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Sample records for call composition vary

  1. Axisymmetric vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Shikanai, G.; Suzuki, K.; Kojima, M.

    1995-11-01

    An exact solution procedure is presented for solving axisymmetric free vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness. Based on the classical lamination theory neglecting shear deformation and rotary inertia, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply conical shells. Numerical studies are made for conical shells having both ends clamped to show the effects of the number of laminae, stacking sequences and other parameters upon the frequencies.

  2. Device for producing a fluid stream of varying composition

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA); Clark, Mark L. (Kennewick, WA); Rossignol, E. John (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    A device for producing a fluid stream of varying composition comprises a chamber having an inlet at one end and outlet at the other. Between the inlet and outlet there are substantially planar pans or baffles positioned normal to the bulk flow of fluid between the inlet and the outlet. These pans are arranged in pairs. Each pan, except those of the pair most remote from the inlet, is spaced from the walls of the chamber to permit air to flow past it. The pans of each pair are also spaced from each other, in a direction parallel to their planes, leaving an empty space along the mid-plane of the chamber. This produces a circulation and mixing of fluid between the pairs of pans or baffles. A secondary stream of fluid is introduced between two pairs of baffles in the intermediate portion of the chamber, so that the composition of the fluid is different in the portion adjacent to the outlet and the portion adjacent to the inlet. In a specific embodiment, the device is an exposure chamber for experimental animals, and the pans or baffles are catch pans for excrement.

  3. Killer whale call frequency is similar across the oceans, but varies across sympatric ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Filatova, Olga A; Miller, Patrick J O; Yurk, Harald; Samarra, Filipa I P; Hoyt, Erich; Ford, John K B; Matkin, Craig O; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G

    2015-07-01

    Killer whale populations may differ in genetics, morphology, ecology, and behavior. In the North Pacific, two sympatric populations ("resident" and "transient") specialize on different prey (fish and marine mammals) and retain reproductive isolation. In the eastern North Atlantic, whales from the same populations have been observed feeding on both fish and marine mammals. Fish-eating North Pacific "residents" are more genetically related to eastern North Atlantic killer whales than to sympatric mammal-eating "transients." In this paper, a comparison of frequency variables in killer whale calls recorded from four North Pacific resident, two North Pacific transient, and two eastern North Atlantic populations is reported to assess which factors drive the large-scale changes in call structure. Both low-frequency and high-frequency components of North Pacific transient killer whale calls have significantly lower frequencies than those of the North Pacific resident and North Atlantic populations. The difference in frequencies could be related to ecological specialization or to the phylogenetic history of these populations. North Pacific transient killer whales may have genetically inherited predisposition toward lower frequencies that may shape their learned repertoires. PMID:26233024

  4. From calls to communities: a model for time-varying social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Guillaume; Saramäki, Jari; Karsai, Márton

    2015-11-01

    Social interactions vary in time and appear to be driven by intrinsic mechanisms that shape the emergent structure of social networks. Large-scale empirical observations of social interaction structure have become possible only recently, and modelling their dynamics is an actual challenge. Here we propose a temporal network model which builds on the framework of activity-driven time-varying networks with memory. The model integrates key mechanisms that drive the formation of social ties - social reinforcement, focal closure and cyclic closure, which have been shown to give rise to community structure and small-world connectedness in social networks. We compare the proposed model with a real-world time-varying network of mobile phone communication, and show that they share several characteristics from heterogeneous degrees and weights to rich community structure. Further, the strong and weak ties that emerge from the model follow similar weight-topology correlations as real-world social networks, including the role of weak ties.

  5. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call

  6. Using C.A.L.L. to Teach Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkhurst, Christine

    While artificial intelligence is far from producing a computer program that can understand English, there are computer applications for teaching composition that go beyond the electronic flashcard and other limited applications. A number of programs designed for use in college freshman English as a second language classes based on the artificial…

  7. Model atmospheres for cool stars. [varying chemical composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    This report contains an extensive series of model atmospheres for cool stars having a wide range in chemical composition. Model atmospheres (temperature, pressure, density, etc.) are tabulated, along with emergent energy flux distributions, limb darkening, and information on convection for selected models. The models are calculated under the usual assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium, constancy of total energy flux (including transport both by radiation and convection) and local thermodynamic equilibrium. Some molecular and atomic line opacity is accounted for as a straight mean. While cool star atmospheres are regimes of complicated physical conditions, and these atmospheres are necessarily approximate, they should be useful for a number of kinds of spectral and atmospheric analysis.

  8. Female reciprocal calling in the Iberian midwife toad ( Alytes cisternasii) varies with male call rate and dominant frequency: implications for sexual selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Jaime

    2001-10-01

    Male midwife toads ( Alytes cisternasii) responded differently depending on the call frequency and call rate of other males. I tested female Iberian midwife toads with the same set of stimuli used earlier with males. Females responded faster to high call rates, and female vocal activity was greater in response to low-frequency male calls. Thus, in both sexes, the vocal response differs in the same direction according to signal frequency variation, but the magnitude of the response is greater in males than in females. In the light of these results, I discuss the implications for sexual selection of this reciprocal calling.

  9. Comparison of results from different NDE techniques from ceramic matrix composites with varying porosity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Imelda; Ojard, Greg; Santhosh, Unni; Ahmad, Jalees; Gowayed, Yasser

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are attractive materials for use in advanced turbine engines. Due to the nature of available processing techniques, however, the amount and distribution of porosity in CMC's can vary greatly. This can be particularly true in parts with complex geometries. It is therefore important to characterize the porosity with non-destructive techniques and understand its effect on properties. A series of CMC samples were fabricated with varying levels of porosity and analyzed with different NDE techniques. The results were categorized and analyzed with respect to ease of interpretation and degree to which they could be quantified and used in models to determine the effects of defects. The results were also correlated with microstructural examination and mechanical properties.

  10. Seismic evidence for a rapidly varying compositional anomaly at the base of the Earth's mantle beneath the Indian Ocean

    E-print Network

    Wen, Lianxing

    .elsevier.com/locate/epsl #12;the layer. Here, I report seismic evidence for a seismic anomaly at the base of the Earth's mantleSeismic evidence for a rapidly varying compositional anomaly at the base of the Earth's mantle to the preliminary reference Earth model). These characteristics unambiguously suggest that it is a compositional

  11. Controlled combustion tests and bottom ash analysis using household waste with varying composition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanjun; Bakker, Maarten; Brem, Gerrit; Chen, Guanyi

    2011-02-01

    The influence of the co-combustion of household waste with either sewage sludge, shredder fluff, electronic and electrical waste (WEEE) or PVC on the bottom ash quality and content was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions using a pot furnace. This laboratory approach avoids the interpretation problems related to large variations in input waste composition and combustion conditions that are observed in large scale MSW incinerators. The data for metals content, transfer coefficients and leaching values are presented relative to data for a base household waste composition that did not contain any of the added special wastes. The small WEEE invited direct measurement of precious metals content in the ashes, where measurement accuracy is facilitated by using only mobile phone scrap for small WEEE. The analyses were carried out for different particle size ranges that are of relevance to the recyclability of metals and minerals in the ashes. Positive correlations were found between elements content of the input waste and the bottom ashes, and also between increased levels of Cl, Mo and Cu in the input waste and their leaching in the bottom ashes. These correlations indicate that addition of PVC, small WEEE and shredder fluff in input waste can have a negative influence on the quality of the bottom ashes. Enrichment of Au and Ag occurred in the fractions between 0.15 and 6 mm. The precious metals content represents an economically interesting intrinsic value, even when the observed peak values are properly averaged over a larger volume of ashes. Overall, it has been shown that changes in quality and content of bottom ashes may be traced back to the varied input waste composition. PMID:20675114

  12. Controlled combustion tests and bottom ash analysis using household waste with varying composition

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yanjun; Bakker, Maarten; Brem, Gerrit; Chen Guanyi

    2011-02-15

    The influence of the co-combustion of household waste with either sewage sludge, shredder fluff, electronic and electrical waste (WEEE) or PVC on the bottom ash quality and content was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions using a pot furnace. This laboratory approach avoids the interpretation problems related to large variations in input waste composition and combustion conditions that are observed in large scale MSW incinerators. The data for metals content, transfer coefficients and leaching values are presented relative to data for a base household waste composition that did not contain any of the added special wastes. The small WEEE invited direct measurement of precious metals content in the ashes, where measurement accuracy is facilitated by using only mobile phone scrap for small WEEE. The analyses were carried out for different particle size ranges that are of relevance to the recyclability of metals and minerals in the ashes. Positive correlations were found between elements content of the input waste and the bottom ashes, and also between increased levels of Cl, Mo and Cu in the input waste and their leaching in the bottom ashes. These correlations indicate that addition of PVC, small WEEE and shredder fluff in input waste can have a negative influence on the quality of the bottom ashes. Enrichment of Au and Ag occurred in the fractions between 0.15 and 6 mm. The precious metals content represents an economically interesting intrinsic value, even when the observed peak values are properly averaged over a larger volume of ashes. Overall, it has been shown that changes in quality and content of bottom ashes may be traced back to the varied input waste composition.

  13. Identification and characterization of transcript polymorphisms in soybean lines varying in oil composition and content

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Variation in seed oil composition and content among soybean varieties is largely attributed to differences in transcript sequences and/or transcript accumulation of oil production related genes in seeds. Discovery and analysis of sequence and expression variations in these genes will accelerate soybean oil quality improvement. Results In an effort to identify these variations, we sequenced the transcriptomes of soybean seeds from nine lines varying in oil composition and/or total oil content. Our results showed that 69,338 distinct transcripts from 32,885 annotated genes were expressed in seeds. A total of 8,037 transcript expression polymorphisms and 50,485 transcript sequence polymorphisms (48,792 SNPs and 1,693 small Indels) were identified among the lines. Effects of the transcript polymorphisms on their encoded protein sequences and functions were predicted. The studies also provided independent evidence that the lack of FAD2-1A gene activity and a non-synonymous SNP in the coding sequence of FAB2C caused elevated oleic acid and stearic acid levels in soybean lines M23 and FAM94-41, respectively. Conclusions As a proof-of-concept, we developed an integrated RNA-seq and bioinformatics approach to identify and functionally annotate transcript polymorphisms, and demonstrated its high effectiveness for discovery of genetic and transcript variations that result in altered oil quality traits. The collection of transcript polymorphisms coupled with their predicted functional effects will be a valuable asset for further discovery of genes, gene variants, and functional markers to improve soybean oil quality. PMID:24755115

  14. Chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane clones selected for varied lignin content

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials is a major limitation for their conversion into fermentable sugars. Lignin depletion in new cultivars or transgenic plants has been identified as a way to diminish this recalcitrance. In this study, we assessed the success of a sugarcane breeding program in selecting sugarcane plants with low lignin content, and report the chemical composition and agronomic characteristics of eleven experimental hybrids and two reference samples. The enzymatic digestion of untreated and chemically delignified samples was evaluated to advance the performance of the sugarcane residue (bagasse) in cellulosic-ethanol production processes. Results The ranges for the percentages of glucan, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractive (based on oven-dry biomass) of the experimental hybrids and reference samples were 38% to 43%, 25% to 32%, 17% to 24%, and 1.6% to 7.5%, respectively. The samples with the smallest amounts of lignin did not produce the largest amounts of total polysaccharides. Instead, a variable increase in the mass of a number of components, including extractives, seemed to compensate for the reduction in lignin content. Hydroxycinnamic acids accounted for a significant part of the aromatic compounds in the samples, with p-coumaric acid predominating, whereas ferulic acid was present only in low amounts. Hydroxycinnamic acids with ester linkage to the hemicelluloses varied from 2.3% to 3.6%. The percentage of total hydroxycinnamic acids (including the fraction linked to lignin through ether linkages) varied from 5.0% to 9.2%, and correlated to some extent with the lignin content. These clones released up to 31% of glucose after 72 hours of digestion with commercial cellulases, whereas chemically delignified samples led to cellulose conversion values of more than 80%. However, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during the enzymatic treatment. Conclusion Some of the experimental sugarcane hybrids did have the combined characteristics of high biomass and high sucrose production with low lignin content. Conversion of glucan to glucose by commercial cellulases was increased in the samples with low lignin content. Chemical delignification further increased the cellulose conversion to values of more than 80%. Thus, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during the enzymatic treatment. PMID:22145819

  15. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Shifeng, Huang; Banerjee, Sourav

    2014-12-28

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer.

  16. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution

    PubMed Central

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Banerjee, Sourav; Shifeng, Huang

    2014-01-01

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer. PMID:25565725

  17. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Banerjee, Sourav; Shifeng, Huang

    2014-12-01

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer.

  18. Effect of Racial and Ethnic Composition of Neighborhoods in San Francisco on Rates of Mental-Health Related 911 Calls

    PubMed Central

    Kessell, Eric R.; Alvidrez, Jennifer; McConnell, William A.; Shumway, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the association between San Francisco neighborhoods’ racial/ethnic residential composition and the rate of mental-health-related 911 calls. Methods Calls to the San Francisco 911 system from January 2001 through June 2003 (n=1,341,608) were divided into mental-health-related and other calls. Police sector data in the call records were overlaid onto U.S. Census tracts to estimate sector demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the association between black, Asian, Latino and white resident percentage and rates of mental-health-related calls. Results Percent of black residents was associated with a lower rate of mental-health-related calls (IRR=.99, 95% CI .98–1.00). Percent of Asian and Latino residents had no significant effect. Conclusions The observed relationship between black residents and mental-health-related calls is not consistent with known emergency mental health service utilization patterns. The paradox between underutilization of the 911 system and overutilization of psychiatric emergency services deserves further investigation. PMID:19797379

  19. SU-D-19A-02: Electron and Photon Absorbed Fractions for Tumors of Varying Sizes and Compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Olguin, E; Bolch, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To calculate absorbed fractions for mono-energetic photons and electrons in tumors of varying compositions using Monte Carlo simulations in MCNPX. Although tumor dosimetry has been previously investigated, these studies are very limited as they only consider absorbed fractions for soft-tissue tumors. Methods: The tumors were modeled as spheres with radii ranging from 0.10 cm to 6.0 cm and with compositions varying from 100% soft tissue to 100% bone. The energies of both the photons and electrons were varied from 10 keV to 10 MeV and were homogenously distributed throughout the tumor volume. Furthermore, this investigation addresses the issue of spherical versus elliptical tumors. Both prolate and oblate spheroid tumors of different compositions were modeled, and absorbed fractions were calculated for various electron and photon energies. Results: The data clearly shows an absorbed fraction dependence on tumor composition. For example, a soft-tissue model for a 3 MeV electron emitted in a 1 cm diameter bone tumor would have an 83% error, and this same assumption for a 500 keV photon would yield a 74% error. Ultimately, empirical fits were created for each of the five material compositions in order to facilitate the absorbed fraction calculation, requiring only the tumor size and particle energy. Furthermore, the data shows that absorbed fractions for moderate spheroids can be well approximated by spherical tumors of equal mass to within 8%, but in the extreme cases where the spheroid resembles more of a disk, the errors can be as high as 30%. Conclusion: This comprehensive data set is most valuable for nuclear medicine dosimetry because it incorporates particle type, particle energy, tumor size, and tumor composition. Although mono-energetic particles were modeled, absorbed fractions and S-values may be calculated for any radionuclide via linear interpolation, as long as the particle energies or spectra are known.

  20. Intermediate-scale Fire Performance of Composite Panels under Varying Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alexander; Jernigan, Dann A.; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    New aircraft are being designed with increasing quantities of composite materials used in their construction. Different from the more traditional metals, composites have a higher propensity to burn. This presents a challenge to transportation safety analyses, as the aircraft structure now represents an additional fuel source involved in the fire scenario. Most of the historical fire testing of composite materials is aime d at studying kinetics, flammability or yield strength under fire conditions. Most of this testing is small - scale. Heterogeneous reactions are often length - scale dependent, and this is thought to be particularly true for composites which exhibit signific ant microscopic dynamics that can affect macro - scale behavior. We have designed a series of tests to evaluate composite materials under various structural loading conditions with a consistent thermal condition. We have measured mass - loss , heat flux, and temperature throughout the experiments. Several types of panels have been tested, including simple composite panels, and sandwich panels. The main objective of the testing was to understand the importance of the structural loading on a composite to its b ehavior in response to fire - like conditions. During flaming combustion at early times, there are some features of the panel decomposition that are unique to the type of loading imposed on the panels. At load levels tested, fiber reaction rates at later t imes appear to be independent of the initial structural loading.

  1. The Effect of Stochastically Varying Creep Parameters on Residual Stresses in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Constituent properties, along with volume fraction, have a first order effect on the microscale fields within a composite material and influence the macroscopic response. Therefore, there is a need to assess the significance of stochastic variation in the constituent properties of composites at the higher scales. The effect of variability in the parameters controlling the time-dependent behavior, in a unidirectional SCS-6 SiC fiber-reinforced RBSN matrix composite lamina, on the residual stresses induced during processing is investigated numerically. The generalized method of cells micromechanics theory is utilized to model the ceramic matrix composite lamina using a repeating unit cell. The primary creep phases of the constituents are approximated using a Norton-Bailey, steady state, power law creep model. The effect of residual stresses on the proportional limit stress and strain to failure of the composite is demonstrated. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using a normal distribution for the power law parameters and the resulting residual stress distributions were predicted.

  2. Practical Analysis of materials with depth varying compositions using FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS)

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. McClelland; R.W. Jones; Siquan Luo

    2004-09-30

    FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is discussed as a nondestructive method to probe the molecular composition of materials versus depth on the basis of the analysis of layers of experimentally controllable thickness, which are measured from the sample surface to depths of some tens of micrometers, depending on optical and thermal properties. Computational methods are described to process photoacoustic amplitude and phase spectra for both semi-quantitative and quantitative depth analyses. These methods are demonstrated on layered and gradient samples.

  3. The instability theory of drumlin formation and its explanation of their varied composition and internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Chris R.; Fowler, Andrew C.; Clark, Chris D.; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Spagnolo, Matteo

    2013-02-01

    Despite their importance in understanding glaciological processes and constraining large-scale flow patterns in palaeo-glaciology, there is little consensus as to how drumlins are formed. Attempts to solve the 'drumlin problem' often fail to address how they are created from an initially flat surface in the absence of obvious cores or obstacles. This is a key strength of the instability theory, which has been described in a suite of physically-based mathematical models and proposes that the coupled flow of ice and till causes spontaneous formation of relief in the till surface. Encouragingly, model predictions of bedform height and length are consistent with observations and, furthermore, the theory has been applied to a range of subglacial bedforms and not just drumlins. However, it has yet to confront the myriad observations relating to the composition and internal structure of drumlins and this could be seen as a major deficiency. This paper is a first attempt to assess whether the instability theory is compatible with the incredible diversity of sediments and structures found within drumlins. We summarise the underlying principles of the theory and then describe and attempt to explain the main types of drumlin composition (e.g. bedrock, till, glaciofluvial sediments, and combinations thereof). Contrary to a view which suggests that the presence of some sedimentary sequences (e.g. horizontally stratified cores) is inconsistent with the theory, we suggest that one would actually expect a diverse range of constituents depending on the inheritance of sediments that pre-date drumlin formation, the duration and variability of ice flow, and the balance between erosion and deposition (till continuity) at the ice-bed interface. We conclude that the instability theory is compatible with (and potentially strengthened by) what is known about drumlin composition and, as such, offers the most complete and promising solution to the drumlin problem to date.

  4. Assembly route toward raspberry-like composite particles and their controlled surface wettability through varied dual-size binary roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xin; Niu, Lin; Wu, Yuehuan; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

    2015-03-01

    Sulfonated PS template/aniline medium method was used to assemble raspberry-like composite particles with varied dual-size binary morphology. The assembly efficiency of SiO2 particles on templates was found to increase with sulfonation temperature as well as sulfuric acid concentration. For sulfonation time one turning point appeared because there existed one balance between microgel structure formation and PSS chains detachment. The optimal preparation condition was finally obtained and proved effective for other types of anionic particles. Wettability of surfaces with varied binary roughness was studied and the results showed that dual-size structure could further improve the hydrophobic performance. The contact angles were found to increase with the size ratio of template particles/outer particles.

  5. Thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, L.

    1993-01-01

    The mirage-effect/thermal wave technique as a modern technique for thermal property characterization is described. The thermal diffusivity of a material is determined by measuring the time and space varying temperature distribution (thermal wave) in the material generated by an intensity modulated heating laser beam. These thermal waves are detected through the deflection of a probe laser beam due to modulation of gradient of the index of refraction (mirage effect) either in the air above the specimens (the in-air technique) or in the specimen itself (the in-solid technique). Three-dimensional theories, for both in-air and in-solid mirage techniques, are represented. In order to extract the material parameters by comparing the theory with experimental data, an extensive data analysis procedure based on multiparameter-least-squares has been developed. The experimental and data analysis details are discussed. Topics concerns with the quality and reliability of the measurements are addressed. This technique has been successfully applied to the thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotope contents. The results showed a 50% enhancement in the thermal conductivity by removal of C[sup 13] content from 1.1% to 0.1% in diamond at room temperature. The technique has also been adapted to function in cryogenic temperatures. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in the temperature range 80-378K for natural IIA specimen and 187-375K for isotopically enriched specimen are obtained, the former results agree with previous works and the latter results demonstrate the isotope effect on the thermal conductivity of single crystal diamond consistently in a large temperature range. The physical source of this enhancement in diffusivity due to the isotope effect in diamond is discussed. The discussion is based on the full Callaway's theory with emphasizing the role of N-processes in the phonon scattering mechanism.

  6. Modeled and Measured Dynamics of a Composite Beam with Periodically Varying Foam Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Cano, Roberto J.; Schiller, Noah H.; Roberts Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of a sandwich beam with carbon fiber composite facesheets and foam core with periodic variations in material properties are studied. The purpose of the study is to compare finite element predictions with experimental measurements on fabricated beam specimens. For the study, three beams were fabricated: one with a compliant foam core, a second with a stiffer core, and a third with the two cores alternating down the length of the beam to create a periodic variation in properties. This periodic variation produces a bandgap in the frequency domain where vibrational energy does not readily propagate down the length of the beam. Mode shapes and natural frequencies are compared, as well as frequency responses from point force input to velocity response at the opposite end of the beam.

  7. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  8. Composition and properties of the so-called 'diamond-like' amorphous carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, J. C.; Stultz, J. E.; Shiller, P. J.; Macdonald, J. R.; Mirtich, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The composition of amorphous 'diamond-like' films made by direct low energy ion beam deposition, R.F. discharge and sputtering was determined by nuclear reaction analysis, IR spectroscopy and microcombustion chemical analysis. The nuclear reaction analysis showed very similar hydrogen depth profiles for all three types of samples. The atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon was approximately 0.2 at the film surface and rose to approximately 1.0 at a depth of 500 A. The integrated intensity of the C-H stretching band at about 2900 per cm indicates that the amount of chemically bonded hydrogen is less than the total hydrogen content. Combustion analysis confirmed the overall atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon determined by nuclear reaction analysis. The chemical state of the non-bonded hydrogen was not determined; however, the effective diffusion coefficient computed from the hydrogen depth profile was extremely low. This indicates either that the films are exceedingly impermeable or that the non-bonded hydrogen requires an additional activated step to leave the films, e.g., desorption or chemical reaction.

  9. Setting the pace of life: membrane composition of flight muscle varies with metabolic rate of hovering orchid bees.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Enrique; Weber, Jean-Michel; Pagé, Benoît; Roubik, David W; Suarez, Raul K; Darveau, Charles-A

    2015-03-01

    Patterns of metabolic rate variation have been documented extensively in animals, but their functional basis remains elusive. The membrane pacemaker hypothesis proposes that the relative abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids sets the metabolic rate of organisms. Using species of tropical orchid bees spanning a 16-fold range in body size, we show that the flight muscles of smaller bees have more linoleate (%18 : 3) and stearate (%18 : 0), but less oleate (%18 : 1). More importantly, flight metabolic rate (FlightMR) varies with the relative abundance of 18 : 3 according to the predictions of the membrane pacemaker hypothesis. Although this relationship was found across large differences in metabolic rate, a direct association could not be detected when taking phylogeny and body mass into account. Higher FlightMR, however, was related to lower %16 : 0, independent of phylogeny and body mass. Therefore, this study shows that flight muscle membrane composition plays a significant role in explaining diversity in FlightMR, but that body mass and phylogeny are other factors contributing to their variation. Multiple factors are at play to modulate metabolic capacity, and changing membrane composition can have gradual and stepwise effects to achieve a new range of metabolic rates. Orchid bees illustrate the correlated evolution between membrane composition and metabolic rate, supporting the functional link proposed in the membrane pacemaker hypothesis. PMID:25652831

  10. The effect of varying ingredient composition on the sensory and nutritional properties of a pureed meat and vegetable.

    PubMed

    Ilhamto, Nila; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of ingredients and preparation methods on the sensory and nutritional properties of pureed turkey and carrots. Turkey samples varying in added liquid and muscle composition were developed. Seasoning application methods were also studied. Pureed carrots were formulated with no added thickener, added modified corn starch, rice cereal, or skim milk powder. Small changes in added liquid and seasoning application altered the perceived texture of the turkey. Pureed carrots with added modified corn starch were more slippery and firm than other samples. The addition of skim milk powder or rice cereal did not alter sensory properties but led to higher protein contents when compared to unthickened carrots. In-house formulations did not differ in sensory ratings of appearance and flavor when compared to commercial products but contained more carbohydrates. Modest changes in recipes for pureed products can improve sensory appeal and nutrient density; quality in-house products are feasible with only minor alterations. PMID:25105717

  11. J. Field Ornithol. 78(2):184194, 2007 DOI: 10.1111/j.1557-9263.2007.00102.x Landbird community composition varies among seasons

    E-print Network

    Beier, Paul

    the breeding season, forests that contained a deciduous component exhibited higher bird species similarity detected exclusively in fall were found in ponderosa pine forests with a deciduous component. Our results composition varies among seasons in a heterogeneous ponderosa pine forest Catherine S. Wightman,1,3 Stephen S

  12. Do Zooplankton Tow Samples Taken on Different Days Along the Same Transect in Kane`ohe Bay Vary in Composition?

    E-print Network

    Do Zooplankton Tow Samples Taken on Different Days Along the Same Transect in Kane`ohe Bay Vary. Our narrowed focus was to learn about the zooplankton community in Kane`ohe Bay. We readied for our zooplankton- netting Expeditions to Moku o Lo`e led by HIMB. We used the Grade 7 Aloha `Aina Coral Reefs- Kane

  13. Nonlinear and threshold responses of grassland productivity and species composition to increased CO2 vary with soil type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change is likely to cause non-linear responses in ecosystem function and threshold changes in species composition. Here we report aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) responses to a continuous CO2 concentration gradient (250 to 500 µL L-1) in experimental grassland communities on...

  14. COORDINATED OXYGEN ISOTOPIC AND PETROLOGIC STUDIES OF CAIS RECORD VARYING COMPOSITION OF PROTOSOLAR GAS. J. I. Simon1

    E-print Network

    -rich inclusions (CAIs) re- cord the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High of CAIs reveal systematic variations in 17 O and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular reservoir [6] and a second 16 O-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic

  15. Attitudes, Behaviors, and Effectiveness of Black and White Leaders of Simulated Problem Solving Groups of Varying Size and Racial Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Walter A.; Allen, William R.

    A field experiment was used to investigate the effects, if any, of changing group size and racial composition on the attitudes, behaviors, and effectiveness of black and white leaders. Subjects were 288 naval recruits, half black and half white, performing two tasks which were watched by a pair of racially mixed observers through a one-way mirror.…

  16. Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Ganesh, Siva; Jonker, Arjan; Young, Wayne; Abecia, Leticia; Angarita, Erika; Aravena, Paula; Nora Arenas, Graciela; Ariza, Claudia; Attwood, Graeme T.; Mauricio Avila, Jose; Avila-Stagno, Jorge; Bannink, André; Barahona, Rolando; Batistotti, Mariano; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Brown-Kav, Aya; Carvajal, Andres M.; Cersosimo, Laura; Vieira Chaves, Alexandre; Church, John; Clipson, Nicholas; Cobos-Peralta, Mario A.; Cookson, Adrian L.; Cravero, Silvio; Cristobal Carballo, Omar; Crosley, Katie; Cruz, Gustavo; Cerón Cucchi, María; de la Barra, Rodrigo; De Menezes, Alexandre B.; Detmann, Edenio; Dieho, Kasper; Dijkstra, Jan; dos Reis, William L. S.; Dugan, Mike E. R.; Hadi Ebrahimi, Seyed; Eythórsdóttir, Emma; Nde Fon, Fabian; Fraga, Martín; Franco, Francisco; Friedeman, Chris; Fukuma, Naoki; Gagi?, Dragana; Gangnat, Isabelle; Javier Grilli, Diego; Guan, Le Luo; Heidarian Miri, Vahideh; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Gomez, Alma Ximena Ibarra; Isah, Olubukola A.; Ishaq, Suzanne; Jami, Elie; Jelincic, Juan; Kantanen, Juha; Kelly, William J.; Kim, Seon-Ho; Klieve, Athol; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Koike, Satoshi; Kopecny, Jan; Nygaard Kristensen, Torsten; Julie Krizsan, Sophie; LaChance, Hannah; Lachman, Medora; Lamberson, William R.; Lambie, Suzanne; Lassen, Jan; Leahy, Sinead C.; Lee, Sang-Suk; Leiber, Florian; Lewis, Eva; Lin, Bo; Lira, Raúl; Lund, Peter; Macipe, Edgar; Mamuad, Lovelia L.; Cuquetto Mantovani, Hilário; Marcoppido, Gisela Ariana; Márquez, Cristian; Martin, Cécile; Martinez, Gonzalo; Eugenia Martinez, Maria; Lucía Mayorga, Olga; McAllister, Tim A.; McSweeney, Chris; Mestre, Lorena; Minnee, Elena; Mitsumori, Makoto; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Molina, Isabel; Muenger, Andreas; Munoz, Camila; Murovec, Bostjan; Newbold, John; Nsereko, Victor; O’Donovan, Michael; Okunade, Sunday; O’Neill, Brendan; Ospina, Sonia; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Parra, Diana; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; Pinares-Patino, Cesar; Pope, Phil B.; Poulsen, Morten; Rodehutscord, Markus; Rodriguez, Tatiana; Saito, Kunihiko; Sales, Francisco; Sauer, Catherine; Shingfield, Kevin; Shoji, Noriaki; Simunek, Jiri; Stojanovi?-Radi?, Zorica; Stres, Blaz; Sun, Xuezhao; Swartz, Jeffery; Liang Tan, Zhi; Tapio, Ilma; Taxis, Tasia M.; Tomkins, Nigel; Ungerfeld, Emilio; Valizadeh, Reza; van Adrichem, Peter; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Van Hoven, Woulter; Waghorn, Garry; John Wallace, R.; Wang, Min; Waters, Sinéad M.; Keogh, Kate; Witzig, Maren; Wright, Andre-Denis G.; Yamano, Hidehisa; Yan, Tianhai; Yanez-Ruiz, David R.; Yeoman, Carl J.; Zambrano, Ricardo; Zeitz, Johanna; Zhou, Mi; Wei Zhou, Hua; Xia Zou, Cai; Zunino, Pablo; Janssen, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was determined in 742 samples from 32 animal species and 35 countries, to estimate if this was influenced by diet, host species, or geography. Similar bacteria and archaea dominated in nearly all samples, while protozoal communities were more variable. The dominant bacteria are poorly characterised, but the methanogenic archaea are better known and highly conserved across the world. This universality and limited diversity could make it possible to mitigate methane emissions by developing strategies that target the few dominant methanogens. Differences in microbial community compositions were predominantly attributable to diet, with the host being less influential. There were few strong co-occurrence patterns between microbes, suggesting that major metabolic interactions are non-selective rather than specific. PMID:26449758

  17. Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Ganesh, Siva; Jonker, Arjan; Young, Wayne; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was determined in 742 samples from 32 animal species and 35 countries, to estimate if this was influenced by diet, host species, or geography. Similar bacteria and archaea dominated in nearly all samples, while protozoal communities were more variable. The dominant bacteria are poorly characterised, but the methanogenic archaea are better known and highly conserved across the world. This universality and limited diversity could make it possible to mitigate methane emissions by developing strategies that target the few dominant methanogens. Differences in microbial community compositions were predominantly attributable to diet, with the host being less influential. There were few strong co-occurrence patterns between microbes, suggesting that major metabolic interactions are non-selective rather than specific. PMID:26449758

  18. The effects of varying protein and energy intakes on the growth and body composition of very low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of high dietary protein and energy intake on the growth and body composition of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Study design Thirty-eight VLBW infants whose weights were appropriate for their gestational ages were assessed for when they could tolerate oral intake for all their nutritional needs. Thirty-two infants were included in a longitudinal, randomized clinical trial over an approximate 28-day period. One control diet (standard preterm formula, group A, n = 8, 3.7 g/kg/d of protein and 129 kcal/kg/d) and two high-energy and high-protein diets (group B, n = 12, 4.2 g/kg/d and 150 kcal/kg/d; group C, n = 12, 4.7 g/kg/d and 150 kcal/kg/d) were compared. Differences among groups in anthropometry and body composition (measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis) were determined. An enriched breast milk group (n = 6) served as a descriptive reference group. Results Groups B and C displayed greater weight gains and higher increases in fat-free mass than group A. Conclusion An intake of 150 kcal/kg/d of energy and 4.2 g/kg/d of protein increases fat-free mass accretion in VLBW infants. PMID:22206271

  19. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic study of charge transfer complex formation between cloxacillin sodium and riboflavin in aqueous ethanol media of varying composition.

