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1

Syllable acoustics, temporal patterns, and call composition vary with behavioral context in Mexican free-tailed bats  

E-print Network

Syllable acoustics, temporal patterns, and call composition vary with behavioral context in Mexican has shown that some bat species have rich vocal repertoires with diverse syllable acoustics. Few repertoire of Mexican free-tailed bats, T. brasiliensis, is presented. Syllable acoustics and temporal

Bohn, Kirsten

2

Receivers respond differently to chick-a-dee calls varying in note composition in Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chick-a-dee call of the avian genus Poecile is a structurally complex vocal system because it possesses a set of simple rules that governs how the notes of the call are ordered, and variable numbers of each of the note types strung together can generate an extraordinary number of unique calls. Whereas it has been hypothesized that chick-a-dee calls with

TODD M. FREEBERG; JEFFREY R. LUCAS

2002-01-01

3

Syllable acoustics, temporal patterns, and call composition vary with behavioral context in Mexican free-tailed bats  

PubMed Central

Recent research has shown that some bat species have rich vocal repertoires with diverse syllable acoustics. Few studies, however, have compared vocalizations across different behavioral contexts or examined the temporal emission patterns of vocalizations. In this paper, a comprehensive examination of the vocal repertoire of Mexican free-tailed bats, T. brasiliensis, is presented. Syllable acoustics and temporal emission patterns for 16 types of vocalizations including courtship song revealed three main findings. First, although in some cases syllables are unique to specific calls, other syllables are shared among different calls. Second, entire calls associated with one behavior can be embedded into more complex vocalizations used in entirely different behavioral contexts. Third, when different calls are composed of similar syllables, distinctive temporal emission patterns may facilitate call recognition. These results indicate that syllable acoustics alone do not likely provide enough information for call recognition; rather, the acoustic context and temporal emission patterns of vocalizations may affect meaning. PMID:19045674

Bohn, Kirsten M.; Schmidt-French, Barbara; Ma, Sean T.; Pollak, George D.

2008-01-01

4

Axisymmetric vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness  

SciTech Connect

An exact solution procedure is presented for solving axisymmetric free vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness. Based on the classical lamination theory neglecting shear deformation and rotary inertia, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply conical shells. Numerical studies are made for conical shells having both ends clamped to show the effects of the number of laminae, stacking sequences and other parameters upon the frequencies.

Shikanai, G.; Suzuki, K. [Yamagata Univ., Yonezawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kojima, M. [NEC Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

1995-11-01

5

Dictyostelium Cells Migrate Similarly on Surfaces of Varying Chemical Composition  

PubMed Central

During cell migration, cell-substrate binding is required for pseudopod anchoring to move the cell forward, yet the interactions with the substrate must be sufficiently weak to allow parts of the cell to de-adhere in a controlled manner during typical protrusion/retraction cycles. Mammalian cells actively control cell-substrate binding and respond to extracellular conditions with localized integrin-containing focal adhesions mediating mechanotransduction. We asked whether mechanotransduction also occurs during non-integrin mediated migration by examining the motion of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, which is thought to bind non-specifically to surfaces. We discovered that Dictyostelium cells are able to regulate forces generated by the actomyosin cortex to maintain optimal cell-surface contact area and adhesion on surfaces of various chemical composition and that individual cells migrate with similar speed and contact area on the different surfaces. In contrast, during collective migration, as observed in wound healing and metastasis, the balance between surface forces and protrusive forces is altered. We found that Dictyostelium collective migration dynamics are strongly affected when cells are plated on different surfaces. These results suggest that the presence of cell-cell contacts, which appear as Dictyostelium cells enter development, alter the mechanism cells use to migrate on surfaces of varying composition. PMID:24516575

Wang, Chenlu; Losert, Wolfgang; Parent, Carole A.

2014-01-01

6

The effect of schedules of reinforcement on the composition of spontaneous and evoked black-capped chickadee calls.  

PubMed

Songbirds often modify elements of their songs or calls in particular social situations (e.g. song matching, flock convergence, etc.) but whether adult individuals also make vocal modifications in response to abiotic environmental factors (e.g. food availability) is relatively unknown. In the present study we test whether two different schedules of food reinforcement, fixed ratio continuous reinforcement and variable ratio partial reinforcement, cause adult black-capped chickadees to change the structure of their chick-a-dee calls. We also examine how these calls differ in two contexts: being alone versus when experiencing an alarming event. Wild-caught black-capped chickadees were housed in isolation to prevent social interaction and recorded weekly for seven weeks. Baseline recordings on week one show that calls given alone differed from those given during an alarming event in both note type composition and frequency (i.e. pitch). Calls also changed over time between birds on the two different schedules of reinforcement. In addition, birds on different reinforcement schedules responded differently during the two recording conditions. Our results suggest that call characteristics can be modified rapidly and may reflect abiotic environmental conditions. If call structure varies consistently with particular abiotic environmental conditions, much can be gained from bioacoustic analyses of calls from wild birds. However, vocal patterns must be consistent across dialects, and we must disentangle vocal changes due to the abiotic environment from those due to social interaction. Further research is needed from natural populations and across multiple regions. PMID:19717685

Proppe, Darren S; Sturdy, Christopher B

2009-09-15

7

Model atmospheres for cool stars. [varying chemical composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains an extensive series of model atmospheres for cool stars having a wide range in chemical composition. Model atmospheres (temperature, pressure, density, etc.) are tabulated, along with emergent energy flux distributions, limb darkening, and information on convection for selected models. The models are calculated under the usual assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium, constancy of total energy flux (including transport both by radiation and convection) and local thermodynamic equilibrium. Some molecular and atomic line opacity is accounted for as a straight mean. While cool star atmospheres are regimes of complicated physical conditions, and these atmospheres are necessarily approximate, they should be useful for a number of kinds of spectral and atmospheric analysis.

Johnson, H. R.

1974-01-01

8

University of Pittsburgh Test Center Registration Form Exams are by appointment only. Test center hours vary. Please call 412-624-6134 to schedule. Valid ID must  

E-print Network

University of Pittsburgh Test Center Registration Form Exams are by appointment only. Test center hours vary. Please call 412-624-6134 to schedule. Valid ID must be presented at the time of the exam. Mail completed form and Test Center fee to address below. Once payment is received you

Sibille, Etienne

9

Iterative solutions for one-dimensional diffusion with time varying surface composition and composition-dependent diffusion coefficient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solutions are given for one-dimensional diffusion problems with a time varying surface composition and also a composition dependent diffusion coefficient. The most general solution does not require special mathematical functions to fit the variation in surface composition or D(C). In another solution, a series expansion may be used to fit the time dependent surface concentration. These solutions make use of iterative calculations that converge rapidly and are highly stable. Computer times are much shorter than that required for finite difference calculations and can efficiently make use of interactive graphics terminals. Existing gas carburization data were used to provide an illustration of an iterative approach with a time varying carbon composition at the free surface.

Chow, M.; Houska, C. R.

1980-01-01

10

Controlled combustion tests and bottom ash analysis using household waste with varying composition  

SciTech Connect

The influence of the co-combustion of household waste with either sewage sludge, shredder fluff, electronic and electrical waste (WEEE) or PVC on the bottom ash quality and content was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions using a pot furnace. This laboratory approach avoids the interpretation problems related to large variations in input waste composition and combustion conditions that are observed in large scale MSW incinerators. The data for metals content, transfer coefficients and leaching values are presented relative to data for a base household waste composition that did not contain any of the added special wastes. The small WEEE invited direct measurement of precious metals content in the ashes, where measurement accuracy is facilitated by using only mobile phone scrap for small WEEE. The analyses were carried out for different particle size ranges that are of relevance to the recyclability of metals and minerals in the ashes. Positive correlations were found between elements content of the input waste and the bottom ashes, and also between increased levels of Cl, Mo and Cu in the input waste and their leaching in the bottom ashes. These correlations indicate that addition of PVC, small WEEE and shredder fluff in input waste can have a negative influence on the quality of the bottom ashes. Enrichment of Au and Ag occurred in the fractions between 0.15 and 6 mm. The precious metals content represents an economically interesting intrinsic value, even when the observed peak values are properly averaged over a larger volume of ashes. Overall, it has been shown that changes in quality and content of bottom ashes may be traced back to the varied input waste composition.

Hu Yanjun, E-mail: huyanjun@zjut.edu.cn [Zhejiang University of Technology, Chaowang Road 18, 310014 Hangzhou (China); Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, 2628 CN, Delft (Netherlands); Bakker, Maarten [Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, 2628 CN, Delft (Netherlands); Brem, Gerrit [University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); Chen Guanyi [Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Nankai District, 300072 Tianjin (China)

2011-02-15

11

Identification and characterization of transcript polymorphisms in soybean lines varying in oil composition and content  

PubMed Central

Background Variation in seed oil composition and content among soybean varieties is largely attributed to differences in transcript sequences and/or transcript accumulation of oil production related genes in seeds. Discovery and analysis of sequence and expression variations in these genes will accelerate soybean oil quality improvement. Results In an effort to identify these variations, we sequenced the transcriptomes of soybean seeds from nine lines varying in oil composition and/or total oil content. Our results showed that 69,338 distinct transcripts from 32,885 annotated genes were expressed in seeds. A total of 8,037 transcript expression polymorphisms and 50,485 transcript sequence polymorphisms (48,792 SNPs and 1,693 small Indels) were identified among the lines. Effects of the transcript polymorphisms on their encoded protein sequences and functions were predicted. The studies also provided independent evidence that the lack of FAD2-1A gene activity and a non-synonymous SNP in the coding sequence of FAB2C caused elevated oleic acid and stearic acid levels in soybean lines M23 and FAM94-41, respectively. Conclusions As a proof-of-concept, we developed an integrated RNA-seq and bioinformatics approach to identify and functionally annotate transcript polymorphisms, and demonstrated its high effectiveness for discovery of genetic and transcript variations that result in altered oil quality traits. The collection of transcript polymorphisms coupled with their predicted functional effects will be a valuable asset for further discovery of genes, gene variants, and functional markers to improve soybean oil quality. PMID:24755115

2014-01-01

12

Evolution of homopolymer thin-film instability on surface-anchored diblock copolymers varying in composition.  

PubMed

The stability of molecularly thin polymer films deposited on various material substrates is of critical importance to many contemporary nanotechnologies involving functional coatings and nano/micropatterned surfaces, in which case the causes responsible for film destabilization must be fully understood. Previous experimental studies report that factors such as film thickness and polymer molecular weight play significant roles in governing the rate, as well as mechanism, of destabilization. Complementary theoretical predictions reveal that surface heterogeneities can likewise induce (and regulate the process of) destabilization. In this study, we investigate the destabilization rate and mechanism of homopolystyrene (PS) films differing in thickness on top of poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (SM) diblock copolymer monolayers varying in chemical composition anchored to flat silica-like substrates to examine the effect of surface constitution on PS stability. Copolymers with a long M block consistently promote PS dewetting by nucleation and growth, wherein the linear dewetting rate decreases monotonically with increasing PS molecular weight, film thickness, and S fraction in the SM copolymer. In analogous studies involving a copolymer with a relatively short M block, however, PS dewetting proceeds instead by spinodal dewetting that evolves gradually into nucleation and growth as the film thickness is increased. PMID:25259655

Cai, Xiao-Jing; Genzer, Jan; Spontak, Richard J

2014-10-01

13

Neutron Radiography and Fission Mapping Measurements of Nuclear Materials with Varying Composition and Shielding  

SciTech Connect

Neutron radiography and fission mapping measurements were performed on four measurement objects with varying composition and shielding arrangements at the Idaho National Laboratory's Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) facility. The measurement objects were assembled with ZPPR reactor plate materials comprising plutonium, natural uranium, or highly enriched uranium and were presented as unknowns for characterization. As a part of the characterization, neutron radiography was performed using a deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generator as a source of time and directionally tagged 14 MeV neutrons. The neutrons were detected by plastic scintillators placed on the opposite side of the object, using the time-correlation-based data acquisition of the Nuclear Materials Identification System developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each object was measured at several rotations with respect to the neutron source to obtain a tomographic reconstruction of the object and a limited identification of materials via measurement of the neutron attenuation. Large area liquid scintillators with pulse shape discrimination were used to detect the induced fission neutrons. A fission site map reconstruction was produced by time correlating the induced fission neutrons with each tagged neutron from the D-T neutron generator. This paper describes the experimental configuration, the ZPPR measurement objects used, and the neutron imaging and fission mapping results.

Mullens, James Allen [ORNL] [ORNL; McConchie, Seth M [ORNL] [ORNL; Hausladen, Paul [ORNL] [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL] [ORNL; Grogan, Brandon R [ORNL] [ORNL; Sword, Eric D [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

14

Effect of Racial and Ethnic Composition of Neighborhoods in San Francisco on Rates of Mental-Health Related 911 Calls  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the association between San Francisco neighborhoods’ racial/ethnic residential composition and the rate of mental-health-related 911 calls. Methods Calls to the San Francisco 911 system from January 2001 through June 2003 (n=1,341,608) were divided into mental-health-related and other calls. Police sector data in the call records were overlaid onto U.S. Census tracts to estimate sector demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the association between black, Asian, Latino and white resident percentage and rates of mental-health-related calls. Results Percent of black residents was associated with a lower rate of mental-health-related calls (IRR=.99, 95% CI .98–1.00). Percent of Asian and Latino residents had no significant effect. Conclusions The observed relationship between black residents and mental-health-related calls is not consistent with known emergency mental health service utilization patterns. The paradox between underutilization of the 911 system and overutilization of psychiatric emergency services deserves further investigation. PMID:19797379

Kessell, Eric R.; Alvidrez, Jennifer; McConnell, William A.; Shumway, Martha

2010-01-01

15

N 2 fixation in three perennial Trifolium species in experimental grasslands of varied plant species richness and composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is the first to investigate quantitative effects of plant community composition and diversity on N2 fixation in legumes. N2 fixation in three perennial Trifolium species grown in field plots with varied number of neighbouring species was evaluated with the 15N natural abundance method (two field sites, several growing seasons, no N addition) and the isotope dilution method (one

Georg Carlsson; Cecilia Palmborg; Ari Jumpponen; Michael Scherer-Lorenzen; Peter Högberg; Kerstin Huss-Danell

2009-01-01

16

Physics-Astronomy Library Permanent Reserve Collection -Loan Periods Vary (revised 8/27/2010) AUTHOR TITLE E-BOOK CALL NUMBER  

E-print Network

Physics-Astronomy Library Permanent Reserve Collection - Loan Periods Vary (revised 8, 3rd ed. QA 931 L283 1986 Shu, F.H. Physical Universe QB 43.2 S54 1982 Chaisson, E., et al Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide to the Universe, 5th ed. QB 43.3 C43 2007 Chaisson, E., et al Astronomy Today, 5th ed. QB

Wurtele, Jonathan

17

Dietary composition and echolocation call design of three sympatric insectivorous bat species from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying the diet of echolocating, insectivorous bats can provide important insights into their foraging behaviors and ecological\\u000a constraints they are facing. By examining an extensive data set covering a period of 2 years, the present study identifies\\u000a the dietary composition of three sympatric insectivorous bat species in rural areas of Beijing municipality. Each species\\u000a clearly has different preferences for particular food

Jie Ma; Bing Liang; Shuyi Zhang; Walter Metzner

2008-01-01

18

Characterization of melting properties in dark chocolates from varying particle size distribution and composition using differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melting properties in dark chocolates processed from varying particle size distribution (PSD), fat and lecithin content were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Compositional parameters were PSD (D90 (90% finer than this size) of 18, 25, 35 and 50?m), fat (25%, 30% and 35%) and lecithin (0.3% and 0.5%) contents. Variations in PSD had no influence on crystallinity of products.

Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa; Alistair Paterson; Mark Fowler; Joselio Vieira

2008-01-01

19

The in vivo performance of CaP/PLGA composites with varied PLGA microsphere sizes and inorganic compositions.  

PubMed

Enrichment of calcium phosphate (CaP) bone substitutes with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres to create porosity overcomes the problem of poor CaP degradation. The degradation of CaP-PLGA composites can be customized by changing the physical and chemical properties of PLGA and/or CaP. However, the effect of the size of dense (solid rather than hollow) PLGA microspheres in CaP has not previously been described. The present study aimed at determining the effect of different dense (i.e. solid) PLGA microsphere sizes (small (S) ~20?m vs. large (L) ~130?m) and of CaP composition (CaP with either anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCP) or calcium sulphate dihydrate (CSD)) on CaP scaffold biodegradability and subsequent bone in-growth. To this end mandibular defects in minipigs were filled with pre-set CaP-PLGA implants, with autologous bone being used as a control. After 4weeks the autologous bone group outperformed all CaP-PLGA groups in terms of the amount of bone present at the defect site. On the other hand, at 12weeks substantial bone formation was observed for all CaP-PLGA groups (ranging from 47±25% to 62±15%), showing equal amounts of bone compared with the autologous bone group (82±9%), except for CaP with DCP and large PLGA microspheres (47±25%). It was concluded that in the current study design the difference in PLGA microsphere size and CaP composition led to similar results with respect to scaffold degradation and subsequent bone in-growth. Further, after 12weeks all CaP-PLGA composites proved to be effective for bone substitution. PMID:23511808

Hoekstra, Jan Willem M; Ma, Jinling; Plachokova, Adelina S; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Bohner, Marc; Pan, Juli; Meijer, Gert J; Jansen, John A; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P

2013-07-01

20

Coral and macroalgal exudates vary in neutral sugar composition and differentially enrich reef bacterioplankton lineages  

PubMed Central

Increasing algal cover on tropical reefs worldwide may be maintained through feedbacks whereby algae outcompete coral by altering microbial activity. We hypothesized that algae and coral release compositionally distinct exudates that differentially alter bacterioplankton growth and community structure. We collected exudates from the dominant hermatypic coral holobiont Porites spp. and three dominant macroalgae (one each Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta) from reefs of Mo'orea, French Polynesia. We characterized exudates by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fractional dissolved combined neutral sugars (DCNSs) and subsequently tracked bacterioplankton responses to each exudate over 48?h, assessing cellular growth, DOC/DCNS utilization and changes in taxonomic composition (via 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing). Fleshy macroalgal exudates were enriched in the DCNS components fucose (Ochrophyta) and galactose (Rhodophyta); coral and calcareous algal exudates were enriched in total DCNS but in the same component proportions as ambient seawater. Rates of bacterioplankton growth and DOC utilization were significantly higher in algal exudate treatments than in coral exudate and control incubations with each community selectively removing different DCNS components. Coral exudates engendered the smallest shift in overall bacterioplankton community structure, maintained high diversity and enriched taxa from Alphaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured representatives with relatively few virulence factors (VFs) (Hyphomonadaceae and Erythrobacteraceae). In contrast, macroalgal exudates selected for less diverse communities heavily enriched in copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured pathogens with increased VFs (Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae). Our results demonstrate that algal exudates are enriched in DCNS components, foster rapid growth of bacterioplankton and select for bacterial populations with more potential VFs than coral exudates. PMID:23303369

Nelson, Craig E; Goldberg, Stuart J; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Haas, Andreas F; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest; Carlson, Craig A

2013-01-01

21

Oxygen Consumption Constrains Food Intake in Fish Fed Diets Varying in Essential Amino Acid Composition  

PubMed Central

Compromisation of food intake when confronted with diets deficient in essential amino acids is a common response of fish and other animals, but the underlying physiological factors are poorly understood. We hypothesize that oxygen consumption of fish is a possible physiological factor constraining food intake. To verify, we assessed the food intake and oxygen consumption of rainbow trout fed to satiation with diets which differed in essential amino acid (methionine and lysine) compositions: a balanced vs. an imbalanced amino acid diet. Both diets were tested at two water oxygen levels: hypoxia vs. normoxia. Trout consumed 29% less food under hypoxia compared to normoxia (p<0.001). Under both hypoxia and normoxia trout significantly reduced food intake by 11% and 16% respectively when fed the imbalanced compared to the balanced amino acid diet. Oxygen consumption of the trout per unit body mass remained identical for both diet groups not only under hypoxia but also under normoxia (p>0.05). This difference in food intake between diets under normoxia together with the identical oxygen consumption supports the hypothesis that food intake in fish can be constrained by a set-point value of oxygen consumption, as seen here on a six-week time scale. PMID:23991148

Saravanan, Subramanian; Geurden, Inge; Figueiredo-Silva, A. Claudia; Nusantoro, Suluh; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Verreth, Johan; Schrama, Johan W.

2013-01-01

22

Tension in Skinned Frog Muscle Fibers in Solutions of Varying Ionic Strength and Neutral Salt Composition  

PubMed Central

The maximal calcium-activated isometric tension produced by a skinned frog single muscle fiber falls off as the ionic strength of the solution bathing this fiber is elevated declining to zero near 0.5 M as the ionic strength is varied using KCl. When other neutral salts are used, the tension always declines at high ionic strength, but there is some difference between the various neutral salts used. The anions and cations can be ordered in terms of their ability to inhibit the maximal calcium-activated tension. The order of increasing inhibition of tension (decreasing tension) at high ionic strength for anions is propionate- ? SO4-- < Cl- < Br-. The order of increasing inhibition of calcium-activated tension for cations is K+ ? Na+ ? TMA+ < TEA+ < TPrA+ < TBuA+. The decline of maximal calcium-activated isometric tension with elevated salt concentration (ionic strength) can quantitatively explain the decline of isometric tetanic tension of a frog muscle fiber bathed in a hypertonic solution if one assumes that the internal ionic strength of a muscle fiber in normal Ringer's solution is 0.14–0.17 M. There is an increase in the base-line tension of a skinned muscle fiber bathed in a relaxing solution (no added calcium and 3 mM EGTA) of low ionic strength. This tension, which has no correlate in the intact fiber in hypotonic solutions, appears to be a noncalcium-activated tension and correlates more with a declining ionic strength than with small changes in [MgATP], [Mg], pH buffer, or [EGTA]. It is dependent upon the specific neutral salts used with cations being ordered in increasing inhibition of this noncalcium-activated tension (decreasing tension) as TPrA+ < TMA+ < K+ ? Na+. Measurements of potentials inside these skinned muscle fibers bathed in relaxing solutions produced occasional small positive values (<6 mV) which were not significantly different from zero. PMID:4543066

Gordon, A. M.; Godt, R. E.; Donaldson, S. K. B.; Harris, C. E.

1973-01-01

23

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies of alginate-PLL capsules with varying compositions.  

PubMed

Microencapsulation of cells is a promising approach to prevention of rejection in the absence of immunosuppression. Clinical application, however, is hampered by insufficient insight into the factors that influence the biocompatibility of the capsules. Capsules prepared of alginates with a high guluronic (G) acid content proved to be more adequate for clinical application since they are more stable, but, unfortunately, they are less biocompatible than capsules prepared of intermediate-G alginate. In order to get some insight into the physicochemical factors that influence the biocompatibility of capsules for the encapsulation of living cells, the chemical compositions of alginate[bond]Ca beads and alginate[bond]PLL capsules were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We found that during the transition of the alginate[bond]Ca beads to alginate[bond]PLL capsules, Ca connecting the alginate molecules, disappeared at the surface of both high-G and intermediate-G alginate[bond]PLL capsules. At the same time, it turned out that high-G alginate[bond]PLL capsules contained more hydrogen bonding than did intermediate[bond]G alginate capsules. Thus the well-known higher stability of high-G alginate[bond]PLL compared to intermediate-G alginate[bond]PLL capsules is not caused by a higher degree of binding to Ca of the alginate molecules but rather by the presence of more hydrogen bonds. Another observation was that after the transition from bead to capsule, high-G alginate[bond]PLL capsules contained 20% more PLL than the intermediate-G alginate[bond]PLL capsules. Finally, we show that in both high-G and intermediate-G alginate[bond]PLL capsules, the PLL exists in the alpha-helix, in the antiparallel beta-sheet, and in the random coil conformation. This study shows that FT-IR allows for successful analyses of the chemical factors essential for understanding differences in the biocompatibility of alginate[bond]PLL capsules. PMID:14517874

van Hoogmoed, Chris G; Busscher, Henk J; de Vos, Paul

2003-10-01

24

Affinity of human serum albumin for bilirubin varies with albumin concentration and buffer composition: results of a novel ultrafiltration method.  

PubMed

Albumin binding is a crucial determinant of bilirubin clearance in health and bilirubin toxicity in certain disease states. However, prior attempts to measure the affinity of albumin for bilirubin have yielded highly variable results, reflecting both differing conditions and the confounding influence of impurities. We therefore have devised a method based on serial ultrafiltration that successively removes impurities in [(14)C]bilirubin until a stable binding affinity is achieved, and then we used it to assess the effect of albumin concentration and buffer composition on binding. The apparent binding affinity of human serum albumin for [(14)C]bilirubin was strongly dependent on assay conditions, falling from (5.09 +/- 0.24) x 10(7) liters/mol at lower albumin concentrations (15 microm) to (0.54 +/- 0.05) x 10(7) liters/mol at higher albumin concentrations (300 microm). To determine whether radioactive impurities were responsible for this change, we estimated impurities in the stock bilirubin using a novel modeling approach and found them to be 0.11-0.13%. Formation of new impurities during the study and their affinity for albumin were also estimated. After correction for impurities, the binding affinity remained heavily dependent on the albumin concentration (range (5.37 +/- 0.26) x 10(7) liters/mol to (0.65 +/- 0.03) x 10(7) liters/mol). Affinities decreased by about half in the presence of chloride (50 mm). Thus, the affinity of human albumin for bilirubin is not constant, but varies with both albumin concentration and buffer composition. Binding may be considerably less avid at physiological albumin concentrations than previously believed. PMID:11397817

Weisiger, R A; Ostrow, J D; Koehler, R K; Webster, C C; Mukerjee, P; Pascolo, L; Tiribelli, C

2001-08-10

25

Roll Call  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Roll Call is "The Newspaper of Capitol Hill since 1955", that covers the people, process and politics of Capitol Hill. The website has many multimedia features, including videos, an interactive timeline, podcasts, photo galleries, and political cartoons. Some of the sections of the online version of the paper include "News", "Opinion", "Politics", "Vested Interests", "Around the Hill", and "Investigations". To watch videos on various topics, or listen to Roll Call podcasts, visitors should click on "More Video", in the box entitled Roll Call Video, which resides in the middle of the page. The link provides recent videos, Roll Call on C-SPAN, Roll Call TV (CN8), podcasts, and a photo gallery of photos of the day. At the top of the homepage, visitors can find the latest news from Congress and the judiciary under the "Congress Now" tab. For policy intelligence on many issues, the "Briefing Room" tab allows visitors to explore the latest issues, divided into the topics of "Budget and Appropriations", "Defense", "Energy and Environment", "Foreign Policy and Trade", "Health", and "Homeland Security".

26

Personal Stories, Composition, and Varying Institutional Dynamics: What Role Does "Story" Play in Small Schools vs. Large Ones?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two years ago an instructor left a large public university to teach composition at the University of Findlay, a small private coeducational institution located in a city of 36,000 people south of Toledo, Ohio. Describing the differences between small and large schools, he touches upon the more personalized student-teacher interactions at Findlay.…

Martin, Eric V.

27

Different Assembly Processes Drive Shifts in Species and Functional Composition in Experimental Grasslands Varying in Sown Diversity and Community History  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of different biotic processes (limiting similarity, weaker competitor exclusion) and historical contingency due to priority effects are in the focus of ongoing discussions about community assembly and non-random functional trait distributions. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally manipulated assembly history in a grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment) by applying two factorially crossed split-plot treatments to all communities: (i) duration of weeding (never weeded since sowing or cessation of weeding after 3 or 6 years); (ii) seed addition (control vs. seed addition 4 years after sowing). Spontaneous colonization of new species in the control treatment without seed addition increased realized species richness and functional richness (FRic), indicating continuously denser packing of niches. Seed addition resulted in forced colonization and increased realized species richness, FRic, functional evenness (FEve) and functional divergence (FDiv), i.e. higher abundances of species with extreme trait values. Furthermore, the colonization of new species led to a decline in FEve through time, suggesting that weaker competitors were reduced in abundance or excluded. Communities with higher initial species richness or with longer time since cessation of weeding were more restricted in the entry of new species and showed smaller increases in FRic after seed addition than other communities. The two assembly-history treatments caused a divergence of species compositions within communities originally established with the same species. Communities originally established with different species converged in species richness and functional trait composition over time, but remained more distinct in species composition. Conclusions/Significance Contrasting biotic processes (limiting similarity, weaker competitor exclusion) increase functional convergence between communities initially established with different species. Historical contingency with regard to realized species compositions could not be eradicated by cessation of weeding or forced colonization and was still detectable 5 years after application of these treatments, providing evidence for the role of priority effects in community assembly. PMID:25029105

Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Gerighausen, Uta; Schmid, Bernhard

2014-01-01

28

Archaeosomes varying in lipid composition differ in receptor-mediated endocytosis and differentially adjuvant immune responses to entrapped antigen  

PubMed Central

Archaeosomes prepared from total polar lipids extracted from six archaeal species with divergent lipid compositions had the capacity to deliver antigen for presentation via both MHC class I and class II pathways. Lipid extracts from Halobacterium halobium and from Halococcus morrhuae strains 14039 and 16008 contained archaetidylglycerol methylphosphate and sulfated glycolipids rich in mannose residues, and lacked archaetidylserine, whereas the opposite was found in Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanococcus jannaschii. Annexin V labeling revealed a surface orientation of phosphoserine head groups in M. smithii, M. mazei and M. jannaschii archaeosomes. Uptake of rhodamine-labeled M. smithii or M. jannaschii archaeosomes by murine peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by unlabeled liposomes containing phosphatidylserine, by the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide, and by ATP depletion using azide plus fluoride, but not by H. halobium archaeosomes. In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide failed to inhibit uptake of the four other rhodamine-labeled archaeosome types, and azide plus fluoride did not inhibit uptake of H. halobium or H. morrhuae archaeosomes. These results suggest endocytosis ofarchaeosomes rich in surface-exposed phosphoserine head groups via a phosphatidylserine receptor, and energy-independent surface adsorption of certain other archaeosome composition classes. Lipid composition affected not only the endocytic mechanism, but also served to differentially modulate the activation of dendritic cells. The induction of IL-12 secretion from dendritic cells exposed to H. morrhuae 14039 archaeosomes was striking compared with cells exposed to archaeosomes from 16008. Thus, archaeosome types uniquely modulate antigen delivery and dendritic cell activation. PMID:15803661

Sprott, G. Dennis; Sad, Subash; Fleming, L. Perry; DiCaire, Chantal J.; Patel, Girishchandra B.; Krishnan, Lakshmi

2003-01-01

29

Nonlinear and Threshold Responses of Grassland Productivity and Species Composition to Increased CO2 Vary with Soil Type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is likely to cause nonlinear responses in ecosystem function and threshold changes in species composition. Here we report aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) responses to a continuous CO2 concentration gradient (250 to 500 ?L L-1,) in experimental grassland communities on three soils differing in water holding capacity and other properties. Communities consisting of four C4 grasses, two C3 forbs, and one legume were established on a lowland clay (vertisol, n=32), an upland clay (mollisol, n=32), and an alluvial sand (alfisol, n=16). The communities were positioned in a stratified random design in the CO2 gradient for five growing seasons, and were irrigated to mimic the average growing season rainfall regime for the study site in Central Texas. ANPP increased with CO2 almost two-fold more on the upland clay and alluvial sand than on the lowland clay (p < 0.0001), because of strong linear responses to CO2 on these soils (R2 = 0.50 to 0.59, p < 0.002) compared to a saturating response to CO2 on the lowland clay (R2 = 0.48, p= 0.01). On the two more responsive soils, the mesic tallgrass Sorghastrum nutans replaced the more drought adapted mid-grass Bouteloua curtipendula at elevated CO2, while B. curtipendula largely replaced S. nutans at low CO2, especially on the upland clay. Evidence for a similar composition change was not found on the lowland clay. Thus, two soils displayed a threshold change in community composition that accounted for up to 57% of variation in ANPP for those soils. Variation in ANPP and species composition with CO2 were accompanied by linear increases in soil water content (SWC, 0 - 20 cm, volumetric), most strongly on the alluvial sand (R2 = 0.39, p < 0.009) and by weak decreases with CO2 in soil N. Structural equation models explained 34 to 52% of the variation in ANPP, and indicated that CO2 effects on ANPP on the upland clay were primarily explained by CO2 effects on species composition, and on the alluvial sand by CO2 effects on SWC. Responses to elevated CO2 in SWC, ANPP, and species composition were explained by reduced stomatal conductance and increased photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE) in both grasses. In addition, S. nutans gained more in WUE at elevated CO2 than B. curtipendula, while B. curtipendula at elevated CO2 had lower light saturated photosynthetic capacity, quantum use efficiency, and dark respiration than S. nutans. Thus, at elevated CO2, shading by the taller S. nutans likely lowered B. curtipendula carbon assimilation and growth. We conclude that elevated CO2 strongly increased ANPP on upland clay and alluvial sand soils where there were also gains in soil moisture and threshold changes in species composition driven by physiological differences in the two dominant grass species. As a result, CO2 effects on ANPP will likely differ with soil type across the landscape.

Fay, P. A.; Jin, V.; Jackson, R. B.; Gill, R. A.; Way, D.; Polley, W.

2011-12-01

30

Evaluation of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) containing copolymer networks of varied composition as sustained metoprolol tartrate delivery systems.  

PubMed

Segmented copolymer networks (SCN) based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, and/or methyl methacrylate segments have been evaluated as potential sustained release systems of the water soluble cardioselective ?-blocker metoprolol tartrate. The structure and properties of the drug carriers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Swelling kinetics of SCNs in various media was followed, and the conditions for effective MT loading were specified. MT-loaded SCNs with drug content up to 80 wt.% were produced. The release kinetics of metoprolol tartrate from the systems was studied and it was shown that the conetworks of different structure and composition are able to sustain the metoprolol tartrate release without additional excipients. PMID:24789663

Kostova, Bistra; Ivanova, Sijka; Balashev, Konstantin; Rachev, Dimitar; Christova, Darinka

2014-08-01

31

Varying crustal compositions on the role of continental collision in forming Archean sub-continental lithospheric mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes responsible for the formation of thick, strong and cold Archean sub-continental lithospheric mantle remain elusive. One mechanism that has been proposed is a style of imbrication of buoyant oceanic lithosphere during lateral tectonic accretion. Here, we explore a similar mechanism and several alternate styles whereby buoyant sub-continental lithosphere develops into thickened lithosphere during Neoarchean continental collision. The thermo-mechanical evolution of continental lithosphere undergoing orogenesis under Neoarchean-like conditions is studied using forward modeling with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element technique. The numerical experiments suggest that during the initial stages of continental collision the upper portion of the mantle is characterized by underplating/underthrusting and is “plate-like”, whereas the crust undergoes distributed pure-shear thickening. Depending on the composition/rheology of the crust and the amount of radiogenic heat production in the crust, three dominant modes of mantle lithosphere deformation evolve: (1) a pure-shear thickening style; (2) an imbrication style ; (3) and a style best described as “flat-subduction”. Both the imbrication style and the “flat-subduction” style result in the emplacement of “plate-like” mantle lithosphere at depths between 200 km and 325 km. The imbrication style behavior possibly segues to the “flat-subduction” style behavior after a possible crustal inversion event. We interpret these modeling results in the context of the available geological and geophysical observables for the Superior and Slave provinces.

Gray, R.; Pysklywec, R. N.

