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1

Syllable acoustics, temporal patterns, and call composition vary with behavioral context in Mexican free-tailed bats  

E-print Network

Syllable acoustics, temporal patterns, and call composition vary with behavioral context in Mexican has shown that some bat species have rich vocal repertoires with diverse syllable acoustics. Few repertoire of Mexican free-tailed bats, T. brasiliensis, is presented. Syllable acoustics and temporal

Bohn, Kirsten

2

Receivers respond differently to chick-a-dee calls varying in note composition in Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chick-a-dee call of the avian genus Poecile is a structurally complex vocal system because it possesses a set of simple rules that governs how the notes of the call are ordered, and variable numbers of each of the note types strung together can generate an extraordinary number of unique calls. Whereas it has been hypothesized that chick-a-dee calls with

TODD M. FREEBERG; JEFFREY R. LUCAS

2002-01-01

3

Syllable acoustics, temporal patterns, and call composition vary with behavioral context in Mexican free-tailed bats.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown that some bat species have rich vocal repertoires with diverse syllable acoustics. Few studies, however, have compared vocalizations across different behavioral contexts or examined the temporal emission patterns of vocalizations. In this paper, a comprehensive examination of the vocal repertoire of Mexican free-tailed bats, T. brasiliensis, is presented. Syllable acoustics and temporal emission patterns for 16 types of vocalizations including courtship song revealed three main findings. First, although in some cases syllables are unique to specific calls, other syllables are shared among different calls. Second, entire calls associated with one behavior can be embedded into more complex vocalizations used in entirely different behavioral contexts. Third, when different calls are composed of similar syllables, distinctive temporal emission patterns may facilitate call recognition. These results indicate that syllable acoustics alone do not likely provide enough information for call recognition; rather, the acoustic context and temporal emission patterns of vocalizations may affect meaning. PMID:19045674

Bohn, Kirsten M; Schmidt-French, Barbara; Ma, Sean T; Pollak, George D

2008-09-01

4

Titi monkey call sequences vary with predator location and type  

PubMed Central

Animal alarm calls can encode information about a predator's category, size, distance or threat level. In non-human primates, alarm calls typically refer to broad classes of disturbances, in some instances to specific predators. Here, we present the results of a field experiment with a New World primate, the black-fronted titi monkey (Callicebus nigrifrons), designed to explore the information conveyed by their alarm call system. Adults produced sequences consisting of two main alarm call types that conveyed, in different parts of the utterance, information about a predator's type and location. In particular, sequence compositions differed depending on whether the predator was a mammalian carnivore or a raptor, and whether it was detected in a tree or on the ground. This is the first demonstration of a sequence-based alarm call system in a non-human animal that has the capacity to encode both location and type of predatory threat. PMID:24004492

Cäsar, Cristiane; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Young, Robert J.; Byrne, Richard W.

2013-01-01

5

Mercury Vaporization from Amalgams with Varied Alloy Compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that mercury is released from dental amalgam restorations after abrasion provides a source of continued controversy over the safe use of this material. Studies have shown that the amount and rate of mercury release vary for different amalgam products. The objective of this study was to determine how alloy composition affects mercury vaporization from experimental amalgams with similar

J. L. Ferracane; J. D. Adey; H. Nakajima; T. Okabe

1995-01-01

6

Axisymmetric vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness  

SciTech Connect

An exact solution procedure is presented for solving axisymmetric free vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness. Based on the classical lamination theory neglecting shear deformation and rotary inertia, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply conical shells. Numerical studies are made for conical shells having both ends clamped to show the effects of the number of laminae, stacking sequences and other parameters upon the frequencies.

Shikanai, G.; Suzuki, K. [Yamagata Univ., Yonezawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kojima, M. [NEC Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

1995-11-01

7

Device for producing a fluid stream of varying composition  

DOEpatents

A device for producing a fluid stream of varying composition comprises a chamber having an inlet at one end and outlet at the other. Between the inlet and outlet there are substantially planar pans or baffles positioned normal to the bulk flow of fluid between the inlet and the outlet. These pans are arranged in pairs. Each pan, except those of the pair most remote from the inlet, is spaced from the walls of the chamber to permit air to flow past it. The pans of each pair are also spaced from each other, in a direction parallel to their planes, leaving an empty space along the mid-plane of the chamber. This produces a circulation and mixing of fluid between the pairs of pans or baffles. A secondary stream of fluid is introduced between two pairs of baffles in the intermediate portion of the chamber, so that the composition of the fluid is different in the portion adjacent to the outlet and the portion adjacent to the inlet. In a specific embodiment, the device is an exposure chamber for experimental animals, and the pans or baffles are catch pans for excrement.

Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA); Clark, Mark L. (Kennewick, WA); Rossignol, E. John (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

8

Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call

Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

2012-01-01

9

Model atmospheres for cool stars. [varying chemical composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains an extensive series of model atmospheres for cool stars having a wide range in chemical composition. Model atmospheres (temperature, pressure, density, etc.) are tabulated, along with emergent energy flux distributions, limb darkening, and information on convection for selected models. The models are calculated under the usual assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium, constancy of total energy flux (including transport both by radiation and convection) and local thermodynamic equilibrium. Some molecular and atomic line opacity is accounted for as a straight mean. While cool star atmospheres are regimes of complicated physical conditions, and these atmospheres are necessarily approximate, they should be useful for a number of kinds of spectral and atmospheric analysis.

Johnson, H. R.

1974-01-01

10

Bioactivity of ceramic-polymer composites with varied composition and surface topography.  

PubMed

HAPEX trade mark (40 vol % hydroxyapatite in a high-density polyethylene matrix) and AWPEX (40 vol % glass-ceramic apatite-wollastonite in a high-density polyethylene matrix) are composites designed to provide bioactivity and to match the mechanical properties of human cortical bone. HAPEX trade mark has had clinical success in middle ear and orbital implants, and there is great potential for further orthopaedic applications of these materials. However, more detailed in vitro investigations must be performed to better understand the biological interactions of the composites. In this study, the bioactivity of each material was assessed. Specifically, the effects of controlled surface topography and ceramic filler composition on apatite layer formation in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentration similar to those of human blood plasma were examined. Samples were prepared as 1 x 10 x 10 mm(3) tiles with polished, roughened or parallel-grooved surface finishes, and were incubated in 20 ml of SBF at 36.5 degrees C for one, three, seven or 14 days. The formation of an apatite layer on the composite surface after immersion was demonstrated by thin-film X-ray diffraction, environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Variations in sample weight and solution pH over the period of incubation were also recorded. Significant differences were found between the two materials tested, with greater bioactivity in AWPEX than HAPEX trade mark. Results also showed surface topography to be important, with rougher samples correlated to earlier apatite formation. Osteoblast-like cells proliferated favourably on both composite materials, with many filopodia connections, preferential attachment to ceramic particles and contact guidance effects evident. PMID:15448407

Rea, S M; Best, S M; Bonfield, W

2004-09-01

11

Non destructive evaluation of adhesively bonded carbon fiber reinforced composite lap joints with varied bond quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural adhesive bonding is widely used to execute assemblies in automobile and aerospace structures. The quality and reliability of these bonded joints must be ensured during service. In this context non destructive evaluation of these bonded structures play an important role. Evaluation of adhesively bonded composite single lap shear joints has been attempted through experimental approach. Series of tests, non-destructive as well as destructive were performed on different sets of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite lap joint specimens with varied bond quality. Details of the experimental investigations carried out and the outcome are presented in this paper.

Vijayakumar, R. L.; Bhat, M. R.; Murthy, C. R. L.

2012-05-01

12

Low velocity impact analysis on glass fiber reinforced composites with varied volume fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimental study to assess the impact response of bidirectional woven type of glass fiber reinforced composite material with varied volume fractions and hence to find out the optimal volume fraction which gives better impact resistance. The specimens are prepared using vacuum bagging process and the volume fraction is estimated by resin burn off method. For getting information regarding surface topography of the impacted specimen, scanning electron microscopy is conducted. The study is done by slightly varying the velocities and it is found that a volume fraction of 43 -44% gives a better impact resistance which is also confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy test. From the SEM results it is observed that matrix cracking, fiber breakage, debonding and fiber pull out are the major modes of failure during the impact, which reduces the structural strength and stability of the structure.

Reghunath, Rakesh; Lakshmanan, Mahadevan; Mini, K. M.

2015-02-01

13

Varying the nucleic acid composition of siRNA molecules dramatically varies the duration and degree of gene silencing.  

PubMed

The utility of short interfering RNA (siRNA) as a means of gene silencing depends on several factors. These include the degree to which a gene can be silenced, the length of time for which the gene remains silenced, the degree of recovery of gene function, and the effects of the silencing process on general cell functions. We hypothesized that changing the nucleic acid composition of the siRNA constructs used for silencing would affect these parameters. With siRNA gene silencing of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene as a baseline, we found that siDNA molecules have an effect that is similar in duration but lesser in degree, whereas hybrid DNA:RNA molecules have an effect that is enormously greater in both duration and degree. PMID:12746552

Lamberton, Janelle S; Christian, Allen T

2003-06-01

14

OH- absorption band in LiTaO{3} with varied composition and hydrogenation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OH- absorption bands of lithium tantalate crystals have been measured at room temperature, and the bands shape depending on the crystal composition has been observed. OH- absorption bands are fitted with three Lorentzian peaks by varying position, halfwidth, and area. Nearly constant peak positions (3461, 3475 and 3486 cm-1) for all samples are obtained. Hydrogenation is also performed to the crystals and its influence on the decomposed peaks (position, halfwidth and area) is investigated. The results show the fitting parameters of peaks have different values for crystals with different hydrogen concentration, which is interpreted by the different sites occupied by H+ in terms of the modified model about the location of Li-vacancy in the lattice. Additionally, it is shown that the halfwidth of peak at 3461 cm-1 remain unchanged regardless of hydrogen concentration, which make this parameter more suitable than other ones to determine the composition of LiTaO{3} crystals. The quantitative relationship between the halfwidth of peak at 3461 cm-1 and the crystal composition is also presented.

Shi, L.; Yan, W.; Kong, Y.

2007-10-01

15

Forced torsional properties of PMR composites with varying nadic ester concentrations and processing histories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PMR polyimide resin was prepared from 4,4'-methylenedianiline, the dimethyl ester of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid and the monomethyl ester of 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (NE). The NE group serves as a chain terminator and crosslinking site. PMR/Celion 6000 composites were fabricated from resins having varying NE concentrations using two molding processes, and the laminates characterized in forced torsion. Glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of 360-390 C were observed in the crosslinked resins, as compared with the literature value of 284 C reported for the uncrosslinked system. T(g) did not decrease with decreasing NE concentrations over the range from 2.0 to 1.25 moles. Stoichiometry, within the range studied, showed little influence on shear properties; however, a 25% variation in matrix shear modulus with processing was observed. The G(12) values determined in forced torsion were in excellent agreement with those reported from tensile tests of + or - 45 deg laminates. A branching and possible secondary crosslink mechanism is proposed based on dynamic mechanical behavior and infrared spectra of the composites.

Hurwitz, F. I.

1982-01-01

16

Controlled combustion tests and bottom ash analysis using household waste with varying composition  

SciTech Connect

The influence of the co-combustion of household waste with either sewage sludge, shredder fluff, electronic and electrical waste (WEEE) or PVC on the bottom ash quality and content was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions using a pot furnace. This laboratory approach avoids the interpretation problems related to large variations in input waste composition and combustion conditions that are observed in large scale MSW incinerators. The data for metals content, transfer coefficients and leaching values are presented relative to data for a base household waste composition that did not contain any of the added special wastes. The small WEEE invited direct measurement of precious metals content in the ashes, where measurement accuracy is facilitated by using only mobile phone scrap for small WEEE. The analyses were carried out for different particle size ranges that are of relevance to the recyclability of metals and minerals in the ashes. Positive correlations were found between elements content of the input waste and the bottom ashes, and also between increased levels of Cl, Mo and Cu in the input waste and their leaching in the bottom ashes. These correlations indicate that addition of PVC, small WEEE and shredder fluff in input waste can have a negative influence on the quality of the bottom ashes. Enrichment of Au and Ag occurred in the fractions between 0.15 and 6 mm. The precious metals content represents an economically interesting intrinsic value, even when the observed peak values are properly averaged over a larger volume of ashes. Overall, it has been shown that changes in quality and content of bottom ashes may be traced back to the varied input waste composition.

Hu Yanjun, E-mail: huyanjun@zjut.edu.cn [Zhejiang University of Technology, Chaowang Road 18, 310014 Hangzhou (China); Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, 2628 CN, Delft (Netherlands); Bakker, Maarten [Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, 2628 CN, Delft (Netherlands); Brem, Gerrit [University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); Chen Guanyi [Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Nankai District, 300072 Tianjin (China)

2011-02-15

17

Identification and characterization of transcript polymorphisms in soybean lines varying in oil composition and content  

PubMed Central

Background Variation in seed oil composition and content among soybean varieties is largely attributed to differences in transcript sequences and/or transcript accumulation of oil production related genes in seeds. Discovery and analysis of sequence and expression variations in these genes will accelerate soybean oil quality improvement. Results In an effort to identify these variations, we sequenced the transcriptomes of soybean seeds from nine lines varying in oil composition and/or total oil content. Our results showed that 69,338 distinct transcripts from 32,885 annotated genes were expressed in seeds. A total of 8,037 transcript expression polymorphisms and 50,485 transcript sequence polymorphisms (48,792 SNPs and 1,693 small Indels) were identified among the lines. Effects of the transcript polymorphisms on their encoded protein sequences and functions were predicted. The studies also provided independent evidence that the lack of FAD2-1A gene activity and a non-synonymous SNP in the coding sequence of FAB2C caused elevated oleic acid and stearic acid levels in soybean lines M23 and FAM94-41, respectively. Conclusions As a proof-of-concept, we developed an integrated RNA-seq and bioinformatics approach to identify and functionally annotate transcript polymorphisms, and demonstrated its high effectiveness for discovery of genetic and transcript variations that result in altered oil quality traits. The collection of transcript polymorphisms coupled with their predicted functional effects will be a valuable asset for further discovery of genes, gene variants, and functional markers to improve soybean oil quality. PMID:24755115

2014-01-01

18

Chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane clones selected for varied lignin content  

PubMed Central

Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials is a major limitation for their conversion into fermentable sugars. Lignin depletion in new cultivars or transgenic plants has been identified as a way to diminish this recalcitrance. In this study, we assessed the success of a sugarcane breeding program in selecting sugarcane plants with low lignin content, and report the chemical composition and agronomic characteristics of eleven experimental hybrids and two reference samples. The enzymatic digestion of untreated and chemically delignified samples was evaluated to advance the performance of the sugarcane residue (bagasse) in cellulosic-ethanol production processes. Results The ranges for the percentages of glucan, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractive (based on oven-dry biomass) of the experimental hybrids and reference samples were 38% to 43%, 25% to 32%, 17% to 24%, and 1.6% to 7.5%, respectively. The samples with the smallest amounts of lignin did not produce the largest amounts of total polysaccharides. Instead, a variable increase in the mass of a number of components, including extractives, seemed to compensate for the reduction in lignin content. Hydroxycinnamic acids accounted for a significant part of the aromatic compounds in the samples, with p-coumaric acid predominating, whereas ferulic acid was present only in low amounts. Hydroxycinnamic acids with ester linkage to the hemicelluloses varied from 2.3% to 3.6%. The percentage of total hydroxycinnamic acids (including the fraction linked to lignin through ether linkages) varied from 5.0% to 9.2%, and correlated to some extent with the lignin content. These clones released up to 31% of glucose after 72 hours of digestion with commercial cellulases, whereas chemically delignified samples led to cellulose conversion values of more than 80%. However, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during the enzymatic treatment. Conclusion Some of the experimental sugarcane hybrids did have the combined characteristics of high biomass and high sucrose production with low lignin content. Conversion of glucan to glucose by commercial cellulases was increased in the samples with low lignin content. Chemical delignification further increased the cellulose conversion to values of more than 80%. Thus, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during the enzymatic treatment. PMID:22145819

2011-01-01

19

Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer.

Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Banerjee, Sourav; Shifeng, Huang

2014-12-01

20

Effect of Racial and Ethnic Composition of Neighborhoods in San Francisco on Rates of Mental-Health Related 911 Calls  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the association between San Francisco neighborhoods’ racial/ethnic residential composition and the rate of mental-health-related 911 calls. Methods Calls to the San Francisco 911 system from January 2001 through June 2003 (n=1,341,608) were divided into mental-health-related and other calls. Police sector data in the call records were overlaid onto U.S. Census tracts to estimate sector demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the association between black, Asian, Latino and white resident percentage and rates of mental-health-related calls. Results Percent of black residents was associated with a lower rate of mental-health-related calls (IRR=.99, 95% CI .98–1.00). Percent of Asian and Latino residents had no significant effect. Conclusions The observed relationship between black residents and mental-health-related calls is not consistent with known emergency mental health service utilization patterns. The paradox between underutilization of the 911 system and overutilization of psychiatric emergency services deserves further investigation. PMID:19797379

Kessell, Eric R.; Alvidrez, Jennifer; McConnell, William A.; Shumway, Martha

2010-01-01

21

In vitro Wear of Composite with Varied Cure, Filler Level, and Filler Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the clinical wear of composite filling materials to be reduced, compositional factors such as degree of cure, filler level, and silanation level should be optimized. An oral-wear-simulating machine was used to explore the effects of these factors on abrasion and attrition wear as well as on opposing enamel wear. The composites were made from Sr glass (1-2 ?m avg)

J. R. Condon; J. L. Ferracane

1997-01-01

22

LEVEL OF ABSTRACTION IN THE WRITTEN COMPOSITIONS OF CHILDREN VARYING IN INTELLIGENCE AND AGE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

WRITTEN COMPOSITIONS WERE OBTAINED FROM 48 CHILDREN, FOUR FROM EACH AGE GROUP FROM EIGHT THROUGH 11, ASSIGNED TO THREE IQ GROUPS--RETARDED, NORMAL, AND SUPERIOR. USING SEVERAL OF THE FLESCH CRITERIA (WHICH USE NUMBER OF SYLLABLES, AVERAGE SENTENCE LENGTH, AND NUMBER OF DEFINITE WORDS AS INDICES), COMPOSITIONS WERE SCORED FOR DEFINITENESS OF STYLE.…

TILLMAN, MURRAY H.

23

Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activity of pigmented sorghums of varying genotypes  

E-print Network

A wide variety of sorghum genotypes with a pigmented pericarp were grown in varying environments and were analyzed for total phenols, condensed tannins, flavan-4-ols, and in vitro antioxidant activity. In addition, sorghum flavonoids were separated...

Dykes, Linda

2009-05-15

24

Controlled combustion tests and bottom ash analysis using household waste with varying composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the co-combustion of household waste with either sewage sludge, shredder fluff, electronic and electrical waste (WEEE) or PVC on the bottom ash quality and content was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions using a pot furnace. This laboratory approach avoids the interpretation problems related to large variations in input waste composition and combustion conditions that are observed in

Yanjun Hu; Maarten Bakker; Gerrit Brem; Guanyi Chen

2011-01-01

25

FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The data was used to provide recommendations to the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) regarding blending and washing strategies in preparing SB5 based on acceptability of the glass compositions. These data were also used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of frits. Three composition projections for SB5 were developed using a model-based approach at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These compositions, referred to as SB5 Cases B, C and D, projected removal of 25, 50 and 75% (respectively) of the aluminum in Tank 51 through the low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The frits for this study (Frits 530 through 537) were selected based on their predicted operating windows (i.e., ranges of waste loadings over which the predicted properties of the glasses were acceptable) and their potential (based on historical trends) to provide acceptable melt rates for SB5. Six additional glasses were designed to evaluate alternatives for uranium in DWPF-type glasses used for variability studies and some scoping studies. Since special measures are necessary when working with uranium-containing glasses in the laboratory, it is desirable as a cost and time saving measure to find an alternative for uranium to support frit optimization efforts. Hafnium and neodymium were investigated as potential surrogates for uranium, and other glasses were made by simply excluding the radioactive components and renormalizing the glass composition. The study glasses were fabricated and characterized at SRNL. Chemical composition analyses suggested only minor difficulties in meeting the targeted compositions for some of the oxides for some of the glasses. Although minor differences were observed, they did not have a significant impact on the conclusions made in this study. Several of the study compositions showed retention of more than 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass. Trevorite (a spinel) was the only crystalline phase that was positively identified in a few of the study glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Spinels are not of concern as they have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. The crystallization behavior of the surrogate glasses was generally the same as that of their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. There are two pairs that were exceptions: SB5-04 (amorphous) and SB5-24 (possible trevorite), along with SB5-07 (amorphous) and SB5-25 (trevorite). In these cases, the surrogate glasses (SB5-24 and SB5-25) appear to be more conservative (more prone to crystallization) than their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized leachate (NL) values for B, Li, Na and Si for all of the study glasses were well below those of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass, regardless of heat treatment or compositional view. This indicates that all of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The highest NL [B] for the study glasses was 0.914 g/L (the quenched version of glass SB5-13), normalized using the measured, bias-correct composition. There was little practical impact of the CCC heat treatment on the PCT responses of the study glasses. The measured PCT responses were predictable by the current {Delta}G{sub p} models. In general, the PCT responses for the surrogate glasses or the glasses without U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were quite similar to their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. The average percent error in NL [B] normalized by the measured, bias-corrected compositions for the surrogate glasses compared with their radioactive counterparts was 8.8%. The largest difference in NL

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

2008-08-28

26

Practical Analysis of materials with depth varying compositions using FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS)  

SciTech Connect

FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is discussed as a nondestructive method to probe the molecular composition of materials versus depth on the basis of the analysis of layers of experimentally controllable thickness, which are measured from the sample surface to depths of some tens of micrometers, depending on optical and thermal properties. Computational methods are described to process photoacoustic amplitude and phase spectra for both semi-quantitative and quantitative depth analyses. These methods are demonstrated on layered and gradient samples.

J.F. McClelland; R.W. Jones; Siquan Luo

2004-09-30

27

Flow Stress Prediction of SiCp/Al Composites at Varying Strain Rates and Elevated Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With isothermal compression tests in the Gleeble-3500 system, the hot deformation behaviors of SiCp/Al composite were studied at a wide range of temperatures from 623 K to 773 K, and strain rates ranging from 0.001 s-1 to 10 s-1. Four different modeling methods such as the modified Zerilli-Armstrong model, the strain compensation Arrhenius-type model, the double multivariate nonlinear regression (DMNR) and the artificial neural model (ANN) were used to predict the flow stress. The suitability levels of these models were evaluated by contrasting both the correlation coefficient R C and the average absolute relative error. The results show that the predictions of these four models can adequately meet the accuracy requirement according to the experimental data of this composite. With the increasing of the numbers of determined material constants and the complexity of computing methods, the predictability of these four methods is enhanced. The deformation parameters in the selected ranges such as strain rate and temperature have non-ignorable effect on predicted results of the previous two methods, while they have slight influence on DMNR and ANN.