    PubMed

    Roy, Dalim Kumar; Saha, Avijit; Mukherjee, Asok K

    2006-03-01

    Cloxacillin sodium has been shown to form a charge transfer complex of 2:1 stoichiometry with riboflavin (Vitamin B(2)) in aqueous ethanol medium. The enthalpy and entropy of formation of this complex have been determined by estimating the formation constant spectrophotometrically at five different temperatures in pure water medium. Pronounced effect of dielectric constant of the medium on the magnitude of K has been observed by determining K in aqueous ethanol mixtures of varying composition. This has been rationalized in terms of ionic dissociation of the cloxacillin sodium (D(-)Na(+)), hydrolysis of the anion D(-) and complexation of the free acid, DH with riboflavin. PMID:16150635

  20. A qualitative comparison of secondary organic aerosol yields and composition from ozonolysis of monoterpenes at varying concentrations of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, D. C.; Farmer, D. K.; Desyaterik, Y.; Fry, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of NO2 on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from ozonolysis of ?-pinene, ?-pinene, ?3-carene, and limonene was investigated using a dark flow-through reaction chamber. SOA mass yields were calculated for each monoterpene from ozonolysis with varying NO2 concentrations. Kinetics modeling of the first-generation gas-phase chemistry suggests that differences in observed aerosol yields for different NO2 concentrations are consistent with NO3 formation and subsequent competition between O3 and NO3 to oxidize each monoterpene. ?-Pinene was the only monoterpene studied that showed a systematic decrease in both aerosol number concentration and mass concentration with increasing [NO2]. ?-Pinene and ?3-carene produced fewer particles at higher [NO2], but both retained moderate mass yields. Limonene exhibited both higher number concentrations and greater mass concentrations at higher [NO2]. SOA from each experiment was collected and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS, enabling comparisons between product distributions for each system. In general, the systems influenced by NO3 oxidation contained more high molecular weight products (MW > 400 amu), suggesting the importance of oligomerization mechanisms in NO3-initiated SOA formation. ?-Pinene, which showed anomalously low aerosol mass yields in the presence of NO2, showed no increase in these oligomer peaks, suggesting that lack of oligomer formation is a likely cause of ?-pinene's near 0 % yields with NO3. Through direct comparisons of mixed-oxidant systems, this work suggests that NO3 is likely to dominate nighttime oxidation pathways in most regions with both biogenic and anthropogenic influences. Therefore, accurately constraining SOA yields from NO3 oxidation, which vary substantially with the volatile organic compound precursor, is essential in predicting nighttime aerosol production.

  1. A comparison of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields and composition from ozonolysis of monoterpenes at varying concentrations of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, D. C.; Farmer, D. K.; Desyaterik, Y.; Fry, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of NO2 on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from ozonolysis of ?-pinene, ?-pinene, ?3-carene, and limonene was investigated using a dark flow-through reaction chamber. SOA mass yields were calculated for each monoterpene from ozonolysis with varying NO2 concentrations. Kinetics modeling of the first generation gas-phase chemistry suggests that differences in observed aerosol yields for different NO2 concentrations are consistent with NO3 formation and subsequent competition between O3 and NO3 to oxidize each monoterpene. ?-pinene was the only monoterpene studied that showed a systematic decrease in both aerosol number concentration and mass concentration with increasing [NO2]. ?-pinene and ?3-carene produced fewer particles at higher [NO2], but both retained moderate mass yields. Limonene exhibited both higher number concentrations and greater mass concentrations at higher [NO2]. SOA from each experiment was collected and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS, enabling comparisons between product distributions for each system. In general, the systems influenced by NO3 oxidation contained more high molecular weight products (MW >400 amu), suggesting the importance of oligomerization mechanisms in NO3-initiated SOA formation. ?-pinene, which showed anomalously low aerosol mass yields in the presence of NO2, showed no increase in these oligomer peaks, suggesting that lack of oligomer formation is a likely cause of ?-pinene's near 0% yields with NO3. Through direct comparisons of mixed-oxidant systems, this work suggests that NO3 is likely to dominate nighttime oxidation pathways in most regions with both biogenic and anthropogenic influences. Therefore, accurately constraining SOA yields from NO3 oxidation, which vary substantially with the VOC precursor, is essential in predicting nighttime aerosol production.

  2. Evaluation of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) containing copolymer networks of varied composition as sustained metoprolol tartrate delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Bistra; Ivanova, Sijka; Balashev, Konstantin; Rachev, Dimitar; Christova, Darinka

    2014-08-01

    Segmented copolymer networks (SCN) based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, and/or methyl methacrylate segments have been evaluated as potential sustained release systems of the water soluble cardioselective ?-blocker metoprolol tartrate. The structure and properties of the drug carriers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Swelling kinetics of SCNs in various media was followed, and the conditions for effective MT loading were specified. MT-loaded SCNs with drug content up to 80 wt.% were produced. The release kinetics of metoprolol tartrate from the systems was studied and it was shown that the conetworks of different structure and composition are able to sustain the metoprolol tartrate release without additional excipients. PMID:24789663

  3. Stressful colours: corticosterone concentrations in a free-living songbird vary with the spectral composition of experimental illumination.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jenny Q; de Jong, Maaike; Hau, Michaela; Visser, Marcel E; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Spoelstra, Kamiel

    2015-08-01

    Organisms have evolved under natural daily light/dark cycles for millions of years. These cycles have been disturbed as night-time darkness is increasingly replaced by artificial illumination. Investigating the physiological consequences of free-living organisms in artificially lit environments is crucial to determine whether nocturnal lighting disrupts circadian rhythms, changes behaviour, reduces fitness and ultimately affects population numbers. We make use of a unique, large-scale network of replicated field sites which were experimentally illuminated at night using lampposts emanating either red, green, white or no light to test effect on stress hormone concentrations (corticosterone) in a songbird, the great tit (Parus major). Adults nesting in white-light transects had higher corticosterone concentrations than in the other treatments. We also found a significant interaction between distance to the closest lamppost and treatment type: individuals in red light had higher corticosterone levels when they nested closer to the lamppost than individuals nesting farther away, a decline not observed in the green or dark treatment. Individuals with high corticosterone levels had fewer fledglings, irrespective of treatment. These results show that artificial light can induce changes in individual hormonal phenotype. As these effects vary considerably with light spectrum, it opens the possibility to mitigate these effects by selecting street lighting of specific spectra. PMID:26311159

  4. The supramolecular structure of LPS-chitosan complexes of varied composition in relation to their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Davydova, V N; Volod'ko, A V; Sokolova, E V; Chusovitin, E A; Balagan, S A; Gorbach, V I; Galkin, N G; Yermak, I M; Solov'eva, T F

    2015-06-01

    The complexes of chitosan (Ch) with lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from Escherichia coli O55:B5 (E-LPS) and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 1B 598 (Y-LPS) of various weight compositions were investigated using quasi-elastic light scattering, ?-potential distribution assay and atomic force microscopy. The alteration of ?-potential of E-LPS-Ch complexes from negative to positive values depending on Ch content was detected. The Y-LPS-Ch complexes had similar positive ?-potentials regardless of Ch content. The transformation of the supramolecular structure of E-LPS after binding with to Ch was revealed. Screening of E-LPS and Y-LPS particles by Ch in the complexes with high polycation was detected. The ability of LPS-Ch complex to induce biosynthesis of TNF-? and reactive oxygen species in stimulated human mononuclear cells was studied. A significant decrease in activity complexes compared to that of the initial LPS was observed only for E-LPS-Ch complexes. PMID:25843841

  5. Sediment accretion rates and sediment composition in Prairie Pothole wetlands under varying land use practices, Montana, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, T.M.; Sojda, R.S.; Gleason, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedimentation and nutrient cycle changes in Prairie Pothole Region wetlands associated with agriculture threaten the permanence and ecological functionality of these important resources. To determine the effects of land use on sedimentation and nutrient cycling, soil cores were analyzed for cesium-137 (137Cs), lead-210 (210Pb), and potassium-40 (40K) activities; textural composition; organic and inorganic carbon (C); and total nitrogen (N) from twelve wetlands surrounded by cropland, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands, or native prairie uplands. Separate soil cores from nine of these wetlands were also analyzed for phosphorus (P), nitrate (NO3), and ammonium (NH4) concentrations. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had significantly greater linear sediment accretion rates than wetlands surrounded by CRP or native prairie. Linear sediment accretion rates from wetlands surrounded by cropland were 2.7 and 6 times greater than wetlands surrounded by native prairie when calculated from the initial and peak occurrence of 137Cs, respectively, and 0.15 cm y?1 (0.06 in yr?1) greater when calculated from 210Pb. Relative to wetlands surrounded by CRP, linear sediment accretion rates for wetlands surrounded by cropland were 4.4 times greater when calculated from the peak occurrence of 137Cs. No significant differences existed between the linear sediment accretion rates between wetlands surrounded by native prairie or CRP uplands. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had increased clay, P, NO3, and NH4, and decreased total C and N concentrations compared to wetlands surrounded by native prairie. Wetlands surrounded by CRP had the lowest P and NO3 concentrations and had clay, NH4, C, and N concentrations between those of cropland and native prairie wetlands. We documented increased linear sediment accretion rates and changes in the textural and chemical properties of sediments in wetlands with cultivated uplands relative to wetlands with native prairie uplands. These findings demonstrate the value of the CRP at protecting wetland catchments to reduce sedimentation.

  6. Mineral particles of varying composition induce differential chemokine release from epithelial lung cells: importance of physico-chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ovrevik, J; Myran, T; Refsnes, M; Låg, M; Becher, R; Hetland, R B; Schwarze, P E

    2005-04-01

    Presently, little is known about the potential health effects of mineral particles other than asbestos and quartz. In this study, a human epithelial lung cell line (A549), primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) and primary rat type 2 (T2) cells were exposed to stone quarry particles of two size fractions (<10 and <2.5 microm) from nine different rock samples. The ability to induce the release of chemokines from lung cells was investigated and compared with the particles' mineral and element composition and the amount of soluble elements. The stone particles induced the release of only low levels of interleukin (IL)-8 from A549 cells. In contrast, some of the other particles induced the release of high levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 from T2 cells, and high levels of IL-8 from SAECs. Differences in particle surface area could account for differences in activity between the <10 and <2.5 microm fractions of six out of the nine rock samples. For two samples the <2.5 microm fraction was most active and for one sample the <10 microm fraction was most active. Content of the mineral plagioclase displayed a strong, negative correlation with the potential to induce MIP-2, whereas the mineral pyroxene was positively correlated with MIP-2 induction. However, neither plagioclase nor pyroxene content was sufficient to explain differences in bioactivity between the particles. No statistically significant correlation was found between the amounts of total or soluble elements and MIP-2 release. In conclusion, the results suggest that mineral particles with a high content of plagioclase have a low potential to induce a pro-inflammatory response. However, a particular mineral or element responsible for eliciting strong increases in chemokine release could not be identified. Thus, at present it appears that analysing mineral and element content is insufficient to predict stone particle bioactivity, and that biological testing is a necessity. PMID:15640311

  7. Optimization of Ligninolytic Enzyme Activity and Production Rate with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for Application in Bioremediation by Varying Submerged Media Composition and Growth Immobilization Support

    PubMed Central

    Babi?, Janja; Likozar, Blaž; Pavko, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (central composite design of experiments) was employed to simultaneously optimize enzyme production and productivities of two ligninolytic enzymes produced by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Concentrations of glucose, ammonium tartrate and Polysorbate 80 were varied to establish the optimal composition of liquid media (OLM), where the highest experimentally obtained activities and productivities were 41 U L?1 and 16 U L?1 day?1 for laccase (Lac), and 193 U L?1 and 80 U L?1 day?1 for manganese peroxidase (MnP). Considering culture growth in OLM on various types of immobilization support, the best results were obtained with 1 cm beech wood cubes (BWCM). Enzyme activities in culture filtrate were 152 U L?1 for Lac and 58 U L?1 for MnP, since the chemical composition of this immobilization material induced higher Lac activity. Lower enzyme activities were obtained with polyurethane foam. Culture filtrates of OLM and BWCM were applied for dye decolorization. Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) was decolorized faster and more efficiently than Copper(II)phthalocyanine (CuP) with BWCM (80% and 60%), since Lac played a crucial role. Decolorization of CuP was initially faster than that of RBBR, due to higher MnP activities in OLM. The extent of decolorization after 14 h was 60% for both dyes. PMID:23109859

  8. Influence of atmospheric properties on detection of wood-warbler nocturnal flight calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Kyle G.; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Tegeler, Amy K.

    2015-10-01

    Avian migration monitoring can take on many forms; however, monitoring active nocturnal migration of land birds is limited to a few techniques. Avian nocturnal flight calls are currently the only method for describing migrant composition at the species level. However, as this method develops, more information is needed to understand the sources of variation in call detection. Additionally, few studies examine how detection probabilities differ under varying atmospheric conditions. We use nocturnal flight call recordings from captive individuals to explore the dependence of flight call detection on atmospheric temperature and humidity. Height or distance from origin had the largest influence on call detection, while temperature and humidity also influenced detectability at higher altitudes. Because flight call detection varies with both atmospheric conditions and flight height, improved monitoring across time and space will require correction for these factors to generate standardized metrics of songbird migration.

  9. Influence of atmospheric properties on detection of wood-warbler nocturnal flight calls.

    PubMed

    Horton, Kyle G; Stepanian, Phillip M; Wainwright, Charlotte E; Tegeler, Amy K

    2015-10-01

    Avian migration monitoring can take on many forms; however, monitoring active nocturnal migration of land birds is limited to a few techniques. Avian nocturnal flight calls are currently the only method for describing migrant composition at the species level. However, as this method develops, more information is needed to understand the sources of variation in call detection. Additionally, few studies examine how detection probabilities differ under varying atmospheric conditions. We use nocturnal flight call recordings from captive individuals to explore the dependence of flight call detection on atmospheric temperature and humidity. Height or distance from origin had the largest influence on call detection, while temperature and humidity also influenced detectability at higher altitudes. Because flight call detection varies with both atmospheric conditions and flight height, improved monitoring across time and space will require correction for these factors to generate standardized metrics of songbird migration. PMID:25601781

  10. Urea metabolism in beef steers grazing bermudagrass, caucasian bluestem, or gamagrass pastures varying in plant morphology, protein content, and protein composition.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate pastures of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon, BG), caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica, CBS), and gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides, GG) from the perspectives of forage composition, selection during grazing, and N metabolism in beef steers. All pastures were ferti...

  11. Ultradeep 16S rRNA Sequencing Analysis of Geographically Similar but Diverse Unexplored Marine Samples Reveal Varied Bacterial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial community composition in the marine environment differs from one geographical location to another. Reports that delineate the bacterial diversity of different marine samples from geographically similar location are limited. The present study aims to understand whether the bacterial community compositions from different marine samples harbour similar bacterial diversity since these are geographically related to each other. Methods and Principal Findings In the present study, 16S rRNA deep sequencing analysis targeting V3 region was performed using Illumina bar coded sequencing. A total of 22.44 million paired end reads were obtained from the metagenomic DNA of Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater and the epibacterial DNA of Seaweed and Seagrass. Diversity index analysis revealed that Marine sediment has the highest bacterial diversity and the least bacterial diversity was observed in Rhizosphere sediment. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant taxa present in all the marine samples. Nearly 62–71% of rare species were identified in all the samples and most of these rare species were unique to a particular sample. Further taxonomic assignment at the phylum and genus level revealed that the bacterial community compositions differ among the samples. Conclusion This is the first report that supports the fact that, bacterial community composition is specific for specific samples irrespective of its similar geographical location. Existence of specific bacterial community for each sample may drive overall difference in bacterial structural composition of each sample. Further studies like whole metagenomic sequencing will throw more insights to the key stone players and its interconnecting metabolic pathways. In addition, this is one of the very few reports that depicts the unexplored bacterial diversity of marine samples (Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater) and the host associated marine samples (Seaweed and Seagrass) at higher depths from uncharacterised coastal region of Palk Bay, India using next generation sequencing technology. PMID:24167548

  12. Electric-Field Modulation of Curie Temperature in (Ga, Mn)As Field-Effect Transistor Structures with Varying Channel Thickness and Mn Compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Nishitani, Y.; Endo, M.; Chiba, D.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2010-01-04

    We have investigated the change of T{sub C} of ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga, Mn)As by changing hole concentration p. The field effect transistor structure was utilized to change p. The relation T{sub C}propor top{sup 0.2} is obtained for three samples, despite the difference of their Mn composition and thickness, indicating that the relation holds over 2 decades of p.

  13. Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Mg (AM60)/Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composites with Varying Volume Fractions of Fiber Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Fang, Li; Xiong, Bojun; Hu, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Magnesium alloy AM60 matrix-based composite reinforced with 7, 9, 11, 22, and 35 vol.% of Al2O3 fibers was squeeze cast. The microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated in comparison with the matrix alloy AM60. The results of tensile testing indicated that the addition of Al2O3 fibers to magnesium alloy AM60 led to a significant improvement in mechanical properties. As the fiber volume fraction increased, the strengths and moduli of the composites were enhanced considerably. However, the notable increase in strengths was at sacrifice in elongation. Microstructural analyses via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the grain size decreased with increasing volume fractions of reinforcement. The restriction of grain growth by the limited inter-fiber spacing could be the primary mechanism for a reduction in the grain size of the matrix alloy. The SEM fractography evidently reveals that the debonding of fibers from the matrix alloy and the fiber cracking were two primary mechanisms for the tensile failure of the composites.

  14. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and C16:0 yield. Dietary linoleic acid content also had a positive coefficient for milk trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid yield. These results demonstrate that even when total dietary FA are below 3%, free oils rich in linoleic acid can reduce milk fat yield by reducing secretion of milk FA with fewer than 18 carbons. Fatty acid composition of fat supplements is important even at this low level of total dietary fat. PMID:25468700

  15. Reduction of an E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella composite on fresh strawberries by varying antimicrobial washes and vacuum perfusion.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Bailey, Rebecca B; Jin, Tony Z; Fan, Xuetong

    2014-10-17

    A 2011 outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis, which resulted in the death of two individuals, was associated with contaminated strawberries. A study was conducted to identify antimicrobial washes effective at reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica from the surface of fresh whole strawberries during two-minute immersion washes. Twenty-seven antimicrobial treatments were tested. Vacuum perfusion was applied to strawberries during chlorine and peracetic acid treatments to promote infiltration of sanitizer into porous strawberry tissue. Strawberries were inoculated to 7.1logCFU/strawberry with a seven-strain bacterial composite, consisting of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 and four serovars of Salmonella enterica. Berries were air-dried for 2h and immersed in circulating antimicrobial solutions for 120s at 22°C. Four treatments reduced ?3.0logCFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% acetic acid+1% H2O2, (b) 30% ethanol+1% H2O2, (c) 90ppm peracetic acid, and (d) 1% lactic acid+1% H2O2. Two additional treatments that reduced 2.8logCFU/strawberry were (a) 40% ethanol, and (b) 1% each of phosphoric+fumaric acids. Eight treatments reduced 2.0-2.6logCFU/strawberry. Five treatments reduced <1.45CFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% citric acid, (b) 1% lactic acid, (c) 1% acetic acid, (d) 0.5% each of acetic+citric acids and (e) 0.5% each of acetic+lactic acids. The use of vacuum perfusion with 200ppm chlorine or 90ppm peracetic acid did not reduce greater populations of pathogens than did the same treatments without vacuum perfusion. Fourteen treatments reduced no more pathogens (p<0.05) than did sterile deionized water. Results from this study provide some options for end-point decontamination of strawberries for retail operations just prior to serving to customers. PMID:25146462

  16. BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES

    E-print Network

    Guo, Ting

    _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST Date: Time: Time Caller Phone Number Where Hung Up: Call Received:Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act

  17. Digital ethnography Piia Varis

    E-print Network

    Erjavec, Toma?

    Paper Digital ethnography by Piia Varis © p.k.varis@tilburguniversity.edu © August 2014 #12;1 An early version of a chapter to appear in The Routledge Handbook of Language and Digital Communication (eds. Alexandra Georgakopoulou & Tereza Spilioti) DIGITAL ETHNOGRAPHY Piia Varis ABSTRACT This chapter

  18. Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Su-Hyeon; Cho, Young-Hee; Lee, Jung-Moo

    2014-06-01

    Particle distribution and hot workability of an in situ Al-TiCp composite were investigated. The composite was fabricated by an in situ casting method using the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of an Al-Ti-C system. Hot-compression tests were carried out, and power dissipation maps were constructed using a dynamic material model. Small globular TiC particles were not themselves fractured, but the clustering and grain boundary segregation of the particles contributed to the cracking of the matrix by causing the debonding of matrix/particle interfaces and providing a crack propagation path. The efficiency of power dissipation increased with increasing temperature and strain rate, and the maximum efficiency was obtained at a temperature of 723 K (450 °C) and a strain rate of 1/s. The microstructural mechanism occurring in the maximum efficiency domain was dynamic recrystallization. The role of particles in the plastic flow and the microstructure evolution were discussed.

  19. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-N?dza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  20. Callings and Organizational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith

    2010-01-01

    Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…

  1. The Power of CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C., Ed.

    The book provides an overview of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) written by specialists in specific areas of electronic media. Its nine chapters include: "The Power of the Computer in Language Education" (Martha C. Pennington); "Elements of CALL Methodology: Development, Evaluation, and Implementation" (Philip L. Hubbard); "Second…

  2. False call rate estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrin, John C.; Knopp, Jeremy S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, several approaches are presented for the estimation of false call rate including confidence bounds during an NDE reliability study. Bootstrapping methods are applied to nonparametric models (for hit-miss data) and several noise distribution models. By applying bootstrapping with a student t-distribution used to address the "heavy tail" behavior of the data, the estimated false call rate with confidence bounds was found to be in good agreement with the observed data.

  3. Varying constants quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczy?ska, Katarzyna; Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P. E-mail: abalcerz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2015-02-01

    We discuss minisuperspace models within the framework of varying physical constants theories including ?-term. In particular, we consider the varying speed of light (VSL) theory and varying gravitational constant theory (VG) using the specific ansätze for the variability of constants: c(a) = c{sub 0} a{sup n} and G(a)=G{sub 0} a{sup q}. We find that most of the varying c and G minisuperspace potentials are of the tunneling type which allows to use WKB approximation of quantum mechanics. Using this method we show that the probability of tunneling of the universe ''from nothing'' (a=0) to a Friedmann geometry with the scale factor a{sub t} is large for growing c models and is strongly suppressed for diminishing c models. As for G varying, the probability of tunneling is large for G diminishing, while it is small for G increasing. In general, both varying c and G change the probability of tunneling in comparison to the standard matter content (cosmological term, dust, radiation) universe models.

  4. BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act quickly, but remain calm and obtain information with the Bomb Threat Checklist. If a bomb threat is received by phone: 1. Remain calm. Keep the caller on the line for as long as possible

  5. Teacher Resistance to CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastment, David

    Despite the evolution of software for computer-assisted language learning (CALL), teacher resistance remains high. Early software for language instruction was almost exclusively designed for drill and practice. That approach was later replaced by a model in which the computer provided a stimulus for students, most often as a partner in games.…

  6. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  7. Wake-Up Call.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the artist, Laquita Thomson, whose inspiration are the stars and space. Discusses her series called, "Celestial Happenings: Stars Fell on Alabama." Describes one event that inspired an art work when a meteor crashed into an Alabama home. Includes lessons for various subject areas. (CMK)

  8. When Crises Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisch, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters, as well as crises of the man-made variety, call on leaders of school districts to manage scenarios impossible to predict and for which no amount of training can adequately prepare. One thing all major crises hold in common is their far-reaching effects, which can run the gamut from personal safety and mental well-being to the…

  9. Comparison of acid-detergent lignin, alkaline-peroxide lignin, and acid-detergent insoluble ash as internal markers for predicting fecal output and digestibility by cattle offered bermudagrass hays of varying nutrient composition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential for acid-detergent insoluble ash (ADIA), alkaline-peroxide lignin (APL), and acid-detergent lignin (ADL) to predict fecal output (FO) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) by cattle offered bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hays of different qualities was evaluated. Eight ruminally cannulated cows (594?±?35.5 kg) were allocated randomly to 4 hay diets: low (L), medium low (ML), medium high (MH), and high (H) crude protein (CP) concentration (79, 111, 131, and 164 g CP/kg on a DM basis, respectively). Diets were offered in 3 periods with 2 diet replicates per period and were rotated across cows between periods. Cows were individually fed 20 g DM/kg of body weight in equal feedings at 08:00 and 16:00 h for a 10-d adaptation followed by a 5-d total fecal collection. Actual DM intake (DMI), DMD, and FO were determined based on hay offered, ort, and feces excreted. These components were then analyzed for ADL, APL, and ADIA concentration to determine marker recovery and marker-based estimates of FO and DMD. Results Forage DMI was affected by diet (P =?0.02), and DMI from MH and H was greater (P varying nutrient composition. These internal markers may facilitate studies involving large numbers of animals and forages. Results from such studies may be used to develop improved equations to predict energy values of forages based on the relationship of dietary components to digestibility across a wide range of forages. PMID:24418569

  10. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  11. A call to revolution.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, P L

    1990-01-01

    Americans will not succeed in containing healthcare costs until they make some radical changes in the way they think about life, death, and the pursuit of good health. This is the contention of Daniel Callahan, who, in his new book, What Kind of Life: The Limits of Medical Progress, calls for a revolution of sorts-a change in the nation's psychological and political foundations. In Callahan's brave new world, limits rather than aspirations, risks rather than benefits, and pitfalls rather than opportunities would be emphasized. Research projects with costly and likely limited social payoffs would be rare; Americans, accustomed to demanding the most advanced technology that medicine has to offer, would have to accept the inevitability of disease and death. Callahan presents an outline for establishing healthcare priorities and rationing services. He frames those priorities within a context of limits on extending longevity and pursuing individual cures. The outline is pyramidal. Fewer people generally would receive health services as they ascend the pyramid's six levels, and the cost per person would rise dramatically. In this milieu, children would have "some priority" over adults, particularly the elderly. PMID:10105573

  12. Blade pitch varying mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, L.

    1988-04-19

    A gas turbine engine is described comprising: (a) a stationary member; (b) first and second rotating structures coaxially disposed about the stationary member; (c) an annular gas flowpath coaxial with the first and second rotating structures; (d) first and second rotor blades attached to the first and second rotating structures; (e) forward and aft rows of variable pitch propulsor blades coupled to and disposed radially outwardly of the first and second rotating structures respectively; (f) a first gear coaxially coupled to one of the propulsor blades whereby angular displacement of the first gear about a radius of the rotating structure varies the pitch of the propulsor blade with respect to the rotating structure; (g) a second gear rotatably coupled to the first gear; (h) a third gear rigidly coupled to the second gear; (i) a fourth gear rigidly coupled to the rotating structure and rotatably coupled to the thrid gear, (j) means for eccentrically revolving the second gear and the third gear with respect to the first gear and the fourth gear, respectively, whereby the first gear is angularly displaced with respect to the fourth gear.

  13. Energetic composites

    DOEpatents

    Danen, Wayne C. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, Joe A. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application.

  14. Energetic composites

    DOEpatents

    Danen, W.C.; Martin, J.A.

    1993-11-30

    A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application. 3 figures.

  15. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    PubMed

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Carvallo Pecci, Andres; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105?h of acoustic data containing about 2200?Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate. PMID:26627784

  16. Convenient Conventions C: call value.

    E-print Network

    Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

    Speaking · The payoff of a call at expiration is C = max(0, S - X). · The payoff of a put at expiration University Page 170 #12;Payoff, Mathematically Speaking (continued) · At any time t before the expiration date, we call max(0, St - X) the intrinsic value of a call. · At any time t before the expiration date

  17. Using a Bull Call Spread 

    E-print Network

    Bevers, Stan; Amosson, Stephen H.; Waller, Mark L.; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.

    2008-10-07

    The Bull Call Spread can be used to hedge against or to benefit from a rising market. The user buys a call option at a particular strike price and sells a call option at a higher strike price. Margin requirements, advantages and disadvantages...

  18. Preparation of Carbon Nanotube-Composite 

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Sundeep

    2011-08-08

    A composite is made up of two distinct materials and the resulted properties are different from the individual precursors. Composite combines a huge or bulkier element called matrix and reinforcement called filler or fiber. Fiber is added...

  19. Analyzing spatially-varying blur

    E-print Network

    Chakrabarti, Ayan

    Blur is caused by a pixel receiving light from multiple scene points, and in many cases, such as object motion, the induced blur varies spatially across the image plane. However, the seemingly straight-forward task of ...

  20. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F.; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls—the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)—across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal. PMID:26274816

  1. The varying w spread spectrum effect for radio interferometric imaging

    E-print Network

    McEwen, Jason

    to consider the more realistic setting where the chirp modulation varies for each visibility measurement made]­[4]. Radio interferom- eters acquire incomplete Fourier measurements, so-called visibilities, of the image on the sky under observation. Recovering an image from the visibilities measured by the telescope is hence

  2. CALL Essentials: Principles and Practice in CALL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy

    2005-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer innovative teachers exciting ways to enhance their pedagogy and capture their students' attention. These technologies have created a growing field of inquiry, computer-assisted language learning (CALL). As new technologies have emerged, teaching professionals have adapted them to support teachers and learners in…

  3. The structure of call-by-value 

    E-print Network

    Führmann, Carsten

    Understanding procedure calls is crucial in computer science and everyday programming. Among the most common strategies for passing procedure arguments ('evaluation strategies') are 'call-by-name', 'call-by-need', and 'call-by-value', where...

  4. Learning as Calling and Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jons, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    According to Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue, our being-in-the-world is to be conceived of as an existential dialogue. Elsewhere, I have conceptualized the teacher-student-relation accordingly (see Jons 2008), as a matter of calling and responding. The conceptualization rests on a secularised notion of vocation, paving way for…

  5. Call for Papers Web Graphics

    E-print Network

    Lau, W. H. Nynson

    Call for Papers Web Graphics Special Issue of IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications Guest Editors a migration of traditional applications to run on the Web environment and a growing demand for more powerful web-based applications. Fused by the increasing availability and dramatic reduction in the cost of 3D

  6. CALL FOR POSTERS & AWARD ENTRIES

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    CALL FOR POSTERS & AWARD ENTRIES in AGING or LIFE COURSE STUDIES The annual Colloquium on Aging in positive aging, and includes UW & guest speakers, a Health & Resource Fair, and a Poster Session. POSTER SESSION We invite faculty, staff, students, postdocs, and others from UW-Madison to submit a poster

  7. Third announcement Call for abstracts

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    , museology, cultural heritage, tourism studies, architecture and planning, conservation, as well as culturalThird announcement Call for abstracts Association of Critical Heritage Studies Inaugural Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, June 5-8, 2012 The Re/theorisation of Heritage Studies' The inaugural conference

  8. Worm chromosomes call for recognition!

    E-print Network

    Meller, Victoria

    Worm chromosomes call for recognition! Barbara P. Rattner1 and Victoria H. Meller2 * Summary Many to the compensation of X- linked gene expression in worms.(1) Extrachromosomal arrays composed of a C. elegans, flies and the worm C. elegans. These strategies, grouped under the term `dosage compensation', appear

  9. Testing Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A device for testing composites for strength characteristics has been developed by Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation. Called the Model 206AU, the system is lightweight and portable. It is comprised of three sections. The "pulser" section injects ultrasonic waves into the material under test. A receiver picks up the simulated stress waves as they pass through the material and relays the signals to the acoustic emission section, where they are electronically analyzed.

  10. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Genevieve S.; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species. PMID:23966949

  11. Call for improving air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  12. Time-varying cosmological term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term using the Lagrangian formalism characterized by a scalar field ? with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(?). This model is applied to Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW)cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansats to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  13. Hydride compositions

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Myung W. (North Augusta, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A composition for use in storing hydrogen, and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the hydrogen equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to hydrogen and then heating at a temperature below the softening temperature of any of the. constituents so that their chemical and structural integrity is preserved. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P.sub.H.sbsb.2 and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  14. Hydride compositions

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Myung, W.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  15. Calls for concerted barcoding drive.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    With the NHS in England spending some pound 6 billion annually on hospital supplies, but (says the Department of Health) some English hospitals paying nearly three times as much for the same items as their counterparts, Health Minister, Simon Burns, has called on suppliers to significantly extend use of standardised GS1 barcodes in an attempt to improve "transparency" for procurement staff. The Minister argues that individually barcoding many more hospital-bound items would give procurement teams a clearer, more accurate picture of what they were buying, enable fairer price comparison, and radically improve stock control in many NHS hospitals, potentially reducing NHS procurement costs by millions of pounds. Other anticipated benefits include fewer medication errors, lower risk of wrong-site surgery, and the ability to track and trace everything from surgical instruments to patient beds. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports. PMID:22053360

  16. 78 FR 76257 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...Commission's ability to monitor problems with completing calls...rural call completion problem. III. Further Notice...rate to be a meaningful benchmark, the call data reported...rural call completion problem? [[Page 76261...would be an important benchmark against which to...

  17. [Calling and mating behaviors of adult Orthaga achatina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Gui-Ping; Mu, Lan-Fang; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2009-11-01

    A laboratory study was made on the calling and mating behaviors of adult Orthaga achatina at (27 +/- 1) degrees C, (60 +/- 10)% RH, and 14 L: 10 D photoperiod. The female O. achatina did not call until the start of scotophase, with the calling percentage increased sharply at the 5th hour and reached the peak at the 6th-7th hour of scotophase. The calling percentage varied with moth age, being the highest (> 70%) at the age of 2-3 d. The mating behavior could be divided into two successive periods, i.e., calling period and mating period. The mating between female and male O. achatina occurred during the 5th-9th hour of scotophase, with the peak at the 6th-7th hour into scotophase, which was in accordance with the peak time of female calling behavior. Females mated only one time during their whole life. Treatment 1 female : 2 male showed a significantly higher mating percentage, but a significantly shorter mating duration time, compared with treatment 1 female : 1 male. PMID:20136014

  18. Electron channelling in varying magnetic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, David Neil

    Experiments have been performed examining different aspects of the magnetoresistance of a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) subjected to an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Devices are studied in an external magnetic field; the inhomogeneity arising from a stripe of ferromagnetic material manufactured above the 2DEG. Experiments have focused on three main areas: confirming the magnetic channelling hypothesis; manipulating the magnetoresistance; and examining the response of the device to temperature. Hybrid devices combining magnetic structures with semiconductors are of interest both for their potential applications in magnetoelectronics and as systems for studying fundamental physics in areas such as electron transport and integer and fractional quantum Hall effects. In addition, hybrid devices have the potential to model more complex systems of exotic particles such as composite fermions. The results in this work present a clear picture of electron channelling by magnetic fields. Peaks in the magnetoresistance form due to two types of electron orbits: snake states (which dominate when the field from the ferromagnet produces neighbouring regions in the 2DEG having opposite directions of the magnetic field) and cycloid states (when the external field is sufficient to produce regions of varying strength but of the same sign). The position of the peaks varies depending on the strength of ferromagnet used and the carrier density. When placed in an angled applied field, the peak position is found to be invariant with respect to the z-component of the applied field, confirming the magnetic channelling picture. As the temperature is increased, the cycloid states are rapidly quenched (1.35-30K) while the snake states persist to higher temperature (>80K), showing their robustness to disorder. In addition, the Hall effect is strongly affected by the presence of snake and cycloid states and certain magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic stripe can be observed in the results.