2009-12-01

32

Differential uptake of liposomes varying in size and lipid composition by parenchymal and Kupffer cells of mouse liver  

SciTech Connect

Using liposomes differing in size and lipid composition, we have studied the uptake characteristics of the liver parenchymal and Kupffer cells. Desferal labeled with iron-59 was chosen as a radiomarker for the liposomal content, because Desferal in its free form does not cross cellular membranes.At various time intervals after an intravenous injection of liposomes into mice, the liver was perfused with collagenase, and the cells were separated in a Percoll gradient. It was found that large multilamellar liposomes (diameter of about 0.5 ..mu..m) were mainly taken up by the Kupffer cells. For these large liposomes, the rate of uptake by Kupffer cells was rapid, with maximum uptake at around 2 hours after liposme injection. Unexpectedly, small unilamellar liposomes (diameter of about 0.08 ..mu..m) were less effectively taken up by Kupffer cells, and the rate of uptake was slow, with a maximum uptake at about 10 hours after liposome injection. In contrast, parenchymal cells were more effective in taking up small liposmes and the uptake of large liposomes was negligible. In addition, liposomes made with a galactolipid as part of the lipid constituents appeared to have higher affinity to parenchymal cells than liposomes made without the galactolipid. These findings should be of importance in designing suitable liposomes for drug targeting.

Rahman, Y.E.; Cerny, E.A.; Patel, K.R.; Lau, E.H.; Wright, B.J.

1982-11-08

33

Differential uptake of liposomes varying in size and lipid composition by parenchymal and Kupffer cells of mouse liver  

SciTech Connect

Using liposomes differing in size and lipid composition, we have studied the uptake characteristics of the liver parenchymal and Kupffer cells. Desferal labeled with iron-59 was chosen as a radiomarker for the liposomal content, because Desferal in its free form does not cross cellular membranes. At various time intervals after an intravenous injection of liposomes into mice, the liver was perfused with collagenase, and the cells were separated in a Percoll gradient. It was found that large multilamellar liposomes (diameter of about 0.5 ..mu..m) were mainly taken up by the Kupffer cells. For these large liposomes, the rate of uptake by Kupffer cells was rapid, with maximum uptake at around 2 hours after liposome injection. In contrast, parenchymal cells were more effective in taking up small liposomes and the uptake of large liposomes was negligible. In addition, liposomes made with a galactolipid as part of the lipid constituents appeared to have higher affinity to parenchymal cells than liposomes made without the galactolipid. These findings should be of importance in designing suitable liposomes for drug targeting.

Rahman, Y.E.; Cerny, E.A.; Patel, K.R.; Lau, E.H.; Wright, B.J.

1982-01-01

34

Mineral particles of varying composition induce differential chemokine release from epithelial lung cells: importance of physico-chemical characteristics.  

PubMed

Presently, little is known about the potential health effects of mineral particles other than asbestos and quartz. In this study, a human epithelial lung cell line (A549), primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) and primary rat type 2 (T2) cells were exposed to stone quarry particles of two size fractions (<10 and <2.5 microm) from nine different rock samples. The ability to induce the release of chemokines from lung cells was investigated and compared with the particles' mineral and element composition and the amount of soluble elements. The stone particles induced the release of only low levels of interleukin (IL)-8 from A549 cells. In contrast, some of the other particles induced the release of high levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 from T2 cells, and high levels of IL-8 from SAECs. Differences in particle surface area could account for differences in activity between the <10 and <2.5 microm fractions of six out of the nine rock samples. For two samples the <2.5 microm fraction was most active and for one sample the <10 microm fraction was most active. Content of the mineral plagioclase displayed a strong, negative correlation with the potential to induce MIP-2, whereas the mineral pyroxene was positively correlated with MIP-2 induction. However, neither plagioclase nor pyroxene content was sufficient to explain differences in bioactivity between the particles. No statistically significant correlation was found between the amounts of total or soluble elements and MIP-2 release. In conclusion, the results suggest that mineral particles with a high content of plagioclase have a low potential to induce a pro-inflammatory response. However, a particular mineral or element responsible for eliciting strong increases in chemokine release could not be identified. Thus, at present it appears that analysing mineral and element content is insufficient to predict stone particle bioactivity, and that biological testing is a necessity. PMID:15640311

Ovrevik, J; Myran, T; Refsnes, M; Låg, M; Becher, R; Hetland, R B; Schwarze, P E

2005-04-01

35

Sediment accretion rates and sediment composition in Prairie Pothole wetlands under varying land use practices, Montana, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increased sedimentation and nutrient cycle changes in Prairie Pothole Region wetlands associated with agriculture threaten the permanence and ecological functionality of these important resources. To determine the effects of land use on sedimentation and nutrient cycling, soil cores were analyzed for cesium-137 (137Cs), lead-210 (210Pb), and potassium-40 (40K) activities; textural composition; organic and inorganic carbon (C); and total nitrogen (N) from twelve wetlands surrounded by cropland, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands, or native prairie uplands. Separate soil cores from nine of these wetlands were also analyzed for phosphorus (P), nitrate (NO3), and ammonium (NH4) concentrations. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had significantly greater linear sediment accretion rates than wetlands surrounded by CRP or native prairie. Linear sediment accretion rates from wetlands surrounded by cropland were 2.7 and 6 times greater than wetlands surrounded by native prairie when calculated from the initial and peak occurrence of 137Cs, respectively, and 0.15 cm y?1 (0.06 in yr?1) greater when calculated from 210Pb. Relative to wetlands surrounded by CRP, linear sediment accretion rates for wetlands surrounded by cropland were 4.4 times greater when calculated from the peak occurrence of 137Cs. No significant differences existed between the linear sediment accretion rates between wetlands surrounded by native prairie or CRP uplands. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had increased clay, P, NO3, and NH4, and decreased total C and N concentrations compared to wetlands surrounded by native prairie. Wetlands surrounded by CRP had the lowest P and NO3 concentrations and had clay, NH4, C, and N concentrations between those of cropland and native prairie wetlands. We documented increased linear sediment accretion rates and changes in the textural and chemical properties of sediments in wetlands with cultivated uplands relative to wetlands with native prairie uplands. These findings demonstrate the value of the CRP at protecting wetland catchments to reduce sedimentation.

Preston, T.M.; Sojda, R.S.; Gleason, R.A.

2013-01-01

36

Optimization of Ligninolytic Enzyme Activity and Production Rate with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for Application in Bioremediation by Varying Submerged Media Composition and Growth Immobilization Support  

PubMed Central

Response surface methodology (central composite design of experiments) was employed to simultaneously optimize enzyme production and productivities of two ligninolytic enzymes produced by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Concentrations of glucose, ammonium tartrate and Polysorbate 80 were varied to establish the optimal composition of liquid media (OLM), where the highest experimentally obtained activities and productivities were 41 U L?1 and 16 U L?1 day?1 for laccase (Lac), and 193 U L?1 and 80 U L?1 day?1 for manganese peroxidase (MnP). Considering culture growth in OLM on various types of immobilization support, the best results were obtained with 1 cm beech wood cubes (BWCM). Enzyme activities in culture filtrate were 152 U L?1 for Lac and 58 U L?1 for MnP, since the chemical composition of this immobilization material induced higher Lac activity. Lower enzyme activities were obtained with polyurethane foam. Culture filtrates of OLM and BWCM were applied for dye decolorization. Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) was decolorized faster and more efficiently than Copper(II)phthalocyanine (CuP) with BWCM (80% and 60%), since Lac played a crucial role. Decolorization of CuP was initially faster than that of RBBR, due to higher MnP activities in OLM. The extent of decolorization after 14 h was 60% for both dyes. PMID:23109859

Babic, Janja; Likozar, Blaz; Pavko, Aleksander

2012-01-01

37

Varying constants.  

PubMed

We review properties of theories for the variation of gravitation and fine structure 'constants'. We highlight some general features of the cosmological models that exist in these theories with reference to recent quasar data that are consistent with time variation in the fine structure constant since a redshift of 3.5. The behaviour of a simple class of varying-alpha cosmologies is outlined in the light of all the observational constraints. PMID:16147502

Barrow, John D

2005-09-15

38

Complex carriers of affibody-displaying bio-nanocapsules and composition-varied liposomes for HER2-expressing breast cancer cell-specific protein delivery.  

PubMed

A bio-nanocapsule (BNC), a hollow particle composed of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg), and liposome (LP) conjugation method (BNC/LP) has been recently developed by Jung et al. (2008) . The BNC/LP complex carrier could successfully deliver fluorescence-labeled beads (100 nm) into liver cells. In this study, we report the promising delivery of proteins incorporated in the complex carriers, which were prepared by the BNC/LP conjugation method with specificity-altered BNC and composition-varied LPs. The specificity-altered BNC, Z(HER2)-BNC was developed by replacing the hepatocyte recognition site of BNC with Z(HER2) binding to HER2 receptor specifically. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP; 27 kDa) and cellular cytotoxic protein (exotoxin A; 66 kDa) for the delivery, we herein present the impact of different charges attributed to the composition of the LP on specific cell targeting and cellular uptake of the complex carriers. In addition, we demonstrate that the mixture prepared by mixing LPs with helper lipid possessing endosomal escaping ability boosts the functional expression of the cellular cytotoxic exotoxin A activity specifically. Finally, we further show the blending ratio of the LP mixture and Z(HER2)-BNC is a critical factor in determining the highly-efficient expression of the cytotoxic activity of exotoxin A. PMID:23020553

Nishimura, Yuya; Ishii, Jun; Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

2012-12-01

39

Advertisement Call Complexity in Northern Leopard Frogs, Rana pipiens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advertisement call of Rana pipiens males may be the most complex of any temperate-zone anuran. To characterize call complexity, I analyzed acoustic properties and temporal patterning of male advertisement call notes. Calls included up to three note types (snores, grunts, and chuckles) and varied in complexity from one to 65 notes\\/call. Four common temporal patterns of notes in calls

Krista A. Larson

2004-01-01

40

Seed bank and vegetation composition of forest stands of varying age in central Belgium: consequences for regeneration of ancient forest vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation composition differs significantly between ancient and recent forest, due to slow colonization capacity of typical forest species and the higher abundance of early successional species in recent forest. However, little is known about differences in persistent seed bank composition between ancient and recent forest and about the interaction between seed bank and vegetation in relation with forest age. We

B. Bossuyt; M. Heyn; M. Hermy

2002-01-01

41

Changes in osmotic and ionic concentrations in the hemolymph of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to varying salinities and correlation to ionic and crystalline composition of the cuticle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic and ionic regulatory ability were examined in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii in response to varying salinities. In freshwater, and under conditions of low salinity, hemolymph osmolality was maintained around 450 mOsm. Under high salinity, osmolality values increased in a time-wise manner until reaching levels of the surrounding rearing water. Changes in sodium concentration generally paralleled osmotic change,

Marcy N Wilder; Kazumasa Ikuta; Muharijadi Atmomarsono; Tamao Hatta; Kosei Komuro

1998-01-01

42

Torpor patterns of hibernating eastern chipmunks Tamias striatus vary in response to the size and fatty acid composition of food hoards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Many endotherms employ torpor during periods of resource scarcity, but this state of substantially reduced body temperature and metabolism appears to impose significant physiological costs. Accordingly, individuals can be expected to vary the expression of torpor according to the size of their energy reserves. 2. Although dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important for maintain- ing the fluidity

DANIEL MUNRO; DONALD W. THOMAS; MURRAY M. HUMPHRIES

2005-01-01

43

An evaluation of forage production, vegetational composition, tree growth, and physical characteristics of soils under varying densities of oak woodland overstory  

E-print Network

-Moisture Trends ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 58 Soil-Moisture Depletion ........... 6l Soil-Moistnre Accretion . ........? . . . ......... . . . 65 DISCUSSION . . ............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Effects of Varying Amounts... o 85 Permanent Wilting Percentage ? ? ? ? ? ? ? - . ? o . o e * 86 Available Water ? 9 o ? o ? o o e o o o o # ? e o 87 General Soil-Moisture Trends ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? 88 Soil-Moisture Depletion * ? ? ? o...

Koshi, Paul T.

2013-10-04

44

Seed bank and vegetation composition of forest stands of varying age in central Belgium: consequences for regeneration of ancient forest vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation composition differs significantly between ancientand recent forest, due to slow colonization capacity of typical forest speciesand the higher abundance of early successional species in recent forest.However, little is known about differences in persistent seed bank compositionbetween ancient and recent forest and about the interaction between seed bankand vegetation in relation with forest age. We surveyed the seed bank and

B. Bossuyt; M. Heyn; M. Hermy

2002-01-01

45

Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition vary in relation to nectary anatomy and location within individual flowers of several species of Brassicaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymology\\u000a in nine species from five tribes of the Brassicaceae. In six species (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Brassica napus L., B. rapa L., Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv., Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L.) that produced nectar from both lateral nectaries (associated with the short stamens) and median nectaries

Arthur R. Davis; Jeffrey D. Pylatuik; Joelle C. Paradis; Nicholas H. Low

1998-01-01

46

A call center primer.  

PubMed

Call centers are strategically and tactically important to many industries, including the healthcare industry. Call centers play a key role in acquiring and retaining customers. The ability to deliver high-quality and timely customer service without much expense is the basis for the proliferation and expansion of call centers. Call centers are unique blends of people and technology, where performance indicates combining appropriate technology tools with sound management practices built on key operational data. While the technology is fascinating, the people working in call centers and the skill of the management team ultimately make a difference to their companies. PMID:10182518

Durr, W

1998-01-01

47

Call Me Pet Names  

Microsoft Academic Search

1st VERSE. Call me pet names dearest! Call me a bird,\\u000aThat flies to thy breast at one cherishing word,\\u000aThat folds its wild wings there, ne'er dreaming of flight,\\u000aThat tenderly sings there in loving delight!\\u000aOh! my sad heart keeps pining for one fond word!\\u000aCall me pet names dearest! Call me a bird!\\u000a2d VERSE. Call me

Francis Weiland; Frances Sargent Locke Osgood

1851-01-01

48

Head-group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a common stress response, and the acyl-galactose acyl composition varies with the plant species and applied stress.  

PubMed

Formation of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols has been shown to be induced by leaf homogenization, mechanical wounding, avirulent bacterial infection and thawing after snap-freezing. Here, lipidomic analysis using mass spectrometry showed that galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, formed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves upon wounding, have acyl-galactose profiles that differ from those of wounded Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that different plant species accumulate different acyl-galactose components in response to the same stress. Additionally, the composition of the acyl-galactose component of Arabidopsis acMGDG (galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerol) depends on the stress treatment. After sub-lethal freezing treatment, acMGDG contained mainly non-oxidized fatty acids esterified to galactose, whereas mostly oxidized fatty acids accumulated on galactose after wounding or bacterial infection. Compositional data are consistent with acMGDG being formed in vivo by transacylation with fatty acids from digalactosyldiacylglycerols. Oxophytodienoic acid, an oxidized fatty acid, was more concentrated on the galactosyl ring of acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols than in galactolipids in general. Also, oxidized fatty acid-containing acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols increased cumulatively when wounded Arabidopsis leaves were wounded again. These findings suggest that, in Arabidopsis, the pool of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols may serve to sequester oxidized fatty acids during stress responses. PMID:24286212

Vu, Hieu Sy; Roth, Mary R; Tamura, Pamela; Samarakoon, Thilani; Shiva, Sunitha; Honey, Samuel; Lowe, Kaleb; Schmelz, Eric A; Williams, Todd D; Welti, Ruth

2014-04-01

49

Air Call-Accept  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We've all had our hands in the dishwater when an important call comes in. The Air Call-Accept application gives users the ability to just wave their hand across the proximity sensor, and voila: the call is accepted. It's quite useful for people who are driving around quite a bit, though others will certainly find it efficacious. This version is compatible with devices running Android 1.6 and newer.

2013-08-15

50

Energy and protein relations in the broiler chicken. 2. Effect of varied protein and constant carbohydrate levels on body composition and lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Male broiler chicks were fed diets containing 18, 23 or 30% protein on an ad libitum basis for 3 weeks. Chicks were also fed these diets on a restriction regime consisting of seven 3-day cycles (2 days with and 1 day without feed). Another group of chicks were fed diets containing 12, 23 or 30% protein on a 3-day rotation consisting of a daily change in dietary protein. Ad libitum. Feed intakes of chicks were inversely (P less than .05) related to the level of the dietary protein. Body composition data seemed to support a positive (P less than .05) relationship between dietary protein and total carcass protein and an inverse (P less than .05) relationship between dietary protein and carcass fat. In vitro lipogenesis was greater (P less than .05) in chicks fed an 18% protein diet than in chicks fed either 23 or 30% protein diets. Restricted. Protein levels had no effect on lipogenesis in chicks fed on a restriction regime but regulated lipogenesis in chicks fed on the rotational regime. Fatty acid synthetase, malic enzyme and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities, when measured during the rotational regime, were greatest following the 12% diet and least following the 30% diet. Enzyme activities, determined during the restriction regime, were greatest (P less than .05) after 1 day of refeeding and least (P less than .05) after 1 day of feed withdrawal. Measurement of net glucose production in vitro indicated that high-protein diets and feed withdrawal stimulated production of glucose. PMID:3835110

Rosebrough, R W; Steele, N C

1985-01-01

51

Callings and Organizational Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…

Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith

2010-01-01

52

The Power of CALL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book provides an overview of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) written by specialists in specific areas of electronic media. Its nine chapters include: "The Power of the Computer in Language Education" (Martha C. Pennington); "Elements of CALL Methodology: Development, Evaluation, and Implementation" (Philip L. Hubbard); "Second…

Pennington, Martha C., Ed.

53

Reduction of an E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella composite on fresh strawberries by varying antimicrobial washes and vacuum perfusion.  

PubMed

A 2011 outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis, which resulted in the death of two individuals, was associated with contaminated strawberries. A study was conducted to identify antimicrobial washes effective at reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica from the surface of fresh whole strawberries during two-minute immersion washes. Twenty-seven antimicrobial treatments were tested. Vacuum perfusion was applied to strawberries during chlorine and peracetic acid treatments to promote infiltration of sanitizer into porous strawberry tissue. Strawberries were inoculated to 7.1logCFU/strawberry with a seven-strain bacterial composite, consisting of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 and four serovars of Salmonella enterica. Berries were air-dried for 2h and immersed in circulating antimicrobial solutions for 120s at 22°C. Four treatments reduced ?3.0logCFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% acetic acid+1% H2O2, (b) 30% ethanol+1% H2O2, (c) 90ppm peracetic acid, and (d) 1% lactic acid+1% H2O2. Two additional treatments that reduced 2.8logCFU/strawberry were (a) 40% ethanol, and (b) 1% each of phosphoric+fumaric acids. Eight treatments reduced 2.0-2.6logCFU/strawberry. Five treatments reduced <1.45CFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% citric acid, (b) 1% lactic acid, (c) 1% acetic acid, (d) 0.5% each of acetic+citric acids and (e) 0.5% each of acetic+lactic acids. The use of vacuum perfusion with 200ppm chlorine or 90ppm peracetic acid did not reduce greater populations of pathogens than did the same treatments without vacuum perfusion. Fourteen treatments reduced no more pathogens (p<0.05) than did sterile deionized water. Results from this study provide some options for end-point decontamination of strawberries for retail operations just prior to serving to customers. PMID:25146462

Gurtler, Joshua B; Bailey, Rebecca B; Jin, Tony Z; Fan, Xuetong

2014-10-17

54

Urea metabolism in beef steers grazing Bermudagrass, Caucasian bluestem, or gamagrass pastures varying in plant morphology, protein content, and protein composition.  

PubMed

Pastures of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon, BG), Caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica, CBS), and gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides, GG) were evaluated from the perspectives of forage composition, selection during grazing, and N metabolism in beef steers. All pastures were fertilized with 78 kg/ha of N approximately 60 and 30 d before sample collection. In 2000 and 2001, 12 steers (250 kg of BW) were blocked based on BW and then assigned randomly to a replicated, randomized complete block design, with 2 pastures of each forage and 2 steers per pasture. Three other steers with esophageal fistulas were used to collect masticate samples to represent intake preferences. Herbage mass was >1,900 kg/ha. After at least 14 d of adaptation, urine and blood samples were collected for determination of serum urea N and percentage of urinary N in the form of urea. One steer per pasture (6 steers per year) was infused i.v. with (15,15)N urea for 50 h before collecting urine for 6 h to measure urea N enrichment, urea entry rate, urinary urea excretion, gut urea recycling, and return of urea N to the ornithine cycle. The canopy leaf:stem DM ratio differed (P = 0.01) among BG (0.50), CBS (1.01), and GG (4.00). Caucasian bluestem had less CP (% of DM) than GG or BG in the canopy (9.6 vs. 12.0 or 12.3, P = 0.07) and in the masticate (9.8 vs. 14.7 or 13.9, P = 0.04). Bermudagrass had less true protein (% of CP) than CBS or GG in the canopy (72.9 vs. 83.3 or 83.0, P = 0.07) and in the masticate (73.7 vs. 85.8 or 88.0, P = 0.04). Compared with GG and BG, CBS had less serum urea N (10.1 or 12.2 vs. 2.5 mM, P = 0.01), urea entry rate (353 or 391 vs. 209 mmol of N/h, P = 0.07), and urinary urea excretion (105 or 95 vs. 18 mmol of N/h, P = 0.04), and a greater return of urea N to the ornithine cycle as a proportion of gut urea recycling (0.109 or 0.118 vs. 0.231, P = 0.02). Urea production and recycling in these steers responded more to the N concentration in the grasses than to differences in plant protein fractions. There was no evidence of improved N capture by the steers due to changes in the leaf:stem ratio among the grasses at the herbage mass evaluated. PMID:17431040

Huntington, G B; Burns, J C; Archibeque, S L

2007-08-01

55

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

NOT HANG UP, even if the caller does. 2. Listen carefully. Be polite and show interest. 3. Try to keep the caller talking to learn more information. 4. If possible, write a note to a colleague to call

Guo, Ting

56

Formation of Subscales of Varying Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An earlier paper (Bastow et al,, 1977) presented an analysis of the diffusion processes taking place in the surface scale when a binary alloy was oxidized and the resulting scale consisted of a solid solution of the oxides of the individual alloy componen...

B. D. Bastow, D. P. Whittle, F. Gesmundo, G. C. Wood

1980-01-01

57

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES WHO TO CONTACT (select one) · Follow your local guidelines · Federal Protective Service (FPS) Police 1-877-4-FPS-411 (1-877-437-7411) · 911 Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act quickly, but remain calm and obtain

Boyce, Richard L.

58

Dimensioning Large Call Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a framework for asymptotic optimization of a queueing system. The motivation is the staffing problem of large call centers, which we have modeled as M\\/M\\/N queues with N , the number of agents, being large. Within our framework, we determine the asymptotically optimal staffing level N ? that trades off agents' costs with service quality: the higher the

Sem Borst; Avishai Mandelbaum; Martin I. Reiman

2004-01-01

59

Artificial Intelligence and CALL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

Underwood, John H.

60

A Call for Professionalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Albert Shanker, President of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), speaks about the national testing of teachers and calls for the creation of a new and better national examination for new teachers. While members of the AFT have a few differences with some of the current reform proposals, the AFT in general supports the overwhelming majority…

Shanker, Albert

61

Social Computing and CALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term social computing was introduced into the world of CALL by Debski and colleagues in 1997. In 2006, the terms social software, social computing and Web2 are ideas that are exercising the minds of many in the general computing world and tools that enable us to work socially across networks like blogs and wikis are much in vogue. As

Gary Motteram

2006-01-01

62

Wake-Up Call.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the artist, Laquita Thomson, whose inspiration are the stars and space. Discusses her series called, "Celestial Happenings: Stars Fell on Alabama." Describes one event that inspired an art work when a meteor crashed into an Alabama home. Includes lessons for various subject areas. (CMK)

Sartorius, Tara Cady

2002-01-01

63

The British call option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alongside the British put option (Peskir and Samee [Appl. Math. Finance, 2011, 18, 537–563]) we present a new call option where the holder enjoys the early exercise feature of American options whereupon his payoff (deliverable immediately) is the ‘best prediction’ of the European payoff under the hypothesis that the true drift of the stock price equals a contract drift. Inherent

Goran Peskir; Farman Samee

2012-01-01

64

Automated call tracking systems  

SciTech Connect

User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

Hardesty, C.

1993-03-01

65

Time-Varying Quantiles  

E-print Network

A time-varying quantile can be fitted to a sequence of observations by formulating a time series model for the corresponding population quantile and iteratively applying a suitably modified state space signal extraction algorithm. Quantiles...

Harvey, Andrew C; De Rossi, Giuliano

66

Call Imitation and Call Modification in Red Crossbills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open-ended learning of flight calls has been found consistently in the subfamily Carduelinae. Understanding call learning is especially important in Red Crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) because calls appear to play an instrumental role in assortative mating, perhaps by acting as a marker trait that signals ecological adaptation for foraging on a particular species of conifer. We analyzed flight call recordings

T. L Parchman; CRAIG W. BENKMAN; B. Jenkins; C. S Buerkle

2008-01-01

67

PLACE A CALL lift handset  

E-print Network

1 PLACE A CALL lift handset OR With Receiver on Hook press line key OR For Two-Way Handsfree Call press Handsfree key (selects line) ANSWER A CALL Call Status flashes on telephone set: lift handset (selects line) OR press flashing line key and lift handset OR press Handsfree key ( selects ringing line

Waterloo, University of

68

Call title: Call for INFLUENZA Call identifier: FP7-INFLUENZA-2010  

E-print Network

1 Call title: Call for INFLUENZA Call identifier: FP7-INFLUENZA-2010 Date of publication: 30 July of this Call is to address research needs in human and animal influenza in view of the recent outbreak of a novel human influenza virus containing swine and avian gene sequences, and taking into account

Milano-Bicocca, Università

69

An Analysis Of The Compositional Ideas Used In \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psalm 66 is a three-movement composition written for chorus (varying from traditional S.A.T.B. to S.S.S.S.A.A.A.A. T.T.T.T.B.B.B.B) and orchestra. The composition is based partly on the simultaneous occurrence of different compositional methods. The important feature of the first movement is use of a series of motivic ideas called \\

Robert H. Gower

1984-01-01

70

Composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle distribution and hot workability of an in situ Al-TiCp composite were investigated. The composite was fabricated by an in situ casting method using the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of an Al-Ti-C system. Hot-compression tests were carried out, and power dissipation maps were constructed using a dynamic material model. Small globular TiC particles were not themselves fractured, but the clustering and grain boundary segregation of the particles contributed to the cracking of the matrix by causing the debonding of matrix/particle interfaces and providing a crack propagation path. The efficiency of power dissipation increased with increasing temperature and strain rate, and the maximum efficiency was obtained at a temperature of 723 K (450 °C) and a strain rate of 1/s. The microstructural mechanism occurring in the maximum efficiency domain was dynamic recrystallization. The role of particles in the plastic flow and the microstructure evolution were discussed.

Kim, Su-Hyeon; Cho, Young-Hee; Lee, Jung-Moo

2014-06-01

71

Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

Taylor, John G.

72

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places  

PubMed Central

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

2010-01-01

73

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places.  

PubMed

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

Collier, Travis C; Blumstein, Daniel T; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E

2010-12-01

74

Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs  

PubMed Central

Summary For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types — click, burst and trill — that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

Tobias, Martha L.; Evans, Ben J.; Kelley, Darcy B.

2014-01-01

75

Using a Bull Call Spread  

E-print Network

The Bull Call Spread can be used to hedge against or to benefit from a rising market. The user buys a call option at a particular strike price and sells a call option at a higher strike price. Margin requirements, advantages and disadvantages...

Bevers, Stan; Amosson, Stephen H.; Waller, Mark L.; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.

2008-10-07

76

Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-N?dza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

2014-11-01

77

Comparison of acid-detergent lignin, alkaline-peroxide lignin, and acid-detergent insoluble ash as internal markers for predicting fecal output and digestibility by cattle offered bermudagrass hays of varying nutrient composition  

PubMed Central

Background The potential for acid-detergent insoluble ash (ADIA), alkaline-peroxide lignin (APL), and acid-detergent lignin (ADL) to predict fecal output (FO) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) by cattle offered bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hays of different qualities was evaluated. Eight ruminally cannulated cows (594?±?35.5 kg) were allocated randomly to 4 hay diets: low (L), medium low (ML), medium high (MH), and high (H) crude protein (CP) concentration (79, 111, 131, and 164 g CP/kg on a DM basis, respectively). Diets were offered in 3 periods with 2 diet replicates per period and were rotated across cows between periods. Cows were individually fed 20 g DM/kg of body weight in equal feedings at 08:00 and 16:00 h for a 10-d adaptation followed by a 5-d total fecal collection. Actual DM intake (DMI), DMD, and FO were determined based on hay offered, ort, and feces excreted. These components were then analyzed for ADL, APL, and ADIA concentration to determine marker recovery and marker-based estimates of FO and DMD. Results Forage DMI was affected by diet (P =?0.02), and DMI from MH and H was greater (P varying nutrient composition. These internal markers may facilitate studies involving large numbers of animals and forages. Results from such studies may be used to develop improved equations to predict energy values of forages based on the relationship of dietary components to digestibility across a wide range of forages. PMID:24418569

2014-01-01

78

Call title: Energy Call Part 2 Call identifier: FP7-ENERGY-2010-2  

E-print Network

ENERGY.2010.2.9-1: Demonstration of innovating multipurpose solar plants Collaborative Project conditions for an indirect action are satisfied by a number of legal entities, which together form one legal1 Call title: Energy Call Part 2 · Call identifier: FP7-ENERGY-2010-2 · Date of publication: 30th

Milano-Bicocca, Università

79

Call title: Energy Call Part 1 Call identifier: FP7-ENERGY-2010-1  

E-print Network

.3: WIND ENERGY.2010.2.3-1: Cross-sectoral approach to the development of very large offshore wind turbines-temperature operation Collaborative Project ACTIVITY ENERGY.3: RENEWABLE FUEL PRODUCTION AREA ENERGY.3.5: ALTERNATIVE1 Call title: Energy Call Part 1 · Call identifier: FP7-ENERGY-2010-1 · Date of publication: 30th

Milano-Bicocca, Università

80

Prompting in CALL: A Longitudinal Study of Learner Uptake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research presents a longitudinal study of learner uptake in a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) environment. Over the course of 3 semesters, 10 second language learners of German at a Canadian university used an online, parser-based CALL program that, for the purpose of this research, provided 2 different types of feedback of varying

Heift, Trude

2010-01-01

81

"You call it forest, I call it woods."  

E-print Network

) · Definition · Majority forest land is in private ownership. ~ 50 - 60% US (Butler and Leatherberry 2004; Egan1 "You call it forest, I call it woods." Incorporating Meaning in Forest ManagementForest, Conclusions, Implications for Professional Practice · Ongoing research Private forest landowners (PFLs

Gray, Matthew

82

call for papers appel communications  

E-print Network

to categorize such creations. Still cautiously called postmodern, these artists addressed precisely the issue 1967). He also considered the introduction of time in the aesthetic experience as a problem

Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

83

Decentralized power system stabilizer design using linear parameter varying approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the power system model is formulated as a finite dimensional linear system whose state-space entries depend continuously on a time varying parameter vector called the scheduling variables. This system is referred to as the linear parameter varying (LPV) system. Although the trajectory of the changing parameters such as load levels and tie line flows is not known

Wenzheng Qiu; Vijay Vittal; Mustafa Khammash

2004-01-01

84

Decentralized power system stabilizer design using linear parameter varying approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the power system model is formulated as a finite dimensional linear system whose state-space entries depend continuously on a time varying parameter vector called the scheduling variables. This system is referred to as the linear parameter varying (LPV) system. Although the trajectory of the changing parameters such as load levels and tie line flows is not know

Wenzheng Qiu; V. Vittal; M. Khammash

2005-01-01

85

CALL Essentials: Principles and Practice in CALL Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computers and the Internet offer innovative teachers exciting ways to enhance their pedagogy and capture their students' attention. These technologies have created a growing field of inquiry, computer-assisted language learning (CALL). As new technologies have emerged, teaching professionals have adapted them to support teachers and learners in…

Egbert, Joy

2005-01-01

86

Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

2006-05-01

87

CALL FOR PAPERS Conference on  

E-print Network

CALL FOR PAPERS Conference on Evidence on Schooling and Wellbeing Aarhus University, Denmark August that provide insights into research on high-quality education. We especially invite papers that answer questions about what works in school provision or what works for school-aged children more broadly. Papers

88

Worm chromosomes call for recognition!  

E-print Network

Worm chromosomes call for recognition! Barbara P. Rattner1 and Victoria H. Meller2 * Summary Many organisms face a dilemma rooted in the unequal numbers of X chromosomes carried by the two sexes with this problem. All rely on accurately targeting epigenetic modifications to entire chromosomes. Targeting

Meller, Victoria

89

State clearly Nature of call  

E-print Network

Calling from external or mobile phones use the prefix 9266 security 4444 or 1300 00 4444 Health and safety, the safety, health and well being of staff, students, contractors and visitors during emergencies at Curtin 4900 university Health services (not for emergencies) 7345 Facilities management 2020 university

90

CALL FOR ARTISTS Alumni Exhibition  

E-print Network

CALL FOR ARTISTS Alumni Exhibition: WSU Art Education & Art Therapy The WSU Art Education and Art Therapy wing of the Community Arts Building on Wayne State's campus. We hope to display one Alumnus. Submissions from all Art Education/Art Therapy Alumni will be considered and Alumni are encouraged to submit

Berdichevsky, Victor

91

Ebola: a call to action.  

PubMed

The size, speed and potential reach of the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa presents a wake-up call to the research and pharmaceutical communities - and to federal governments - of the continuing need to invest resources in the study and cure of emerging infectious diseases. PMID:25198036

2014-09-01

92

Call for Papers Web Graphics  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Web Graphics Special Issue of IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications Guest Editors a migration of traditional applications to run on the Web environment and a growing demand for more powerful web-based applications. Fused by the increasing availability and dramatic reduction in the cost of 3D

Lau, W. H. Nynson

93

Effect of Varying CO2 Partial Pressure on Photosynthesis and on Carbon Isotope Composition of Carbon-4 of Malate from the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perr. 1  

PubMed Central

Intact leaves of Kalanchoë daigremontiana were exposed to CO2 partial pressures of 100, 300, and 1000 microbars. Malic acid was extracted, purified, and degraded in order to obtain isotopic composition of carbon-1 and carbon-4. From these data, it is possible to calculate the carbon isotope composition of newly fixed carbon in malate. In all three treatments, the isotopic composition of newly introduced carbon is the same as that of the CO2 source and is independent of CO2 partial pressures over the range tested. Comparison with numerical models described previously (O'Leary 1981 Phytochemistry 20: 553-567) indicates that we would expect carbon 4 of malate to be 4‰ more negative than source CO2 if diffusion is totally limiting or 7‰ more positive than source CO2 if carboxylation is totally limiting. Our results demonstrate that stomatal aperture adjusts to changing CO2 partial pressures and maintains the ratio of diffusion resistance to carboxylation resistance approximately constant. In this study, carboxylation and diffusion resistances balance so that essentially no fractionation occurs during malate synthesis. Gas exchange studies of the same leaves from which malate was extracted show that the extent of malate synthesis over the whole night is nearly independent of CO2 partial pressure, although there are small variations in CO2 uptake rate. Both the gas exchange and the isotope studies indicate that the ratio of external to internal CO2 partial pressure is the same in all three treatments. Inasmuch as a constant ratio will result in constant isotope fractionation, this observation may explain why plants in general have fairly invariable 13C contents, despite growing under a variety of environmental conditions. PMID:16662874

Holtum, Joseph A. M.; O'Leary, Marion H.; Osmond, C. Barry

1983-01-01

94

Flocking and signaling: the role of calling in swift aggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent landmark studies of flocking and other collective behavior have focused on trajectories and internal flock structure, not how perception and communications relate to flock dynamics. Using video and bioacoustic techniques, we investigated the role of referential signaling in flock formation by chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica) through field studies of native populations during the breeding and nesting seasons. These aerial insectivores forage individually and in flocks of varying size while emitting only two distinct types of calls with simple spectral structures. Video-based tracking of their flight trajectories and spectrographic analysis of their calls showed that specific calls are correlated with the onset of flock formation. We present results from a study of how the sequence of the two types of calls, the call repetition rate and duration, and other factors relate to the initiation of flocking and other aspects of collective motion.