Yuan, Zhanwei; Li, Fuguo; Ji, Guoliang; Qiao, Huijuan; Li, Jiang

2014-03-01

28

Coral and macroalgal exudates vary in neutral sugar composition and differentially enrich reef bacterioplankton lineages.  

PubMed

Increasing algal cover on tropical reefs worldwide may be maintained through feedbacks whereby algae outcompete coral by altering microbial activity. We hypothesized that algae and coral release compositionally distinct exudates that differentially alter bacterioplankton growth and community structure. We collected exudates from the dominant hermatypic coral holobiont Porites spp. and three dominant macroalgae (one each Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta) from reefs of Mo'orea, French Polynesia. We characterized exudates by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fractional dissolved combined neutral sugars (DCNSs) and subsequently tracked bacterioplankton responses to each exudate over 48?h, assessing cellular growth, DOC/DCNS utilization and changes in taxonomic composition (via 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing). Fleshy macroalgal exudates were enriched in the DCNS components fucose (Ochrophyta) and galactose (Rhodophyta); coral and calcareous algal exudates were enriched in total DCNS but in the same component proportions as ambient seawater. Rates of bacterioplankton growth and DOC utilization were significantly higher in algal exudate treatments than in coral exudate and control incubations with each community selectively removing different DCNS components. Coral exudates engendered the smallest shift in overall bacterioplankton community structure, maintained high diversity and enriched taxa from Alphaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured representatives with relatively few virulence factors (VFs) (Hyphomonadaceae and Erythrobacteraceae). In contrast, macroalgal exudates selected for less diverse communities heavily enriched in copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured pathogens with increased VFs (Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae). Our results demonstrate that algal exudates are enriched in DCNS components, foster rapid growth of bacterioplankton and select for bacterial populations with more potential VFs than coral exudates. PMID:23303369

Nelson, Craig E; Goldberg, Stuart J; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Haas, Andreas F; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest; Carlson, Craig A

2013-05-01

29

Coral and macroalgal exudates vary in neutral sugar composition and differentially enrich reef bacterioplankton lineages  

PubMed Central

Increasing algal cover on tropical reefs worldwide may be maintained through feedbacks whereby algae outcompete coral by altering microbial activity. We hypothesized that algae and coral release compositionally distinct exudates that differentially alter bacterioplankton growth and community structure. We collected exudates from the dominant hermatypic coral holobiont Porites spp. and three dominant macroalgae (one each Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta) from reefs of Mo'orea, French Polynesia. We characterized exudates by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fractional dissolved combined neutral sugars (DCNSs) and subsequently tracked bacterioplankton responses to each exudate over 48?h, assessing cellular growth, DOC/DCNS utilization and changes in taxonomic composition (via 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing). Fleshy macroalgal exudates were enriched in the DCNS components fucose (Ochrophyta) and galactose (Rhodophyta); coral and calcareous algal exudates were enriched in total DCNS but in the same component proportions as ambient seawater. Rates of bacterioplankton growth and DOC utilization were significantly higher in algal exudate treatments than in coral exudate and control incubations with each community selectively removing different DCNS components. Coral exudates engendered the smallest shift in overall bacterioplankton community structure, maintained high diversity and enriched taxa from Alphaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured representatives with relatively few virulence factors (VFs) (Hyphomonadaceae and Erythrobacteraceae). In contrast, macroalgal exudates selected for less diverse communities heavily enriched in copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured pathogens with increased VFs (Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae). Our results demonstrate that algal exudates are enriched in DCNS components, foster rapid growth of bacterioplankton and select for bacterial populations with more potential VFs than coral exudates. PMID:23303369

Nelson, Craig E; Goldberg, Stuart J; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Haas, Andreas F; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest; Carlson, Craig A

2013-01-01

30

Composition and properties of the so-called 'diamond-like' amorphous carbon films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The composition of amorphous 'diamond-like' films made by direct low energy ion beam deposition, R.F. discharge and sputtering was determined by nuclear reaction analysis, IR spectroscopy and microcombustion chemical analysis. The nuclear reaction analysis showed very similar hydrogen depth profiles for all three types of samples. The atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon was approximately 0.2 at the film surface and rose to approximately 1.0 at a depth of 500 A. The integrated intensity of the C-H stretching band at about 2900 per cm indicates that the amount of chemically bonded hydrogen is less than the total hydrogen content. Combustion analysis confirmed the overall atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon determined by nuclear reaction analysis. The chemical state of the non-bonded hydrogen was not determined; however, the effective diffusion coefficient computed from the hydrogen depth profile was extremely low. This indicates either that the films are exceedingly impermeable or that the non-bonded hydrogen requires an additional activated step to leave the films, e.g., desorption or chemical reaction.

Angus, J. C.; Stultz, J. E.; Shiller, P. J.; Macdonald, J. R.; Mirtich, M. J.

1984-01-01

31

Orientation and Dynamics of Melittin in Membranes of Varying Composition Utilizing NBD Fluorescence  

PubMed Central

Melittin is a cationic hemolytic peptide isolated from the European honey bee, Apis mellifera. The organization of membrane-bound melittin has earlier been shown to be dependent on the physical state and composition of membranes. In this study, we covalently labeled the N-terminal (Gly-1) and Lys-7 of melittin with an environment-sensitive fluorescent probe, the NBD group, to monitor the influence of negatively charged lipids and cholesterol on the organization and dynamics of membrane-bound melittin. Our results show that the NBD group of melittin labeled at its N-terminal end does not exhibit red edge excitation shift in DOPC and DOPC/DOPG membranes, whereas the NBD group of melittin labeled at Lys-7 exhibits REES of ?8 nm. This could be attributed to difference in membrane microenvironment experienced by the NBD groups in these analogs. Interestingly, the membrane environment of the NBD groups is sensitive to the presence of cholesterol, which is supported by time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Importantly, the orientation of melittin is found to be parallel to the membrane surface as determined by membrane penetration depth analysis using the parallax method in all cases. Our results constitute the first report to our knowledge describing the orientation of melittin in cholesterol-containing membranes. These results assume significance in the overall context of the role of membrane lipids in the orientation and function of membrane proteins and peptides. PMID:17114219

Raghuraman, H.; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

2007-01-01

32

Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of indigenous Caribbean goats under varying nutritional densities.  

PubMed

The effects of a concentrate diet on growth, carcass fat, and fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle (supraspinatus), perirenal, and intermuscular adipose tissues of Creole goats (n = 32) were evaluated. Goats were fed a tropical green forage Digitaria decumbens ad libitum with no concentrate (G0) or 1 of 3 levels of concentrate: 140 (G100), 240 (G200), and 340 g•d(-1) (G300), respectively. Goats were slaughtered according to the standard procedure at the commercial BW (22 to 24 kg of BW). Goats fed the concentrate diets (G100, G200, and G300) had greater ADG (P < 0.001), cold carcass weights (P < 0.001), and omental (P < 0.01), perirenal (P < 0.01), and intermuscular (P < 0.01) adipose tissues weights. Dietary intake of C18:0, C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6 increased as concentrate supplementation increased (P < 0.001), whereas C18:3n-3 intake was not affected (P > 0.05). Increased concentrate supplementation did not affect (P > 0.05) the proportion of MUFA in all tissues and had very little effect on SFA in perirenal tissue, but increased the PUFA proportion in muscle (P < 0.05). The major effect of feeding increased concentrate was an increase in n-6 PUFA proportions in all tissues (P < 0.001) and, surprisingly, a decrease in n-3 PUFA (P < 0.001). Focusing on FA, which are supposed to have a beneficial or an adverse effect on human health, feeding increased concentrate did not increase the content of any cholesterol-increasing SFA in meat, but increased the n-6/n-3 ratio above 4 when more than 240 g of concentrate was fed per day. PMID:22274862

Liméa, L; Alexandre, G; Berthelot, V

2012-02-01

33

Setting the pace of life: membrane composition of flight muscle varies with metabolic rate of hovering orchid bees.  

PubMed

Patterns of metabolic rate variation have been documented extensively in animals, but their functional basis remains elusive. The membrane pacemaker hypothesis proposes that the relative abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids sets the metabolic rate of organisms. Using species of tropical orchid bees spanning a 16-fold range in body size, we show that the flight muscles of smaller bees have more linoleate (%18 : 3) and stearate (%18 : 0), but less oleate (%18 : 1). More importantly, flight metabolic rate (FlightMR) varies with the relative abundance of 18 : 3 according to the predictions of the membrane pacemaker hypothesis. Although this relationship was found across large differences in metabolic rate, a direct association could not be detected when taking phylogeny and body mass into account. Higher FlightMR, however, was related to lower %16 : 0, independent of phylogeny and body mass. Therefore, this study shows that flight muscle membrane composition plays a significant role in explaining diversity in FlightMR, but that body mass and phylogeny are other factors contributing to their variation. Multiple factors are at play to modulate metabolic capacity, and changing membrane composition can have gradual and stepwise effects to achieve a new range of metabolic rates. Orchid bees illustrate the correlated evolution between membrane composition and metabolic rate, supporting the functional link proposed in the membrane pacemaker hypothesis. PMID:25652831

Rodríguez, Enrique; Weber, Jean-Michel; Pagé, Benoît; Roubik, David W; Suarez, Raul K; Darveau, Charles-A

2015-03-01

34

Bonobos Extract Meaning from Call Sequences  

PubMed Central

Studies on language-trained bonobos have revealed their remarkable abilities in representational and communication tasks. Surprisingly, however, corresponding research into their natural communication has largely been neglected. We address this issue with a first playback study on the natural vocal behaviour of bonobos. Bonobos produce five acoustically distinct call types when finding food, which they regularly mix together into longer call sequences. We found that individual call types were relatively poor indicators of food quality, while context specificity was much greater at the call sequence level. We therefore investigated whether receivers could extract meaning about the quality of food encountered by the caller by integrating across different call sequences. We first trained four captive individuals to find two types of foods, kiwi (preferred) and apples (less preferred) at two different locations. We then conducted naturalistic playback experiments during which we broadcasted sequences of four calls, originally produced by a familiar individual responding to either kiwi or apples. All sequences contained the same number of calls but varied in the composition of call types. Following playbacks, we found that subjects devoted significantly more search effort to the field indicated by the call sequence. Rather than attending to individual calls, bonobos attended to the entire sequences to make inferences about the food encountered by a caller. These results provide the first empirical evidence that bonobos are able to extract information about external events by attending to vocal sequences of other individuals and highlight the importance of call combinations in their natural communication system. PMID:21556149

Clay, Zanna; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2011-01-01

35

Nonlinear and threshold responses of grassland productivity and species composition to increased CO2 vary with soil type  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Climate change is likely to cause non-linear responses in ecosystem function and threshold changes in species composition. Here we report aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) responses to a continuous CO2 concentration gradient (250 to 500 µL L-1) in experimental grassland communities on...

36

Elimination of the initial thermal stresses in wound articles made from composites by varying the winding angle over the thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The manufacture of articles like rotation bodies by the winding of composites is accompanied by the establishment in them of a system of initial processing stresses. During winding with low tensile forces the principal part of them are formed by thermal stresses which occur when the article cools after its heat treatment and polymerization of the binder. There is

G. G. Portnov; I. V. Sanina; V. A. Yakushin

1981-01-01

37

Growth and lipid composition of scallop juveniles, Placopecten magellanicus, fed the flagellate Isochrysis galbana with varying lipid composition and the diatom Chaetoceros muelleri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of feeding the flagellate Isochrysis galbana (Parke; clone T-Iso) of modified lipid composition on the growth and lipid composition of juvenile scallops [Placopecten magellanicus (Gmelin)] was investigated in the spring of 1993. I. galbana grown in 85-liter cage culture turbidostats under conditions of nitrogen limitation had a significantly higher total lipid\\u000a content than when grown under nutrient-replete conditions.

C. C. Parrish; J. S. Wells; Z. Yang; P. Dabinett

1999-01-01

38

Different Assembly Processes Drive Shifts in Species and Functional Composition in Experimental Grasslands Varying in Sown Diversity and Community History  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of different biotic processes (limiting similarity, weaker competitor exclusion) and historical contingency due to priority effects are in the focus of ongoing discussions about community assembly and non-random functional trait distributions. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally manipulated assembly history in a grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment) by applying two factorially crossed split-plot treatments to all communities: (i) duration of weeding (never weeded since sowing or cessation of weeding after 3 or 6 years); (ii) seed addition (control vs. seed addition 4 years after sowing). Spontaneous colonization of new species in the control treatment without seed addition increased realized species richness and functional richness (FRic), indicating continuously denser packing of niches. Seed addition resulted in forced colonization and increased realized species richness, FRic, functional evenness (FEve) and functional divergence (FDiv), i.e. higher abundances of species with extreme trait values. Furthermore, the colonization of new species led to a decline in FEve through time, suggesting that weaker competitors were reduced in abundance or excluded. Communities with higher initial species richness or with longer time since cessation of weeding were more restricted in the entry of new species and showed smaller increases in FRic after seed addition than other communities. The two assembly-history treatments caused a divergence of species compositions within communities originally established with the same species. Communities originally established with different species converged in species richness and functional trait composition over time, but remained more distinct in species composition. Conclusions/Significance Contrasting biotic processes (limiting similarity, weaker competitor exclusion) increase functional convergence between communities initially established with different species. Historical contingency with regard to realized species compositions could not be eradicated by cessation of weeding or forced colonization and was still detectable 5 years after application of these treatments, providing evidence for the role of priority effects in community assembly. PMID:25029105

Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Gerighausen, Uta; Schmid, Bernhard

2014-01-01

39

Archaeosomes varying in lipid composition differ in receptor-mediated endocytosis and differentially adjuvant immune responses to entrapped antigen  

PubMed Central

Archaeosomes prepared from total polar lipids extracted from six archaeal species with divergent lipid compositions had the capacity to deliver antigen for presentation via both MHC class I and class II pathways. Lipid extracts from Halobacterium halobium and from Halococcus morrhuae strains 14039 and 16008 contained archaetidylglycerol methylphosphate and sulfated glycolipids rich in mannose residues, and lacked archaetidylserine, whereas the opposite was found in Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanococcus jannaschii. Annexin V labeling revealed a surface orientation of phosphoserine head groups in M. smithii, M. mazei and M. jannaschii archaeosomes. Uptake of rhodamine-labeled M. smithii or M. jannaschii archaeosomes by murine peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by unlabeled liposomes containing phosphatidylserine, by the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide, and by ATP depletion using azide plus fluoride, but not by H. halobium archaeosomes. In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide failed to inhibit uptake of the four other rhodamine-labeled archaeosome types, and azide plus fluoride did not inhibit uptake of H. halobium or H. morrhuae archaeosomes. These results suggest endocytosis ofarchaeosomes rich in surface-exposed phosphoserine head groups via a phosphatidylserine receptor, and energy-independent surface adsorption of certain other archaeosome composition classes. Lipid composition affected not only the endocytic mechanism, but also served to differentially modulate the activation of dendritic cells. The induction of IL-12 secretion from dendritic cells exposed to H. morrhuae 14039 archaeosomes was striking compared with cells exposed to archaeosomes from 16008. Thus, archaeosome types uniquely modulate antigen delivery and dendritic cell activation. PMID:15803661

Sprott, G. Dennis; Sad, Subash; Fleming, L. Perry; DiCaire, Chantal J.; Patel, Girishchandra B.; Krishnan, Lakshmi

2003-01-01

40

Nonlinear and Threshold Responses of Grassland Productivity and Species Composition to Increased CO2 Vary with Soil Type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is likely to cause nonlinear responses in ecosystem function and threshold changes in species composition. Here we report aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) responses to a continuous CO2 concentration gradient (250 to 500 ?L L-1,) in experimental grassland communities on three soils differing in water holding capacity and other properties. Communities consisting of four C4 grasses, two C3 forbs, and one legume were established on a lowland clay (vertisol, n=32), an upland clay (mollisol, n=32), and an alluvial sand (alfisol, n=16). The communities were positioned in a stratified random design in the CO2 gradient for five growing seasons, and were irrigated to mimic the average growing season rainfall regime for the study site in Central Texas. ANPP increased with CO2 almost two-fold more on the upland clay and alluvial sand than on the lowland clay (p < 0.0001), because of strong linear responses to CO2 on these soils (R2 = 0.50 to 0.59, p < 0.002) compared to a saturating response to CO2 on the lowland clay (R2 = 0.48, p= 0.01). On the two more responsive soils, the mesic tallgrass Sorghastrum nutans replaced the more drought adapted mid-grass Bouteloua curtipendula at elevated CO2, while B. curtipendula largely replaced S. nutans at low CO2, especially on the upland clay. Evidence for a similar composition change was not found on the lowland clay. Thus, two soils displayed a threshold change in community composition that accounted for up to 57% of variation in ANPP for those soils. Variation in ANPP and species composition with CO2 were accompanied by linear increases in soil water content (SWC, 0 - 20 cm, volumetric), most strongly on the alluvial sand (R2 = 0.39, p < 0.009) and by weak decreases with CO2 in soil N. Structural equation models explained 34 to 52% of the variation in ANPP, and indicated that CO2 effects on ANPP on the upland clay were primarily explained by CO2 effects on species composition, and on the alluvial sand by CO2 effects on SWC. Responses to elevated CO2 in SWC, ANPP, and species composition were explained by reduced stomatal conductance and increased photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE) in both grasses. In addition, S. nutans gained more in WUE at elevated CO2 than B. curtipendula, while B. curtipendula at elevated CO2 had lower light saturated photosynthetic capacity, quantum use efficiency, and dark respiration than S. nutans. Thus, at elevated CO2, shading by the taller S. nutans likely lowered B. curtipendula carbon assimilation and growth. We conclude that elevated CO2 strongly increased ANPP on upland clay and alluvial sand soils where there were also gains in soil moisture and threshold changes in species composition driven by physiological differences in the two dominant grass species. As a result, CO2 effects on ANPP will likely differ with soil type across the landscape.

Fay, P. A.; Jin, V.; Jackson, R. B.; Gill, R. A.; Way, D.; Polley, W.

2011-12-01

41

Computational study of multi-color InGaN/GaN nanowire LEDs with continuously varied indium composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gallium nitride based light emitting diodes have emerged as powerful devices which could replace incandescent and fluorescent lamps within the next years. The development of phosphor-free white LEDs is an ongoing field of research because of the lack of high efficiency green LEDs. A promising approach is the growth of InGaN/GaN nanowires with a continuously varied Indium content along the structure. The graded mole fraction profile is supposed to yield a multitude of emission colors due to many emission levels which can sum up to white light emission. The formation of strain and polarization charges is reduced because of the incremental varying lattice constants in combination with the facility of lateral relaxation of the wire. We report on the computational analysis of those nanowire structures in order to understand the electroluminescent behavior. The simulation software calculates the electrostatic potential and the carrier densities in the entire structure by solving the Poisson and the drift/diffusion equations in three dimensions. The luminescence is determined on the basis of a free carrier theory and enters the continuity equations as recombination term with strain and polarization effects included. This comprehensive physical model is employed to analyze carrier injection and luminescence for a white light-emitter design.

Deppner, Marcus; Bjelica, Marko; Römer, Friedhard; Witzigmann, Bernd

2012-02-01

42

Rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with long-lived perennial prairie plants vary in diversity, composition, and structure.  

PubMed

The goal of this research was to investigate the variation in rhizosphere microbial community composition, diversity, and structure among individual Andropogon gerardii Vitman (big bluestem) and Lespedeza capitata Michx. (bush clover). Bacterial communities from the rhizosphere of 10 plants of each species (n = 20 plants total) were explored using a culture-independent pipeline. Microbial communities associated with both host plants had high bacterial diversity within individual plant rhizosphere and taxa unique to individual rhizospheres. Bacterial communities associated with the rhizosphere of A. gerardii were consistently more diverse than those associated with L. capitata, and there were significant differences between plant species in rhizosphere bacterial community composition. Differences included microbial taxa with no known functional relationship with their preferred host species, including sulfide-methylating obligate anaerobes (Holophaga), complete denitrifiers (Rhodoplanes), sludge inhabitants (Ktedonobacter), and nitrate oxidizers (Nitrospira). These results suggest the potential for plant species to have significant impacts on a broad array of ecosystem functions (e.g., cycling of carbon, nitrogen sulfurs, metals, and trace elements) via their selective impacts on soil microbes. However, sequence-based community analysis and the corresponding lack of intact microbial cultures limits understanding of the potential influences of enriched microbial taxa on plant hosts and their roles in ecosystem functioning. PMID:23826959

Rosenzweig, N; Bradeen, J M; Tu, Z J; McKay, S J; Kinkel, L L

2013-07-01

43

Comparative studies on the cell wall composition of some anaerobic coryneforms of varying lympho-reticular stimulatory activity.  

PubMed

Anaerobic diphtheroids possessing lympho-reticular stimulatory properties may differ considerably in their peptidoglycan composition. Spleen weight-increasing activity of strains directly parallels their antitumour properties. P. granulosum strains, inactive in assays for lympho-reticular stimulation, appear to have a higher cell wall alanine content than most of the P. acnes and P. avidum strains tested. Two P. acnes strains, however, had equivalently high alanine ratios and were stimulatory. The presence of galactose does not appear to be required for activity since P. acnes II strains which lack this sugar can be fully stimulatory. The existence of the species P. lymphophilum (Torrey) is further supported by the finding of two more serologically identical strains which do not cross react serologically with the other species in the group. These organisms are fully stimulatory but have lysine rather than DAP as their cell wall diamino acid. PMID:608497

Adlam, C; Reid, D E

44

Evaluation of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) containing copolymer networks of varied composition as sustained metoprolol tartrate delivery systems.  

PubMed

Segmented copolymer networks (SCN) based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, and/or methyl methacrylate segments have been evaluated as potential sustained release systems of the water soluble cardioselective ?-blocker metoprolol tartrate. The structure and properties of the drug carriers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Swelling kinetics of SCNs in various media was followed, and the conditions for effective MT loading were specified. MT-loaded SCNs with drug content up to 80 wt.% were produced. The release kinetics of metoprolol tartrate from the systems was studied and it was shown that the conetworks of different structure and composition are able to sustain the metoprolol tartrate release without additional excipients. PMID:24789663

Kostova, Bistra; Ivanova, Sijka; Balashev, Konstantin; Rachev, Dimitar; Christova, Darinka

2014-08-01

45

Aroma profiles of vegetable oils varying in fatty acid composition vs. concentrations of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products.  