  19. SNP Calling, Genotype Calling, and Sample Allele Frequency Estimation from New-Generation Sequencing

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    SNP Calling, Genotype Calling, and Sample Allele Frequency Estimation from New, and show how the method can be used for genotype calling and SNP calling. We also show how the method can. Citation: Nielsen R, Korneliussen T, Albrechtsen A, Li Y, Wang J (2012) SNP Calling, Genotype Calling

  20. Function of loud calls in wild bonobos.

    PubMed

    White, Frances; Waller, Michel; Boose, Klaree; Merrill, Michelle; Wood, Kimberley

    2015-07-20

    Under the social origins hypothesis, human language is thought to have evolved within the framework of non-human primate social contexts and relationships. Our two closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, however, have very different social relationships and this may be reflected in their use of loud calls. Much of loud calling in the male-bonded and aggressive chimpanzee functions for male alliance formation and intercommunity aggression. Bonobos, however, are female bonded and less aggressive and little is known on the use and function of their loud calls. Data on frequencies, context, and locations of vocalizations were collected for wild bonobos, Pan paniscus, at the Lomako Forest study site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1983 to 2009. Both males and females participated in loud calls used for inter-party communication. Calling and response rates by both males and females were higher during party fusion than party fission and were common at evening nesting. The distribution of loud calls within the community range of loud calls was not random with males calling significantly more towards the periphery of the range and females calling significantly more in central areas. Calling and party fission were common at food patches. Responses were more frequent for female calls than for male calls. Calling, followed by fusion, was more frequent when a small party called from a large patch. We conclude that bonobo females and males loud calls can function in inter-party communication to call others to large food patches. Females call to attract potential allies and males call to attract potential mates. Our results support the social hypothesis of the origin of language because differences in the function and use of loud calls reflect the differing social systems of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobo loud calls are important for female communication and function in party coordination and, unlike chimpanzees, are less important in male cooperative aggression. PMID:25324464

  1. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties.

    PubMed

    Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks. PMID:24510159

  2. An empirical analysis of the corporate call decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Murray Dean

    1998-12-01

    In this thesis we provide insights into the behavior of financial managers of utility companies by studying their decisions to redeem callable preferred shares. In particular, we investigate whether or not an option pricing based model of the call decision, with managers who maximize shareholder value, does a better job of explaining callable preferred share prices and call decisions than do other models of the decision. In order to perform these tests, we extend an empirical technique introduced by Rust (1987) to include the use of information from preferred share prices in addition to the call decisions. The model we develop to value the option embedded in a callable preferred share differs from standard models in two ways. First, as suggested in Kraus (1983), we explicitly account for transaction costs associated with a redemption. Second, we account for state variables that are observed by the decision makers but not by the preferred shareholders. We interpret these unobservable state variables as the benefits and costs associated with a change in capital structure that can accompany a call decision. When we add this variable, our empirical model changes from one which predicts exactly when a share should be called to one which predicts the probability of a call as the function of the observable state. These two modifications of the standard model result in predictions of calls, and therefore of callable preferred share prices, that are consistent with several previously unexplained features of the data; we show that the predictive power of the model is improved in a statistical sense by adding these features to the model. The pricing and call probability functions from our model do a good job of describing call decisions and preferred share prices for several utilities. Using data from shares of the Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PGE) we obtain reasonable estimates for the transaction costs associated with a call. Using a formal empirical test, we are able to conclude that the managers of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company clearly take into account the value of the option to delay the call when making their call decisions. Overall, the model seems to be robust to tests of its specification and does a better job of describing the data than do simpler models of the decision making process. Limitations in the data do not allow us to perform the same tests in a larger cross-section of utility companies. However, we are able to estimate transaction cost parameters for many firms and these do not seem to vary significantly from those of PGE. This evidence does not cause us to reject our hypothesis that managerial behavior is consistent with a model in which managers maximize shareholder value.

  3. Potential Paradigms and Possible Problems for CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Martin

    1987-01-01

    Describes three models of CALL (computer assisted language learning) activity--games, the expert system, and the prosthetic approaches. A case is made for CALL development within a more instrumental view of the role of computers. (Author/CB)

  4. 78 FR 76218 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...In this document the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) improves its ability to monitor problems with completing calls to rural areas, and enforce restrictions against blocking, choking, reducing, or restricting calls. The Report and Order applies the new rules to providers of long-distance voice service that make the initial long-distance call path choice for more than 100,000......

  5. CALL Environments: Research, Practice, and Critical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy, Ed.; Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Essays on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include: "Computer-Enhanced Language Learning Environments" (Joy Egbert, Chin-chi Chao, Elizabeth Hanson-Smith); "Theory and Research Interaction via Computers" (Joy Kreeft Peyton); "Classroom Practice: Creating Interactive CALL Activities" (Joy Egbert); "CALL Issues: Building a…

  6. AFRICACRYPT 2008 First Call for Papers

    E-print Network

    Nitaj, Abderrahmane

    AFRICACRYPT 2008 First Call for Papers Abderrahmane Nitaj Universit´e de Caen, France Abderrahmane Nitaj Universit´e de Caen, France AFRICACRYPT 2008 First Call for Papers #12;Africacrypt 2008 You First Call for Papers #12;Africacrypt 2008 Place Africacrypt 2008 will be held in Casablanca, Morocco

  7. 78 FR 21891 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed... originating long-distance providers also measure the overall call answer rate for nonrural call attempts. We... long-distance providers measure the call answer rate for each rural operating company number (OCN)...

  8. Selective Tail Call Elimination Yasuhiko Minamide

    E-print Network

    Minamide, Yasuhiko

    Selective Tail Call Elimination Yasuhiko Minamide Institute of Information Sciences and Electronics University of Tsukuba and PRESTO, JST minamide@is.tsukuba.ac.jp Abstract. Tail calls are expected not to consume stack space in most functional languages. However, there is no support for tail calls in some

  9. Classical-Quantum Arbitrarily Varying Wiretap Channel

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Blinovsky; Minglai Cai

    2012-10-15

    We derive a lower bound on the capacity of classical-quantum arbitrarily varying wiretap channel and determine the capacity of the classicalquantum arbitrarily varying wiretap channel with channel state information at the transmitter.

  10. System Identification: Time Varying and Nonlinear Methods 

    E-print Network

    Majji, Manoranjan

    2010-07-14

    to develop first few time step models is detailed, providing a unified solution to the time varying identification problem. The practical problem of identifying the time varying generalized Markov parameters required for TVERA is presented as the next result...

  11. Crack-tip stress fields in functionally graded materials with linearly varying properties

    E-print Network

    Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

    of the FGM is assumed to vary linearly along the gradation direction. The first six terms for a crack along com- ponent. A functionally graded material (FGM) is a composite consisting of two or more phases variation in an FGM with linearly varying elastic modulus is developed through an asymptotic analysis

  12. A monthly and latitudinally varying volcanic forcing dataset in simulations of 20th century climate

    E-print Network

    Meehl, Gerald A.

    A monthly and latitudinally varying volcanic forcing dataset in simulations of 20th century climate Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Volcanic effects (8409); 1620 Global Change: Climate dynamics (3309 varying volcanic forcing dataset in simulations of 20th century climate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(12), 1657

  13. Patterns of call communication between group-housed zebra finches change during the breeding cycle.

    PubMed

    Gill, Lisa F; Goymann, Wolfgang; Ter Maat, Andries; Gahr, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Vocal signals such as calls play a crucial role for survival and successful reproduction, especially in group-living animals. However, call interactions and call dynamics within groups remain largely unexplored because their relation to relevant contexts or life-history stages could not be studied with individual-level resolution. Using on-bird microphone transmitters, we recorded the vocalisations of individual zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaving freely in social groups, while females and males previously unknown to each other passed through different stages of the breeding cycle. As birds formed pairs and shifted their reproductive status, their call repertoire composition changed. The recordings revealed that calls occurred non-randomly in fine-tuned vocal interactions and decreased within groups while pair-specific patterns emerged. Call-type combinations of vocal interactions changed within pairs and were associated with successful egg-laying, highlighting a potential fitness relevance of calling dynamics in communication systems. PMID:26441403

  14. After Hours Calls: An American Study

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Peter; Liebeseller, Volker; Talbot, Addison; Phillips, Karen

    1979-01-01

    A study of 3662 after hours calls recorded in a family practice residency program serving a population of 5020 over an 18 month period demonstrated that certain symptoms and problems were characteristic of after hours care. There was little variation in the call rate (489 contacts per 1000 patients per year) throughout the year. It was evident that physicians were able to handle approximately 70% of all calls by telephone alone.

  15. Disentangling the Link between Perceiving a Calling and Living a Calling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Autin, Kelsey L.

    2013-01-01

    Research has suggested there is an important distinction between perceiving a calling and living a calling. With a sample of 542 working adults, the current study examined (a) the degree to which perceiving a calling and living a calling differed according to yearly income and level of educational attainment and (b) potential mediators that may…

  16. When They Talk about CALL: Discourse in a Required CALL Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates preservice teachers' discourse about CALL in a required CALL class which combines theory and practice. Thirty-three students in a Linguistics MA program CALL course were observed over a 10-week quarter. For all of these students, it was their first formal exposure to CALL as a discipline. Communication in the class…

  17. A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics

    PubMed Central

    Magrath, Robert D.; Bennett, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

  18. A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics.

    PubMed

    Magrath, Robert D; Bennett, Thomas H

    2012-03-01

    Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

  19. Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2008-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells and the built-up composite structure global fracture are enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads.

  20. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  1. Primate copulation calls and postcopulatory female choice

    E-print Network

    Maestripieri, Dario

    of postcopulatory female choice. According to this hypothesis, copulation calls are honest signals of fertility (iPrimate copulation calls and postcopulatory female choice Dario Maestripieri and James R. Roney, USA Females in some species of Old World monkeys and apes vocalize after copulation, but the function

  2. Commissioned Paper Telephone Call Centers: Tutorial, Review,

    E-print Network

    Mandelbaum, Avishai

    is closely intertwined with physical performance measures. In these environments traditional operational system performance. We review the state of research on telephone call centers. We begin with a tutorial of Customer and CSR Behavior 134 7.4. CRM: Customer Relationship/Revenue Management 135 7.5. A Call

  3. Call for Posters 3. International Conference

    E-print Network

    Peters, Norbert

    Call for Posters 3. International Conference of the Cluster of Excellence Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass June 23rd - 25th , 2015 Eurogress, Aachen, Germany with support of #12;Call for Posters Be part optimization of biofuels. We would therefore like to invite you to contribute to this conference with a poster

  4. 33 CFR 401.64 - Calling in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calling in. 401.64 Section 401.64 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.64 Calling in. (a) Every vessel, intending to transit or in...

  5. Peafowl antipredator calls encode information about signalers.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2014-02-01

    Animals emit vocalizations that convey information about external events. Many of these vocalizations, including those emitted in response to predators, also encode information about the individual that produced the call. The relationship between acoustic features of antipredator calls and information relating to signalers (including sex, identity, body size, and social rank) were examined in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). The "bu-girk" antipredator calls of male and female peafowl were recorded and 20 acoustic parameters were automatically extracted from each call. Both the bu and girk elements of the antipredator call were individually distinctive and calls were classified to the correct signaler with over 90% and 70% accuracy in females and males, respectively. Females produced calls with a higher fundamental frequency (F0) than males. In both females and males, body size was negatively correlated with F0. In addition, peahen rank was related to the duration, end mean frequency, and start harmonicity of the bu element. Peafowl antipredator calls contain detailed information about the signaler and can potentially be used by receivers to respond to dangerous situations. PMID:25234902

  6. 78 FR 76257 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...In this document the FCC seeks comments on additional measures that may help the Commission ensure a reasonable and nondiscriminatory level of service for completing long-distance calls to rural areas. This document also; seeks to improve the Commission's ability to monitor problems with completing calls to rural areas, and enhance our ability to enforce restrictions against blocking, choking,......

  7. Communication cliques in mobile phone calling networks

    E-print Network

    Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    People in modern societies form different social networks through numerous means of communication. These communication networks reflect different aspects of human's societal structure. The billing records of calls among mobile phone users enable us to construct a directed calling network (DCN) and its Bonferroni network (SVDCN) in which the preferential communications are statistically validated. Here we perform a comparative investigation of the cliques of the original DCN and its SVDCN constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that the statistical properties of the cliques of the two calling networks are qualitatively similar and the clique members in the DCN and the SVDCN exhibit idiosyncratic behaviors quantitatively. Members in large cliques are found to be spatially close to each other. Based on the clique degree profile of each mobile phone user, the most active users in the two calling networks can be classified in to seve...

  8. Operations Research Letters 24 (1999) 110 Using di erent response-time requirements to smooth time-varying

    E-print Network

    Whitt, Ward

    1999-01-01

    -varying demand for service Ward Whitt 1 AT&T Labs, Room A117, Shannon Laboratory, 180 Park Avenue, Florham Park-time requirements. For example, some calls to police require immediate response, while oth- ers do not. Thus

  9. Spall Strength Measurements of Concrete for Varying Aggregate Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Kipp, Marlin E.; Reinhart, William D.; Wilson, Leonard T.

    1999-05-05

    Controlled impact experiments have been performed to determine the spall strength of four different concrete compositions. The four concrete compositions are identified as, `SAC-5, CSPC', ("3/4") large, and ("3/8") small, Aggregate. They differ primarily in aggregate size but with average densities varying by less than five percent. Wave profiles from sixteen experiments, with shock amplitudes of 0.07 to 0.55 GPa, concentrate primarily within the elastic regime. Free-surface particle velocity measurements indicate consistent pullback signals in the release profiles, denoting average span strength of approximately 40 MPa. It is the purpose of this paper to present spall measurements under uniaxial strain loading. Notwithstanding considerable wave structure that is a unique characteristic to the heterogeneous nature of the scaled concrete, the spall amplitudes appear reproducible and consistent over the pressure range reported in this study.

  10. Comparing responses of four ungulate species to playbacks of baboon alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Dawn M; Bergman, Thore J; Cheney, Dorothy L; Nicholson, James R; Seyfarth, Robert M

    2010-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that a wide range of animals can recognize and respond appropriately to calls produced by other species. Social learning has been implicated as a possible mechanism by which heterospecific call recognition might develop. To examine whether familiarity and/or shared vulnerability with the calling species might influence the ability of sympatric species to distinguish heterospecific alarm calls, we tested whether four ungulate species (impala: Aepyceros melampus; tsessebe: Damaliscus lunatus; zebra: Equus burchelli; wildebeest: Connochaetes taurinus) could distinguish baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) alarm calls from other loud baboon calls produced during intra-specific aggressive interactions ('contest' calls). Overall, subjects' responses were stronger following playback of alarm calls than contest calls. Of the species tested, impala showed the strongest responses and the greatest difference in composite response scores, suggesting they were best able to differentiate call types. Compared with the other ungulate species, impala are the most frequent associates of baboons. Moreover, like baboons, they are susceptible to both lion and leopard attacks, whereas leopards rarely take the larger ungulates. Although it seems possible that high rates of association and/or shared vulnerability may influence impala's greater ability to distinguish among baboon call types, our results point to a stronger influence of familiarity. Ours is the first study to compare such abilities among several community members with variable natural histories, and we discuss future experiments that would more systematically examine development of these skills in young ungulates. PMID:20607576

  11. Novel shock absorber features varying yield strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geier, D. J.

    1964-01-01

    A shock absorbent webbing of partially drawn synthetic strands is arranged in sections of varying density related to the varying mass of the human body. This is contoured to protect the body at points of contact, when subjected to large acceleration or deceleration forces.

  12. Fractal analysis of time varying data

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN); Sadana, Ajit (Oxford, MS)

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

  13. Tvashtar Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Variations in the appearance of the giant plume from the Tvashtar volcano on Jupiter's moon Io are seen in this composite of the best photos taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) during its Jupiter flyby in late February-early March 2007.

    New Horizons was fortunate to witness this unusually large plume during its brief Jupiter flyby; the Galileo Jupiter orbiter spent more than five years imaging the volcanic moon (between 1996 and 2001) without ever capturing such detailed pictures of a large Io plume. The plume is roughly 330 kilometers (200 miles) high. The cause of the fine wispy structure in the plume, which varies strikingly from image to image, is unknown, but these pictures may help scientists to understand the phenomenon.

    The pictures were taken at distances ranging from 3.1 to 2.3 million kilometers (1.9 to 1.4 million miles), but they have been scaled to show the plume at the same relative size in every frame. Illumination conditions also vary: in the final image, Io's shadow cuts across the plume and hides all but its topmost regions, and the glow of hot lava can be seen on the nightside at the source of the plume. The times of the images, from top to bottom, are: February 26, 18:38 (Universal Time); February 26, 21:01; February 28, 03:50; February 28, 04:40; February 28, 11:04; and March 1, 00:35.

  14. Echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially in the brainstem of the bat Phyllostomus discolor

    PubMed Central

    Fenzl, Thomas; Schuller, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Background Echolocating bats emit vocalizations that can be classified either as echolocation calls or communication calls. Neural control of both types of calls must govern the same pool of motoneurons responsible for vocalizations. Electrical microstimulation in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) elicits both communication and echolocation calls, whereas stimulation of the paralemniscal area (PLA) induces only echolocation calls. In both the PAG and the PLA, the current thresholds for triggering natural vocalizations do not habituate to stimuli and remain low even for long stimulation periods, indicating that these structures have relative direct access to the final common pathway for vocalization. This study intended to clarify whether echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially below the level of the PAG via separate vocal pathways before converging on the motoneurons used in vocalization. Results Both structures were probed simultaneously in a single experimental approach. Two stimulation electrodes were chronically implanted within the PAG in order to elicit either echolocation or communication calls. Blockade of the ipsilateral PLA site with iontophoretically application of the glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid did not impede either echolocation or communication calls elicited from the PAG. However, blockade of the contralateral PLA suppresses PAG-elicited echolocation calls but not communication calls. In both cases the blockade was reversible. Conclusion The neural control of echolocation and communication calls seems to be differentially organized below the level of the PAG. The PLA is an essential functional unit for echolocation call control before the descending pathways share again the final common pathway for vocalization. PMID:16053533

  15. Intra- and interspecific responses to Rafinesque’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) social calls.

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, Susan, C.; Britzke, Eric, R.

    2010-07-01

    Bats respond to the calls of conspecifics as well as to calls of other species; however, few studies have attempted to quantify these responses or understand the functions of these calls. We tested the response of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) to social calls as a possible method to increase capture success and to understand the function of social calls. We also tested if calls of bats within the range of the previously designated subspecies differed, if the responses of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats varied with geographic origin of the calls, and if other species responded to the calls of C. rafinesquii. We recorded calls of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats at two colony roost sites in South Carolina, USA. Calls were recorded while bats were in the roosts and as they exited. Playback sequences for each site were created by copying typical pulses into the playback file. Two mist nets were placed approximately 50–500 m from known roost sites; the net with the playback equipment served as the Experimental net and the one without the equipment served as the Control net. Call structures differed significantly between the Mountain and Coastal Plains populations with calls from the Mountains being of higher frequency and longer duration. Ten of 11 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats were caught in the Control nets and, 13 of 19 bats of other species were captured at Experimental nets even though overall bat activity did not differ significantly between Control and Experimental nets. Our results suggest that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats are not attracted to conspecifics’ calls and that these calls may act as an intraspecific spacing mechanism during foraging.

  16. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...calling mode. 22.921 Section 22.921 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing...

  17. Variation in call pitch among killer whale ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew D; Nystuen, Jeffrey A

    2008-03-01

    Vocal structure can vary between populations due to variation in ecology-dependent selection pressures, such as masking by background noise and the presence of eavesdroppers. Signalers can overcome these obstacles to effective communication by avoiding frequencies that overlap with background noise or the audible range of eavesdroppers. In the Northeastern Pacific three "ecotypes" of killer whale coexist in sympatry, but differ from one another in their diet and habitat use. The minimum frequency (F(min)) and the frequency containing the peak energy between 0 and 10 kHz (F(peak)) of a random sample of calls produced by a population of each ecotype was measured. The offshore ecotype produced calls with a significantly higher F(min) than the other ecotypes, which could be a strategy to avoid masking by low frequency chronic bandlimited wind noise found in the offshore environment. The resident ecotype produced calls with a significantly higher F(min) and F(peak) than the transient ecotype. This could be to reduce detection by their salmonid prey, which has a narrow band, low frequency auditory range. PMID:18345862

  18. Mass-Varying Massive Gravity with k-essence

    E-print Network

    Lunchakorn Tannukij; Pitayuth Wongjun

    2015-11-05

    For a large class of mass-varying massive gravity models, the graviton mass cannot provide the late-time cosmic expansion of the universe due to its vanishing at late time. In this work, we propose a new class of mass-varying massive gravity in which the graviton mass varies according to a kinetic term of a k-essence field. By using a more general form of the fiducial metric, we found a solution such that a non-vanishing graviton mass can drive the accelerated expansion of the universe at late time. We also perform dynamical analyses of such model and found that without introducing the k-essence Lagrangian, the graviton mass can be responsible for both dark contents of the universe, namely dark energy that drives the accelerated expansion of the universe and non-relativistic matter that plays the role of dark matter. Moreover, by including the k-essence Lagrangian, we found that it is possible to alleviate the so-called cosmic coincidence problem.

  19. Mass-Varying Massive Gravity with k-essence

    E-print Network

    Tannukij, Lunchakorn

    2015-01-01

    For a large class of mass-varying massive gravity models, the graviton mass cannot provide the late-time cosmic expansion of the universe due to its vanishing at late time. In this work, we propose a new class of mass-varying massive gravity in which the graviton mass varies according to a kinetic term of a k-essence field. By using a more general form of the fiducial metric, we found a solution such that a non-vanishing graviton mass can drive the accelerated expansion of the universe at late time. We also perform dynamical analyses of such model and found that without introducing the k-essence Lagrangian, the graviton mass can be responsible for both dark contents of the universe, namely dark energy that drives the accelerated expansion of the universe and non-relativistic matter that plays the role of dark matter. Moreover, by including the k-essence Lagrangian, we found that it is possible to alleviate the so-called cosmic coincidence problem.

  20. Nonlinear mesomechanics of composites with periodic microstructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Kevin P.; Jordan, Eric H.; Freed, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    This work is concerned with modeling the mechanical deformation or constitutive behavior of composites comprised of a periodic microstructure under small displacement conditions at elevated temperature. A mesomechanics approach is adopted which relates the microimechanical behavior of the heterogeneous composite with its in-service macroscopic behavior. Two different methods, one based on a Fourier series approach and the other on a Green's function approach, are used in modeling the micromechanical behavior of the composite material. Although the constitutive formulations are based on a micromechanical approach, it should be stressed that the resulting equations are volume averaged to produce overall effective constitutive relations which relate the bulk, volume averaged, stress increment to the bulk, volume averaged, strain increment. As such, they are macromodels which can be used directly in nonlinear finite element programs such as MARC, ANSYS and ABAQUS or in boundary element programs such as BEST3D. In developing the volume averaged or efective macromodels from the micromechanical models, both approaches will require the evaluation of volume integrals containing the spatially varying strain distributions throughout the composite material. By assuming that the strain distributions are spatially constant within each constituent phase-or within a given subvolume within each constituent phase-of the composite material, the volume integrals can be obtained in closed form. This simplified micromodel can then be volume averaged to obtain an effective macromodel suitable for use in the MARC, ANSYS and ABAQUS nonlinear finite element programs via user constitutive subroutines such as HYPELA and CMUSER. This effective macromodel can be used in a nonlinear finite element structural analysis to obtain the strain-temperature history at those points in the structure where thermomechanical cracking and damage are expected to occur, the so called damage critical points of the structure.

  1. Qualitative Strategy for Inbound Call Center Outsourcing

    E-print Network

    Sankaranaraynan, Meenakshi

    2010-05-14

    center services. Telephone call centers are an integral part of today‘s business world, serving as a primary channel for customer contact for organizations in many industries. Globalization, the advancements in the telecommunication and technology...

  2. 78 FR 21891 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ...prevent consumer confusion caused by the injection of false ringtones before the called party...Communications Commission's Web site: http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs2...using the Internet by accessing the ECFS:...

  3. Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. PMID:23206277

  4. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must...

  5. READING ROOM Abbreviation Title Row Call #

    E-print Network

    Kachroo, Pushkin

    READING ROOM Abbreviation Title Row Call # A. Atlantic Reporter 24 KF 135 A. 2d Atlantic Reporter Pacific Reporter,Second Series 26 KF 135 P.3d Pacific Reporter, Third Series 28 KF 135 Pac. Dig. Pacific

  6. Call for Papers INDUSTRIAL MARKETING MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Casillas Barranquero, Jorge

    to contribute to companies' strategic intelligence (i.e. business intelligence + competitive intelligence) reveals that the number of papers published on both business and artificial intelligence/intelligentCall for Papers INDUSTRIAL MARKETING MANAGEMENT Special Issue on Applied Intelligent Systems

  7. Anuran Calling Survey Optimization: Developing and Testing Predictive Models of Anuran Calling Activity

    E-print Network

    Dorcas, Michael E.

    influenced calling for R. sphenocephala, whereas water temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and light of surveys. Using an automated recording system, we evaluated the calling activity of Pseudacris crucifer activity. Models revealed that, for P. crucifer, water and air temperature positively influenced calling

  8. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. 22.921 Section 22.921 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable...

  9. Communication cliques in mobile phone calling networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Xia; Xie, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-11-01

    People in modern societies form different social networks through numerous means of communication. These communication networks reflect different aspects of human's societal structure. The billing records of calls among mobile phone users enable us to construct a directed calling network (DCN) and its Bonferroni network (SVDCN) in which the preferential communications are statistically validated. Here we perform a comparative investigation of the cliques of the original DCN and its SVDCN constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that the statistical properties of the cliques of the two calling networks are qualitatively similar and the clique members in the DCN and the SVDCN exhibit idiosyncratic behaviors quantitatively. Members in large cliques are found to be spatially close to each other. Based on the clique degree profile of each mobile phone user, the most active users in the two calling networks can be classified in to several groups. The users in different groups are found to have different calling behaviors. Our study unveils interesting communication behaviors among mobile phone users that are densely connected to each other.

  10. The Impact of Student Ability and Method for Varying the Position of Correct Answers in Classroom Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dane Christian

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-choice item-writing guideline research is in its infancy. Haladyna (2004) calls for a science of item-writing guideline research. The purpose of this study is to respond to such a call. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student ability and method for varying the location of correct answers in classroom multiple-choice…

  11. Solar mass-varying neutrino oscillations

    E-print Network

    Marfatia, Danny; Huber, P.; Barger, V.

    2005-11-18

    We propose that the solar neutrino deficit may be due to oscillations of mass-varying neutrinos (MaVaNs). This scenario elucidates solar neutrino data beautifully while remaining comfortably compatible with atmospheric neutrino and K2K data...

  12. Adult Vampire Bats Produce Contact Calls When Isolated: Acoustic Variation by Species, Population, Colony, and Individual

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Gerald G.; Logsdon, Ryane; Arnold, Bryan D.; Menchaca, Angelica; Medellin, Rodrigo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae) would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. Methods/Principal Findings We assessed variation in contact calls recorded from isolated captive and wild-caught adult common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). We compared species-typical contact call structure, and used information theory and permuted discriminate function analyses to examine call structure variation, and to determine if the individuality of contact calls is encoded by different call features across species and populations. We found that isolated adult vampire bats produce contact calls that vary by species, population, colony, and individual. However, much variation occurred within a single context and individual. We estimated signature information for captive Diaemus (same colony), captive Desmodus (same colony), and wild Desmodus (different colonies) at 3.21, 3.26, and 3.88 bits, respectively. Contact calls from a captive colony of Desmodus were less individually distinct than calls from wild-caught Desmodus from different colonies. Both the degree of individuality and parameters encoding individuality differed between the bats from a single captive colony and the wild-caught individuals from different groups. This result is consistent with, but not sufficient evidence of, vocal convergence in groups. Conclusion Our results show that adult vampire bats of all three species produce highly variable contact calls when isolated. Contact calls contain sufficient information for vocal discrimination, but also possess more intra-individual variation than is required for the sole purpose of identifying individuals. PMID:22719947

  13. Disciplinary Articulation in Rhetoric and Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babb, Jacob Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines how nomenclature and the act of naming shapes disciplinary identities for scholars and teachers of rhetoric and composition. The discipline is named differently by many of its members, sometimes called "composition studies," "writing studies," "composition and rhetoric," "rhetorical…

  14. Is the Frequency Content of the Calls in North American Treefrogs Limited by Their Larynges?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A high diversity of mating calls is found among frogs. The calls of most species, however, are simple, in comparison to those of mammals and birds. In order to determine if the mechanics of the larynx could explain the simplicity of treefrog calls, the larynges of euthanized males were activated with airflow. Laryngeal airflow, sound frequency, and sound intensity showed a positive direct relationship with the driving air pressure. While the natural calls of the studied species exhibit minimal frequency modulation, their larynges produced about an octave of frequency modulation in response to varying pulmonary pressure. Natural advertisement calls are produced near the higher extreme of frequency obtained in the laboratory and at a slightly higher intensity (6?dB). Natural calls also exhibit fewer harmonics than artificial ones, because the larynges were activated with the mouth of the animal open. The results revealed that treefrog larynges allow them to produce calls spanning a much greater range of frequencies than observed in nature; therefore, the simplicity of the calls is not due to a limited frequency range of laryngeal output. Low frequencies are produced at low intensities, however, and this could explain why treefrogs concentrate their calling at the high frequencies. PMID:25332838

  15. Vocal Repertoire of Wild Blonde Capuchins (Sapajus flavius) and Contextual Use of Calls.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Monique; Souto, Antonio; Jones, Gareth; Eason, Perri; Bione, Camila; Schiel, Nicola; Bezerra, Bruna

    2015-06-01

    Despite advances in the study of capuchin monkeys (Cebus and Sapajus), there is fairly limited information on their vocal communication systems. The present study focused on investigating the structure and use of vocalizations by wild blonde capuchin monkeys, Sapajus flavius. The study subjects produced 29 different call types, which we grouped into 10 categories according to their behavioral context. The number of call types per context varied from one to six. Some of the call types in the vocal repertoire were only produced by individuals of specific age classes. The "nhan" call, for instance, was only emitted by infants, whereas the "ghrr" call was specific to adults. Other call types had no age-specificity and were produced by animals of two or more age categories. Discriminant Function Analysis correctly classified 77.4% of calls to type (n = 14 types). The "huh" and "huh-1var" calls, which are food-associated calls, were most commonly used, together representing approximately 52% of recorded vocalizations. Information on the vocal repertoire of blonde capuchins increases our knowledge of this very little known and Critically Endangered species. Ultimately, it may be used as a tool to help survey these animals in the wild and to assess welfare in captivity. PMID:26158127

  16. Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species

    PubMed Central

    Griesser, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls. PMID:19474047

  17. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene; 10.1073/pnas.1220433110

    2013-01-01

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes, e.g., texting, cellphone conversation, and online instant messaging, but they also provide detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study the inter-call durations of the 100,000 most-active cellphone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the inter-call durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the inter-call durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3460 individuals (3.46%). The inter-call durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cellphone users with a power-law...

  18. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  19. Heuristics for Channel Assignment under Time-Varying Sa Liu, Sumit Widhani, Karen Daniels

    E-print Network

    Daniels, Karen M.

    of a Dynamic Channel Assign- ment (DCA) model. The dynamic assignment of channels in response to traffic surges where traffic flux is high. DCA schemes may assign channels at the packet level, call levelHeuristics for Channel Assignment under Time-Varying Demand Sa Liu, Sumit Widhani, Karen Daniels

  20. Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Nicole E.; Ives, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches. PMID:22690631

  1. Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Nicole E; Ives, Anthony R

    2012-04-01

    The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches. PMID:22690631

  2. n the month after its release, the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops had been

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    I n the month after its release, the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops had been played minutes of video games every day in 2009 -- a nearly threefold increase from 10 years earlier1-third are over 50. Video games are associated with a vari- ety of negative outcomes, such as obesity

  3. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    DOEpatents

    Gennett, Thomas (Denver, CO); Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Honeoye Falls, NY); Landi, Brian J. (Rochester, NY); Heben, Michael J. (Denver, CO)

    2008-04-22

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  4. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF CALL-CENTER OPERATIONAL DATA

    E-print Network

    Shen, Haipeng

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF CALL-CENTER OPERATIONAL DATA: FORECASTING CALL ARRIVALS, AND ANALYZING, and car rental companies, as well as ser- vice centers of retail banks and brokerage firms. Outbound call OF CALL-CENTER OPERATIONAL DATA model that ex

  5. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The promise of filamentary composite materials, whose development may be considered as entering its second generation, continues to generate intense interest and applications activity. Fiber reinforced composite materials offer substantially improved performance and potentially lower costs for aerospace hardware. Much progress has been achieved since the initial developments in the mid 1960's. Rather limited applications to primary aircraft structure have been made, however, mainly in a material-substitution mode on military aircraft, except for a few experiments currently underway on large passenger airplanes in commercial operation. To fulfill the promise of composite materials completely requires a strong technology base. NASA and AFOSR recognize the present state of the art to be such that to fully exploit composites in sophisticated aerospace structures, the technology base must be improved. This, in turn, calls for expanding fundamental knowledge and the means by which it can be successfully applied in design and manufacture.

