutilation of Black bodies

Kunkle, Tom

489

Designing Templates for Interactive Tasks in CALL Tutorials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of templates for computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is discussed, based on experiences with primarily linear multimedia tutorial programs. Design of templates for multiple-choice questions and interactive tasks in a prototype module is described. Possibilities of enhancing interactivity by introducing problem-oriented…

Ruhlmann, Felicitas

490

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research Subseries  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research Subseries: Operations Research in Medicine Computing in advancing research and development related to medical and biological applications. Complexity of medical of his research effort and passion to advancing the fields of medicine and biology. Manuscripts must

491

DATA EXTRACTION SYSTEM (DES) / SURVEYS-ON-CALL  

EPA Science Inventory

New name: Surveys-On-Call The Data Extraction System is a tool for extracting records and fields from very large, public-information, data files (for example: survey and census records.) The system produces custom extracts in selectable data file formats (not meant for humans to ...

492

Preliminary Call For Papers IEEE/RSJ IROS 2008  

E-print Network

· Rehabilitation Robotics · Distributed Sensor Networks · Humanoid Robotics · Micro/Nano Robotics · Robot SurgeryPreliminary Call For Papers IEEE/RSJ IROS 2008 International Conference on Intelligent Robots Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems is soliciting papers from the academic, industrial

Malis, Ezio