PubMed

The aroma compositions of oxidised sunflower oil, linseed oil and a blend thereof (85/15) were compared with frequently used indicators for primary and secondary lipid oxidation. Primary lipid oxidation was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes, secondary lipid oxidation by proponal and hexanal formation. Highest concentrations of conjugated dienes and propanal were measured in the linseed oil, followed by the blend and sunflower oil, respectively. Highest concentrations of hexanal were determined in the blend. At similar primary oxidation levels, volatile compounds of the oils were isolated in a model mouth system and subsequently analysed by gas chromatography/sniffing port analysis. Propanal, pentanal, 1-penten-3-one, hexanal, 1-pentanol, octanal, 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol and (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal possessed detectable odours. Comparing the three oils, most aroma compounds and greatest intensities were determined in the blend. Conjugated diene concentrations did not predict the formation of aroma compounds adequately. Although propanal and hexanal concentrations were reasonable indicators for aroma development in linseed and sunflower oil, respectively, neither of the indicators predicted aroma development in all three oils sufficiently. PMID:11075372

van Ruth, S M; Roozen, J P; Jansen, F J

2000-10-01

46

The supramolecular structure of LPS-chitosan complexes of varied composition in relation to their biological activity.  

PubMed

The complexes of chitosan (Ch) with lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from Escherichia coli O55:B5 (E-LPS) and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 1B 598 (Y-LPS) of various weight compositions were investigated using quasi-elastic light scattering, ?-potential distribution assay and atomic force microscopy. The alteration of ?-potential of E-LPS-Ch complexes from negative to positive values depending on Ch content was detected. The Y-LPS-Ch complexes had similar positive ?-potentials regardless of Ch content. The transformation of the supramolecular structure of E-LPS after binding with to Ch was revealed. Screening of E-LPS and Y-LPS particles by Ch in the complexes with high polycation was detected. The ability of LPS-Ch complex to induce biosynthesis of TNF-? and reactive oxygen species in stimulated human mononuclear cells was studied. A significant decrease in activity complexes compared to that of the initial LPS was observed only for E-LPS-Ch complexes. PMID:25843841

Davydova, V N; Volod'ko, A V; Sokolova, E V; Chusovitin, E A; Balagan, S A; Gorbach, V I; Galkin, N G; Yermak, I M; Solov'eva, T F

2015-06-01

47

Expanding the family of collagen proteins: Recombinant bacterial collagens of varying composition form triple-helices of similar stability  

PubMed Central

The presence of the (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n open reading frames in different bacteria predicts the existence of an expanded family of collagen-like proteins. To further explore the triple-helix motif and stabilization mechanisms in the absence of hydroxyproline (Hyp), predicted novel collagen-like proteins from Gram-positive and -negative bacteria were expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. Soluble proteins capable of successful folding and in vitro refolding were observed for collagen proteins from Methylobacterium sp 4-46, Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Solibacter usitatus. In contrast, all protein constructs from Clostridium perfringens were found predominantly in inclusion bodies. However, attachment of a heterologous N-terminal or C-terminal non-collagenous folding domain induced the Clostridium perfringens collagen domain to fold and become soluble. The soluble constructs from different bacteria had typical collagen triple-helical features and showed surprisingly similar thermal stabilities despite diverse amino acid compositions. These collagen-like proteins provide a resource for the development of biomaterials with new properties. PMID:20025291

Xu, Chunying; Yu, Zhuoxin; Inouye, Masayori; Brodsky, Barbara; Mirochnitchenko, Oleg

2010-01-01

48

Understanding the changes in the circular dichroism of light harvesting complex II upon varying its pigment composition and organization.  

PubMed

In this work we modeled the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of LHCII, the main light harvesting antenna of photosystem II of higher plants. Excitonic calculations are performed for a monomeric subunit, taken from the crystal structure of trimeric LHCII from spinach [Liu, Z. F., Yan, H. C., Wang, K. B., Kuang, T. Y., Zhang, J. P., Gui, L. L., An, X. M., and Chang, W. R. (2004) Nature 428, 287-292]. All of the major features of the CD spectrum above 450 nm are satisfactorily reproduced, and possible orientations of the Chl and carotenoid transition dipole moments are identified. The obtained modeling parameters are used to simulate the CD spectra of two complexes with altered pigment composition: a mutant lacking Chls a 611-612 and a complex lacking the carotenoid neoxanthin. By removing the relevant pigment(s) from the structure, we are able to reproduce their spectra, which implies that the alteration does not disturb the overall structure. The CD spectrum of trimeric LHCII shows a reversed relative intensity of the two negative bands around 470 and 490 nm as compared to monomeric LHCII. The simulations reproduce this reversal, indicating that it is mainly due to interactions between chromophores in different monomeric subunits, and the trimerization does not induce observable changes in the monomeric structure. Our simulated spectrum resembles one of two different trimeric CD spectra reported in literature. We argue that the differences in the experimental trimeric CD spectra are caused by changes in the strength of the monomer-monomer interactions due to the differences in detergents used for the purification of the complexes. PMID:17402710

Georgakopoulou, Sofia; van der Zwan, Gert; Bassi, Roberto; van Grondelle, Rienk; van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

2007-04-24

49

Sediment accretion rates and sediment composition in Prairie Pothole wetlands under varying land use practices, Montana, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increased sedimentation and nutrient cycle changes in Prairie Pothole Region wetlands associated with agriculture threaten the permanence and ecological functionality of these important resources. To determine the effects of land use on sedimentation and nutrient cycling, soil cores were analyzed for cesium-137 (137Cs), lead-210 (210Pb), and potassium-40 (40K) activities; textural composition; organic and inorganic carbon (C); and total nitrogen (N) from twelve wetlands surrounded by cropland, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands, or native prairie uplands. Separate soil cores from nine of these wetlands were also analyzed for phosphorus (P), nitrate (NO3), and ammonium (NH4) concentrations. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had significantly greater linear sediment accretion rates than wetlands surrounded by CRP or native prairie. Linear sediment accretion rates from wetlands surrounded by cropland were 2.7 and 6 times greater than wetlands surrounded by native prairie when calculated from the initial and peak occurrence of 137Cs, respectively, and 0.15 cm y?1 (0.06 in yr?1) greater when calculated from 210Pb. Relative to wetlands surrounded by CRP, linear sediment accretion rates for wetlands surrounded by cropland were 4.4 times greater when calculated from the peak occurrence of 137Cs. No significant differences existed between the linear sediment accretion rates between wetlands surrounded by native prairie or CRP uplands. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had increased clay, P, NO3, and NH4, and decreased total C and N concentrations compared to wetlands surrounded by native prairie. Wetlands surrounded by CRP had the lowest P and NO3 concentrations and had clay, NH4, C, and N concentrations between those of cropland and native prairie wetlands. We documented increased linear sediment accretion rates and changes in the textural and chemical properties of sediments in wetlands with cultivated uplands relative to wetlands with native prairie uplands. These findings demonstrate the value of the CRP at protecting wetland catchments to reduce sedimentation.

Preston, T.M.; Sojda, R.S.; Gleason, R.A.

2013-01-01

50

Call title: KBBE 2010: general call for proposals Call identifier: FP7-KBBE-2010-4  

E-print Network

of publication: 30 July 2009 · Deadline1 : 14 January 2010 at 17.00.00 (Brussels local time) · Indicative budget: EUR 190.01 million from 2010 Budget2 3 The budget for this call is indicative. The final budget awarded to actions implemented through calls for proposals may vary: · The final budget of the call may

Milano-Bicocca, Università

51

Influence of atmospheric properties on detection of wood-warbler nocturnal flight calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Avian migration monitoring can take on many forms; however, monitoring active nocturnal migration of land birds is limited to a few techniques. Avian nocturnal flight calls are currently the only method for describing migrant composition at the species level. However, as this method develops, more information is needed to understand the sources of variation in call detection. Additionally, few studies examine how detection probabilities differ under varying atmospheric conditions. We use nocturnal flight call recordings from captive individuals to explore the dependence of flight call detection on atmospheric temperature and humidity. Height or distance from origin had the largest influence on call detection, while temperature and humidity also influenced detectability at higher altitudes. Because flight call detection varies with both atmospheric conditions and flight height, improved monitoring across time and space will require correction for these factors to generate standardized metrics of songbird migration.

Horton, Kyle G.; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Tegeler, Amy K.

2015-01-01

52

Protein Allelic Composition, Dough Rheology, and Baking Characteristics of Flour Mill Streams from Wheat Cultivars with Known and Varied Baking Qualities 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 79(5):720-725 Flour mill streams obtained by milling grain of 10 bread wheat cultivars grown in the Skopje region of Macedonia were analyzed for rheological and breadmaking quality characteristics and for composition of gliadins and HMW-GS. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between the composition of gluten proteins and bread- making quality, as well as

M. Menkovska; D. Knezevic; M. Ivanoski

2002-01-01

53

Influence of varying hydrogen bond strength resulting from compositional variation on the vibration spectra of proton glasses: K1-x(NH4)xH2PO4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystal neutron diffraction investigation [Choudhury and Chitra, J. Phys. Condense Matter, 25 (2013) 075902] on four mixed crystals with composition (K1-x(NH4)xH2PO4) where x=0.0, 0.29, 0.67, and 1.0 belonging to the potassium dihydrogen phosphate family of hydrogen bonded ferroelectric crystals had revealed that the compositional variation results in subtle structural differences primarily in the hydrogen bonds of these crystals. The study indicated that there is a change in hydrogen bond strengths with the change in crystal composition. Spectral investigation of the same set of four mixed crystals is undertaken with an intention to study the influence of the varying hydrogen bond strength on the vibrational properties of the crystals. Room temperature Raman spectra for all the four crystals are recorded in the range 100-4000 cm-1. This Raman investigation correlates the structural changes observed from neutron diffraction investigations to the changes in the vibration spectra of the crystals. The varying N-H-O hydrogen bond strength in the mixed crystals is found to have an observable effect on the librational frequencies of the molecular components of these crystals. The strong OHO hydrogen bonds in these crystals give rise to four spectral bands in the 1500-3000 cm-1 spectral region; this is in accordance with the theoretical prediction from the tunneling model for the very strong OHO hydrogen bonds. These OHO bonds can be described by a low barrier double well potential; the vibrational energy levels of the potential are split due to quantum tunneling effects. It is observed that the varying OHO hydrogen bond strength of these crystals results in a variation in the splitting of the vibrational energy levels of the hydrogen bond potential. It is attempted to correlate the varying OHO hydrogen bond strength with the expected variation in the freezing temperature with composition of these proton glasses.

Choudhury, Rajul Ranjan; Chitra, R.; Abraham, Geogy J.

2014-07-01

54

Torpor patterns of hibernating eastern chipmunks Tamias striatus vary in response to the size and fatty acid composition of food hoards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Many endotherms employ torpor during periods of resource scarcity, but this state of substantially reduced body temperature and metabolism appears to impose significant physiological costs. Accordingly, individuals can be expected to vary the expression of torpor according to the size of their energy reserves. 2. Although dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important for maintain- ing the fluidity

DANIEL MUNRO; DONALD W. THOMAS; MURRAY M. HUMPHRIES

2005-01-01

55

The effects of sulfidation and oxidation during metamorphism on compositionally varied rocks adjacent to the Bleikvassli Zn–Pb–(Cu) deposit, Nordland, Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrographic, electron microprobe, and bulk-rock geochemical analyses indicate that the distribution and composition of ferromagnesian\\u000a silicates (biotite, garnet, and staurolite) in and adjacent to the metamorphosed Bleikvassli Zn–Pb–(Cu) volcanogenic massive\\u000a sulfide deposit, Norway, are dependent upon the competing effects of f?O2–f?S2 and host-rock composition. The enrichment in magnesium content of these silicates within the orebody and at distances of\\u000a as

J. L. Rosenberg; P. G. Spry; C. E. Jacobson; F. M. Vokes

2000-01-01

56

Electric-Field Modulation of Curie Temperature in (Ga, Mn)As Field-Effect Transistor Structures with Varying Channel Thickness and Mn Compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the change of TC of ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga, Mn)As by changing hole concentration p. The field effect transistor structure was utilized to change p. The relation TC?p0.2 is obtained for three samples, despite the difference of their Mn composition and thickness, indicating that the relation holds over 2 decades of p.

Nishitani, Y.; Chiba, D.; Endo, M.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

2010-01-01

57

Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition vary in relation to nectary anatomy and location within individual flowers of several species of Brassicaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymology\\u000a in nine species from five tribes of the Brassicaceae. In six species (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Brassica napus L., B. rapa L., Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv., Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L.) that produced nectar from both lateral nectaries (associated with the short stamens) and median nectaries

Arthur R. Davis; Jeffrey D. Pylatuik; Joelle C. Paradis; Nicholas H. Low

1998-01-01

58

Exposure of grapes to smoke of vegetation with varying lignin composition and accretion of lignin derived putative smoke taint compounds in wine.  

PubMed

Smoke taint in wines from bushfire smoke exposure has become a concern for wine producers. Smoke taint compounds are primarily derived from pyrolysis of the lignin component of fuels. This work examined the influence of the lignin composition of pyrolysed vegetation on the types of putative smoke taint compounds that accrue in wines. At veraison, Merlot vines were exposed to smoke generated from five vegetation types with differing lignin composition. Smoke was generated under pyrolysis conditions that simulated bushfire temperature profiles. Lignin and smoke composition of each fuel type along with putative smoke taint compounds in wines were determined. The results showed that, regardless of fuel type, the commonly reported guaiacyl lignin derived smoke taint compounds, guaiacol and 4-methylguaiacol, represented about 20% of the total phenols in wines. Quantitatively, syringyl lignin derived compounds dominated the total phenol pools in both free and bound forms. The contributions of p-hydroxyphenyls were generally similar to the guaiacyl sources. A further unexpected outcome of the study was that pine smoke affected wines had significantly elevated levels of syringols compared to the controls although pine fuel and its smoke emission lacked syringyl products. PMID:22868160

Kelly, David; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Singh, Davinder P; Vitzthum von Eckstaedt, Christiane; Gibberd, Mark; Grice, Kliti; Downey, Mark

2012-11-15

59

Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how composites work by creating and testing their own composite for an imaginary company. This activity shows learners that composites are simply materials that are made up of two or more visibly distinct substances. Use this activity to talk about how composites are everywhere in our lives.

Cornell Center for Materials Research

2003-01-01

60

Current versus voltage characteristics of GaN /AlGaN/GaN double heterostructures with varying AlGaN thickness and composition under hydrostatic pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied current versus voltage characteristics of n-GaN /u-AlGaN/n-GaN double heterostructure devices under hydrostatic pressure up to 500MPa. Devices were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy using epitaxial layer overgrowth. The effect of AlGaN layer thickness and composition on the pressure sensitivity was investigated. For a fixed applied bias, we found that the current decreases approximately linearly in magnitude with increasing hydrostatic pressure over the range of voltages and pressures applied. The decrease in current magnitude can be attributed to piezoelectric effects and is consistent with model calculations. The polarization charge densities at the GaN /AlGaN interfaces change with hydrostatic pressure, which in turn modifies the internal potential barrier. Changes in the AlGaN layer thickness and composition also modify the interfacial polarization, with thicker AlGaN layers and higher AlN content increasing the effect of pressure on the observed current versus voltage characteristics. The strain gauge factors obtained for these devices range from ˜200 to 800.

Steinke, I. P.; Ruden, P. P.; Ni, X.; Morkoç, H.; Son, K.-A.

2008-03-01

61

Head-group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a common stress response, and the acyl-galactose acyl composition varies with the plant species and applied stress  

PubMed Central

Formation of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols has been shown to be induced by leaf homogenization, mechanical wounding, avirulent bacterial infection, and thawing after snap-freezing. Here, lipidomic analysis using mass spectrometry showed that galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, formed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves upon wounding, have acyl-galactose profiles that differ from those of wounded Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that different plant species accumulate different acyl-galactose components in response to the same stress. Additionally, the composition of the acyl-galactose component of Arabidopsis acMGDG depends on the stress treatment. After sub-lethal freezing treatment, acMGDG contained mainly non-oxidized fatty acids esterified to galactose, whereas mostly oxidized fatty acids accumulated on galactose after wounding or bacterial infection. Compositional data are consistent with acMGDG being formed in vivo by transacylation with fatty acids from digalactosyldiacylglycerols. Oxophytodienoic acid, an oxidized fatty acid, was more concentrated on the galactosyl ring of acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols than in galactolipids in general. Also, oxidized fatty acid-containing acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols increased cumulatively when wounded Arabidopsis leaves were wounded again. These findings suggest that, in Arabidopsis, the pool of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols may serve to sequester oxidized fatty acids during stress responses. PMID:24286212

Vu, Hieu Sy; Roth, Mary R.; Tamura, Pamela; Samarakoon, Thilani; Shiva, Sunitha; Honey, Samuel; Lowe, Kaleb; Schmelz, Eric A.; Williams, Todd D.; Welti, Ruth

2014-01-01

62

Integrated literature review of postdischarge telephone calls.  

PubMed

This systematic review of the literature assessed the impact of a postdischarge telephone call on patient outcomes. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and an evidence table was developed. The content, timing, and professional placing the call varied across studies. Study strength was low and findings were inconsistent. Measures varied across studies, many sample sizes were small, and studies differed by patient population. Evidence is inconclusive for use of phone calls to decrease readmission, emergency department use, patient satisfaction, scheduled and unscheduled follow-up, and physical and emotional well-being. Among these studies, there was limited support for medication-focused calls by pharmacists but no support for decreasing readmission. Health care providers benefited from feedback but did not need to place the call to realize this benefit. Inpatient nurses were unable to manage the volume of calls. There was no standardized approach to the call, training, or documentation requirements. PMID:23833254

Bahr, Sarah J; Solverson, Susan; Schlidt, Andrea; Hack, Deborah; Smith, Jeri Lynn; Ryan, Polly

2014-01-01

63

Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.  

PubMed

Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and C16:0 yield. Dietary linoleic acid content also had a positive coefficient for milk trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid yield. These results demonstrate that even when total dietary FA are below 3%, free oils rich in linoleic acid can reduce milk fat yield by reducing secretion of milk FA with fewer than 18 carbons. Fatty acid composition of fat supplements is important even at this low level of total dietary fat. PMID:25468700

Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

2015-01-01

64

Reduction of an E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella composite on fresh strawberries by varying antimicrobial washes and vacuum perfusion.  

PubMed

A 2011 outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis, which resulted in the death of two individuals, was associated with contaminated strawberries. A study was conducted to identify antimicrobial washes effective at reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica from the surface of fresh whole strawberries during two-minute immersion washes. Twenty-seven antimicrobial treatments were tested. Vacuum perfusion was applied to strawberries during chlorine and peracetic acid treatments to promote infiltration of sanitizer into porous strawberry tissue. Strawberries were inoculated to 7.1logCFU/strawberry with a seven-strain bacterial composite, consisting of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 and four serovars of Salmonella enterica. Berries were air-dried for 2h and immersed in circulating antimicrobial solutions for 120s at 22°C. Four treatments reduced ?3.0logCFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% acetic acid+1% H2O2, (b) 30% ethanol+1% H2O2, (c) 90ppm peracetic acid, and (d) 1% lactic acid+1% H2O2. Two additional treatments that reduced 2.8logCFU/strawberry were (a) 40% ethanol, and (b) 1% each of phosphoric+fumaric acids. Eight treatments reduced 2.0-2.6logCFU/strawberry. Five treatments reduced <1.45CFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% citric acid, (b) 1% lactic acid, (c) 1% acetic acid, (d) 0.5% each of acetic+citric acids and (e) 0.5% each of acetic+lactic acids. The use of vacuum perfusion with 200ppm chlorine or 90ppm peracetic acid did not reduce greater populations of pathogens than did the same treatments without vacuum perfusion. Fourteen treatments reduced no more pathogens (p<0.05) than did sterile deionized water. Results from this study provide some options for end-point decontamination of strawberries for retail operations just prior to serving to customers. PMID:25146462

Gurtler, Joshua B; Bailey, Rebecca B; Jin, Tony Z; Fan, Xuetong

2014-10-17

65

Observations and projections of visibility and aerosol optical thickness (1956–2100) in the Netherlands: impacts of time-varying aerosol composition and hygroscopicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time series of visibility and aerosol optical thickness for the Netherlands have been constructed for 1956–2100 based on observations and aerosol mass scenarios. Aerosol optical thickness from 1956 to 2013 has been reconstructed by converting time series of visibility to visible extinction which in turn are converted to aerosol optical thickness using an appropriate scaling depth. The reconstruction compares closely with remote sensing observations of aerosol optical thickness between 1960 and 2013. It appears that aerosol optical thickness was relatively constant over the Netherlands in the years 1955–1985. After 1985, visibility has improved, while at the same time aerosol optical thickness has decreased. Based on aerosol emission scenarios for the Netherlands three aerosol types have been identified: (1) a constant background consisting of sea salt and mineral dust, (2) a hydrophilic anthropogenic inorganic mixture, and (3) a partly hydrophobic mixture of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OAs). A reduction in overall aerosol concentration turns out to be the most influential factor in the reduction in aerosol optical thickness. But during 1956–1985, an upward trend in hydrophilic aerosols and associated upward trend in optical extinction has partly compensated the overall reduction in optical extinction due to the reduction in less hydrophilic BC and OAs. A constant optical thickness ensues. This feature highlights the influence of aerosol hygroscopicity on time-varying signatures of atmospheric optical properties. Within the hydrophilic inorganic aerosol mixture there is a gradual shift from sulfur-based (1956–1985) to a nitrogen-based water aerosol chemistry (1990 onwards) but always modulated by the continual input of sodium from sea salt. From 2013 to 2100, visibility is expected to continue its increase, while at the same time optical thickness is foreseen to continue to decrease. The contribution of the hydrophilic mixture to the aerosol optical thickness will increase from 30% to 35% in 1956 to more than 70% in 2100. At the same time the contribution of black and organic aerosols will decrease by more than 80%.

Boers, R.; van Weele, M.; van Meijgaard, E.; Savenije, M.; Siebesma, A. P.; Bosveld, F.; Stammes, P.

2015-01-01

66

Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition vary in relation to nectary anatomy and location within individual flowers of several species of Brassicaceae.  