  6. Speech privacy in customer service call centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulkes, Timothy

    2005-09-01

    Customer service call centers are a special type of open plan office with different design considerations and different acoustical goals. Workers want a high degree of visual and verbal contact with adjacent members of their team, but customers do not want to hear crosstalk from other conversations. Achieving the correct balance between these conflicting goals is a challenge for the architect and acoustic consultant. This paper will present several case studies of different call centers with acoustic measurements, user comments, and other subjective assessment methods.

  7. Double-smoothing for Varying Coefficient Models.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wan; Zuo, Guoxin; He, Hua

    2011-12-01

    Moderation analyses are widely used in biomedical and psychosocial research to investigate differential treatment effects, with moderators frequently identified through testing the significance of the interaction between the predictor and the potential moderator under strong parametric assumptions. Without imposing any parametric forms on how the moderators may affect the relationship between predictors and responses, varying coefficient models address this fundamental problem of strong parametric assumptions with current practice of moderation analysis and provide a much broader class of models for complex moderation relationships. Local polynomial, especially local linear, methods are commonly used in estimating the varying coefficient models. Recently, a double-smoothing (DS) local linear method has been proposed for nonparametric regression models, with nice properties compared to local linear and local cubic methods. In this paper, we generalize DS to varying coefficient models, and show that it holds similar advantages over local linear and local cubic methods. PMID:22121327

  8. Solar mass-varying neutrino oscillations

    E-print Network

    V. Barger; Patrick Huber; Danny Marfatia

    2005-09-30

    We propose that the solar neutrino deficit may be due to oscillations of mass-varying neutrinos (MaVaNs). This scenario elucidates solar neutrino data beautifully while remaining comfortably compatible with atmospheric neutrino and K2K data and with reactor antineutrino data at short and long baselines (from CHOOZ and KamLAND). We find that the survival probability of solar MaVaNs is independent of how the suppression of neutrino mass caused by the acceleron-matter couplings varies with density. Measurements of MeV and lower energy solar neutrinos will provide a rigorous test of the idea.

  9. Microwave fidelity studies by varying antenna coupling

    E-print Network

    B. Köber; U. Kuhl; H. -J. Stöckmann; T. Gorin; D. V. Savin; T. H. Seligman

    2010-09-16

    The fidelity decay in a microwave billiard is considered, where the coupling to an attached antenna is varied. The resulting quantity, coupling fidelity, is experimentally studied for three different terminators of the varied antenna: a hard wall reflection, an open wall reflection, and a 50 Ohm load, corresponding to a totally open channel. The model description in terms of an effective Hamiltonian with a complex coupling constant is given. Quantitative agreement is found with the theory obtained from a modified VWZ approach [Verbaarschot et al, Phys. Rep. 129, 367 (1985)].

  10. Varying G. [in Einstein gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Owen, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the variation of the gravitational constant with cosmological time is critically analyzed. Since Einstein's equation does not allow G to vary on any time scale, no observational data can be analyzed within the context of the standard theory. The recently proposed scale covariant theory, which allows (but does not demand) G to vary, and which has been shown to have passed several standard cosmological tests, is employed to discuss some recent nonnull observational results which indicate a time variation of G.

  11. Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research

    E-print Network

    optimization and data mining: theories and applications. Because of great advances in data collection Energy applications Big data analytics Transportation and logistics Instructions for authors canCall for Papers Annals of Operations Research Special Volume: Applied Optimization and Data Mining

  12. Tesla TechFair Call for Proposals

    E-print Network

    Tesla TechFair Call for Proposals Thayer School of Engineering and the Hopkins Center are celebrating Nikola Tesla, in conjunction with Tesla in New York, an opera by filmmaker Jim Jarmusch & composer Phil Kline. Thayer will host a Tesla TechFair, including a panel discussion and demonstrations

  13. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  14. 78 FR 76218 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...improves its ability to monitor problems with completing calls to rural...signals, or there are other problems. These failures have significant...suffer from the completion problems affecting long-distance...because it provides an important benchmark for issue-free...

  15. CALL FOR PAPERS Annals of Operations Research

    E-print Network

    , marketing, risk assessment, and portfolio analysis. Both data mining and analytics have a basisCALL FOR PAPERS Annals of Operations Research Special Volume on Data Mining and Analytics Extended and modeled by data mining and analytics can improve the efficiency of decision-making algorithms

  16. CALL FOR PAPERS Annals of Operations Research

    E-print Network

    , marketing, risk assessment, and portfolio analysis. Both data mining and analytics have a basisCALL FOR PAPERS Annals of Operations Research Special Volume on Data Mining and Analytics Closing and modeled by data mining and analytics can improve the efficiency of decision-making algorithms

  17. CALL FOR PAPERS Scandal and sociability

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    CALL FOR PAPERS Scandal and sociability New perspectives on the Burney family, 1750-1850 One centuries working in the fields of literature, art, music, politics, botany, exploration, and court and `circles'; kinship and affection; family spaces; scandal and suppression; Burney manuscripts, collections

  18. Looking Back: Tracing Trends in Canadian CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Mary-Louise; Sinyor, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    "CCALLNET" ("The Canadian Computer-Assisted Language Learning Network at the Post-Secondary Level") was a semi-annual newsletter published from 1987 to 2002 that was distributed to colleagues across Canada who taught languages to university students. Its objective was to create a network of Canadian faculty interested in CALL by informing them…

  19. Calling on Scientists to Fight Budget Cuts

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    Calling on Scientists to Fight Budget Cuts THE FUNDING LEVELS REQUESTED BY THE Bush AdministrationMembersofCongress, including myself, are fighting to push science and technology as a priority in this and future budgets. Second, the more wars we fight, the more funds governments expend in the arms market, but we cannot argue

  20. CALL FOR PAPERS LICS'2000 Workshop on

    E-print Network

    Despeyroux, Joëlle

    CALL FOR PAPERS LICS'2000 Workshop on Logical Frameworks and Meta­languages Sunday, June 25, 2000 Conference on Logic in Computer Science (LICS'2000), which takes place from June 26 to June 29, at Santa Barbara, California, United States. (See http://www.cs.bell­labs.com/who/libkin/lics

  1. A Call for School Counseling Practitioner Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaffenberger, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the repeated call to increase the number of practitioner research manuscripts being published in counseling publications, practitioner research accounts for less than five percent of all manuscripts published. This article describes the challenges faced by practitioners seeking to publish their research, defines practitioner research, and…

  2. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Akinori; Shigeta, Yoko; Eiraku, Tomohiko; Kuwano, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino)-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilino)oxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino)-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilino)thiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor. PMID:15841221

  3. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS... of Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information Collection Request to the... infrastructure and key resources (CIKR). At DHS, this responsibility is managed by IP within NPPD. Beginning...

  4. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request for... Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board) with the requested materials in response to...

  5. Don't Call It School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    "Homeschooling," "deschooling," and "unschooling" are commonly used terms in the alternative-education world, but each lacks specificity. In this article, the author describes what he discovered during several visits to North Star. Known officially as North Star: Self-Directed Learning for Teens, it is not as structured as a so-called "free"…

  6. A History of Commitment in CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Joan

    The evolution of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is examined, focusing on what has changed and what has not changed much during that time. A variety of changes are noted: the development of multimedia capabilities, color, animation, and technical improvement of audio and video quality; availability of databases, better fit between…

  7. Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

  8. Modeling Learning Processes in Lexical CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Robin; Laurillard, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Studies the performance of a novice Spanish student using a Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system designed for vocabulary enlargement. Results indicate that introspective evidence may be used to validate performance data within a theoretical framework that characterizes the learning approach as "surface" or "deep." (25 references)…

  9. 33 CFR 401.64 - Calling in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall switch to channel 10 (156.5 MHz) for a traffic report from Montreal Vessel Traffic Management... requested pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section and advise the downbound vessel of any upbound traffic... SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.64 Calling in. (a) Every...

  10. 33 CFR 401.64 - Calling in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shall switch to channel 10 (156.5 MHz) for a traffic report from Montreal Vessel Traffic Management... requested pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section and advise the downbound vessel of any upbound traffic... SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.64 Calling in. (a) Every...

  11. Horse Calls On the road with the

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    at the Blacksburg offices of cloud-computing compa- ny Rackspace, offering an insider's perspective on what makesHorse Calls On the road with the Equine Field Service Welcome to Racksburg Why open-cloud company to the editor 2 Virginia Tech Magazine winter 2012­13 The life-saving infant respirator The article was very

  12. IEEE Communications Magazine Call for Papers

    E-print Network

    Fu, Xiaoming

    ://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/commagieee) by the deadline. Submit articles to the "March 2015/Mobile Cloud Computing" category. Important DatesIEEE Communications Magazine Call for Papers Feature Topic on Mobile Cloud Computing Mobile Cloud Computing refers to an infrastructure where both the data storage and the data processing occur

  13. Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX), a clinical program designed to assess the degree to which an individual is able to demonstrate self-control for overall general relaxation. The program is designed for use with the Cassel Biosensors biofeedback equipment. (JAC)

  14. Venturi Tube with Varying Mass Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenscheit, B.

    1948-01-01

    Measurements on three tubes with flow regulated by suction at the trainling edge of the tube are described. It was possible to vary the mass of air flowing through the tube over a large range. Such tubes could be used for shrouded propellers.

  15. Components in time-varying graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis.

  16. CALL from the Margins: Effective Dissemination of CALL Research and Good Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The symbolic location of EUROCALL's 2004 conference in Vienna offered to both new members from Eastern Europe and established members from the West an opportunity to review the relationship between computer assisted language learning (CALL) and language teaching in general. CALL is defined as an "academic field that explores the role of…

  17. Energy Absorption in Chopped Carbon Fiber Compression Molded Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Starbuck, J.M.

    2001-07-20

    In passenger vehicles the ability to absorb energy due to impact and be survivable for the occupant is called the ''crashworthiness'' of the structure. To identify and quantify the energy absorbing mechanisms in candidate automotive composite materials, test methodologies were developed for conducting progressive crush tests on composite plate specimens. The test method development and experimental set-up focused on isolating the damage modes associated with the frond formation that occurs in dynamic testing of composite tubes. Quasi-static progressive crush tests were performed on composite plates manufactured from chopped carbon fiber with an epoxy resin system using compression molding techniques. The carbon fiber was Toray T700 and the epoxy resin was YLA RS-35. The effect of various material and test parameters on energy absorption was evaluated by varying the following parameters during testing: fiber volume fraction, fiber length, fiber tow size, specimen width, profile radius, and profile constraint condition. It was demonstrated during testing that the use of a roller constraint directed the crushing process and the load deflection curves were similar to progressive crushing of tubes. Of all the parameters evaluated, the fiber length appeared to be the most critical material parameter, with shorter fibers having a higher specific energy absorption than longer fibers. The combination of material parameters that yielded the highest energy absorbing material was identified.

  18. Composite Josephson Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Masakazu; Hara, Ko

    1984-05-01

    A superconductive loop circuit including more than four Josephson junctions (JJ), which is called a Composite Josephson Device (CJD), can support a fluxoid stably without inductance and has multiple stable states depending on the number of fluxoids. One of the simplest cases of CJD with a three-terminal six JJ loop device is analyzed numerically. The result shows that it has five stable areas and is able to operate as a current amplifier within a certain parameter range.

  19. Microbial growth and physiology: a call for better craftsmanship

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Virtually every microbiological experiment starts with the cultivation of microbes. Consequently, as originally pointed out by Monod (1949), handling microbial cultures is a fundamental methodology of microbiology and mastering different cultivation techniques should be part of every microbiologist’s craftsmanship. This is particularly important for research in microbial physiology, as the composition and behavior of microbes is strongly dependent on their growth environment. It has been pointed out repeatedly by eminent microbiologists that we should give more attention to the media and culturing conditions. However, this is obviously not adhered to with sufficient rigor as mistakes in basic cultivation principles are frequently found in the published research literature. The most frequent mistakes are the use of inappropriate growth media and little or no control of the specific growth rate, and some examples will be discussed here in detail. Therefore, this is a call for better microbiological craftsmanship when cultivating microbial cultures for physiological experiments. This call is not only addressed to researchers but it is probably even more important for the teaching of our discipline. PMID:25926822

  20. 2006-2008 Velsoft International Inc. All rights reserved. Outlook 2007 Foundation Contact FirstCall: first-call@tamu.edu Call Toll-Free: 866-996-2056Contact FirstCall: first-call@tamu.edu Call Toll-Free: 866-996-2056

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Call: first-call@tamu.edu Call Toll-Free: 866-996-2056Contact FirstCall: first-call@tamu.edu Call Toll-Free: 866-996-2056 2007OutlookQuick Reference Guide Microsoft® The Standard Toolbar (Mail) The Outlook Interface Creates a new e-mail message. (Click the arrow for options.) Prints the selected item. Choose

  1. Disentangling Social Networks inferred from Call Logs

    E-print Network

    Cebrian, Manuel; Kirkpatrick, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of an unusually detailed telephone call data set --- a month of nearly all mobile and landline phone calls placed during August 2005 the United Kingdom --- allows us to identify several different types of social networks that are formed, and relate them to different activities that generate them. We distinguish, among others, work-related and personal or leisure-focused activities and show that the networks they form have very different characteristics. Our principal tool for the analysis, k-core decomposition, shows that distinct distributions of connectivity are present in the two spheres, and that this differentiation affects dramatically the dynamics of information diffusion. Both differ from the simpler and more globally connected structure evident in communications data such as the Internet AS graph.

  2. Call me antipsychiatry activist--not "consumer".

    PubMed

    Weitz, Don

    2003-01-01

    The author, a long-time human rights activist, explains why he calls himself an anti-psychiatry activist rather than a "mental health consumer." He believes that the latter term is nonsensical in the current mental health system, characterized by lack of consumer choice and an explosion of involuntary interventions. He is a member of People Against Coercive Treatment and the Ontario Coalition Against Poverty. PMID:15279009

  3. Call progress time measurement in IP telephony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasnabish, Bhumip

    1999-11-01

    Usually a voice call is established through multiple stages in IP telephony. In the first stage, a phone number is dialed to reach a near-end or call-originating IP-telephony gateway. The next stages involve user identification through delivering an m-digit user-id to the authentication and/or billing server, and then user authentication by using an n- digit PIN. After that, the caller is allowed (last stage dial tone is provided) to dial a destination phone number provided that authentication is successful. In this paper, we present a very flexible method for measuring call progress time in IP telephony. The proposed technique can be used to measure the system response time at every stage. It is flexible, so that it can be easily modified to include new `tone' or a set of tones, or `voice begin' can be used in every stage to detect the system's response. The proposed method has been implemented using scripts written in Hammer visual basic language for testing with a few commercially available IP telephony gateways.

  4. Learning Time-Varying Coverage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Du, Nan; Liang, Yingyu; Balcan, Maria-Florina; Song, Le

    2015-01-01

    Coverage functions are an important class of discrete functions that capture the law of diminishing returns arising naturally from applications in social network analysis, machine learning, and algorithmic game theory. In this paper, we propose a new problem of learning time-varying coverage functions, and develop a novel parametrization of these functions using random features. Based on the connection between time-varying coverage functions and counting processes, we also propose an efficient parameter learning algorithm based on likelihood maximization, and provide a sample complexity analysis. We applied our algorithm to the influence function estimation problem in information diffusion in social networks, and show that with few assumptions about the diffusion processes, our algorithm is able to estimate influence significantly more accurately than existing approaches on both synthetic and real world data. PMID:25960624

  5. Force Measurements of a varying camber hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najdzin, Derek; Bardet, Philippe M.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2013-11-01

    The swimming motion of cetaceans (dolphins, whales) is capable of producing large amounts of thrust as observed in nature. This project aims to determine the propulsive efficiency of this swimming motion through force and power measurements. A mechanism was constructed to replicate this motion by applying a combination of pitching and heaving motions to a varying camber hydrofoil. A novel force balance allows the measurement of three direction force and moments as the fin oscillates. A range of Reynolds and Strouhal numbers were tested to identify the most efficient conditions. Allowing the camber of the hydrofoil to vary has shown to increase lift generated, while generating similar thrust forces when compared to a constant camber hydrofoil.

  6. Varying potential silicon carbide gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B. (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrocarbon gas detection device operates by dissociating or electro-chemically oxidizing hydrocarbons adsorbed to a silicon carbide detection layer. Dissociation or oxidation are driven by a varying potential applied to the detection layer. Different hydrocarbon species undergo reaction at different applied potentials so that the device is able to discriminate among various hydrocarbon species. The device can operate at temperatures between 100.degree. C. and at least 650.degree. C., allowing hydrocarbon detection in hot exhaust gases. The dissociation reaction is detected either as a change in a capacitor or, preferably, as a change of current flow through an FET which incorporates the silicon carbide detection layers. The silicon carbide detection layer can be augmented with a pad of catalytic material which provides a signal without an applied potential. Comparisons between the catalytically produced signal and the varying potential produced signal may further help identify the hydrocarbon present.

  7. The evolution of white dwarfs with a varying gravitational constant

    E-print Network

    Althaus, L G; Torres, S; Loren-Aguilar, P; Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E

    2011-01-01

    Within the theoretical framework of some modern unification theories the constants of nature are functions of cosmological time. White dwarfs offer the possibility of testing a possible variation of G and, thus, to place constraints to these theories. We present full white dwarf evolutionary calculations in the case that G decreases with time. White dwarf evolution is computed in a self-consistent way, including the most up-to-date physical inputs, non-gray model atmospheres and a detailed core chemical composition that results from the calculation of the full evolution of progenitor stars. We find that the mechanical structure and the energy balance of white dwarfs are strongly modified by the presence of a varying G. In particular, for certain values of the rate of change of G, the evolution of cool white dwarfs is markedly affected. The impact of a varying G is more notorious in the case of more massive white dwarfs. In view of the recent results reporting that a very accurate white dwarf cooling age can b...

  8. Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangquan

    2011-01-01

    Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. PMID:21143474

  9. Advertisement-call modification, male competition and female preference in the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rivera, Carlos César; Gerhardt, H. Carl

    2009-01-01

    Senders and receivers influence dynamic characteristics of the signals used for mate attraction over different time scales. On a moment-to-moment basis, interactions among senders competing for a mate influence dynamic characteristics, whereas the preferences of receivers of the opposite gender exert an influence over evolutionary time. We observed and recorded the calling patterns of the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca, to assess how the dynamic characters of calls vary during interactions among groups of males in a chorus. This question was also addressed using playback experiments with males. Playback experiments with females showed how changes in dynamic call properties are likely to affect male mating success. Frogs calling in pairs, groups, or in response to playbacks produced longer calls than did isolated males. During call overlap, males often increased the duration of the silent interval (gaps) between the pulses of their calls so that the pulses of the calls of two neighbors interdigitated. This change resulted in increased variability of pulse rate, a traditionally static acoustic property; however, males also produced high proportions of non-overlapped calls in which variability in pulse rate was low and had species-typical values. Females preferred long calls to short and average-duration calls, and non-overlapped calls to overlapped calls. Given a choice between pairs of overlapped calls, females preferred pairs in which the proportion of overlap was low and pairs in which the pulses of such calls interdigitated completely. The observed patterns of vocal competition thus reflect the preferences of conspecific females, which have influenced the evolution of the calling behavior of H. avivoca. PMID:19789730

  10. Sex differences in the representation of call stimuli in a songbird secondary auditory area

    PubMed Central

    Giret, Nicolas; Menardy, Fabien; Del Negro, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communication sounds are encoded in the central auditory system is critical to deciphering the neural bases of acoustic communication. Songbirds use learned or unlearned vocalizations in a variety of social interactions. They have telencephalic auditory areas specialized for processing natural sounds and considered as playing a critical role in the discrimination of behaviorally relevant vocal sounds. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species, forms lifelong pair bonds. Only male zebra finches sing. However, both sexes produce the distance call when placed in visual isolation. This call is sexually dimorphic, is learned only in males and provides support for individual recognition in both sexes. Here, we assessed whether auditory processing of distance calls differs between paired males and females by recording spiking activity in a secondary auditory area, the caudolateral mesopallium (CLM), while presenting the distance calls of a variety of individuals, including the bird itself, the mate, familiar and unfamiliar males and females. In males, the CLM is potentially involved in auditory feedback processing important for vocal learning. Based on both the analyses of spike rates and temporal aspects of discharges, our results clearly indicate that call-evoked responses of CLM neurons are sexually dimorphic, being stronger, lasting longer, and conveying more information about calls in males than in females. In addition, how auditory responses vary among call types differ between sexes. In females, response strength differs between familiar male and female calls. In males, temporal features of responses reveal a sensitivity to the bird's own call. These findings provide evidence that sexual dimorphism occurs in higher-order processing areas within the auditory system. They suggest a sexual dimorphism in the function of the CLM, contributing to transmit information about the self-generated calls in males and to storage of information about the bird's auditory experience in females. PMID:26578918

  11. Neural Correlates of Threat Perception: Neural Equivalence of Conspecific and Heterospecific Mobbing Calls Is Learned

    PubMed Central

    Avey, Marc T.; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K.; Bloomfield, Laurie L.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise [1]–[2]. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators [3]. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more “D” notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators [4]. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned. PMID:21909363

  12. Call for tighter coal ash disposal standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    More than 200 million tons of coal ash and scrubber sludge were deposited from coal plants into ponds or landfills between 2009 and 2011, according to a 21 December report by the Environmental Integrity Project (EIP), a nonprofit organization based in Washington, D. C. EIP issued the report to mark the fourth anniversary of the dike rupture at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant, which spilled an estimated 1.1 billion gallons of coal fly ash slurry into the Tennessee River system on 22 December 2008. EIP called for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue ash disposal standards.

  13. Call For Native Genius and Indigenous Intellectualism

    E-print Network

    Fixico, Donald L.

    2000-03-01

    stream_size 51481 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name ins.v01.n1.43-59.pdf.txt stream_source_info ins.v01.n1.43-59.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Call for Native Genius... and Indigenous Intellectualism Donald L. Fixico Genius and intellectualism have existed and still exist among American Indians and other Indigenous Peoples. Perhaps, only in Indigenous Nations Studies can this fact be fully appreciated due...

  14. Gene Calling Standards (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Kyrpides, Nikos [Genome Biology Program, DOE JGI

    2011-04-28

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses gene calling standards at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.

  15. Linear Parameter Varying Control for Actuator Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Wu, N. Eva; Belcastro, Christine; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A robust linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis is carried out for an HiMAT vehicle subject to loss of control effectiveness. The scheduling parameter is selected to be a function of the estimates of the control effectiveness factors. The estimates are provided on-line by a two-stage Kalman estimator. The inherent conservatism of the LPV design is reducing through the use of a scaling factor on the uncertainty block that represents the estimation errors of the effectiveness factors. Simulations of the controlled system with the on-line estimator show that a superior fault-tolerance can be achieved.

  16. Probabilistic base calling of Solexa sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Rougemont, Jacques; Amzallag, Arnaud; Iseli, Christian; Farinelli, Laurent; Xenarios, Ioannis; Naef, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Background Solexa/Illumina short-read ultra-high throughput DNA sequencing technology produces millions of short tags (up to 36 bases) by parallel sequencing-by-synthesis of DNA colonies. The processing and statistical analysis of such high-throughput data poses new challenges; currently a fair proportion of the tags are routinely discarded due to an inability to match them to a reference sequence, thereby reducing the effective throughput of the technology. Results We propose a novel base calling algorithm using model-based clustering and probability theory to identify ambiguous bases and code them with IUPAC symbols. We also select optimal sub-tags using a score based on information content to remove uncertain bases towards the ends of the reads. Conclusion We show that the method improves genome coverage and number of usable tags as compared with Solexa's data processing pipeline by an average of 15%. An R package is provided which allows fast and accurate base calling of Solexa's fluorescence intensity files and the production of informative diagnostic plots. PMID:18851737

  17. Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats.

    PubMed

    Reber, Stephan A; Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2013-08-22

    Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships. PMID:23825208

  18. Marine mammal call discrimination using artificial neural John R. Potter

    E-print Network

    Marine mammal call discrimination using artificial neural networks John R. Potter MPL 0238,Scripps interference,oftenconsisting of similar noises from other animals. Marine mammal calls canbeextremelycomplex6

  19. Patterns of call communication between group-housed zebra finches change during the breeding cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Lisa F; Goymann, Wolfgang; Ter Maat, Andries; Gahr, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Vocal signals such as calls play a crucial role for survival and successful reproduction, especially in group-living animals. However, call interactions and call dynamics within groups remain largely unexplored because their relation to relevant contexts or life-history stages could not be studied with individual-level resolution. Using on-bird microphone transmitters, we recorded the vocalisations of individual zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaving freely in social groups, while females and males previously unknown to each other passed through different stages of the breeding cycle. As birds formed pairs and shifted their reproductive status, their call repertoire composition changed. The recordings revealed that calls occurred non-randomly in fine-tuned vocal interactions and decreased within groups while pair-specific patterns emerged. Call-type combinations of vocal interactions changed within pairs and were associated with successful egg-laying, highlighting a potential fitness relevance of calling dynamics in communication systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07770.001 PMID:26441403

  20. Resident condition change: should I call 911?

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Justin; Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi

    2008-01-01

    Identifiers of illness, including catastrophic change, are based on a set of assumptions that are not always true or accurate for older adults. Atypical findings in combination with the more subtle or different presentation of illness can result in missed opportunities for early treatment and prevention of more dire consequences. Assessment instruments described in this article can guide the investigation and communication of a resident's change in status: SPICES (Sleep; Problems with Eating and Feeding; Incontinence; Confusion; Evidence of Falls; Skin Breakdown), FANCAPES (Fluid; Aeration; Nutrition; Cognition/Communication; Activity/Abilities; Pain; Elimination; Skin/Socialization), DELIRIUM (Drug use: Electrolyte imbalance; Lack of scheduled meds; Infection; Reduced sensory input; Intracranial problems; Urinary problems; Myocardial problems), PQRST (Provokes/Palliates; Quality/Quantity; Region/Radiates; Severity; Timing) and COLDSPA (Character; Onset; Location; Duration; Severity; Pattern; Associated Symptoms), (for pain assessment). "Should I call?" scenarios are described using case studies. A systematic approach to assessment, recognition of change in functional status, protocols to guide calling for emergency assistance, and structured communication are essential elements of early recognition of illness, can reduce caregiver anxiety, and improve the health care outcomes for the resident. Imagine you or one of your staff standing in the dining room of your residence and looking at the residents for whose health and well-being you are responsible. Could you spot someone who was not doing well? Who might be ailing? If you saw 2 residents who looked ill, whom would you assess first? How would you decide? Identification of illness, including catastrophic change, is based on a set of assumptions that are not always true for older adults and can result in a set of findings that does not fit with our conventional understanding and knowledge of illness presentation. All too often, these atypical findings in combination with the more subtle presentation of illness in older adults results in missed opportunities for early treatment. A systematic approach to assessment, recognition of change, protocols to guide calling for emergency assistance, and communication with other health care providers are essential elements of early recognition of illness that can decrease health care provider anxiety and improve outcomes. This article describes 2 evidence-based assessment instruments: the SPICES tool, which should be used routinely as a first-line method for recognizing change and preventing deepening complications or acute illness, and the FANCAPES tool, which evaluates change in condition. In addition, several acronyms that can guide symptom assessment are provided. Immediately life-threatening conditions and 3 "don't miss" signs of emergencies are discussed, as are nursing interventions for the geriatric emergency. "Should I call?" scenarios are presented in a table that includes common signs and symptoms and recommended nursing actions of who to call. Two case studies illustrate the assessment instruments and analysis of data. Basic information that should be included in a transfer document is described. The article includes a communication model known as SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation) that can be implemented and used by all staff of the assisted living residence. PMID:18267174

  1. Brown Dwarf Variability: What's Varying and Why?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark Scott

    2014-01-01

    Surveys by ground based telescopes, HST, and Spitzer have revealed that brown dwarfs of most spectral classes exhibit variability. The spectral and temporal signatures of the variability are complex and apparently defy simplistic classification which complicates efforts to model the changes. Important questions include understanding if clearings are forming in an otherwise uniform cloud deck or if thermal perturbations, perhaps associated with breaking gravity waves, are responsible. If clouds are responsible how long does it take for the atmospheric thermal profile to relax from a hot cloudy to a cooler cloudless state? If thermal perturbations are responsible then what atmospheric layers are varying? How do the observed variability timescales compare to atmospheric radiative, chemical, and dynamical timescales? I will address such questions by presenting modeling results for time-varying partly cloudy atmospheres and explore the importance of various atmospheric processes over the relevant timescales for brown dwarfs of a range of effective temperatures. Regardless of the origin of the observed variability, the complexity seen in the atmospheres of the field dwarfs hints at the variability that we may encounter in the next few years in directly imaged young Jupiters. Thus understanding the nature of variability in the field dwarfs, including sensitivity to gravity and metallicity, is of particular importance for exoplanet characterization.

  2. Local Rank Inference for Varying Coefficient Models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Kai, Bo; Li, Runze

    2009-12-01

    By allowing the regression coefficients to change with certain covariates, the class of varying coefficient models offers a flexible approach to modeling nonlinearity and interactions between covariates. This paper proposes a novel estimation procedure for the varying coefficient models based on local ranks. The new procedure provides a highly efficient and robust alternative to the local linear least squares method, and can be conveniently implemented using existing R software package. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations both reveal that the gain of the local rank estimator over the local linear least squares estimator, measured by the asymptotic mean squared error or the asymptotic mean integrated squared error, can be substantial. In the normal error case, the asymptotic relative efficiency for estimating both the coefficient functions and the derivative of the coefficient functions is above 96%; even in the worst case scenarios, the asymptotic relative efficiency has a lower bound 88.96% for estimating the coefficient functions, and a lower bound 89.91% for estimating their derivatives. The new estimator may achieve the nonparametric convergence rate even when the local linear least squares method fails due to infinite random error variance. We establish the large sample theory of the proposed procedure by utilizing results from generalized U-statistics, whose kernel function may depend on the sample size. We also extend a resampling approach, which perturbs the objective function repeatedly, to the generalized U-statistics setting; and demonstrate that it can accurately estimate the asymptotic covariance matrix. PMID:20657760

  3. Modeling rapidly varied flow in tailwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrick, M.G.; Bilmes, J.; Long, S.E.

    1984-02-01

    An understanding of the downstream propagation of sharp-fronted, large-amplitude waves of relatively short period is important for describing rapidly varying flows in tailwaters of hydroelectric plants and following the breach of a dam. A numerical model of these waves was developed by first identifying the primary physical processes and then performing an analysis of the solution. A linear analysis of the dynamic open channel flow equations provides relationships describing flow wave advection, diffusion, and dispersion in rivers. A one-dimensional diffusion wave model modified for application to tailwaters simulates the important physical processes and is straightforward to apply. The modified equation and von Neumann analyses provide insight into the effects of numerical parameters theta, ..delta..x, and ..delta..t upon stability and dissipative and dispersive behavior of the solution, but the Hirt analysis is found to yield incorrect phase relationships. The capability and accuracy of the model are enhanced when physical diffusion of a river wave is balanced by numerical diffusion in the model. Field studies were conducted in two greatly different tailwaters to assess our understanding of large-scale, rapidly varying flow waves. The accurate simulation of waves having wide-ranging amplitudes, shapes, periods, and base flows attests to the soundness of both the physical basis of the model and the numerical solution technique. These studies reveal that diffusion of short-period waves in natural, free-flowing rivers is significant and that inertia is negligible.

  4. Call center demand forecasting : improving sales calls prediction accuracy through the combination of statistical methods and judgmental forecast

    E-print Network

    Boulin, Juan Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Call centers are important for developing and maintaining healthy relationships with customers. At Dell, call centers are also at the core of the company's renowned direct model. For sales call centers in particular, the ...