Mayo, Alyssa; Zamani, Marjon; Amador Kane, Suzanne

2013-03-01

95

ORIGINAL PAPER Population and seasonal variation in response to prey calls  

E-print Network

Patricia L. Jones & Michael J. Ryan & Rachel A. Page Received: 13 September 2013 /Revised: 17 December 2013 to foraging behavior in the wild where prey and the calls that identify them vary over space and time. In two), we presented wild-caught bats with frog calls, katydid calls, and control stimuli. Bats in Soberanía

Ryan, Michael J.

96

Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)  

PubMed Central

Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species. PMID:23966949

Wright, Genevieve S.; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Moss, Cynthia F.

2013-01-01

97

Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).  

PubMed

Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species. PMID:23966949

Wright, Genevieve S; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Moss, Cynthia F

2013-01-01

98

Energetic composites  

DOEpatents

A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application. 3 figures.

Danen, W.C.; Martin, J.A.

1993-11-30

99

Energetic composites  

DOEpatents

A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application.

Danen, Wayne C. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, Joe A. (Espanola, NM)

1993-01-01

100

Time-Varying Graphs and Dynamic Networks Arnaud Casteigts1  

E-print Network

, and Wireless Networks (ADHOC-NOW),, Germany (2011)" #12;necessarily hold, at least with the usual meaningTime-Varying Graphs and Dynamic Networks Arnaud Casteigts1 , Paola Flocchini1 , Walter networks (variously called delay-tolerant, disruptive- tolerant, challenged, opportunistic, etc) whose

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

101

DISCRETE VARIANTS OF EVENING GROSBEAK FLIGHT CALLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe four discrete variants of the frequency-modulated flight calls of Evening Grosbeaks (Coccothraustes vespertinus) in the United States and southwestern Canada. Each call type is aurally and spectrographically distinct, and individual birds appear to produce only one call type. The observed geograph- ic distributions of these call types are roughly concor- dant with described subspecies ranges. The long-term geographic

Kendra Sewall; Rodd Kelsey; Thomas P. Hahn

2004-01-01

102

SNP Calling, Genotype Calling, and Sample Allele Frequency Estimation from New-Generation Sequencing  

E-print Network

SNP Calling, Genotype Calling, and Sample Allele Frequency Estimation from New, and show how the method can be used for genotype calling and SNP calling. We also show how the method can. Citation: Nielsen R, Korneliussen T, Albrechtsen A, Li Y, Wang J (2012) SNP Calling, Genotype Calling

Nielsen, Rasmus

103

Calling behavior of blue and fin whales off California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive acoustic monitoring is an effective means for evaluating cetacean presence in remote regions and over long time periods, and may become an important component of cetacean abundance surveys. To use passive acoustic recordings for abundance estimation, an understanding of the behavioral ecology of cetacean calling is crucial. In this dissertation, I develop a better understanding of how blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin (B. physalus ) whales use sound with the goal of evaluating passive acoustic techniques for studying their populations. Both blue and fin whales produce several different call types, though the behavioral and environmental context of these calls have not been widely investigated. To better understand how calling is used by these whales off California I have employed both new technologies and traditional techniques, including acoustic recording tags, continuous long-term autonomous acoustic recordings, and simultaneous shipboard acoustic and visual surveys. The outcome of these investigations has led to several conclusions. The production of blue whale calls varies with sex, behavior, season, location, and time of day. Each blue whale call type has a distinct behavioral context, including a male-only bias in the production of song, a call type thought to function in reproduction, and the production of some calls by both sexes. Long-term acoustic records, when interpreted using all call types, provide a more accurate measure of the local seasonal presence of whales, and how they use the region annually, seasonally and daily. The relative occurrence of different call types may indicate prime foraging habitat and the presence of different segments of the population. The proportion of animals heard calling changes seasonally and geographically relative to the number seen, indicating the calibration of acoustic and visual surveys is complex and requires further study on the motivations behind call production and the behavior of calling whales. These findings will play a role in the future development of acoustic census methods and habitat studies for these species, and will provide baseline information for the determination of anthropogenic impacts on these populations.

Oleson, Erin Marie

104

Why do trade costs vary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As tariffs have fallen, it is apparent that trade costs are a significant obstacle to international trade and that they vary\\u000a from country to country. The gap between the cif and fob value of a trade flow is a useful measure of aggregate trade costs,\\u000a but only if the measure is based on a consistent volume of trade; mirror statistics

Richard Pomfret; Patricia Sourdin

2010-01-01

105

Individual, Contextual, and Age-Related Acoustic Variation in Simakobu (Simias concolor) Loud Calls  

PubMed Central

Primate loud calls have the potential to encode information about the identity, arousal, age, or physical condition of the caller, even at long distances. In this study, we conducted an analysis of the acoustic features of the loud calls produced by a species of Asian colobine monkey (simakobu, Simias concolor). Adult male simakobu produce loud calls spontaneously and in response to loud sounds and other loud calls, which are audible more than 500 m. Individual differences in calling rates and durations exist, but it is unknown what these differences signal and which other acoustic features vary among individuals. We aimed to describe the structure and usage of calls and to examine acoustic features that vary within and among individuals. We determined the context of 318 loud calls and analyzed 170 loud calls recorded from 10 adult males at an undisturbed site, Pungut, Siberut Island, Indonesia. Most calls (53%) followed the loud call of another male, 31% were spontaneous, and the remaining 16% followed a loud environmental disturbance. The fundamental frequency (F0) decreased while inter-unit intervals (IUI) increased over the course of loud call bouts, possibly indicating caller fatigue. Discriminant function analysis indicated that calls were not well discriminated by context, but spontaneous calls had higher peak frequencies, suggesting a higher level of arousal. Individual calls were distinct and individuals were mainly discriminated by IUI, call duration, and F0. Loud calls of older males had shorter IUI and lower F0, while middle-aged males had the highest peak frequencies. Overall, we found that calls were individually distinct and may provide information about the age, stamina, and arousal of the calling male, and could thus be a way for males and females to assess competitors and mates from long distances. PMID:24376651

Erb, Wendy M.; Hodges, J. Keith; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

2013-01-01

106

An empirical analysis of the corporate call decision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we provide insights into the behavior of financial managers of utility companies by studying their decisions to redeem callable preferred shares. In particular, we investigate whether or not an option pricing based model of the call decision, with managers who maximize shareholder value, does a better job of explaining callable preferred share prices and call decisions than do other models of the decision. In order to perform these tests, we extend an empirical technique introduced by Rust (1987) to include the use of information from preferred share prices in addition to the call decisions. The model we develop to value the option embedded in a callable preferred share differs from standard models in two ways. First, as suggested in Kraus (1983), we explicitly account for transaction costs associated with a redemption. Second, we account for state variables that are observed by the decision makers but not by the preferred shareholders. We interpret these unobservable state variables as the benefits and costs associated with a change in capital structure that can accompany a call decision. When we add this variable, our empirical model changes from one which predicts exactly when a share should be called to one which predicts the probability of a call as the function of the observable state. These two modifications of the standard model result in predictions of calls, and therefore of callable preferred share prices, that are consistent with several previously unexplained features of the data; we show that the predictive power of the model is improved in a statistical sense by adding these features to the model. The pricing and call probability functions from our model do a good job of describing call decisions and preferred share prices for several utilities. Using data from shares of the Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PGE) we obtain reasonable estimates for the transaction costs associated with a call. Using a formal empirical test, we are able to conclude that the managers of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company clearly take into account the value of the option to delay the call when making their call decisions. Overall, the model seems to be robust to tests of its specification and does a better job of describing the data than do simpler models of the decision making process. Limitations in the data do not allow us to perform the same tests in a larger cross-section of utility companies. However, we are able to estimate transaction cost parameters for many firms and these do not seem to vary significantly from those of PGE. This evidence does not cause us to reject our hypothesis that managerial behavior is consistent with a model in which managers maximize shareholder value.

Carlson, Murray Dean

107

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...survival craft Call sign of the parent ship followed by 2 digits KAAA20...marker buoy Call sign of the parent ship followed by the letters...is assigned, call sign of the parent aircraft followed by a single digit other than 0 or 1...

2013-10-01

108

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...survival craft Call sign of the parent ship followed by 2 digits KAAA20...marker buoy Call sign of the parent ship followed by the letters...is assigned, call sign of the parent aircraft followed by a single digit other than 0 or 1...

2010-10-01

109

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...survival craft Call sign of the parent ship followed by 2 digits KAAA20...marker buoy Call sign of the parent ship followed by the letters...is assigned, call sign of the parent aircraft followed by a single digit other than 0 or 1...

2012-10-01

110

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...survival craft Call sign of the parent ship followed by 2 digits KAAA20...marker buoy Call sign of the parent ship followed by the letters...is assigned, call sign of the parent aircraft followed by a single digit other than 0 or 1...

2011-10-01

111

Call Identifier: CIP-IEE-2009  

E-print Network

://ec.europa.eu/intelligentenergy #12;Intelligent Energy ­ Europe Call for Proposals 2009 2/17 CALL FOR PROPOSALS 2009 FOR ACTIONS UNDER THE PROGRAMME "INTELLIGENT ENERGY ­ EUROPE" Call Identifier: CIP-IEE-2009 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. THE INTELLIGENT ENERGY ­ EUROPE PROGRAMME 3 2. BUDGET, FUNDING RATES AND ELIGIBILITY OF COSTS 5 3. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA 5

De Cindio, Fiorella

112

CALL Environments: Research, Practice, and Critical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include: "Computer-Enhanced Language Learning Environments" (Joy Egbert, Chin-chi Chao, Elizabeth Hanson-Smith); "Theory and Research Interaction via Computers" (Joy Kreeft Peyton); "Classroom Practice: Creating Interactive CALL Activities" (Joy Egbert); "CALL Issues: Building a…

Egbert, Joy, Ed.; Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.

113

A Taxonomy of Call Ordering Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The order of method calls in a program can present subtle problems in ensuring the program's correctness. Some of the problems have been known under different names in the open literature. These include protocols, synchronisation, re-entrance, mandatory calls, and the indirect invariant effect. However, all these problems relate to the temporal ordering of method calls. In essence, the orderings constrain

Nam Tran II; David Abramson; Christine Mingins

2004-01-01

114

Calling in Work: Secular or Sacred?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent scholarship indicates that people who view their work as a calling are more satisfied with their work and their lives. Historically, calling has been regarded as a religious experience, although modern researchers frequently have adopted a more expansive and secular conceptualization of calling, emphasizing meaning and personal fulfillment…

Steger, Michael F.; Pickering, N. K.; Shin, J. Y.; Dik, B. J.

2010-01-01

115

Perceiving a Calling, Living a Calling, and Job Satisfaction: Testing a Moderated, Multiple Mediator Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated…

Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Dik, Bryan J.

2012-01-01

116

Using Call Numbers to Find Books 8/23/2012 Using Call Numbers to Find Books  

E-print Network

with a Library of Congress call number: Comparative Children's Literature. 6. The book is located on the 7thUsing Call Numbers to Find Books 8/23/2012 Using Call Numbers to Find Books 1. Using Call Numbers to Find Books 2. A call number is like a book's address. It tells you where the book is located

Su, Xiao

117

Homogenization of Periodically Varying Coefficients in Electromagnetic Materials  

E-print Network

1 Homogenization of Periodically Varying Coefficients in Electromagnetic Materials H. T. Banks,1 V larger than the relevant dimensions of the microstructure. Keywords: Homogenization, Maxwell's equations are difficult to treat numerically in simulations. Homogenization is a process in which the composite mate- rial

118

Flock-specific recognition of chickadee calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Playback tests were conducted to determine whether black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus) flocks recognize the difference between their own calls and those of another flock. The ‘chick-a-dee’ call of the species includes flock-specific acoustic differences that arise, in part, from vocal convergence among flock-members. The call is used in behavioral contexts such as flock territory defense and predator ‘mobbing’, suggesting its

Stephen Nowicki

1983-01-01

119

Engagement in call centres : exploring eliciting factors.  

E-print Network

??Thesis (MComm (Industrial Psychology)) – University of Stellenbosch, 2010. ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Researchers have labelled call centres as the modern equivalent of the ‘factory sweatshops’ of the… (more)

Janse van Rensburg, Yolandi-Eloise

2010-01-01

120

Today's Date __/__/20__ Information Technology -Call Center  

E-print Network

1 Today's Date __/__/20__ Information Technology - Call Center (657) 278-3925 Apply online: http _________________ Email Address _________________________________ Major ______________________ Expected Graduation Date _________________________________________________________________ City ______________________________ State ___________ Zip ___________________ Dates of Employment

de Lijser, Peter

121

Disentangling the Link between Perceiving a Calling and Living a Calling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has suggested there is an important distinction between perceiving a calling and living a calling. With a sample of 542 working adults, the current study examined (a) the degree to which perceiving a calling and living a calling differed according to yearly income and level of educational attainment and (b) potential mediators that may…

Duffy, Ryan D.; Autin, Kelsey L.

2013-01-01

122

The Call to Teach and Teacher Hopefulness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to explore teacher motivation and well-being. Our analysis focuses on two central concepts, the notion of a "calling to teach" and of teacher "hopefulness." Data from 205 preservice and inservice teachers were collected to determine teachers' sense of calling and level of hope. Results indicate that overwhelmingly,…

Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.

2011-01-01

123

Analysis of cell phone calls history  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the tools and techniques used in our analysis of a ten day long cell phone call history data set of the VAST 2008 Challenge1. Contestants in this challenge are expected to identify persons and temporal\\/geographical patterns in the data set. We have combined the evaluation of network graph properties and visualized the call history

Z. Konyha; K. Matkovi ´; W. Freiler; D. Gracanin

124

The function of Barbary macaque copulation calls.  

PubMed Central

In a wide variety of animal species, females produce vocalizations specific to mating contexts. It has been proposed that these copulation calls function to incite males to compete for access to the calling female. Two separate advantages of inciting male-male competition in this way have been put forward. The first suggests that as a result of calling, females are only mated by the highest ranking male in the vicinity (indirect mate choice hypothesis). The second proposes that copulation calling results in a female being mated by many males, thus promoting competition at the level of sperm (sperm competition hypothesis). In this paper, I give results from the first experimental study to test these hypotheses. Playback was used to examine the function of copulation calls of female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Gibraltar. Although rank did not affect lone males' likelihood of approaching copulation calls, when playbacks were given to pairs of males only the higher ranking individual approached. Moreover, females were mated significantly sooner after playback of their copulation call than after playback of a control stimulus. These results suggest that the copulation calls of female Barbary macaques play a key role in affecting patterns of male reproductive behaviour, not only providing an indirect mechanism of female choice, but also promoting sperm competition by reducing the interval between copulations. Potential fitness benefits of inciting male-male competition at these two levels are discussed. PMID:9523431

Semple, S

1998-01-01

125

Evaluation of CALL: Initial Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary learning theory suggests that productive recall should strengthen learning of new vocabulary items (Nation, 2001). CALL can provide both the opportunities for productive recall and the feedback to motivate repeated efforts to reproduce new items. The latter capability appears to give CALL some advantages over paper-based exercises, in…

Allum, Paul

2004-01-01

126

Using Software Design Methods in CALL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phrase "software design" is not one that arouses the interest of many CALL practitioners, particularly those from a humanities background. However, software design essentials are simply logical ways of going about designing a system. The fundamentals include modularity, anticipation of change, generality and an incremental approach. While CALL

Ward, Monica

2006-01-01

127

Call admission control method in ATM networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of call admission control is to keep the network load moderate to achieve a performance objective associated with quality of services. In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks, the cell loss rate is more sensitive to offered load than the queueing delay. Therefore, call admission control in ATM networks should be cell loss rate sensitive. The author proposes and

Hiroshi ESAKI; Komukai-Toshiba Cho

1992-01-01

128

Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

2009-01-01

129

Promoting Effective Learning Strategy Use in CALL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents research on second language learning strategies, including both those with a general application and those relating to computer assisted language learning (CALL). Findings reveal that the issue of learning strategies looms as an important topic and that a detailed consideration of them in CALL is feasible. (37 references) (Author/CK)

Bull, Susan

1997-01-01

130

Micromechanical strength theory of hybrid composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite materials containing two or more types of fibers in a common matrix are called hybrid composites. Hybrid composites are attractive because tailoring of materials is easier than non-hybrid composites, and they are now widely used including aircraft, sports goods, and so on. This paper first reviews the research works on micromechanical strength of composites including hybrid composites. Next, stress

Hiroshi Fukuda

1991-01-01

131

Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties.  

PubMed

In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks. PMID:24510159

Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

2014-01-01

132

Influence of spatially varying magnetic field on Relativistic Landau levels  

E-print Network

In this work, we investigate a two dimensional electron gas on graphene in the presence of both a constant and a varying magnetic field which falls as $1/x^2$. By considering the second order Dirac equation, we obtain a differential equation called {\\it Biconfluent Heun equation}. Considering its general solution, we show that the correct one is that which might present singular wavefunctions since the magnetic field diverges as $x\\rightarrow0$. In fact, we show that only this consideration yields the known relativistic Landau levels when we remove such varying magnetic field. We have observed that there is no zero-energy for certain values of the spatially varying magnetic field and the plateaus of conductivity at the filling factors $\

L. G. da Silva Leite; D. Cogollo; C. Filgueiras; Edilberto O. Silva

2014-04-22

133

Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks.

Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

2014-02-01

134

Adjusting Permittivity by Blending Varying Ratios of SWNTs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new composite material of singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) displays radio frequency (0 to 1 GHz) permittivity properties that can be adjusted based upon the nanotube composition. When varying ratios of raw to functionalized SWNTs are blended into the silicone elastomer matrix at a total loading of 0.5 percent by weight, a target real permittivity value can be obtained between 70 and 3. This has particular use for designing materials for microwave lenses, microstrips, filters, resonators, high-strength/low-weight electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, antennas, waveguides, and low-loss magneto-dielectric products for applications like radome construction.

Tour, James M.; Stephenson, Jason J.; Higginbotham, Amanda

2012-01-01

135

Audience effects in chimpanzee copulation calls  

PubMed Central

Audience effects arise when the signaling behavior of animals is affected by the presence of others. Whilst this phenomenon has been documented in numerous animal species, very little research has addressed what effect the listening audience has in the mating context. In this article we discuss our recent findings that the production of chimpanzee copulation calls is effected by the presence of potentially eavesdropping females and males. We relate these results to understanding the function of primate copulation calls in addition to what more they can tell us about the cognitive processes underlying primate call production. PMID:19641752

Zuberbuhler, Klaus

2009-01-01

136

Disentangling the link between perceiving a calling and living a calling.  

PubMed

Research has suggested there is an important distinction between perceiving a calling and living a calling. With a sample of 542 working adults, the current study examined (a) the degree to which perceiving a calling and living a calling differed according to yearly income and level of educational attainment and (b) potential mediators that may explain the link between perceiving a calling and living a calling. Adults with higher yearly incomes and more education were significantly more likely to endorse living a calling, but no significant group differences were found for perceiving a calling. Additionally, using structural equation modeling, work volition was found to be a significant mediator in the link between perceiving a calling and living a calling, and organizational support was found to be a significant mediator in the link between work volition and living a calling. The strength and significance of these indirect effects were supported by bootstrapping techniques. We suggest that part of the reason people with a calling feel more able to live out that calling is because of increased feelings of control in their career decision making. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:23438413

Duffy, Ryan D; Autin, Kelsey L

2013-04-01

137

Acoustic similarity to parental calls promotes response to unfamiliar calls in zebra finch fledglings  

E-print Network

Acoustic similarity to parental calls promotes response to unfamiliar calls in zebra finch: acoustic communication acoustic similarity individual recognition Taeniopygia guttata zebra finch Individual recognition, using acoustic, visual or olfactory individual signatures, is crucial for the coor

Richner, Heinz

138

Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) (formerly called Pseudogout)  

MedlinePLUS

... Español haga clic aquí . Joint problems caused by crystals of a calcium salt called pyrophosphate may be ... forms of arthritis. Joint problems seen with these crystals often are mistaken for gout and other conditions. ...

139

CHINESE GOVERNMENT SCHOLARSHIPS Call for Applications  

E-print Network

CHINESE GOVERNMENT SCHOLARSHIPS Call for Applications Subject Line Confucius Institute. Applicants must complete an online application AND submit 2 Government Scholarship application procedures, please see: http://en.csc.edu.cn/Laihua/47f2aff19

Oregon, University of

140

Tobias Leadership Conference Call for Abstracts  

E-print Network

Tobias Leadership Conference Call for Abstracts Indiana University - Randall L. Tobias Center for Leadership Excellence Entire Spectrum of Leadership Represented: Corporate Leadership Not-for-profit Leadership Religious Leadership Educational Leadership Medical Leadership Government Leadership Contact Us

Blanchette, Robert A.

141

Call for Papers First International Baltic  

E-print Network

Call for Papers First International Baltic Conference on Network Security & Forensics (NeSeFo 2012 for network forensics - Methodologies for digital forensics - Forensics of mobile devices - Forensic software tools and applications - Attack strategy analysis & modelling - Forensic-enabled architectures

Rostock, Universität

142

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research Special Volume: Advances in Computational, the emerging research incorporating advances in computational optimization has been proven to be useful Volume of the Annals of Operations Research on Advances in Computational Optimization and Logistics

143

Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls  

PubMed Central

In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/97 PMID:23206277

2012-01-01

144

CALL FOR PAPERS Elsevier -Computer Communications Journal  

E-print Network

behaviour in Online and "offline" Social Networks, and across OSNs · Impact CALL FOR PAPERS Elsevier - Computer Communications Journal Special Issue on Online Social Networks Submission Deadline: 19 October 2014

Fu, Xiaoming

145

Russian Prime Minister Calls the Station Crew  

NASA Video Gallery

Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called the International Space Station from the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, on Jan. 11, 2011. Putin also offered his condolences to ISS ...

146

College Students' Learning Strategies under CALL Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language learning strategies play an important role in the process of foreign\\/second language learning. Recently, with the budding development of CALL (computer assisted language learning), computer is becoming an increasingly important part of the students' English learning. This paper is designed to investigate effects of CALL on students' language learning strategies. With the help of questionnaire and SPSS13.0, this paper

Cao Min

2010-01-01

147

Calling cards for DNA-binding proteins  

PubMed Central

Identifying genomic targets of transcription factors is fundamental for understanding transcriptional regulatory networks. Current technology enables identification of all targets of a single transcription factor, but there is no realistic way to achieve the converse: identification of all proteins that bind to a promoter of interest. We have developed a method that promises to fill this void. It employs the yeast retrotransposon Ty5, whose integrase interacts with the Sir4 protein. A DNA-binding protein fused to Sir4 directs insertion of Ty5 into the genome near where it binds; the Ty5 becomes a “calling card” the DNA-binding protein leaves behind in the genome. We constructed customized calling cards for seven transcription factors of yeast by including in each Ty5 a unique DNA sequence that serves as a “molecular bar code.” Ty5 transposition was induced in a population of yeast cells, each expressing a different transcription factor–Sir4 fusion and its matched, bar-coded Ty5, and the calling cards deposited into selected regions of the genome were identified, revealing the transcription factors that visited that region of the genome. In each region we analyzed, we found calling cards for only the proteins known to bind there: In the GAL1–10 promoter we found only calling cards for Gal4; in the HIS4 promoter we found only Gcn4 calling cards; in the PHO5 promoter we found only Pho4 and Pho2 calling cards. We discuss how Ty5 calling cards might be implemented for mapping all targets of all transcription factors in a single experiment. PMID:17623806

Wang, Haoyi; Johnston, Mark; Mitra, Robi David

2007-01-01

148

EFFECTIVENESS OF CALL-BROADCAST SURVEYS FOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A???????.—Many species of marsh birds (e.g. rails and bierns) are believed to be declining in North America, yet we lack an eff ective monitoring program to estimate their population trends. Broadcast of prerecorded calls to elicit vocalizations is a commonly used method in surveys of marsh birds, but whether gains in detection and index precision outweigh the drawbacks of call-broadcast

MONITORING MARSH BIRDS

2005-01-01

149

Anuran Calling Survey Optimization: Developing and Testing Predictive Models of Anuran Calling Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphibian populations, particularly anurans, are declining worldwide, and programs that use calling surveys have been established to monitor anuran populations. Models that describe the environment's influence on calling may be useful to increase detection allowing optimization of surveys. Using an automated recording system, we evaluated the calling activity of Pseudacris crucifer, Pseudacris feriarum, and Rana sphenocephala at an ephemeral wetland

Charlotte K. Steelman; Michael E. Dorcas

2010-01-01

150

Hydride compositions  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

Lee, Myung, W.

1994-01-01

151

A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics  

PubMed Central

Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

Magrath, Robert D.; Bennett, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

152

A study of the anatomical and chemical variations occuring in cottonseed grown under varying conditions  

E-print Network

different sections of the Cotton Belt vary in anatomical structure and chemical composition, ST Both c11matic and so11 conditions affect the structure and composition of the seed, with climate, perhaps~ the ma)or factori S Xerio conditions such as eu3... different sections of the Cotton Belt vary in anatomical structure and chemical composition, ST Both c11matic and so11 conditions affect the structure and composition of the seed, with climate, perhaps~ the ma)or factori S Xerio conditions such as eu3...

Latta, James Edwin

2012-06-07

153

33 CFR 401.64 - Calling in.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...indicated in Schedule III. (b) Changes in information provided under paragraph (a), including updated ETAs that vary from the ETAs provided under that paragraph by 30 minutes or more, shall be reported to the appropriate Seaway...

2010-07-01

154

33 CFR 401.64 - Calling in.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...indicated in Schedule III. (b) Changes in information provided under paragraph (a), including updated ETAs that vary from the ETAs provided under that paragraph by 30 minutes or more, shall be reported to the appropriate Seaway...

2011-07-01

155

Soft calls and broadcast calls in the corncrake as adaptations to short and long range communication.  

PubMed

Because birds' acoustic signals function in antagonistic interactions between males and in female attraction, a majority of vocalisations are loud. In contrast, some birds, additionally produce soft vocalisations in escalated agonistic and sexual contexts. Nevertheless, the relationship between the acoustic parameters of such signals and their function is not clear. Here I investigate the sound transmission degradation properties of soft and broadcast (loud) calls in the corncrake using calls with natural and changed amplitude. I show that, if played at the same amplitude, the maximum limit for communication distance with soft calls was significantly shorter than that of broadcast calls, indicating that frequency structure is important in determining the range of both signals independently of their amplitude. At the same time, the values of excess attenuation were lower for soft calls than for broadcast calls at most distances, which suggests that the short transmission of soft calls is achieved mostly due to their low and narrow frequency ranges, promoting their masking by ambient noise. Finally, contrary to soft calls, changes in the energy of tails of echoes in broadcast calls were associated with the distance of propagation, which might be useful in assessing the distance to senders. I suggest that the acoustic structure of soft vocalisations can be used to limit the range of the signal, which might be helpful in eavesdropping avoidance, whereas broadcast calls are designed for long-range transmission. PMID:23876392

R?k, Pawe?

2013-10-01

156

Twelve years of tracking 52-Hz whale calls from a unique source in the North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique whale call with 50-52 Hz emphasis from a single source has been tracked over 12 years in the central and eastern North Pacific. These calls, referred to as 52-Hz calls, were monitored and analyzed from acoustic data recorded by hydrophones of the US Navy Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) and other arrays. The calls were noticed first in 1989, and have been detected and tracked since 1992. No other calls with similar characteristics have been identified in the acoustic data from any hydrophone system in the North Pacific basin. Only one series of these 52-Hz calls has been recorded at a time, with no call overlap, suggesting that a single whale produced the calls. The calls were recorded from August to February with most in December and January. The species producing these calls is unknown. The tracks of the 52-Hz whale were different each year, and varied in length from 708 to 11,062 km with travel speeds ranging from 0.7 to 3.8 km/h. Tracks included (A) meandering over short ranges, (B) predominantly west-to-east movement, and (C) mostly north-to-south travel. These tracks consistently appeared to be unrelated to the presence or movement of other whale species (blue, fin and humpback) monitored year-round with the same hydrophones.

Watkins, William A.; Daher, Mary Ann; George, Joseph E.; Rodriguez, David

2004-12-01

157

Intra- and interspecific responses to Rafinesque’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) social calls.  

SciTech Connect

Bats respond to the calls of conspecifics as well as to calls of other species; however, few studies have attempted to quantify these responses or understand the functions of these calls. We tested the response of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) to social calls as a possible method to increase capture success and to understand the function of social calls. We also tested if calls of bats within the range of the previously designated subspecies differed, if the responses of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats varied with geographic origin of the calls, and if other species responded to the calls of C. rafinesquii. We recorded calls of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats at two colony roost sites in South Carolina, USA. Calls were recorded while bats were in the roosts and as they exited. Playback sequences for each site were created by copying typical pulses into the playback file. Two mist nets were placed approximately 50–500 m from known roost sites; the net with the playback equipment served as the Experimental net and the one without the equipment served as the Control net. Call structures differed significantly between the Mountain and Coastal Plains populations with calls from the Mountains being of higher frequency and longer duration. Ten of 11 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats were caught in the Control nets and, 13 of 19 bats of other species were captured at Experimental nets even though overall bat activity did not differ significantly between Control and Experimental nets. Our results suggest that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats are not attracted to conspecifics’ calls and that these calls may act as an intraspecific spacing mechanism during foraging.

Loeb, Susan, C.; Britzke, Eric, R.

2010-07-01

158

Application of the beyond ?N formalism: Varying sound speed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We focus on the evolution of curvature perturbation on superhorizon scales by adopting the spatial gradient expansion and show that the nonlinear theory, called the beyond ?N formalism as the next-leading order in the expansion. As one application of our formalism for a single scalar field, we investigate the case of varying sound speed. In our formalism, we can deal with the time evolution in contrast to ?N formalism, where curvature perturbations remain just constant, and nonlinear curvature perturbation follows the simple master equation whose form is similar to one in linear theory. So the calculation of bispectrum can be done in the next-leading order in the expansion as similar as the case of deriving the power spectrum. We discuss localized features of both primordial power and bispectrum generated by the effect of varying sound speed with a finite duration time. We can see a local feature like a bump in the equilateral bispectrum.

Takamizu, Yu-ichi

2014-02-01

159

Varying electric charge in multiscale spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the covariant equations of motion for Maxwell field theory and electrodynamics in multiscale spacetimes with weighted Laplacian. An effective spacetime-dependent electric charge of geometric origin naturally emerges from the theory, thus giving rise to a varying fine-structure constant. The theory is compared with other varying-coupling models, such as those with a varying electric charge or varying speed of light. The theory is also confronted with cosmological observations, which can place constraints on the characteristic scales in the multifractional measure. We note that the model considered here is fundamentally different from those previously proposed in the literature, either of the varying-e or varying-c persuasion.

Calcagni, Gianluca; Magueijo, João; Fernández, David Rodríguez

2014-01-01

160

The Spanish sparrow (Passer hispaniolensis Temminck 1820) nestling begging calls: call characterisation and distinctiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first study to characterise the Spanish sparrow nestlings begging calls. The nestlings' begging calls presented high degree of inter-individual distinctiveness, Confirmed by both audiospectrogram correlations and discriminant function analysis. The post hoc classification miss-classified 7 cases out of 72 (making a total of 90.3% correctly classified cases). The individual call characteristics that seemed to best discriminate between

Paulo A. M. Marques; Luís Vicente; Rafael Márquez

2004-01-01

161

International Interdisciplinary Conference on CALL FOR PAPERS  

E-print Network

1st International Interdisciplinary Conference on Religion CALL FOR PAPERS Theme: "Religion violence, human trafficking, amongst a host of social issues. Some have turned to religion for recourse & Immigrants 2. Domestic Violence 3. Female Genital Cutting 4. HIV / AIDS 5. Human Trafficking 6. Honor

162

gprof: a Call Graph Execution Profiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large complex programs are composed of many small routines that implement abstractions for the routines that call them. To be useful, an execution profiler must attribute execution time in a way that is significant for the logical structure of a program as well as for its textual decomposition. This data must then be displayed to the user in a convenient

Susan L. Graham; Peter B. Kessler; Marshall K. McKusick

1982-01-01

163

Chirac calls ITER essential for planet's future  

E-print Network

Chirac calls ITER essential for planet's future CADARACHE, France, June 30 (AFP) - French President project is essential for our future and the future of the planet," Chirac told some 1,500 invited guests fusion reactor. "Today, our energy consumption has put us in danger. It's mainly based on oil, gas

164

Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

2013-01-01

165

Environmental factors influencing calling in sympatric anurans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anuran reproduction is influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors, of which temperature and rainfall are the best studied. Here we examine the relationship between multiple abiotic environmental variables - specifically, air and water temperature, rainfall, barometric pressure, relative humidity and wind velocity - and the calling activity of five species (Rana sylvatica, Pseudacris crucifer, Bufo americanus, Rana clamitans, and

Kerri L. Oseen; Richard J. Wassersug

2002-01-01

166

The Moral Ambiguity of the Makeup Call  

Microsoft Academic Search

If one sits in the stands for awhile at a local sporting contest, whether it is wrestling, soccer, baseball or particularly basketball, before long someone will exclaim toward a referee, “That was a makeup call. You owe us one.” Everyone knows what this means but if an eight-year old beside you hears this screamed for the first time and asks,

Mark Hamilton

2011-01-01

167

Looking Back: Tracing Trends in Canadian CALL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"CCALLNET" ("The Canadian Computer-Assisted Language Learning Network at the Post-Secondary Level") was a semi-annual newsletter published from 1987 to 2002 that was distributed to colleagues across Canada who taught languages to university students. Its objective was to create a network of Canadian faculty interested in CALL by informing them…

Craven, Mary-Louise; Sinyor, Roberta

2011-01-01

168

Call for applications: International Summer School  

E-print Network

, the old saw that `India lives in her villages'. Both assertions have an unmistakable ring of truth1 / 2 Call for applications: International Summer School "The city and the village: separations, linkages and conflicts over social space in modern India" Centre for Modern Indian Studies (Ce

Krivobokova, Tatyana

169

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS - PIT LAKES 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

This call for abstracts is for the 11/16-18/2004 Pit Lakes 2004 meeting held in Reno, NV. This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international pit lake approaches, including pit lakes from arid and wet regions throu...

170

Sexual differences in cricket calling song recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonotactic behavior was studied in male crickets,Teleogryllus oceanicus. Tethered flying males were presented with electronically synthesized calling song models in a two-choice phonotaxis assay, and their song preferences were determined and compared with previous findings for females.

Gerald S. Pollack

1982-01-01

171

HARDROCK MINING 2002 CALL FOR ABSTRACTS: ANNOUNCEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1539 Martin, A. Hardrock Mining 2002 Call for Abstracts. Hardrock Mining 2002, Westminster, CO, 5/7-9/2002. EPA/625/F- 01/003. and future environmental issues shaping the mining industry with emphasis on case study analysis and technology verification. This flyer is a...