PubMed

Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymology in nine species from five tribes of the Brassicaceae. In six species (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Brassica napus L., B. rapa L., Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv., Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L.) that produced nectar from both lateral nectaries (associated with the short stamens) and median nectaries (outside the long stamens), on average 95% of the total nectar carbohydrate was collected from the lateral ones. Nectar from these glands possessed a higher glucose/fructose ratio (usually 1.0-1.2) than that from the median nectaries (0.2-0.9) within the same flower. Comparatively little sucrose was detected in any nectar samples except from Matthiola bicornus (Sibth. et Sm.) DC., which possessed lateral nectaries only and produced a sucrose-dominant exudate. The anatomy of the nectarial tissue in nectar-secreting flowers of six species, Hesperis matronalis L., L. maritima, M. bicornus, R. sativus, S. arvensis, and Sisymbrium loeselii L., was studied by light and scanning-electron microscopy. Phloem alone supplied the nectaries. However, in accordance with their overall nectar-carbohydrate production, the lateral glands received relatively rich quantities of phloem that penetrated far into the glandular tissue, whereas median glands were supplied with phloem that often barely innervated them. All nectarial tissue possessed modified stomata (with the exception of the median glands of S. loeselii, which did not produce nectar); further evidence was gathered to indicate that these structures do not regulate nectar flow by guard-cell movements. The numbers of modified stomata per gland showed no relation to nectar-carbohydrate production. Taken together, the data on nectar biochemistry and nectary anatomy indicate the existence of two distinct nectary types in those Brassicacean species that possess both lateral and median nectaries, regardless of whether nectarial tissue is united around the entire receptacle or not. It is proposed that the term "nectarium" be used to represent collectively the multiple nectaries that can be found in individual flowers. PMID:9637073

Davis, A R; Pylatuik, J D; Paradis, J C; Low, N H

1998-06-01

67

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST Date: Time: Time Caller Phone Number Where Hung Up: Call Received:Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act

Guo, Ting

68

Time Varying Feature Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrastructure to gather, store and access information about our environment is improving and growing rapidly. The increasing amount of information allows us to get a better understanding of the current state of our environment, historical processes and to simulate and predict the future state of the environment. Finer grained spatial and temporal data and more reliable communications make it easier to model dynamic states and ephemeral features. The exchange of information within and across geospatial domains is facilitated through the use of harmonized information models. The Observations & Measurements (O&M) developed through OGC and standardised by ISO is an example of such a cross-domain information model. It is used in many domains, including meteorology, hydrology as well as the emergency management. O&M enables harmonized representation of common metadata that belong to the act of determining the state of a feature property, whether by sensors, simulations or humans. In addition to the resulting feature property value, information such as the result quality but especially the time that the result applies to the feature property can be represented. Temporal metadata is critical to modelling past and future states of a feature. The features, and the semantics of each property, are defined in domain specific Application Schema using the General Feature Model (GFM) from ISO 19109 and usually encoded following ISO 19136. However, at the moment these standards provide only limited support for the representation and handling of time varying feature data. Features like rivers, wildfires or gas plumes have a defined state - for example geographic extent - at any given point in time. To keep track of changes, a more complex model for example using time-series coverages is required. Furthermore, the representation and management of feature property value changes via the service interfaces defined by OGC and ISO - namely: WFS and WCS - would be rather complex. Keeping track of feature property value corrections or even feature (state change) cancellations for auditing purposes is also not easy to achieve. The aviation domain has strong requirements to represent and manage the state of aeronautical features through time. Being able to efficiently encode and manage feature state changes, keeping track of all changes for auditing purposes and being able to determine the future state of an aeronautical feature as currently known to the system are vital for aeronautical applications. In order to support these requirements, the Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AIXM) which has been developed by the aviation domain is based on the so called AIXM Temporality Model (AIXM-TM). The AIXM-TM defines various rules for modeling, representing and handling the state of aeronautical features through time. This is a promising approach that can be incorporated into the GFM so that ultimately the modeling and management of time varying feature data is supported in an interoperable and harmonized way in all geospatial domains. This presentation gives an introduction to the main concepts of the AIXM-TM. It also shows how the GFM can be extended to support time varying feature data. Finally, the relationship of O&M and time varying features is discussed.

Echterhoff, J.; Simonis, I.; Atkinson, R.

2012-04-01

69

Air Call-Accept  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We've all had our hands in the dishwater when an important call comes in. The Air Call-Accept application gives users the ability to just wave their hand across the proximity sensor, and voila: the call is accepted. It's quite useful for people who are driving around quite a bit, though others will certainly find it efficacious. This version is compatible with devices running Android 1.6 and newer.

2013-08-15

70

Callings and Organizational Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…

Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith

2010-01-01

71

The Power of CALL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book provides an overview of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) written by specialists in specific areas of electronic media. Its nine chapters include: "The Power of the Computer in Language Education" (Martha C. Pennington); "Elements of CALL Methodology: Development, Evaluation, and Implementation" (Philip L. Hubbard); "Second…

Pennington, Martha C., Ed.

72

Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

Taylor, John G.

73

Varying constants quantum cosmology  

E-print Network

We discuss minisuperspace models within the framework of varying physical constants theories including $\\Lambda$-term. In particular, we consider the varying speed of light (VSL) theory and varying gravitational constant theory (VG) using the specific ans\\"atze for the variability of constants: $c(a) = c_0 a^n$ and $G(a)=G_0 a^q$. We find that most of the varying $c$ and $G$ minisuperspace potentials are of the tunneling type which allows to use WKB approximation of quantum mechanics. Using this method we show that the probability of tunneling of the universe "from nothing" ($a=0)$ to a Friedmann geometry with the scale factor $a_t$ is large for growing $c$ models and is strongly suppressed for diminishing $c$ models. As for $G$ varying, the probability of tunneling is large for $G$ diminishing, while it is small for $G$ increasing. In general, both varying $c$ and $G$ change the probability of tunneling in comparison to the standard matter content (cosmological term, dust, radiation) universe models.

Katarzyna Leszczynska; Adam Balcerzak; Mariusz P. Dabrowski

2015-01-26

74

Roll Call Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its inception, Roll Call, the newspaper of Capitol Hill since 1955, has written about and for the US Congress. Roll Call has created this website to continue its unorthodox reporting in another format that reaches a wider audience. Instead of tracking issues and legislation, the newspaper and site cover "the three Ps: people, politics, and process." Hard-nosed reporting on money trails and scandals is accompanied by insiders gossip and humor pieces. At the site, users can view news scoops, commentary, and policy briefings, as well as the Roll Call confidential files. Some features in the last issue include a list of the 50 richest Congress members and the states with the most clout in Congress. Additional resources at the site include a 1998 Election Map and a searchable Capitol Hill Directory.

75

A Call to Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

This call to action exposes how race, gender, class, and sexuality influence the plight of the aging in the United States. The author contends that in order for all people who are growing old to be able to age with equal success, aging activists with their wide range of political involvement must recognize how one's situation is complicated by overlapping

Virginia M. Apuzzo

2002-01-01

76

Wake-Up Call.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the artist, Laquita Thomson, whose inspiration are the stars and space. Discusses her series called, "Celestial Happenings: Stars Fell on Alabama." Describes one event that inspired an art work when a meteor crashed into an Alabama home. Includes lessons for various subject areas. (CMK)

Sartorius, Tara Cady

2002-01-01

77

Calling in the Feds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Georgia superintendent (and former teacher) angered board and community members by calling in federal authorities to help eliminate de facto segregation in two schools serving 1,200 students. At issue were a discriminatory track system and unintegrated cheerleading teams. Sidebars explain the U.S. Education Department's Office for Civil Rights…

Cherubini, Corkin F.

1995-01-01

78

Call of the Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will evaluate informational text and build background knowledge about the American Author Jack London. Procedures: Click on the links below and read the biographical information about Jack London, the historical time period in which he wrote, and his writing by reading a few excerpts from Call of The Wild, Sea Wolf, and more tales. London is highly demanding on his readers; ...

Mrs. Whaley

2009-04-19

79

CALL on Mac.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five computer programs for the Macintosh that are geared for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) are described. All five programs allow the teacher to input material. The first program allows entry of new vocabulary lists including definition, a sentence in which the exact word is used, a fill-in-the-blank exercise, and the word's phonetics…

Fukuzawa, Jeannette L.; Lubin, Jan M.

80

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES WHO TO CONTACT (select one) · Follow your local guidelines · Federal Protective Service (FPS) Police 1-877-4-FPS-411 (1-877-437-7411) · 911 Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act quickly, but remain calm and obtain

Boyce, Richard L.

81

Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution  

PubMed Central

Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge. PMID:17251105

Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

2007-01-01

82

Fast Varying Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of Fast Varying Loads (FVLs) in distribution systems is associated with high variation in the active power and bursts of distortion. FVLs affect surrounding loads sensitive to voltage rms variation and distortion. Thus they affect quality of the supply. This paper presents an overview of some electric loads that behave as FVLs. FVLs are characterized in this paper

Veronica B. Bohorquez

2007-01-01

83

Comparison of acid-detergent lignin, alkaline-peroxide lignin, and acid-detergent insoluble ash as internal markers for predicting fecal output and digestibility by cattle offered bermudagrass hays of varying nutrient composition  

PubMed Central

Background The potential for acid-detergent insoluble ash (ADIA), alkaline-peroxide lignin (APL), and acid-detergent lignin (ADL) to predict fecal output (FO) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) by cattle offered bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hays of different qualities was evaluated. Eight ruminally cannulated cows (594?±?35.5 kg) were allocated randomly to 4 hay diets: low (L), medium low (ML), medium high (MH), and high (H) crude protein (CP) concentration (79, 111, 131, and 164 g CP/kg on a DM basis, respectively). Diets were offered in 3 periods with 2 diet replicates per period and were rotated across cows between periods. Cows were individually fed 20 g DM/kg of body weight in equal feedings at 08:00 and 16:00 h for a 10-d adaptation followed by a 5-d total fecal collection. Actual DM intake (DMI), DMD, and FO were determined based on hay offered, ort, and feces excreted. These components were then analyzed for ADL, APL, and ADIA concentration to determine marker recovery and marker-based estimates of FO and DMD. Results Forage DMI was affected by diet (P =?0.02), and DMI from MH and H was greater (P varying nutrient composition. These internal markers may facilitate studies involving large numbers of animals and forages. Results from such studies may be used to develop improved equations to predict energy values of forages based on the relationship of dietary components to digestibility across a wide range of forages. PMID:24418569

2014-01-01

84

Call-Fleming syndrome  

PubMed Central

Call–Fleming syndrome is a part of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) group and is thought to be of idiopathic origin. It is classically described to be having multisegmental, focal vasospasms in the cerebral arteries. It is characterized clinically by the sudden onset of severe headache, classically described as thunderclap headache, with or without associated neurological deficits. The importance of it lies in that it is a potentially reversible cause of this clinical presentation, unlike its other counterparts, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) or vasculitis. PMID:24347846

Skandhan, Avni Kalangott Padmanabhan; Ramakrishnan, Kollengode Gopalakrishnan; Anand, Rajeev

2013-01-01

85

[Who is Called "Schizophrenic"?].  

PubMed

Someone is called "schizophrenic" when suffering from a disorder described in 1911, for the first time by a Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in a book entitled "Dementia Praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien". In this book, Bleuler proposes a two-faced approach: one centered on the disease, the other on the person. Bleuler's main contribution was to show the importance of the latter in the determinism of clinical pictures and illness course, thus opening the way to more anthropological approaches to the schizophrenic self. Taking these approaches into account, at a time when naturalistic models of the illness are prevailing, is far from being of no consequence, as far as the effectiveness of our therapeutic actions is at issue. PMID:18718211

Azorin, Jean-Michel; Kaladjian, Arthur; Besnier, Nathalie; Cermolacce, Michel

2008-01-01

86

Call title: Call for INFLUENZA Call identifier: FP7-INFLUENZA-2010  

E-print Network

1 Call title: Call for INFLUENZA Call identifier: FP7-INFLUENZA-2010 Date of publication: 30 July of this Call is to address research needs in human and animal influenza in view of the recent outbreak of a novel human influenza virus containing swine and avian gene sequences, and taking into account

Milano-Bicocca, Università

87

Compositional C++: Compositional Parallel Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compositional parallel program is a program constructed by composing component programs in parallel, where the composed program inherits properties of its components. In this paper, we describe a small extension of C++ called Compositional C++ or CC++ which is an object-oriented notation that supports compositional parallel programming. CC++ integrates different paradigms of parallel programming: data-parallel, task-parallel and object-parallel paradigms;

K. Mani Chandy; Carl Kesselman

1992-01-01

88

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places  

PubMed Central

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

2010-01-01

89

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places.  

PubMed

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

Collier, Travis C; Blumstein, Daniel T; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E

2010-12-01

90

Blade pitch varying mechanism  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine is described comprising: (a) a stationary member; (b) first and second rotating structures coaxially disposed about the stationary member; (c) an annular gas flowpath coaxial with the first and second rotating structures; (d) first and second rotor blades attached to the first and second rotating structures; (e) forward and aft rows of variable pitch propulsor blades coupled to and disposed radially outwardly of the first and second rotating structures respectively; (f) a first gear coaxially coupled to one of the propulsor blades whereby angular displacement of the first gear about a radius of the rotating structure varies the pitch of the propulsor blade with respect to the rotating structure; (g) a second gear rotatably coupled to the first gear; (h) a third gear rigidly coupled to the second gear; (i) a fourth gear rigidly coupled to the rotating structure and rotatably coupled to the thrid gear, (j) means for eccentrically revolving the second gear and the third gear with respect to the first gear and the fourth gear, respectively, whereby the first gear is angularly displaced with respect to the fourth gear.

Butler, L.

1988-04-19

91

Using a Bull Call Spread  

E-print Network

The Bull Call Spread can be used to hedge against or to benefit from a rising market. The user buys a call option at a particular strike price and sells a call option at a higher strike price. Margin requirements, advantages and disadvantages...

Bevers, Stan; Amosson, Stephen H.; Waller, Mark L.; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.

2008-10-07

92

Energetic composites  

DOEpatents

A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application. 3 figures.

Danen, W.C.; Martin, J.A.

1993-11-30

93

Energetic composites  

DOEpatents

A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application.

Danen, Wayne C. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, Joe A. (Espanola, NM)

1993-01-01

94

Varying \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review astrophysical, cosmological and terrestrial evidence for and against the con- stancy of fundamental parameters of particle physics, and discuss theoretical issues of unification and scalar-mediated forces, finding that the current rate of variation is bounded by limits on viola- tions of the weak equivalence principle. Introduction. The constancy of the parameters of particle physics (1), such as the

Thomas Dent

95

Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

2006-05-01

96

Surveys of calling amphibians in North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Amphibians have received increased attention in recent years from the scientific community and general public alike. Many populations throughout the world have declined, or have been extirpated, often without an apparent cause. Concern about the status of amphibians has translated into a growing interest in systematic and statistically sound monitoring programs. Several extensive efforts to monitor populations of calling amphibians are in place, and more are under development. Necessary for the design of appropriate surveys is an understanding of the behavior, especially vocalization, of the various species, and how it varies by geographic location and environmental conditions. In 1995 we conducted roadside surveys of calling amphibians along 44 routes in North Dakota. We describe results of that survey, with special attention given to variables that influence detectability of calling amphibians. Unlike similar studies, we accounted for the amount of time observers spent listening for amphibians under different conditions. We found that the optimal conditions for a single survey for North Dakota in that year would be in early June, between the hours of 2300 and 0130, with ambient temperatures above 13 deg. C, and with no rain and little or no wind or moonlight. Multiple surveys in a year would yield better results, of course, especially for the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), which is most active earlier in the season. Studies such as ours should be replicated in space and time to ensure a well-designed survey.

Johnson, D.H.; Batie, R.D.

2001-01-01

97

On Varying-coefficient Independence Screening for High-dimensional Varying-coefficient Models  

PubMed Central

Varying coefficient models have been widely used in longitudinal data analysis, nonlinear time series, survival analysis, and so on. They are natural non-parametric extensions of the classical linear models in many contexts, keeping good interpretability and allowing us to explore the dynamic nature of the model. Recently, penalized estimators have been used for fitting varying-coefficient models for high-dimensional data. In this paper, we propose a new computationally attractive algorithm called IVIS for fitting varying-coefficient models in ultra-high dimensions. The algorithm first fits a gSCAD penalized varying-coefficient model using a subset of covariates selected by a new varying-coefficient independence screening (VIS) technique. The sure screening property is established for VIS. The proposed algorithm then iterates between a greedy conditional VIS step and a gSCAD penalized fitting step. Simulation and a real data analysis demonstrate that IVIS has very competitive performance for moderate sample size and high dimension. PMID:25484548

Song, Rui; Yi, Feng; Zou, Hui

2014-01-01

98

Flocking and signaling: the role of calling in swift aggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent landmark studies of flocking and other collective behavior have focused on trajectories and internal flock structure, not how perception and communications relate to flock dynamics. Using video and bioacoustic techniques, we investigated the role of referential signaling in flock formation by chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica) through field studies of native populations during the breeding and nesting seasons. These aerial insectivores forage individually and in flocks of varying size while emitting only two distinct types of calls with simple spectral structures. Video-based tracking of their flight trajectories and spectrographic analysis of their calls showed that specific calls are correlated with the onset of flock formation. We present results from a study of how the sequence of the two types of calls, the call repetition rate and duration, and other factors relate to the initiation of flocking and other aspects of collective motion.

Mayo, Alyssa; Zamani, Marjon; Amador Kane, Suzanne

2013-03-01

99

COPING WITH TIME-VARYING DEMAND WHEN SETTING STAFFING REQUIREMENTS  

E-print Network

patrol, banking and hospital emergency rooms are also mentioned. Keywords: staffing, call centers, timeCOPING WITH TIME-VARYING DEMAND WHEN SETTING STAFFING REQUIREMENTS FOR A SERVICE SYSTEM by Linda V: January 2006. #12;#12;Abstract We review queueing-theory methods for setting staffing requirements

Whitt, Ward

100

Software Rejuvenation Policies for Cluster Systems under Varying Workload  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze two software rejuvenation policies of cluster server systems under varying workload, called fixed rejuvenation and delayed rejuvenation. In order to achieve a higher average throughput, we propose the delayed rejuvenation policy, which postpones the rejuvenation of individual nodes until off-peak hours. Analytic models using the well known paradigm of Markov chains are used. Since the size of the

Wei Xie; Yiguang Hong; Kishor S. Trivedi

2004-01-01

101

CALL FOR ARTISTS Alumni Exhibition  

E-print Network

CALL FOR ARTISTS Alumni Exhibition: WSU Art Education & Art Therapy The WSU Art Education and Art Therapy wing of the Community Arts Building on Wayne State's campus. We hope to display one Alumnus. Submissions from all Art Education/Art Therapy Alumni will be considered and Alumni are encouraged to submit

Berdichevsky, Victor

102

Close Call: Breaking the Rules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrary to a rule to never teach students to lead climb, an instructor taught several youth to lead climb at a parent's request. These students planned to pursue rock climbing on their own after they left school, and preparing them was deemed a safety precaution. Analysis of this "close call" offers guidelines for introducing students to lead…

Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1993

1993-01-01

103

Call for Papers Game Technologies  

E-print Network

leads to the demand for more interesting games as well as more powerful game engines to support those issue, we call for technical papers that describe novel game engine technologies. In particular, we are interested in papers that address technical issues of game engines that support multiplayer online games

Lau, W. H. Nynson

104

Learning as Calling and Responding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue, our being-in-the-world is to be conceived of as an existential dialogue. Elsewhere, I have conceptualized the teacher-student-relation accordingly (see Jons 2008), as a matter of calling and responding. The conceptualization rests on a secularised notion of vocation, paving way for…

Jons, Lotta

2014-01-01

105

Call for Papers Web Graphics  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Web Graphics Special Issue of IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications Guest Editors a migration of traditional applications to run on the Web environment and a growing demand for more powerful web-based applications. Fused by the increasing availability and dramatic reduction in the cost of 3D

Lau, W. H. Nynson

106

Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)  

PubMed Central

Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species. PMID:23966949

Wright, Genevieve S.; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Moss, Cynthia F.

2013-01-01

107

Call title: Call for Africa Call identifier: FP7-AFRICA-2010  

E-print Network

on 'Water and Food Security' and 'Better Health for Africa '. The topics of this call are implemented.3.4-3: Building sustainable capacity for research for health in Africa Coordination and Support Action: FOOD, AGRICULTURE, AND FISHERIES, AND BIOTECHNOLOGY Activity 2.1: Sustainable production and management

Milano-Bicocca, Università

108

Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions.

Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

2014-06-01

109

Call Scheduling in Trees, Rings and Meshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of establishing and completing a given set of calls as early as possible is studied for bidirectionaland di- rected calls in various classes of networks. Even under the assumption of unit bandwidth requirements and unit call durations, call scheduling is NP-hard for trees with un- bounded degree, for rings, and for meshes. Whereas bidi- rectional calls can be

Thomas Erlebach; Klaus Jansen

1997-01-01

110

Stability of Call Sequence in Dugongs' Vocalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dugongs (Dugong dugon) produce different types of vocalization such as chirp, trill, and barks. Previous reports showed that dugongs have two kinds of phonemes: long duration calls (trill) and short duration calls (chirp-squeaks hereinafter called chirp). Especially, the chirp and trill calls were widely reported in different populations. However, characteristics of call patterns in dugongs have never been reported. Moreover,

N. Okumura; K. Ichikawa; T. Akamatsu; N. Arai; T. Shinke; T. Hara; K. Adulyanukosol

2006-01-01

111

Testing Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for testing composites for strength characteristics has been developed by Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation. Called the Model 206AU, the system is lightweight and portable. It is comprised of three sections. The "pulser" section injects ultrasonic waves into the material under test. A receiver picks up the simulated stress waves as they pass through the material and relays the signals to the acoustic emission section, where they are electronically analyzed.

1981-01-01

112

Individual, Contextual, and Age-Related Acoustic Variation in Simakobu (Simias concolor) Loud Calls  

PubMed Central

Primate loud calls have the potential to encode information about the identity, arousal, age, or physical condition of the caller, even at long distances. In this study, we conducted an analysis of the acoustic features of the loud calls produced by a species of Asian colobine monkey (simakobu, Simias concolor). Adult male simakobu produce loud calls spontaneously and in response to loud sounds and other loud calls, which are audible more than 500 m. Individual differences in calling rates and durations exist, but it is unknown what these differences signal and which other acoustic features vary among individuals. We aimed to describe the structure and usage of calls and to examine acoustic features that vary within and among individuals. We determined the context of 318 loud calls and analyzed 170 loud calls recorded from 10 adult males at an undisturbed site, Pungut, Siberut Island, Indonesia. Most calls (53%) followed the loud call of another male, 31% were spontaneous, and the remaining 16% followed a loud environmental disturbance. The fundamental frequency (F0) decreased while inter-unit intervals (IUI) increased over the course of loud call bouts, possibly indicating caller fatigue. Discriminant function analysis indicated that calls were not well discriminated by context, but spontaneous calls had higher peak frequencies, suggesting a higher level of arousal. Individual calls were distinct and individuals were mainly discriminated by IUI, call duration, and F0. Loud calls of older males had shorter IUI and lower F0, while middle-aged males had the highest peak frequencies. Overall, we found that calls were individually distinct and may provide information about the age, stamina, and arousal of the calling male, and could thus be a way for males and females to assess competitors and mates from long distances. PMID:24376651

Erb, Wendy M.; Hodges, J. Keith; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

2013-01-01

113

Hydride compositions  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

Lee, Myung, W.

1994-01-01

114

Hydride compositions  

DOEpatents

A composition for use in storing hydrogen, and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the hydrogen equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to hydrogen and then heating at a temperature below the softening temperature of any of the. constituents so that their chemical and structural integrity is preserved. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P.sub.H.sbsb.2 and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

Lee, Myung W. (North Augusta, SC)

1995-01-01

115

Composition of Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

DETAILED research into the composition of coal demonstrates its intricacy. There can be no true understanding of this complicated and important substance if the results of research are confused by the use in varying senses of descriptive terms.