  5. Circular motion analysis of time-varying bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, B; Louarroudi, E; Rutkove, S B; Pintelon, R

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a step forward towards the analysis of a linear periodically time-varying (PTV) bioimpedance [Formula: see text], which is an important subclass of a linear time-varying (LTV) bioimpedance. Similarly to the Fourier coefficients of a periodic signal, a PTV impedance can be decomposed into frequency dependent impedance phasors, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], that are rotating with an angular speed of [Formula: see text]. The vector length of these impedance phasors corresponds to the amplitude of the rth-order harmonic impedance [Formula: see text] and the initial phase is given by [Formula: see text], with [Formula: see text] being a time instant within the measurement time T. The impedance period [Formula: see text] stands for the cycle length of the bio-system under investigation; for example, the elapsed time between two consecutive R-waves in the electrocardiogram or the breathing periodicity in case of the heart or lungs, respectively. First, it is demonstrated that the harmonic impedance phasor [Formula: see text], at a particular measured frequency [Formula: see text], can be represented by a rotating phasor, leading to the so-called circular motion analysis technique. Next, the two-dimensional (2D) representation of the harmonic impedance phasors is then extended to a three-dimensional (3D) coordinate system by taking into account the frequency dependence. Finally, we introduce a new visualizing tool to summarize the frequency response behavior of [Formula: see text] into a single 3D plot using the local Frenet-Serret frame. This novel 3D impedance representation is then compared with the 3D Nyquist representation of a PTV impedance. The concepts are illustrated through real measurements conducted on a PTV RC-circuit. PMID:26489699

  6. Oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae derived methyl esters containing varying levels of methyl eicosapentaenoate and methyl docosahexaenoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucy, Harrison

    Microalgae is currently receiving strong consideration as a potential biofuel feedstock to help meet the advanced biofuels mandate of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act because of its theoretically high yield (gallons/acre/year) in comparison to current terrestrial feedstocks. Additionally, microalgae also do not compete with food and can be cultivated with wastewater on non-arable land. Microalgae lipids can be converted into a variety of biofuels including fatty acid methyl esters (e.g. FAME biodiesel), renewable diesel, renewable gasoline, or jet fuel. For microalgae derived FAME, the fuel properties will be directly related to the fatty acid composition of the lipids produced by the given microalgae strain. Several microalgae species under consideration for wide scale cultivation, such as Nannochloropsis, produce lipids with fatty acid compositions containing substantially higher quantities of long chainpolyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in comparison to terrestrial feedstocks. It is expected that increased levels of LC-PUFA will be problematic in terms of meeting all of the current ASTM specifications for biodiesel. For example, it is known that oxidative stability and cetane number decrease with increasing levels of LC-PUFA. However, these same LC-PUFA fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6) are known to have high nutritional value thereby making separation of these compounds economically attractive. Given the uncertainty in the future value of these LC-PUFA compounds and the economic viability of the separation process, the goal of this study was to examine the oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae-based FAME with varying levels of EPA and DHA removal. Oxidative stability tests were conducted at a temperature of 110°C and airflow of 10 L/h using a Metrohm 743 Rancimat with automatic induction period determination following the EN 14112 Method from the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 Standards, which call for induction periods of at least three hours and six hours, respectively. Derived Cetane Number testing was conducted using a Waukesha FIT following the ASTM D7170 Method. Tests were conducted with synthetic algal oil blends manufactured from various sources to match the fatty acid compositions of several algae strains subjected to varying removal amounts of roughly 0 -- 100 percent LC-PUFA. In addition, tests were also conducted with real algal methyl esters produced from multiple sources. The bis-allylic position equivalent (BAPE) was calculated for each fuel sample to quantify the level of unsaturation. The induction period was then plotted as a function of BAPE, which showed that the oxidative stability varied exponentially with the amount of LC-PUFA. The results suggest that removal of 45 -- 65 percent of the LC-PUFA from Nannochloropsis-based algal methyl esters would be sufficient for meeting existing ASTM specifications for oxidative stability and 75 -- 85 percent removal would be needed to meet the EN specification. The oxidative stability additive tert-butylhydroquinone (THBQ) was found to increase Nannochloropsis-based algal methyl esters' oxidative stability to ASTM and EN specifications at only 0.03 percent and 0.06 percent additions by mass, respectively, when no LC-PUFA was removed. The ignition quality tests showed that the Derived Cetane Number varied linearly with BAPE and the algae formulations were found to pass the ASTM cetane specification of 47 only if all the LC-PUFA were removed.

  7. North Pacific right whale up-call source levels and propagation distance on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf.

    PubMed

    Munger, Lisa M; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2011-06-01

    Call source levels, transmission loss, and ambient noise levels were estimated for North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica) up-calls recorded in the southeastern Bering Sea in autumn of 2000 and 2001. Distances to calling animals, needed to estimate source levels, were based on two independent techniques: (1) arrival-time differences on three or more hydrophones and (2) shallow-water dispersion of normal modes on a single receiver. Average root-mean-square (rms) call source levels estimated by the two techniques were 178 and 176 dB re 1 ?Pa at 1 m, respectively, over the up-call frequency band, which was determined per call and averaged 90 to 170 Hz. Peak-to-peak source levels were 14 to 22 dB greater than rms levels. Transmission loss was approximately 15?log(10)(range), intermediate between cylindrical and spherical spreading. Ambient ocean noise within the up-call band varied from 72 to 91 dB re 1 ?Pa(2)/Hz. Under average noise conditions, call spectrograms were detectable for whales at distances up to 100 km, but propagation and detection distance may vary depending on environmental parameters and anthropogenic noise. Obtaining distances to animals and acoustic detection range is a step toward using long-term passive acoustic recordings to estimate abundance for this critically endangered whale population. PMID:21682425

  8. Asphaltic compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.E.; Zaweski, E.F.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes an asphaltic composition of enhanced utility for vehicular pavement which composition comprises a road paving grade of asphalt in admixture with at least one alkylene dithiocarbamate. The composition is characterized by having a reduced increase in absolute viscosity to original absolute viscosity after thin film aging as measured by ASTM Test D 1754 at 140/sup 0/F.

  9. Electrocatalyst compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mallouk, Thomas E.; Chan, Benny C.; Reddington, Erik; Sapienza, Anthony; Chen, Guoying; Smotkin, Eugene; Gurau, Bogdan; Viswanathan, Rameshkrishnan; Liu, Renxuan

    2001-09-04

    Compositions for use as catalysts in electrochemical reactions are described. The compositions are alloys prepared from two or more elemental metals selected from platinum, molybdenum, osmium, ruthenium, rhodium, and iridium. Also described are electrode compositions including such alloys and electrochemical reaction devices including such catalysts.

  10. Repairs of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Hee Seok

    Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and the host composite structure.

  11. Acoustic signal detection of manatee calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disc. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~=96% of the manatee vocalizations. However the system also results in a false positive rate of ~=16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  12. Another call to increase STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    As science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education becomes increasingly important, U.S. students are lagging behind other nations on international assessments, according to a recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science study. A 22 June report from the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) calls for increasing the focus on STEM education in the United States. “To make progress in improving STEM education for all students, policy makers at the national, state, and local levels should elevate science to the same level of importance as reading and mathematics,” states the report, “Successful K-12 STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.” It outlines several goals: expand the number of students who pursue advanced degrees and careers in STEM fields; expand the STEM-capable workforce, while also broadening the participation of women and minorities; and increase STEM literacy for all students, whether or not they pursue STEM-related careers or additional study in those areas.

  13. Automated DNA Base Pair Calling Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-07-07

    The procedure solves the problem of calling the DNA base pair sequence from two channel electropherogram separations in an automated fashion. The core of the program involves a peak picking algorithm based upon first, second, and third derivative spectra for each electropherogram channel, signal levels as a function of time, peak spacing, base pair signal to noise sequence patterns, frequency vs ratio of the two channel histograms, and confidence levels generated during the run. Themore »ratios of the two channels at peak centers can be used to accurately and reproducibly determine the base pair sequence. A further enhancement is a novel Gaussian deconvolution used to determine the peak heights used in generating the ratio.« less

  14. Varied Clinical Manifestations of Amebic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Chad J; Fleming, Rhonda; Boman, Darius A; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-11-01

    Invasive amebiasis is common worldwide, but infrequently observed in the United States. It is associated with considerable morbidity in patients residing in or traveling to endemic areas. We review the clinical and endoscopic manifestations of amebic colitis to alert physicians to the varied clinical manifestations of this potentially life-threatening disease. Copyright ©Most patients present with watery or bloody diarrhea. Less common presentations of amebic colitis include abdominal pain, overt gastrointestinal bleeding, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, or the incidental association with colon cancer. Amebic liver abscesses are the most frequent complication. Rectosigmoid involvement may be found on colonoscopy; however, most case series have reported that the cecum is the most commonly involved site, followed by the ascending colon. Endoscopic evaluation should be used to assist in the diagnosis, with attention to the observation of colonic inflammation, ulceration, and amebic trophozoites on histopathological examination. PMID:26539949

  15. Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice

    E-print Network

    Kapoor, Amit; Senthilkumaran, P; Joseph, Joby

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.

  16. String theory, cosmology and varying constants

    E-print Network

    Thibault Damour

    2002-10-18

    In string theory the coupling ``constants'' appearing in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are determined by the vacuum expectation values of some (a priori) massless scalar fields (dilaton, moduli). This naturally leads one to expect a correlated variation of all the coupling constants, and an associated violation of the equivalence principle. We review some string-inspired theoretical models which incorporate such a spacetime variation of coupling constants while remaining naturally compatible both with phenomenological constraints coming from geochemical data (Oklo; Rhenium decay) and with present equivalence principle tests. Barring a very unnatural fine-tuning of parameters, a variation of the fine-structure constant as large as that recently ``observed'' by Webb et al. in quasar absorption spectra appears to be incompatible with these phenomenological constraints. Independently of any model, it is emphasized that the best experimental probe of varying constants are high-precision tests of the universality of free fall, such as MICROSCOPE and STEP.

  17. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Dubey, Manvendra K; Lesins, Glen; Wang, Muyin

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  18. Percolation model with continuously varying exponents.

    PubMed

    Andrade, R F S; Herrmann, H J

    2013-10-01

    This work analyzes a percolation model on the diamond hierarchical lattice (DHL), where the percolation transition is retarded by the inclusion of a probability of erasing specific connected structures. It has been inspired by the recent interest on the existence of other universality classes of percolation models. The exact scale invariance and renormalization properties of DHL leads to recurrence maps, from which analytical expressions for the critical exponents and precise numerical results in the limit of very large lattices can be derived. The critical exponents ? and ? of the investigated model vary continuously as the erasing probability changes. An adequate choice of the erasing probability leads to the result ?=?, like in some phase transitions involving vortex formation. The percolation transition is continuous, with ?>0, but ? can be as small as desired. The modified percolation model turns out to be equivalent to the Q?1 limit of a Potts model with specific long range interactions on the same lattice. PMID:24229131

  19. Percolation model with continuously varying exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, R. F. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2013-10-01

    This work analyzes a percolation model on the diamond hierarchical lattice (DHL), where the percolation transition is retarded by the inclusion of a probability of erasing specific connected structures. It has been inspired by the recent interest on the existence of other universality classes of percolation models. The exact scale invariance and renormalization properties of DHL leads to recurrence maps, from which analytical expressions for the critical exponents and precise numerical results in the limit of very large lattices can be derived. The critical exponents ? and ? of the investigated model vary continuously as the erasing probability changes. An adequate choice of the erasing probability leads to the result ?=?, like in some phase transitions involving vortex formation. The percolation transition is continuous, with ?>0, but ? can be as small as desired. The modified percolation model turns out to be equivalent to the Q?1 limit of a Potts model with specific long range interactions on the same lattice.

  20. Does the Newtonian Gravity "Constant" G Vary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noerdlinger, Peter D.

    2015-08-01

    A series of measurements of Newton's gravity constant, G, dating back as far as 1893, yielded widely varying values, the variation greatly exceeding the stated error estimates (Gillies, 1997; Quinn, 2000, Mohr et al 2008). The value of G is usually said to be unrelated to other physics, but we point out that the 8B Solar Neutrino Rate ought to be very sensitive. Improved pulsar timing could also help settle the issue as to whether G really varies. We claim that the variation in measured values over time (1893-2014 C.E.) is a more serious problem than the failure of the error bars to overlap; it appears that challenging or adjusting the error bars hardly masks the underlying disagreement in central values. We have assessed whether variations in the gravitational potential due to (for example) local dark matter (DM) could explain the variations. We find that the required potential fluctuations could transiently accelerate the Solar System and nearby stars to speeds in excess of the Galactic escape speed. Previous theories for the variation in G generally deal with supposed secular variation on a cosmological timescale, or very rapid oscillations whose envelope changes on that scale (Steinhardt and Will 1995). Therefore, these analyses fail to support variations on the timescale of years or spatial scales of order parsecs, which would be required by the data for G. We note that true variations in G would be associated with variations in clock rates (Derevianko and Pospelov 2014; Loeb and Maoz 2015), which could mask changes in orbital dynamics. Geringer-Sameth et al (2014) studied ?-ray emission from the nearby Reticulum dwarf galaxy, which is expected to be free of "ordinary" (stellar, black hole) ?-ray sources and found evidence for DM decay. Bernabei et al (2003) also found evidence for DM penetrating deep underground at Gran Sasso. If, indeed, variations in G can be tied to variations in gravitational potential, we have a new tool to assess the DM density.

  1. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the advantage of offering smooth animations, while spatial compression can handle volumes of larger dimensions.

  2. Essays and Addresses on Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Geoffrey, Ed.

    The following book on composition in the elementary school grows out of the activities of the Tri-University Project (now called the Nebraska TTT Institute in Elementary Education). The project is concerned with improving the education of young children by working to improve the education of the teachers in Higher Education who educate the…

  3. 2005 Velsoft International Inc. All rights reserved. Outlook 2003 Advanced Contact FirstCall: first-call@tamu.edu Call Toll-Free: 866-996-2056

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Call: first-call@tamu.edu Call Toll-Free: 866-996-2056 2003OutlookQuick Reference Guide Microsoft® The Mail in red in the sample above) E-mail Accounts Opens the e-mail account wizard. Data Files Opens the Data one of these methods: 1. Click the Start menu and click Control Panel Click Mail. Click Data Files

  4. 2005 Velsoft International Inc. All rights reserved. Outlook 2003 Intermediate Contact FirstCall: first-call@tamu.edu Call Toll-Free: 866-996-2056

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    address. Use a free site like Hotmail, Yahoo, or Netscape to set up a free e-mail account. This way, whenCall: first-call@tamu.edu Call Toll-Free: 866-996-2056 2003OutlookQuick Reference Guide Microsoft® The Formatting Toolbar (Mail) Performing a Mail Merge Saves your mail message to the drafts folder. Prints your

  5. The Aurora Calling Tree Updated May 14, 2010

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    The Aurora Calling Tree Updated May 14, 2010 1. If you see the Aurora first, call the next person Only circles. (However, if an early circle person happens to see the Aurora after 11:00, please CALL-529-7066 Norm Williams 406-579-1882 #12;The Aurora Calling Tree Updated May 14, 2010 1. If you see the Aurora

  6. In situ source levels of mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) calls.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Miles J G; McCauley, Robert D; Mackie, Michael C; Siwabessy, Paulus J; Duncan, Alec J

    2012-11-01

    Mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) in Mosman Bay, Western Australia produce three call categories associated with spawning behavior. The determination of call source levels and their contribution to overall recorded sound pressure levels is a significant step towards estimating numbers of calling fish within the detection range of a hydrophone. The source levels and ambient noise also provide significant information on the impacts anthropogenic activity may have on the detection of A. japonicus calls. An array of four hydrophones was deployed to record and locate individual fish from call arrival-time differences. Successive A. japonicus calls produced samples at various ranges between 1 and 100 m from one of the array hydrophones. The three-dimensional localization of calls, together with removal of ambient noise, allowed the determination of source levels for each call category using observed trends in propagation losses and interference. Mean source levels (at 1 m from the hydrophone) of the three call categories were calculated as 163 ± 16 dB re 1 ?Pa for Category 1 calls (short call of 2-5 pulses); 172 ± 4 dB re 1 ?Pa for Category 2 calls (long calls of 11-32 pulses); and 157 ± 5 dB re 1 ?Pa for Category 3 calls (series of successive calls of 1-4 pulses, increasing in call rate). PMID:23145635

  7. Linking Calling Orientations to Organizational Attachment via Organizational Instrumentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardador, M. Teresa; Dane, Erik; Pratt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an emerging interest in callings, researchers know little about whether calling orientations matter in the workplace. We explore the under-examined relationship between a calling orientation and employees' attachment to their organizations. Although some theory suggests that callings may be negatively related to organizational attachment,…

  8. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... ?D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  9. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... ?D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  10. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... ?D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  11. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... ?D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  12. Acoustic features of male baboon loud calls: Influences of context, age, and individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Julia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

    2002-03-01

    The acoustic structure of loud calls (``wahoos'') recorded from free-ranging male baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) in the Moremi Game Reserve, Botswana, was examined for differences between and within contexts, using calls given in response to predators (alarm wahoos), during male contests (contest wahoos), and when a male had become separated from the group (contact wahoos). Calls were recorded from adolescent, subadult, and adult males. In addition, male alarm calls were compared with those recorded from females. Despite their superficial acoustic similarity, the analysis revealed a number of significant differences between alarm, contest, and contact wahoos. Contest wahoos are given at a much higher rate, exhibit lower frequency characteristics, have a longer ``hoo'' duration, and a relatively louder ``hoo'' portion than alarm wahoos. Contact wahoos are acoustically similar to contest wahoos, but are given at a much lower rate. Both alarm and contest wahoos also exhibit significant differences among individuals. Some of the acoustic features that vary in relation to age and sex presumably reflect differences in body size, whereas others are possibly related to male stamina and endurance. The finding that calls serving markedly different functions constitute variants of the same general call type suggests that the vocal production in nonhuman primates is evolutionarily constrained.

  13. The Sound of Danger: Threat Sensitivity to Predator Vocalizations, Alarm Calls, and Novelty in Gulls

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Sarah A.; Bonter, David N.

    2013-01-01

    The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

  14. The sound of danger: threat sensitivity to predator vocalizations, alarm calls, and novelty in gulls.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Sarah A; Bonter, David N

    2013-01-01

    The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

  15. Creep failure analysis for ceramic composites containing viscous interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Beyerlein, I.J.; An, L.; Raj, R.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes an experimental and theoretical study of the creep fracture of advanced ceramic composites under steady axial tension. Such composites consist of a high fraction of elongated ceramic grains, varying substantially in aspect ratio and embedded in a glassy matrix phase. For creep testing, a model test system was prepared, which consisted of well-aligned elongated mica platelets ({approximately} 60 vol%) and residual glass phase ({approximately} 40 vol%) in its final heat-treatment stage. The creep curves of several specimens under various applied loads and at a temperature (800 C) higher than the T{sub g} of the glass matrix ({approximately} 650 C) were obtained up to creep fracture. Micrographs of the creep fracture surfaces revealed substantial grain pull-out and cavitation in the matrix phase with virtually no transgranular fracture. The objective of this work is to simulate the creep response and fracture based on the accumulation of localized void growth and microstructural parameters, using a computational mechanics technique, called viscous break interaction (VBI), developed to compute stress fields around strongly interacting fractures or voids in composites with fibrous microstructures. To simulate the creep process up to fracture, a Monte Carlo model is developed which couples VBI with a statistical description of grain length. Both the experimental and simulation results show that random lengths and random overlap of the aligned grains naturally lead to (i) local and microstructure-sensitive damage evolution up to ultimate failure and (ii) substantial variation in failure times of seemingly identical specimens.

  16. Failure models for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    The goals of this investigation were to: (1) identify mechanisms of failure and determine how the architecture of reinforcing fibers in 3D woven composites controlled stiffness, strength, strain to failure, work of fracture, notch sensitivity, and fatigue life; and (2) to model composite stiffness, strength, and fatigue life. A total of 11 different angle and orthogonal interlock woven composites were examined. Composite properties depended on the weave architecture, the tow size, and the spatial distributions and strength of geometrical flaws. Simple models were developed for elastic properties, strength, and fatigue life. A more complicated stochastic model, called the 'Binary Model,' was developed for damage tolerance and ultimate failure. These 3D woven composites possessed an extraordinary combination of strength, damage tolerance, and notch insensitivity.

  17. Optimal Critic Learning for Robot Control in Time-Varying Environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Li, Yanan; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Lee, Tong Heng

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, optimal critic learning is developed for robot control in a time-varying environment. The unknown environment is described as a linear system with time-varying parameters, and impedance control is employed for the interaction control. Desired impedance parameters are obtained in the sense of an optimal realization of the composite of trajectory tracking and force regulation. Q -function-based critic learning is developed to determine the optimal impedance parameters without the knowledge of the system dynamics. The simulation results are presented and compared with existing methods, and the efficacy of the proposed method is verified. PMID:25585427

  18. Hysteresis Can Grant Fitness in Stochastically Varying Environment

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gary; McCarthy, Stephen; Rachinskii, Dmitrii

    2014-01-01

    Although the existence of multiple stable phenotypes of living organisms enables random switching between phenotypes as well as non-random history dependent switching called hysteresis, only random switching has been considered in prior experimental and theoretical models of adaptation to variable environments. This work considers the possibility that hysteresis may also evolve together with random phenotype switching to maximize population growth. In addition to allowing the possibility that switching rates between different phenotypes may depend not only on a continuous environmental input variable, but also on the phenotype itself, the present work considers an opportunity cost of the switching events. This opportunity cost arises as a result of a lag phase experimentally observed after phenotype switching and stochastic behavior of the environmental input. It is shown that stochastic environmental variation results in maximal asymptotic growth rate when organisms display hysteresis for sufficiently slowly varying environmental input. At the same time, sinusoidal input does not cause evolution of memory suggesting that the connection between the lag phase, stochastic environmental variation and evolution of hysteresis is a result of a stochastic resonance type phenomenon. PMID:25068284

  19. Multi-component separation and analysis of bat echolocation calls.

    PubMed

    DiCecco, John; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, James A

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of animal vocalizations contain multiple frequency modulated (FM) components with varying amounts of non-linear modulation and harmonic instability. This is especially true of biosonar sounds where precise time-frequency templates are essential for neural information processing of echoes. Understanding the dynamic waveform design by bats and other echolocating animals may help to improve the efficacy of man-made sonar through biomimetic design. Bats are known to adapt their call structure based on the echolocation task, proximity to nearby objects, and density of acoustic clutter. To interpret the significance of these changes, a method was developed for component separation and analysis of biosonar waveforms. Techniques for imaging in the time-frequency plane are typically limited due to the uncertainty principle and interference cross terms. This problem is addressed by extending the use of the fractional Fourier transform to isolate each non-linear component for separate analysis. Once separated, empirical mode decomposition can be used to further examine each component. The Hilbert transform may then successfully extract detailed time-frequency information from each isolated component. This multi-component analysis method is applied to the sonar signals of four species of bats recorded in-flight by radiotelemetry along with a comparison of other common time-frequency representations. PMID:23297925

  20. On current compositing algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qi, J.; Kerr, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Several techniques exist for compositing the multitemporal NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data for vegetation studies. The major pixel selection criteria of these techniques rely on the characteristics of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetative Index): appearance of clouds, poor atmospheric conditions, and off-nadir viewing geometries would depress the NDVI values. Consequently, selecting the pixels with the maximum value of NDVI would presumably eliminate these external perturbating effects. However, the maximum NDVI does not always correspond to these ideal conditions. In fact, the NDVI varies with these external factors in an unpredictable way. There was an indication that the maximum NDVI tended to favor the off-nadir view in the forward direction. The resultant composite product would be consequently affected. To improve the multitemporal data via compositing, therefore, both the pixel selection criteria and the classifier NDVI need to be modified or corrected for external factors. The current compositing algorithms were reviewed, and alternatives were proposed to use the combinations of the red and near infrared channels and biological characteristics of vegetation as second criteria in pixel selections. The traditional classifier NDVI was replaced with different vegetation indices. The approach was applied to an AVHRR data set over the HAPEX study site in Niger in 1992. The results showed that the approach improved the AVHRR time series quality and was promising towards the development of an efficient compositing algorithm.

  1. On-line minimization of call setup time via local balancing: A stochastic approximation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simha, Rahul; Kurose, James F.

    1994-02-01

    With the addition of new network services, it is anticipated that the processing involved in setting up a call in a circuit-switched network or a session in a packet-switched network will vary greatly for different types of services. In this paper, we address the problem of reducing the call setup time in a circuit-switched network, or equivalently the session setup time in a packet-switched network, through the balancing of load across call processors. With a view to designing algorithms to execute on-line in a system, we formulate a stochastic optimization problem and study the use of stochastic approximation techniques. given the distributed nature of the problem, we extent previous results obtained for a single node to the case where several nodes operate simultaneously and in an asynchronous manner. Our results include a theoretical study of convergence as well as several simulation results that compare two stochastic approximation techniques.

  2. The Chemical Composition of Honey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution, created by bees, and used by human beings as a sweetener. However, honey is more than just a supersaturated sugar solution; it also contains acids, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids in varying quantities. In this article, we will briefly explore the chemical composition of honey. (Contains 2 figures and…

  3. Historical Gasoline Composition Data 1976 - 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

  4. Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Frants H.; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise. PMID:21345867

  5. "CALL" in the Heart of Darkness: A Research into the Place of "CALL" in TESOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutunis, Birsen

    This study is an inquiry into the integration of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) into the teaching of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL), and focuses on the relationship of computers within a variety of British educational establishments in the county of Sussex (England). The aims of the study were: (1) to examine how TESOL…

  6. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A; Fuzessery, Zoltan M

    2015-10-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 75: 1125-1139, 2015. PMID:25142131

  7. Time-varying Dynamical Star Formation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-01

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t 2. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  8. The Strength of Varying Tie Strength

    E-print Network

    Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    "The Strength of Weak Ties" argument (Granovetter 1973) says that the most valuable information is best collected through bridging ties with other social circles than one's own, and that those ties tend to be weak. Aral and Van Alstyne (2011) added that to access complex information, actors need strong ties ("high bandwidth") instead. These insights I generalize by pointing at actors' interest to avoid spending large resources on low value information. Weak ties are well-suited for relatively simple information at low transmission and tie maintenance costs, whereas for complex information, the best outcomes are expected for those actors who vary their bandwidths along with the value of information accessed. To support my claim I use all patents in the USA (two million) over the period 1975-1999. I also show that in rationalized fields, such as technology, bandwidth correlates highly with the value of information, which provides support for using this proxy if value can't be measured directly. Finally, I show ...

  9. Granular Shear Flow in Varying Gravitational Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, N.; Rozitis, B.; Green, S. F.; de Lophem, T.-L.; Michel, P.; Losert, W.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their very low surface gravities, asteroids exhibit a number of different geological processes involving granular matter. Understanding the response of this granular material subject to external forces in microgravity conditions is vital to the design of a successful asteroid sub-surface sampling mechanism, and in the interpretation of the fascinating geology on an asteroid. We have designed and flown a Taylor-Couette shear cell to investigate granular flow due to rotational shear forces under the conditions of parabolic flight microgravity. The experiments occur under weak compression. First, we present the technical details of the experimental design with particular emphasis on how the equipment has been specifically designed for the parabolic flight environment. Then, we investigate how a steady state granular flow induced by rotational shear forces differs in varying gravitational environments. We find that the effect of constant shearing on the granular material, in a direction perpendicular to the effective acceleration, does not seem to be strongly influenced by gravity. This means that shear bands can form in the presence of a weak gravitational field just as on Earth.

  10. Honeybee Odometry: Performance in Varying Natural Terrain

    PubMed Central

    Tautz, Juergen; Zhang, Shaowu; Spaethe, Johannes; Brockmann, Axel; Si, Aung

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that honeybees flying through short, narrow tunnels with visually textured walls perform waggle dances that indicate a much greater flight distance than that actually flown. These studies suggest that the bee's “odometer” is driven by the optic flow (image motion) that is experienced during flight. One might therefore expect that, when bees fly to a food source through a varying outdoor landscape, their waggle dances would depend upon the nature of the terrain experienced en route. We trained honeybees to visit feeders positioned along two routes, each 580 m long. One route was exclusively over land. The other was initially over land, then over water and, finally, again over land. Flight over water resulted in a significantly flatter slope of the waggle-duration versus distance regression, compared to flight over land. The mean visual contrast of the scenes was significantly greater over land than over water. The results reveal that, in outdoor flight, the honeybee's odometer does not run at a constant rate; rather, the rate depends upon the properties of the terrain. The bee's perception of distance flown is therefore not absolute, but scene-dependent. These findings raise important and interesting questions about how these animals navigate reliably. PMID:15252454

  11. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  12. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  13. Contact Calls of the Northern and Southern White Rhinoceros Allow for Individual and Species Identification

    PubMed Central

    Cinková, Ivana; Policht, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Inter-individual relationships particularly in socially living mammals often require a well-developed communication system. Vocal and olfactory signals are the most important for the communication of rhinos, however, their vocal communication has been investigated to a very limited extent so far. White rhinos have the most developed social system out of all the rhinoceros species and vocal signals might therefore play an important role in their social interactions. We recorded repetitive contact pant calls from six captive northern white rhinos (Ceratotherium cottoni) and 14 captive and free-ranging southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) and examined if they transmit information about individual identity, species, social context and age class. Discriminant analyses revealed that a high percentage of the pant calls of both species could be classified to a correct individual. We calculated signature information capacity of pant calls recorded from adult animals in isolation at 3.19 bits for the northern white rhinos and at 3.15 bits for the southern white rhinos, which can potentially allow for a vocal discrimination of nine individuals of both species. We found that pant calls varied by species. Northern white rhinos had longer calls and also differed from the southern white rhinos in several frequency parameters of their calls. We also analysed the pant calls of southern white rhinos for the differences between the age classes and between social contexts in which they were recorded. Our results show that pant calls carry information about individual, species, age class and context. The ability to recognize this information would allow rhinos, in addition to olfactory cues, to communicate with highly increased accuracy. A better understanding of communication of white rhinos has potential practical use in their management and conservation particularly because of the low breeding success of white rhinos in captivity. PMID:24901244

  14. Progress on automated data analysis algorithms for ultrasonic inspection of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrin, John C.; Forsyth, David S.; Welter, John T.

    2015-03-01

    Progress is presented on the development and demonstration of automated data analysis (ADA) software to address the burden in interpreting ultrasonic inspection data for large composite structures. The automated data analysis algorithm is presented in detail, which follows standard procedures for analyzing signals for time-of-flight indications and backwall amplitude dropout. New algorithms have been implemented to reliably identify indications in time-of-flight images near the front and back walls of composite panels. Adaptive call criteria have also been applied to address sensitivity to variation in backwall signal level, panel thickness variation, and internal signal noise. ADA processing results are presented for a variety of test specimens that include inserted materials and discontinuities produced under poor manufacturing conditions. Software tools have been developed to support both ADA algorithm design and certification, producing a statistical evaluation of indication results and false calls using a matching process with predefined truth tables. Parametric studies were performed to evaluate detection and false call results with respect to varying algorithm settings.

  15. Multiscale Multifunctional Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells. Global fracture is enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads. The old reference denotes that nothing has been added to this comprehensive report since then.

  16. Composites review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hordonneau, A.

    1987-01-01

    The properties and applications of composite materials are reviewed. Glass, carbon, Kevlar, ceramic, whisker, and metal fibers are discussed along with polyester, epoxy, polyimide, Peek, carbon, ceramic, and metal matrices. The quantitative distribution of high technology fiber in various applications is given. The role of aerospace industry in the development and promotion of composite utilization is discussed. Consumption trends indicate a rapid development of the composite market.

  17. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    PubMed Central

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (?2(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (?2(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

  18. Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Rekdahl, Melinda L; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Goldizen, Anne W; Garland, Ellen C; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9?s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined. PMID:26093396

  19. Hypothermia for Stroke: call to action 2010.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Malcolm R; Petersson, Jesper; Norrving, Bo; Hacke, Werner; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Wagner, Markus; Schwab, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    The European Hypothermia Stroke Research Workshop was held in January 2010, in response to the alarming prospects of a significant increase of stroke expected in the coming years globally. Considering that a minority of patients (around 10%) are currently eligible for thrombolytic treatment, there is a need for an efficacious, cost-effective novel therapy that can be implemented broadly within European health care systems. Accordingly, the primary objective of the workshop was the definition of a research agenda aiming to assess the therapeutic benefits of hypothermia in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. The meeting was organised by the European Stroke Research Network for Hypothermia (EuroHyp) and attended by the representatives of World Stroke Organisation, European Stroke Organisation, Stroke Alliance for Europe, Society for Cryobiology and other organisations--specifically the European Space Agency, and small- and medium-sized enterprises based in EU member states. The participants adopted the 'Hypothermia for Stroke--Call to Action 2010', a declaration specifying the priorities for hypothermia research in acute ischaemic stroke. The research programme outlined--a clinical study programme designed to identify and validate therapeutic cooling as a novel treatment providing benefit to a large number of stroke patients--contains a well-integrated series of Phase II studies aiming to refine the intervention (depth, duration, and mode of cooling; antishivering strategy; patient selection) and a pivotal Phase III clinical trial. The proposed integrated Phase II and III clinical study programme would test the effectiveness of this optimised intervention, and would allow the development of evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines describing the optimal use of therapeutic hypothermia as a treatment strategy for stroke. PMID:21086713

  20. Deformations of thick two-material cylinder under axially varying radial pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Y. A.

    1976-01-01

    Stresses and deformations in thick, short, composite cylinder subjected to axially varying radial pressure are studied. Effect of slippage at the interface is examined. In the NASTRAN finite element model, multipoint constraint feature is utilized. Results are compared with theoretical analysis and SAP-IV computer code. Results from NASTRAN computer code are in good agreement with the analytical solutions. Results suggest a considerable influence of interfacial slippage on the axial bending stresses in the cylinder.

  1. Ambient noise induces independent shifts in call frequency and amplitude within the Lombard effect in echolocating bats

    PubMed Central

    Hage, Steffen R.; Jiang, Tinglei; Berquist, Sean W.; Feng, Jiang; Metzner, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The Lombard effect, an involuntary rise in call amplitude in response to masking ambient noise, represents one of the most efficient mechanisms to optimize signal-to-noise ratio. The Lombard effect occurs in birds and mammals, including humans, and is often associated with several other vocal changes, such as call frequency and duration. Most studies, however, have focused on noise-dependent changes in call amplitude. It is therefore still largely unknown how the adaptive changes in call amplitude relate to associated vocal changes such as frequency shifts, how the underlying mechanisms are linked, and if auditory feedback from the changing vocal output is needed. Here, we examined the Lombard effect and the associated changes in call frequency in a highly vocal mammal, echolocating horseshoe bats. We analyzed how bandpass-filtered noise (BFN; bandwidth 20 kHz) affected their echolocation behavior when BFN was centered on different frequencies within their hearing range. Call amplitudes increased only when BFN was centered on the dominant frequency component of the bats’ calls. In contrast, call frequencies increased for all but one BFN center frequency tested. Both amplitude and frequency rises were extremely fast and occurred in the first call uttered after noise onset, suggesting that no auditory feedback was required. The different effects that varying the BFN center frequency had on amplitude and frequency rises indicate different neural circuits and/or mechanisms underlying these changes. PMID:23431172

  2. Balancing Act: Student Valuation and Cultural Studies Composition Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Eliot

    2011-01-01

    Composition scholars have contributed many theoretical analyses that WPAs and teachers might apply to first-year composition textbooks in order to make informed decisions about book adoption and implementation. As they offer critiques of the ideological effects of FYC books, many of these studies call composition textbooks "tools" without…

  3. Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosinska, Lena; Glick, Madeleine

    2006-04-01

    Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    Guest Editors:

    Lena Wosinska, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) / ICT Sweden Madeleine Glick, Intel Research, Cambridge, UK

    Technologies based on DWDM systems allow data transmission with bit rates of Tbit/s on a single fiber. To facilitate this enormous transmission volume, high-capacity and high-speed network nodes become inevitable in the optical network. Wideband switching, WDM switching, optical burst switching (OBS), and optical packet switching (OPS) are promising technologies for harnessing the bandwidth of WDM optical fiber networks in a highly flexible and efficient manner. As a number of key optical component technologies approach maturity, photonics in switching is becoming an increasingly attractive and practical solution for the next-generation of optical networks. The scope of this special issue is focused on the technology and architecture of optical switching nodes, including the architectural and algorithmic aspects of high-speed optical networks.