172

READING ROOM Abbreviation Title Row Call #  

E-print Network

READING ROOM Abbreviation Title Row Call # A. Atlantic Reporter 24 KF 135 A. 2d Atlantic Reporter-446 Torts KF 1246 Elder Law KF 390- KF 3737 Trusts KF 726-745 Environmental Law KF 3775-3776 Wills KF 753

Hemmers, Oliver

173

Students' evaluation of CALL software programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several studies have explored the attitudes of teachers and students towards CALL, there has been little research regarding students' insights and impressions. We agree with Kessler and Plakans (2001, p. 15) when they state that in the process of evaluating materials ‘learners must be included, as they are also experts of their learning as well as the benefactors of

David Lasagabaster; Juan Manuel Sierra

2003-01-01

174

CALL FOR PROPOSALS ATLANTIC BLUEFIN TUNA RESEARCH  

E-print Network

of this call for proposals through 5 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time September 30, 2010. Applications received after, schooling, pelagic predator and the object of a major international fishery. Its historical distribution, - aerial survey of schools to support development of fishery-independent indices of abundance

Berkson, Jim

175

Relabeling the Medications We Call Antidepressants  

PubMed Central

This paper raises the question about whether the data on the medications we call antidepressants justify the label of antidepressant. The authors argue that a true antidepressant should be clearly superior to placebo, should offer a risk/benefit balance that exceeds that of alternative treatments, should not increase suicidality, should not increase anxiety and agitation, should not interfere with sexual functioning, and should not increase depression chronicity. Unfortunately, these medications appear to fall short on all of these dimensions. Many of the “side effects” of these medications have larger effect sizes than the antidepressant effect size. To call these medications antidepressants may make sense from a marketing standpoint but may be misleading from a scientific perspective. Consumers deserve a label that more accurately reflects the data on the largest effects and helps them understand the range of effects from these medications. In other words, it may make just as much sense to call these medications antiaphrodisiacs as antidepressants because the negative effects on libido and sexual functioning are so common. It can be argued that a misleading label may interfere with our commitment to informed consent. Therefore, it may be time to stop calling these medications antidepressants. PMID:24278764

Antonuccio, David; Healy, David

2012-01-01

176

CALL--Past, Present, and Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a critical examination and reassessment of the history of computer assisted language learning (CALL), and argues for three new strategies--restricted, open, and integrated. Offers definitions and descriptions of the three approaches and argues that they allow a more detailed analysis of institutions and classrooms than earlier analyses.…

Bax, Stephen

2003-01-01

177

What is This Work Called Teaching?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In discussing the work of teachers, this paper highlights two books, William Ayers's "To Become a Teacher" and David Hansen's "The Call to Teach," examining the philosophical roots of their analyses; how they define and characterize teaching and its place in public and private spheres; and what metaphors shape and define their visions of teachers…

Irwin-DeVitis, Linda; DeVitis, Joseph L.

1998-01-01

178

Call for Papers IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS  

E-print Network

Call for Papers IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS Special Issue on Visual SLAM In recent years Transactions on Robotics (T-RO) is to publish outstanding results in the rapidly progressing subject of visual with the potential of guiding autonomous robots in their exploration and operation in large and complex environments

Davison, Andrew

179

Tesla TechFair Call for Proposals  

E-print Network

Tesla TechFair Call for Proposals Thayer School of Engineering and the Hopkins Center are celebrating Nikola Tesla, in conjunction with Tesla in New York, an opera by filmmaker Jim Jarmusch & composer Phil Kline. Thayer will host a Tesla TechFair, including a panel discussion and demonstrations

180

Educational Use of Databases in CALL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the idea that databases are very useful tools for teaching languages over the Internet. Databases in Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) are commonly used in three ways: for reference sources such as dictionaries, in the management of large websites, and for data processing such as language tests and learners'…

Beaudoin, Martin

2004-01-01

181

GRADED CALL VARIATION IN THE ASIAN CRICKET FROG RANA NICOBARIENSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the vocal repertoire of the Asian cricket frog Rana nicobariensis for the first time. Three structurally-distinct call types exist: advertisement calls, aggressive calls and encounter calls. Compound calls consisting of both advertisement and aggressive elements were also recorded. A remarkable feature of communication in this species is the highly variable advertisement call which shows a 20-fold variation in

ROBERT JEHLE; ANTHONY ARAK

1998-01-01

182

Adult Vampire Bats Produce Contact Calls When Isolated: Acoustic Variation by Species, Population, Colony, and Individual  

PubMed Central

Background Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae) would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. Methods/Principal Findings We assessed variation in contact calls recorded from isolated captive and wild-caught adult common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). We compared species-typical contact call structure, and used information theory and permuted discriminate function analyses to examine call structure variation, and to determine if the individuality of contact calls is encoded by different call features across species and populations. We found that isolated adult vampire bats produce contact calls that vary by species, population, colony, and individual. However, much variation occurred within a single context and individual. We estimated signature information for captive Diaemus (same colony), captive Desmodus (same colony), and wild Desmodus (different colonies) at 3.21, 3.26, and 3.88 bits, respectively. Contact calls from a captive colony of Desmodus were less individually distinct than calls from wild-caught Desmodus from different colonies. Both the degree of individuality and parameters encoding individuality differed between the bats from a single captive colony and the wild-caught individuals from different groups. This result is consistent with, but not sufficient evidence of, vocal convergence in groups. Conclusion Our results show that adult vampire bats of all three species produce highly variable contact calls when isolated. Contact calls contain sufficient information for vocal discrimination, but also possess more intra-individual variation than is required for the sole purpose of identifying individuals. PMID:22719947

Carter, Gerald G.; Logsdon, Ryane; Arnold, Bryan D.; Menchaca, Angelica; Medellin, Rodrigo A.

2012-01-01

183

Calling behaviour under climate change: geographical and seasonal variation of calling temperatures in ectotherms.  

PubMed

Calling behaviour is strongly temperature-dependent and critical for sexual selection and reproduction in a variety of ectothermic taxa, including anuran amphibians, which are the most globally threatened vertebrates. However, few studies have explored how species respond to distinct thermal environments at time of displaying calling behaviour, and thus it is still unknown whether ongoing climate change might compromise the performance of calling activity in ectotherms. Here, we used new audio-trapping techniques (automated sound recording and detection systems) between 2006 and 2009 to examine annual calling temperatures of five temperate anurans and their patterns of geographical and seasonal variation at the thermal extremes of species ranges, providing insights into the thermal breadths of calling activity of species, and the mechanisms that enable ectotherms to adjust to changing thermal environments. All species showed wide thermal breadths during calling behaviour (above 15 °C) and increases in calling temperatures in extremely warm populations and seasons. Thereby, calling temperatures differed both geographically and seasonally, both in terrestrial and aquatic species, and were 8-22 °C below the specific upper critical thermal limits (CTmax ) and strongly associated with the potential temperatures of each thermal environment (operative temperatures during the potential period of breeding). This suggests that calling behaviour in ectotherms may take place at population-specific thermal ranges, diverging when species are subjected to distinct thermal environments, and might imply plasticity of thermal adjustment mechanisms (seasonal and developmental acclimation) that supply species with means of coping with climate change. Furthermore, the thermal thresholds of calling at the onset of the breeding season were dissimilar between conspecific populations, suggesting that other factors besides temperature are needed to trigger the onset of reproduction. Our findings imply that global warming would not directly inhibit calling behaviour in the study species, although might affect other temperature-dependent features of their acoustic communication system. PMID:23712567

Llusia, Diego; Márquez, Rafael; Beltrán, Juan F; Benítez, Maribel; do Amaral, José P

2013-09-01

184

Adaptive Extraction of Time-Varying Isosurfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for adaptively extracting and render- ing isosurfaces from compressed time-varying volume datasets. Tetrahedral meshes defined by longest edge bisection are used to create a multiresolution representation of the volume in the spatial domain that is adapted over time to approximate the time- varying volume. The reextraction of the isosurface at each time step is accelerated with

Benjamin F. Gregorski; Joshua G. Senecal; Mark A. Duchaineau; Kenneth I. Joy

2004-01-01

185

Novel shock absorber features varying yield strengths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A shock absorbent webbing of partially drawn synthetic strands is arranged in sections of varying density related to the varying mass of the human body. This is contoured to protect the body at points of contact, when subjected to large acceleration or deceleration forces.

Geier, D. J.

1964-01-01

186

Binding of Proteins to Copolymers of Varying  

E-print Network

Binding of Proteins to Copolymers of Varying Hydrophobicity Jeff Y. Gao* Paul L. Dubin Department 1998; accepted 12 August 1998 Abstract: Hydrophobic interactions between proteins and amphiphilic of varying hydrophobicity. Although binding between proteins and copolymers increases with increas- ing alkyl

Dubin, Paul D.

187

Book review Photosynthesis: Regulation under Varying Light  

E-print Network

Book review Photosynthesis: Regulation under Varying Light Regimes, by V.S. Rama Das. Science of the research in the area of regulation of photosynthesis under varying light regimes. As stated in the Preface, he has provided a frame- work, rather than an exhaustive description, of the field. His goal

Govindjee "Gov"

188

Call Title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection Call Identifier: FP7-Fission-2009  

E-print Network

Call Title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection · Call Identifier: FP7-Fission-2009 · Date and competitiveness of existing and future nuclear installations Fission-2009-2.1.2: RPV irradiation effects in sustainable nuclear fission energy Coordination and Support Action (coordinating action) Fission-2.3 Fission

De Cindio, Fiorella

189

Call title: "The ocean of tomorrow" Call identifier: FP7-OCEAN-2010  

E-print Network

Scheme OCEAN.2010-1 Quantification of climate change impacts on economic sectors in the Arctic 3 OCEAN.2010-1 Quantification of climate change impacts on economic sectors in the Arctic EUR 111 Call title: "The ocean of tomorrow" · Call identifier: FP7-OCEAN-2010 · Date of publication: 30

Milano-Bicocca, Università

190

Call Numbers Explained 1 8/23/2012 Call Numbers Explained  

E-print Network

in the library. 6. The King Library is unusual because it is both a public library and a university library numbers. 7. The first is the Dewey Decimal System, which is used to classify public library books. In the library, books are organized by call number. 3. A call number classifies a book by its subject and tells

Su, Xiao

191

Nacogdoches Fire DepartmentNacogdoches Fire Department Service Call Density andService Call Density and  

E-print Network

Nacogdoches Fire DepartmentNacogdoches Fire Department Service Call Density andService Call Density of NFDMission of NFD ·· It is the mission of the Fire Department toIt is the mission of the Fire Department in areas of fire, rescue, medical emergencies,of fire, rescue, medical emergencies, hazardous materials

Hung, I-Kuai

192

Calling Site Fidelity and Call Structure of a Neotropical Toad, Rhinella ocellata (Anura: Bufonidae)  

E-print Network

and calling behavior of a population of this species in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, in 2004. Unlike most of a river; similar calling sites were observed at another site in Tocantins in 2005. Home-range size¸a~o dessa espe´cie no estado do Tocantins, norte do Brasil, no ano de 2004. Diferentemente de outras espe

Shepard, Don

193

Calling dynamics and call synchronization in a local group of unison bout callers.  

PubMed

In many species of chorusing frogs, callers can rapidly adjust their call timing with reference to neighboring callers so as to maintain call rate while minimizing acoustic interference. The rules governing the interactions, in particular, who is listening to whom are largely unknown, presumably influenced by distance between callers, caller density, and intensities of interfering calls. We report vocal interactions in a unison bout caller, the green tree frog (Hyla cinerea). Using a microphone array, we monitored bouts from a local group of six callers embedded in a larger chorus. Data were analyzed in a 21-min segment at the peak of the chorus. Callers within this group were localized and their voices were separated for analysis of spatio-temporal interactions. We show that callers in this group: (1) synchronize with one another, (2) prefer to time their calls antiphonally, almost exactly at one-third and two-thirds of the call intervals of their neighbors, (3) tolerate call collision when antiphonal calling is not possible, and (4) perform discrete phase-hopping between three preferred phases when tracking other callers. Further, call collision increases and phase-locking decreases, with increasing inter-caller spacing. We conclude that the precise phase-positioning, phase-tracking, and phase-hopping minimizes acoustic jamming while maintaining chorus synchrony. PMID:24249152

Jones, Douglas L; Jones, Russell L; Ratnam, Rama

2014-01-01

194

Is the Frequency Content of the Calls in North American Treefrogs Limited by Their Larynges?  

PubMed Central

A high diversity of mating calls is found among frogs. The calls of most species, however, are simple, in comparison to those of mammals and birds. In order to determine if the mechanics of the larynx could explain the simplicity of treefrog calls, the larynges of euthanized males were activated with airflow. Laryngeal airflow, sound frequency, and sound intensity showed a positive direct relationship with the driving air pressure. While the natural calls of the studied species exhibit minimal frequency modulation, their larynges produced about an octave of frequency modulation in response to varying pulmonary pressure. Natural advertisement calls are produced near the higher extreme of frequency obtained in the laboratory and at a slightly higher intensity (6?dB). Natural calls also exhibit fewer harmonics than artificial ones, because the larynges were activated with the mouth of the animal open. The results revealed that treefrog larynges allow them to produce calls spanning a much greater range of frequencies than observed in nature; therefore, the simplicity of the calls is not due to a limited frequency range of laryngeal output. Low frequencies are produced at low intensities, however, and this could explain why treefrogs concentrate their calling at the high frequencies. PMID:25332838

2014-01-01

195

Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species  

PubMed Central

Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls. PMID:19474047

Griesser, Michael

2009-01-01

196

Call progress time measurement in IP telephony  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usually a voice call is established through multiple stages in IP telephony. In the first stage, a phone number is dialed to reach a near-end or call-originating IP-telephony gateway. The next stages involve user identification through delivering an m-digit user-id to the authentication and/or billing server, and then user authentication by using an n- digit PIN. After that, the caller is allowed (last stage dial tone is provided) to dial a destination phone number provided that authentication is successful. In this paper, we present a very flexible method for measuring call progress time in IP telephony. The proposed technique can be used to measure the system response time at every stage. It is flexible, so that it can be easily modified to include new `tone' or a set of tones, or `voice begin' can be used in every stage to detect the system's response. The proposed method has been implemented using scripts written in Hammer visual basic language for testing with a few commercially available IP telephony gateways.

Khasnabish, Bhumip

1999-11-01

197

Call for Applications MIDDLE FRENCH PALEOGRAPHY WORKSHOP  

E-print Network

-grafting, land-surveying, a practice of taxidermy to manufacture monstrous composite animals (kittens and bats Renaissance. It also provides a rare view into attitudes to nature out of which modern science eventually to PhD students, but applications will also be accepted from professional staff of libraries and museums

Qian, Ning

198

Measuring the Effects of Traffic Congestion On Transit Signal Priority Call Distances  

E-print Network

Erin Qureshi River Hwang Peter Koonce Robert L. Bertini Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering to capacity (v/c) ratios while measuring bus delay. Using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system modeling software and varying the call distances over various v/c ratios. #12;

Bertini, Robert L.

199

n the month after its release, the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops had been  

E-print Network

I n the month after its release, the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops had been played minutes of video games every day in 2009 -- a nearly threefold increase from 10 years earlier1-third are over 50. Video games are associated with a vari- ety of negative outcomes, such as obesity

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

200

The Call for Parent Involvem~nt in Rural Communities: Mantra and Mystification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking a critical perspective on the literature that calls for greater parent involvement in rural schools, this study analyzes the relationship between place ofresidence (rural, urban, suburban) and levelsofparentinvolvementin schools. Invoking a series of relevant individual and contextual control variables, wefind that parent involvement in schools varies little in relationship to place of residence. Moreover, thenegligible effects of the control

Aimee Howley; Robert Bickel; Mary McDonough

1997-01-01

201

Spall Strength Measurements of Concrete for Varying Aggregate Sizes  

SciTech Connect

Controlled impact experiments have been performed to determine the spall strength of four different concrete compositions. The four concrete compositions are identified as, `SAC-5, CSPC', ("3/4") large, and ("3/8") small, Aggregate. They differ primarily in aggregate size but with average densities varying by less than five percent. Wave profiles from sixteen experiments, with shock amplitudes of 0.07 to 0.55 GPa, concentrate primarily within the elastic regime. Free-surface particle velocity measurements indicate consistent pullback signals in the release profiles, denoting average span strength of approximately 40 MPa. It is the purpose of this paper to present spall measurements under uniaxial strain loading. Notwithstanding considerable wave structure that is a unique characteristic to the heterogeneous nature of the scaled concrete, the spall amplitudes appear reproducible and consistent over the pressure range reported in this study.

Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Kipp, Marlin E.; Reinhart, William D.; Wilson, Leonard T.

1999-05-05

202

Solar mass-varying neutrino oscillations  

E-print Network

We propose that the solar neutrino deficit may be due to oscillations of mass-varying neutrinos (MaVaNs). This scenario elucidates solar neutrino data beautifully while remaining comfortably compatible with atmospheric ...

Marfatia, Danny; Huber, P.; Barger, V.

2005-11-18

203

System Identification: Time Varying and Nonlinear Methods  

E-print Network

Novel methods of system identification are developed in this dissertation. First set of methods are designed to realize time varying linear dynamical system models from input-output experimental data. The preliminary results obtained in a recent...

Majji, Manoranjan

2010-07-14

204

Calling patterns in human communication dynamics  

PubMed Central

Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the cr-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users. PMID:23319645

Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

2013-01-01

205

Calling patterns in human communication dynamics.  

PubMed

Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the c(r)-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users. PMID:23319645

Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

2013-01-29

206

Calibrating passive acoustic monitoring: correcting humpback whale call detections for site-specific and time-dependent environmental characteristics.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates the importance of accounting for environmental effects on passive underwater acoustic monitoring results. The situation considered is the reduction in shipping off the California coast between 2008-2010 due to the recession and environmental legislation. The resulting variations in ocean noise change the probability of detecting marine mammal vocalizations. An acoustic model was used to calculate the time-varying probability of detecting humpback whale vocalizations under best-guess environmental conditions and varying noise. The uncorrected call counts suggest a diel pattern and an increase in calling over a two-year period; the corrected call counts show minimal evidence of these features. PMID:24181982

Helble, Tyler A; D'Spain, Gerald L; Campbell, Greg S; Hildebrand, John A

2013-11-01

207

Gene Calling Standards (GSC8 Meeting)  

ScienceCinema

The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses gene calling standards at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.

Kyrpides, Nikos [Genome Biology Program, DOE JGI

2011-04-28

208

The Role of Analyst Conference Calls in Capital Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many firms conduct a conference call with analysts shortly after the quarterly earnings announcement. In these calls, management discusses the completed quarter, and analysts can ask questions. Due to SEC requirements, conference calls in the United States are virtually always live webcasted. A growing number of investors listens in on conference calls, suggesting that calls are useful for investor decision-making.

E. M. Roelofsen

2010-01-01

209

The Insistence Cybernetics on the Basis of Operating Time-Varying Parametrons and it's Applicable Exemplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of new control concepts are presented which have rarely been announced. The time-varying circuit, which makes use of controllable time-varying elements (CTE) and is controlled by computer, is able to realize certain complicated functions in electrical technology. The problems to be discussed involve the transformation from the existing constant-voltage source into the called expectant current source (ECS). The

R. G. Di; S. B. Liu

2006-01-01

210

Anuran Calling Survey Optimization: Developing and Testing Predictive Models of Anuran Calling Activity  

E-print Network

of surveys. Using an automated recording system, we evaluated the calling activity of Pseudacris crucifer, Pseudacris feriarum, and Rana sphenocephala at an ephemeral wetland in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We

Dorcas, Michael E.

211

Telephone triage of cardiac emergency calls by dispatchers: a prospective study of 1386 emergency calls.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To evaluate the handling of potential cardiac emergency calls by dispatchers, to determine their final diagnosis and urgency, and to determine the value of the main complaint in predicting urgency and the ability of the dispatchers to recognise non-urgent conditions. DESIGN--Prospective data collection and recording of main complaint of emergency calls placed via the 06-11 alarm telephone number with follow up to hospital when the patients were transported and the general practitioner when they were not. SETTING--Dispatch centres of the emergency medical services in Amsterdam (urban area) and Enschede (rural area). PATIENTS--1386 consecutive adult subjects of emergency calls placed by citizens about chest problems or unconsciousness not caused by injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Frequency of characteristics of the calls, outcome in diagnosis, and assessment of urgency. RESULTS--69 (5%) patients were dead when the ambulance arrived. Diagnosis was established in 1071 patients (77%). The disorders most often reported were cardiac, with acute ischaemia in 15% of all subjects. In 28% of cases and for each presenting complaint no organic explanation was found. Overall 39% of all emergency calls were urgent; the urgency rate was lowest for calls for people with abdominal discomfort. Dispatchers correctly identified 90% of the non-urgent calls, but 55% of the calls that they identified as urgent proved to be non-urgent. CONCLUSION--Currently, direct dialling for an ambulance without the intervention of a general practitioner imposes a high work load on emergency systems and hospitals because triage by dispatchers is not sufficiently accurate. It may be possible to increase the accuracy of triage by developing and testing decision algorithms. PMID:8011407

Sramek, M.; Post, W.; Koster, R. W.

1994-01-01

212

Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls.  

PubMed

Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking noise reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to noise exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source levels of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking noise by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability. The source levels of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background noise were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking noise reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals. PMID:22087938

Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K

2011-11-01

213

Detecting Motifs in System Call Sequences  

E-print Network

The search for patterns or motifs in data represents an area of key interest to many researchers. In this paper we present the Motif Tracking Algorithm, a novel immune inspired pattern identification tool that is able to identify unknown motifs which repeat within time series data. The power of the algorithm is derived from its use of a small number of parameters with minimal assumptions. The algorithm searches from a completely neutral perspective that is independent of the data being analysed, and the underlying motifs. In this paper the motif tracking algorithm is applied to the search for patterns within sequences of low level system calls between the Linux kernel and the operating system's user space. The MTA is able to compress data found in large system call data sets to a limited number of motifs which summarise that data. The motifs provide a resource from which a profile of executed processes can be built. The potential for these profiles and new implications for security research are highlighted. A...

Wilson, William O; Aickelin, Uwe

2010-01-01

214

Apoptosis: Calling Time on Apoptosome Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Apoptosis is a controlled form of cellular demolition, catalyzed by a family of cysteine proteases called caspases. In response to diverse proapoptotic stimuli, caspase-9 is recruited and activated within an oligomeric complex called the apoptosome. The apoptosome drives autocatalytic processing of caspase-9, triggering a proteolytic caspase cascade that results in the biochemical and morphological changes characteristic of cell death. It is unclear why caspase-9 undergoes autocatalytic processing following apoptosome recruitment, because interdomain processing is dispensable for caspase-9 activity. A study has shed light on this issue by demonstrating that caspase-9 processing within the apoptosome promotes its displacement from the complex, leading to inactivation of this protease. Thus, autoprocessing of caspase-9 within the apoptosome serves as a “molecular timer” that limits the proteolytic activity of this complex through displacement of bound caspase-9 molecules. This timer mechanism may enable cells to prevent low amounts of apoptosome activation from spiraling out of control unless sufficient numbers of apoptosomes are assembled within a particular time window, which would drive full-blown caspase activation and apoptosis.

Colin Adrain (Cambridge;Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology REV); Seamus J. Martin (Ireland.;Trinity College REV)

2009-10-06

215

Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats  

PubMed Central

Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships. PMID:23825208

Reber, Stephan A.; Townsend, Simon W.; Manser, Marta B.

2013-01-01

216

Resident condition change: should I call 911?  

PubMed

Identifiers of illness, including catastrophic change, are based on a set of assumptions that are not always true or accurate for older adults. Atypical findings in combination with the more subtle or different presentation of illness can result in missed opportunities for early treatment and prevention of more dire consequences. Assessment instruments described in this article can guide the investigation and communication of a resident's change in status: SPICES (Sleep; Problems with Eating and Feeding; Incontinence; Confusion; Evidence of Falls; Skin Breakdown), FANCAPES (Fluid; Aeration; Nutrition; Cognition/Communication; Activity/Abilities; Pain; Elimination; Skin/Socialization), DELIRIUM (Drug use: Electrolyte imbalance; Lack of scheduled meds; Infection; Reduced sensory input; Intracranial problems; Urinary problems; Myocardial problems), PQRST (Provokes/Palliates; Quality/Quantity; Region/Radiates; Severity; Timing) and COLDSPA (Character; Onset; Location; Duration; Severity; Pattern; Associated Symptoms), (for pain assessment). "Should I call?" scenarios are described using case studies. A systematic approach to assessment, recognition of change in functional status, protocols to guide calling for emergency assistance, and structured communication are essential elements of early recognition of illness, can reduce caregiver anxiety, and improve the health care outcomes for the resident. Imagine you or one of your staff standing in the dining room of your residence and looking at the residents for whose health and well-being you are responsible. Could you spot someone who was not doing well? Who might be ailing? If you saw 2 residents who looked ill, whom would you assess first? How would you decide? Identification of illness, including catastrophic change, is based on a set of assumptions that are not always true for older adults and can result in a set of findings that does not fit with our conventional understanding and knowledge of illness presentation. All too often, these atypical findings in combination with the more subtle presentation of illness in older adults results in missed opportunities for early treatment. A systematic approach to assessment, recognition of change, protocols to guide calling for emergency assistance, and communication with other health care providers are essential elements of early recognition of illness that can decrease health care provider anxiety and improve outcomes. This article describes 2 evidence-based assessment instruments: the SPICES tool, which should be used routinely as a first-line method for recognizing change and preventing deepening complications or acute illness, and the FANCAPES tool, which evaluates change in condition. In addition, several acronyms that can guide symptom assessment are provided. Immediately life-threatening conditions and 3 "don't miss" signs of emergencies are discussed, as are nursing interventions for the geriatric emergency. "Should I call?" scenarios are presented in a table that includes common signs and symptoms and recommended nursing actions of who to call. Two case studies illustrate the assessment instruments and analysis of data. Basic information that should be included in a transfer document is described. The article includes a communication model known as SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation) that can be implemented and used by all staff of the assisted living residence. PMID:18267174

Montgomery, Justin; Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi

2008-01-01

217

The growth and chemical composition of soybeans as influenced by varying sulphur applications, varying soluble salts and varying calcium: sodium ratios  

E-print Network

on the Concentration and Total Uptiice of Calcium bv PLants Table 7 ~ Ths Effect of tbe Combinations of Sulphur' Soluble ~ts~ and Calci~Sium Ratio on the Concentration and Total Uptake of Calcium bv Plants MoKe/gmi Total M, E, Sulphur None None None 750 750... with ccrossing soluble salts, Again the greater pox tion of this decrease oan be accounted fox bf decreasing yield (Tables 9 and 11)& A highly' significant decrease in ma~sium co~ation occurred with dscxeaxd. ng ca3. cium sodium ratio (' fable 9 and Pig. 5...

Peters, Doyle Burne

2012-06-07

218

The Impact of Student Ability and Method for Varying the Position of Correct Answers in Classroom Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice item-writing guideline research is in its infancy. Haladyna (2004) calls for a science of item-writing guideline research. The purpose of this study is to respond to such a call. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student ability and method for varying the location of correct answers in classroom multiple-choice…

Joseph, Dane Christian

2010-01-01

219

Patent Pending Judging a decision's quality by its result is called  

E-print Network

Networked Patent Pending Judging a decision's quality by its result is called result mongering several forms, the most impor- tant of which are patents, copyrights, trade and service marks, and trade secrets. Patents Patents protect inventions. You can patent artifacts, compositions of matter, methods

Filman, Robert E.

220

Chemical Education Conference Caters to Varied Audience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the 9th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education sponsored by the American Chemical Society. The conference theme: "Chemistry: Learning, Instructing, Presenting," was addressed by numerous sessions. Highlighted were presentations calling for an increase in process-oriented chemistry teaching, reduction of "science anxiety," and the…

Worthy, Ward

1986-01-01

221

OBSERVATIONS ON THE CALLS OP THE GRASSHOPPER MOUSE {ONYCHOMYS LEUCOGASTERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calls of grasshopper mice include squeaks, chirping, a single high-pitched call, and a two-phase high-pitched call. The latter two are a means of intraspecific localization and are not a hunting call as previously supposed. A variable range of postures are assumed during the calls. Several authors have noted the calls of grasshopper mice (Genus Onychomys), and anyone who has kept

DAVID G. RUFFER

222

An environmentally relevant endocrine-disrupting antiandrogen, vinclozolin, affects calling behavior of male Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

Vinclozolin (VIN) is an antiandrogenic model substance as well as a common fungicide that can affect the endocrine system of vertebrates. The objective of this study was to investigate how VIN affects mate calling behavior of South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) and whether it is effective at environmentally relevant concentrations. Male X. laevis were injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to stimulate their androgen-controlled mate calling behavior and were treated with VIN at concentrations of 10(-6), 10(-8) and 10(-10)M. VIN at 10(-6)M reduced calling activity. Furthermore, the vocalization composition of VIN-treated X. laevis was altered. The call types advertisement calls and chirping are uttered by reproductively active males, whereas the call types growling, ticking, and rasping indicate a sexually unaroused state of a male. VIN at any of the tested concentrations led to a decrease in utterance of calls, which indicate a sexually aroused state of the males, and an increase in relative proportions of calls, indicating a sexually unaroused state of the males. Additionally, the mean duration of clicks and the number of accentuated clicks during the advertisement calls decreased at all concentrations of VIN. No significant differences were observed in any other temporal or spectral calling parameters between the treatments. This study illustrates that exposure to the antiandrogen VIN might result in a reduced reproductive success by altering mate calling behavior of X. laevis. Moreover, it suggests that the behavioral parameters examined in this study can be used as sensitive biomarkers for detecting antiandrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds in amphibians. PMID:20600051

Hoffmann, Frauke; Kloas, Werner

2010-09-01

223

Revised energy tax called less harsh  

SciTech Connect

Following the Senate`s refusal to consider a Btu tax, manufacturing interests are greeting the revised transportation fuels tax proposal with notably less rancor than they did its more sweeping predecessor. Far from the fierce opposition expressed to the broadbased Btu tax, industry groups are staking out a position of {open_quotes}no position{close_quotes} on the fuels tax. The Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA; Washington) sent a letter to all 100 senators calling the proposed fuels tax-still being negotiated at CW`s press time-the least harmful of the energy tax ideas that have been discussed but stopping short of an endorsement, says CMA`s Bob Hill, assistant director/taxation.

Begley, R.

1993-06-23

224

Acoustic signal detection of manatee calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disc. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~=96% of the manatee vocalizations. However the system also results in a false positive rate of ~=16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

2003-04-01

225

So-called Spontaneous Human Combustion.  

PubMed

A well-documented case of so-called Spontaneous Human Combustion is reported. Review of the literature shows that these strange observations have been reported since the 17th century, even in famous novels. There are several main features that may lead to help the diagnosis: the vicinity of the body is intact or nearly intact, some parts of the body are turned into ashes (usually the middle third of the body), whereas other parts are intact or nearly intact, burning of the body usually occurs postmortem, the cause of death is usually natural, there is often (but not always) high concentrations of blood alcohol, there is a source of heat near the body. It is indispensable to rule out a homicide by the examination of the body in situ, the autopsy, the toxicological and histopathological samples, the arson assessment, and a thorough police inquiry. PMID:21392004

Levi-Faict, Thierry W; Quatrehomme, Gérald

2011-09-01

226

The birth of a house call practice.  

PubMed

Increasingly, physicians of all specialties are frustrated with the complex, unrewarding system of third-party billing in the United States. It has led many physicians to wonder how best to change their practice to ameliorate these challenges or leave their practice altogether. It is possible that family physicians suffer most because they are trained to provide comprehensive care to all comers, regardless of reimbursement status. What they may not know is that leaving the practice might be the best thing for everyone, and it doesn't necessarily mean leaving medicine! As I realized during my experiences working in South Florida, transitioning to a house call practice can be emotionally and financially rewarding. PMID:19582639

De Leon, Fidias E

2009-01-01

227

Speed of call delivery is related to context and caller identity in Campbell's monkey males  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call rate can be a salient feature in animal communication. Depending on the species, different psychological variables appear to influence call rates but the exact nature of these relationships remains poorly explored. Here, we demonstrate for free-ranging Campbell’s monkeys that the call rates of four different alarm series (termed H, K, K+, and B series) vary systematically as a function of context, associated behaviour, and identity of the caller. K+ series were given more rapidly to predation than non-predation events, K+ and K series more rapidly to visual than auditory predator detection, and H series more rapidly while counterattacking an eagle than staying put. Finally, there were individual differences in B series, suggesting that call rate potentially provides listeners with cues about the caller’s anti-predator behaviour, event type experienced, and his identity.

Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Bouchet, Hélène; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2010-11-01

228

From nestling calls to fledgling silence: adaptive timing of change in response to aerial alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Young birds and mammals are extremely vulnerable to predators and so should benefit from responding to parental alarm calls warning of danger. However, young often respond differently from adults. This difference may reflect: (i) an imperfect stage in the gradual development of adult behaviour or (ii) an adaptation to different vulnerability. Altricial birds provide an excellent model to test for adaptive changes with age in response to alarm calls, because fledglings are vulnerable to a different range of predators than nestlings. For example, a flying hawk is irrelevant to a nestling in a enclosed nest, but is dangerous to that individual once it has left the nest, so we predict that young develop a response to aerial alarm calls to coincide with fledging. Supporting our prediction, recently fledged white-browed scrubwrens, Sericornis frontalis, fell silent immediately after playback of their parents' aerial alarm call, whereas nestlings continued to calling despite hearing the playback. Young scrubwrens are therefore exquisitely adapted to the changing risks faced during development. PMID:16928636

Magrath, Robert D; Platzen, Dirk; Kondo, Junko

2006-01-01

229

Microwave fidelity studies by varying antenna coupling  

E-print Network

The fidelity decay in a microwave billiard is considered, where the coupling to an attached antenna is varied. The resulting quantity, coupling fidelity, is experimentally studied for three different terminators of the varied antenna: a hard wall reflection, an open wall reflection, and a 50 Ohm load, corresponding to a totally open channel. The model description in terms of an effective Hamiltonian with a complex coupling constant is given. Quantitative agreement is found with the theory obtained from a modified VWZ approach [Verbaarschot et al, Phys. Rep. 129, 367 (1985)].

B. Köber; U. Kuhl; H. -J. Stöckmann; T. Gorin; D. V. Savin; T. H. Seligman

2010-06-17

230

Call center demand forecasting : improving sales calls prediction accuracy through the combination of statistical methods and judgmental forecast  

E-print Network

Call centers are important for developing and maintaining healthy relationships with customers. At Dell, call centers are also at the core of the company's renowned direct model. For sales call centers in particular, the ...

Boulin, Juan Manuel

2010-01-01

231

Impacts of Varying Penetration of Distributed Resources with & without Volt/Var Control: Case Study of Varying Load Types  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a follow-up to an earlier one on impacts of distributed energy resources (DR) on distribution feeders. As DR penetration level on the feeder increases, there can be impacts to distribution system/feeder capacity, line losses, and voltage regulation. These can vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system or loading. The question is how high of a DR level can be accommodated without any major changes to system operation, system design and protection. Our objective for this work was to address the question of how the DR impacts vary in regards to both DR voltage regulation capability and load mix. A dynamic analysis was used to focus on the impacts of DR with and without volt/var control with different load composition on the distribution feeder. The study considered an example 10MVA distribution feeder in which two inverter-based DRs were used to provide voltage regulation. The results due to DR without voltage regulation capability are compared with DR capable of providing local (at its bus) voltage regulation. The analysis was repeated for four different feeder load compositions consisting of (1) constant power, (2) constant impedance, (3) constant current and (4) ZIP (equal combination of previous three).

Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL

2011-01-01

232

Mixed lipid bilayers with locally varying spontaneous curvature and bending.  