Marie C. Stopes

1944-01-01

116

Queueing Models of Call Centers: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a survey of some academic research on telephone call centers. The surveyed research has its origin in, or is related to, queueing theory. Indeed, the “queueing-view” of call centers is both natural and useful. Accordingly, queueing models have served as prevalent standard support tools for call center management. However, the modern call center is a complex socio-technical system.

Ger Koole; Avishai Mandelbaum

2002-01-01

117

DISCRETE VARIANTS OF EVENING GROSBEAK FLIGHT CALLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe four discrete variants of the frequency-modulated flight calls of Evening Grosbeaks (Coccothraustes vespertinus) in the United States and southwestern Canada. Each call type is aurally and spectrographically distinct, and individual birds appear to produce only one call type. The observed geograph- ic distributions of these call types are roughly concor- dant with described subspecies ranges. The long-term geographic

Kendra Sewall; Rodd Kelsey; Thomas P. Hahn

2004-01-01

118

Calling behavior of blue and fin whales off California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive acoustic monitoring is an effective means for evaluating cetacean presence in remote regions and over long time periods, and may become an important component of cetacean abundance surveys. To use passive acoustic recordings for abundance estimation, an understanding of the behavioral ecology of cetacean calling is crucial. In this dissertation, I develop a better understanding of how blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin (B. physalus ) whales use sound with the goal of evaluating passive acoustic techniques for studying their populations. Both blue and fin whales produce several different call types, though the behavioral and environmental context of these calls have not been widely investigated. To better understand how calling is used by these whales off California I have employed both new technologies and traditional techniques, including acoustic recording tags, continuous long-term autonomous acoustic recordings, and simultaneous shipboard acoustic and visual surveys. The outcome of these investigations has led to several conclusions. The production of blue whale calls varies with sex, behavior, season, location, and time of day. Each blue whale call type has a distinct behavioral context, including a male-only bias in the production of song, a call type thought to function in reproduction, and the production of some calls by both sexes. Long-term acoustic records, when interpreted using all call types, provide a more accurate measure of the local seasonal presence of whales, and how they use the region annually, seasonally and daily. The relative occurrence of different call types may indicate prime foraging habitat and the presence of different segments of the population. The proportion of animals heard calling changes seasonally and geographically relative to the number seen, indicating the calibration of acoustic and visual surveys is complex and requires further study on the motivations behind call production and the behavior of calling whales. These findings will play a role in the future development of acoustic census methods and habitat studies for these species, and will provide baseline information for the determination of anthropogenic impacts on these populations.

Oleson, Erin Marie

119

Function of loud calls in wild bonobos.  

PubMed

Under the social origins hypothesis, human language is thought to have evolved within the framework of non-human primate social contexts and relationships. Our two closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, however, have very different social relationships and this may be reflected in their use of loud calls. Much of loud calling in the male-bonded and aggressive chimpanzee functions for male alliance formation and intercommunity aggression. Bonobos, however, are female bonded and less aggressive and little is known on the use and function of their loud calls. Data on frequencies, context, and locations of vocalizations were collected for wild bonobos, Pan paniscus, at the Lomako Forest study site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1983 to 2009. Both males and females participated in loud calls used for inter-party communication. Calling and response rates by both males and females were higher during party fusion than party fission and were common at evening nesting. The distribution of loud calls within the community range of loud calls was not random with males calling significantly more towards the periphery of the range and females calling significantly more in central areas. Calling and party fission were common at food patches. Responses were more frequent for female calls than for male calls. Calling, followed by fusion, was more frequent when a small party called from a large patch. We conclude that bonobo females and males loud calls can function in inter-party communication to call others to large food patches. Females call to attract potential allies and males call to attract potential mates. Our results support the social hypothesis of the origin of language because differences in the function and use of loud calls reflect the differing social systems of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobo loud calls are important for female communication and function in party coordination and, unlike chimpanzees, are less important in male cooperative aggression. PMID:25324464

White, Frances; Waller, Michel; Boose, Klaree; Merrill, Michelle; Wood, Kimberley

2014-10-10

120

Compositionality as an empirical problem  

E-print Network

Gottlob Frege (1892) is credited with the so-called “principle of compositionality”, also called “Frege’s Principle”, which one often hears expressed this way: Frege’s Principle (so-called) “The meaning of a sentence is a function of the meanings of the words in it and the way they are combined

David Dowty

2007-01-01

121

An empirical analysis of the corporate call decision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we provide insights into the behavior of financial managers of utility companies by studying their decisions to redeem callable preferred shares. In particular, we investigate whether or not an option pricing based model of the call decision, with managers who maximize shareholder value, does a better job of explaining callable preferred share prices and call decisions than do other models of the decision. In order to perform these tests, we extend an empirical technique introduced by Rust (1987) to include the use of information from preferred share prices in addition to the call decisions. The model we develop to value the option embedded in a callable preferred share differs from standard models in two ways. First, as suggested in Kraus (1983), we explicitly account for transaction costs associated with a redemption. Second, we account for state variables that are observed by the decision makers but not by the preferred shareholders. We interpret these unobservable state variables as the benefits and costs associated with a change in capital structure that can accompany a call decision. When we add this variable, our empirical model changes from one which predicts exactly when a share should be called to one which predicts the probability of a call as the function of the observable state. These two modifications of the standard model result in predictions of calls, and therefore of callable preferred share prices, that are consistent with several previously unexplained features of the data; we show that the predictive power of the model is improved in a statistical sense by adding these features to the model. The pricing and call probability functions from our model do a good job of describing call decisions and preferred share prices for several utilities. Using data from shares of the Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PGE) we obtain reasonable estimates for the transaction costs associated with a call. Using a formal empirical test, we are able to conclude that the managers of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company clearly take into account the value of the option to delay the call when making their call decisions. Overall, the model seems to be robust to tests of its specification and does a better job of describing the data than do simpler models of the decision making process. Limitations in the data do not allow us to perform the same tests in a larger cross-section of utility companies. However, we are able to estimate transaction cost parameters for many firms and these do not seem to vary significantly from those of PGE. This evidence does not cause us to reject our hypothesis that managerial behavior is consistent with a model in which managers maximize shareholder value.

Carlson, Murray Dean

1998-12-01

122

Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks.

Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

2014-02-01

123

Comparison of responses to alarm calls by patas (Erythrocebus patas) and vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) monkeys in relation to habitat structure.  

PubMed

We studied responses to alarm calls of sympatric patas (Erythrocebus patas) and vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) monkeys in relation to habitat structure, with the intention of understanding the relationship between the environment and predator avoidance. Patas and vervet monkeys are phylogenetically closely related and overlap in body size. However, while patas monkeys are restricted to nonriverine habitats at our study site, vervets use both nonriverine and riverine habitats, allowing us to "vary" habitat structure while controlling for effects of group size, composition, and phylogeny. Patas monkeys in the nonriverine habitat responded to mammalian predator alarm calls with a greater variety of responses than did vervets in the riverine habitat, but not when compared with vervets in the nonriverine habitat. Ecological measurements confirm subjective assessments that trees in the riverine habitat are significantly taller and occur at lower densities than trees in the nonriverine habitat. Despite the lower density of trees in the riverine habitat, locomotor behavior of focal animals indicates that canopy cover is significantly greater in the riverine than the nonriverine habitat. Differences in responses to alarm calls by the same groups of vervets in different habitat types, and convergence of vervets with patas in the same habitat type, suggest that habitat type can be a significant source of variation in antipredator behavior of primates. PMID:12209569

Enstam, Karin L; Isbell, Lynne A

2002-09-01

124

Gait phase varies over velocities.  

PubMed

We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification. PMID:24192276

Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan

2014-02-01

125

Drop/Add Card SIS Call Number  

E-print Network

Drop/Add Card SIS Call Number (5 digits) Course Prefix (2-4 letters) Course Number (4 digits):_________________________________________________________________________ SIS Call Number (5 digits) Course Prefix (2-4 letters) Course Number (4 digits) Section Number (3

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

126

Potential Paradigms and Possible Problems for CALL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three models of CALL (computer assisted language learning) activity--games, the expert system, and the prosthetic approaches. A case is made for CALL development within a more instrumental view of the role of computers. (Author/CB)

Phillips, Martin

1987-01-01

127

Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) (formerly called Pseudogout)  

MedlinePLUS

... Patient Resources > Diseases & Conditions Back to Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) (formerly called Pseudogout) PRINT Download ... aquí . Joint problems caused by crystals of a calcium salt called pyrophosphate may be one of the ...

128

Scaled Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 18, 2003, an historic event in space travel was marked by the unveiling of the first private manned spacecraft and launch platform (called SpaceShipOne and White Knight, respectively). Already constructed and in the test flight stage of its development, the project was hidden from the public in order to reveal a finished product rather than just schematics. Scaled Composites, the private company that developed the spacecraft, gives data sheets and photos on its homepage. A detailed list of frequently asked questions addresses many issues regarding the project and its implications.

129

Probabilistic priority assessment of nurse calls.  

PubMed

Current nurse call systems are very static. Call buttons are fixed to the wall, and systems do not account for various factors specific to a situation. We have developed a software platform, the ontology-based Nurse Call System (oNCS), which supports the transition to mobile and wireless nurse call buttons and uses an intelligent algorithm to address nurse calls. This algorithm dynamically adapts to the situation at hand by taking the profile information of staff and patients into account by using an ontology. This article describes a probabilistic extension of the oNCS that supports a more sophisticated nurse call algorithm by dynamically assigning priorities to calls based on the risk factors of the patient and the kind of call. The probabilistic oNCS is evaluated through implementation of a prototype and simulations, based on a detailed dataset obtained from 3 nursing departments of Ghent University Hospital. The arrival times of nurses at the location of a call, the workload distribution of calls among nurses, and the assignment of priorities to calls are compared for the oNCS and the current nurse call system. Additionally, the performance of the system and the parameters of the priority assignment algorithm are explored. The execution time of the nurse call algorithm is on average 50.333 ms. Moreover, the probabilistic oNCS significantly improves the assignment of nurses to calls. Calls generally result in a nurse being present more quickly, the workload distribution among the nurses improves, and the priorities and kinds of calls are taken into account. PMID:24399820

Ongenae, Femke; Myny, Dries; Dhaene, Tom; Defloor, Tom; Van Goubergen, Dirk; Verhoeve, Piet; Decruyenaere, Johan; De Turck, Filip

2014-05-01

130

Telecommunications GETS Calling Card/WPS  

E-print Network

Telecommunications GETS Calling Card/WPS GETS - A Calling Card that allows you to make calls on a land-line phone during an emergency situation when the phone lines are congested. WPS - Wireless://telecom.tamu.edu for assistance. Item # Service Add, Move, Change, or Disconnect Cellular Number for WPS User Name On a Stipend

131

Call Identifier: CIP-IEE-2009  

E-print Network

://ec.europa.eu/intelligentenergy #12;Intelligent Energy ­ Europe Call for Proposals 2009 2/17 CALL FOR PROPOSALS 2009 FOR ACTIONS UNDER THE PROGRAMME "INTELLIGENT ENERGY ­ EUROPE" Call Identifier: CIP-IEE-2009 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. THE INTELLIGENT ENERGY ­ EUROPE PROGRAMME 3 2. BUDGET, FUNDING RATES AND ELIGIBILITY OF COSTS 5 3. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA 5

De Cindio, Fiorella

132

Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication  

PubMed Central

Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal. PMID:23034703

Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

2012-01-01

133

System Identification: Time Varying and Nonlinear Methods  

E-print Network

to develop first few time step models is detailed, providing a unified solution to the time varying identification problem. The practical problem of identifying the time varying generalized Markov parameters required for TVERA is presented as the next result...

Majji, Manoranjan

2010-07-14

134

Crack-tip stress fields in functionally graded materials with linearly varying properties  

E-print Network

of the FGM is assumed to vary linearly along the gradation direction. The first six terms for a crack along com- ponent. A functionally graded material (FGM) is a composite consisting of two or more phases variation in an FGM with linearly varying elastic modulus is developed through an asymptotic analysis

Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

135

Loud calls of adult male red howling monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).  

PubMed

Loud calls of adult male red howlers (Alouatta seniculus) inhabiting a deciduous and semideciduous open woodland site in Venezuela were recorded opportunistically and categorized by ear and sonographically as barks and roars. Five to six different bark syllables were identified as occurring singly or in sequences of doublets and triplets. In barks, spectral energy was concentrated in bands at 350-400 Hz, 900-1,100 Hz, 1,800-2,200 Hz and 3,000-3,500 Hz, but not all higher bands were present in each syllable. Roars appeared sonographically like prolonged barks composed of a pulsated preface, a long legato climax and a brief, fractionated and at times pulsated coda; each part varied internally to the ear and in acoustic structure. All loud calls were of the noisy type (nonharmonic energy over a broad frequency range). Acoustic characteristics of the calls are interpreted in terms of the subserving vocal tract anatomy. I compare loud calls of red howlers with those of mantled (A. palliata) and black (A. caraya) howlers. PMID:3609972

Schön Ybarra, M A

1986-01-01

136

Anomaly Intrusion Detection Based on System Call  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Abstract)Monitoring program behavior is one of the highlighted research topics of host-based anomaly detection recently. The key is to construct a program behavior-based anomaly detection model. Some existing anomaly detection techniques based on system call sequences are analyzed and discussed in this paper. They are compared from three dimensions: the information extracted from system call, the system call level used

LI Hongjiao; LI Jianhua; ZHU Hongwen

2007-01-01

137

Lunar Phases and Crisis Center Telephone Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls.

James E. Wilson II; Jerome J. Tobacyk

1990-01-01

138

Using Call Numbers to Find Books 8/23/2012 Using Call Numbers to Find Books  

E-print Network

Using Call Numbers to Find Books 8/23/2012 Using Call Numbers to Find Books 1. Using Call Numbers to Find Books 2. A call number is like a book's address. It tells you where the book is located of Congress Classification System and the Dewey Decimal System. 5. We'll start by looking for a book

Su, Xiao

139

The Application of Fourier Analysis to Forecasting the Inbound Call Time Series of a Call Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New South Wales Police Assistance Line (PAL) is a 24-hour inbound telephone call centre available to police and the community. One of the challenges in running such a centre is the scheduling of staff and resources to meet the incoming call demands. The call arrival process of an inbound call or contact centre is a time series that contains

Bruce G. Lewis; Ric D. Herbert; Rod D. Bell

140

Development and Validation of the Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and Brief Calling Scale (BCS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on work as a calling is limited by measurement concerns. In response, the authors introduce the multidimensional Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Brief Calling scale (BCS), instruments assessing presence of, and search for, a calling. Study 1 describes CVQ development using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis…

Dik, Bryan J.; Eldridge, Brandy M.; Steger, Michael F.; Duffy, Ryan D.

2012-01-01

141

Time-varying Reeb Graphs: A Topological Framework Supporting the Analysis of Continuous Time-varying Data  

SciTech Connect

I present time-varying Reeb graphs as a topological framework to support the analysis of continuous time-varying data. Such data is captured in many studies, including computational fluid dynamics, oceanography, medical imaging, and climate modeling, by measuring physical processes over time, or by modeling and simulating them on a computer. Analysis tools are applied to these data sets by scientists and engineers who seek to understand the underlying physical processes. A popular tool for analyzing scientific datasets is level sets, which are the points in space with a fixed data value s. Displaying level sets allows the user to study their geometry, their topological features such as connected components, handles, and voids, and to study the evolution of these features for varying s. For static data, the Reeb graph encodes the evolution of topological features and compactly represents topological information of all level sets. The Reeb graph essentially contracts each level set component to a point. It can be computed efficiently, and it has several uses: as a succinct summary of the data, as an interface to select meaningful level sets, as a data structure to accelerate level set extraction, and as a guide to remove noise. I extend these uses of Reeb graphs to time-varying data. I characterize the changes to Reeb graphs over time, and develop an algorithm that can maintain a Reeb graph data structure by tracking these changes over time. I store this sequence of Reeb graphs compactly, and call it a time-varying Reeb graph. I augment the time-varying Reeb graph with information that records the topology of level sets of all level values at all times, that maintains the correspondence of level set components over time, and that accelerates the extraction of level sets for a chosen level value and time. Scientific data sampled in space-time must be extended everywhere in this domain using an interpolant. A poor choice of interpolant can create degeneracies that are difficult to resolve, making construction of time-varying Reeb graphs impractical. I investigate piecewise-linear, piecewise-trilinear, and piecewise-prismatic interpolants, and conclude that piecewise-prismatic is the best choice for computing time-varying Reeb graphs. Large Reeb graphs must be simplified for an effective presentation in a visualization system. I extend an algorithm for simplifying static Reeb graphs to compute simplifications of time-varying Reeb graphs as a first step towards building a visualization system to support the analysis of time-varying data.

Mascarenhas, A

2006-11-28

142

Eliminating Virtual Function Calls in C++ Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and implemented an optimizing source-to- source C++ compiler that reduces the frequency of virtual function calls. Our prototype implementation demonstrates the value of OO-specific optimization for C++. Despite some limitations of our system, and despite the low frequency of virtual function calls in some of the programs, optimization improves the performance of a suite of large C++

Gerald Aigner; Urs Hölzle

1996-01-01

143

Dynamic Call Admission Control in ATM Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present dynamic call admission control using the distribution of the number of cells arriving during the fixed interval. This distribution is estimated from the measured number of cells arriving at the output buffer during the fixed interval and traffic parameters specified by users. Call acceptance is decided on the basis of online evaluation of the upper bound of

Hiroshi Saito; Kohei Shiomoto

1991-01-01

144

FORECASTING CALL CENTER ARRIVALS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY  

E-print Network

}@iro.umontreal.ca Abstract We evaluate alternative time series methods for forecasting future call volumes in call centers forecasts at different points in time. In this paper, we estimate and compare alternative time series models of the proposed models using forecasting lead times ranging from weeks to hours in advance. Keywords: forecasting

L'Ecuyer, Pierre

145

UK call centres: crossroads of an industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The application of technology has shaped the call centre organisation, enabled its remote location, and allowed its swift relocation. The purpose of this practice briefing is to expose the reader to the reality that call centres are temporary employers of both human resource and property, while at the same time they are collectively one of the biggest occupiers

Jon Snow

2005-01-01

146

Promotion in Call Centres: Opportunities and Determinants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of jobs in call centres by focusing on the opportunities for promotion in this sector. More specifically, the research questions focus on discovering whether promotion is common practise in the call centre sector and on identifying the factors that affect this.…

Gorjup, Maria Tatiana; Valverde, Mireia; Ryan, Gerard

2008-01-01

147

A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics.  

PubMed

Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

Magrath, Robert D; Bennett, Thomas H

2012-03-01

148

Audience effects in chimpanzee copulation calls  

PubMed Central

Audience effects arise when the signaling behavior of animals is affected by the presence of others. Whilst this phenomenon has been documented in numerous animal species, very little research has addressed what effect the listening audience has in the mating context. In this article we discuss our recent findings that the production of chimpanzee copulation calls is effected by the presence of potentially eavesdropping females and males. We relate these results to understanding the function of primate copulation calls in addition to what more they can tell us about the cognitive processes underlying primate call production. PMID:19641752

Zuberbuhler, Klaus

2009-01-01

149

Augmented video calls on mobile devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a system and a method to segment the head-shoulder image of participants in a video call using mobile devices such as a smartphone or a tablet. Participants can choose to send only the segmented head-shoulder foreground image and overlay it on top of a static background image or a background video on the receiver side of the video call, as well as to replace the background of the caller himself/herself during the video call. Our proposed method extracts the head-shoulder area of each video frame based on detected face region, superpixel clustering, and efficient label propagation.

Zhu, Fengqing; Lv, Fengjun

2013-09-01

150

Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.  

PubMed

The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group. PMID:2325400

Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

1990-02-01

151

Novel shock absorber features varying yield strengths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A shock absorbent webbing of partially drawn synthetic strands is arranged in sections of varying density related to the varying mass of the human body. This is contoured to protect the body at points of contact, when subjected to large acceleration or deceleration forces.

Geier, D. J.

1964-01-01

152

Fractal analysis of time varying data  

DOEpatents

Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN); Sadana, Ajit (Oxford, MS)

2002-01-01

153

Acoustic similarity to parental calls promotes response to unfamiliar calls in zebra finch fledglings  

E-print Network

Acoustic similarity to parental calls promotes response to unfamiliar calls in zebra finch: acoustic communication acoustic similarity individual recognition Taeniopygia guttata zebra finch influences the occurrence of false responses. We used acoustic parenteoffspring recognition in zebra finches

Richner, Heinz

154

47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. 22.921 Section 22.921 Telecommunication...processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after...that are capable of operating in the analog mode described in the standard...

2013-10-01

155

47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. 22.921 Section 22.921 Telecommunication...processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after...that are capable of operating in the analog mode described in the standard...

2011-10-01

156

47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. 22.921 Section 22.921 Telecommunication...processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after...that are capable of operating in the analog mode described in the standard...

2014-10-01

157

47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. 22.921 Section 22.921 Telecommunication...processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after...that are capable of operating in the analog mode described in the standard...

2012-10-01

158

47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. 22.921 Section 22.921 Telecommunication...processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after...that are capable of operating in the analog mode described in the standard...

2010-10-01

159

Twelve years of tracking 52-Hz whale calls from a unique source in the North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique whale call with 50-52 Hz emphasis from a single source has been tracked over 12 years in the central and eastern North Pacific. These calls, referred to as 52-Hz calls, were monitored and analyzed from acoustic data recorded by hydrophones of the US Navy Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) and other arrays. The calls were noticed first in 1989, and have been detected and tracked since 1992. No other calls with similar characteristics have been identified in the acoustic data from any hydrophone system in the North Pacific basin. Only one series of these 52-Hz calls has been recorded at a time, with no call overlap, suggesting that a single whale produced the calls. The calls were recorded from August to February with most in December and January. The species producing these calls is unknown. The tracks of the 52-Hz whale were different each year, and varied in length from 708 to 11,062 km with travel speeds ranging from 0.7 to 3.8 km/h. Tracks included (A) meandering over short ranges, (B) predominantly west-to-east movement, and (C) mostly north-to-south travel. These tracks consistently appeared to be unrelated to the presence or movement of other whale species (blue, fin and humpback) monitored year-round with the same hydrophones.

Watkins, William A.; Daher, Mary Ann; George, Joseph E.; Rodriguez, David

2004-12-01

160

Intra- and interspecific responses to Rafinesque’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) social calls.  

SciTech Connect

Bats respond to the calls of conspecifics as well as to calls of other species; however, few studies have attempted to quantify these responses or understand the functions of these calls. We tested the response of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) to social calls as a possible method to increase capture success and to understand the function of social calls. We also tested if calls of bats within the range of the previously designated subspecies differed, if the responses of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats varied with geographic origin of the calls, and if other species responded to the calls of C. rafinesquii. We recorded calls of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats at two colony roost sites in South Carolina, USA. Calls were recorded while bats were in the roosts and as they exited. Playback sequences for each site were created by copying typical pulses into the playback file. Two mist nets were placed approximately 50–500 m from known roost sites; the net with the playback equipment served as the Experimental net and the one without the equipment served as the Control net. Call structures differed significantly between the Mountain and Coastal Plains populations with calls from the Mountains being of higher frequency and longer duration. Ten of 11 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats were caught in the Control nets and, 13 of 19 bats of other species were captured at Experimental nets even though overall bat activity did not differ significantly between Control and Experimental nets. Our results suggest that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats are not attracted to conspecifics’ calls and that these calls may act as an intraspecific spacing mechanism during foraging.