    Scope of Submission

    The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following topics:
    • WDM node architectures
    • Novel device technologies enabling photonics in switching, such as optical switch fabrics, optical memory, and wavelength conversion
    • Routing protocols
    • WDM switching and routing
    • Quality of service
    • Performance measurement and evaluation
    • Next-generation optical networks: architecture, signaling, and control
    • Traffic measurement and field trials
    • Optical burst and packet switching
    • OBS/OPS node architectures
    • Burst/Packet scheduling and routing algorithms
    • Contention resolution/avoidance strategies
    • Services and applications for OBS/OPS (e.g., grid networks, storage-area networks, etc.)
    • Burst assembly and ingress traffic shaping
    • Hybrid OBS/TDM or OBS/wavelength routing

    Manuscript Submission

    To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON and select ``Photonics in Switching' in the features indicator of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Photonics in Switching.' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/journal/jon/author.cfm. Submission Deadline: 15 September 2006

  4. Operator bias in software-aided bat call identification

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Georg; Bruckner, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Software-aided identification facilitates the handling of large sets of bat call recordings, which is particularly useful in extensive acoustic surveys with several collaborators. Species lists are generated by “objective” automated classification. Subsequent validation consists of removing any species not believed to be present. So far, very little is known about the identification bias introduced by individual validation of operators with varying degrees of experience. Effects on the quality of the resulting data may be considerable, especially for bat species that are difficult to identify acoustically. Using the batcorder system as an example, we compared validation results from 21 volunteer operators with 1–26 years of experience of working on bats. All of them validated identical recordings of bats from eastern Austria. The final outcomes were individual validated lists of plausible species. A questionnaire was used to enquire about individual experience and validation procedures. In the course of species validation, the operators reduced the software's estimate of species richness. The most experienced operators accepted the smallest percentage of species from the software's output and validated conservatively with low interoperator variability. Operators with intermediate experience accepted the largest percentage, with larger variability. Sixty-six percent of the operators, mainly with intermediate and low levels of experience, reintroduced species to their validated lists which had been identified by the automated classification, but were finally excluded from the unvalidated lists. These were, in many cases, rare and infrequently recorded species. The average dissimilarity of the validated species lists dropped with increasing numbers of recordings, tending toward a level of ˜20%. Our results suggest that the operators succeeded in removing false positives and that they detected species that had been wrongly excluded during automated classification. Thus, manual validation of the software's unvalidated output is indispensable for reasonable results. However, although application seems easy, software-aided bat call identification requires an advanced level of operator experience. Identification bias during validation is a major issue, particularly in studies with more than one participant. Measures should be taken to standardize the validation process and harmonize the results of different operators. PMID:25077021

  5. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.; Fan, X.

    1998-10-27

    An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

  6. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob (Rockville, MD); Fan, Xiyun (Orange, TX)

    1998-01-01

    An electrode composition for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5-4.5 volts.

  7. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...or persons responsible for tracking, compensating, and resolving...adversely affect its payphone call tracking ability; (5) Whether...and the name, address and phone number for the person...changes concerning its call tracking system in its...

  8. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...or persons responsible for tracking, compensating, and resolving...adversely affect its payphone call tracking ability; (5) Whether...and the name, address and phone number for the person...changes concerning its call tracking system in its...

  9. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...or persons responsible for tracking, compensating, and resolving...adversely affect its payphone call tracking ability; (5) Whether...and the name, address and phone number for the person...changes concerning its call tracking system in its...

  10. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...or persons responsible for tracking, compensating, and resolving...adversely affect its payphone call tracking ability; (5) Whether...and the name, address and phone number for the person...changes concerning its call tracking system in its...

  11. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...or persons responsible for tracking, compensating, and resolving...adversely affect its payphone call tracking ability; (5) Whether...and the name, address and phone number for the person...changes concerning its call tracking system in its...

  12. 75 FR 31458 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ...list is called the Critical Infrastructure List. The Critical Infrastructure List includes assets and...allow IP to appropriate funds cost-effectively based...Programs Directorate. Title: Infrastructure Protection Data Call...

  13. Modeling and frequency tracking of marine mammal whistle calls

    E-print Network

    Severson, Jared

    2009-01-01

    Marine mammal whistle calls present an attractive medium for covert underwater communications. High quality models of the whistle calls are needed in order to synthesize natural-sounding whistles with embedded information. ...

  14. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs...

  15. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs...

  16. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs...

  17. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs...

  18. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs...

  19. Isosurface Extraction in Time-Varying Fields Using a Temporal Hierarchical Index Tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Han-Wei; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Many high-performance isosurface extraction algorithms have been proposed in the past several years as a result of intensive research efforts. When applying these algorithms to large-scale time-varying fields, the storage overhead incurred from storing the search index often becomes overwhelming. this paper proposes an algorithm for locating isosurface cells in time-varying fields. We devise a new data structure, called Temporal Hierarchical Index Tree, which utilizes the temporal coherence that exists in a time-varying field and adoptively coalesces the cells' extreme values over time; the resulting extreme values are then used to create the isosurface cell search index. For a typical time-varying scalar data set, not only does this temporal hierarchical index tree require much less storage space, but also the amount of I/O required to access the indices from the disk at different time steps is substantially reduced. We illustrate the utility and speed of our algorithm with data from several large-scale time-varying CID simulations. Our algorithm can achieve more than 80% of disk-space savings when compared with the existing techniques, while the isosurface extraction time is nearly optimal.

  20. AUDIT AND FINANCE COMMITTEE CONFERENCE CALL Tuesday, August 28, 2007

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    MINUTES AUDIT AND FINANCE COMMITTEE CONFERENCE CALL Tuesday, August 28, 2007 Mrs. Nancy Blosser, Chair of the Audit and Finance Committee, convened this conference call at 2:04 p.m. Roll call or corrections to the minutes of the June 6, 2007 Audit and Finance Committee meeting and the June 13

  1. The Call for an African University: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte; Higgs, Philip

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on philosophy (particularly African philosophy) to analyse the call for an African university. The call for an African university may be viewed as a call that insists that all critical and transformative educators in Africa embrace an indigenous African worldview and root their nation's educational paradigms in an indigenous…

  2. 28 CFR 540.103 - Inmate telephone calls to attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate telephone calls to attorneys. 540... MANAGEMENT CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Telephone Regulations for Inmates § 540.103 Inmate telephone calls to attorneys. The Warden may not apply frequency limitations on inmate telephone calls...

  3. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  4. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  5. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  6. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  7. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  8. A Sinister Bias for Calling Fouls in Soccer Alexander Kranjec*

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    A Sinister Bias for Calling Fouls in Soccer Alexander Kranjec*¤ , Matthew Lehet, Bianca Bromberger and unfair tackle in soccer can be difficult. For referees, choosing to call a foul often requires a decision for Calling Fouls in Soccer. PLoS ONE 5(7): e11667. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0011667 Editor: Sam Gilbert

  9. Bats aloft: Variation in echolocation call structure at high altitudes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bats alter their echolocation calls in response to changes in ecological and behavioral conditions, but little is known about how they adjust their call structure in response to changes in altitude. This study examines altitudinal variation in the echolocation calls of Brazilian free-tailed bats, T...

  10. Song Trait Similarity in Great Tits Varies with Social Structure

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Lysanne; van der Eijk, Jerine; van Rooij, Erica P.; de Goede, Piet; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc

    2015-01-01

    For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership) with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called “dear enemy” relations). Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major) in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping variation in territorial birdsong. PMID:25692873

  11. Song trait similarity in great tits varies with social structure.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Lysanne; van der Eijk, Jerine; van Rooij, Erica P; de Goede, Piet; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc

    2015-01-01

    For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership) with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called "dear enemy" relations). Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major) in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping variation in territorial birdsong. PMID:25692873

  12. naiveBayesCall: An efficient model-based base-calling algorithm for high-throughput

    E-print Network

    Song, Yun S.

    . The base-calling software supplied with GA is called Bustard, which adopts a very efficient algorithm based, it is well-known that the error rate of Bustard becomes substantial in later cycles. Reducing the error rate

  13. Meta Learning, Change of Internal Workings, and LIDA Ryan McCall RMcCall@Memphis.Edu

    E-print Network

    Memphis, University of

    Meta Learning, Change of Internal Workings, and LIDA Ryan McCall RMcCall@Memphis.Edu Fedex@Memphis.Edu Fedex Institute of Technology 301 The University of Memphis Memphis, TN 38152, USA Abstract Here we

  14. Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rewoldt

    2003-09-08

    The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results.

  15. Does Vessel Noise Affect Oyster Toadfish Calling Rates?

    PubMed

    Luczkovich, Joseph J; Krahforst, Cecilia S; Hoppe, Harry; Sprague, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    The question we addressed in this study is whether oyster toadfish respond to vessel disturbances by calling less when vessels with lower frequency spectra are present in a sound recording and afterward. Long-term data recorders were deployed at the Neuse (high vessel-noise site) and Pamlico (low vessel-noise site) Rivers. There were many fewer toadfish detections at the high vessel-noise site than the low-noise station. Calling rates were lower in the high-boat traffic area, suggesting that toadfish cannot call over loud vessel noise, reducing the overall calling rate, and may have to call more often when vessels are not present. PMID:26611015

  16. Electrodeposition of nickel composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkar, Tushar

    Pulse electrodeposition (PC) and pulse reverse electrodeposition (PRC) bring a new era in improving the surface properties of metals. These processes are associated with many advantages, such as reduction in porosity, low level of inclusions, and higher deposition rates compared to direct current (DC) electrodeposition process. There is much more flexibility in varying three basic parameters which are, pulse current density, on time, and off time in pulse electrodeposition resulting in unique composition and microstructure of coating being deposited. In this work, nickel matrix composite coatings were synthesized by co-depositing nano particles (Al2O3, SiC, and ZrO2) from Watts bath. To get detailed insight into effect of processing parameters on the microstructure, mechanical, and tribological properties of the composite coatings, the coatings were also fabricated using DC, PC, and PRC techniques. Also, the effect of bath loading on the level of reinforcement in the coating was investigated for Ni-Al2O 3 composite coatings. Furthermore an attempt was made to produce Ni-CNT coatings by pulse electrodeposition method. Pure nickel coatings were also prepared for comparison. Composite coatings deposited using PC and PRC techniques exhibited significant improvement in microhardness and wear resistance. The presence of nanoparticles in the composite coating seems to prohibit the columnar growth of the nickel grains resulting in random/weak texture and smaller thickness of the composite coatings. Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings show maximum hardness and wear resistance compared to Ni-SiC and Ni-ZrO 2 composite coatings. As Al2O3 content in electroplating bath increases, Microhardness and wear resistance of composite coatings increases but thickness of the coatings decreases due to nanoparticles obstructing grain growth. The Ni-CNT composite coatings exhibited significantly improved microhardness compared to pure nickel coatings.

  17. The So-Called 'Face on Mars'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north-facing slopes. The presence of water ice in these layers is a likely possibility to account for their preservation only on the colder surfaces. Alternatively, these unique features could be the result of the slow downslope motion of the surface layer, possibly enhanced by the presence of ground ice. One argument against downslope motion is the observation that the uppermost rounded boundary of these layers typically occurs at approximately the same distance below the ridge crest. This would suggest the (seemingly) unlikely possibility that all of these layers had moved downslope the same amount regardless of where they are located. In either case, ground ice likely plays an important role in the formation and preservation of these deposits because they only occur on the cold slopes facing away from the Sun where ground ice is more stable and may still be present today. The Story Nature is an imaginative artist, creating all kinds of wonderful landforms, cloud shapes, and other patterned features that remind people of familiar things in our lives. We see a 'man in the moon' when it is full in the night sky, and dream of a dromedary-dotted desert when coming upon Arizona's Camelback Mountain or Colorado's 'Kissing Camels' in the 'Garden of the Gods.' Near Ludlow, California, a lonely prospector once noticed that the appealing outline of the mountains resembled a reclining woman, and named the place Sleeping Beauty. And this naming delight isn't limited to Earth. The Mars Pathfinder mission team couldn't help but name the rocks at the landing site, including a bear-headed-looking one named Yogi. Part of the fun of exploration is not just visiting a strange world, but relating to it in human terms. On Mars, we've already seen a valentine heart-shaped crater, a happy-faced crater, and even a murky and mysterious 'face' on Mars. This face (seen here about halfway down the image and to the right) is really just a hill with slopes and ridges that are shadowed in a way that can sometimes resemble a face from far away. The first picture of

  18. Craving Ravens: Individual ‘haa’ Call Rates at Feeding Sites as Cues to Personality and Levels of Fission-Fusion Dynamics?

    PubMed Central

    Szipl, Georgine; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Common ravens aggregate in large non-breeder flocks for roosting and foraging until they achieve the status of territorial breeders. When discovering food, they produce far-reaching yells or ‘haa’ calls, which attract conspecifics. Due to the high levels of fission-fusion dynamics in non-breeders’ flocks, assemblies of feeding ravens were long thought to represent anonymous aggregations. Yet, non-breeders vary in their degree of vagrancy, and ‘haa’ calls convey individually distinct acoustic features, which are perceived by conspecifics. These findings give rise to the assumption that raven societies are based on differential social relationships on an individual level. We investigated the occurrence of ‘haa’ calling and individual call rates in a group of individually marked free-ranging ravens. Calling mainly occurred in subadult and adult females, which showed low levels of vagrancy. Call rates differed significantly between individuals and with residency status, and were correlated with calling frequency and landing frequency. Local ravens called more often and at higher rates, and were less likely to land at the feeding site than vagrant birds. The results are discussed with respect to individual degrees of vagrancy, which may have an impact on social knowledge and communication in this species. PMID:25984563

  19. The Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service: High Frequency of Nontransported Calls

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Sherwin E.; Gaskin, Pamela S.; Byer, David; Cadogan, W. L.; Brathwaite, Andrew; Nielsen, Anders L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. There are no published studies on the Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service and no assessment of the calls that end in nontransported individuals. We describe reasons for the nontransport of potential clients. Methods. We used the Emergency Medical Dispatch (Medical Priority Dispatch System) instrument, augmented with five local call types, to collect information on types of calls. The calls were categorised under 7 headings. Correlations between call types and response time were calculated. Results. Most calls were from the category medical (54%). Nineteen (19%) percent of calls were in the non-transported category. Calls from call type Cancelled accounted for most of these and this was related to response time, while Refused service was inversely related (P = 0.01). Conclusions. The Barbados Ambulance Service is mostly used by people with a known illness and for trauma cases. One-fifth of calls fall into a category where the ambulance is not used often due to cancellation which is related to response time. Other factors such as the use of alternative transport are also important. Further study to identify factors that contribute to the non-transported category of calls is necessary if improvements in service quality are to be made. PMID:23198147

  20. Individual Distinctiveness in Call Types of Wild Western Female Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Roberta; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo). Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC) was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized), suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication. PMID:25029238

  1. Material properties and laser cutting of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Chieh; Cheng, Wing

    Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) has been used successfully for many material cutting, drilling, metal welding and heat treating applications. However, laser cutting of polymer composites were attempted with varying degrees of success. Because composites are heterogeneous, the energy applied by laser could result in severe resin degradation before fibers were cut. In this study, cutting of glass, Kevlar, and graphite composites were evaluated based on their material properties and laser cutting parameters. A transient heat transfer analysis was used to determine the relative heat affected zones of these composites. Kevlar composites can be cut very well while graphite composites are difficult to cut. Though the cutting process is much more complicated in reality, the analysis provides a semi-quantitative perspective on the characteristics and limitations of laser cutting of different composites.

  2. Fuel composition

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.H.

    1990-06-26

    This patent describes a motor fuel composition. It comprises: a mixture of hydrocarbons in the gasoline boiling range containing a deposit preventing or reducing effective amount of poly(olefin)-N-substituted- carbamate.

  3. Temperature Responses of Soil Organic Matter Components With Varying Recalcitrance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, M. J.; Feng, X.

    2007-12-01

    The response of soil organic matter (SOM) to global warming remains unclear partly due to the chemical heterogeneity of SOM composition. In this study, the decomposition of SOM from two grassland soils was investigated in a one-year laboratory incubation at six different temperatures. SOM was separated into solvent- extractable compounds, suberin- and cutin-derived compounds, and lignin monomers by solvent extraction, base hydrolysis, and CuO oxidation, respectively. These SOM components had distinct chemical structures and recalcitrance, and their decomposition was fitted by a two-pool exponential decay model. The stability of SOM components was assessed using geochemical parameters and kinetic parameters derived from model fitting. Lignin monomers exhibited much lower decay rates than solvent-extractable compounds and a relatively low percentage of lignin monomers partitioned into the labile SOM pool, which confirmed the generally accepted recalcitrance of lignin compounds. Suberin- and cutin-derived compounds had a poor fitting for the exponential decay model, and their recalcitrance was shown by the geochemical degradation parameter which stabilized during the incubation. The aliphatic components of suberin degraded faster than cutin-derived compounds, suggesting that cutin-derived compounds in the soil may be at a higher stage of degradation than suberin- derived compounds. The temperature sensitivity of decomposition, expressed as Q10, was derived from the relationship between temperature and SOM decay rates. SOM components exhibited varying temperature responses and the decomposition of the recalcitrant lignin monomers had much higher Q10 values than soil respiration or the solvent-extractable compounds decomposition. Our study shows that the decomposition of recalcitrant SOM is highly sensitive to temperature, more so than bulk soil mineralization. This observation suggests a potential acceleration in the degradation of the recalcitrant SOM pool with global warming.

  4. Hydration kinetics of cement composites with varying water-cement ratio using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Shaumik; Dash, Jyotirmayee; Devi, Nirmala; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Pesala, Bala

    2015-03-01

    Cement is mixed with water in an optimum ratio to form concrete with desirable mechanical strength and durability. The ability to track the consumption of major cement constituents, viz., Tri- and Dicalcium Silicates (C3S, C2S) reacting with water along with the formation of key hydration products, viz., Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (C-S-H) which gives the overall strength to the concrete and Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), a hydration product which reduces the strength and durability, using an efficient technique is highly desirable. Optimizing the amount of water to be mixed with cement is one of the main parameters which determine the strength of concrete. In this work, THz spectroscopy has been employed to track the variation in hydration kinetics for concrete samples with different water-cement ratios, viz., 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. Results show that for the sample with water-cement ratio of 0.3, significant amount of the C3S and C2S remain unreacted even after the initial hydration period of 28 days while for the cement with water-cement ratio of 0.6, most of the constituents get consumed during this stage. Analysis of the formation of Ca(OH)2 has been done which shows that the concrete sample with water-cement ratio of 0.6 produces the highest amount of Ca(OH)2 due to higher consumption of C3S/C2S in presence of excess water which is not desirable. Samples with water-cement ratio of 0.4 and 0.5 show more controlled reaction during the hydration which can imply formation of an optimized level of desired hydration products resulting in a more mechanically strong and durable concrete.

  5. Leaf wax composition and carbon isotopes vary among major conifer groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, Aaron F.; Leslie, Andrew B.; Wing, Scott L.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf waxes (e.g. n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids) and their carbon isotopes (?13C) are commonly used to track past changes in the carbon cycle, water availability, and plant ecophysiology. Previous studies indicated that conifers have lower n-alkane concentrations than angiosperms and that 13C fractionation during n-alkane synthesis (?n-alkane) is smaller than in angiosperms. These prior studies, however, sampled a limited phylogenetic and geographic subset of conifers, leaving out many important subtropical and Southern Hemisphere groups that were once widespread and common components of fossil assemblages. To expand on previous work, we collected 43 conifer species (and Ginkgo biloba) from the University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley, sampling all extant conifer families and almost two-thirds of extant genera. We find that Pinaceae, including many North American species used in previous studies, have very low or no n-alkanes. However, other conifer groups have significant concentrations of n-alkanes, especially Southern Hemisphere Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae (monkey puzzles, Norfolk Island pines, and yellowwoods), and many species of Cupressaceae (junipers and relatives). Within the Cupressaceae, we find total n-alkane concentrations are high in subfamilies Cupressoideae and Callitroideae, but significantly lower in the early diverging taxodioid lineages (including bald cypress and redwood). Individual n-alkane chain lengths have a weak phylogenetic signal, except for n-C29 alkane, but when combined using average chain length (ACL), a strong phylogenetic signal emerges. The strong phylogenetic signal in ACL, observed in the context of a common growth environment for all plants we sampled, suggests that ACL is strongly influenced by factors other than climate. An analysis of ?n-alkane indicates a strong phylogenetic signal in which the smallest biosynthetic fractionation occurs in Pinaceae and the largest in Taxaceae (yews and relatives). The relationship between phylogeny and ?n-alkane may be related to differences in carbon metabolism among conifer clades. These results have important implications for interpreting n-alkane ?13C values in sedimentary archives, especially outside of North America.

  6. Uropygial gland size and composition varies according to experimentally modified microbiome in Great tits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parasites exert important selective pressures on host life history traits. In birds, feathers are inhabited by numerous microorganisms, some of them being able to degrade feathers or lead to infections. Preening feathers with secretions of the uropygial gland has been found to act as an antimicrobial defence mechanism, expected to regulate feather microbial communities and thus limit feather abrasion and infections. Here, we used an experimental approach to test whether Great tits (Parus major) modify their investment in the uropygial gland in response to differences in environmental microorganisms. Results We found that males, but not females, modified the size of their gland when exposed to higher bacterial densities on feathers. We also identified 16 wax esters in the uropygial gland secretions. The relative abundance of some of these esters changed in males and females, while the relative abundance of others changed only in females when exposed to greater bacterial loads on feathers. Conclusion Birds live in a bacterial world composed of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. This study provides the first experimental evidence for modifications of investment in the defensive trait that is the uropygial gland in response to environmental microorganisms in a wild bird. PMID:24938652

  7. Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activity of pigmented sorghums of varying genotypes 

    E-print Network

    Dykes, Linda

    2009-05-15

    with a white pericarp, had higher levels of flavones (50-932 µg/g) than those with red/purple secondary plant color (0-172 µg/g). On the other hand, 3-deoxyanthocyanin levels were higher in red/purple plant sorghums (14-1885 µg/g) than in tan plant...

  8. Composition of fungal soil communities varies with plant abundance and geographic origin

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Vanessa; Martinez-Garcia, Laura B.; Sanderson, Laura; Antunes, Pedro M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of belowground fungal communities with exotic and native plant species may be important drivers of plant community structure in invaded grasslands. However, field surveys linking plant community structure with belowground fungal communities are missing. We investigated whether a selected number of abundant and relatively rare plants, either native or exotic, from an old-field site associate with different fungal communities. We also assessed whether these plants showed different symbiotic relationships with soil biota through their roots. We characterized the plant community and collected roots to investigate fungal communities using 454 pyrosequencing and assessed arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and enemy-induced lesions. Differences in fungal communities were considered based on the assessment of ?- and ? diversity depending on plant ‘abundance’ and ‘origin’. Plant abundance and origin determined the fungal community. Fungal richness was higher for native abundant as opposed to relatively rare native plant species. However, this was not observed for exotics of contrasting abundance. Regardless of their origin, ? diversity was higher for rare than for abundant species. Abundant exotics in the community, which happen to be grasses, were the least mycorrhizal whereas rare natives were most susceptible to enemy attack. Our results suggest that compared with exotics, the relative abundance of remnant native plant species in our old-field site is still linked to the structure of belowground fungal communities. In contrast, exotic species may act as a disturbing agent contributing towards the homogenization of soil fungal communities, potentially changing feedback interactions. PMID:26371291

  9. Holographic cinematography of time-varying reflecting and time-varying phase objects using a Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a Nd:YAG laser to record holographic motion pictures of time-varying reflecting objects and time-varying phase objects is discussed. Sample frames from both types of holographic motion pictures are presented. The holographic system discussed is intended for three-dimensional flow visualization of the time-varying flows that occur in jet-engine components.

  10. Composition of MRI phantom equivalent to human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Hirokazu; Kuroda, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Shibuya, Koichi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2005-10-15

    We previously developed two new MRI phantoms (called the CAG phantom and the CAGN phantom), with T1 and T2 relaxation times equivalent to those of any human tissue at 1.5 T. The conductivity of the CAGN phantom is equivalent to that of most types of human tissue in the frequency range of 1 to 130 MHz. In this paper, the relaxation times of human tissues are summarized, and the composition of the corresponding phantoms are provided in table form. The ingredients of these phantoms are carrageenan as the gelling agent, GdCl{sub 3} as a T1 modifier, agarose as a T2 modifier, NaCl (CAGN phantom only) as a conductivity modifier, NaN{sub 3} as an antiseptic, and distilled water. The phantoms have T1 values of 202-1904 ms and T2 values of 38-423 ms when the concentrations of GdCl{sub 3} and agarose are varied from 0-140 {mu}mol/kg, and 0%-1.6%, respectively, and the CAGN phantom has a conductivity of 0.27-1.26 S/m when the NaCl concentration is varied from 0%-0.7%. These phantoms have sufficient strength to replicate a torso without the use of reinforcing agents, and can be cut by a knife into any shape. We anticipate the CAGN phantom to be highly useful and practical for MRI and hyperthermia-related research.

  11. The relative abundances of the elements in the overall solar system vary over 13 orders of magnitude

    E-print Network

    The relative abundances of the elements in the overall solar system vary over 13 orders - Happy 80th Birthday The Sun has >99.8% of the solar system's mass and should provide a good approximation for the composition of the entire solar system. First quantitative solar spectrum analysis done

  12. Abrasive wear and surface roughness of contemporary dental composite resin.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-min; Zhang, Hongyu; Choe, Hyo-Sun; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Hong, Guang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the abrasive wear and surface roughness of 20 currently available commercial dental composite resins, including nanofilled, supra-nanofilled, nanohybrid and microhybrid composite resins. The volume loss, maximum vertical loss, surface roughness (R(a)) and surface morphology [Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)] were determined after wear. The inorganic filler content was determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The result showed that the volume loss and vertical loss varied among the materials. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) of wear volume loss and filler content (wt%) was 0.283. SEM micrographs revealed nanofilled composites displayed a relatively uniform wear surfaces with nanoclusters protrusion, while the performance of nanohybrid composites varied. The abrasive wear resistance of contemporary dental composite resins is material-dependent and cannot be deduced from its category, filler loading and composite matrix; The abrasive wear resistance of some flowable composites is comparable to the universal/posterior composite resins. PMID:25007731

  13. A generalized linear model for peak calling in ChIP-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jialin; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) has become a routine for detecting genome-wide protein-DNA interaction. The success of ChIP-Seq data analysis highly depends on the quality of peak calling (i.e., to detect peaks of tag counts at a genomic location and evaluate if the peak corresponds to a real protein-DNA interaction event). The challenges in peak calling include (1) how to combine the forward and the reverse strand tag data to improve the power of peak calling and (2) how to account for the variation of tag data observed across different genomic locations. We introduce a new peak calling method based on the generalized linear model (GLMNB) that utilizes negative binomial distribution to model the tag count data and account for the variation of background tags that may randomly bind to the DNA sequence at varying levels due to local genomic structures and sequence contents. We allow local shifting of peaks observed on the forward and the reverse stands, such that at each potential binding site, a binding profile representing the pattern of a real peak signal is fitted to best explain the observed tag data with maximum likelihood. Our method can also detect multiple peaks within a local region if there are multiple binding sites in the region. PMID:22533622

  14. Power-rate synchronization of coupled genetic oscillators with unbounded time-varying delay.

    PubMed

    Alofi, Abdulaziz; Ren, Fengli; Al-Mazrooei, Abdullah; Elaiw, Ahmed; Cao, Jinde

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a new synchronization problem for the collective dynamics among genetic oscillators with unbounded time-varying delay is investigated. The dynamical system under consideration consists of an array of linearly coupled identical genetic oscillators with each oscillators having unbounded time-delays. A new concept called power-rate synchronization, which is different from both the asymptotical synchronization and the exponential synchronization, is put forward to facilitate handling the unbounded time-varying delays. By using a combination of the Lyapunov functional method, matrix inequality techniques and properties of Kronecker product, we derive several sufficient conditions that ensure the coupled genetic oscillators to be power-rate synchronized. The criteria obtained in this paper are in the form of matrix inequalities. Illustrative example is presented to show the effectiveness of the obtained results. PMID:26379804

  15. Modeling synchronized calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Ikkyu

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally observed synchronized calling behavior of male Japanese tree frogs Hyla japonica; namely, while isolated single frogs called nearly periodically, a pair of interacting frogs called synchronously almost in antiphase or inphase. In this study, we propose two types of phase-oscillator models on different degrees of approximations, which can quantitatively explain the phase and frequency properties in the experiment. Moreover, it should be noted that, although the second model is obtained by fitting to the experimental data of the two synchronized states, the model can also explain the transitory dynamics in the interactive calling behavior, namely, the shift from a transient inphase state to a stable antiphase state. We also discuss the biological relevance of the estimated parameter values to calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs and the possible biological meanings of the synchronized calling behavior.

  16. Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Yen, William; Yen, Laurel C.; Jia, George D.

    2012-12-04

    Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

  17. Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Jia, George D.; Lewis, Linda; Yen, Laurel C.

    2014-06-24

    Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

  18. 2015-2016 CALL Department Chair Academic Personnel Review Checklist

    E-print Network

    2015-2016 CALL Department Chair Academic Personnel Review Checklist This checklist was prepared and checklists to instruct Chairpersons about their duties and responsibilities in connection with personnel

  19. Herbaceous Forage and Selection Patterns by Ungulates across Varying Herbivore Assemblages in a South African Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Treydte, Anna Christina; Baumgartner, Sabine; Heitkönig, Ignas M. A.; Grant, Catharina C.; Getz, Wayne M.

    2013-01-01

    Herbivores generally have strong structural and compositional effects on vegetation, which in turn determines the plant forage species available. We investigated how selected large mammalian herbivore assemblages use and alter herbaceous vegetation structure and composition in a southern African savanna in and adjacent to the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We compared mixed and mono-specific herbivore assemblages of varying density and investigated similarities in vegetation patterns under wildlife and livestock herbivory. Grass species composition differed significantly, standing biomass and grass height were almost twice as high at sites of low density compared to high density mixed wildlife species. Selection of various grass species by herbivores was positively correlated with greenness, nutrient content and palatability. Nutrient-rich Urochloa mosambicensis Hack. and Panicum maximum Jacq. grasses were preferred forage species, which significantly differed in abundance across sites of varying grazing pressure. Green grasses growing beneath trees were grazed more frequently than dry grasses growing in the open. Our results indicate that grazing herbivores appear to base their grass species preferences on nutrient content cues and that a characteristic grass species abundance and herb layer structure can be matched with mammalian herbivory types. PMID:24358228

  20. Photoimageable composition

    SciTech Connect

    Dentinger, Paul; Krafick, Karen L.; Simison, Kelby Liv

    2005-02-22

    The use of photoacid generators including an alkoxyphenylphenyliodonium salt and/or bis(t-butylphenyl)iodonium salt in a photoimageable composition helps improve resolution. Suitable photoimageable compositions includes: (a) a multifuctional polymeric epoxy resin that is dissolved in an organic solvent wherein the epoxy resin comprises oligomers of bisphenol A that is quantitatively protected by glycidyl ether and wherein the oligomers have an average functionality that ranges from about 3 to 12; and a photoacid generator comprising an alkoxyphenylphenyliodonium salt and/or bis(t-butylphenyl)iodonium salt. Preferred alkoxyphenylphenyliodonium salts include 4-octyloxyphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and 4-methoxyphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate. The photoimageable composition is particularly suited for producing high aspect ratio microstructures.

  1. Photoimageable composition

    DOEpatents

    Simison, Kelby Liv; Dentinger, Paul

    2003-11-11

    The use of selected buffering amines in a photoimageable composition prevents process bias which with conventional photoresists causes designed features to be distorted, especially in corners and high resolution features. It is believed that the amines react with the catalysts, e.g., photoacids, generated to create an inert salt. The presence of the amines also increases resolution. Suitable photoimageable compositions includes: (a) a multifunctional polymeric epoxy resin that is dissolved in an organic solvent wherein the epoxy resin comprises oligomers of bisphenol A that is quantitatively protected by glycidyl ether and wherein the oligomers have an average functionality that ranges from about 3 to 12; (b) a photoactive compound; and (c) an amine that is selected from the group consisting of triisobutylamine, 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (also known as PROTON SPONGET.TM.), 2,2'-diazabicyclo[2.2.2] octane and mixtures thereof. The photoimageable composition is particularly suited for producing high aspect ratio metal microstructures.