PubMed

A model of lipid bilayers made of a mixture of two lipids with different average compositions on both leaflets, is developed. A Landau Hamiltonian describing the lipid-lipid interactions on each leaflet, with two lipidic fields ? 1 and ? 2, is coupled to a Helfrich one, accounting for the membrane elasticity, via both a local spontaneous curvature, which varies as C 0 + C 1(? 1 - ? 2/2), and a bending modulus equal to ? 0 + ? 1(? 1 + ? 2)/2. This model allows us to define curved patches as membrane domains where the asymmetry in composition, ? 1 - ? 2, is large, and thick and stiff patches where ? 1 + ? 2 is large. These thick patches are good candidates for being lipidic rafts, as observed in cell membranes, which are composed primarily of saturated lipids forming a liquid-ordered domain and are known to be thick and flat nano-domains. The lipid-lipid structure factors and correlation functions are computed for globally spherical membranes and planar ones and for a whole set of parameters including the surface tension and the coupling in the two leaflet compositions. Phase diagrams are established, within a Gaussian approximation, showing the occurrence of two types of Structure Disordered phases, with correlations between either curved or thick patches, and an Ordered phase, corresponding to the divergence of the structure factor at a finite wave vector. The varying bending modulus plays a central role for curved membranes, where the driving force ? 1 C 0 (2) is balanced by the line tension, to form raft domains of size ranging from 10 to 100 nm. For planar membranes, raft domains emerge via the cross-correlation with curved domains. A global picture emerges from curvature-induced mechanisms, described in the literature for planar membranes, to coupled curvature- and bending-induced mechanisms in curved membranes forming a closed vesicle. PMID:25160487

Gueguen, Guillaume; Destainville, Nicolas; Manghi, Manoel

2014-08-01

233

Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.  

PubMed

Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux. PMID:22399473

Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

2012-01-01

234

Neural Correlates of Threat Perception: Neural Equivalence of Conspecific and Heterospecific Mobbing Calls Is Learned  

PubMed Central

Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise [1]–[2]. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators [3]. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more “D” notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators [4]. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned. PMID:21909363

Avey, Marc T.; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K.; Bloomfield, Laurie L.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

235

Neural correlates of threat perception: neural equivalence of conspecific and heterospecific mobbing calls is learned.  

PubMed

Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more "D" notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned. PMID:21909363

Avey, Marc T; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B

2011-01-01

236

Nutritional effects on male calling behaviour in the variable field cricket.  

PubMed

In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, females prefer higher chirp rates and longer chirp durations in male calling song. Higher chirp rates are energetically more expensive to produce, but the energetic cost of calling does not vary with chirp duration. We tested the hypothesis that nutrition affects male chirp rate and chirp duration. Full-sibling brothers of similar age were placed on high- and low-nutrition feeding regimes. There was no effect of feeding regime on male weight; neither group showed a significant change in weight, and the two groups did not differ from each other in weight change. However, males on the high-nutrition feeding regime both called more frequently and called at higher chirp rates when they did call. The two groups did not differ in chirp duration, the duration of pulses within chirps or chirp dominant frequency. These results suggest that females select mates based on one nutrition-dependent call character (chirp rate) and one nutrition-independent call character (chirp duration). In addition, because males in the two groups did not show significant differences in weight change, and because males on the high-nutrition feeding regime engaged in energetically more expensive calling, these results suggest that males invest any excess energy above their basic maintenance requirements in the production of call types that increase their attractiveness to females. The absence of a relationship between body condition and calling song structure for males in the field may be a consequence of this pattern of energy allocation. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10053075

Wagner; Hoback

1999-01-01

237

Boiling Radial Flow in Fractures of Varying  

E-print Network

SGP-TR-166 Boiling Radial Flow in Fractures of Varying Wall Porosity Robb Allan Barnitt June 2000 and boiling convective heat transfer, with boiling flow in a rock fracture. A series of experiments observed. The experimental study involved boiling radial flow in a simulated fracture, bounded by a variety of materials

Stanford University

238

Response of Raft Foundation on Varying Stratum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on raft foundation of a barrage due to varying stratum has been examined using finite element analysis. The raft foundation is completely resting on soil media and surrounded by soil and rock media. Eight noded brick elements have been used for three-dimensional modeling and meshing of the rock, soil, cut-off, pier, beam and abutment but raft foundation has

Kumar Venkatesh; N. K. Samadhiya; A. D. Pandey

2009-01-01

239

Black rings with varying charge density  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find the general five-dimensional, supersymmetric black ring solutions in M-theory based upon a circular ring, but with arbitrary, fluctuating charge distributions around the ring. The solutions have three arbitrary charge distribution functions, but their asymptotic charges and angular momenta only depend upon the total charges on the ring. The arbitrary density fluctuations thus represent ``hair.'' By varying the charge

Iosif Bena; Chih-Wei Wang; Nicholas P. Warner

2006-01-01

240

The Varied Uses of Readability Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Readability formulas have varied uses. In education they are used to match children's reading ability to the difficulty level of material, select stories and books for classroom use and for individual students' particular needs, select textbooks and other reading materials, aid educational research, and check reading materials of newly literate…

Fry, Edward

241

Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX), a clinical program designed to assess the degree to which an individual is able to demonstrate self-control for overall general relaxation. The program is designed for use with the Cassel Biosensors biofeedback equipment. (JAC)

Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

1983-01-01

242

Calling by Domestic Piglets during Simulated Crushing and Isolation: A Signal of Need?  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether piglet distress vocalizations vary with age, body weight and health status, according to the predictions of the honest signalling of need evolutionary model. Vocalizations were recorded during manual squeezing (a simulation of being crushed by mother sow) and during isolation on Days 1 and 7 after birth in piglets from 15 litters. We predicted that during squeezing, younger, lighter and sick piglets would call more intensely because they are in higher risk of dying during crushing and therefore they benefit more from the sow’s reaction to intensive vocalization. For isolation, we predicted that lighter and younger piglets would call more because they are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the separation. Calls were analyzed in their time and frequency domain. The rate of calling, call duration, proportion of high-pitched calls and eight acoustic parameters characterizing frequency distribution and tonality were used as indicators of acoustic signalling intensity. Piglets that experienced “squeezing” on Day 1 produced more intense acoustic distress signalling than on Day 7. Lighter piglets called more during squeezing than heavier piglets. Health status did not significantly affect any of the indicators of intensity of vocalization during squeezing. In isolation, none of the parameters of vocalization intensity were affected either by the age or by the weight of the piglets. In summary, the model of honest signalling of need was confirmed in the squeezed situation, but not in the isolation situation. PMID:24349527

Illmann, Gudrun; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Spinka, Marek; Tallet, Celine

2013-01-01

243

Advertisement-call modification, male competition and female preference in the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca  

PubMed Central

Senders and receivers influence dynamic characteristics of the signals used for mate attraction over different time scales. On a moment-to-moment basis, interactions among senders competing for a mate influence dynamic characteristics, whereas the preferences of receivers of the opposite gender exert an influence over evolutionary time. We observed and recorded the calling patterns of the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca, to assess how the dynamic characters of calls vary during interactions among groups of males in a chorus. This question was also addressed using playback experiments with males. Playback experiments with females showed how changes in dynamic call properties are likely to affect male mating success. Frogs calling in pairs, groups, or in response to playbacks produced longer calls than did isolated males. During call overlap, males often increased the duration of the silent interval (gaps) between the pulses of their calls so that the pulses of the calls of two neighbors interdigitated. This change resulted in increased variability of pulse rate, a traditionally static acoustic property; however, males also produced high proportions of non-overlapped calls in which variability in pulse rate was low and had species-typical values. Females preferred long calls to short and average-duration calls, and non-overlapped calls to overlapped calls. Given a choice between pairs of overlapped calls, females preferred pairs in which the proportion of overlap was low and pairs in which the pulses of such calls interdigitated completely. The observed patterns of vocal competition thus reflect the preferences of conspecific females, which have influenced the evolution of the calling behavior of H. avivoca. PMID:19789730

Martinez-Rivera, Carlos Cesar; Gerhardt, H. Carl

2009-01-01

244

Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time  

PubMed Central

The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches. PMID:22690631

Rafferty, Nicole E.; Ives, Anthony R.

2013-01-01

245

Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time.  

PubMed

The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches. PMID:22690631

Rafferty, Nicole E; Ives, Anthony R

2012-04-01

246

Game Experience May Vary: Understanding Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do we call it game research and not play research? For the last decade of videogame studies, most of the attention has\\u000a been paid to games as formal entities. At first, games seem easier to understand: they generally have clear rules and goals.\\u000a They would be perfect machineries with formal mechanics if it was not for one factor: humans

Gonzalo Frasca

2009-01-01

247

The Aurora Calling Tree Updated May 14, 2010  

E-print Network

The Aurora Calling Tree Updated May 14, 2010 1. If you see the Aurora first, call the next person Only circles. (However, if an early circle person happens to see the Aurora after 11:00, please CALL-529-7066 Norm Williams 406-579-1882 #12;The Aurora Calling Tree Updated May 14, 2010 1. If you see the Aurora

Maxwell, Bruce D.

248

Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives  

PubMed Central

Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise. PMID:21345867

Jensen, Frants H.; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T.

2011-01-01

249

To call or not to call--that is the question (while driving).  

PubMed

We studied whether decisions to engage in cell phone conversation while driving and the consequences of such decisions are related to the driver's age, to the road conditions (demands of the driving task), and to the driver's role in initiating the phone call (i.e. the driver as caller vs. as receiver). Two experiments were performed in a driving simulator in which driver age, road conditions and phone conversation, as a secondary task, were manipulated. Engagement in cell phone conversations, performance in the driving and the conversation tasks, and subjective effort assessment were recorded. In general, drivers were more willing to accept incoming calls than to initiate calls. In addition, older and younger drivers were more susceptible to the deleterious effects of phone conversations while driving than middle aged/experienced drivers. While older drivers were aware of this susceptibility by showing sensitivity to road conditions before deciding whether to engage in a call or not, young drivers showed no such sensitivity. The results can guide the development of young driver training programs and point at the need to develop context-aware management systems of in-vehicle cell phone conversations. PMID:23612559

Tractinsky, Noam; Ram, Efrat Soffer; Shinar, David

2013-07-01

250

"CALL" in the Heart of Darkness: A Research into the Place of "CALL" in TESOL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an inquiry into the integration of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) into the teaching of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL), and focuses on the relationship of computers within a variety of British educational establishments in the county of Sussex (England). The aims of the study were: (1) to examine how TESOL…

Tutunis, Birsen

251

Mucinous (so-called colloid) carcinomas of lung.  

PubMed

We present 24 cases of primary mucinous (so-called colloid) carcinomas of the lung. The patients were between 33 and 81 yr old (median: 57 yr), including 15 men and nine women. The lesions were discovered incidentally on chest X-ray, where they presented in diverse forms. No predilection for a particular lobe or pulmonary segment was observed. The tumors varied from 0.5 to 10 cm in greatest diameter. Grossly, the tumors were poorly circumscribed, soft, tan-to-gray mucoid lesions. Microscopically, they showed intra-alveolar pools of mucin containing small clusters of atypical cells floating in the mucin, and foci of neoplastic columnar epithelium lining scattered alveoli. Seven cases showed areas of solid, well-differentiated malignant glands adjacent to pools of mucin. In two cases, lymph node metastases were found at surgery. Eleven (57%) of 19 patients were alive over a follow-up period ranging from 2 to 192 mo; one of them had metastases to bone and another had intrapulmonary recurrence. Eight patients died with/of their tumors, two of them with known metastases to bone and/or brain, and one with recurrence after 2 yr of initial diagnosis. No follow-up was obtained in five patients. Although the extent of clinical evaluation varied, no other primary neoplasms (i.e., breast, gastrointestinal tract, or other organs where primary mucinous carcinomas are known to occur) were observed. These tumors probably represent a variant of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and share the prognosis of that neoplasm. However, because of their often bland cytologic features and paucity of malignant cells, they may be difficult to diagnose as neoplasms. PMID:1369799

Moran, C A; Hochholzer, L; Fishback, N; Travis, W D; Koss, M N

1992-11-01

252

Epoxy Hybrid Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In past few years natural fibre composites have become very important part of research as potential structural material. The present study deals with a new class of chemically treated/untreated natural fibre and calcium carbonate reinforced composites. In the present investigation composites of bagasse fibre (10 % w/w) and calcium carbonate powder of size ?30 ?m (2 and 4 % w/w) with epoxy resin have been examined. The lengths of bagasse fibre have been varied from 1 to 5 mm. The fibres were chemically treated with NaOH (5 % w/v). Morphological changes of the fibres were observed under the scanning electron microscope. Addition of calcium carbonate showed increased mechanical properties of the developed composites like, flexural strength, compression strength. The composites reinforced with chemically treated fibres show better mechanical properties as compared to the composites reinforced with untreated fibres.

Verma, Deepak; Gope, Prakash Chandra; Shandilya, Abhinav

2014-04-01

253

Varying potential silicon carbide gas sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydrocarbon gas detection device operates by dissociating or electro-chemically oxidizing hydrocarbons adsorbed to a silicon carbide detection layer. Dissociation or oxidation are driven by a varying potential applied to the detection layer. Different hydrocarbon species undergo reaction at different applied potentials so that the device is able to discriminate among various hydrocarbon species. The device can operate at temperatures between 100.degree. C. and at least 650.degree. C., allowing hydrocarbon detection in hot exhaust gases. The dissociation reaction is detected either as a change in a capacitor or, preferably, as a change of current flow through an FET which incorporates the silicon carbide detection layers. The silicon carbide detection layer can be augmented with a pad of catalytic material which provides a signal without an applied potential. Comparisons between the catalytically produced signal and the varying potential produced signal may further help identify the hydrocarbon present.

Shields, Virgil B. (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

254

Genomic effects on advertisement call structure in diploid and triploid hybrid waterfrogs (Anura, Pelophylax esculentus)  

PubMed Central

Background In anurans, differences in male mating calls have intensively been studied with respect to taxonomic classification, phylogeographic comparisons among different populations and sexual selection. Although overall successful, there is often much unexplained variation in these studies. Potential causes for such variation include differences among genotypes and breeding systems, as well as differences between populations. We investigated how these three factors affect call properties in male water frogs of Pelophylax lessonae (genotype LL), P. ridibundus (RR) and their interspecific hybrid P. esculentus which comes in diploid (LR) and triploid types (LLR, LRR). Results We investigated five call parameters that all showed a genomic dosage effect, i.e. they either decreased or increased with the L/R ratio in the order LL-LLR-LR-LRR-RR. Not all parameters differentiated equally well between the five genotypes, but combined they provided a good separation. Two of the five call parameters were also affected by the breeding system. Calls of diploid LR males varied, depending on whether these males mated with one or both of the parental species (diploid systems) or triploid hybrids (mixed ploidy systems). With the exception of the northernmost mixed-ploidy population, call differences were not related to the geographic location of the population and they were not correlated with genetic distances in the R and L genomes. Conclusions We found an influence of all three tested factors on call parameters, with the effect size decreasing from genotype through breeding system to geographic location of the population. Overall, results were in line with predictions from a dosage effect in L/R ratios, but in three call parameters all three hybrid types were more similar to one or the other parental species. Also calls of diploid hybrids varied between breeding systems in agreement with the sexual host required for successful reproduction. The lack of hybrid call differences in a mixed-ploidy population at the northern edge of the water frog distribution is likely to be associated with genetic particularities, including a) low genetic variability and/or b) a local loss of genes coding for genotype-dependent call differentiation under conditions where female discrimination between diploid and triploid males is not beneficial. PMID:24304922

2013-01-01

255

Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells and the built-up composite structure global fracture are enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads.

Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

2008-01-01

256

Moisture transport in composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The moisture distribution and moisture content of composite materials exposed to humid air or to water are discussed. Expressions are presented for estimating the weight gain of both single and multilayered composites when the moisture content and the temperature of the environment are constant. The parameters needed for solving problems in the time varying environmental conditions are specified, and a numerical approach for the solution of such problems is indicated.

Springer, G. S.

1976-01-01

257

Arginine vasotocin injection increases probability of calling in cricket frogs, but causes call changes characteristic of less aggressive males.  

PubMed

Male cricket frogs, Acris crepitans communicate to males and females using advertisement calls, which are arranged into call groups. Calls at the middle and end, but not beginning of the call group, are modified in response to male-male aggressive interactions. We found in this field study of male cricket frogs in natural breeding choruses that the peptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) not only increased the probability that males called after injections, but also caused modifications in middle and end calls to produce calls characteristic of less aggressive males. Moreover, AVT-injected males showed significantly greater increases in call dominant frequency than saline-injected males, again, a characteristic of less aggressive males. Cricket frog calls are used to both repel males and attract females, thus call changes may relate to male-male and/or male-female interactions. Saline-injected males also demonstrated significant changes in several call traits, including changes that occurred in the beginning and middle calls of the call groups, but not the end calls. AVT appeared to block some call changes produced through handling. These data suggest that AVT can influence acoustic communication in frogs in several ways, including effects on call characteristics and dominant frequency, as well as potentially blocking some handling effects. PMID:8748513

Marler, C A; Chu, J; Wilczynski, W

1995-12-01

258

Call title: "Energy-efficient Buildings" -2010 Call identifier: FP7-2010-NMP-ENV-ENERGY-ICT-EeB  

E-print Network

1 Call title: "Energy-efficient Buildings" - 2010 · Call identifier: FP7-2010-NMP selected under the respective call topics. Activity/ Area Topics called Funding Schemes Budget NMP ­ Nanosciences, nanotechnologies, Materials and new Production EeB.NMP.2010-1 New nanotechnology- based high

Milano-Bicocca, Università

259

Synchronization in time-varying networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the stability of the synchronized state in time-varying complex networks using the concept of basin stability, which is a nonlocal and nonlinear measure of stability that can be easily applied to high-dimensional systems [P. J. Menck, J. Heitzig, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Nature Phys. 9, 89 (2013), 10.1038/nphys2516]. The time-varying character is included by stochastically rewiring each link with the average frequency f. We find that the time taken to reach synchronization is lowered and the stability range of the synchronized state increases considerably in dynamic networks. Further we uncover that small-world networks are much more sensitive to link changes than random ones, with the time-varying character of the network having a significant effect at much lower rewiring frequencies. At very high rewiring frequencies, random networks perform better than small-world networks and the synchronized state is stable over a much wider window of coupling strengths. Lastly we show that the stability range of the synchronized state may be quite different for small and large perturbations, and so the linear stability analysis and the basin stability criterion provide complementary indicators of stability.

Kohar, Vivek; Ji, Peng; Choudhary, Anshul; Sinha, Sudeshna; Kurths, Jüergen

2014-08-01

260

Modelling and simulation of spatially varying earthquake ground motions at sites with varying conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a flat and uniform site, it is reasonable to assume that the spatially varying earthquake ground motions at various locations have the same power spectral density or response spectrum. If an engineering site with varying soil conditions at different structural supports is considered, this assumption is no longer valid because of different local site amplification effect. This paper presents

Kaiming Bi; Hong Hao

261

Multi-component separation and analysis of bat echolocation calls.  

PubMed

The vast majority of animal vocalizations contain multiple frequency modulated (FM) components with varying amounts of non-linear modulation and harmonic instability. This is especially true of biosonar sounds where precise time-frequency templates are essential for neural information processing of echoes. Understanding the dynamic waveform design by bats and other echolocating animals may help to improve the efficacy of man-made sonar through biomimetic design. Bats are known to adapt their call structure based on the echolocation task, proximity to nearby objects, and density of acoustic clutter. To interpret the significance of these changes, a method was developed for component separation and analysis of biosonar waveforms. Techniques for imaging in the time-frequency plane are typically limited due to the uncertainty principle and interference cross terms. This problem is addressed by extending the use of the fractional Fourier transform to isolate each non-linear component for separate analysis. Once separated, empirical mode decomposition can be used to further examine each component. The Hilbert transform may then successfully extract detailed time-frequency information from each isolated component. This multi-component analysis method is applied to the sonar signals of four species of bats recorded in-flight by radiotelemetry along with a comparison of other common time-frequency representations. PMID:23297925

DiCecco, John; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, James A

2013-01-01

262

Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

Guest Editors:

Lena Wosinska, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) / ICT Sweden Madeleine Glick, Intel Research, Cambridge, UK

Technologies based on DWDM systems allow data transmission with bit rates of Tbit/s on a single fiber. To facilitate this enormous transmission volume, high-capacity and high-speed network nodes become inevitable in the optical network. Wideband switching, WDM switching, optical burst switching (OBS), and optical packet switching (OPS) are promising technologies for harnessing the bandwidth of WDM optical fiber networks in a highly flexible and efficient manner. As a number of key optical component technologies approach maturity, photonics in switching is becoming an increasingly attractive and practical solution for the next-generation of optical networks. The scope of this special issue is focused on the technology and architecture of optical switching nodes, including the architectural and algorithmic aspects of high-speed optical networks.

Scope of Submission

The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following topics:
  • WDM node architectures
  • Novel device technologies enabling photonics in switching, such as optical switch fabrics, optical memory, and wavelength conversion
  • Routing protocols
  • WDM switching and routing
  • Quality of service
  • Performance measurement and evaluation
  • Next-generation optical networks: architecture, signaling, and control
  • Traffic measurement and field trials
  • Optical burst and packet switching
  • OBS/OPS node architectures
  • Burst/Packet scheduling and routing algorithms
  • Contention resolution/avoidance strategies
  • Services and applications for OBS/OPS (e.g., grid networks, storage-area networks, etc.)
  • Burst assembly and ingress traffic shaping
  • Hybrid OBS/TDM or OBS/wavelength routing

Manuscript Submission

To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON and select ``Photonics in Switching' in the features indicator of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Photonics in Switching.' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/journal/jon/author.cfm. Submission Deadline: 15 September 2006

Wosinska, Lena; Glick, Madeleine

2006-04-01

263

SNP calling, genotype calling, and sample allele frequency estimation from New-Generation Sequencing data.  

PubMed

We present a statistical framework for estimation and application of sample allele frequency spectra from New-Generation Sequencing (NGS) data. In this method, we first estimate the allele frequency spectrum using maximum likelihood. In contrast to previous methods, the likelihood function is calculated using a dynamic programming algorithm and numerically optimized using analytical derivatives. We then use a bayesian method for estimating the sample allele frequency in a single site, and show how the method can be used for genotype calling and SNP calling. We also show how the method can be extended to various other cases including cases with deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We evaluate the statistical properties of the methods using simulations and by application to a real data set. PMID:22911679

Nielsen, Rasmus; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Albrechtsen, Anders; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun

2012-01-01

264

Neural correlates of frog calling: preoptic area trigger of ‘mating calling  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The mating calling circuits of the leopard frog,Rana pipiens pipiens, can be triggered in an isolated brainstem by electrical stimulation of the anterior preoptic nucleus (Fig. 1).2.The area most sensitive to stimulation was found to be in the ventral half of the nucleus and was at the lateral border of the preoptic gray (Figs. 2, 3). The ventricular surface was

Robert S. Schmidt

1984-01-01

265

Acoustic features of male baboon loud calls: Influences of context, age, and individuality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic structure of loud calls (``wahoos'') recorded from free-ranging male baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) in the Moremi Game Reserve, Botswana, was examined for differences between and within contexts, using calls given in response to predators (alarm wahoos), during male contests (contest wahoos), and when a male had become separated from the group (contact wahoos). Calls were recorded from adolescent, subadult, and adult males. In addition, male alarm calls were compared with those recorded from females. Despite their superficial acoustic similarity, the analysis revealed a number of significant differences between alarm, contest, and contact wahoos. Contest wahoos are given at a much higher rate, exhibit lower frequency characteristics, have a longer ``hoo'' duration, and a relatively louder ``hoo'' portion than alarm wahoos. Contact wahoos are acoustically similar to contest wahoos, but are given at a much lower rate. Both alarm and contest wahoos also exhibit significant differences among individuals. Some of the acoustic features that vary in relation to age and sex presumably reflect differences in body size, whereas others are possibly related to male stamina and endurance. The finding that calls serving markedly different functions constitute variants of the same general call type suggests that the vocal production in nonhuman primates is evolutionarily constrained.

Fischer, Julia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

2002-03-01

266

The Sound of Danger: Threat Sensitivity to Predator Vocalizations, Alarm Calls, and Novelty in Gulls  

PubMed Central

The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

MacLean, Sarah A.; Bonter, David N.

2013-01-01

267

Mixed lipid bilayers with locally varying spontaneous curvature and bending  

E-print Network

A model of lipid bilayers made of a mixture of two lipids with different average compositions on both leaflets, is developed. A Landau hamiltonian describing the lipid-lipid interactions on each leaflet, with two lipidic fields $\\psi_1$ and $\\psi_2$, is coupled to a Helfrich one, accounting for the membrane elasticity, via both a local spontaneous curvature, which varies as $C_0+C_1(\\psi_1-\\psi_2)/2$, and a bending modulus equal to $\\kappa_0+\\kappa_1(\\psi_1+\\psi_2)/2$. This model allows us to define curved patches as membrane domains where the asymmetry in composition, $\\psi_1-\\psi_2$, is large, and thick and stiff patches where $\\psi_1+\\psi_2$ is large. These thick patches are good candidates for being lipidic rafts, as observed in cell membranes, which are composed primarily of saturated lipids forming a liquid-ordered domain and are known to be thick and flat nano-domains. The lipid-lipid structure factors and correlation functions are computed for globally spherical membranes and planar ones. Phase diagrams are established, within a Gaussian approximation, showing the occurrence of two types of Structure Disordered phases, with correlations between either curved or thick patches, and an Ordered phase, corresponding to the divergence of the structure factor at a finite wave vector. The varying bending modulus plays a central role for curved membranes, where the driving force $\\kappa_1C_0^2$ is balanced by the line tension, to form raft domains of size ranging from 10 to 100~nm. For planar membranes, raft domains emerge via the cross-correlation with curved domains. A global picture emerges from curvature-induced mechanisms, described in the literature for planar membranes, to coupled curvature- and bending-induced mechanisms in curved membranes forming a closed vesicle.

Guillaume Gueguen; Nicolas Destainville; Manoel Manghi

2014-05-09

268

Linear Parameter Varying Control for Actuator Failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robust linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis is carried out for an HiMAT vehicle subject to loss of control effectiveness. The scheduling parameter is selected to be a function of the estimates of the control effectiveness factors. The estimates are provided on-line by a two-stage Kalman estimator. The inherent conservatism of the LPV design is reducing through the use of a scaling factor on the uncertainty block that represents the estimation errors of the effectiveness factors. Simulations of the controlled system with the on-line estimator show that a superior fault-tolerance can be achieved.

Shin, Jong-Yeob; Wu, N. Eva; Belcastro, Christine; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

269

Varying execution discipline to increase performance  

SciTech Connect

This research investigates the relationship between execution discipline and performance. The hypothesis has two parts: 1. Different execution disciplines exhibit different performance for different computations, and 2. These differences can be effectively predicted by heuristics. A machine model is developed that can vary its execution discipline. That is, the model can execute a given program using either the control-driven, data-driven or demand-driven execution discipline. This model is referred to as a ``variable-execution-discipline`` machine. The instruction set for the model is the Program Dependence Web (PDW). The first part of the hypothesis will be tested by simulating the execution of the machine model on a suite of computations, based on the Livermore Fortran Kernel (LFK) Test (a.k.a. the Livermore Loops), using all three execution disciplines. Heuristics are developed to predict relative performance. These heuristics predict (a) the execution time under each discipline for one iteration of each loop and (b) the number of iterations taken by that loop; then the heuristics use those predictions to develop a prediction for the execution of the entire loop. Similar calculations are performed for branch statements. The second part of the hypothesis will be tested by comparing the results of the simulated execution with the predictions produced by the heuristics. If the hypothesis is supported, then the door is open for the development of machines that can vary execution discipline to increase performance.

Campbell, P.L.; Maccabe, A.B.

1993-12-22

270

Stereoscopic depth perception varies with hues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of color information to stereopsis is controversial, and whether the stereoscopic depth perception varies with chromaticity is ambiguous. This study examined the changes in depth perception caused by hue variations. Based on the fact that a greater disparity range indicates more efficient stereoscopic perception, the effect of hue variations on depth perception was evaluated through the disparity range with random-dot stereogram stimuli. The disparity range was obtained by constant-stimulus method for eight chromaticity points sampled from the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. Eight sample points include four main color hues: red, yellow, green, and blue at two levels of chroma. The results show that the disparity range for the yellow hue is greater than the red hue, the latter being greater than the blue hue and the disparity range for green hue is smallest. We conclude that the perceived depth is not the same for different hues for a given size of disparity. We suggest that the stereoscopic depth perception can vary with chromaticity.

Chen, Zaiqing; Shi, Junsheng; Tai, Yonghang; Yun, Lijun

2012-09-01

271

Toroidal Varied-Line Space (TVLS) Gratings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is a particular challenge to develop a stigmatic spectrograph for XUV wavelengths since the very low normal-incidence reflectance of standard materials most often requires that the design be restricted to a single optical element which must simultaneously provide both re-imaging and spectral dispersion. This problem has been solved in the past by the use of toroidal gratings with uniform line-spaced rulings (TULS). A number of solar EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) spectrometers have been based on such designs, including SOHO/CDS, Solar-B/EIS, and the sounding rockets SERTS and EUNIS. More recently, Kita, Harada, and collaborators have developed the theory of spherical gratings with varied line-space rulings (SVLS) operated at unity magnification, which have been flown on several astronomical satellite missions. We now combine these ideas into a spectrometer concept that puts varied-line space rulings onto toroidal gratings. Such TVLS designs are found to provide excellent imaging even at very large spectrograph magnifications and beam-speeds, permitting extremely high-quality performance in remarkably compact instrument packages. Optical characteristics of two solar spectrometers based on this concept are described: SUMI, proposed as a sounding rocket experiment, and NEXUS, proposed for the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission.

Thomas, Roger J.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

272

MULTIVARIATE VARYING COEFFICIENT MODEL FOR FUNCTIONAL RESPONSES  

PubMed Central

Motivated by recent work studying massive imaging data in the neuroimaging literature, we propose multivariate varying coefficient models (MVCM) for modeling the relation between multiple functional responses and a set of covariates. We develop several statistical inference procedures for MVCM and systematically study their theoretical properties. We first establish the weak convergence of the local linear estimate of coefficient functions, as well as its asymptotic bias and variance, and then we derive asymptotic bias and mean integrated squared error of smoothed individual functions and their uniform convergence rate. We establish the uniform convergence rate of the estimated covariance function of the individual functions and its associated eigenvalue and eigenfunctions. We propose a global test for linear hypotheses of varying coefficient functions, and derive its asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis. We also propose a simultaneous confidence band for each individual effect curve. We conduct Monte Carlo simulation to examine the finite-sample performance of the proposed procedures. We apply MVCM to investigate the development of white matter diffusivities along the genu tract of the corpus callosum in a clinical study of neurodevelopment. PMID:12926711

Zhu, Hongtu; Li, Runze; Kong, Linglong

2012-01-01

273

MULTIVARIATE VARYING COEFFICIENT MODEL FOR FUNCTIONAL RESPONSES  

PubMed Central

Motivated by recent work studying massive imaging data in the neuroimaging literature, we propose multivariate varying coefficient models (MVCM) for modeling the relation between multiple functional responses and a set of covariates. We develop several statistical inference procedures for MVCM and systematically study their theoretical properties. We first establish the weak convergence of the local linear estimate of coefficient functions, as well as its asymptotic bias and variance, and then we derive asymptotic bias and mean integrated squared error of smoothed individual functions and their uniform convergence rate. We establish the uniform convergence rate of the estimated covariance function of the individual functions and its associated eigenvalue and eigenfunctions. We propose a global test for linear hypotheses of varying coefficient functions, and derive its asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis. We also propose a simultaneous confidence band for each individual effect curve. We conduct Monte Carlo simulation to examine the finite-sample performance of the proposed procedures. We apply MVCM to investigate the development of white matter diffusivities along the genu tract of the corpus callosum in a clinical study of neurodevelopment. PMID:23645942

Zhu, Hongtu; Li, Runze; Kong, Linglong

2012-01-01

274

Distributionally robust workforce scheduling in call centers with ...  

E-print Network

that the process parameters are themselves subject to fluctuations, with a ... rate of calls to be uncertain and assume that it follows a compound of seasonal pattern and .... the inbound call arrival process by a doubly stochastic Poisson process.

2011-05-25

275

Modeling and frequency tracking of marine mammal whistle calls  

E-print Network

Marine mammal whistle calls present an attractive medium for covert underwater communications. High quality models of the whistle calls are needed in order to synthesize natural-sounding whistles with embedded information. ...

Severson, Jared

2009-01-01

276

47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST...PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster...call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for...

2013-10-01

277

47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST...PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster...call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for...

2010-10-01

278

47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST...PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster...call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for...

2012-10-01

279

47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST...PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster...call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for...

2011-10-01

280

47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency Call Center Service. 25.284...284 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON...Technical Operations § 25.284 Emergency Call Center Service....

2011-10-01

281

47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency Call Center Service. 25.284...284 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON...Technical Operations § 25.284 Emergency Call Center Service....

2013-10-01

282

47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency Call Center Service. 25.284...284 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON...Technical Operations § 25.284 Emergency Call Center Service....

2012-10-01

283

78 FR 78809 - Rates for Interstate Inmate Calling Services  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12-375; DA 13-2379] Rates for Interstate Inmate Calling...comments. Mail: Commercial overnight mail (other than U.S. Postal...interstate inmate calling service rates, requiring that all providers' rates and charges be...

2013-12-27

284

76 FR 2410 - Call for Nominations for Advisory Groups  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLOR9320000-L10200000.PH0000; HAG11-0053] Call for Nominations for Advisory Groups AGENCY...Notice of Resource Advisory Council Call for Nominations...nominations must include: (1) Letters of reference from the stakeholder interest area...

2011-01-13

285

76 FR 14684 - Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO620000.L18200000.XH0000] Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory...Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Call for nominations...accompany all nominations: --Letters of reference from represented interests or...