Loeb, Susan, C.; Britzke, Eric, R.

2010-07-01

161

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research Special Volume on Behavioral Considerations to decisionmaking processes (both individual and organizational). We invite high quality research papers submissions to a special volume of the Annals of Operations Research that is devoted

162

Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls  

PubMed Central

In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/97 PMID:23206277

2012-01-01

163

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS LIFE WITH DEMENTIA: RELATIONS  

E-print Network

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS LIFE WITH DEMENTIA: RELATIONS 2nd International Conference Centre for Dementia Research Linköping University Norrköping WITH DEMENTIA: RELATIONS is to bring together scholars from a broad range

Zhao, Yuxiao

164

Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls.  

PubMed

In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. PMID:23206277

Fitch, W Tecumseh

2012-01-01

165

CALL FOR PAPERS Elsevier -Computer Communications Journal  

E-print Network

users' behaviour and its evolution over time · Comparison of human social CALL FOR PAPERS Elsevier - Computer Communications Journal Special the human behavior. It spans a number of disciplines, across numerous fields

Fu, Xiaoming

166

Call Numbers Explained 1 8/23/2012 Call Numbers Explained  

E-print Network

. In the library, books are organized by call number. 3. A call number classifies a book by its subject and tells. Because of this, it uses two different classification systems. That is, two different types of call feedback, click "Okay." Otherwise, click "Not Now" to see the credits and exit the tutorial. #12;

Su, Xiao

167

EFFECTIVENESS OF CALL-BROADCAST SURVEYS FOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A???????.—Many species of marsh birds (e.g. rails and bierns) are believed to be declining in North America, yet we lack an eff ective monitoring program to estimate their population trends. Broadcast of prerecorded calls to elicit vocalizations is a commonly used method in surveys of marsh birds, but whether gains in detection and index precision outweigh the drawbacks of call-broadcast

MONITORING MARSH BIRDS

2005-01-01

168

Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells and the built-up composite structure global fracture are enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads.

Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

2008-01-01

169

Partition Decomposition for Roll Call Data  

E-print Network

In this paper we bring to bear some new tools from statistical learning on the analysis of roll call data. We present a new data-driven model for roll call voting that is geometric in nature. We construct the model by adapting the "Partition Decoupling Method," an unsupervised learning technique originally developed for the analysis of families of time series, to produce a multiscale geometric description of a weighted network associated to a set of roll call votes. Central to this approach is the quantitative notion of a "motivation," a cluster-based and learned basis element that serves as a building block in the representation of roll call data. Motivations enable the formulation of a quantitative description of ideology and their data-dependent nature makes possible a quantitative analysis of the evolution of ideological factors. This approach is generally applicable to roll call data and we apply it in particular to the historical roll call voting of the U.S. House and Senate. This methodology provides a...

Leibon, Greg; Rockmore, Daniel N; Savell, Robert

2011-01-01

170

On call: alert or unsafe? A report of the AORN on-call electronic task force.  

PubMed

Research has linked health care providers' long work hours with patient care errors. Perioperative staff members often work extended hours because of long shifts and being on call. AORN's on-call electronic task force conducted a survey of nurses to determine their work load, call scheduling, and experiences related to fatigue. Of the 1,013 respondents, 67.7% said they had experienced effects of sleep deprivation. A follow-up survey revealed that few call programs are in compliance with AORN's recommended practices. Compliant call programs are detailed for adaptation in other perioperative settings. PMID:17931543

Kenyon, Trudy A G; Gluesing, Rebecca E; White, Karen Y; Dunkel, Wanda L; Burlingame, Byron L

2007-10-01

171

Adult Vampire Bats Produce Contact Calls When Isolated: Acoustic Variation by Species, Population, Colony, and Individual  

PubMed Central

Background Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae) would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. Methods/Principal Findings We assessed variation in contact calls recorded from isolated captive and wild-caught adult common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). We compared species-typical contact call structure, and used information theory and permuted discriminate function analyses to examine call structure variation, and to determine if the individuality of contact calls is encoded by different call features across species and populations. We found that isolated adult vampire bats produce contact calls that vary by species, population, colony, and individual. However, much variation occurred within a single context and individual. We estimated signature information for captive Diaemus (same colony), captive Desmodus (same colony), and wild Desmodus (different colonies) at 3.21, 3.26, and 3.88 bits, respectively. Contact calls from a captive colony of Desmodus were less individually distinct than calls from wild-caught Desmodus from different colonies. Both the degree of individuality and parameters encoding individuality differed between the bats from a single captive colony and the wild-caught individuals from different groups. This result is consistent with, but not sufficient evidence of, vocal convergence in groups. Conclusion Our results show that adult vampire bats of all three species produce highly variable contact calls when isolated. Contact calls contain sufficient information for vocal discrimination, but also possess more intra-individual variation than is required for the sole purpose of identifying individuals. PMID:22719947

Carter, Gerald G.; Logsdon, Ryane; Arnold, Bryan D.; Menchaca, Angelica; Medellin, Rodrigo A.

2012-01-01

172

Calling patterns in human communication dynamics  

E-print Network

Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes, e.g., texting, cellphone conversation, and online instant messaging, but they also provide detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study the inter-call durations of the 100,000 most-active cellphone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the inter-call durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the inter-call durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3460 individuals (3.46%). The inter-call durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cellphone users with a power-law...

Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene; 10.1073/pnas.1220433110

2013-01-01

173

Call to action to prevent venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed

Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, together called venous thromboembolism, remain a serious national health problem. Estimates suggest that over 900,000 cases occur in the United States per year, with 300,000 deaths per year. Because of the significant and serious nature of this problem, a workshop was held in May of 2006, which resulted in the Acting U.S. Public Health Service Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism. On September 15, 2008, Acting Surgeon General, Rear Admiral Steven K. Galson, MD, MPH, and Elizabeth Nabel, MD, Director National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, announced the Call to Action. The Call to Action highlights public awareness about the risk factors, triggering events, and symptoms of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and encourages the development of evidence based practices for screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. It is designed to encourage new scientific investigation in an effort to obtain needed evidence to fill in the gaps of knowledge about venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. This knowledge should be quickly and easily disseminated to the public and put into practice by health professionals. The Surgeon General's Call to Action represents one of the most important advances in the field of venous thromboembolism and sets the stage for multidisciplinary efforts to combat this serious national health problem. PMID:19497526

Wakefield, Thomas W; McLafferty, Robert B; Lohr, Joann M; Caprini, Joseph A; Gillespie, David L; Passman, Marc A

2009-06-01

174

Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species.  

PubMed

Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls. PMID:19474047

Griesser, Michael

2009-08-22

175

Is the Frequency Content of the Calls in North American Treefrogs Limited by Their Larynges?  

PubMed Central

A high diversity of mating calls is found among frogs. The calls of most species, however, are simple, in comparison to those of mammals and birds. In order to determine if the mechanics of the larynx could explain the simplicity of treefrog calls, the larynges of euthanized males were activated with airflow. Laryngeal airflow, sound frequency, and sound intensity showed a positive direct relationship with the driving air pressure. While the natural calls of the studied species exhibit minimal frequency modulation, their larynges produced about an octave of frequency modulation in response to varying pulmonary pressure. Natural advertisement calls are produced near the higher extreme of frequency obtained in the laboratory and at a slightly higher intensity (6?dB). Natural calls also exhibit fewer harmonics than artificial ones, because the larynges were activated with the mouth of the animal open. The results revealed that treefrog larynges allow them to produce calls spanning a much greater range of frequencies than observed in nature; therefore, the simplicity of the calls is not due to a limited frequency range of laryngeal output. Low frequencies are produced at low intensities, however, and this could explain why treefrogs concentrate their calling at the high frequencies. PMID:25332838

2014-01-01

176

Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species  

PubMed Central

Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls. PMID:19474047

Griesser, Michael

2009-01-01

177

Composition of Topsoil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students test soil samples for percent composition of air, water, organic material, and minerals. They will record the data on their data sheet or in a notebook. Students will understand the four basic soil components and realize that these components can vary widely within a small geographic area.

178

47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for voluntary digital selective calling (DSC) equipment and selective calling equipment...Standards for Digital Selective Calling (DSC) Equipment Providing Minimum Distress and Safety...Class ‘D’ Digital Selective Calling (DSC)—Methods of testing...

2010-10-01

179

Addressing the call-back problem  

SciTech Connect

Service recalls or call-backs are one of the costliest and most persistent of service management problems. Although all service industries have call-back problems each time the oilburner breaks down, the customer has what could be a costly inconvenience. Every customer complaint reduces loyalty and makes the industry more and more vulnerable to competition, not just from each other but, from the utilities and the discounters. A customer who gets prompt, capable service will usually stay with his present company and, just as importantly, he stays with fuel oil. If the industry were to place the blame for call-backs on a particular person or area it would probably be in the individual serviceman. The lack of training, lack of motivation, lack of compassion for the customer or lack of company spirit, is discussed.

Skinner, R.

1985-08-01

180

Nonlinear mesomechanics of composites with periodic microstructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work is concerned with modeling the mechanical deformation or constitutive behavior of composites comprised of a periodic microstructure under small displacement conditions at elevated temperature. A mesomechanics approach is adopted which relates the microimechanical behavior of the heterogeneous composite with its in-service macroscopic behavior. Two different methods, one based on a Fourier series approach and the other on a Green's function approach, are used in modeling the micromechanical behavior of the composite material. Although the constitutive formulations are based on a micromechanical approach, it should be stressed that the resulting equations are volume averaged to produce overall effective constitutive relations which relate the bulk, volume averaged, stress increment to the bulk, volume averaged, strain increment. As such, they are macromodels which can be used directly in nonlinear finite element programs such as MARC, ANSYS and ABAQUS or in boundary element programs such as BEST3D. In developing the volume averaged or efective macromodels from the micromechanical models, both approaches will require the evaluation of volume integrals containing the spatially varying strain distributions throughout the composite material. By assuming that the strain distributions are spatially constant within each constituent phase-or within a given subvolume within each constituent phase-of the composite material, the volume integrals can be obtained in closed form. This simplified micromodel can then be volume averaged to obtain an effective macromodel suitable for use in the MARC, ANSYS and ABAQUS nonlinear finite element programs via user constitutive subroutines such as HYPELA and CMUSER. This effective macromodel can be used in a nonlinear finite element structural analysis to obtain the strain-temperature history at those points in the structure where thermomechanical cracking and damage are expected to occur, the so called damage critical points of the structure.

Walker, Kevin P.; Jordan, Eric H.; Freed, Alan D.

1989-01-01

181

Calibrating passive acoustic monitoring: correcting humpback whale call detections for site-specific and time-dependent environmental characteristics.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates the importance of accounting for environmental effects on passive underwater acoustic monitoring results. The situation considered is the reduction in shipping off the California coast between 2008-2010 due to the recession and environmental legislation. The resulting variations in ocean noise change the probability of detecting marine mammal vocalizations. An acoustic model was used to calculate the time-varying probability of detecting humpback whale vocalizations under best-guess environmental conditions and varying noise. The uncorrected call counts suggest a diel pattern and an increase in calling over a two-year period; the corrected call counts show minimal evidence of these features. PMID:24181982

Helble, Tyler A; D'Spain, Gerald L; Campbell, Greg S; Hildebrand, John A

2013-11-01

182

Novel Microstructures for Polymer-Liquid Crystal Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are a number of interface-dominated composite materials that contain a liquid crystalline (LC) phase in intimate contact with an isotropic phase. For example, polymer- dispersed liquid crystals, used in the fabrication of windows with switchable transparency, consist of micron size LC droplets dispersed in an isotropic polymer matrix. Many other types of liquid crystal composite materials can be envisioned that might have outstanding optical properties that could be exploited in novel chemical sensors, optical switches, and computer displays. This research project was based on the premise that many of these potentially useful LC composite materials can only be fabricated under microgravity conditions where gravity driven flows are absent. In the ground-based research described below, we have focused on a new class of LC composites that we call thermotropic- lyotropic liquid crystal systems (TLLCs). TLLCs consist of nanosize droplets of water dispersed in an LC matrix, with surfactants at the interface that stabilize the structure. By varying the type of surfactant one can access almost an infinite variety of unusual LC composite microstructures. Due to the importance of the interface in these types of systems, we have also developed molecular simulation models for liquid crystals at interfaces, and made some of the first measurements of the interfacial tension between liquid crystals and water.

Magda, Jules J.

2004-01-01

183

Wireless world widens nurse call options.  

PubMed

With wireless technology now an integral part of all our lives, and miniaturisation of computing power having made even hand-held portable devices such as mobile phones powerful tools in their own right, HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, spoke to specialist in wireless nurse call systems, Courtney-Thorne, to discuss some of its key recent product innovations, and see what impact it feels developments such as 'cloud' technology will have on the bringing of more technology into the nurse call sector as 'nurse and carer tools'. PMID:24516936

Baillie, Jonathan

2014-01-01

184

Intelligent Management of Call Centre Knowledge Megan Vazey and Debbie Richards  

E-print Network

the many and varied RDR implementations, and we have addressed issues with corporate culture and workflowIntelligent Management of Call Centre Knowledge Megan Vazey and Debbie Richards megan of the staff), and resources (for the sake of the business). Improving the acquisition and re-use of knowledge

Richards, Debbie

185

The growth and chemical composition of soybeans as influenced by varying sulphur applications, varying soluble salts and varying calcium: sodium ratios  

E-print Network

. yhur Ayplioatious~ Soluble 3Qtga aaak Qaloi~um Ratio Uyon tee Tt. eld of Rootea XkaXC of Toyaa 8BC Total TLIQAi of Go+beaus Mhe Mffea? af ?ha O ah&as?aoaa of &ol&hae, &aeshma &al?az aaL 0aLek~lodlaa Ra?&o oa the T$ahk of Toyaq 1%el& of Mao?a set fo...

Peters, Doyle Burne

1951-01-01

186

Mixed lipid bilayers with locally varying spontaneous curvature and bending.  

PubMed

A model of lipid bilayers made of a mixture of two lipids with different average compositions on both leaflets, is developed. A Landau Hamiltonian describing the lipid-lipid interactions on each leaflet, with two lipidic fields ? 1 and ? 2, is coupled to a Helfrich one, accounting for the membrane elasticity, via both a local spontaneous curvature, which varies as C 0 + C 1(? 1 - ? 2/2), and a bending modulus equal to ? 0 + ? 1(? 1 + ? 2)/2. This model allows us to define curved patches as membrane domains where the asymmetry in composition, ? 1 - ? 2, is large, and thick and stiff patches where ? 1 + ? 2 is large. These thick patches are good candidates for being lipidic rafts, as observed in cell membranes, which are composed primarily of saturated lipids forming a liquid-ordered domain and are known to be thick and flat nano-domains. The lipid-lipid structure factors and correlation functions are computed for globally spherical membranes and planar ones and for a whole set of parameters including the surface tension and the coupling in the two leaflet compositions. Phase diagrams are established, within a Gaussian approximation, showing the occurrence of two types of Structure Disordered phases, with correlations between either curved or thick patches, and an Ordered phase, corresponding to the divergence of the structure factor at a finite wave vector. The varying bending modulus plays a central role for curved membranes, where the driving force ? 1 C 0 (2) is balanced by the line tension, to form raft domains of size ranging from 10 to 100 nm. For planar membranes, raft domains emerge via the cross-correlation with curved domains. A global picture emerges from curvature-induced mechanisms, described in the literature for planar membranes, to coupled curvature- and bending-induced mechanisms in curved membranes forming a closed vesicle. PMID:25160487

Gueguen, Guillaume; Destainville, Nicolas; Manghi, Manoel

2014-08-01

187

Recovering time-varying networks of dependencies in social and biological studies  

E-print Network

Recovering time-varying networks of dependencies in social and biological studies Amr Ahmed com- munity is a stochastic network that is topologically rewiring and semantically evolving over time. In this article, we present a machine learning method called TESLA, which builds on a temporally smoothed l1

Xing, Eric P.

188

ParticleCall: A particle filter for base calling in next-generation sequencing systems  

PubMed Central

Background Next-generation sequencing systems are capable of rapid and cost-effective DNA sequencing, thus enabling routine sequencing tasks and taking us one step closer to personalized medicine. Accuracy and lengths of their reads, however, are yet to surpass those provided by the conventional Sanger sequencing method. This motivates the search for computationally efficient algorithms capable of reliable and accurate detection of the order of nucleotides in short DNA fragments from the acquired data. Results In this paper, we consider Illumina’s sequencing-by-synthesis platform which relies on reversible terminator chemistry and describe the acquired signal by reformulating its mathematical model as a Hidden Markov Model. Relying on this model and sequential Monte Carlo methods, we develop a parameter estimation and base calling scheme called ParticleCall. ParticleCall is tested on a data set obtained by sequencing phiX174 bacteriophage using Illumina’s Genome Analyzer II. The results show that the developed base calling scheme is significantly more computationally efficient than the best performing unsupervised method currently available, while achieving the same accuracy. Conclusions The proposed ParticleCall provides more accurate calls than the Illumina’s base calling algorithm, Bustard. At the same time, ParticleCall is significantly more computationally efficient than other recent schemes with similar performance, rendering it more feasible for high-throughput sequencing data analysis. Improvement of base calling accuracy will have immediate beneficial effects on the performance of downstream applications such as SNP and genotype calling. ParticleCall is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/particlecall. PMID:22776067

2012-01-01

189

The Spanish sparrow (Passer hispaniolensis Temminck 1820) nestling begging calls: call characterisation and distinctiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first study to characterise the Spanish sparrow nestlings begging calls. The nestlings' begging calls presented high degree of inter-individual distinctiveness, Confirmed by both audiospectrogram correlations and discriminant function analysis. The post hoc classification miss-classified 7 cases out of 72 (making a total of 90.3% correctly classified cases). The individual call characteristics that seemed to best discriminate between

Paulo A. M. Marques; Luís Vicente; Rafael Márquez

2004-01-01

190

On Call: Alert or Unsafe? A Report of the AORN On-Call Electronic Task Force  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESEARCH HAS LINKED health care providers' long work hours with patient care errors. Perioperative staff members often work extended hours because of long shifts and being on call.AORN's ON-CALL ELECTRONIC TASK FORCE conducted a survey of nurses to determine their work load, call scheduling, and experiences related to fatigue. Of the 1,013 respondents, 67.7% said they had experienced effects of

Trudy A. G. Kenyon; Rebecca E. Gluesing; Karen Y. White; Wanda L. Dunkel; Byron L. Burlingame

2007-01-01

191

Sexual differences in cricket calling song recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonotactic behavior was studied in male crickets,Teleogryllus oceanicus. Tethered flying males were presented with electronically synthesized calling song models in a two-choice phonotaxis assay, and their song preferences were determined and compared with previous findings for females.

Gerald S. Pollack

1982-01-01

192

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS - PIT LAKES 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

This call for abstracts is for the 11/16-18/2004 Pit Lakes 2004 meeting held in Reno, NV. This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international pit lake approaches, including pit lakes from arid and wet regions throu...

193

HARDROCK MINING 2002 CALL FOR ABSTRACTS: ANNOUNCEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1539 Martin, A. Hardrock Mining 2002 Call for Abstracts. Hardrock Mining 2002, Westminster, CO, 5/7-9/2002. EPA/625/F- 01/003. and future environmental issues shaping the mining industry with emphasis on case study analysis and technology verification. This flyer is a...

194

UDP Socket Creation The socketcall system call.  

E-print Network

sys_socketcall() An array containing the number of argument passed to each of the calls, nargs[18], is defined in net/socket.c. There is one element for each of the 17 socket functions. The value of nargs function has index j = 2 and has 3 arguments and thus the value of nargs[2] is 12. int bind(int sockfd

Westall, James M.

195

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research Special Volume: Operations Research Confronting the Crisis The Annals of Operations Research seeks submissions for a special volume on Operations Research opportunities have arisen for the development and application of operations research (OR) methodologies

196

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research Special Volume: ROADEF/EURO challenge 2012 on Machine://challenge.roadef.org/2012/en/ We invite papers for a special issue of Annals of Operations Research on the machine reassignment problem. All participants to the ROADEF/EURO challenge 2012 are invited to submit a paper. Papers

197

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research Special Volume on Logistics, Optimization, and Transportation Overview This special volume collects papers describing cutting edge research on op- timization · Exact methods 1 #12;Procedures High quality papers are sought from all researchers in these fields

198

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research Special Volume: Stochastic Methods in Reliability of Operations Research seeks submissions for a special volume on Stochastic Methods in Reliability and Risk Management dedicated to the research areas of applied probability presented at the Seventh International

Li, Haijun

199

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research Special Volume: Advances in Computational research and supply chain management with industrial practice. We hope that papers published in this Volume to submit research papers for possible publication in this Volume. The strict review process

200

Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

2010-01-01

201

Chirac calls ITER essential for planet's future  

E-print Network

Chirac calls ITER essential for planet's future CADARACHE, France, June 30 (AFP) - French President in southern France as vital to the planet's future, praising European solidarity in sealing the deal. "This project is essential for our future and the future of the planet," Chirac told some 1,500 invited guests

202

Learner Activities in a Collaborative CALL Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper briefly discusses different research approaches in CALL and makes a case for applying grounded theory (GT) to data gathered from an electronic role-play conducted in L2. The article shows that this method can help gain a better understanding of what learners do when engaged in the task. Through the process of open coding, four…

Leahy, C.