  2. Composite material

    DOEpatents

    Hutchens, Stacy A. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Solihull, GB); Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  3. With whom to dine? Ravens' responses to food-associated calls depend on individual characteristics of the caller

    PubMed Central

    Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Wascher, Claudia A.F.; Spreafico, Michela; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Upon discovering food, common ravens, Corvus corax, produce far-reaching ‘haa’ calls or yells, which are individually distinct and signal food availability to conspecifics. Here, we investigated whether ravens respond differently to ‘haa’ calls of known and unknown individuals. In a paired playback design, we tested responses to ‘haa’ call sequences in a group containing individually marked free-ranging ravens. We simultaneously played call sequences of a male and a female raven in two different locations and varied familiarity (known or unknown to the local group). Ravens responded strongest to dyads containing familiar females, performing more scan flights above and by perching in trees near the respective speaker. Acoustic analysis of the calls used as stimuli showed no sex-, age- or familiarity-specific acoustic cues, but highly significant classification results at the individual level. Taken together, our findings indicate that ravens respond to individual characteristics in ‘haa’ calls, and choose whom to approach for feeding, i.e. join social allies and avoid dominant conspecifics. This is the first study to investigate responses to ‘haa’ calls under natural conditions in a wild population containing individually marked ravens. PMID:25598542

  4. Bayesian semiparametric model with spatially-temporally varying coefficients selection.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew B; Hossain, Monir; Choi, Jungsoon; Kirby, Russell S; Liu, Jihong

    2013-09-20

    In spatiotemporal analysis, the effect of a covariate on the outcome usually varies across areas and time. The spatial configuration of the areas may potentially depend on not only the structured random intercept but also spatially varying coefficients of covariates. In addition, the normality assumption of the distribution of spatially varying coefficients could lead to potential biases of estimations. In this article, we proposed a Bayesian semiparametric space-time model where the spatially-temporally varying coefficient is decomposed as fixed, spatially varying, and temporally varying coefficients. We nonparametrically modeled the spatially varying coefficients of space-time covariates by using the area-specific Dirichlet process prior with weights transformed via a generalized transformation. We modeled the temporally varying coefficients of covariates through the dynamic model. We also took into account the uncertainty of inclusion of the spatially-temporally varying coefficients by variable selection procedure through determining the probabilities of different effects for each covariate. The proposed semiparametric approach shows its improvement compared with the Bayesian spatial-temporal models with normality assumption on spatial random effects and the Bayesian model with the Dirichlet process prior on the random intercept. We presented a simulation example to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach with the competing models. We used an application to low birth weight data in South Carolina as an illustration. PMID:23526312

  5. Bayesian semiparametric model with spatially-temporally varying coefficients selection

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew B.; Hossain, Md. Monir; Choi, Jungsoon; Kirby, Russell S.; Liu, Jihong

    2013-01-01

    In spatio-temporal analysis, the effect of a covariate on the outcome usually varies across areas and time. The spatial configuration of the areas may potentially depend on not only the structured random intercept but also spatially varying coefficients of covariates. In addition, the normality assumption of the distribution of spatially varying coefficients could lead to potential biases of estimations. In this article, we propose a Bayesian semiparametric space-time model where the spatially-temporally varying coefficient is decomposed as fixed, spatially varying and temporally varying coefficients. The spatially varying coefficients of space-time covariates are modeled nonparametrically by using the area-specific Dirichlet process prior with weights transformed via a generalized transformation. Temporally varying coefficients of covariates are modeled through the dynamic model. Uncertainty of inclusion of the spatially-temporally varying coefficients is also taken into account by variable selection procedure through determining the probabilities of different effects for each covariate. The proposed semiparametric approach shows the improvement compared to the Bayesian spatial-temporal models with normality assumption on spatial random effects and the Bayesian model with the Dirichlet process prior on the random intercept. A simulation example is presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach with the competing models. An application to low birth weight data in South Carolina is used for an illustration. PMID:23526312

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of Interpenetrating Metal/Ternary Carbide Composites 

    E-print Network

    Hu, Liangfa

    2015-03-30

    Advances in various aerospace and energy technologies call for new, multifunctional materials capable of operating under conditions that are challenging to the most advanced high-temperature metallic alloys. Composites that combine attributes...

  7. Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Dallas

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

  8. Call for Essays: HiiL Young Talent Essay competition

    E-print Network

    Call for Essays: HiiL Young Talent Essay competition For the most original and thought provokingL Young Talent Essay Competition 2 Call for Essays 1. Introduction Within the broader framework of the Hii.hiil.org) invites young scholars and graduate students to enter into the "HiiL Young Talent Essay Competition

  9. SEED FUNDING CALL FOR PROPOSALS 2015/2016 Dartmouth College

    E-print Network

    SEED FUNDING ­ CALL FOR PROPOSALS 2015/2016 Dartmouth College Office of the Provost The Office in the range of $50K-$200K, over a period of two years. Page 1 of 3 #12;SEED FUNDING ­ CALL FOR PROPOSALS 2015-disciplinary Collaboration Procedure for Submitting Proposals Proposals should include: Seed Funding cover page (see

  10. AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory taking" will provide…

  11. Results from Organizational Development Interventions in a Technology Call Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Call center staff answered calls in 4 treatments: alignment job design (n=35), autonomous work teams (n=35), high-involvement work processes (n=43), and controls (n=36). Job satisfaction improved in alignment job design and high-involvement treatments, most significantly in the latter. Skill level and attitude toward autonomous work might have…

  12. Male monkeys remember which group members have given alarm calls

    E-print Network

    de Vries, Han

    , unanswered question is why animals stop their alarm calls and whether this depends on non-social (e's behaviour influences how long the male will continue his alarm calling. We tested three hypotheses. There could be several non-social and social expla- nations for why primates confronted with a predator stop

  13. 28 CFR 540.102 - Monitoring of inmate telephone calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of inmate telephone calls. 540... MANAGEMENT CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Telephone Regulations for Inmates § 540.102 Monitoring of inmate telephone calls. The Warden shall establish procedures that enable monitoring of...

  14. 39 CFR 6.4 - Attendance by conference telephone call.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attendance by conference telephone call. 6.4... MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.4 Attendance by conference telephone call. For regularly scheduled meetings of... by conference telephone or similar communications equipment which enables all persons...

  15. 47 CFR 64.1505 - Restrictions on collect telephone calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on collect telephone calls. 64.1505 Section 64.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... Information Services § 64.1505 Restrictions on collect telephone calls. (a) No common carrier shall...

  16. A More Realistic Thinning Scheme for Call Admission Control in

    E-print Network

    Pan, Yi

    A More Realistic Thinning Scheme for Call Admission Control in Multimedia Wireless Networks Xian control scheme named thinning scheme, which smoothly throttles the admission rates of calls according, is investigated under more general conditions. Using the theory of multidimensional Markov birth-death process

  17. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of mobile...

  18. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of mobile...

  19. 29 CFR 785.17 - On-call time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-call time. 785.17 Section 785.17 Labor Regulations...HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Waiting Time § 785.17 On-call time. An employee who is required to remain on...

  20. 78 FR 35956 - Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Management Act and the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) Utah Resource Advisory Council (RAC) Subgroup will host a conference call. DATES: The Utah RAC Subgroup will host...

  1. The Multidimensionality of Calling: Conceptualization, Measurement and a Bicultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmaier, Tamara; Abele, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    The experience of a calling may be seen as the ultimate form of subjective career success that has many positive consequences for individuals and organizations. We are here concerned with the conceptualization of a new multidimensional measure of calling, the MCM. In the first two studies we employed a qualitative approach and came up with five…

  2. Sustainability in CALL Learning Environments: A Systemic Functional Grammar Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to define a sustainable resource in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). In order for a CALL resource to be sustainable it must work within existing educational curricula. This feature is a necessary prerequisite of sustainability because, despite the potential for educational change that digitalization has offered since…

  3. Faculty Sense of Religious Calling at a Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swezey, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Sense of calling is often described with language steeped in religious tradition. It is variously described as a spiritual process or endeavor or as a summons by God to fulfill a specific purpose or task in life. This ethnographic case study examines how 18 senior faculty members of differing faith traditions expressed a religious sense of calling

  4. Enhancing Online CALL Design: The Case for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemard, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Whilst the potential of online Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in terms of access, immediacy and exposure is widely acknowledged, as yet remarkably little is known about its impact on the user population, be they language teachers or learners. Indeed, beyond its technological development, online CALL design is still affected by a dearth…

  5. Jamaican Call-In Radio: A Uses and Gratification Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    Noting that radio call-in programs seem to contain the elements for active audience involvement and participation, a study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that information gain and surveillance are the primary gratifications sought through call-in radio programs, especially in a culture that has a strong oral tradition and relatively few…

  6. Call No. Title Author Location Gilbert White Collection

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Call No. Title Author Location Gilbert White Collection S540.A2T39 V. (The) 160-acre water for Water Resources #12;Call No. Title Author Location Gilbert White Collection HD1694.A5 A4 (An) aesthetic limitation and the Water Resources Commission Taylor, Paul Schuster, Hist-White S19.N36 1932 (The) 1931 flood

  7. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call box operations. (a) The frequencies in the 72-76...

  8. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call...

  9. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call...

  10. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call...

  11. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call...

  12. Why We All Need Call Waiting on Our Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbie, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever noticed that you can go all day without a single call on your phone and then suddenly you get two calls at once? This is actually not as uncommon as it sounds and there is a mathematical reason for why we should expect it to happen, believe it or not.

  13. Implications of Research on Human Memory for CALL Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of what is generally accepted about how human memory works as it applied to computer assisted language learning (CALL). Discusses a number of interactions from various CALL products in light of the research summarized. (Author/VWL)

  14. 10 CFR 1045.20 - Ongoing call for declassification proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ongoing call for declassification proposals. 1045.20 Section 1045.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.20 Ongoing call for declassification proposals. The Chief...

  15. 75 FR 77955 - Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... ``Treasury'') called for the submission of Large Position Reports by those entities whose reportable positions in the 0-3/4% Treasury Notes of September 2013 equaled or exceeded $2 billion as of close...

  16. 77 FR 18258 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of FHA Debenture Call AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces a debenture call of certain Federal Housing Administration (FHA) debentures in accordance with authority provided in...

  17. 76 FR 17429 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of FHA Debenture Call AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces a debenture call of certain Federal Housing Administration (FHA) debentures, in accordance with authority provided in...

  18. The After-Death Call to Family Members: Academic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…

  19. MARGIN CALL STOCK LOANS ERIK EKSTR OM AND HENRIK WANNTORP

    E-print Network

    Ekström, Erik

    MARGIN CALL STOCK LOANS ERIK EKSTR ¨OM AND HENRIK WANNTORP Abstract. We study margin call stock loans, i.e. loans in which a stock acts as collateral, and the borrower is obliged to pay back parts of the loan in case the value of the stock falls below the loan amount. We show that such a stock loan can

  20. 25 CFR 81.5 - Request to call election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...authorize the calling of an election to adopt a constitution and bylaws or to revoke a constitution and bylaws, upon a request from the tribal...authorize the calling of an election to adopt a constitution and bylaws pursuant to a Federal...

  1. 25 CFR 81.5 - Request to call election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...authorize the calling of an election to adopt a constitution and bylaws or to revoke a constitution and bylaws, upon a request from the tribal...authorize the calling of an election to adopt a constitution and bylaws pursuant to a Federal...

  2. 25 CFR 81.5 - Request to call election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...authorize the calling of an election to adopt a constitution and bylaws or to revoke a constitution and bylaws, upon a request from the tribal...authorize the calling of an election to adopt a constitution and bylaws pursuant to a Federal...

  3. 25 CFR 81.5 - Request to call election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...authorize the calling of an election to adopt a constitution and bylaws or to revoke a constitution and bylaws, upon a request from the tribal...authorize the calling of an election to adopt a constitution and bylaws pursuant to a Federal...

  4. 25 CFR 81.5 - Request to call election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...authorize the calling of an election to adopt a constitution and bylaws or to revoke a constitution and bylaws, upon a request from the tribal...authorize the calling of an election to adopt a constitution and bylaws pursuant to a Federal...

  5. Polyolefin composition

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, K.; Kawai, Y.; Kamiya, Y.

    1986-07-15

    A polyolefin composition is described comprising: 100 parts by weight of polyolefin, not less than 0.5 part by weight of a polyamide selected from the group consisting of nylon 6 and nylon 66, and from 3 to 30 percent by weight of a novolak based on the weight of the polyamide.

  6. Elasticity theory equations and fracture condition for materials of varying moduli

    SciTech Connect

    Oleinikov, A.I.

    1986-11-01

    Many massive rocks and composite materials belong to the class of materials of varying moduli with definite distinct deformation and strength properties under tension and compression. The results of experiments indicate that the difference between the properties of materials of different moduli is not limited to tension and compression cases but can also appear clearly for any change in the form of the state of stress. Elasticity theory equations are constructed here to describe the strain of materials of varying moduli as well as the dependence of the strength properties on the form of the state of strain. Tests were done on coal, limestone, diabase and cement and results are shown. Using the dependencies obtained, Poisson's ratio and the elastic modulus can be calculated for these rocks. The equations and conditions of fracture proposed, are written in a simple invariant form.

  7. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2011-02-23

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively. PMID:20659926

  8. Mechanical property characterization of intraply hybrid composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to characterize the mechanical properties of intraply hybrids made from graphite fiber/epoxy matrix (primary composites) hybridized with varying amounts of secondary composites made from S-glass or Kevlar 49 fibers. The tests were conducted using thin laminates having the same thickness. The specimens for these tests were instrumented with strain gages to determine stress-strain behavior. Significant results are included.

  9. Depth-varying rupture properties of subduction zone megathrust faults

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    ­45 km in subduction zones where relatively young oceanic lithosphere is being underthrust with shallowDepth-varying rupture properties of subduction zone megathrust faults Thorne Lay,1 Hiroo Kanamori,2] Subduction zone plate boundary megathrust faults accommodate relative plate motions with spatially varying

  10. Varying Signal-to-Noise Ratios in Adolescent Voice Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saniga, Richard D.; Carlin, Margaret F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a voice therapy program for adolescent vocal abusers that utilizes a varying signal-to-noise ratio to deal with varying environmental noises. The 10-session program teaches vocal abusers to maintain an appropriate fundamental frequency and vocal intensity in their speaking voice. (Author/JDD)

  11. Depth-varying constitutive properties observed in an isothermal glacier

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Hans-Peter

    Depth-varying constitutive properties observed in an isothermal glacier H. P. Marshall,1 J. T. Humphrey, Depth-varying constitutive properties observed in an isothermal glacier, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 of polycrystalline glacier ice such as large crystals, widely ranging crystal sizes, and natural inhomo- geneities

  12. Dynamic Factor Analysis Models with Time-Varying Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Zu, Jiyun; Shifren, Kim; Zhang, Guangjian

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic factor analysis models with time-varying parameters offer a valuable tool for evaluating multivariate time series data with time-varying dynamics and/or measurement properties. We use the Dynamic Model of Activation proposed by Zautra and colleagues (Zautra, Potter, & Reich, 1997) as a motivating example to construct a dynamic factor model…

  13. Phase Complexity Surfaces: Characterizing Time-Varying Program Behavior

    E-print Network

    Eeckhout, Lieven

    Phase Complexity Surfaces: Characterizing Time-Varying Program Behavior Frederik Vandeputte Lieven-varying behavior, i.e., a program typically goes through a number of phases during its execution with each phase exhibiting relatively homogeneous behavior within a phase and distinct behavior across phases. In fact

  14. Augmented brain function by coordinated reset stimulation with slowly varying sequences

    PubMed Central

    Zeitler, Magteld; Tass, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Several brain disorders are characterized by abnormally strong neuronal synchrony. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation was developed to selectively counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. For this, phase resetting stimuli are delivered to different subpopulations in a timely coordinated way. In neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may eventually lead to an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and abnormal synchrony. The spatiotemporal sequence by which all stimulation sites are stimulated exactly once is called the stimulation site sequence, or briefly sequence. So far, in simulations, pre-clinical and clinical applications CR was applied either with fixed sequences or rapidly varying sequences (RVS). In this computational study we show that appropriate repetition of the sequence with occasional random switching to the next sequence may significantly improve the anti-kindling effect of CR. To this end, a sequence is applied many times before randomly switching to the next sequence. This new method is called SVS CR stimulation, i.e., CR with slowly varying sequences. In a neuronal network with strong short-range excitatory and weak long-range inhibitory dynamic couplings SVS CR stimulation turns out to be superior to CR stimulation with fixed sequences or RVS. PMID:25873867

  15. Watching how composites grow

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1993-07-01

    This article reports on a powerful x-ray analysis technique that has been developed to let researchers see, in three dimensions and microscopic detail, inside a ceramic composite as it is forming. The high-resolution imaging technique, called X-ray tomographic microscopy (XTM), is similar to medical computed tomography (CT) in which physicians take X-ray images of a patient's body from different angles and then reconstruct the data computationally into three-dimensional pictures of organs. The new method appears to have significant application in fields ranging from materials science to medical bone studies of osteoporosis--situations in which investigators need to visualize the microscopic behavior of complex materials.

  16. Lengthscale effects in the damage and failure of composites

    E-print Network

    Chambers, Jeffrey Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this work is to investigate and identify lengthscale effects associated with damage in composite materials and their structures, and to determine how these lengthscales vary across levels of ...

  17. Coupled heat conduction and deformation in a viscoelastic composite cylinder 

    E-print Network

    Shah, Sneha

    2010-01-16

    This study analyzes the thermo-mechanical response of a composite cylinder made up of two layers of linear isotropic viscoelastic materials that belong to the class of non-Thermorheologically Simple Material. The effect of time-varying temperature...

  18. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOEpatents

    Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Thornton, Jimmy D. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, E. David (Morgantown, WV); Fincham, William (Fairmont, WV)

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  19. Ileal microbiota composition of broilers fed various commercial diet compositions.

    PubMed

    van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; van der Vossen, J M B M; Schuren, F H J; Verstegen, M W A; de Oliveira, J E; Montijn, R C; Hendriks, W H

    2013-10-01

    Microbiota plays a role in the release and absorption of nutrients from feed components, thereby affecting digesta composition and moisture content of the excreta. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of 5 different diets varying in ingredients (medium-chain fatty acids, nonstarch polysaccharides, and starch) on the microbiota composition of ileal digesta of broiler chickens and excreta DM content. Each treatment was repeated 6 times in cages each containing 18 Ross 308 broilers, with growth performance measured from 0 to 34 d of age and excreta DM and ileal microbiota composition analyzed at 34 d of age. Microbiota composition was evaluated using a novel ribosomal RNA microarray technology containing 370 different probes covering various genera, groups of microbial species, and individual species of the chicken gut microbiota, of which 321 had a signal above the background threshold. Replacing part of the animal fat and soybean oil in the wheat-based diet with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA; 0.3% C10 and 2.7% C12) improved feed efficiency compared with the other dietary treatments. This coincided with a suppression of gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum of the Firmicutes, including Lactobacillus species, and species belonging to the family of the Enterococcaceae and Micrococcaceae, whereas the gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family of the Enterobacteriaceae were promoted. None of the other diets used in the present study notably changed the ileal digesta bacteria composition. Excreta DM content was not affected by dietary treatment. The variation between individual birds per dietary treatment was more pronounced than variation caused by feed composition, with the exception of the digesta microbiota of the birds fed the MCFA diet. It is concluded that a diet with MCFA significantly changes the ileal microbiota composition, whereas the effect of the other diets on the composition of the microbiota and excreta DM content is small in broiler chickens. PMID:24046419

  20. They can be serious: tennis umpires make more wrong out calls than in calls By Richard Alleyne, Science Correspondent

    E-print Network

    Whitney, David

    They can be serious: tennis umpires make more wrong out calls than in calls By Richard Alleyne, Science Correspondent 5:00PM GMT 27 Oct 2008 John McEnroe's famous "you cannot be serious" outburst think their findings could be useful in the modern game where professional tennis players are able

  1. BlindCall: ultra-fast base-calling of high-throughput sequencing data by blind deconvolution

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chengxi; Hsiao, Chiaowen; Corrada Bravo, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Base-calling of sequencing data produced by high-throughput sequencing platforms is a fundamental process in current bioinformatics analysis. However, existing third-party probabilistic or machine-learning methods that significantly improve the accuracy of base-calls on these platforms are impractical for production use due to their computational inefficiency. Results: We directly formulate base-calling as a blind deconvolution problem and implemented BlindCall as an efficient solver to this inverse problem. BlindCall produced base-calls at accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art probabilistic methods while processing data at rates 10 times faster in most cases. The computational complexity of BlindCall scales linearly with read length making it better suited for new long-read sequencing technologies. Availability and Implementation: BlindCall is implemented as a set of Matlab scripts available for download at http://cbcb.umd.edu/?hcorrada/secgen. Contact: hcorrada@umiacs.umd.edu PMID:24413520

  2. Lar gibbon (Hylobates lar) great call reveals individual caller identity.

    PubMed

    Terleph, Thomas A; Malaivijitnond, S; Reichard, U H

    2015-07-01

    Gibbons (family Hylobatidae) produce loud, elaborate vocalizations (songs), often in well-coordinated male/female duets. The female's great call, the most conspicuous phrase of the gibbon vocal repertoire, functions primarily to mediate territorial defense. Despite the fact that lar gibbons (Hylobates lar) are the most widely distributed and well researched hylobatid species and produce a rich vocal repertoire, the individual-specificity of their great calls has not previously been quantified. In addition, spectral and temporal features of notes occurring at specific locations within the lar great call have not been described. Here we provide such a description, and test the hypothesis that great calls are statistically discriminable between a large sample of individual callers. We compared recordings of great calls from 14 wild lar females in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Our analyses of principal components derived from spectral and temporal measures, as well as spectrograms from the entire great call, indicate that acoustic variation is sufficient to allow identification of individual callers (83.5% discriminability based on principal components, and inter-individual call variation exceeding intra-individual variation in overall spectrogram). These vocalizations potentially allow individual recognition of animals. PMID:25800578

  3. Spectrographic Analysis of Carrion Crow Calls and Their Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, Hisashi; Yokota, Yasunari

    In recent years, damage to agricultural products, livestock, and power transmission systems by crows is regarded as a serious problem; countermeasures against crow damage are urgently necessary. This paper proposed a method for detecting crow calls in various environmental sounds. If detection and discernment of crow calls were possible, various actions could be undertaken to prevent the damage. Wildlife call detection, not only that for crows, should be executed in extremely noisy environments. We then introduced both a spectrograph estimation technique with AR modeling in which AR coefficients are temporally smoothed and interpolated and a background noise elimination technique to obtain higher-quality crow call templates. The input sounds are compared with these templates by DP matching in the metric vector space of a logarithmic cepstrum. Every input sound whose minimal distance to the template database is less than the specified threshold value is detected as a crow call. The maximal detection performance can be obtained when five call templates in the template database are utilized; the implication is that carrion crows have five distinguishable call patterns. It is shown that the proposed method achieves 95% detection rate when 1.66% misdetection rate is allowed.

  4. Influence of socioeconomic factors on medically unnecessary ambulance calls

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Chihiro; Ohshige, Kenji; Kubota, Katsuaki; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    Background Unnecessary ambulance use has become a socioeconomic problem in Japan. We investigated the possible relations between socioeconomic factors and medically unnecessary ambulance calls, and we estimated the incremental demand for unnecessary ambulance use produced by socioeconomic factors. Methods We conducted a self-administered questionnaire-based survey targeting residents of Yokohama, Japan. The questionnaire included questions pertaining to socioeconomic characteristics, dichotomous choice method questions pertaining to ambulance calls in hypothetical nonemergency situations, and questions on the city's emergency medical system. The probit model was used to analyze the data. Results A total of 2,029 out of 3,363 targeted recipients completed the questionnaire (response rate, 60.3%). Probit regression analyses showed that several demographic and socioeconomic factors influence the decision to call an ambulance. Male respondents were more apt than female respondents to state that they would call an ambulance in nonemergency situations (p < 0.05). Age was an important factor influencing the hypothetical decision to call an ambulance (p < 0.05); elderly persons were more apt than younger persons to state that they would call an ambulance. Possession of a car and hesitation to use an ambulance negatively influenced the hypothetical decision to call an ambulance (p < 0.05). Persons who do not have a car were more likely than those with a car to state that they would call an ambulance in unnecessary situations. Conclusion Results of the study suggest that several socioeconomic factors, i.e., age, gender, household income, and possession of a car, influence a person's decision to call an ambulance in nonemergency situations. Hesitation to use an ambulance and knowledge of the city's primary emergency medical center are likely to be important factors limiting ambulance overuse. It was estimated that unnecessary ambulance use is increased approximately 10% to 20% by socioeconomic factors. PMID:17655772

  5. Can a gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) generalize call classes?

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Amanda L; de Freitas, Mafalda; Wu, Gi-Mick; Janik, Vincent M

    2015-11-01

    Past researchers have found that gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) are capable of classifying vocal signals by call type using a trained set, but were unable to generalize to novel exemplars (Shapiro, Slater, & Janik, 2004). Given the importance of auditory categorization in communication, it would be surprising if the animals were unable to generalize acoustically similar calls into classes. Here, we trained a juvenile gray seal to discriminate novel calls into 2 classes, "growls" and "moans," by vocally matching call types (i.e., the seal moaned when played a moan and growled when played a growl). Our method differed from the previous study as we trained the animal using a comparatively large set of exemplars with standardized durations, consisting of both the seal's own calls and those of 2 other seals. The seal successfully discriminated growls and moans for both her own (94% correct choices) and the other seals' (87% correct choices) calls. We used a generalized linear model (GLM) and found that the seal's performance significantly improved across test sessions, and that accuracy was higher during the first presentation of a sound from her own repertoire but decreased after multiple exposures. This pattern was not found for calls from unknown seals. Factor analysis for mixed data (FAMD) identified acoustic parameters that could be used to discriminate between call types and individuals. Growls and moans differed in noise, duration and frequency parameters, whereas individuals differed only in frequency. These data suggest that the seal could have gained information about both call type and caller identity using frequency cues. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460856

  6. Eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls: from mechanisms to consequences.

    PubMed

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; Fallow, Pamela M; Radford, Andrew N

    2015-05-01

    Animals often gather information from other species by eavesdropping on signals intended for others. We review the extent, benefits, mechanisms, and ecological and evolutionary consequences of eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls. Eavesdropping has been shown experimentally in about 70 vertebrate species, and can entail closely or distantly related species. The benefits of eavesdropping include prompting immediate anti-predator responses, indirect enhancement of foraging or changed habitat use, and learning about predators. Eavesdropping on heterospecifics can provide more eyes looking for danger, complementary information to that from conspecifics, and potentially information at reduced cost. The response to heterospecific calls can be unlearned or learned. Unlearned responses occur when heterospecific calls have acoustic features similar to that used to recognize conspecific calls, or acoustic properties such as harsh sounds that prompt attention and may allow recognition or facilitate learning. Learning to recognize heterospecific alarm calls is probably essential to allow recognition of the diversity of alarm calls, but the evidence is largely indirect. The value of eavesdropping on different species is affected by problems of signal interception and the relevance of heterospecific alarm calls to the listener. These constraints on eavesdropping will affect how information flows among species and thus affect community function. Some species are 'keystone' information producers, while others largely seek information, and these differences probably affect the formation and function of mixed-species groups. Eavesdroppers might also integrate alarm calls from multiple species to extract relevant and reliable information. Eavesdropping appears to set the stage for the evolution of interspecific deception and communication, and potentially affects communication within species. Overall, we now know that eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls is an important source of information for many species across the globe, and there are ample opportunities for research on mechanisms, fitness consequences and implications for community function and signalling evolution. PMID:24917385

  7. A VARI-Based Relative Greenness from MODIS Data for Computing the Fire Potential Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, P.; Roberts, D. A.; Kyriakidis, P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The Fire Potential Index (FPI) relies on relative greenness (RG) estimates from remote sensing data. The Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI), derived from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery is currently used to calculate RG operationally. Here we evaluated an alternate measure of RG using the Visible Atmospheric Resistant Index (VARI) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data. VARI was chosen because it has previously been shown to have the strongest relationship with Live Fuel Moisture (LFM) out of a wide selection of MODIS-derived indices in southern California shrublands. To compare MODIS-based NDVI-FPI and VARI-FPI, RG was calculated from a 6-year time series of MODIS composites and validated against in-situ observations of LFM as a surrogate for vegetation greenness. RG from both indices was then compared in terms of its performance for computing the FPI using historical wildfire data. Computed RG values were regressed against ground-sampled LFM at 14 sites within Los Angeles County. The results indicate the VARI-based RG consistently shows a stronger relationship with observed LFM than NDVI-based RG. With an average R2 of 0.727 compared to a value of only 0.622 for NDVI-RG, VARI-RG showed stronger relationships at 13 out of 14 sites. Based on these results, daily FPI maps were computed for the years 2001 through 2005 using both NDVI-RG and VARI-RG. These were then validated against 12,490 fire detections from the MODIS active fire product using logistic regression. Deviance of the logistic regression model was 408.8 for NDVI-FPI and 176.2 for VARI-FPI. The c-index was found to be 0.69 and 0.78, respectively. The results show that VARI-FP outperforms NDVI-FPI in distinguishing between fire and no-fire events for historical wildfire data in southern California for the given time period.

  8. Music Composition All music composition majors receive training in composition,

    E-print Network

    Miles, Will

    Music Composition All music composition majors receive training in composition, theories of tonal and contemporary music, counterpoint, orchestration and technology. In addition, students are given personal University. A Distinctive Program Stetson University has a unique combination of classes in music composition

  9. Estimation of Time-Varying Pilot Model Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaal, Peter M. T.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2011-01-01

    Human control behavior is rarely completely stationary over time due to fatigue or loss of attention. In addition, there are many control tasks for which human operators need to adapt their control strategy to vehicle dynamics that vary in time. In previous studies on the identification of time-varying pilot control behavior wavelets were used to estimate the time-varying frequency response functions. However, the estimation of time-varying pilot model parameters was not considered. Estimating these parameters can be a valuable tool for the quantification of different aspects of human time-varying manual control. This paper presents two methods for the estimation of time-varying pilot model parameters, a two-step method using wavelets and a windowed maximum likelihood estimation method. The methods are evaluated using simulations of a closed-loop control task with time-varying pilot equalization and vehicle dynamics. Simulations are performed with and without remnant. Both methods give accurate results when no pilot remnant is present. The wavelet transform is very sensitive to measurement noise, resulting in inaccurate parameter estimates when considerable pilot remnant is present. Maximum likelihood estimation is less sensitive to pilot remnant, but cannot detect fast changes in pilot control behavior.

  10. Time-varying volatility in Malaysian stock exchange: An empirical study using multiple-volatility-shift fractionally integrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Chin Wen

    2008-02-01

    This article investigated the influences of structural breaks on the fractionally integrated time-varying volatility model in the Malaysian stock markets which included the Kuala Lumpur composite index and four major sectoral indices. A fractionally integrated time-varying volatility model combined with sudden changes is developed to study the possibility of structural change in the empirical data sets. Our empirical results showed substantial reduction in fractional differencing parameters after the inclusion of structural change during the Asian financial and currency crises. Moreover, the fractionally integrated model with sudden change in volatility performed better in the estimation and specification evaluations.

  11. Lunar atmospheric composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Apollo 17 carried a miniature mass spectrometer, called the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE), to the moon as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) to study the composition and variations in the lunar atmosphere. The instrument was successfully deployed in the Taurus-Littrow Valley with its entrance aperture oriented upward to intercept and measure the downward flux of gases at the lunar surface. During the ten lunations that the LACE operated, it produced a large base of data on the lunar atmosphere, mainly collected at night time. It was found that thermal escape is the most rapid loss mechanism for hydrogen and helium. For heavier gases, photoionization followed by acceleration through the solar wind electric field accounted for most of the loss. The dominant gases on the moosn were argon and helium, and models formed for their distribution are described in detail. It is concluded that most of the helium in the lunar atmosphere is of solar wind origin, and that there also exist very small amounts of methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide.

  12. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized...

  13. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized...

  14. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized...

  15. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign....

  16. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign....

  17. 47 CFR 80.459 - Digital selective calling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Public Coast Stations Use of Telegraphy § 80.459 Digital selective calling. Subpart H of this part lists frequencies assignable for...

  18. Practice: Observing Function Call and Return using GDB

    E-print Network

    Stephan, Frank

    Practice: Observing Function Call and Return using GDB The goal of this practice is to get familiar-protector disabled ( -fno-stack-protector), debugging information ( -g ), and generate an executable file named

  19. INFOCOM 2000 1 A Signaling System Using Lightweight Call Sessions

    E-print Network

    Joseph, Anthony D.

    ser­ vices across these networks. We generalize the basic call service to support communication, as evidenced by the explosive growth of web services and wide adoption of E­commerce. ICEBERG leverages

  20. Front elevation of highlift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation of high-lift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called U.S. Route 29 or Columbia Pike) is in foreground. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  1. A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.

    1971-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.

  2. Administrator Bolden Calls Underwater NEEMO Crew - Duration: 16 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    From outside their underwater laboratory in Florida, NASA Astronaut and NEEMO 16 Commander Dottie Metcalf-Lindenburger and European Space Agency astronaut Timothy Peake took a call from NASA Admini...

  3. 78 FR 31977 - NASA Asteroid Initiative Call for Ideas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Asteroid Initiative Call for Ideas AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Public Forum. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces...

  4. The FINITE STRING Newsletter Calls for Papers ANNOUNCEMENTS

    E-print Network

    , and applied linguistics; phonetics; semantics; pragmatics; text analysis; or language acquisition. The winnerThe FINITE STRING Newsletter Calls for Papers ANNOUNCEMENTS SAPIR AWARD IN LINGUISTICS The New York to linguistics, such as psycholinguistics; sociolinguistics; theorical, computational, descriptive, historical

  5. 16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNINGSTRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNING-STRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP HOUSE Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  7. Call for Papers Special Issue of Computational Management Science

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Call for Papers Special Issue of Computational Management Science Financial Networks Guest Editor, social, and management problems. Financial networks, in particular, have evolved to become a theoretical: Anna Nagurney Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts Amherst Areas of Interest

  8. The Pope's encyclical as a call for democratic social change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Anabela

    2015-10-01

    The climate change encyclical represents a decisive democratic act. It calls on citizens to challenge dominant politics, power, and consumer culture in the name of tackling one of the world's great socio-environmental issues.

  9. 39 CFR 6.4 - Attendance by conference telephone call.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.4 Attendance by conference telephone call. For regularly scheduled meetings of the Board, members are expected to attend in person. Unless prohibited by law or by these...