2011-03-17

286

'Call fast, Call 911': a direct mail campaign to reduce patient delay in acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: A 10-month direct mail campaign was implemented to increase use of emergency medical services via 911 calls and to reduce prehospital delay for individuals experiencing acute myocardial infarction symptoms. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, controlled trial involved three intervention groups (receiving brochures with informational, emotional, or social messages) and a control group. RESULTS: Intervention effects were not observed except for individuals who had a history of acute myocardial infarction and who were discharged with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction; their 911 use was meaningfully higher in each intervention group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The mailings affected only the individuals at greatest risk. PMID:9357360

Meischke, H; Dulberg, E M; Schaeffer, S S; Henwood, D K; Larsen, M P; Eisenberg, M S

1997-01-01

287

Operator bias in software-aided bat call identification  

PubMed Central

Software-aided identification facilitates the handling of large sets of bat call recordings, which is particularly useful in extensive acoustic surveys with several collaborators. Species lists are generated by “objective” automated classification. Subsequent validation consists of removing any species not believed to be present. So far, very little is known about the identification bias introduced by individual validation of operators with varying degrees of experience. Effects on the quality of the resulting data may be considerable, especially for bat species that are difficult to identify acoustically. Using the batcorder system as an example, we compared validation results from 21 volunteer operators with 1–26 years of experience of working on bats. All of them validated identical recordings of bats from eastern Austria. The final outcomes were individual validated lists of plausible species. A questionnaire was used to enquire about individual experience and validation procedures. In the course of species validation, the operators reduced the software's estimate of species richness. The most experienced operators accepted the smallest percentage of species from the software's output and validated conservatively with low interoperator variability. Operators with intermediate experience accepted the largest percentage, with larger variability. Sixty-six percent of the operators, mainly with intermediate and low levels of experience, reintroduced species to their validated lists which had been identified by the automated classification, but were finally excluded from the unvalidated lists. These were, in many cases, rare and infrequently recorded species. The average dissimilarity of the validated species lists dropped with increasing numbers of recordings, tending toward a level of ˜20%. Our results suggest that the operators succeeded in removing false positives and that they detected species that had been wrongly excluded during automated classification. Thus, manual validation of the software's unvalidated output is indispensable for reasonable results. However, although application seems easy, software-aided bat call identification requires an advanced level of operator experience. Identification bias during validation is a major issue, particularly in studies with more than one participant. Measures should be taken to standardize the validation process and harmonize the results of different operators. PMID:25077021

Fritsch, Georg; Bruckner, Alexander

2014-01-01

288

Call Accounting in a VoIP Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

An H.323 CDR collecting and consolidating architecture based on Radius is presented. The important fields involved in the consolidation process for Cisco gateways and GnuGK CDRs are investigated and a unique record format is defined. From the database, various statistics are extracted including disconnection causes, call distribution over a day, number of calls over a day period, call quality along

João Carlos; Aguiar Rodrigues; Rodrigo Moreira Silveira; Arza Lobo da Costa; Caixa Postal

289

The Call for an African University: A Critical Reflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we draw on philosophy (particularly African philosophy) to analyse the call for an African university. The call for an African university may be viewed as a call that insists that all critical and transformative educators in Africa embrace an indigenous African worldview and root their nation's educational paradigms in an indigenous…

van Wyk, Berte; Higgs, Philip

2007-01-01

290

Path Models of Vocational Calling in Christian College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Christian college environment, students are encouraged to understand their vocational calling, yet quantitative research on how college students conceptualize calling is sparse. This correlational study extends the research literature significantly by empirically examining variables that affect sense of vocational calling in 270 college students as they near graduation. Relationships among demographic variables (gender, race, resident status, GPA, and

Sheri L. Phillips

2011-01-01

291

The British Call Option G. Peskir & F. Samee  

E-print Network

The British Call Option G. Peskir & F. Samee Quant. Finance Vol. 13, No. 1, 2013, (95 and Statistics Group School of Mathematics, The University of Manchester #12;The British Call Option G. Peskir. Group Manchester (25 pp) Alongside the British put option [11] we present a new call option where

Sidorov, Nikita

292

Transactional system calls on Linux Donald E. Porter  

E-print Network

Transactional system calls on Linux Donald E. Porter The University of Texas at Austin porterde@cs.utexas.edu Emmett Witchel The University of Texas at Austin witchel@cs.utexas.edu Abstract Have you ever had on system transactions. We add system calls to begin, end, and abort a transaction. A system call

Witchel, Emmett

293

Overlap Area Assisted Call Admission Control Scheme for Communications System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a novel call admission control scheme named overlap area assisted new call blocking scheme (NCBS-OA) for High Altitude Platform (HAP) based communications systems, which utilizes both the geographical information and the overlap area to intelligently decide when to block a new call to help avoid possible handover failure. An approximate analytical model is derived to

Shufeng Li; David Grace; Yanchen Liu; Jibo Wei; Dongtang Ma

2011-01-01

294

The Cloud around Development and Exploiting CALL Material.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English language educators must be able to develop and exploit self-made computer assisted language learning (CALL) materials specific to their course syllabi and student needs. This paper explains that unless educators develop a bond with technology, they will not be able to use published CALL material or develop their own CALL material. Through…

Sabieh, Christine

295

PERT: A Method for Expression Deconvolution of Human Blood Samples from Varied Microenvironmental and  

E-print Network

PERT: A Method for Expression Deconvolution of Human Blood Samples from Varied Microenvironmental deconvolution methods to predict cell frequencies within heterogeneous human blood samples that were collected composition of heterogeneous samples can be predicted using an expression deconvolution algorithm to decompose

Zandstra, Peter W.

296

Crack-tip stress fields in functionally graded materials with linearly varying properties  

E-print Network

Crack-tip stress fields in functionally graded materials with linearly varying properties N. Jain or inclined to the direction of property gradation in functionally graded materials (FGMs) are obtained com- ponent. A functionally graded material (FGM) is a composite consisting of two or more phases

Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

297

WKB approximation for abruptly varying potential wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach to obtain eigenfunctions and eigenenergies for abruptly varying potentials in the framework of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. To illustrate it, two examples of the potentials are studied. The first one is the combination of a step barrier and a harmonic oscillator potential, and the second one consists of a step barrier and a linear potential. The formulation of a WKB quantization rule is proposed. Our approach shows that WKB energies and those from numerical calculation are in good agreement. According to matching conditions used, WKB wavefunctions in this present work are violated at only one classical turning point, but they behave well at another point where the potentials are discontinuous.

Amthong, Attapon

2014-11-01

298

Percolation model with continuously varying exponents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work analyzes a percolation model on the diamond hierarchical lattice (DHL), where the percolation transition is retarded by the inclusion of a probability of erasing specific connected structures. It has been inspired by the recent interest on the existence of other universality classes of percolation models. The exact scale invariance and renormalization properties of DHL leads to recurrence maps, from which analytical expressions for the critical exponents and precise numerical results in the limit of very large lattices can be derived. The critical exponents ? and ? of the investigated model vary continuously as the erasing probability changes. An adequate choice of the erasing probability leads to the result ?=?, like in some phase transitions involving vortex formation. The percolation transition is continuous, with ?>0, but ? can be as small as desired. The modified percolation model turns out to be equivalent to the Q?1 limit of a Potts model with specific long range interactions on the same lattice.

Andrade, R. F. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

2013-10-01

299

Time varying arctic climate change amplification  

SciTech Connect

During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

2009-01-01

300

Climate dynamics: Why does climate vary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, climate change has become a major focus of public and political discussion. Ongoing scientific inquiry, revolving predominantly around understanding the anthropogenic effects of rising greenhouse gas levels, coupled with how successfully findings are communicated to the public, has made climate science both contentious and exigent. In the AGU monograph Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary?, editors De-Zheng Sun and Frank Bryan reinforce the importance of investigating the complex dynamics that underlie the natural variability of the climate system. Understanding this complexity—particularly how the natural variability of climate may enhance or mask anthropogenic warming—could have important consequences for the future. In this interview, Eos talks to De-Zheng Sun.

Schultz, Colin

2011-08-01

301

Fundamental Investigation of Circumferentially Varying Stator Cascades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamentals of circumferentially varying stator cascades and their interactions with a downstream fixed pitch propeller were investigated experimentally utilizing multiple measurement techniques. The flow physics associated with the isolated circumferentially varying, or cyclic, stator cascade was studied in a wind tunnel environment through string tuft flow visualization, 2-D PIV, Stereoscopic PIV, and static surface pressure measurements. The coupled wake physics of the cyclic stator cascade with propeller were then investigated in a water tunnel using Stereo PIV. Finally, the global performance of components and the coupled system were quantified through force and moment measurements on the model in the water tunnel. A cyclic distribution of the stators' deflections resulted in non-axisymmetric distributions of the surface pressure and the flow field downstream of the stator array. In the model near wake the flow field is associated with secondary flow patterns in the form of coherent streamwise vortical structures that can be described by potential flow mechanisms. The collective pitch distribution of the stators produces a flow field that resembles a potential Rankine vortex, whereas the cyclic pitch distribution generates a flow pattern that can be described by a potential vortex pair in a cross flow. The stator distribution alone produces a significant side force that increases linearly with stator pitch amplitude. When a propeller is incorporated downstream from the cyclic cascade the side force from the stator cascade is reduced, but a small vertical force and pitching moment are created. The generation of these secondary forces and moments can be related to the redistribution of the tangential flow from the cyclic cascade into the axial direction by the retreating and advancing blade states of the fixed pitch propeller.

Farnsworth, John A. N.

302

Acoustic characteristics of the low-frequency nest call of discomfort of the house mouse ( Mus musculus) early ontogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic characteristics of the low-frequency nest call signaling discomfort of mouse pups are considered. The spectral temporal analysis of the call is realized for house mouse pups. In the structure of some calls, the frequency modulation and components of the noise are established. Signal duration varies from 20 to 170 ms. A statistically significant decrease of call duration and its fundamental frequency is shown from the 6th to 29th day of the mouse pups’ lives. The most stable parameters of the call-the harmonic structure, low-frequency range (up to 20 kHz), and location of the fundamental frequency between 4 and 8 kHz are recognized.

Egorova, M. A.; Akimov, A. G.

2010-05-01

303

The Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service: High Frequency of Nontransported Calls  

PubMed Central

Objectives. There are no published studies on the Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service and no assessment of the calls that end in nontransported individuals. We describe reasons for the nontransport of potential clients. Methods. We used the Emergency Medical Dispatch (Medical Priority Dispatch System) instrument, augmented with five local call types, to collect information on types of calls. The calls were categorised under 7 headings. Correlations between call types and response time were calculated. Results. Most calls were from the category medical (54%). Nineteen (19%) percent of calls were in the non-transported category. Calls from call type Cancelled accounted for most of these and this was related to response time, while Refused service was inversely related (P = 0.01). Conclusions. The Barbados Ambulance Service is mostly used by people with a known illness and for trauma cases. One-fifth of calls fall into a category where the ambulance is not used often due to cancellation which is related to response time. Other factors such as the use of alternative transport are also important. Further study to identify factors that contribute to the non-transported category of calls is necessary if improvements in service quality are to be made. PMID:23198147

Phillips, Sherwin E.; Gaskin, Pamela S.; Byer, David; Cadogan, W. L.; Brathwaite, Andrew; Nielsen, Anders L.

2012-01-01

304

Call Title: Theme 4 NMP -Nanosciences, Nanotechnologies, Materials and new Production Technologies Coordinated call EU-USA 2010  

E-print Network

1 Call Title: Theme 4 ­ NMP - Nanosciences, Nanotechnologies, Materials and new Production Technologies ­ Coordinated call EU-USA 2010 · Call identifier: FP7-NMP-2010-EU-USA · Date of publication: 30 November 2009 at 17.00.00 (Brussels local time). · Indicative budget: EUR 6 Million2 by EC- NMP Theme

Milano-Bicocca, Università

305

Call Title: Theme 4 NMP -Nanosciences, Nanotechnologies, Materials and new Production Technologies Coordinated call EU-Mexico 2010  

E-print Network

1 Call Title: Theme 4 ­ NMP - Nanosciences, Nanotechnologies, Materials and new Production Technologies ­ Coordinated call EU-Mexico 2010 · Call identifier: FP7-NMP-2010-EU-Mexico · Date of publication­ 15 December 2009 at 17.00.00 (Brussels local time). · Indicative budget: EUR 6 Million 2 by EC- NMP

Milano-Bicocca, Università

306

Ambient noise induces independent shifts in call frequency and amplitude within the Lombard effect in echolocating bats  

PubMed Central

The Lombard effect, an involuntary rise in call amplitude in response to masking ambient noise, represents one of the most efficient mechanisms to optimize signal-to-noise ratio. The Lombard effect occurs in birds and mammals, including humans, and is often associated with several other vocal changes, such as call frequency and duration. Most studies, however, have focused on noise-dependent changes in call amplitude. It is therefore still largely unknown how the adaptive changes in call amplitude relate to associated vocal changes such as frequency shifts, how the underlying mechanisms are linked, and if auditory feedback from the changing vocal output is needed. Here, we examined the Lombard effect and the associated changes in call frequency in a highly vocal mammal, echolocating horseshoe bats. We analyzed how bandpass-filtered noise (BFN; bandwidth 20 kHz) affected their echolocation behavior when BFN was centered on different frequencies within their hearing range. Call amplitudes increased only when BFN was centered on the dominant frequency component of the bats’ calls. In contrast, call frequencies increased for all but one BFN center frequency tested. Both amplitude and frequency rises were extremely fast and occurred in the first call uttered after noise onset, suggesting that no auditory feedback was required. The different effects that varying the BFN center frequency had on amplitude and frequency rises indicate different neural circuits and/or mechanisms underlying these changes. PMID:23431172

Hage, Steffen R.; Jiang, Tinglei; Berquist, Sean W.; Feng, Jiang; Metzner, Walter

2013-01-01

307

Variation in chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor: note type and individual distinctiveness.  

PubMed

The chick-a-dee call of chickadee species (genus Poecile) has been the focus of much research. A great deal is known about the structural complexity and the meaning of variation in notes making up calls in these species. However, little is known about the likely homologous "chick-a-dee" call of the closely related tufted titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor. Tufted titmice are a prime candidate for comparative analyses of the call, because their vocal and social systems share many characteristics with those of chickadees. To address the paucity of data on the structure of chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, we recorded birds in field and aviary settings. Four main note types were identified in the call: Z, A, D(h), and D notes. Several acoustic parameters of each note type were measured, and statistical analyses revealed that the note types are acoustically distinct from one another. Furthermore, note types vary in the extent of individual distinctiveness reflected in their acoustic parameters. This first step towards understanding the chick-a-dee call of tufted titmice indicates that the call is comparable in structure and complexity to the calls of chickadees. PMID:17672668

Owens, Jessica L; Freeberg, Todd M

2007-08-01

308

Corrosion behavior of squeeze-cast-aluminum metal-matrix composites. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion behavior of metal matrix composites (MMC) vary greatly with the reinforcement material type, processing conditions and methods of fabrication into engineering parts. The corrosion susceptibilities for the MMC arise from the segregations of the reinforcement material during fluid flow (extrusion) and/or processing, and from the resulting compositional differences in the alloy, the matrix material. These differences sets-up galvanic cells and cause preferential corrosion. The metal matrix composites studied were Al 6061/Al2O3 and Al 356/SiC. In particular, the effects of near-net-shape processing called squeeze casting (solidification of liquid under pressure) was investigated. The results showed that regions which were clustered with SiC or (Al203)Oi were microstructurally sensitive to preferential corrosion. Electrochemical-potentiodynamic polarization and controlled potential corrosion behavior measurements were made and related to microstructural segregation through metallographic optical microscopic analysis.

Agarwala, V.S.; Fabiszewski, A.S.

1991-12-01

309

Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

2011-11-01

310

Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality.  

PubMed

Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration). PMID:21928067

Guillette, Lauren M; Sturdy, Christopher B

2011-11-01

311

Lagrange constraint neural network for audio varying BSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) is a statistical-mechanical ab-initio model without assuming the artificial neural network (ANN) model at all but derived it from the first principle of Hamilton and Lagrange Methodology: H(S,A)= f(S)- (lambda) C(s,A(x,t)) that incorporates measurement constraint C(S,A(x,t))= (lambda) ([A]S-X)+((lambda) 0-1)((Sigma) isi -1) using the vector Lagrange multiplier-(lambda) and a- priori Shannon Entropy f(S) = -(Sigma) i si log si as the Contrast function of unknown number of independent sources si. Szu et al. have first solved in 1997 the general Blind Source Separation (BSS) problem for spatial-temporal varying mixing matrix for the real world remote sensing where a large pixel footprint implies the mixing matrix [A(x,t)] necessarily fill with diurnal and seasonal variations. Because the ground truth is difficult to be ascertained in the remote sensing, we have thus illustrated in this paper, each step of the LCNN algorithm for the simulated spatial-temporal varying BSS in speech, music audio mixing. We review and compare LCNN with other popular a-posteriori Maximum Entropy methodologies defined by ANN weight matrix-[W] sigmoid-(sigma) post processing H(Y=(sigma) ([W]X)) by Bell-Sejnowski, Amari and Oja (BSAO) called Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Both are mirror symmetric of the MaxEnt methodologies and work for a constant unknown mixing matrix [A], but the major difference is whether the ensemble average is taken at neighborhood pixel data X's in BASO or at the a priori sources S variables in LCNN that dictates which method works for spatial-temporal varying [A(x,t)] that would not allow the neighborhood pixel average. We expected the success of sharper de-mixing by the LCNN method in terms of a controlled ground truth experiment in the simulation of variant mixture of two music of similar Kurtosis (15 seconds composed of Saint-Saens Swan and Rachmaninov cello concerto).

Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.

2002-03-01

312

Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Networks of Varying Size  

E-print Network

Dynamic networks, also called network streams, are an important data representation that applies to many real-world domains. Many sets of network data such as e-mail networks, social networks, or internet traffic networks are best represented by a dynamic network due to the temporal component of the data. One important application in the domain of dynamic network analysis is anomaly detection. Here the task is to identify points in time where the network exhibits behavior radically different from a typical time, either due to some event (like the failure of machines in a computer network) or a shift in the network properties. This problem is made more difficult by the fluid nature of what is considered "normal" network behavior. The volume of traffic on a network, for example, can change over the course of a month or even vary based on the time of the day without being considered unusual. Anomaly detection tests using traditional network statistics have difficulty in these scenarios due to their Density Depen...

La Fond, Timothy; Gallagher, Brian

2014-01-01

313

Varied line-space gratings: past, present and future  

SciTech Connect

A classically ruled diffraction grating consists of grooves which are equidistant, straight and parallel. Conversely, the so-called ''holographic'' grating (formed by the interfering waves of coherent visible light), although severely constrained by the recording wavelength and recording geometry, has grooves which are typically neither equidistant, straight nor parallel. In contrast, a varied line-space (VLS) grating, in common nomenclature, is a design in which the groove positions are relatively unconstrained yet possess sufficient symmetry to permit mechanical ruling. Such seemingly exotic gratings are no longer only a theoretical curiosity, but have been ruled and used in a wide variety of applications. These include: (1) aberration-corrected normal incidence concave gratings for Seya-Namioka monochromators and optical de-multiplexers, (2) flat-field grazing incidence concave gratings for plasma diagnostics, (3) aberration-corrected grazing incidence plane gratings for space-borne spectrometers, (4) focusing grazing incidence plane grating for synchrotron radiation monochromators, and (5) wavefront generators for visible interferometry of optical surfaces (particularly aspheres). Future prospects of VLS gratings as dispersing elements, wavefront correctors and beamsplitters appear promising. The author discusses the history of VLS gratings, their present applications, and their potential in the future. 61 refs., 24 figs.

Hettrick, M.C.

1985-08-01

314

Stability of mass varying particle lumps  

SciTech Connect

The theoretical description of compact structures that share some features with mass varying particles allows for a simple analysis of the equilibrium and stability for massive stellar bodies. We investigate static, spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein equations for a system composed by nonbaryonic matter (neutrinos or dark matter) which forms stable structures through attractive forces mediated by a background scalar field (dark energy). Assuming that the dark matter, or massive neutrinos, consists of a gas of weakly interacting particles, the coupling with the scalar field is translated into an effective dependence of the mass of the compounding particle on the radial coordinate of the curved spacetime. The stability analysis reveals that these static solutions become dynamically unstable for different Buchdahl limits of the ratio between the total mass energy and the stellar radius, M/R. We also find regular solutions that for an external observer resemble Schwarzschild black holes. Our analysis leaves unanswered the question whether such solutions, which are both regular and stable, do exist.

Bernardini, A. E.; Bertolami, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Instituto Superior Tecnico, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal)

2009-12-15

315

Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.

Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven

2004-01-01

316

BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON SO-CALLED SYPHILIS ANTIGEN.  

PubMed

The liver tissues of man and certain animals (dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs, etc.) yield, upon alcoholic extraction, various substances which may be divided by their physical and chemical properties into several groups. While many substances are present in the alcoholic extract, the ones possessing antigenic properties are comparatively few. The latter are responsible for the antigenic properties exhibited by the whole alcoholic extract. The substances extracted with alcohol were fractionated into the following four groups. (a) Substances Insoluble in Ether and Hot Alcohol.-These are chiefly proteins and salts. The proteins are probably the minute particles of larger molecules held in apparent suspension in alcohol until all other substances are removed. The water extracted from the tissues and admixed with alcohol is also an essential factor in extracting these particles in an alcoholic solution. The salts present are the usual physiological constituents of the liver, notably, sodium chloride. The quantity of these substances extracted with alcohol varies greatly with different specimens. Biologically considered, they are neither markedly hemolytic nor anticomplementary and possess no antigenic property for the Wassermann reaction. It is important, however, to note that the proteins bind complement when mixed with certain active human sera. For this reason a preparation of antigen containing this group of substances is unsuitable for use in combination with an active serum, and should, therefore, be rejected. (b) Substances Insoluble in Ether and Soluble in Hot Alcohol.-This group contains soaps, cleavage products of proteins, and small amounts of the bile salts. Soaps and bile salts are very strongly hemolytic and are absolutely unfit for use as antigen. Moreover, their antigenic properties are very slight. It is best to eliminate this group of substances from the preparation of antigen. The quantity of the substances of this group extracted from different specimens of tissue is very variable. (c) Substances Soluble in Ether, Alcohol, and Aceton.-In this group are found varying amounts of fatty acids, both saturated and unsaturated, some neutral fats, cholesterin and many unidentified lipoidal bodies. This group causes either hemolysis or inhibition, of hemolysis. In other words, it is anticomplementary as well as hemolytic in the majority of preparations. At the same time, in some preparations it is, to a certain extent, antigenic. This great variation in the amounts of these substances in given extracts renders their presence in the antigen preparation undesirable. It is not denied, however, that, when added in adequate quantities, some of these substances may improve the activity of the antigenic lipoids. (d) Substances Insoluble in Aceton.-This group of substances consists of phosphatids. The best known among them is, of course, lecithin. Besides lecithin, however, there must be various other phosphatids present in this fraction. It will be noticed that the precipitate formed by mixing the ethereal solution with aceton contains a certain amount of lipoids insoluble in ether as well as in alcohol. Before the fractionation in aceton, all lipoids were soluble in ether or ethyl alcohol. Further analytical work on the nature of the phosphatids contained in this fraction is necessary. This fraction, in general, is more constant in amount in the various liver extracts. Biologically considered, it is the most important. It is usually non-hemolytic, frequently anticomplementary, but much more strongly antigenic than the other fractions. The antigenic strength varies with different preparations, being almost absent in the extracts derived from fatty livers. An aceton insoluble fraction may be strongly antigenic without any other auxiliary effects, or may be accompanied by an anticomplementary property. This fraction does not cause the so-called non-specific reaction with an active human serum. For these reasons it is recommended (as Noguchi has repeatedly done before) that the antigen should be selected from the aceton-insolubl

Noguchi, H; Bronfenbrenner, J

1911-01-01

317

Recursive adaptive algorithms for fast and rapidly time-varying systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, some new schemes are developed to improve the tracking performance for fast and rapidly time-varying systems. A generalized recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm called the trend RLS (T-RLS) algorithm is derived which takes into account the effect of local and global trend variations of system parameters. A bank of adaptive filters implemented with T-RLS algorithms are then used

Yuanjin Zheng; Zhiping Lin

2003-01-01

318

Input-output nominalization of linear systems with slow-varying uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a method to compensate slow varying disturbances and plant parameter drifts using a simple yet robust algorithm called input-output nominalization. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In case of known uncertainties, an analytical expression of pre-computed feed-forward compensation command is derived. In presence of unknown disturbances and parameter drifts, the control algorithm uses a

Alon Kuperman; Yoram Horen; Saad Tapuchi; Inna Katz; Alexander Abramovitz

2010-01-01

319

Ensemble Control of Finite-Dimensional Time-Varying Linear Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we investigate the problem of simultaneously steering an\\u000auncountable family of finite dimensional time-varying linear systems. We call\\u000athis class of control problems Ensemble Control, a notion coming from the study\\u000aof spin dynamics in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging\\u000a(MRI). This subject involves controlling a continuum of parameterized dynamical\\u000asystems with the same open-loop

Jr-Shin Li

2011-01-01

320

Detailed comparison of two popular variant calling packages for exome and targeted exon studies  

PubMed Central

The Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK) is commonly used for variant calling of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions and deletions (indels) from short-read sequencing data aligned against a reference genome. There have been a number of variant calling comparisons against GATK, but an equally comprehensive comparison for VarScan not yet been performed. More specifically, we compare (1) the effects of different pre-processing steps prior to variant calling with both GATK and VarScan, (2) VarScan variants called with increasingly conservative parameters, and (3) filtered and unfiltered GATK variant calls (for both the UnifiedGenotyper and the HaplotypeCaller). Variant calling was performed on three datasets (1 targeted exon dataset and 2 exome datasets), each with approximately a dozen subjects. In most cases, pre-processing steps (e.g., indel realignment and quality score base recalibration using GATK) had only a modest impact on the variant calls, but the importance of the pre-processing steps varied between datasets and variant callers. Based upon concordance statistics presented in this study, we recommend GATK users focus on “high-quality” GATK variants by filtering out variants flagged as low-quality. We also found that running VarScan with a conservative set of parameters (referred to as “VarScan-Cons”) resulted in a reproducible list of variants, with high concordance (>97%) to high-quality variants called by the GATK UnifiedGenotyper and HaplotypeCaller. These conservative parameters result in decreased sensitivity, but the VarScan-Cons variant list could still recover 84–88% of the high-quality GATK SNPs in the exome datasets. This study also provides limited evidence that VarScan-Cons has a decreased false positive rate among novel variants (relative to high-quality GATK SNPs) and that the GATK HaplotypeCaller has an increased false positive rate for indels (relative to VarScan-Cons and high-quality GATK UnifiedGenotyper indels). More broadly, we believe the metrics used for comparison in this study can be useful in assessing the quality of variant calls in the context of a specific experimental design. As an example, a limited number of variant calling comparisons are also performed on two additional variant callers. PMID:25289185

Adamson, Aaron W.; Neuhausen, Susan L.

2014-01-01

321

Call-based species recognition in black-capped chickadees.  

PubMed

Species recognition is essential for efficient communication between conspecifics. For this to occur, species information must be unambiguously encoded in the repertoire of each species' vocalizations. Until now, the study of species recognition in songbirds has been focused mainly on male songs and male territorial behaviour. Species recognition of other learned vocalizations, such as calls, have not been explored, and could prove useful as calls are used in a wider range of contexts. Here, we present an experimental field study investigating the coding of species information in a learned vocalization, the 'chick-a-dee' call of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). By modifying natural calls in both temporal and spectral domains and by observing the vocal responses of black-capped chickadees following the playback of these modified calls, we demonstrate that species recognition in chickadees relies on several acoustic features including syntax, frequency modulation, amplitude modulation, and to a lesser extent, call rhythmicity and frequency range. PMID:16139440

Charrier, Isabelle; Sturdy, Christopher B

2005-11-01

322

Social calls coordinate foraging in greater spear-nosed bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of social calls emitted by foraging bats has received little study. Here we use observations of free-ranging greater spear-nosed bats,Phyllostomus hastatus, and field playbacks to determine whether audible, broad-band ‘screech’ calls attract mates, warn conspecifics or influence access to food. Five lines of evidence suggest that screech calls enable adult females from the same roosting group to fly

GERALD S. WILKINSON; JANETTE WENRICK BOUGHMAN

1998-01-01

323

Interindividual use of echolocation calls: Eavesdropping by bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of other individual's echolocation calls by little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, was tested by observing the response of free-flying bats to presentations of recorded echolocation calls and artificial sounds. Bats responded by approaching conspecific calls while searching for food, night roosts, nursery colonies and mating\\/hibernation sites. Response was low or non-existant to other sounds. While searching for prey,

Robert M. R. Barclay

1982-01-01

324

Discovery of Social Groups Using Call Detail Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose the affinity model for classifying social groups based on mobile phone call detail records. We use\\u000a affinity to measure the similarity between probability distributions. Since phone calls are stochastic process, it makes more\\u000a sense to use probability affinity to classify the social groups. This work is useful for enhancing homeland security, detecting\\u000a unwanted calls (e.g.,

Huiqi Zhang; Ram Dantu

2008-01-01

325

Why do Gunnison's prairie dogs give anti-predator calls?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a colony of Gunnison's prairie dogs, Sciuridae:Cynomys gunnisoni, containing marked individuals of known genetic relationships, anti-predator calling was investigated in response to moving, stuffed specimens of a natural predator, the American badger,Taxidea taxus. Females with kin in the home territory called more often than females without nearby kin, and females with nearby offspring were especially likely to call. Male

JOHN L. HOOGLAND

1996-01-01

326

A fast volume rendering algorithm for time-varying fields using a time-space partitioning (TSP) tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fast volume rendering algorithm for time-varying fields. We propose a new data structure, called Time-Space Partitioning (TSP) tree, that can effectively capture both the spatial and the temporal coherence from a time-varying field. Using the proposed data structure, the rendering speed is substantially improved. In addition, our data structure helps to maintain the memory access locality

Han-Wei Shen; Ling-Jen Chiang; Kwan-Liu Ma

1999-01-01

327

Thermal diffusivity measurements on composite porosity samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phase lag technique is used to make quantitative measurements of diffusivity in composite porosity samples. Changes in through-ply diffusivity in a graphite composite due to varying porosity levels are examined. The relationship between the amount of porosity and the change in diffusivity is analyzed using an electrical analog for modeling heat flow in the composite.

Zalameda, Joseph N.; Winfree, William P.

1990-01-01

328

Red-winged blackbird females fail to increase feeding in response to begging call playbacks.  

PubMed

The begging behaviour of nestling birds appears to be the main signal telling parents how much food is needed by the brood. Not only may the accuracy of that information be reduced through exaggeration due to competition, but it may also vary with the age of the nestling. Younger nestlings may vary more in how frequently they call than older nestlings because they cannot discriminate stimuli as well. Thus, even if 'honest', begging from younger nestlings could be a less reliable hunger signal than that from older nestlings. We tested the prediction that parents should respond less to the increased frequency of begging from very young versus older nestlings by playing back begging calls at the nests of both younger (/=6 days) red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. In neither case did parents respond with consistent increases in feeding, nor did young gain more weight during playbacks. This lack of response is discussed in relation to two other recent studies of blackbirds that did demonstrate increased feeding with playbacks of begging calls. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9784204

Clark; Lee

1998-09-01

329

Variable Food Begging Calls Are Harbingers of Vocal Learning  

PubMed Central

Vocal learning has evolved in only a few groups of mammals and birds. The developmental and evolutionary origins of vocal learning remain unclear. The imitation of a memorized sound is a clear example of vocal learning, but is that when vocal learning starts? Here we use an ontogenetic approach to examine how vocal learning emerges in a songbird, the chipping sparrow. The first vocalizations of songbirds, food begging calls, were thought to be innate, and vocal learning emerges later during subsong, a behavior reminiscent of infant babbling. Here we report that the food begging calls of male sparrows show several characteristics associated with learned song: male begging calls are highly variable between individuals and are altered by deafening; the production of food begging calls induces c-fos expression in a forebrain motor nucleus, RA, that is involved with the production of learned song. Electrolytic lesions of RA significantly reduce the variability of male calls. The male begging calls are subsequently incorporated into subsong, which in turn transitions into recognizable attempts at vocal imitation. Females do not sing and their begging calls are not affected by deafening or RA lesion. Our results suggest that, in chipping sparrows, intact hearing can influence the quality of male begging calls, auditory-sensitive vocal variability during food begging calls is the first step in a modification of vocal output that eventually culminates with vocal imitation. PMID:19529766

Liu, Wan-chun; Wada, Kazuhiro; Nottebohm, Fernando

2009-01-01

330

Designing structural sandwich composites  

SciTech Connect

Composite sandwich structures have been used in aircraft for many years. Most are based on honeycomb cores with relatively high modulus composite skin materials. Today, with increasing use of composites in many other markets, designing structural sandwich composites has become very important. Most of these applications use relatively low modulus composite skins and a low density core other than honeycomb. The mechanics and the failure mode of these sandwich structures differ significantly from honeycomb core structures. Designers of structural sandwich composites must take into account not only the safety of a structural part, defined as strength design, but the functionality of the part as well. Doing so requires rigidity design, in which both strength and deflection requirements must be met. The process of optimizing dimensions is initially based on rigidity requirements. Once these are met, strength verification can be carried out. In addition to design strength and rigidity, the designer must also select structural core material which meets the temperature, pressure, and processing conditions of molding composite sandwich skins, a core material which results in good skin-to-core bonding, and one which provides good economics. ISORCA has been conducting research and development on a new concept of structural syntactic phenolic foam, called Alba-Core{trademark}. It excels in shear modulus, compression strength, temperature stability, skin resin absorption, skin bonding, smoke, flame, toxicity, and moisture absorption. It is moldable to any shape, can be made with domestic raw materials, and has very attractive economics.

Meteer, C.L. [ISORCA, Inc., Granville, OH (United States)

1996-11-01

331

Dysprosium doped Tl-1212 superconductors with varying Pb content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dy-doped Tl-1212 superconductors with varying Tl stoichiometry (TlxPb1-x)(Ba0.05Sr0.95)2(Ca0.8Dy0.2)Cu2Oz (x=0.2,0.4,0.5,0.6,0.8,1.0) were fabricated by a two-step procedure. Tl-free precursors were prepared by a wet chemical malic acid gel method, followed by thallination at temperatures between 880 and 920 °C. X-ray diffraction was employed to determine the phase-purity of the samples. The best critical temperatures were obtained for samples with x: 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. Tc(0) values up to 100 K could be obtained for samples with the composition (Tl0.4Pb0.6)(Ba0.05Sr0.95)2(Ca0.8Dy0.2)Cu2Oz sintered at 915 °C. Lower Tl stoichiometry resulted in secondary phases, higher Tl stoichiometry led to a decrease in the superconducting properties.

Sudra, H.; Gritzner, G.; Puchinger, H.; Kave?ansky, V.

2006-09-01

332

Modeling of cryogen leakage through composite laminates  

E-print Network

with anisotropy of the composite and mismatch in the thermal and mechanical properties of ?bers and matrix lead to transverse matrix cracks (TMC) in each ply. TMC in adjacent plies intersect in localized regions at ply interfaces called crack junctions...

Peddiraju, Naga Venkata Satya Pravin Kumar

2005-02-17

333

Call for Essays: HiiL Young Talent Essay competition  

E-print Network

Call for Essays: HiiL Young Talent Essay competition For the most original and thought provokingL Young Talent Essay Competition 2 Call for Essays 1. Introduction Within the broader framework of the Hii.hiil.org) invites young scholars and graduate students to enter into the "HiiL Young Talent Essay Competition

Galis, Frietson

334

Best practices for world-class call centers.  

PubMed

Quality, not quantity, counts more in performance measures for best-practice call centers. Spend money on effective upfront training to save later through increased employee and customer loyalty. Give structured feedback and strong internal support to call-center representatives. PMID:10187413

1998-11-01

335

Characteristics of Calls to Israeli Hotlines During the Gulf War  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study presents results of a survey of 3,215 calls received at seven centers of telephone emergency services (TES) in Israel during the Gulf War, when citizens of Israel experienced severe stress resulting from SCUD missile attacks. Whereas former surveys have shown that characteristics of calls to TES in Israel are generally not affected by external stressogenic events, a

Izhak Gilat; Thalma E. Lobel; Tsvie Gil

1998-01-01

336

Giving Up Name-Calling for a Week, or Forever  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Name-calling is a pervasive practice, particularly in middle schools. According to students, parents, teachers, counselors, and other school staff who see its effects, it doesn't just go away. Instead, rampant name-calling can create a climate where children become disheartened, lose self-confidence, and dread coming to school. Efforts to…

Watchler, Carol

2005-01-01

337

Jamaican Call-In Radio: A Uses and Gratification Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that radio call-in programs seem to contain the elements for active audience involvement and participation, a study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that information gain and surveillance are the primary gratifications sought through call-in radio programs, especially in a culture that has a strong oral tradition and relatively few…

Surlin, Stuart H.

338

CALL: Using What We Know to Avoid Reinventing the Wheel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much has been written about Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) both from the point of view of its history and its definition. While it is not the aim of this paper to revisit such issues in detail, it opens with an overview of some of the major issues around definitions of CALL and the related terms that have emerged over the years to…

Shield, Lesley

2009-01-01

339

Why We All Need Call Waiting on Our Phones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Have you ever noticed that you can go all day without a single call on your phone and then suddenly you get two calls at once? This is actually not as uncommon as it sounds and there is a mathematical reason for why we should expect it to happen, believe it or not.

Higbie, Jack

2013-05-01

340

Why We All Need Call Waiting on Our Phones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Have you ever noticed that you can go all day without a single call on your phone and then suddenly you get two calls at once? This is actually not as uncommon as it sounds and there is a mathematical reason for why we should expect it to happen, believe it or not.

Higbie, Jack

2013-01-01

341

The ambient Loo: caught short when nature calls?  