2008-01-01

203

IEEE Communications Magazine Call for Papers  

E-print Network

; Security, privacy and virus/malware issues in mobile cloud computing Mobile cloud enabled BringIEEE Communications Magazine Call for Papers Feature Topic on Mobile Cloud Computing Mobile Cloud Computing refers to an infrastructure where both the data storage and the data processing occur

Fu, Xiaoming

204

gprof: a Call Graph Execution Profiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large complex programs are composed of many small routines that implement abstractions for the routines that call them. To be useful, an execution profiler must attribute execution time in a way that is significant for the logical structure of a program as well as for its textual decomposition. This data must then be displayed to the user in a convenient

Susan L. Graham; Peter B. Kessler; Marshall K. McKusick

1982-01-01

205

CALL FOR PAPERS Annals of Operations Research  

E-print Network

Editors: Desheng Dash Wu (managing guest editor), David L. Olson, and John Birge Introduction This special online upon acceptance. Questions can be sent to the managing guest editor Dash Wu. Special Issue GuestCALL FOR PAPERS Annals of Operations Research Special Volume Risk and Operations Research Guest

206

Tesla TechFair Call for Proposals  

E-print Network

are celebrating Nikola Tesla, in conjunction with Tesla in New York, an opera by filmmaker Jim Jarmusch & composer | 4:00-6:00 PM | Spanos Auditorium/Great Hall, Thayer | Free Discover how Nikola Tesla's inventionsTesla TechFair Call for Proposals Thayer School of Engineering and the Hopkins Center

207

Cognitive barriers to calling a smoking quitline  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study examined cognitive barriers that might prevent cigarette smokers who are interested in quitting from calling a smoking quitline. Methods: Using qualitative and quantitative methods, we developed a 53-item inventory of possible cognitive barriers to quitline access. A total of 641 daily smokers who reported high intentions to stop smoking in the next 30 days completed this inventory and were then prompted to call a toll-free smoking quitline (800-QUIT NOW) on 3 occasions. Two months later, they completed a follow-up phone interview to assess use of the quitline, quit attempts, and smoking status. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the barrier items revealed a 5-factor solution: stigma, low appraisal of the service, no need for assistance, poor fit with the service, and privacy concerns. Endorsements of barrier factors were generally low. Although several barrier factor scores predicted concurrent intentions to call a quitline in the near future, none prospectively predicted calling the quitline by 2-month follow-up. Discussion: Cognitive barriers to use of quitlines remain elusive. PMID:19793785

Hughes, John R.; Livingston, Amy; Naud, Shelly; Callas, Peter W.; Peters, Erica N.; Kamon, Jody; Etter, Jean-Francois

2009-01-01

208

"The Call of the Wild": Thematic Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit intends for students to explore various literary devices such as theme, characterization, and vocabulary while they read Jack London's "The Call of the Wild." While reading this text, students will explore the relationship of these devices in connection to the unit's overall theme: survival. Students will be exposed to history, new…

Prinsen, Tammy

209

Call processing model for wireless network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The switching network consists of a number of switches connected by trunks. The wireless network is built of base stations connected to switches. A call from a mobile user is set up through a base station and a number of switches. A switch has the input queue for the source and the output queue. The packets are held in the

A. Hac

1996-01-01

210

Web-Based CALL to Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated effectiveness of Web-based CALL on listening comprehension. Both students' academic performance and attitudes were examined. T-tests were used to analyze the results of students' academic performance. Descriptive statistics interpreted students' attitudes toward this learning. Students' participation was also recorded.…

Chen, Li-Mei; Zhang, Ruiming

2010-01-01

211

White House calls: Siena professor's work in  

E-print Network

When the White House calls: Siena professor's work in national spotlight SIENAcollege WINTER 2010, ethics and service. Before long, an exceptional team of Siena leaders will begin a national search of marketing and management was named to an advisory group for the new White House Council on Women and Girls

212

Call for Papers INDUSTRIAL MARKETING MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

Call for Papers INDUSTRIAL MARKETING MANAGEMENT Special Issue on Applied Intelligent Systems Casillas University of Granada (Spain) Main Scope of the issue A forthcoming issue of Industrial Marketing applications, developed to aid the management of any of the marketing issues in a Business-to-Business context

Casillas Barranquero, Jorge

213

Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

2013-01-01

214

Lost: McCall's T Scores: Why?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of a Fortran program for linear and area transformations of test scores with optional generation of symmetric tables of areas under the standard normal curve is presented. Also included is a historic note on the origin of McCall's T Scale. (Author/JKS)

Krus, David J.; Krus, Patricia H.

1977-01-01

215

A Call for School Counseling Practitioner Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the repeated call to increase the number of practitioner research manuscripts being published in counseling publications, practitioner research accounts for less than five percent of all manuscripts published. This article describes the challenges faced by practitioners seeking to publish their research, defines practitioner research, and…

Kaffenberger, Carol J.

2012-01-01

216

Call for Papers IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS  

E-print Network

Call for Papers IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS Special Issue on Visual SLAM In recent years Transactions on Robotics (T-RO) is to publish outstanding results in the rapidly progressing subject of visual with the potential of guiding autonomous robots in their exploration and operation in large and complex environments

Davison, Andrew

217

Calling on the Voice of Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Northeast Missouri State University, an instructional method known as the "telelecture" is being employed by Richard Weerts, professor of music. With a telelecture, potential guest lecturers are just a phone call away. Here the editor from MEJ and Professor Weerts demonstrate how this method works. (Editor/RK)

Music Educators Journal, 1977

1977-01-01

218

CALL FOR PROPOSALS ATLANTIC BLUEFIN TUNA RESEARCH  

E-print Network

1 CALL FOR PROPOSALS ATLANTIC BLUEFIN TUNA RESEARCH JUNE 29, 2010 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Funding Opportunity Description: Northern bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus is the object of a major international fishery. Effective fisheries management will depend upon improvements in understanding of bluefin tuna biology

Berkson, Jim

219

CALL--Past, Present, and Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a critical examination and reassessment of the history of computer assisted language learning (CALL), and argues for three new strategies--restricted, open, and integrated. Offers definitions and descriptions of the three approaches and argues that they allow a more detailed analysis of institutions and classrooms than earlier analyses.…

Bax, Stephen

2003-01-01

220

Call for applications: International Summer School  

E-print Network

, the old saw that `India lives in her villages'. Both assertions have an unmistakable ring of truth1 / 2 Call for applications: International Summer School "The city and the village: separations, linkages and conflicts over social space in modern India" Centre for Modern Indian Studies (Ce

Krivobokova, Tatyana

221

Integrating CALL into the Language Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates how Hubbard's methodological framework (1992) can be adapted to develop computer-assisted language learning (CALL) materials for English-as-a-Second-Language students in Australia. Findings reveal that this courseware development module provides an excellent framework for the creation of language learning software and the integration…

Coleman, Gayle

1996-01-01

222

Call for Papers Annals of Operations Research  

E-print Network

Programming Constraint-Based Methods Expert Systems Knowledge Based Systems Fuzzy Systems HeuristicCall for Papers Annals of Operations Research Special Volume: The Practice and Theory of Automated Timetabling The Annals of Operations Research seeks submissions for a special volume on the Practice

223

Why We Like to Call Ourselves Latinas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the complex and subtle reasons why many people of Spanish-speaking ancestry, both Latin Americans and Spaniards, like to call themselves Latinos. Among other things, this word, coined by the Mediterranean countries to resist Anglo dominance in the 19th century, is currently being used by people of Spanish-speaking ancestry…

Gonzlez, Christina; Gandara, Patricia

2005-01-01

224

Don't Call It School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Homeschooling," "deschooling," and "unschooling" are commonly used terms in the alternative-education world, but each lacks specificity. In this article, the author describes what he discovered during several visits to North Star. Known officially as North Star: Self-Directed Learning for Teens, it is not as structured as a so-called "free"…

Robb, Daniel

2006-01-01

225

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...through KZZZ99. WAAA20 through WZZZ99. Cable-repair ship marker buoy Call sign of the parent ship followed by the letters “BT” and the identifying number of the buoy Marine utility 2 letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Shipyard mobile...

2010-10-01

226

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...through KZZZ99.WAAA20 through WZZZ99. Cable-repair ship marker buoy Call sign of the parent ship followed by the letters “BT” and the identifying number of the buoy Marine utility 2 letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Shipyard mobile...

2013-10-01

227

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...through KZZZ99.WAAA20 through WZZZ99. Cable-repair ship marker buoy Call sign of the parent ship followed by the letters “BT” and the identifying number of the buoy Marine utility 2 letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Shipyard mobile...

2014-10-01

228

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...through KZZZ99.WAAA20 through WZZZ99. Cable-repair ship marker buoy Call sign of the parent ship followed by the letters “BT” and the identifying number of the buoy Marine utility 2 letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Shipyard mobile...

2012-10-01

229

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...through KZZZ99. WAAA20 through WZZZ99. Cable-repair ship marker buoy Call sign of the parent ship followed by the letters “BT” and the identifying number of the buoy Marine utility 2 letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Shipyard mobile...

2011-10-01

230

Optimizing SVMs for complex call classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large margin classifiers such as support vector machines (SVM) or Adaboost are obvious choices for natural language document or call routing. However, how to combine several binary classifiers to optimize the whole routing process and how this process scales when it involves many different decisions (or classes) is a complex problem that has only received partial answers. We propose a

Patrick Haffner; Gokhan Tur; Jerry H. Wright

2003-01-01

231

Parental alarm calls suppress nestling vocalization.  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary models suggest that the cost of a signal can ensure its honesty. Empirical studies of nestling begging imply that predator attraction can impose such a cost. However, parents might reduce or abolish this cost by warning young of the presence of danger. We tested, in a controlled field playback experiment, whether alarm calls cause 5-, 8- and 11-day-old nestlings of the white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, to suppress vocalization. In this species, nestlings vocalize when parents visit the nest ('begging') and when they are absent ('non-begging'), so we measured effects on both types of vocalization. Playback of parental alarm calls suppressed non-begging vocalization almost completely but only slightly reduced begging calls during a playback of parental feeding calls that followed. The reaction of nestlings was largely independent of age. Our results suggest two reasons why experiments ignoring the role of parents probably overestimate the real cost of nestling vocalizations. Parents can warn young from a distance about the presence of danger and so suppress non-begging vocalizations that might otherwise be overheard, and a parent's presence at the nest presumably indicates when it is safe to beg. PMID:15306351

Platzen, Dirk; Magrath, Robert D.

2004-01-01

232

Calling behaviour under climate change: geographical and seasonal variation of calling temperatures in ectotherms.  

PubMed

Calling behaviour is strongly temperature-dependent and critical for sexual selection and reproduction in a variety of ectothermic taxa, including anuran amphibians, which are the most globally threatened vertebrates. However, few studies have explored how species respond to distinct thermal environments at time of displaying calling behaviour, and thus it is still unknown whether ongoing climate change might compromise the performance of calling activity in ectotherms. Here, we used new audio-trapping techniques (automated sound recording and detection systems) between 2006 and 2009 to examine annual calling temperatures of five temperate anurans and their patterns of geographical and seasonal variation at the thermal extremes of species ranges, providing insights into the thermal breadths of calling activity of species, and the mechanisms that enable ectotherms to adjust to changing thermal environments. All species showed wide thermal breadths during calling behaviour (above 15 °C) and increases in calling temperatures in extremely warm populations and seasons. Thereby, calling temperatures differed both geographically and seasonally, both in terrestrial and aquatic species, and were 8-22 °C below the specific upper critical thermal limits (CTmax ) and strongly associated with the potential temperatures of each thermal environment (operative temperatures during the potential period of breeding). This suggests that calling behaviour in ectotherms may take place at population-specific thermal ranges, diverging when species are subjected to distinct thermal environments, and might imply plasticity of thermal adjustment mechanisms (seasonal and developmental acclimation) that supply species with means of coping with climate change. Furthermore, the thermal thresholds of calling at the onset of the breeding season were dissimilar between conspecific populations, suggesting that other factors besides temperature are needed to trigger the onset of reproduction. Our findings imply that global warming would not directly inhibit calling behaviour in the study species, although might affect other temperature-dependent features of their acoustic communication system. PMID:23712567

Llusia, Diego; Márquez, Rafael; Beltrán, Juan F; Benítez, Maribel; do Amaral, José P

2013-09-01

233

Call recognition in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana: generalization along the duration continuum.  

PubMed

Male bullfrogs emit multicroak, quasiharmonic advertisement calls that function in mate attraction and neighbor recognition. The degree of variability of acoustic features in these calls can influence perceptual decisions by conspecific receivers. Analysis of duration of individual croaks in spontaneous advertisement calls of a sample of males shows considerable intraindividual variability in this feature, even within short chorusing bouts. The influence of this intraindividual variability on behavior was examined in a series of evoked calling experiments. When presented with synthetic calls whose croak durations varied over the range of the natural variability in this feature, males responded similarly to intermediate and long duration croaks, but significantly less to short duration croaks. When presented with playbacks of calls with croak durations outside the natural range of variability, males again responded significantly less to shorter durations. The response gradient for duration is thus asymmetrical, with stimuli at the shorter end of the continuum evoking fewer responses than stimuli at the longer end. This asymmetry may be related to the biological demands of rejecting perception of heterospecific advertisement calls, and of mediating appropriate responses to conspecific aggressive calls. The shape of the response gradient for duration may reflect a process of stimulus generalization. PMID:15058356

Simmons, Andrea Megela

2004-03-01

234

Call recognition in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana: Generalization along the duration continuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Male bullfrogs emit multicroak, quasiharmonic advertisement calls that function in mate attraction and neighbor recognition. The degree of variability of acoustic features in these calls can influence perceptual decisions by conspecific receivers. Analysis of duration of individual croaks in spontaneous advertisement calls of a sample of males shows considerable intraindividual variability in this feature, even within short chorusing bouts. The influence of this intraindividual variability on behavior was examined in a series of evoked calling experiments. When presented with synthetic calls whose croak durations varied over the range of the natural variability in this feature, males responded similarly to intermediate and long duration croaks, but significantly less to short duration croaks. When presented with playbacks of calls with croak durations outside the natural range of variability, males again responded significantly less to shorter durations. The response gradient for duration is thus asymmetrical, with stimuli at the shorter end of the continuum evoking fewer responses than stimuli at the longer end. This asymmetry may be related to the biological demands of rejecting perception of heterospecific advertisement calls, and of mediating appropriate responses to conspecific aggressive calls. The shape of the response gradient for duration may reflect a process of stimulus generalization.

Simmons, Andrea Megela

2004-03-01

235

Call for PapersCall for Papers Annals of Operations Research  

E-print Network

Call for PapersCall for Papers Annals of Operations Research Special Volume: Stochastic Methods of Operations Research seeks submissions for a special volume on Stochastic Methods in Reliability and Risk Management dedicated to the research areas of applied probability presented at the Seventh International

236

Call title: "The ocean of tomorrow" Call identifier: FP7-OCEAN-2010  

E-print Network

Collaborative Project (large scale integrating project) OCEAN.2010-2 Vectors of changes in marine life, impact million OCEAN.2010-2 Vectors of change in marine life, impact on economic sectors EUR 12.5 million OCEAN1 Call title: "The ocean of tomorrow" · Call identifier: FP7-OCEAN-2010 · Date of publication: 30

Milano-Bicocca, Università

237

On-Call and Call-Back EMPLOYEE: EmpID  

E-print Network

shall be credited for actual time worked as well as time to and from the employee's home to the assigned11.5.2013 On-Call and Call-Back EMPLOYEE: EmpID: DEPARTMENT: DEPT. ACCOUNT NUMBER: SHIFT RATE Employee Signature: Date: Supervisor Signature: Date: Dean/Director Signature: Date: I certify

Wu, Shin-Tson

238

CALL TITLE: MARIE CURIE RE-INTEGRATION GRANTS (RG) Call identifier: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-RG  

E-print Network

CALL TITLE: MARIE CURIE RE-INTEGRATION GRANTS (RG) · Call identifier: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-RG · Date Curie European Re-integration Grants (ERG) Marie Curie International Re- integration Grants (IRG will have to be submitted at the earliest one year before the end of the initial Marie Curie fellowship

De Cindio, Fiorella

239

Responses to alarm calls by California ground squirrels: Effects of call structure and maternal status  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The purposes of this study were to assess the response eliciting properties of five structural variants of the California ground squirrel alarm call system, and to compare the responsiveness of females with and without young to the vocalizations. Tape recordings of alarm calls and control sounds were played back in the field to adult female ground squirrels. The squirrels responded

Daniel W. Leger; Donald H. Owings

1978-01-01

240

Nacogdoches Fire DepartmentNacogdoches Fire Department Service Call Density andService Call Density and  

E-print Network

directed toward public education, prevention, and control in areaseducation, prevention, and control--Fire PlanningFire Planning ·· Public Education and Safety ClassesPublic Education and Safety Classes/hurricane assessment Special type of incident, Other Citizen complaint Calls by Group from January 2007Calls by Group

Hung, I-Kuai

241

Home visits: why do rates vary so much?  

PubMed

Data including information on patient age, gender, who initiated the visit and call classification was collected during office hours from 12 G.P. rural teaching practices with a combined GMS patient population of 24,720, over a 2 month period. There were a total of 603 home visits, giving an annual visiting rate of 143/1000. Visiting rates varied between practices from 45 to 305/1000 per year. When high visiting practices (>210/1000/year) were compared to low visiting rate practices (>90/1000/year), patients tended to be older (79.7 v. 74.5 years) and calls were 12 times more likely to be doctor initiated (16.6% v. 1.4%) or classified as routine( 50.7% v. 44.9%). The variation between practices was related in part to patient age but appears largely due to differences in doctor home visiting behaviour. There are no recent figures on home visiting in Ireland. PMID:22558815

Stewart, P; Stewart, R

2012-03-01

242

The Varied Uses of Readability Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Readability formulas have varied uses. In education they are used to match children's reading ability to the difficulty level of material, select stories and books for classroom use and for individual students' particular needs, select textbooks and other reading materials, aid educational research, and check reading materials of newly literate…

Fry, Edward

243

Time-varying joint distribution through copulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the analysis of temporal dependence in multivariate time series. The dependence structure between the marginal series is modelled through the use of copulas which, unlike the correlation matrix, give a complete description of the joint distribution. The param- eters of the copula function vary through time following certain evolution equations depending on their previous values and

M. Concepcion Ausin; Hedibert F. Lopes

2010-01-01

244

Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX), a clinical program designed to assess the degree to which an individual is able to demonstrate self-control for overall general relaxation. The program is designed for use with the Cassel Biosensors biofeedback equipment. (JAC)

Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

1983-01-01

245

Venturi Tube with Varying Mass Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements on three tubes with flow regulated by suction at the trainling edge of the tube are described. It was possible to vary the mass of air flowing through the tube over a large range. Such tubes could be used for shrouded propellers.

Regenscheit, B.

1948-01-01

246

Adaptive Template Moderated Spatially Varying Statistical Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel image segmentation algorithm was developed to allow the automatic segmentation of both normal and abnormal anatomy. The new algo- rithm is a form of spatially varying classification (SVC), in which an explicit anatomical template is used to moderate the segmentation obtained by k Nearest Neighbour ( -NN) statistical classification. The new algorithm consist s of an iter- ated

Simon K. Warfield; Michael Kaus; Ferenc A. Jolesz; Ron Kikinis

1998-01-01

247

Time-Varying World Market Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a measure of capital market integration arising from a conditional regime-switching model. Our measure allows us to describe expected returns in countries that are segmented from world capital markets in one part of the sample and become integrated later in the sample. We find that a number of emerging markets exhibit time-varying integration. Some markets appear more integrated

Geert Bekaert; Campbell R Harvey

1995-01-01

248

INVESTIGATION The Genetic Consequences of Spatially Varying  

E-print Network

a stable polymorphic equilibrium at these loci. Our results suggest that some geneticINVESTIGATION The Genetic Consequences of Spatially Varying Selection in the Panmictic American Eel-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark ABSTRACT Our understanding of the genetic basis of local adaptation has recently

Bernatchez, Louis

249

Boiling Radial Flow in Fractures of Varying  

E-print Network

SGP-TR-166 Boiling Radial Flow in Fractures of Varying Wall Porosity Robb Allan Barnitt June 2000 and boiling convective heat transfer, with boiling flow in a rock fracture. A series of experiments observed differences in boiling regimes and behavior, and attempted to quantify a boiling convection coefficient

Stanford University

250

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The promise of filamentary composite materials, whose development may be considered as entering its second generation, continues to generate intense interest and applications activity. Fiber reinforced composite materials offer substantially improved performance and potentially lower costs for aerospace hardware. Much progress has been achieved since the initial developments in the mid 1960's. Rather limited applications to primary aircraft structure have been made, however, mainly in a material-substitution mode on military aircraft, except for a few experiments currently underway on large passenger airplanes in commercial operation. To fulfill the promise of composite materials completely requires a strong technology base. NASA and AFOSR recognize the present state of the art to be such that to fully exploit composites in sophisticated aerospace structures, the technology base must be improved. This, in turn, calls for expanding fundamental knowledge and the means by which it can be successfully applied in design and manufacture.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1982-01-01

251

Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators  

DOEpatents

The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

Gennett, Thomas (Denver, CO); Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Honeoye Falls, NY); Landi, Brian J. (Rochester, NY); Heben, Michael J. (Denver, CO)

2008-04-22

252

Call For Native Genius and Indigenous Intellectualism  

E-print Network

Call for Native Genius and Indigenous Intellectualism Donald L. Fixico Genius and intellectualism have existed and still exist among American Indians and other Indigenous Peoples. Perhaps, only in Indigenous Nations Studies can this fact... be fully appreciated due to the ethnocentricism of the western scientific mind. Historically such genius and native intellectualism has not been viewed as relevant to mainstream thought and according to literature written "about" American Indians...

Fixico, Donald L.

2000-03-01

253

Designing a Call Center with Impatient Customers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common model to support workforce management of telephone call centers is the M\\/M\\/N\\/B model, in particular its special cases M\\/M\\/N (Erlang C, which models out busy signals) and M\\/M\\/N\\/N (Erlang B, disallowing waiting). All of these models lack a central prevalent feature, namely, that impatient customers might decide to leave (abandon) before their service begins. In this paper,

O. Garnet; A. Mandelbaum; M. Reiman

2002-01-01

254

Columbia University Varying Electron Cyclotron ResonanceVarying Electron Cyclotron Resonance  

E-print Network

Columbia University Varying Electron Cyclotron ResonanceVarying Electron Cyclotron Resonance currently via two electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) sources: 2.5 kW at 2.45 GHz and 2.5 kW at 6 discharge can be used to turn plasma instabilities on and off. #12;OutlineOutline Electron cyclotron

255

Automotive crashworthiness of adhesively bonded carbon fiber polymer composite structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In passenger vehicles, the ability to absorb impact energy and be survivable for the occupant is called the "crashworthiness" of the structure. The ACC (Automotive Composite Consortium) has been and continues to be very interested in investigating the use of fiber-reinforced composites as crash energy absorbers. It would have been ideal if the composite structure to be used as a crash energy absorber were manufactured as an integral, monolithic component, but limitations in the present day manufacturing technology necessitate the presence of joints in composite structures. While many scientists have investigated the energy absorption characteristics in various fiber reinforced composite materials, there is no literature available on the energy absorption and crushing characteristics of these materials when they are used in a bonded structure. The influence of having a bonded joint within the crush zone of a composite structure has not been adequately characterized in the past. After reviewing the existing literature and based on our own work done in automotive crashworthiness studies it can be concluded that investigating the strain rate dependence of fiber reinforced polymer composites and bonded structures made from them are also very important since the amount of energy they absorb and their performance properties vary with loading rate. The above is the last stage in crashworthiness research, where in one would like to determine how best fiber composite structures can be bonded together in the pursuit of designing the most crashworthy adhesively bonded automotive composite structure. Hence, a comprehensive experimental methodology to analyze and design adhesively bonded automotive composite structures made of carbon fiber polymer composites to sustain axial, off-axis and lateral crash/impact loads is developed and strain rate effects on the crashworthiness of these bonded carbon fiber composite structures are studied. The experimental results from this work are being used to provide the building blocks for model developments---first the coupon level, then progressing in complexity to component level. Correlation with experimental results will provide the basis for which the analytical developments including development of constitutive laws, materials models, damage algorithms and new finite elements, are made.