  10. 39 CFR 6.4 - Attendance by conference telephone call.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.4 Attendance by conference telephone call. For regularly scheduled meetings of the Board, members are expected to attend in person. Unless prohibited by law or by these...

  11. 39 CFR 6.4 - Attendance by conference telephone call.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.4 Attendance by conference telephone call. For regularly scheduled meetings of the Board, members are expected to attend in person. Unless prohibited by law or by these...

  12. 39 CFR 6.4 - Attendance by conference telephone call.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.4 Attendance by conference telephone call. For regularly scheduled meetings of the Board, members are expected to attend in person. Unless prohibited by law or by these...

  13. Call for Papers Social Network and Social Media Analysis

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Vaughan

    Call for Papers Social Network and Social Media Analysis: Methods, Models an inflection point in the maturation of social network and social media analysis, USA http://snap.stanford.edu/social2012/ Deadline for submissions: Monday

  14. Subpart W Stakeholders Conference Call April 3, 2014

    E-print Network

    Subpart W Stakeholders Conference Call April 3, 2014 ATTENDEES EPA: Reid Rosnick, Susan Stahle (OGC, Earthworks; Paul Robinson, SW Research and Information Center; Scott Clow, Mike King, Ute Mountain Ute Tribe

  15. RESEARCH Open Access Differences in the male mating calls of

    E-print Network

    Adams, Rick

    in local areas of KNP known to support both species and compared the sonograms to determine if the call permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work

  16. 9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 47 CFR 64.6050 - Billing-related call blocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...64.6050 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...for the reason that it lacks a billing relationship with the called party's communications service provider unless the Provider...

  18. Why people say where they are during mobile phone calls 

    E-print Network

    Laurier, Eric

    2001-01-01

    An often-noticed feature of mobile phone calls is some form of 'geographical' locating after a greeting has been made. The author uses some singular instances of mobile phone conversations to provide an answer as to why ...

  19. 5. VIEW OF MISSILE ASSEMBLY CALLED 'FIRE HOUSE,' LOOKING NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF MISSILE ASSEMBLY CALLED 'FIRE HOUSE,' LOOKING NORTH, LOCATED NEAR GATE AT ENTRANCE TO LAUNCH AREA Marilyn Ziemer, photographer, April 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Fabrication of an r-Al2Ti intermetallic matrix composite reinforced with ?-Al2O3 ceramic by discontinuous mechanical milling for thermite reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosleh, A.; Ehteshamzadeh, M.; Taherzadeh Mousavian, R.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a powder mixture with an Al/TiO2 molar ratio of 10/3 was used to form an r-Al2Ti intermetallic matrix composite (IMC) reinforced with ?-Al2O3 ceramic by a novel milling technique, called discontinuous mechanical milling (DMM) instead of milling and ignition of the produced thermite. The results of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of samples with varying milling time indicate that this fabrication process requires considerable mechanical energy. It is shown that Al2Ti-Al2O3 IMC with small grain size was produced by DMM after 15 h of ball milling. Peaks for ?-TiAl as well as Al2Ti and Al2O3 are observed in XRD patterns after DMM followed by heat treatment. The microhardness of the DMM-treated composite produced after heat treatment was higher than Hv 700.

  1. Combustion toxicology of epoxy/carbon fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    A combustion toxicology test was developed to screen materials for aerospace applications. The system is called the radiant panel test facility. A description of the facility and some preliminary results from tests on a Navy 3501-6AS composite, a typical composite for fighter aircraft, are presented.

  2. The Call to Excellence--No Room for Complacency.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The call of the nurse is to promote, protect, and support health in all areas of life. Christian nurses are further called to imitate Jesus Christ. Yet, complacency is a common attitude among nurses. With new national standards of collecting and publicly reporting patient perceptions of care, positive nursing attitudes and excellent care are imperative to successful outcomes. What does it mean to seek professional excellence? PMID:26211306

  3. Concrete compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua

    2015-06-23

    Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.

  4. Leveraging Call Center Logs for Customer Behavior Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvathy, Anju G.; Vasudevan, Bintu G.; Kumar, Abhishek; Balakrishnan, Rajesh

    Most major businesses use business process outsourcing for performing a process or a part of a process including financial services like mortgage processing, loan origination, finance and accounting and transaction processing. Call centers are used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests through outbound and inbound calls to customers on behalf of a business. In this paper we deal specifically with the call centers notes from banks. Banks as financial institutions provide loans to non-financial businesses and individuals. Their call centers act as the nuclei of their client service operations and log the transactions between the customer and the bank. This crucial conversation or information can be exploited for predicting a customer’s behavior which will in turn help these businesses to decide on the next action to be taken. Thus the banks save considerable time and effort in tracking delinquent customers to ensure minimum subsequent defaulters. Majority of the time the call center notes are very concise and brief and often the notes are misspelled and use many domain specific acronyms. In this paper we introduce a novel domain specific spelling correction algorithm which corrects the misspelled words in the call center logs to meaningful ones. We also discuss a procedure that builds the behavioral history sequences for the customers by categorizing the logs into one of the predefined behavioral states. We then describe a pattern based predictive algorithm that uses temporal behavioral patterns mined from these sequences to predict the customer’s next behavioral state.

  5. Deep-sea fish distribution varies between seamounts: results from a seamount complex off New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Dianne M; Clark, Malcolm R; Anderson, Owen F; Kim, Susan W

    2012-01-01

    Fish species data from a complex of seamounts off New Zealand termed the "Graveyard Seamount Complex' were analysed to investigate whether fish species composition varied between seamounts. Five seamount features were included in the study, with summit depths ranging from 748-891 m and elevation from 189-352 m. Measures of fish species dominance, rarity, richness, diversity, and similarity were examined. A number of factors were explored to explain variation in species composition, including latitude, water temperature, summit depth, depth at base, elevation, area, slope, and fishing effort. Depth at base and slope relationships were significant with shallow seamounts having high total species richness, and seamounts with a more gradual slope had high mean species richness. Species similarity was modelled and showed that the explanatory variables were driven primarily by summit depth, as well as by the intensity of fishing effort and elevation. The study showed that fish assemblages on seamounts can vary over very small spatial scales, in the order of several km. However, patterns of species similarity and abundance were inconsistent across the seamounts examined, and these results add to a growing literature suggesting that faunal communities on seamounts may be populated from a broad regional species pool, yet show considerable variation on individual seamounts. PMID:22745656

  6. Spatially Varying Index of Refraction: An Open Ended Undergraduate Topic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an experiment on the bending of light in a medium with a continuously varying index of refraction. Several theoretical approaches for the analysis of this experiment, designed for college physics students, are also presented. (HM)

  7. Control of Wrist and Arm Movements of Varying Difficulties 

    E-print Network

    Boyle, Jason Baxter

    2012-02-14

    Three experiments compared wrist and arm performance in a cyclical Fitts’ target task. The purpose of Experiment I was to determine if movement kinematics differed for wrist/elbow flexion/extension movements to targets of varying difficulty...

  8. Niklas Grip and Gotz E. Pfander Time Varying Narrowband Communications

    E-print Network

    Pfander, Götz

    .1 Mobile phone communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.2 Satellite communicationsNiklas Grip and G¨otz E. Pfander Time Varying Narrowband Communications Channels: Analysis Communications Channels: Analysis and Implementation1 Niklas Grip Department of Mathematics Lule°a University

  9. SOIL MICROBIOLOGY Resource Use of Soilborne Streptomyces Varies with Location,

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    SOIL MICROBIOLOGY Resource Use of Soilborne Streptomyces Varies with Location, Phylogeny in prairie soils. Resource use patterns were highly variable among Streptomyces isolates and were soils less than 1 m apart differed significantly in their ability to use resources, indicating

  10. Analysis of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions via Spatially Varying Coefficients

    E-print Network

    Johansen, Adam

    Analysis of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions via Spatially Varying Coefficients Tian Ge1,2, Thomas of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the brain

  11. Fractal geometry predicts varying body size scaling relationships

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    .............................................................. Fractal geometry predicts varying scaling based on fractal resource distributions, in which resource encounter rates are a function of body that are multiples of 1/4, which have been recently explained from the fractal branching architecture of organisms4

  12. Compositional Algorithmic Verification of Software Product Lines

    E-print Network

    Gurov, Dilian

    to their application con- text. Software product line engineering [23] aims at developing a set of systems variantsCompositional Algorithmic Verification of Software Product Lines Ina Schaefer1 , Dilian Gurov2 line engineering allows large software sys- tems to be developed and adapted for varying customer needs

  13. Comparison of Some Secondary Body Composition Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Robert A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Body composition measurements vary greatly in degree of measurement difficulty and accuracy. Hydrostatic weighing, chemical dilution or their equivalents were the accepted "gold" standards for assessing fat mass. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) is fast replacing these techniques as the preferred standard. However, these direct measurement…

  14. Infant Manual Exploration of Composite Substrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontenelle, Sarah A.; Kahrs, Bjorn Alexander; Neal, S. Ashley; Newton, A. Taylor; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Everyday environments, even small regions within reach, vary dramatically in terms of material composition. Adapting one's manual behavior to such transitions can be considered to be an important element of skilled action. To investigate the origins of this ability, we presented 8-month-olds (n=24) and 10-month-olds (n=24) hard or soft objects on…

  15. PROTECTING CONSUMER DATA IN COMPOSITE WEB SERVICES

    E-print Network

    van Schyndel, Ron

    messages of varying protection levels amongst the entities of the service-oriented electronic commercePROTECTING CONSUMER DATA IN COMPOSITE WEB SERVICES Craig Pearce, Peter Bertok, Ron Van Schyndel: Electronic commerce; privacy; security; web services. #12;2 1. INTRODUCTION Many vendors have shown poor

  16. The So-Called 'Face on Mars' in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 24 July 2002) This set of THEMIS infrared images shows the so-called 'face on Mars' landform located in the northern plains of Mars near 40o N, 10o W (350 o E). The 'face' is located near the center of the image approximately 1/6 of the way down from the top, and is one of a large number of knobs, mesas, hills, and buttes that are visible in this THEMIS image. The THEMIS infrared camera has ten different filters between 6.2 and 15 micrometers - nine view the surface and one views the CO2 atmosphere. The calibrated and geometrically projected data from all of the nine surface-viewing filters are shown in this figure. The major differences seen in this region are due to temperature effects -- sunlit slopes are warm (bright), whereas those in shadow are cold (dark), The temperature in this scene ranges from 50 oC (darkest) to 15 oC (brightest). The major differences between the different filters are due to the expected variation in the amount of energy emitted from the surface at different wavelengths. Minor spectral differences (infrared 'color') also exist between the different filters, but these differences are small in this region due to the uniform composition of the rocks and soils exposed at the surface. The THEMIS infrared camera provides an excellent regional view of Mars - this image covers an area 32 kilometers (20 miles) by approximately 200 kilometers (125 miles) at a resolution of 100 meters per picture element ('pixel'). This image provides a broad perspective of the landscape and geology of the Cydonia region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. In this 'big picture' view the Cydonia region is seen to be covered with dozens of interesting knobs and mesas that are similar in many ways to the knob named the 'face' - so many in fact that it requires care to discover the 'face' among this jumble of knobs and hills. The 3-km long 'face' knob was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. Many of the knobs in Cydonia, including the 'face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today.

  17. Combustion synthesis of boride and other composites

    DOEpatents

    Halverson, Danny C. (Modesto, CA); Lum, Beverly Y. (Livermore, CA); Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A self-sustaining combustion synthesis process for producing hard, tough, lightweight B.sub.4 C/TiB.sub.2 composites is based on the thermodynamic dependence of adiabatic temperature and product composition on the stoichiometry of the B.sub.4 C and TiB.sub.2 reactants. For lightweight products the composition must be relatively rich in the B.sub.4 C component. B.sub.4 C-rich composites are obtained by varying the initial temperature of the reactants. The product is hard, porous material whose toughness can be enhanced by filling the pores with aluminum or other metal phases using a liquid metal infiltration process. The process can be extended to the formation of other composites having a low exothermic component.

  18. Combustion synthesis of boride and other composites

    DOEpatents

    Halverson, D.C.; Lum, B.Y.; Munir, Z.A.

    1988-07-28

    A self-sustaining combustion synthesis process for producing hard, tough, lightweight B/sub 4/C/TiB/sub 2/ composites is described. It is based on the thermodynamic dependence of adiabatic temperature and product composition on the stoichiometry of the B/sub 4/C and TiB/sub 2/ reactants. For lightweight products the composition must be relatively rich in the B/sub 4/C component. B/sub 4/C-rich composites are obtained by varying the initial temperature of the reactants. The product is hard, porous material whose toughness can be enhanced by filling the pores with aluminum or other metal phases using a liquid metal infiltration process. The process can be extended to the formation of other composites having a low exothermic component. 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. FLEXURAL FIRST PLY FAILURE OF NOTCHED COMPOSITE LAMINATES

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    . Boeing is currently constructing the new 787 Dreamliner jet using mostly composites. Strength characteristics of composites vary widely depending on a number of factors. One variable Boeing was especially they must be riveted making this test of great importance to Boeing. Strain Gages After being cured

  20. BayesCall: A model-based base-calling algorithm for high-throughput short-read sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kao, Wei-Chun; Stevens, Kristian; Song, Yun S

    2009-10-01

    Extracting sequence information from raw images of fluorescence is the foundation underlying several high-throughput sequencing platforms. Some of the main challenges associated with this technology include reducing the error rate, assigning accurate base-specific quality scores, and reducing the cost of sequencing by increasing the throughput per run. To demonstrate how computational advancement can help to meet these challenges, a novel model-based base-calling algorithm, BayesCall, is introduced for the Illumina sequencing platform. Being founded on the tools of statistical learning, BayesCall is flexible enough to incorporate various features of the sequencing process. In particular, it can easily incorporate time-dependent parameters and model residual effects. This new approach significantly improves the accuracy over Illumina's base-caller Bustard, particularly in the later cycles of a sequencing run. For 76-cycle data on a standard viral sample, phiX174, BayesCall improves Bustard's average per-base error rate by approximately 51%. The probability of observing each base can be readily computed in BayesCall, and this probability can be transformed into a useful base-specific quality score with a high discrimination ability. A detailed study of BayesCall's performance is presented here. PMID:19661376

  1. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones. PMID:22489217

  2. Ambient noise causes independent changes in distinct spectro-temporal features of echolocation calls in horseshoe bats.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Jiang, Tinglei; Berquist, Sean W; Feng, Jiang; Metzner, Walter

    2014-07-15

    One of the most efficient mechanisms to optimize signal-to-noise ratios is the Lombard effect - an involuntary rise in call amplitude due to ambient noise. It is often accompanied by changes in the spectro-temporal composition of calls. We examined the effects of broadband-filtered noise on the spectro-temporal composition of horseshoe bat echolocation calls, which consist of a constant-frequency component and initial and terminal frequency-modulated components. We found that the frequency-modulated components became larger for almost all noise conditions, whereas the bandwidth of the constant-frequency component increased only when broadband-filtered noise was centered on or above the calls' dominant or fundamental frequency. This indicates that ambient noise independently modifies the associated acoustic parameters of the Lombard effect, such as spectro-temporal features, and could significantly affect the bat's ability to detect and locate targets. Our findings may be of significance in evaluating the impact of environmental noise on echolocation behavior in bats. PMID:24855671

  3. Ambient noise causes independent changes in distinct spectro-temporal features of echolocation calls in horseshoe bats

    PubMed Central

    Hage, Steffen R.; Jiang, Tinglei; Berquist, Sean W.; Feng, Jiang; Metzner, Walter

    2014-01-01

    One of the most efficient mechanisms to optimize signal-to-noise ratios is the Lombard effect – an involuntary rise in call amplitude due to ambient noise. It is often accompanied by changes in the spectro-temporal composition of calls. We examined the effects of broadband-filtered noise on the spectro-temporal composition of horseshoe bat echolocation calls, which consist of a constant-frequency component and initial and terminal frequency-modulated components. We found that the frequency-modulated components became larger for almost all noise conditions, whereas the bandwidth of the constant-frequency component increased only when broadband-filtered noise was centered on or above the calls' dominant or fundamental frequency. This indicates that ambient noise independently modifies the associated acoustic parameters of the Lombard effect, such as spectro-temporal features, and could significantly affect the bat's ability to detect and locate targets. Our findings may be of significance in evaluating the impact of environmental noise on echolocation behavior in bats. PMID:24855671

  4. Electrodeposition of SnSbCu Alloy on Copper from an Electrolyte with Varied Content of Antimony Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeeva, A. Kh.; Valeev, I. Sh.

    2015-10-01

    The microstructure and chemical composition of electrodeposited alloys of the SnSbCu system with varied concentration of antimony chloride in the electrolyte have been investigated. It is shown that during electrodeposition mechanical-mixture alloys are not formed, but rather intermetallic compounds. It is found that increasing the concentration of antimony chloride in the electrolyte leads to a decrease in the tin content and cracking of the coating.

  5. RESEARCH Open Access Bacterial communities on classroom surfaces vary

    E-print Network

    Bohannan, Brendan

    composition. Conclusions: Our results indicate that human-associated microbial communities can be transferred environment, Microbial ecology, Indoor microbiology, Lactobacillus Background In the developed world, humans knowledge regarding the ecological processes that drive microbial community assembly indoors, nor do we

  6. A generalized baleen whale call detection and classification system.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Mark F; Mussoline, Sarah E

    2011-05-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring allows the assessment of marine mammal occurrence and distribution at greater temporal and spatial scales than is now possible with traditional visual surveys. However, the large volume of acoustic data and the lengthy and laborious task of manually analyzing these data have hindered broad application of this technique. To overcome these limitations, a generalized automated detection and classification system (DCS) was developed to efficiently and accurately identify low-frequency baleen whale calls. The DCS (1) accounts for persistent narrowband and transient broadband noise, (2) characterizes temporal variation of dominant call frequencies via pitch-tracking, and (3) classifies calls based on attributes of the resulting pitch tracks using quadratic discriminant function analysis (QDFA). Automated detections of sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) downsweep calls and North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) upcalls were evaluated using recordings collected in the southwestern Gulf of Maine during the spring seasons of 2006 and 2007. The accuracy of the DCS was similar to that of a human analyst: variability in differences between the DCS and an analyst was similar to that between independent analysts, and temporal variability in call rates was similar among the DCS and several analysts. PMID:21568392

  7. Voice over internet protocol with prepaid calling card solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunadi, Tri

    2001-07-01

    The VoIP technology is growing up rapidly, it has big network impact on PT Telkom Indonesia, the bigger telecommunication operator in Indonesia. Telkom has adopted VoIP and one other technology, Intelligent Network (IN). We develop those technologies together in one service product, called Internet Prepaid Calling Card (IPCC). IPCC is becoming new breakthrough for the Indonesia telecommunication services especially on VoIP and Prepaid Calling Card solutions. Network architecture of Indonesia telecommunication consists of three layer, Local, Tandem and Trunck Exchange layer. Network development researches for IPCC architecture are focus on network overlay hierarchy, Internet and PSTN. With this design hierarchy the goal of Interworking PSTN, VoIP and IN calling card, become reality. Overlay design for IPCC is not on Trunck Exchange, this is the new architecture, these overlay on Tandem and Local Exchange, to make the faster call processing. The nodes added: Gateway (GW) and Card Management Center (CMC) The GW do interfacing between PSTN and Internet Network used ISDN-PRA and Ethernet. The other functions are making bridge on circuit (PSTN) with packet (VoIP) based and real time billing process. The CMC used for data storage, pin validation, report activation, tariff system, directory number and all the administration transaction. With two nodes added the IPCC service offered to the market.

  8. 76 FR 67747 - Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee; Call for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...in the composition of the Committee. Appointment to this Committee shall be made without discrimination on the basis of age, race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, disability, and cultural, religious, or socioeconomic status....

  9. Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

  10. Generalized semiparametric varying-coefficient models for longitudinal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li

    In this dissertation, we investigate the generalized semiparametric varying-coefficient models for longitudinal data that can flexibly model three types of covariate effects: time-constant effects, time-varying effects, and covariate-varying effects, i.e., the covariate effects that depend on other possibly time-dependent exposure variables. First, we consider the model that assumes the time-varying effects are unspecified functions of time while the covariate-varying effects are parametric functions of an exposure variable specified up to a finite number of unknown parameters. The estimation procedures are developed using multivariate local linear smoothing and generalized weighted least squares estimation techniques. The asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators are established. The simulation studies show that the proposed methods have satisfactory finite sample performance. ACTG 244 clinical trial of HIV infected patients are applied to examine the effects of antiretroviral treatment switching before and after HIV developing the 215-mutation. Our analysis shows benefit of treatment switching before developing the 215-mutation. The proposed methods are also applied to the STEP study with MITT cases showing that they have broad applications in medical research.

  11. Individual right whales call louder in increased environmental noise.

    PubMed

    Parks, Susan E; Johnson, Mark; Nowacek, Douglas; Tyack, Peter L

    2011-02-23

    The ability to modify vocalizations to compensate for environmental noise is critical for successful communication in a dynamic acoustic environment. Many marine species rely on sound for vital life functions including communication, navigation and feeding. The impacts of significant increases in ocean noise levels from human activities are a current area of concern for the conservation of marine mammals. Here, we document changes in calling behaviour by individual endangered North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in increased background noise. Right whales, like several bird and primate species, respond to periods of increased noise by increasing the amplitude of their calls. This behaviour may help maintain the communication range with conspecifics during periods of increased noise. These call modifications have implications for conservation efforts for right whales, affecting both the way whales use sound to communicate and our ability to detect them with passive acoustic monitoring systems. PMID:20610418

  12. Normalized, Segmented or Called aCGH Data?

    PubMed Central

    van Wieringen, Wessel N.; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Ylstra, Bauke

    2007-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a high-throughput lab technique to measure genome-wide chromosomal copy numbers. Data from aCGH experiments require extensive pre-processing, which consists of three steps: normalization, segmentation and calling. Each of these pre-processing steps yields a different data set: normalized data, segmented data, and called data. Publications using aCGH base their findings on data from all stages of the pre-processing. Hence, there is no consensus on which should be used for further down-stream analysis. This consensus is however important for correct reporting of findings, and comparison of results from different studies. We discuss several issues that should be taken into account when deciding on which data are to be used. We express the believe that called data are best used, but would welcome opposing views. PMID:19455251

  13. A Sinister Bias for Calling Fouls in Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matthew; Bromberger, Bianca; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Distinguishing between a fair and unfair tackle in soccer can be difficult. For referees, choosing to call a foul often requires a decision despite some level of ambiguity. We were interested in whether a well documented perceptual-motor bias associated with reading direction influenced foul judgments. Prior studies have shown that readers of left-to-right languages tend to think of prototypical events as unfolding concordantly, from left-to-right in space. It follows that events moving from right-to-left should be perceived as atypical and relatively debased. In an experiment using a go/no-go task and photographs taken from real games, participants made more foul calls for pictures depicting left-moving events compared to pictures depicting right-moving events. These data suggest that two referees watching the same play from distinct vantage points may be differentially predisposed to call a foul. PMID:20628648

  14. The 193 call center, a meaningful public service!

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, Maud; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal

    2012-01-01

    This article is the first part of an on-going ergonomic work analysis with the emergency services call center set up by the Fire Department of the Military Police of São Paulo. The final objective of the research is to identify the prescribed task, the real work executed and strategies used by workers to meet the demands of the job. Starting by identifying the tasks and activities developed, this article analyzes the work of the emergency services call center which is of vital importance to the organizational structure, since it is the start point for the process that results in fulfilling the corporation's mission. PMID:22316697

  15. Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt

    DOEpatents

    Almasi, Gheorghe; Archer, Charles J.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2010-05-11

    Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt including creating a thread; receiving an interrupt having an interrupt type; determining whether a value of a semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled; if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are not disabled: calling, by the thread, one or more preconfigured functions in dependence upon the interrupt type of the interrupt; yielding the thread; and if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled: setting the value of the semaphore to represent to a kernel that interrupts are hard-disabled; and hard-disabling interrupts at the kernel.

  16. Nuclear reactor composite fuel assembly

    DOEpatents

    Burgess, Donn M. (Richland, WA); Marr, Duane R. (West Richland, WA); Cappiello, Michael W. (Richland, WA); Omberg, Ronald P. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A core and composite fuel assembly for a liquid-cooled breeder nuclear reactor including a plurality of elongated coextending driver and breeder fuel elements arranged to form a generally polygonal bundle within a thin-walled duct. The breeder elements are larger in cross section than the driver elements, and each breeder element is laterally bounded by a number of the driver elements. Each driver element further includes structure for spacing the driver elements from adjacent fuel elements and, where adjacent, the thin-walled duct. A core made up of the fuel elements can advantageously include fissile fuel of only one enrichment, while varying the effective enrichment of any given assembly or core region, merely by varying the relative number and size of the driver and breeder elements.

  17. Arbitrarily small amounts of correlation for arbitrarily varying quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Boche, H. E-mail: janis.noetzel@tum.de; Nötzel, J. E-mail: janis.noetzel@tum.de

    2013-11-15

    As our main result show that in order to achieve the randomness assisted message and entanglement transmission capacities of a finite arbitrarily varying quantum channel it is not necessary that sender and receiver share (asymptotically perfect) common randomness. Rather, it is sufficient that they each have access to an unlimited amount of uses of one part of a correlated bipartite source. This access might be restricted to an arbitrary small (nonzero) fraction per channel use, without changing the main result. We investigate the notion of common randomness. It turns out that this is a very costly resource – generically, it cannot be obtained just by local processing of a bipartite source. This result underlines the importance of our main result. Also, the asymptotic equivalence of the maximal- and average error criterion for classical message transmission over finite arbitrarily varying quantum channels is proven. At last, we prove a simplified symmetrizability condition for finite arbitrarily varying quantum channels.

  18. Whenever you need emergency service or answers, call the Benefit Administrator, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. For calls outside the United States, call collect at 0-410-581-9994.

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    HOURS A DAY, 365 DAYS A YEAR, CALL THE TOLL-FREE NUMBER ON THE BACK OF YOUR VISA® CARD, OR 1-800-VISAWhenever you need emergency service or answers, call the Benefit Administrator, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. For calls outside the United States, call collect at 0-410-581-9994. 1-800-VISA-911 (1

  19. Adapting the Galaxy Bioinformatics Tool to Support Semantic Web Service Composition

    E-print Network

    Kissinger, Jessica

    Adapting the Galaxy Bioinformatics Tool to Support Semantic Web Service Composition Rui Wang composition tool. We adapt a bioinformatics tool called Galaxy, to support semantic Web service composition was familiar with Galaxy [1]. Galaxy is an integration tool in the bioinformatics domain that provides

  20. Joint State Composition Theorems for Public-Key Encryption and Digital Signature Functionalities with Local Computation

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Joint State Composition Theorems for Public-Key Encryption and Digital Signature Functionalities composition theorems to so-called joint state (composition) theorems, where different copies a joint state theorem which is more general than the original theorem of Canetti and Rabin, for which

  1. Analysis of the QCD spectrum and chiral symmetry breaking with varying quark masses

    SciTech Connect

    Simonov, Yu. A.

    2013-04-15

    The meson spectrum of QCD is studied in the framework of nonperturbative QCD as a function of varying quark masses m{sub q}. It is shown that the total spectrum consists of two branches: 1) the standard one, which may be called the flux-tube spectrum, depending approximately linearly on m{sub q}, and 2) the chiral symmetry breaking (CSB) spectrum for pseudoscalar (PS) flavor nonsinglet mesons with mass dependence {radical}m{sub q}. The formalism for PS mesons is derived from the QCD Lagrangian with m{sub q} corrections, and a unified form of the PS propagator was derived. It is shown that the CSB branch of PS mesons joins to the flux-tube branch at around m{sub q} = 200 MeV. All these results are in close correspondence with recent numerical data on large lattices.

  2. Effect of outside air ventilation rate on VOC concentrations and emissions in a call center

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, A.T.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.P.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.; Russell, M.L.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    A study of the relationship between outside air ventilation rate and concentrations of VOCs generated indoors was conducted in a call center. Ventilation rates were manipulated in the building's four air handling units (AHUs). Concentrations of VOCs in the AHU returns were measured on 7 days during a 13-week period. Indoor minus outdoor concentrations and emission factors were calculated. The emission factor data was subjected to principal component analysis to identify groups of co-varying compounds based on source type. One vector represented emissions of solvents from cleaning products. Another vector identified occupant sources. Direct relationships between ventilation rate and concentrations were not observed for most of the abundant VOCs. This result emphasizes the importance of source control measures for limiting VOC concentrations in buildings.

  3. 78 FR 17469 - Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... Securities Dealer Statistics Unit, 4th Floor, 33 Liberty Street, New York, New York 10045; or faxed to 212...; Government Securities Regulations Staff, Department of the Treasury, at 202-504-3632....

  4. Interview 10, 'Mountain God Sacrifice and Soul-calling Rituals'

    E-print Network

    Hu Qianma

    This file describes how every family has a holy tree used for sacrifices to the local mountain god. When a family member is ill, they take a bowl of goat’s milk, and call back the patient’s soul from under the tree. The mountain god helps the family...

  5. Impact of Cold-Calling on Student Voluntary Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallimore, Elise J.; Hertenstein, Julie H.; Platt, Marjorie B.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom discussion is perhaps the most frequently used "active learning" strategy. However, instructors are often concerned about students who are less inclined to participate voluntarily. They worry that students not involved in the discussion might have lower quality learning experiences. Although instructors might consider whether to call on…

  6. Vector-based Natural Language Call Jennifer Chu-Carroll*

    E-print Network

    vector- based information retrieval techniques. Terms consist of n-gram sequences of morphologically redirecting 10.2% ofall calls to a human operator. Using speech recognizer output with a 23% error rate that consists of 1) a routing module driven by a novel application of vector-based information retrieval

  7. Call for Papers Journal of Systems and Software

    E-print Network

    Chan, Wing-Kwong Ricky

    1 Call for Papers Journal of Systems and Software Special Issue on Dynamic Analysis and Testing of Embedded Software Background Dynamic analysis and testing techniques of embedded software use. This special issue solicits novel research results in dynamic analysis and testing for embedded software

  8. 12. CLOSEUP OF THE CURRENT TRASH RAKELIFTING MECHANISM (CALLED 'JAWS' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CLOSE-UP OF THE CURRENT TRASH RAKE-LIFTING MECHANISM (CALLED 'JAWS' BY THE PRESENT OPERATORS), LOOKING WEST. THIS EQUIPMENT WAS REMOVED IN AUTUMN OF 1996. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  9. Page 1 of 2 Call for Seed Proposals

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul G.

    Page 1 of 2 Call for Seed Proposals Funded by the Wisconsin Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) Date for submission of seed proposals: Monday, November 2, 2015. The Wisconsin MRSEC The Wisconsin Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) funds seed projects

  10. Praise Song for Teachers: A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Ariane

    2009-01-01

    When she received our call for submissions, high school educator Ariane White saw it as a pedagogical as well as an artistic opportunity. Moved by the shift in the country's leadership, she chose to express her reaction in the following poem. She then used her poem as a teaching and organizing tool, sharing it with colleagues and students in an…

  11. Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Ninad B.; Wohlgemuth, Melville J.; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. PMID:24860509

  12. An ELT's Solution to Combat Plagiarism: "Birth" of CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabieh, Christine

    One English-as-a Second-Language professor fought plagiarism using computer assisted language learning (CALL). She succeeded in getting half of her class to write documented research papers free of plagiarism. Although all of the students claimed to know how to avoid plagiarizing, 35 percent presented the work with minor traces of plagiarism. The…

  13. Physical Activity Promotion in Call Centres: Employers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renton, Sheila J.; Lightfoot, Nancy E.; Maar, Marion A.

    2011-01-01

    This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews…

  14. REVENUE MANAGEMENT THROUGH DYNAMIC CROSS-SELLING IN CALL CENTERS

    E-print Network

    Örmeci, E. Lerzan

    . Keywords: Dynamic programming, call center, customer relationship management, cross- selling heuristic. 1 by deepening customer relationships and making them more profitable. A significant part of this profitability customer relationship management (CRM) tools used to strengthen relationships. Ko¸c University, Department

  15. Call for Proposals College High-Impact Research Program

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    Call for Proposals College High-Impact Research Program College of Physical and Mathematical proposal. Such funding includes prior CHIRP awards, professional development leave funds beyond salary submitted at a date other than the 30 September review cycle must meet a significantly higher threshold than

  16. 77 FR 12646 - Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...The Department of the Treasury (``Department'' or ``Treasury'') called for the submission of Large Position Reports by those entities whose reportable positions in the 1\\1/4\\% Treasury Notes of January 2019 equaled or exceeded $2 billion as of close of business February 21,...

  17. Call combinations in wild chimpanzees Catherine Crockford1)

    E-print Network

    Call combinations in wild chimpanzees Catherine Crockford1) & Christophe Boesch2) (Max Planck an additive function, such that two pieces of information can be conveyed simultaneously, increasing message), which can be produced. In fact, in terms of more message possibilities, combin- ing sounds is more

  18. Quick Reference for Video Start a video call

    E-print Network

    Quick Reference for Video Start a video call 1. Pause on a contact's picture and click the camera on the camera button and select an option: · Stop My Video: ends your video, but you can still see others' videos. · End Video: ends all the videos for you, but you'll still have audio. Video © 2012 Microsoft

  19. 40. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. The south queen post (called 'king ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. The south queen post (called 'king post' in the 1755 account for scantling for the Greater Meeting House) of the third truss from the east end. Note the numerals for assembling the truss members and the plaster marks from the 1755 Monthly Meeting Room. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Profiling Skype Video Calls: Rate Control and Video Quality

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yong

    sending rate, FEC redundancy, video rate and frame rate. We find that Skype is robust against mild packet losses and propagation delays, and can efficiently utilize the available network bandwidth. We also find-messages, and Voice-over- IP (VoIP) calls will remain to be important communication means, we are at the threshold