Microsoft Academic Search

On numerous occasions, trips to the facilities coincide with an important mobile phone call. Due to the sleek and polished nature of modern phones, attempting to promptly deal with such calls can occasionally lead to the phone sliding through the owner's hands, surrendering to the force of gravity and flying down the hole. This is a disaster, and often an

Hamed Haddadi; Tristan Henderson; Jon Crowcroft

2010-01-01

342

How can I help you? User instructions in telephone calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We a small corpus of instructions given in phone calls to customers who need support for programming their universal remote control, to make it suitable for their particular TV set VCR, Audio, etc. Typically, in these calls the operator or 'agent' coaches the client while the client is performing actions with the equipment (turning it on, pressing buttons and codes,

Michael Steehouder; Daniel Hartman

2003-01-01

343

Design development and implementation of wireless nurse call station  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a nurse call system is designed and developed which provides continuous monitoring of patient's status. The system helps in assisting patients who are bedridden and have no other means of communication with medical staffs in the absence of their caretakers. The conventional nurse call systems employ push button switches mounted near hospital beds that facilitate patients to

S. Aswin; N. Gopalakrishnan; S. Jeyender; R. Gnana Prasanna; S. Pravin Kumar

2011-01-01

344

Calls to Teen Line: Representative Concerns of Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examines whether the concerns of teenagers calling a peer listening service are representative of the concerns of teenagers in the area served. Results indicate that students' biggest concerns involve family problems, peer relationships, self-esteem, and school problems. Concludes that calls to the teen line are representative. (Author/GCP)

Boehm, Kathryn E.; Schondel, Connie K.; Ivoska, William J.; Marlowe, Alison L.; Manke-Mitchell, Laurie

1998-01-01

345

Evaluating a CALL Software on the Learning of English Prepositions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the effectiveness of using a CALL lesson (Computer Assisted Language Learning) over a conventional lesson to facilitate learning of English prepositions at Bario, Malaysia. CALL was developed by the Ministry of Education, Malaysia as support material to enhance learning of English prepositions. Both the conventional and the…

Ngu, Bing Hiong; Rethinasamy, Soubakeavathi

2006-01-01

346

Detecting Insider Threats by Monitoring System Call Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

One approach to detecting insider misbehavior is to monitor system call activity and watch for danger signs or unusual behavior. We describe an experimental system designed to test this approach. We tested the system's ability to detect common insider misbehavior by examining file system and process-related system calls. Our results show that this approach can detect many such activities. *

Nam T. Nguyen; Peter L. Reiher; Geoffrey H. Kuenning

2003-01-01

347

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eaves- dropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black- capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of

C. N. Templeton; Erick Greene

2007-01-01

348

Verification of Concurrent Objects with Asynchronous Method Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current object-oriented approaches to distributed pro- grams may be criticized in several respects. First, method calls are generally synchronous, which leads to much wait- ing in distributed and unstable networks. Second, the com- mon model of thread concurrency makes reasoning about program behavior very challenging. A model based on con- current objects communicating by means of asynchronous method calls has

Johan Dovland; Einar Broch Johnsen; Olaf Owe

2005-01-01

349

Results from Organizational Development Interventions in a Technology Call Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Call center staff answered calls in 4 treatments: alignment job design (n=35), autonomous work teams (n=35), high-involvement work processes (n=43), and controls (n=36). Job satisfaction improved in alignment job design and high-involvement treatments, most significantly in the latter. Skill level and attitude toward autonomous work might have…

Workman, Michael

2003-01-01

350

Structure of Calling and Vocation across Gender and Age Cohort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) is a measure based on Dik and Duffy's (2009) theoretical conceptualization of calling, which includes three dimensions: (1) a transcendent summons, (2) deriving or expressing meaning or purpose through work, and (3) a prosocial orientation in work. Additionally, this definition posits two overarching…

Eldridge, Brandy M.

2010-01-01

351

Profiling Skype Video Calls: Rate Control and Video Quality  

E-print Network

Profiling Skype Video Calls: Rate Control and Video Quality Xinggong Zhang, Yang Xu, Hao Hu, Yong 100871 Electrical & Computer Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of NYU, Brooklyn, NY 1120 Abstract--Video few studies on the network impacts of video calls and the user Quality-of-Experience (QoE) under

Liu, Yong

352

Faculty Sense of Religious Calling at a Christian University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sense of calling is often described with language steeped in religious tradition. It is variously described as a spiritual process or endeavor or as a summons by God to fulfill a specific purpose or task in life. This ethnographic case study examines how 18 senior faculty members of differing faith traditions expressed a religious sense of calling

Swezey, James A.

2009-01-01

353

The British Call Option G. Peskir & F. Samee  

E-print Network

The British Call Option G. Peskir & F. Samee Quant. Finance Vol. 13, No. 1, 2013, (95--109) Research Report No. 2, 2008, Probab. Statist. Group Manchester (25 pp) Alongside the British put option [11 feature which is key to the British call option. Should the option holder believe the true drift

Heil, Matthias

354

The British Call Option G. Peskir & F. Samee  

E-print Network

The British Call Option G. Peskir & F. Samee Quant. Finance Vol. 13, No. 1, 2013, (95­109) Research Report No. 2, 2008, Probab. Statist. Group Manchester (25 pp) Alongside the British put option [11] we feature which is key to the British call option. Should the option holder believe the true drift

Heil, Matthias

355

The Multidimensionality of Calling: Conceptualization, Measurement and a Bicultural Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experience of a calling may be seen as the ultimate form of subjective career success that has many positive consequences for individuals and organizations. We are here concerned with the conceptualization of a new multidimensional measure of calling, the MCM. In the first two studies we employed a qualitative approach and came up with five…

Hagmaier, Tamara; Abele, Andrea E.

2012-01-01

356

Call Center Stress Recognition with Person-Specific Models  

E-print Network

and reported stress levels of each call. Although everyone had the same job profile, we found large differencesCall Center Stress Recognition with Person-Specific Models Javier Hernandez, Rob R. Morris in how individuals reported stress levels, with similarity from day to day within the same participant

357

Detecting Facial Expression by Concentration on Cellular Phone Call  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because something to think about and conversation with someone disturb the attention to the car driving, decentralization of attention by the cellular phone call tends to decrease safety in driving. This paper presents an experimental result of the relation between the attention concentration on the cellular phone call and the change in the facial expression such as eye movements and

Kenichi Takahashi; Osami Yamamoto; Tomoaki Nakano; Shin Yamamoto

2005-01-01

358

Theory-Driven CALL and the Development Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflects upon the nature of theory-driven computer assisted second language learning (CALL), particularly as it relates to the courseware development process. The study examines the implications for theory-driven CALL as well as the concept of "fit" between the theoretical framework or pedagogy and the computer's capabilities. The study addresses…

Levy, Mike

1997-01-01

359

The After-Death Call to Family Members: Academic Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…

LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James

2008-01-01

360

EcoLOGYANDPOPUlA11ONBIOLOGY Ecology of U rban Arthropods: A Review and a Call to Action  

E-print Network

EcoLOGYANDPOPUlA11ONBIOLOGY Ecology of U rban Arthropods: A Review and a Call to Action NANCY E. Mc few general studies on arthropods in urban environments, excluding those in the context of pest on the effects of urban pollution and changes in arthropod community composition over time (particularly in urban

McIntyre, Nancy E.

361

Frequency synchronization of blue whale calls near Pioneer Seamount.  

PubMed

Vocalizations of blue whales were recorded with a cabled hydrophone array at Pioneer Seamount, 50 miles off the California coast. Most calls occurred in repeated sequences of two-call pairs (A, then B). The B call is a frequency-modulated tone highly repeatable in form and pitch. A model of this sound is described which permits detecting very small frequency shifts. B calls are found to be aligned in frequency to about one part in 180. This requires very fine pitch discrimination and control over calling frequency, and suggests that synchronizing to a common frequency pattern carries some adaptive advantage. Some possibilities for acoustic sensing by whales requiring this fine frequency resolution are discussed. PMID:20649243

Hoffman, Michael D; Garfield, Newell; Bland, Roger W

2010-07-01

362

Win32API InterceptorWin32API Interceptor Monitoring Windows API callsMonitoring Windows API calls  

E-print Network

Win32API InterceptorWin32API Interceptor Monitoring Windows API callsMonitoring Windows API calls using the Detours technology, that was developed by Microsoft researchers. #12;Win32API InterceptorWin32API Interceptor ­­ ArchitectureArchitecture Win32API Interceptor (MS Access Data Base) Dll

Segall, Adrian

363

Meta Learning, Change of Internal Workings, and LIDA Ryan McCall RMcCall@Memphis.Edu  

E-print Network

Meta Learning, Change of Internal Workings, and LIDA Ryan McCall RMcCall@Memphis.Edu Fedex comment on issues of concern in the target article including meta learning and change of internal workings. We also address several misinterpretations of the LIDA model. Keywords: meta learning, autonomy, self

Memphis, University of

364

St. Lawrence blue whale vocalizations revisited: characterization of calls detected from 1998 to 2001.  

PubMed

From 1998 to 2001, 115 h of acoustic recordings were made in the presence of the well-studied St. Lawrence population of blue whales, using a calibrated omnidirectional hydrophone [flat (+/- 3 dB) response from 5 to 800 Hz] suspended at 50 m depth from a surface isolation buoy. The primary field site for this study was the estuary region of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada), with most recordings made between mid-August and late October. During the recordings, detailed field notes were taken on all cetaceans within sight. Characterization of the more than 1000 blue whale calls detected during this study revealed that the St. Lawrence repertoire is much more extensive than previously reported. Three infrasonic (<20 Hz) and three audible range (30-200 Hz) call types were detected, with much time/frequency variation seen within each type. Further variation is seen in the form of call segmentation, which appears (through examination of Lloyd's Mirror interference effects) to be controlled at least partially by the whales. Although St. Lawrence blue whale call characteristics are similar to those of the North Atlantic, comparisons of phrase composition and spacing among studies suggest the possibility of population dialects within the North Atlantic. PMID:17069329

Berchok, Catherine L; Bradley, David L; Gabrielson, Thomas B

2006-10-01

365

Spectrographic Analysis of Carrion Crow Calls and Their Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, damage to agricultural products, livestock, and power transmission systems by crows is regarded as a serious problem; countermeasures against crow damage are urgently necessary. This paper proposed a method for detecting crow calls in various environmental sounds. If detection and discernment of crow calls were possible, various actions could be undertaken to prevent the damage. Wildlife call detection, not only that for crows, should be executed in extremely noisy environments. We then introduced both a spectrograph estimation technique with AR modeling in which AR coefficients are temporally smoothed and interpolated and a background noise elimination technique to obtain higher-quality crow call templates. The input sounds are compared with these templates by DP matching in the metric vector space of a logarithmic cepstrum. Every input sound whose minimal distance to the template database is less than the specified threshold value is detected as a crow call. The maximal detection performance can be obtained when five call templates in the template database are utilized; the implication is that carrion crows have five distinguishable call patterns. It is shown that the proposed method achieves 95% detection rate when 1.66% misdetection rate is allowed.

Shibuya, Hisashi; Yokota, Yasunari

366

Influence of socioeconomic factors on medically unnecessary ambulance calls  

PubMed Central

Background Unnecessary ambulance use has become a socioeconomic problem in Japan. We investigated the possible relations between socioeconomic factors and medically unnecessary ambulance calls, and we estimated the incremental demand for unnecessary ambulance use produced by socioeconomic factors. Methods We conducted a self-administered questionnaire-based survey targeting residents of Yokohama, Japan. The questionnaire included questions pertaining to socioeconomic characteristics, dichotomous choice method questions pertaining to ambulance calls in hypothetical nonemergency situations, and questions on the city's emergency medical system. The probit model was used to analyze the data. Results A total of 2,029 out of 3,363 targeted recipients completed the questionnaire (response rate, 60.3%). Probit regression analyses showed that several demographic and socioeconomic factors influence the decision to call an ambulance. Male respondents were more apt than female respondents to state that they would call an ambulance in nonemergency situations (p < 0.05). Age was an important factor influencing the hypothetical decision to call an ambulance (p < 0.05); elderly persons were more apt than younger persons to state that they would call an ambulance. Possession of a car and hesitation to use an ambulance negatively influenced the hypothetical decision to call an ambulance (p < 0.05). Persons who do not have a car were more likely than those with a car to state that they would call an ambulance in unnecessary situations. Conclusion Results of the study suggest that several socioeconomic factors, i.e., age, gender, household income, and possession of a car, influence a person's decision to call an ambulance in nonemergency situations. Hesitation to use an ambulance and knowledge of the city's primary emergency medical center are likely to be important factors limiting ambulance overuse. It was estimated that unnecessary ambulance use is increased approximately 10% to 20% by socioeconomic factors. PMID:17655772

Kawakami, Chihiro; Ohshige, Kenji; Kubota, Katsuaki; Tochikubo, Osamu

2007-01-01

367

Female preferences for spectral call properties in the western genetic lineage of Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis)  

PubMed Central

Female frogs discriminate among potential mates based on individual variation in male advertisement calls. While considerable data have accumulated allowing comparisons of female preference functions among species, we still lack fundamental knowledge about how and why the shapes of preference functions for particular call properties vary among populations within all but a few species. Here, we report results from a study aimed at describing female preference functions for spectral call properties in Cope’s gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis). Widespread throughout the eastern half of North America, Cope’s gray treefrog is the diploid member of the cryptic diploid-tetraploid Hyla versicolor species complex, and its populations are divided into two distinct genetic lineages (eastern and western). In this study of a western lineage population, we recorded and analyzed the spectral properties of 1000 advertisement calls from 50 males and conducted two-choice phonotaxis experiments to estimate a population-level preference function. Females preferred calls with average frequencies over calls with frequencies that were 2 or 3 semitones (1.4 or 2.1 standard deviations, respectively) lower than the population mean. We observed no behavioral discrimination between calls with average and higher-than-average frequencies. Preferences discriminating against low-frequency calls were weak and were abolished by attenuating the preferred average call by 3 dB. We discuss these results in light of previous studies of eastern lineage populations, geographic variation in female preference functions, and the potential adaptive value of discriminating against calls with low frequencies. PMID:24496093

Schrode, Katrina M.; Ward, Jessica L.; Velez, Alejandro

2012-01-01

368

PI CONTROLLERS PERFORMANCES FOR A PROCESS MODEL WITH VARYING DELAY  

E-print Network

.petit@ensmp.fr Keywords: Process Control; Delay systems; Varying delay; PI controllers; Smith Predictor. Abstract Varying with all others, including Smith predictors, when the delay variation is not known. 1 Introduction In spite

369

Do social networks of female northern long-eared bats vary with reproductive period and age?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social structure, which is a function of the patterns of interactions among individuals, is particularly variable in fission–fusion\\u000a societies. The underlying factors that drive this variation are poorly understood. Female northern long-eared bats (Myotis septentrionalis) live in fission–fusion societies where females form preferred associations within groups that vary daily in size and composition\\u000a as individuals switch roosts. The goal of

Krista J. Patriquin; Marty L. Leonard; Hugh G. Broders; Colin J. Garroway

2010-01-01

370

Deformations of thick two-material cylinder under axially varying radial pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stresses and deformations in thick, short, composite cylinder subjected to axially varying radial pressure are studied. Effect of slippage at the interface is examined. In the NASTRAN finite element model, multipoint constraint feature is utilized. Results are compared with theoretical analysis and SAP-IV computer code. Results from NASTRAN computer code are in good agreement with the analytical solutions. Results suggest a considerable influence of interfacial slippage on the axial bending stresses in the cylinder.

Patel, Y. A.

1976-01-01

371

Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism  

SciTech Connect

The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results.

G. Rewoldt

2003-09-08

372

43 CFR 3921.60 - Call for applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE LEASING Pre-Sale Activities § 3921.60 Call for applications. If, as a result of the analysis of...

2011-10-01

373

16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNINGSTRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNING-STRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP HOUSE Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

374

31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial or recalculated PRLPs,...

2012-07-01

375

31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial or recalculated PRLPs,...

2010-07-01

376

31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial or recalculated PRLPs,...

2013-07-01

377

76 FR 17933 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...prioritization efforts; this list is called the Critical Infrastructure List. The Critical Infrastructure List includes assets and systems that...with DHS and its Federal partners in CIKR protection. DHS, state, and territorial...

2011-03-31

378

75 FR 31458 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...prioritization efforts; this list is called the Critical Infrastructure List. The Critical Infrastructure List includes assets and systems that...with DHS and its Federal partners in CIKR protection. DHS, State and territorial...

2010-06-03

379

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls.  

PubMed

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific "chick-a-dee" alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N; Greene, Erick

2007-03-27

380

Front elevation of highlift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Front elevation of high-lift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called U.S. Route 29 or Columbia Pike) is in foreground. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

381

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

2007-01-01

382

76 FR 67747 - Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee; Call for Nominations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institutes of Health Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee; Call for Nominations...with Public Law 112-32, The Combating Autism Reauthorization Act the Department of...to continue to support the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC)...

2011-11-02

383

5. VIEW OF MISSILE ASSEMBLY CALLED 'FIRE HOUSE,' LOOKING NORTH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF MISSILE ASSEMBLY CALLED 'FIRE HOUSE,' LOOKING NORTH, LOCATED NEAR GATE AT ENTRANCE TO LAUNCH AREA Marilyn Ziemer, photographer, April 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

384

47 CFR 10.510 - Call preemption prohibition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Equipment Requirements § 10.510 Call preemption...Devices marketed for public use under part 10 must not enable an Alert Message to preempt an active voice or data...

2011-10-01

385

47 CFR 10.510 - Call preemption prohibition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Equipment Requirements § 10.510 Call preemption...Devices marketed for public use under part 10 must not enable an Alert Message to preempt an active voice or data...

2010-10-01

386

47 CFR 10.510 - Call preemption prohibition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Equipment Requirements § 10.510 Call preemption...Devices marketed for public use under part 10 must not enable an Alert Message to preempt an active voice or data...

2012-10-01

387

47 CFR 10.510 - Call preemption prohibition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Equipment Requirements § 10.510 Call preemption prohibition...Devices marketed for public use under part 10 must not enable an Alert Message to preempt an active voice or data...

2013-10-01

388

47 CFR 80.459 - Digital selective calling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Public Coast Stations Use of Telegraphy § 80.459 Digital selective calling. Subpart H of this part lists frequencies assignable for...

2010-10-01

389

47 CFR 80.459 - Digital selective calling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Public Coast Stations Use of Telegraphy § 80.459 Digital selective calling. Subpart H of this part lists frequencies assignable for...

2011-10-01

390

47 CFR 80.459 - Digital selective calling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Public Coast Stations Use of Telegraphy § 80.459 Digital selective calling. Subpart H of this part lists frequencies assignable for...

2012-10-01

391

47 CFR 80.459 - Digital selective calling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Public Coast Stations Use of Telegraphy § 80.459 Digital selective calling. Subpart H of this part lists frequencies assignable for...

2013-10-01

392

A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.

Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.

1971-01-01

393

78 FR 19290 - Call for Nominations for Advisory Committees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Land Management [LLWO620000.L18200000.XH0000] Call for Nominations for Advisory Committees AGENCY: Bureau of...accompany all nominations for the RACs and SMAC: --Letters of reference from represented interests or organizations; --A...

2013-03-29

394

[Calling and mating behaviors of bamboo shoot borer Kumasia kumaso].  

PubMed

The calling and mating behaviors of Kumasia kumaso were studied in laboratory at (25 1) degrees C and (60 +/- 10) % RH under a cycle 14 L:10 D photo period, and the EAG response of male K. kumaso to female K. kumaso sex gland extracts was also tested. The calling and mating behaviors of K. kumaso could only be observed in scotophase. The females began calling at the first scotophase following emergence, and the peak of calling occurred during the second scotophase and decreased thereafter. The calling of the females commenced 0-4 h after dark, reached the maximum between the 5th and the 7th hour of the scotophase, and terminated during the last 1-2.5 h of the scotophase. Moth age had significant effects on the calling patterns. With increasing moth age, the onset time of calling advanced gradually, and the mean number of calling bouts as well as the calling length per bout had a gradual increase from calling day 1 to day 4 but decreased on day 5. The peak time and terminated time of calling advanced with increasing moth age. The mating of K. kumaso adults initiated during the first scotophase and terminated till the 5th scotophase following emergence, and the peak of mating was observed during the second scotophase. The peak of mating was observed 5.5-7.0 h after dark, and advanced with increasing moth age. Moth age affected the mean onset time of mating and the copulation duration significantly. With increasing moth age, the mean onset time of mating advanced, and the copulation duration decreased. Sex ratio had significant effects on the mating behavior as well. Treatment 2 female:1 male showed a significantly higher mating percentage, but an earlier onset time of mating and shorter copulation duration, as compared with treatment 1 female:1 male. The results of EAG test indicated that the male adults showed a significant EAG response to the sex gland extracts of 2-day-old virgin females. PMID:23479886

Shu, Jin-Ping; Teng, Ying; Zhang, Ai-Liang; Zhang, Ya-Bo; Deng, Shun; Wang, Hao-Jie

2012-12-01

395

All “chick-a-dee” calls are not created equally  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers trained 24 black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and 12 mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in an operant conditioning task to determine if they use open-ended categorization to classify “chick-a-dee” calls, and whether black-capped chickadees that had experience with mountain chick-a-dee calls (sympatric group) would perform this task differently than inexperienced black-capped chickadees (allopatric group). All experimental birds learned to discriminate between species’

Laurie L. Bloomfield; Christopher B. Sturdy

2008-01-01

396

All “chick-a-dee” calls are not created equally  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘chick-a-dee’ call, common to all members of the genus Poecile, is used by both sexes throughout the year to putatively co-ordinate flock movements and register alarm. In some regions, two or more chickadee species occupy overlapping territories, and therefore it is essential that these sympatric species learn to discriminate between the acoustically similar calls of the species. Previous work

L. L. Bloomfield; T. M. Farrell; C. B. Sturdy

2008-01-01

397

A Call to Action: Reconnecting College Sports and Higher Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On June 26, the Knight Foundation's Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics issued a report that calls for a number of sweeping reforms in collegiate athletics. Among other things, the report calls on college presidents to form a new coalition to reassert control of college sport and recommends banning corporate logos on school uniforms, barring teams that do not graduate at least 50 percent of their players from conference championships and postseason play, and banning legal gambling on collegiate athletics.

2001-01-01

398

Individual differences and within-flock convergence in chickadee calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed sound analysis of the Chick-adee call of the black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus) was performed in order to determine a basis for individual recognition and for imitation within winter flocks. During the winter of 1978–1979 members of five free-living black-capped chickadee flocks were uniquely marked for individual identification, and their calls were recorded in the field. Nested analysis of

Dorothy L. Mammen; Stephen Nowicki

1981-01-01

399

Communication patterns for the most serious poison center calls.  

PubMed

CONTEXT.?The communication demands faced by specialists in poison information (SPI) are unique in the health-care context. OBJECTIVES.?(1) To describe SPI communication patterns for the highest risk poison exposure calls using cluster analysis, and (2) to describe variation in communication patterns or clusters. METHODS.?A sample of 1 year of poison exposure calls to a regional poison control center with SPIs' perceived severity rating of major or moderate perceived was collected. Digital voice recordings were linked with medical records and were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Descriptive analyses were applied, and cluster-analytic techniques were used to assess variation in call communication and factors associated with that variation. RESULTS.?Cases were described, and four communication styles were identified. The informational cluster represents calls with relatively high levels of SPI clinical information and caller questions. The Facilitative cluster represents calls with a pattern of relatively high SPI questions and caller information provision. The Planning cluster represents calls with relatively high levels of SPI relationship talk. The Emotional cluster represents calls with relatively high caller and SPI emotion. Further analyses revealed relationships between call characteristics, SPI identity, and cluster membership. CONCLUSION.?This study provides a beginning step to understanding SPI communication behaviors. Our results suggest that SPIs are able to use a range of communication strategies that often involve not only information but also emotional responsiveness and rapport building. Findings also point to the opportunity for future communication training for SPIs to meet the needs of the heterogeneous caller population. PMID:21563908

Ellington, Lee; Rebecca Poynton, Mollie; Reblin, Maija; Latimer, Seth; Bennett, Heather K W; Crouch, Barbara; Caravati, E Martin

2011-04-01

400

Called to NursingPerceptions of Student Nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:This study uncovers reasons students report for wanting to become nurses, to quantify those who feel that they are called to nursing, and to learn what “being called” means to them. Method:A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted with all students enrolled in nursing courses at one program in a private, faith-based university. Findings:Most students decided to go to nursing school

Lyn Prater; Melanie McEwen

2006-01-01

401

Individual recognition during bouts of antiphonal calling in common marmosets  

PubMed Central

Many vocalizations are encoded with a diversity of acoustic information about the signal producer. Amongst this information content are social categories related to the identity of the caller that are important for determining if and how a signal receiver may interact with that individual. Here we employed a novel playback method in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to test individual recognition during bouts of antiphonal calling. These experiments utilized custom, interactive playback software that effectively engaged subjects in antiphonal calling using vocalizations produced by a single individual and presented ‘probe’ vocalization stimuli representing a different individual at specific points within bouts of calling. The aim here was to test whether marmosets would recognize that the probe stimulus was a phee call produced by a different individual. Data indicated that marmosets were able to detect the change in caller identity; subjects produced significantly fewer antiphonal call responses to probe than control stimuli and, in some conditions, exhibited a shorter latency to produce the vocal response. These data suggest that marmosets recognize the identity of the individual during bouts of antiphonal calling. Furthermore, these results provide a methodological foundation for implementing the probe playback procedure to examine a broader range of social categorization during vocal interactions. PMID:22277952

Miller, Cory T.; Thomas, A. Wren

2013-01-01

402

Leveraging Call Center Logs for Customer Behavior Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most major businesses use business process outsourcing for performing a process or a part of a process including financial services like mortgage processing, loan origination, finance and accounting and transaction processing. Call centers are used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests through outbound and inbound calls to customers on behalf of a business. In this paper we deal specifically with the call centers notes from banks. Banks as financial institutions provide loans to non-financial businesses and individuals. Their call centers act as the nuclei of their client service operations and log the transactions between the customer and the bank. This crucial conversation or information can be exploited for predicting a customer’s behavior which will in turn help these businesses to decide on the next action to be taken. Thus the banks save considerable time and effort in tracking delinquent customers to ensure minimum subsequent defaulters. Majority of the time the call center notes are very concise and brief and often the notes are misspelled and use many domain specific acronyms. In this paper we introduce a novel domain specific spelling correction algorithm which corrects the misspelled words in the call center logs to meaningful ones. We also discuss a procedure that builds the behavioral history sequences for the customers by categorizing the logs into one of the predefined behavioral states. We then describe a pattern based predictive algorithm that uses temporal behavioral patterns mined from these sequences to predict the customer’s next behavioral state.

Parvathy, Anju G.; Vasudevan, Bintu G.; Kumar, Abhishek; Balakrishnan, Rajesh

403

Female bonobos use copulation calls as social signals.  

PubMed

During mating events, females of many primate species produce loud and distinct vocalizations known as 'copulation calls'. The adaptive significance of these signals is considered to be in promoting the caller's direct reproductive success. Here, we investigated copulation calling in bonobos (Pan paniscus), a species in which females produce these vocalizations during sexual interactions with partners of both sexes. Females were more likely to call when mating with males than with females. We also observed a positive relationship between the likelihood of calling and partner rank, regardless of partner sex. Sexual activity generally increased with swelling size (an indicator of reproductive state) and, during their peak swelling, females called more with male than with female partners. Female bonobos are unusual among the non-human primates in terms of their heightened socio-sexuality. Our results suggest that in this species, copulation calls have undergone an evolutionary transition from a purely reproductive to a more general social function, reflecting the intrinsic evolutionary links between vocal behaviour and social cognition. PMID:21325305

Clay, Zanna; Pika, Simone; Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2011-08-23

404

Distress calls may honestly signal bird quality to predators.  

PubMed Central

In predator-prey interactions, both interactors may benefit from sharing information about prey vulnerability. We examined the relationship between calls used to discourage close predators (distress calls) and the health condition of the caller to test whether these signals are reliable indicators of prey quality. The structure of calls from captured lesser short-toed larks Calandrella rufescens was related to their body condition and T-cell-mediated immunocompetence. Birds in better nutritional and immunological condition utter harsher calls (i.e. they spread the call energy over a wider range of frequency) than birds in poorer conditions. Hence, the harshness of distress calls seems honestly to signal the health status of prey and thus their ability to escape, on which the predator might base its optimal foraging choice. Previous studies have investigated the honesty of songs that have evolved via sexual selection, but this is the first study, to our knowledge, the demonstrates a relationship between individual quality and a vocalization primarily shaped by natural selection. PMID:15801619

Laiolo, Paola; Tella, Jose L; Carrete, Martina; Serrano, David; Lopez, Guillermo

2004-01-01

405

Resin hybrid composite laminates  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid composites are generally referred to as the materials that combine two or more fibers in a suitable binding resin. Resin hybrid composites described in this paper utilize two or more resins with a suitable reinforcement. The resins are rigid resin and flexible resins. The elongation of the rigid resin is less than 2% and elongation of the flexible resins are varied between 25% to 100% by blending a very flexible resin with the rigid resin. Test laminates are fabricated by using either glass, carbon or aramid reinforcement in a layered sequence. This produces rigid-flexible-rigid and flexible-rigid-flexible laminates. These laminates are tested for impact, compression, flexural and inter-laminar strengths. Results show that the resin hybriding provides a wide choice of mechanical properties to the composite industry.

Bhatnagar, A.

1986-01-01

406

The adaptive response of jaw muscles to varying functional demands.  

PubMed

Jaw muscles are versatile entities that are able to adapt their anatomical characteristics, such as size, cross-sectional area, and fibre properties, to altered functional demands. The dynamic nature of muscle fibres allows them to change their phenotype to optimize the required contractile function while minimizing energy use. Changes in these anatomical parameters are associated with changes in neuromuscular activity as the pattern of muscle activation by the central nervous system plays an important role in the modulation of muscle properties. This review summarizes the adaptive response of jaw muscles to various stimuli or perturbations in the orofacial system and addresses general changes in muscles as they adapt, specific adaptive changes in jaw muscles under various physiologic and pathologic conditions, and their adaptive response to non-surgical and surgical therapeutic interventions. Although the jaw muscles are used concertedly in the masticatory system, their adaptive changes are not always uniform and vary with the nature, intensity, and duration of the stimulus. In general, stretch, increases neuromuscular activity, and resistance training result in hypertrophy, elicits increases in mitochondrial content and cross-sectional area of the fibres, and may change the fibre-type composition of the muscle towards a larger percentage of slow-type fibres. In contrast, changes in the opposite direction occur when neuromuscular activity is reduced, the muscle is immobilized in a shortened position, or paralysed. The broad range of stimuli that affect the properties of jaw muscles might help explain the large variability in the anatomical and physiological characteristics found among individuals, muscles, and muscle portions. PMID:19656804

Grünheid, Thorsten; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Korfage, Joannes A M; Zentner, Andrej; van Eijden, Theo M G J

2009-12-01

407

Analytical method for micromechanics of textile composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method called the selective averaging method (SAM) is proposed for prediction of the thermoelastic constants of textile composite materials. The unit cell of the composite is divided into slices (mesoscale), and the slices are subdivided into elements (microscale). The elastic constants of the homogenized medium are found by averaging the elastic constants of the elements selectively for both

Bhavani V. Sankar; Ramesh V. Marrey

1997-01-01

408

Apparatus for recovering energy from pyrolyzable carbonaceous waste materials of varying composition  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for recovering energy from pyrolyzable, carbonaceous waste materials, for example household refuse, comprising a rotary tube reactor adapted to be charged with the waste materials and producing, as products, a (low temperature) carbonization gas and a pyrolytic coke at a reaction temperature of above 200 C.,; a fluidized bed or swirling layer gasifier adapted to be supplied with an oxygen-containing gasifying agent, the pyrolytic coke and, optionally, waste materials and from which exit a hot gas having a temperature of between 400 and 1000 C. and an inert ash. Further, the system includes cleaning stages for the carbonization gas, connected subsequent to the rotary tube reactor and the gasifier, and further a combustion device for the cleaned gases, as a part of a boiler system.

Crumpelt, H.; Jaroch, J.

1985-09-17

409

Permeability of composite chondrocyte-culture-millipore membranes to solutes of varying size and shape.  

PubMed Central

A model connective-tissue system was developed that is amenable to the determination of permeability coefficients of diffusing solutes. The system involves the culture of 13-day chick-embryo chondrocytes on a Millipore filter (HA:0.45 micron pore size) to form what is, in effect, a confluent, extremely thin cartilage slice of uniform thickness. These cultured chondrocyte membranes were used to measure the steady-state flux of radioactively labelled low-molecular-weight solutes and micro-ions. Similarly, the permeability coefficients of either radioactively labelled or enzymically active proteins across the membranes were determined. The membrane was found to have no marked effects on the diffusional behaviour of low-molecular-weight non-electrolytes (water, proline, ribose, glucose, sorbitol, raffinose). For micro-ions (Na+, SO42-, Cl-, glutamate, glucuronate,), the diffusive behaviour was found to be markedly affected by the ionic strength of the solvent used in a manner which was consistent with a Donnan distribution resulting from the immobilized proteoglycans. Globular proteins permeated the membrane at rates which decreased as the molecular size of the diffusing solute increased. The apparent diffusion rates of fibrinogen and of collagen through the membranes were greater than would be expected on the basis of their diffusion coefficients in free solution. Reasons for this behaviour are discussed. Images PLATE 1 PMID:496889

Cumming, G J; Handley, C J; Preston, B N

1979-01-01

410

Water sorption in faujasite- and chabazite type zeolites of varying lattice composition for heat storage applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water sorption properties of faujasite type zeolites with different Si\\/Al ratios as well as of natural chabazite and two different SAPO-34 molecular sieves have been investigated systematically by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), microcalorimetry, and isotherm measurements. Via changing the lattice chemistry of the zeolites by dealumination and isomorphous substitution of T atoms the energetics of the water

Jochen Jänchen; Helmut Stach; Udo Hellwig

2008-01-01

411

Hydrolytic stability of PC\\/GF composites with engineered interphase of varying elastic modulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of elastic moduli of the interphase on the hydrolytic stability and mechanical properties of polycarbonate (PC) reinforced with unidirectional E-glass and S2-glass fibers was investigated. Interphase, approximately 100 nm thick, were deposited onto E- and S2-glass fibers using various deposition techniques. Elastic modulus, Ei, of the interphase was determined using two experimental techniques, i.e., measurement of Rayleigh wave speed

J. Jancar

2006-01-01

412

Somatic Growth of Juvenile Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis Fed Artificial Feeds of Varying Nutritional Composition  

E-print Network

stage of the animal as it reaches the out planting test diameter of 15 mm. Therefore, current feed could of Maine. Beginning in 1987, the rapid rise in harvests off the coasts of Maine and New Hampshire made successful in the winter. Since spawning begins by January or February, this design allows the urchins one

New Hampshire, University of

413

Effect of Varying Composition on Temperature Reconstructions Obtained from Refractive Index  

E-print Network

the potential for accurately measuring the entire temperature field associated with multidimensional flames temper- ature field associated with multidimensional flames that may be difficult to do using other Measurements in Flames XIAO QIN, XUDONG XIAO, ISHWAR K. PURI,* and SURESH K. AGGARWAL Department of Mechanical

Aggarwal, Suresh K.

414

Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activity of pigmented sorghums of varying genotypes  

E-print Network

with a white pericarp, had higher levels of flavones (50-932 µg/g) than those with red/purple secondary plant color (0-172 µg/g). On the other hand, 3-deoxyanthocyanin levels were higher in red/purple plant sorghums (14-1885 µg/g) than in tan plant...

Dykes, Linda

2009-05-15

415

Metabolic and Appetite Hormone Responses of Hyperinsulinemic Normoglycemic Males to Meals with Varied Macronutrient Compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the appetite hormones and metabolic responses of hyperinsulinemic subjects to high-protein (HP) meals as compared to high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) meals. Design: Fifteen hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic men received, on 3 separate occasions, HP, HC, or HF meals in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected before and after the ingestion

Dalia El Khoury; Nahla Hwalla

2010-01-01

416

Cooperative quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with dynamic varying search areas and Lévy flight disturbance.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel variant of cooperative quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (CQPSO) algorithm with two mechanisms to reduce the search space and avoid the stagnation, called CQPSO-DVSA-LFD. One mechanism is called Dynamic Varying Search Area (DVSA), which takes charge of limiting the ranges of particles' activity into a reduced area. On the other hand, in order to escape the local optima, Lévy flights are used to generate the stochastic disturbance in the movement of particles. To test the performance of CQPSO-DVSA-LFD, numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed algorithm with different variants of PSO. According to the experimental results, the proposed method performs better than other variants of PSO on both benchmark test functions and the combinatorial optimization issue, that is, the job-shop scheduling problem. PMID:24851085

Li, Desheng

2014-01-01

417

Failure models for textile composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of this investigation were to: (1) identify mechanisms of failure and determine how the architecture of reinforcing fibers in 3D woven composites controlled stiffness, strength, strain to failure, work of fracture, notch sensitivity, and fatigue life; and (2) to model composite stiffness, strength, and fatigue life. A total of 11 different angle and orthogonal interlock woven composites were examined. Composite properties depended on the weave architecture, the tow size, and the spatial distributions and strength of geometrical flaws. Simple models were developed for elastic properties, strength, and fatigue life. A more complicated stochastic model, called the 'Binary Model,' was developed for damage tolerance and ultimate failure. These 3D woven composites possessed an extraordinary combination of strength, damage tolerance, and notch insensitivity.

Cox, Brian

1995-01-01

418

The So-Called 'Face on Mars' in Infrared  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 24 July 2002) This set of THEMIS infrared images shows the so-called 'face on Mars' landform located in the northern plains of Mars near 40o N, 10o W (350 o E). The 'face' is located near the center of the image approximately 1/6 of the way down from the top, and is one of a large number of knobs, mesas, hills, and buttes that are visible in this THEMIS image. The THEMIS infrared camera has ten different filters between 6.2 and 15 micrometers - nine view the surface and one views the CO2 atmosphere. The calibrated and geometrically projected data from all of the nine surface-viewing filters are shown in this figure. The major differences seen in this region are due to temperature effects -- sunlit slopes are warm (bright), whereas those in shadow are cold (dark), The temperature in this scene ranges from 50 oC (darkest) to 15 oC (brightest). The major differences between the different filters are due to the expected variation in the amount of energy emitted from the surface at different wavelengths. Minor spectral differences (infrared 'color') also exist between the different filters, but these differences are small in this region due to the uniform composition of the rocks and soils exposed at the surface. The THEMIS infrared camera provides an excellent regional view of Mars - this image covers an area 32 kilometers (20 miles) by approximately 200 kilometers (125 miles) at a resolution of 100 meters per picture element ('pixel'). This image provides a broad perspective of the landscape and geology of the Cydonia region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. In this 'big picture' view the Cydonia region is seen to be covered with dozens of interesting knobs and mesas that are similar in many ways to the knob named the 'face' - so many in fact that it requires care to discover the 'face' among this jumble of knobs and hills. The 3-km long 'face' knob was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. Many of the knobs in Cydonia, including the 'face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today.

2002-01-01

419

Correlated evolution between hearing sensitivity and social calls in bats  

PubMed Central

Echolocating bats are auditory specialists, with exquisite hearing that spans several octaves. In the ultrasonic range, bat audiograms typically show highest sensitivity in the spectral region of their species-specific echolocation calls. Well-developed hearing in the audible range has been commonly attributed to a need to detect sounds produced by prey. However, bat pups often emit isolation calls with low-frequency components that facilitate mother–young reunions. In this study, we examine whether low-frequency hearing in bats exhibits correlated evolution with (i) body size; (ii) high-frequency hearing sensitivity or (iii) pup isolation call frequency. Using published audiograms, we found that low-frequency hearing sensitivity is not dependent on body size but is related to high-frequency hearing. After controlling for high-frequency hearing, we found that low-frequency hearing exhibits correlated evolution with isolation call frequency. We infer that detection and discrimination of isolation calls have favoured enhanced low-frequency hearing because accurate parental investment is critical: bats have low reproductive rates, non-volant altricial young and must often identify their pups within large crèches. PMID:17148288

Bohn, Kirsten M; Moss, Cynthia F; Wilkinson, Gerald S

2006-01-01

420

Voice over internet protocol with prepaid calling card solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VoIP technology is growing up rapidly, it has big network impact on PT Telkom Indonesia, the bigger telecommunication operator in Indonesia. Telkom has adopted VoIP and one other technology, Intelligent Network (IN). We develop those technologies together in one service product, called Internet Prepaid Calling Card (IPCC). IPCC is becoming new breakthrough for the Indonesia telecommunication services especially on VoIP and Prepaid Calling Card solutions. Network architecture of Indonesia telecommunication consists of three layer, Local, Tandem and Trunck Exchange layer. Network development researches for IPCC architecture are focus on network overlay hierarchy, Internet and PSTN. With this design hierarchy the goal of Interworking PSTN, VoIP and IN calling card, become reality. Overlay design for IPCC is not on Trunck Exchange, this is the new architecture, these overlay on Tandem and Local Exchange, to make the faster call processing. The nodes added: Gateway (GW) and Card Management Center (CMC) The GW do interfacing between PSTN and Internet Network used ISDN-PRA and Ethernet. The other functions are making bridge on circuit (PSTN) with packet (VoIP) based and real time billing process. The CMC used for data storage, pin validation, report activation, tariff system, directory number and all the administration transaction. With two nodes added the IPCC service offered to the market.

Gunadi, Tri

2001-07-01

421

Varying Instructional Methods and Assessment of Students in High School Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New content standards call for the implementation of new and varied pedagogical interventions and instructional techniques. An experimental project in which chemistry was taught using new pedagogical and assessment standards with 10th- to 12th-grade students showed that students who participated in the project expressed satisfaction with the way they learned chemistry. This approach to assessment caused a significant decline in the student anxiety that accompanies the Israeli matriculation examinations. Teachers reported that participating in this project changed their teaching habits, moving them from delivering information to guiding students in the learning process.

Hofstein, Avi; Rosenberg, Otilla; Mamlok, Rachel

2006-01-01

422

The emergence and role of strong ties in time-varying communication networks  

E-print Network

In most social, information, and collaboration systems the complex activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. Temporal changes in the network structure and the dynamical processes occurring on its fabric are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset describing the activity of millions of individuals and investigate the temporal evolution of their egocentric networks. We empirically observe a simple statistical law characterizing the memory of agents that quantitatively signals how much interactions are more likely to happen again on already established connections. We encode the observed dynamics in a reinforcement process defining a generative computational network model with time-varying connectivity patterns. This activity-driven network model spontaneously generates the basic dynamic process for the differentiation between strong and weak ties. The model is used to study the effect of time-varyi...

Karsai, Márton; Vespignani, Alessandro

2014-01-01

423

Seasonal variability and detection range modeling of baleen whale calls in the Gulf of Alaska, 1999-2002.  

PubMed

Five species of large whales, including the blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (B. physalus), sei (B. borealis), humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), and North Pacific right (Eubalaena japonica), were the target of commercial harvests in the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) during the 19th through mid-20th Centuries. Since this time, there have been a few summer time visual surveys for these species, but no overview of year-round use of these waters by endangered whales primarily because standard visual survey data are difficult and costly. From October 1999-May 2002, moored hydrophones were deployed in six locations in the GoA to record whale calls. Reception of calls from fin, humpback, and blue whales and an unknown source, called Watkins' whale, showed seasonal and geographic variation. Calls were detected more often during the winter than during the summer, suggesting that animals inhabit the GoA year-round. To estimate the distance at which species-diagnostic calls could be heard, parabolic equation propagation loss models for frequencies characteristic of each of each call type were run. Maximum detection ranges in the subarctic North Pacific ranged from 45 to 250 km among three species (fin, humpback, blue), although modeled detection ranges varied greatly with input parameters and choice of ambient noise level. PMID:18247747

Stafford, Kathleen M; Mellinger, David K; Moore, Sue E; Fox, Christopher G

2007-12-01

424

Selected Aspects of the eCall Emergency Notification System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article describes problems associated with the road collision detection for the purpose of the automatic emergency call. At the moment collision is detected, the eCall device installed in the vehicle will automatically make contact with Emergency Notification Centre and send the set of essential information on the vehicle and the place of the accident. To activate the alarm, the information about the deployment of the airbags will not be used, because connection of the eCall device might interfere with the vehicle’s safety systems. It is necessary to develop a method enabling detection of the road collision, similar to the one used in airbag systems, and based on the signals available from the acceleration sensors.

Kaminski, Tomasz; Nowacki, Gabriel; Mitraszewska, Izabella; Niezgoda, Micha?; Kruszewski, Miko?aj; Kaminska, Ewa; Filipek, Przemys?aw

2012-02-01

425

Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality.  

PubMed

Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language. PMID:24146908

Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E

2013-01-01

426

Acoustic communication in the Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla : potential cues for sexual and individual signatures in long calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex and individual recognition systems vary among species and can have various functions in different contexts. In order to\\u000a determine the basis of identification by voice in the Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), the greeting calls of 32 individuals (18 males and 14 females) were recorded in May–June 2004 on the Kittiwake colony of\\u000a Hornøya island (Barents sea) and analysed. On the

Thierry Aubin; Nicolas Mathevon; Vincent Staszewski; Thierry Boulinier

2007-01-01

427

Male prisoners and HIV prevention: a call for action ignored.  

PubMed

US prison inmates are disproportionately indigent young men of color. These individuals are severely affected by HIV/AIDS, largely owing to the high-risk behavior that they engage in prior to incarceration. Researchers and practitioners have issued a call for the importance of offering HIV prevention services in prison settings. However, this call has largely been ignored. In this article, we outline reasons why these recommendations have been largely ignored, discuss innovative HIV prevention programs that are currently being implemented in prison settings, and offer recommendations for securing support for HIV prevention services in correctional settings. PMID:18687601

Braithwaite, Ronald L; Arriola, Kimberly R J

2008-09-01

428

Male prisoners and HIV prevention: a call for action ignored.  

PubMed

US prison inmates are disproportionately indigent young men of color. These individuals are severely affected by HIV/AIDS, largely owing to the high-risk behavior that they engage in prior to incarceration. Researchers and practitioners have issued a call for the importance of offering HIV prevention services in prison settings. However, this call has largely been ignored. In this article, we outline reasons why these recommendations have been largely ignored, discuss innovative HIV prevention programs that are currently being implemented in prison settings, and offer recommendations for securing support for HIV prevention services in correctional settings. PMID:12721138

Braithwaite, Ronald L; Arriola, Kimberly R J

2003-05-01

429

High-Level Synthesis of Software Function Calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter presents a novel framework in high-level synthesis where hardware modules synthesized from functions in a given ANSI-C program can call the other software functions in the program. This enables high-level synthesis from C programs that contains calls to hard-to-synthesize functions, such as dynamic memory management, I/O request, or very large and complex functions. A single-thread implementation scheme is shown, whose correctness has been verified through register transfer level simulation.

Nishimura, Masanari; Ishiura, Nagisa; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Kanbara, Hiroyuki; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki

430

Sex differences in source effectiveness in cold-call selling  

E-print Network

SEX DIFFERENCES IN SOURCE EFFECTIVENESS IN COLD-CALL SELLING A Thesis by SHARON RENEE LUNDGREN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1991 Major Subject: Psychology SEX DIFFERENCES IN SOURCE EFFECTIVENESS IN COLD-CALL SELLING A Thesis by SHARON RENEE LUNDGREN Approved as to style and content by: Wend 0 ttee) Ste e (me orchel r) ames h (member) Steven Worchel (Head...

Lundgren, Sharon Renee

2012-06-07

431

Landscape correlates along mourning dove call-count routes in Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) call-count surveys in Mississippi, USA, suggest declining populations. We used available mourning dove call-count data to evaluate long-term mourning dove habitat relationships. Dove routes were located in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, Deep Loess Province, Mid Coastal Plain, and Hilly Coastal Plain physiographic provinces of Mississippi. We also included routes in the Blackbelt Prairie region of Mississippi and Alabama, USA. We characterized landscape structure and composition within 1.64-km buffers around 10 selected mourning dove call-count routes during 3 time periods. Habitat classes included agriculture, forest, urban, regeneration stands, wetland, and woodlot. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to select the best candidate model. We selected a model containing percent agriculture and edge density that contained approximately 40% of the total variability in the data set. Percent agriculture was positively correlated with relative dove abundance. Interestingly, we found a negative relationship between edge density and dove abundance. Researchers should conduct future research on dove nesting patterns in Mississippi and threshold levels of edge necessary to maximize dove density. During the last 20 years, Mississippi lost more than 800,000 ha of cropland while forest cover represented largely by pine (Pinus taeda) plantations increased by more than 364,000 ha. Our results suggest observed localized declines in mourning dove abundance in Mississippi may be related to the documented conversion of agricultural lands to pine plantations.

Elmore, R. D.; Vilella, F. J.; Gerard, P. D.

2007-01-01

432

Black-capped chickadee call dialects along a continuous habitat corridor.  

PubMed

The gargle call, a vocalization used in agonistic encounters by black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus, was examined for evidence of geographical variation along a corridor of continuous riparian habitat in northern Colorado. We captured birds from three different sites during the nonbreeding season and brought them into the laboratory, where their gargle calls were recorded. We sorted sonagrams produced from these vocalizations visually into distinct gargle types having similar compositions of individual units, or syllables. This allowed us to characterize both individual and population repertoires. The majority (88.7%) of gargle types analysed were found to be unique to individual populations rather than shared among or between populations. Examination of individual repertoires showed that chickadees shared a higher proportion of gargle types with birds from their own sites compared with birds from either of the two other sites. Thus, gargle dialects occurred among these chickadee populations despite the absence of geographical barriers to blending of vocal traditions. As the birds studied were obtained from sites along an uninterrupted dispersal corridor, the results of this study suggest that behavioural mechanisms are responsible for maintenance of dialects in this aggressive call. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10373265

Miyasato; Baker

1999-06-01

433

On current compositing algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several techniques exist for compositing the multitemporal NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data for vegetation studies. The major pixel selection criteria of these techniques rely on the characteristics of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetative Index): appearance of clouds, poor atmospheric conditions, and off-nadir viewing geometries would depress the NDVI values. Consequently, selecting the pixels with the maximum value of NDVI would presumably eliminate these external perturbating effects. However, the maximum NDVI does not always correspond to these ideal conditions. In fact, the NDVI varies with these external factors in an unpredictable way. There was an indication that the maximum NDVI tended to favor the off-nadir view in the forward direction. The resultant composite product would be consequently affected. To improve the multitemporal data via compositing, therefore, both the pixel selection criteria and the classifier NDVI need to be modified or corrected for external factors. The current compositing algorithms were reviewed, and alternatives were proposed to use the combinations of the red and near infrared channels and biological characteristics of vegetation as second criteria in pixel selections. The traditional classifier NDVI was replaced with different vegetation indices. The approach was applied to an AVHRR data set over the HAPEX study site in Niger in 1992. The results showed that the approach improved the AVHRR time series quality and was promising towards the development of an efficient compositing algorithm.

Qi, J.; Kerr, Y.

1994-01-01

434

Bayesian semiparametric model with spatially-temporally varying coefficients selection  

PubMed Central

In spatio-temporal analysis, the effect of a covariate on the outcome usually varies across areas and time. The spatial configuration of the areas may potentially depend on not only the structured random intercept but also spatially varying coefficients of covariates. In addition, the normality assumption of the distribution of spatially varying coefficients could lead to potential biases of estimations. In this article, we propose a Bayesian semiparametric space-time model where the spatially-temporally varying coefficient is decomposed as fixed, spatially varying and temporally varying coefficients. The spatially varying coefficients of space-time covariates are modeled nonparametrically by using the area-specific Dirichlet process prior with weights transformed via a generalized transformation. Temporally varying coefficients of covariates are modeled through the dynamic model. Uncertainty of inclusion of the spatially-temporally varying coefficients is also taken into account by variable selection procedure through determining the probabilities of different effects for each covariate. The proposed semiparametric approach shows the improvement compared to the Bayesian spatial-temporal models with normality assumption on spatial random effects and the Bayesian model with the Dirichlet process prior on the random intercept. A simulation example is presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach with the competing models. An application to low birth weight data in South Carolina is used for an illustration. PMID:23526312

Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew B.; Hossain, Md. Monir; Choi, Jungsoon; Kirby, Russell S.; Liu, Jihong

2013-01-01

435

The Chemical Composition of Honey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution, created by bees, and used by human beings as a sweetener. However, honey is more than just a supersaturated sugar solution; it also contains acids, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids in varying quantities. In this article, we will briefly explore the chemical composition of honey. (Contains 2 figures and…

Ball, David W.

2007-01-01

436

Multiscale Multifunctional Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells. Global fracture is enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads. The old reference denotes that nothing has been added to this comprehensive report since then.

Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

2012-01-01

437

Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composites are lighter and stronger than metals. Aramid fibers like Kevlar and Nomex were developed by DuPont Corporation and can be combined in a honeycomb structure which can give an airplane a light, tough structure. Composites can be molded into many aerodynamic shapes eliminating rivets and fasteners. Langley Research Center has tested composites for both aerospace and non-aerospace applications. They are also used in boat hulls, military shelters, etc.

1985-01-01

438

47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Maximum transmitter power will be either 2.5 watts plate input to the final stage or 1 watt output. (2) Antenna gain shall not exceed...transmitter power for call boxes will be either 2.5 watts input to the final amplifier stage or one...

2013-10-01

439

Shall We Dance? Applying the Cooperative Model to CALL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how computers and cooperative language learning have dovetailed over the last 15 years, resulting in a phenomenon that may be called cooperative computer-assisted language learning (CCALL). Within the context of computer use, implications of the cooperative learning model are examined for three groups: language learners; courseware…

Mydlarski, Donna

1998-01-01

440

Responding to Suicidal Calls: Does Trait Anxiety Hinder or Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To see if trait anxiety and suicidality interfered with the ability to respond to suicidal crisis calls, 279 undergraduates completed measures of trait anxiety and suicidality in the past week, and the revised Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-2). Unexpectedly, trait anxiety (but not suicidality) correlated with better SIRI-2 scores.…

Brown, Marceline Moulin; Range, Lillian M.

2005-01-01

441

NATIVE AMERICAN & INDIGENOUS STUDIES ASSOCIATION CALL FOR PAPERS  

E-print Network

NATIVE AMERICAN & INDIGENOUS STUDIES ASSOCIATION NAISA CALL FOR PAPERS for the FIFTH ANNUAL MEETING scholars working in Native American and Indigenous Studies to submit proposals for: Individual papers, panel sessions, roundtables, or film screenings. All persons working in Native American and Indigenous

Hitchcock, Adam P.

442

Call for Papers ACM/Springer Mobile Networks & Applications (MONET)  

E-print Network

Call for Papers ACM/Springer Mobile Networks & Applications (MONET) SPECIAL ISSUE ON Advances by the given QoS requirement is a great challenge. *Multi-base-station cooperative energy-efficient mechanism. The objective of this special issue is to bring together state-of-the-art research contributions, tutorials

Chen, Min

443

Moving It Forward Social Justice Awards Call for Nominations  

E-print Network

Moving It Forward Social Justice Awards Call for Nominations The University of Utah College nominations for the Moving It Forward Social Justice Awards. These awards recognize the work of those who Suazo Social Justice Awards under a new name. The College of Social Work will to continue to recognize

Tipple, Brett

444

Educational Leadership and Social Activism: A Call for Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to argue for a social activist stance in educational leadership that fundamentally addresses social change and human emancipation. This call for social activism is framed within neoliberal, neoconservative, and authoritarian populist discourses in the USA, which to social justice educators and leaders had devastating…

Hoffman, Lauren P.

2009-01-01

445

Social Learning: Medical Student Perceptions of Geriatric House Calls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bandura's social learning theory provides a useful conceptual framework to understand medical students' perceptions of a house calls experience at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine. Social learning and role modeling reflect Liaison Committee on Medical Education guidelines for "Medical schools (to) ensure that the learning…

Abbey, Linda; Willett, Rita; Selby-Penczak, Rachel; McKnight, Roberta

2010-01-01

446

The Exchange of Interpersonal Meaning in Call Centre Conversations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, offshore outsourcing has become an integral part of many multinational companies. One back office role which has been outsourced to Asia is the English customer service call centre. The means of communication between the two parties, the Customer Service Repre- sentative (CSR) and customer, is only through telephonic verbal conversation. Gestures, body language and other resources usually encountered in

Yau Ni Wan

447

The Design of Vehicle Emergent Calling System Based on GPRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining with the working principle of Intelligent Transport System, and with the purpose of enhancing the security of modern traffic, this paper brings forward a project of building a kind of automobile emergent calling system which starts-up with the starting of airbag, the wireless date transport modem, which is droved by serial interface, transmitted the acquired data to the remote

Yuqi Hu; Yang Liu; Huaiquan Zang

2007-01-01

448

"We Call Him Dr. King": Reciprocal Distancing In Urban Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents examples of discourse in classroom interaction that show how social relations in the classroom mirror larger societal relationships in ways that exclude students' cultural and linguistic practices as resources for meaningful literacy learning. Shows how this discourse process (called reciprocal distancing) is used by teachers and students…

Irvine, Patricia D.; Larson, Joanne

1999-01-01

449

The IC INSTITUTE Call for Research Proposals on Innovation,  

E-print Network

involving the Institute. A list of illustrative research topics is given below. This list is not meantThe IC� INSTITUTE Call for Research Proposals on Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Economic Growth support for a number of research projects in an ongoing effort to foster research by professors across all

Ghosh, Joydeep

450

Mother goats do not forget their kids' calls  

PubMed Central

Parent–offspring recognition is crucial for offspring survival. At long distances, this recognition is mainly based on vocalizations. Because of maturation-related changes to the structure of vocalizations, parents have to learn successive call versions produced by their offspring throughout ontogeny in order to maintain recognition. However, because of the difficulties involved in following the same individuals over years, it is not clear how long this vocal memory persists. Here, we investigated long-term vocal recognition in goats. We tested responses of mothers to their kids’ calls 7–13 months after weaning. We then compared mothers’ responses to calls of their previous kids with their responses to the same calls at five weeks postpartum. Subjects tended to respond more to their own kids at five weeks postpartum than 11–17 months later, but displayed stronger responses to their previous kids than to familiar kids from other females. Acoustic analyses showed that it is unlikely that mothers were responding to their previous kids simply because they confounded them with the new kids they were currently nursing. Therefore, our results provide evidence for strong, long-term vocal memory capacity in goats. The persistence of offspring vocal recognition beyond weaning could have important roles in kin social relationships and inbreeding avoidance. PMID:22719031

Briefer, Elodie F.; Padilla de la Torre, Monica; McElligott, Alan G.

2012-01-01

451

Towards Model-Driven End-User Development in CALL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to introduce end-user development (EUD) processes to the CALL software development community. EUD refers to the active participation of end-users, as non-professional developers, in the software development life cycle. Unlike formal software engineering approaches, the focus in EUD on means/ends development is…

Farmer, Rod; Gruba, Paul

2006-01-01

452

Behavioral Aspects of Covered Call Writing: An Empirical Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various explanations for the popularity of covered call option strategies have been explored in the literature. According to Shefrin and Statman [1993], framing and risk aversion can help justify its attractiveness to investors. Applying prospect theory and hedonic framing, these authors predict that in a world of frame dependence an investor that is sufficiently risk averse in the domain of

Arvid O. I. Hoffmann; E. Tobias S. Fischer

2012-01-01

453

1 | P a g e Call for Proposals  

E-print Network

1 | P a g e Call for Proposals: Commercialization Catalyst Award 2010 - 2011 Award Pre Date: November, 2010 Introduction: BGSU's strategies for 2010 include identifying/pursuing economic program, the Commercialization Catalyst (CC) Award, addresses the need to fund activity aimed at bringing

Moore, Paul A.

454

An automated device for provoking and capturing wildlife calls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some animals exhibit call-and-response behaviors that can be exploited to facilitate detection. Traditionally, acoustic surveys that use call-and-respond techniques have required an observer's presence to perform the broadcast, record the response, or both events. This can be labor-intensive and may influence animal behavior and, thus, survey results. We developed an automated acoustic survey device using commercially available hardware (e.g., laptop computer, speaker, microphone) and an author-created (JS) software program ("HOOT") that can be used to survey for any animal that calls. We tested this device to determine 1) deployment longevity, 2) effective sampling area, and 3) ability to detect known packs of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Idaho, USA. Our device was able to broadcast and record twice daily for 6–7 days using the internal computer battery and surveyed an area of 3.3–17.5 km2 in relatively open habitat depending on the hardware components used. We surveyed for wolves at 2 active rendezvous sites used by closely monitored, radiocollared wolf packs and obtained 4 responses across both packs over 3 days of sampling. We confirmed reproduction in these 2 packs by detecting pup howls aurally from the resulting device recordings. Our device can broadcast and record animal calls and the computer software is freely downloadable. This automated survey device can be used to collect reliable data while reducing the labor costs traditionally associated with acoustic surveys.

Ausband, David E.; Skrivseth, Jesse; Mitchell, Michael S.

2011-01-01

455

Toward an Ecological CALL: Update to Garrett (1991)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This introduction to the 2009 "Modern Language Journal" Focus Issue uses the lens of an ecological perspective on the acquisition of second languages to provide additional insights into the contributions by various computer-assisted language learning (CALL) scholars to this update on Garrett (1991), "Technology in the service of language learning:…

Lafford, Barbara A.

2009-01-01

456

On the Edge: Intelligent CALL in the 1990s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the possibilities of developing computer-assisted language learning (CALL) based on the best of modern technology, arguing that artificial intelligence (AI) strategies will radically improve the kinds of exercises that can be performed. Recommends combining AI technology with other tools for delivering instruction, such as simulation and…

Underwood, John

1989-01-01

457

REINVENTING PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION A Call to Action  

E-print Network

REINVENTING PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION A Call to Action Executive Summary Office of the President #12;Public higher education is in crisis. In California and throughout the United States, the rising cost and their families. As a result, the oppor- tunity for affordable higher education is becoming available to fewer

Su, Xiao

458

REINVENTING PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION A Call to Action  

E-print Network

REINVENTING PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION A Call to Action Office of the President #12;1 Qayoumi to the 2008 biennial report of the Na- tional Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, between 1982 and 2007, college tuition and fees rose by 439 percent, while 2 REINVENTING PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION 2012

Su, Xiao

459

1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

460

An automated device for provoking and capturing Wildlife calls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some animals exhibit call-and-response behaviors that can be exploited to facilitate detection. Traditionally, acoustic surveys that use call-and-respond techniques have required an observer's presence to perform the broadcast, record the response, or both events. This can be labor-intensive and may influence animal behavior and, thus, survey results. We developed an automated acoustic survey device using commercially available hardware (e.g., laptop computer, speaker, microphone) and an author-created (JS) software program ("HOOT") that can be used to survey for any animal that calls. We tested this device to determine 1) deployment longevity, 2) effective sampling area, and 3) ability to detect known packs of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Idaho, USA. Our device was able to broadcast and record twice daily for 6-7 days using the internal computer battery and surveyed an area of 3.3-17.5 km in relatively open habitat depending on the hardware components used. We surveyed for wolves at 2 active rendezvous sites used by closely monitored, radiocollared wolf packs and obtained 4 responses across both packs over 3 days of sampling. We confirmed reproduction in these 2 packs by detecting pup howls aurally from the resulting device recordings. Our device can broadcast and record animal calls and the computer software is freely downloadable. This automated survey device can be used to collect reliable data while reducing the labor costs traditionally associated with acoustic surveys. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

Ausband, D.E.; Skrivseth, J.; Mitchell, M.S.

2011-01-01

461

FWF RFBR Joint Call Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) &  

E-print Network

FWF � RFBR Joint Call 2014 Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) & Austrian Science Fund://www.rfbr.ru/rffi/ru/international_announcement/o_30963 Contact Persons: RFBR Russian Foundation for Basic Research FWF Austrian Science Fund Shevereva, mechanics, informatics; 02 physics and astronomy; 03 chemistry; 04 biology and medical science; 05 earth

Fuchs, Clemens

462

CALL FOR PAPERS ON DYNAMICS OF HEALTH AND WELFARE  

E-print Network

! CALL FOR PAPERS ON DYNAMICS OF HEALTH AND WELFARE DEADLINE � January 2nd, 2015 Hygiea Internationalis is the official journal of the International Network for the History of Public Health efforts for the improvement of the health of populations from antiquity to modernity with particular

Zhao, Yuxiao

463

Call for Films Submission deadline: 15 December 2013  

E-print Network

Call for Films Submission deadline: 15 December 2013 12th Göttingen International Ethnographic Film.gieff.de Beate Engelbrecht Göttingen International Ethnographic Film Festival e.V. Postfach 1711, 37007 Göttingen emphasis on new films, videos or interactive media (published after 1.1.2011) dealing with socio

464

Fast static analysis of C++ virtual function calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual functions make code easier for programmers to reuse but also make it harder for compilers to analyze. We investigate the ability of three static analysis algorithms to improve C++ programs by resolving virtual function calls, thereby reducing compiled code size and reducing program complexity so as to improve both human and automated program understanding and analysis. In measurements of

David F. Bacon; Peter F. Sweeney

1996-01-01

465

Physical Activity Promotion in Call Centres: Employers' Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews…

Renton, Sheila J.; Lightfoot, Nancy E.; Maar, Marion A.

2011-01-01

466

Calling While Driving: Effects of Providing Remote Traffic Context  

E-print Network

displays or signals to promote driving safety. Author Keywords Cell phones, driving, distraction, cognitive and leaves attentional resources free, many people make and answer cell phone calls while they drive. In a recent study of videotaped drivers, one-third of the drivers talked by cell phone while they were driving

Kiesler, Sara

467

NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION ENDOWMENT GRANT 2013 CALL FOR PROPOSALS  

E-print Network

NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION ENDOWMENT GRANT 2013 CALL FOR PROPOSALS PURPOSE The Natural Resource Conservation Endowment Fund was established by Jane P. Conrad and entrusted to Washington State University and will be subject to sale with all proceeds going back into the endowment fund. Funds cannot be used to for general

Collins, Gary S.

468

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID CALL FOR PAPERS  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID CALL FOR PAPERS Special Issue on "Optimization Methods and Algorithms Applied to Smart Grid" With recent developments in advanced monitoring, information, and communication technologies applied to smart grid, electric power systems will be able to respond more

Guan, Yongpei

469

Call 877.937.PENN (7366). Provide contact info and  

E-print Network

facilitates patient arrival and physician communication at Penn Medicine Traumatology, Surgical Critical Care) · American College of Surgeons' ultrasound course. For general inquiries about the division of traumatology transportation, eliminating the need for multiple calls and time delay. Penn Traumatology, Surgical Critical Care

Bushman, Frederic

470

Social calls predict foraging success in big brown bats.  

PubMed

Animals foraging in the dark are engaged simultaneously in prey pursuit, collision avoidance, and interactions with conspecifics, making efficient nonvisual communication essential. A variety of birds and mammals emit food-associated calls that inform, attract, or repel conspecifics (e.g.,). Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are insectivorous aerial hawkers that may forage near conspecifics and are known to emit social calls (e.g.,). Calls recorded in a foraging setting might attract (e.g.,) or repel conspecifics and could denote territoriality or food claiming. Here, we provide evidence that the "frequency-modulated bout" (FMB), a social call emitted only by male bats (exclusively in a foraging context), is used to claim food and is individually distinct. Bats were studied individually and in pairs in a flight room equipped with synchronized high-speed stereo video and audio recording equipment while sex and experience with a foraging task were experimentally manipulated. Male bats emitting the FMB showed greater success in capturing prey. Following FMB emission, interbat distance, diverging flight, and the other bat's distance to the prey each increased. These findings highlight the importance and utility of vocal communication for a nocturnal animal mediating interactions with conspecifics in a fast-paced foraging setting. PMID:24684936

Wright, Genevieve Spanjer; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Moss, Cynthia F

2014-04-14

471

Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats.  

PubMed

To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. PMID:24860509

Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

2014-01-01

472

Call for Nominations The Department of Entomology, College of  

E-print Network

Call for Nominations 2014 The Department of Entomology, College of Food, Agricultural and Natural of the Department of Entomology. The Award will be presented during the Department's Honors Day which also pays tribute to the achievements of students in the Entomology Graduate Program. Nominations are invited based

Aukema, Brian

473

CALL FOR PROPOSALS: AFMC Public Health Learning Tools Challenge  

E-print Network

CALL FOR PROPOSALS: AFMC Public Health Learning Tools Challenge 1 Attention ALL Students of preventive and public health education in Canadian Universities/Colleges. AFMC is pleased to invite students and residents in all health professions to create new learning tools on public and population health topics

Kambhampati, Patanjali

474

GENDER AND HEALTH EDUCATION INITIATIVE Call for Proposals 2011  

E-print Network

been completed in the area of gender competence. We will focus on roles that CPD providers could playGENDER AND HEALTH EDUCATION INITIATIVE Call for Proposals 2011 Award Announcement Dr. Rebecca,000 Gender Competency in the Health Sciences: A Pilot Study to Inform Continuing Professional Developent

Haykin, Simon

475

Call for Papers (Apr. 2013) Artificial Intelligence and Law  

E-print Network

, and for the right to oblivion · Methods for data protection and law enforcement · Privacy by-design in intelligentCall for Papers (Apr. 2013) Artificial Intelligence and Law Special Issue on Computational Methods on the basis of reliable knowledge. Increasingly sophisticated intelligent systems support knowledge discovery

Ruggieri, Salvatore

476

Introduction Nail-patella syndrome (also called hereditary onycho-  

E-print Network

Introduction Nail-patella syndrome (also called hereditary onycho- osteodysplasia) is a relatively patellae. One-third to one-half of the patients, however, also suffer from hematuria and proteinuria- type remains unclear. In 1998 the first mutations that lead to the develop- ment of nail-patella

Witzgall, Ralph - Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät III

477

Presented by: For more information, call 480.965.2975  

E-print Network

Presented by: For more information, call 480.965.2975 Marketplace reports on business, the economy and money as they affect people every day. The portfolio reaches 9.3 million listeners each week on more's "Marketplace Economy 4.0." During his tenure, "Marketplace" has won broadcast journalism's two highest honors

Zhang, Junshan

478

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL: Radiation Safety Officer (479) 263 iii FOREWORD RADIATION SAFETY is the responsibility of all faculty, staff and students who are directly or indirectly involved in the use of radionuclides or radiation-producing machines. The Radiation

Li, Jiali

479

Greenland Premier Calls for Balanced Development of Natural Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With Greenland confronting major environmental and economic challenges, Premier Aleqa Hammond has called for developing the nation's natural resources while protecting the environment and dealing with the challenges of climate change. Hammond addressed these issues during a 24 September forum on Greenland's natural resource development, held in Washington, D. C.

Showstack, Randy

2014-10-01

480

Developmental venous anomalies (DVA): The so-called venous angioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Following a review of the literature it is possible to demonstrate the “normality” of the so called venous angiomas. They should be named Developmental Venous Anomaly (DVA). They illustrate in their two extreme types (superfical and deep) the hemodynamic equilibrium of the transcortical venous drainage in the periependymal zones. Venous ectasias and varices which can be encountered, associated with

Pierre Lasjaunias; Patricia Burrows; Chantal Planet

1986-01-01