Jacob, George Chennakattu

256

The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers  

SciTech Connect

The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

Luminosu, I.; Pop, N. [Department of Physical Foundation of Engineering, 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara, B-dul V. Parvan, No. 2, Timisoara, 300223 (Romania)

2010-08-04

257

The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

2010-08-01

258

Varying potential silicon carbide gas sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydrocarbon gas detection device operates by dissociating or electro-chemically oxidizing hydrocarbons adsorbed to a silicon carbide detection layer. Dissociation or oxidation are driven by a varying potential applied to the detection layer. Different hydrocarbon species undergo reaction at different applied potentials so that the device is able to discriminate among various hydrocarbon species. The device can operate at temperatures between 100.degree. C. and at least 650.degree. C., allowing hydrocarbon detection in hot exhaust gases. The dissociation reaction is detected either as a change in a capacitor or, preferably, as a change of current flow through an FET which incorporates the silicon carbide detection layers. The silicon carbide detection layer can be augmented with a pad of catalytic material which provides a signal without an applied potential. Comparisons between the catalytically produced signal and the varying potential produced signal may further help identify the hydrocarbon present.

Shields, Virgil B. (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

259

Advertisement-call modification, male competition and female preference in the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca  

PubMed Central

Senders and receivers influence dynamic characteristics of the signals used for mate attraction over different time scales. On a moment-to-moment basis, interactions among senders competing for a mate influence dynamic characteristics, whereas the preferences of receivers of the opposite gender exert an influence over evolutionary time. We observed and recorded the calling patterns of the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca, to assess how the dynamic characters of calls vary during interactions among groups of males in a chorus. This question was also addressed using playback experiments with males. Playback experiments with females showed how changes in dynamic call properties are likely to affect male mating success. Frogs calling in pairs, groups, or in response to playbacks produced longer calls than did isolated males. During call overlap, males often increased the duration of the silent interval (gaps) between the pulses of their calls so that the pulses of the calls of two neighbors interdigitated. This change resulted in increased variability of pulse rate, a traditionally static acoustic property; however, males also produced high proportions of non-overlapped calls in which variability in pulse rate was low and had species-typical values. Females preferred long calls to short and average-duration calls, and non-overlapped calls to overlapped calls. Given a choice between pairs of overlapped calls, females preferred pairs in which the proportion of overlap was low and pairs in which the pulses of such calls interdigitated completely. The observed patterns of vocal competition thus reflect the preferences of conspecific females, which have influenced the evolution of the calling behavior of H. avivoca. PMID:19789730

Martínez-Rivera, Carlos César; Gerhardt, H. Carl

2009-01-01

260

Black Hole Censorship of Varying Fundamental Constants  

E-print Network

Here it is shown that the variation in the fine structure constant measured by Webb et al. matches the theoretically derived value for the maximum variation in the electronic charge permitted by the Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics for black holes accreting and emitting in the present cosmic microwave background. It is postulated that the constants of nature, independently or dependently, vary at the maximal rate allowed by the Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Jane H MacGibbon

2006-04-04

261

Human response to varying concentrations of toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Thirty two males and 39 females aged 31–50 were exposed for 7 h to one of the three following conditions: (1) Clean air, (2)\\u000a constant exposure to 100 ppm toluene, or (3) a varying exposure with the same time-weighted average, but with peaks of 300\\u000a ppm every 30 min. During exposure the subjects exercised in three 15-min periods with a

Jesper Bælum; Gunnar R. Lundgvist; Lars Mølhave; Niels Trolle Andersen

1990-01-01

262

Spatially varying registration using Gaussian processes.  

PubMed

In this paper we propose a new approach for spatially-varying registration using Gaussian process priors. The method is based on the idea of spectral tempering, i.e. the spectrum of the Gaussian process is modified depending on a user defined tempering function. The result is a non-stationary Gaussian process, which induces different amount of smoothness in different areas. In contrast to most other schemes for spatially-varying registration, our approach does not require any change in the registration algorithm itself, but only affects the prior model. Thus we can obtain spatially-varying versions of any registration method whose deformation prior can be formulated in terms of a Gaussian process. This includes for example most spline-based models, but also statistical shape or deformation models. We present results for the problem of atlas based skull-registration of cone beam CT images. These datasets are difficult to register as they contain a large amount of noise around the teeth. We show that with our method we can become robust against noise, but still obtain accurate correspondence where the data is clean. PMID:25485406

Gerig, Thomas; Shahim, Kamal; Reyes, Mauricio; Vetter, Thomas; Lüthi, Marcel

2014-01-01

263

Performance of Methanol Oxidation Catalysts with Varying Pt:Ru Ratio as a Function of Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the effects of varying the Pt to Ru ratio in carbon-supported catalysts for methanol oxidation as a function of temperature. Previously these effects were studied in isolation, but now it is shown that the composition of a given catalyst as a function of temperature is extremely important for its activity towards methanol oxidation. Platinum rich 3:2 atomic

A. J. Dickinson; L. P. L. Carrette; J. A. Collins; K. A. Friedrich; U. Stimming

2004-01-01

264

Structural Comparison of Hydrogen Silsesquioxane Based Porous Low-k Thin Films Prepared with Varying  

E-print Network

spacing, pore connectivity, and atomic composition. We compare samples with varying dielectric constants aluminum as the metal line material because of its low resistivity and high resistance to electromi below 2.2 require the incorporation of air voids (k ) 1.01) into a suitable dielectric matrix.2

Wang, Howard "Hao"

265

Use the call controls To put the call on hold, click Hold.  

E-print Network

calls. You can also plug in any device recommended by your company, such as a USB headset, USB phone and hold the Ctrl key, and click the contacts you want. Then right-click a selected contact, and click

Paulsson, Johan

266

Neural correlates of threat perception: neural equivalence of conspecific and heterospecific mobbing calls is learned.  

PubMed

Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more "D" notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned. PMID:21909363

Avey, Marc T; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B

2011-01-01

267

Neural Correlates of Threat Perception: Neural Equivalence of Conspecific and Heterospecific Mobbing Calls Is Learned  

PubMed Central

Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise [1]–[2]. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators [3]. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more “D” notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators [4]. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned. PMID:21909363

Avey, Marc T.; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K.; Bloomfield, Laurie L.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

268

Energy Absorption in Chopped Carbon Fiber Compression Molded Composites  

SciTech Connect

In passenger vehicles the ability to absorb energy due to impact and be survivable for the occupant is called the ''crashworthiness'' of the structure. To identify and quantify the energy absorbing mechanisms in candidate automotive composite materials, test methodologies were developed for conducting progressive crush tests on composite plate specimens. The test method development and experimental set-up focused on isolating the damage modes associated with the frond formation that occurs in dynamic testing of composite tubes. Quasi-static progressive crush tests were performed on composite plates manufactured from chopped carbon fiber with an epoxy resin system using compression molding techniques. The carbon fiber was Toray T700 and the epoxy resin was YLA RS-35. The effect of various material and test parameters on energy absorption was evaluated by varying the following parameters during testing: fiber volume fraction, fiber length, fiber tow size, specimen width, profile radius, and profile constraint condition. It was demonstrated during testing that the use of a roller constraint directed the crushing process and the load deflection curves were similar to progressive crushing of tubes. Of all the parameters evaluated, the fiber length appeared to be the most critical material parameter, with shorter fibers having a higher specific energy absorption than longer fibers. The combination of material parameters that yielded the highest energy absorbing material was identified.

Starbuck, J.M.

2001-07-20

269

Call Title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection Call Identifier: FP7-Fission-2009  

E-print Network

Call Title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection · Call Identifier: FP7-Fission-2009 · Date repartition (EUR million) 1 Fission-1 5.5 2 Fission-2 20.0 (of which EUR 1.0 million is reserved for topic Fission-2009-2.2.2) 3 Fission-3 18.0 4 Fission-5 & -7 5.405 Total 48.905 All budgetary figures

De Cindio, Fiorella

270

Call for tighter coal ash disposal standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 200 million tons of coal ash and scrubber sludge were deposited from coal plants into ponds or landfills between 2009 and 2011, according to a 21 December report by the Environmental Integrity Project (EIP), a nonprofit organization based in Washington, D. C. EIP issued the report to mark the fourth anniversary of the dike rupture at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant, which spilled an estimated 1.1 billion gallons of coal fly ash slurry into the Tennessee River system on 22 December 2008. EIP called for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue ash disposal standards.

Showstack, Randy

2013-01-01

271

Gene Calling Standards (GSC8 Meeting)  

ScienceCinema

The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses gene calling standards at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.

Kyrpides, Nikos [Genome Biology Program, DOE JGI

2011-04-28

272

Gene Calling Standards (GSC8 Meeting)  

SciTech Connect

The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses gene calling standards at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.

Kyrpides, Nikos [Genome Biology Program, DOE JGI

2009-09-10

273

Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls.  

PubMed

Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking noise reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to noise exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source levels of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking noise by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability. The source levels of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background noise were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking noise reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals. PMID:22087938

Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K

2011-11-01

274

Composite objects revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

In object-oriented systems, an object may recursively reference any number of other objects. The references, however, do not capture any special relationships between objects. An important semantic relationship which may be superimposed on a reference is the IS-PART-OF relationship between a pair of objects. A set of objects related by the IS-PART-OF relationship is collectively called a composite object.An earlier

Won Kim; Elisa Bertino; Jorge F. Garza

1989-01-01

275

Composite Josephson Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superconductive loop circuit including more than four Josephson junctions (JJ), which is called a Composite Josephson Device (CJD), can support a fluxoid stably without inductance and has multiple stable states depending on the number of fluxoids. One of the simplest cases of CJD with a three-terminal six JJ loop device is analyzed numerically. The result shows that it has five stable areas and is able to operate as a current amplifier within a certain parameter range.

Nakanishi, Masakazu; Hara, Ko

1984-05-01

276

OBSERVATIONS ON THE CALLS OP THE GRASSHOPPER MOUSE {ONYCHOMYS LEUCOGASTERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calls of grasshopper mice include squeaks, chirping, a single high-pitched call, and a two-phase high-pitched call. The latter two are a means of intraspecific localization and are not a hunting call as previously supposed. A variable range of postures are assumed during the calls. Several authors have noted the calls of grasshopper mice (Genus Onychomys), and anyone who has kept

DAVID G. RUFFER

277

Dendroclimatic reconstruction with time varying predictor subsets of tree indices  

SciTech Connect

Tree-ring site chronologies, the predictors for most dendroclimatic reconstructions, are essentially mean-value functions with a time varying sample size (number of trees) and sample composition. Because reconstruction models are calibrated and verified on the most recent, best-replicated part of the chronologies, regression and verification statistics can be misleading as indicators of long-term reconstruction accuracy. A new reconstruction method is described that circumvents the use of site chronologies and instead derives predictor variables from indices of individual trees. Separate regression models are estimated and cross validated for various time segments of the tree-ring record, depending on the trees available at the time. This approach allows the reconstruction to extend to the first year covered by any tree in the network and yields direct evaluation of the change in reconstruction accuracy with tree-ring sample composition. The method includes two regression stages. The first is to separately deconvolve the local climate signal for individual trees, and the second is to weight the deconvolved signals into estimates of the climatic variable to be reconstructed. The method is illustrated in an application of precipitation and tree-ring data for the San Pedro River Basin in southeastern Arizona. Extensions to larger-scale problems and spatial reconstruction are suggested. 17 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Meko, D. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1997-04-01

278

Apoptosis: Calling Time on Apoptosome Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Apoptosis is a controlled form of cellular demolition, catalyzed by a family of cysteine proteases called caspases. In response to diverse proapoptotic stimuli, caspase-9 is recruited and activated within an oligomeric complex called the apoptosome. The apoptosome drives autocatalytic processing of caspase-9, triggering a proteolytic caspase cascade that results in the biochemical and morphological changes characteristic of cell death. It is unclear why caspase-9 undergoes autocatalytic processing following apoptosome recruitment, because interdomain processing is dispensable for caspase-9 activity. A study has shed light on this issue by demonstrating that caspase-9 processing within the apoptosome promotes its displacement from the complex, leading to inactivation of this protease. Thus, autoprocessing of caspase-9 within the apoptosome serves as a “molecular timer” that limits the proteolytic activity of this complex through displacement of bound caspase-9 molecules. This timer mechanism may enable cells to prevent low amounts of apoptosome activation from spiraling out of control unless sufficient numbers of apoptosomes are assembled within a particular time window, which would drive full-blown caspase activation and apoptosis.

Colin Adrain (Cambridge; Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology REV)

2009-10-06

279

Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats  

PubMed Central

Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships. PMID:23825208

Reber, Stephan A.; Townsend, Simon W.; Manser, Marta B.

2013-01-01

280

Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats.  

PubMed

Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships. PMID:23825208

Reber, Stephan A; Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

2013-08-22

281

Attention grabbing in red deer sexual calls.  

PubMed

Identifying the respective functions of distinct call types is an important step towards understanding the diversification of mammal vocal repertoires. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) stags give two distinct types of roars during the rut, termed 'common roars' and 'harsh roars'. This study tests the hypothesis that harsh roars function to raise and maintain female attention to calling males. To this end, we examined the response of female red deer to playback sequences of common roar bouts including a bout of harsh roars midway through the sequence. We found that females not only substantially increased their attention to the bout of harsh roars but also then maintained overall higher attention levels to subsequent common roar bouts. Our results suggest that the specific acoustic characteristics of male red deer harsh roar bouts may have evolved to engage and maintain the attention of female receivers during the breeding season. More generally, they indicate a possible evolutionary path for the diversification of male sexual vocal repertoires. PMID:21927848

Reby, David; Charlton, Benjamin D

2012-03-01

282

Rethinking Metaphor: Figurative Language and First-Year Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief review of composition theory shows metaphor is often underused and misrepresented in the composition classroom. Approaches to teaching metaphor in composition courses do not go far enough in acknowledging the key role metaphor can play in argumentation, and very little composition theory heeds Andrea Lunsford's call to teach metaphor as…

Moe, Peter Wayne

2011-01-01

283

Call center demand forecasting : improving sales calls prediction accuracy through the combination of statistical methods and judgmental forecast  

E-print Network

Call centers are important for developing and maintaining healthy relationships with customers. At Dell, call centers are also at the core of the company's renowned direct model. For sales call centers in particular, the ...

Boulin, Juan Manuel

2010-01-01

284

3D-printing spatially varying BRDFs.  

PubMed

A new method fabricates custom surface reflectance and spatially varying bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (svBRDFs). Researchers optimize a microgeometry for a range of normal distribution functions and simulate the resulting surface's effective reflectance. Using the simulation's results, they reproduce an input svBRDF's appearance by distributing the microgeometry on the printed material's surface. This method lets people print svBRDFs on planar samples with current 3D printing technology, even with a limited set of printing materials. It extends naturally to printing svBRDFs on arbitrary shapes. PMID:24808130

Rouiller, Olivier; Bickel, Bernd; Kautz, Jan; Matusik, Wojciech; Alexa, Marc

2013-01-01

285

Diffusion in spatially varying porous media  

E-print Network

The problem of diffusion in a porous medium with a spatially varying porosity is considered. The particular microstructure analyzed comprises a collection of impenetrable spheres, though the methods developed are general. Two different approaches for calculating the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of the microstructure are presented. The first is a deterministic approach based on the method of multiple scales; the second is a stochastic approach for small volume fraction of spheres based on matched asymptotic expansions. We compare the two approaches, and we show good agreement between them in a number of example configurations.

Bruna, Maria

2015-01-01

286

Linear Parameter Varying Control for Actuator Failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robust linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis is carried out for an HiMAT vehicle subject to loss of control effectiveness. The scheduling parameter is selected to be a function of the estimates of the control effectiveness factors. The estimates are provided on-line by a two-stage Kalman estimator. The inherent conservatism of the LPV design is reducing through the use of a scaling factor on the uncertainty block that represents the estimation errors of the effectiveness factors. Simulations of the controlled system with the on-line estimator show that a superior fault-tolerance can be achieved.

Shin, Jong-Yeob; Wu, N. Eva; Belcastro, Christine; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

287

Genomic effects on advertisement call structure in diploid and triploid hybrid waterfrogs (Anura, Pelophylax esculentus)  

PubMed Central

Background In anurans, differences in male mating calls have intensively been studied with respect to taxonomic classification, phylogeographic comparisons among different populations and sexual selection. Although overall successful, there is often much unexplained variation in these studies. Potential causes for such variation include differences among genotypes and breeding systems, as well as differences between populations. We investigated how these three factors affect call properties in male water frogs of Pelophylax lessonae (genotype LL), P. ridibundus (RR) and their interspecific hybrid P. esculentus which comes in diploid (LR) and triploid types (LLR, LRR). Results We investigated five call parameters that all showed a genomic dosage effect, i.e. they either decreased or increased with the L/R ratio in the order LL-LLR-LR-LRR-RR. Not all parameters differentiated equally well between the five genotypes, but combined they provided a good separation. Two of the five call parameters were also affected by the breeding system. Calls of diploid LR males varied, depending on whether these males mated with one or both of the parental species (diploid systems) or triploid hybrids (mixed ploidy systems). With the exception of the northernmost mixed-ploidy population, call differences were not related to the geographic location of the population and they were not correlated with genetic distances in the R and L genomes. Conclusions We found an influence of all three tested factors on call parameters, with the effect size decreasing from genotype through breeding system to geographic location of the population. Overall, results were in line with predictions from a dosage effect in L/R ratios, but in three call parameters all three hybrid types were more similar to one or the other parental species. Also calls of diploid hybrids varied between breeding systems in agreement with the sexual host required for successful reproduction. The lack of hybrid call differences in a mixed-ploidy population at the northern edge of the water frog distribution is likely to be associated with genetic particularities, including a) low genetic variability and/or b) a local loss of genes coding for genotype-dependent call differentiation under conditions where female discrimination between diploid and triploid males is not beneficial. PMID:24304922

2013-01-01

288

Fast space-varying convolution using matrix source coding with applications to camera stray light reduction.  

PubMed

Many imaging applications require the implementation of space-varying convolution for accurate restoration and reconstruction of images. Here, we use the term space-varying convolution to refer to linear operators whose impulse response has slow spatial variation. In addition, these space-varying convolution operators are often dense, so direct implementation of the convolution operator is typically computationally impractical. One such example is the problem of stray light reduction in digital cameras, which requires the implementation of a dense space-varying deconvolution operator. However, other inverse problems, such as iterative tomographic reconstruction, can also depend on the implementation of dense space-varying convolution. While space-invariant convolution can be efficiently implemented with the fast Fourier transform, this approach does not work for space-varying operators. So direct convolution is often the only option for implementing space-varying convolution. In this paper, we develop a general approach to the efficient implementation of space-varying convolution, and demonstrate its use in the application of stray light reduction. Our approach, which we call matrix source coding, is based on lossy source coding of the dense space-varying convolution matrix. Importantly, by coding the transformation matrix, we not only reduce the memory required to store it; we also dramatically reduce the computation required to implement matrix-vector products. Our algorithm is able to reduce computation by approximately factoring the dense space-varying convolution operator into a product of sparse transforms. Experimental results show that our method can dramatically reduce the computation required for stray light reduction while maintaining high accuracy. PMID:24710398

Wei, Jianing; Bouman, Charles A; Allebach, Jan P

2014-05-01

289

Toroidal Varied-Line Space (TVLS) Gratings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is a particular challenge to develop a stigmatic spectrograph for XUV wavelengths since the very low normal-incidence reflectance of standard materials most often requires that the design be restricted to a single optical element which must simultaneously provide both re-imaging and spectral dispersion. This problem has been solved in the past by the use of toroidal gratings with uniform line-spaced rulings (TULS). A number of solar EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) spectrometers have been based on such designs, including SOHO/CDS, Solar-B/EIS, and the sounding rockets SERTS and EUNIS. More recently, Kita, Harada, and collaborators have developed the theory of spherical gratings with varied line-space rulings (SVLS) operated at unity magnification, which have been flown on several astronomical satellite missions. We now combine these ideas into a spectrometer concept that puts varied-line space rulings onto toroidal gratings. Such TVLS designs are found to provide excellent imaging even at very large spectrograph magnifications and beam-speeds, permitting extremely high-quality performance in remarkably compact instrument packages. Optical characteristics of two solar spectrometers based on this concept are described: SUMI, proposed as a sounding rocket experiment, and NEXUS, proposed for the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission.

Thomas, Roger J.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

290

Detecting skin colors under varying illumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skin color has been used as an important cue for various human related computer vision applications. However, detecting skin colors under varying illumination is a challenging task, as the appearance of skin in an image highly depends on the illumination under which the image was taken. To this end, a method for detecting skin colors under varying illumination is proposed in this paper. First, spatial illumination variation is identified and the images are segmented into different regions with different illumination. Each illumination region of color images are corrected base on the illuminant estimated by a local edge-based color constancy algorithm. Then, the corrected images are transformed into a color-space, where statistical results on a skin dataset show that the skin color cluster and non-skin color clusters are separated. Finally, the skin colors are modeled under Bayesian decision framework and classified from non-skin colors. The experimental results show that the proposed method is robust to illumination variations.

Liu, Leyuan; Huang, Rui; Yang, Saiyong; Sang, Nong

2011-11-01

291

Varying execution discipline to increase performance  

SciTech Connect

This research investigates the relationship between execution discipline and performance. The hypothesis has two parts: 1. Different execution disciplines exhibit different performance for different computations, and 2. These differences can be effectively predicted by heuristics. A machine model is developed that can vary its execution discipline. That is, the model can execute a given program using either the control-driven, data-driven or demand-driven execution discipline. This model is referred to as a ``variable-execution-discipline`` machine. The instruction set for the model is the Program Dependence Web (PDW). The first part of the hypothesis will be tested by simulating the execution of the machine model on a suite of computations, based on the Livermore Fortran Kernel (LFK) Test (a.k.a. the Livermore Loops), using all three execution disciplines. Heuristics are developed to predict relative performance. These heuristics predict (a) the execution time under each discipline for one iteration of each loop and (b) the number of iterations taken by that loop; then the heuristics use those predictions to develop a prediction for the execution of the entire loop. Similar calculations are performed for branch statements. The second part of the hypothesis will be tested by comparing the results of the simulated execution with the predictions produced by the heuristics. If the hypothesis is supported, then the door is open for the development of machines that can vary execution discipline to increase performance.

Campbell, P.L.; Maccabe, A.B.

1993-12-22

292

Transient, spatially varied groundwater recharge modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is to integrate field data and modeling tools in producing temporally and spatially varying groundwater recharge in a pilot watershed in North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using the Richards equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D), ArcGIS™, ROSETTA, in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture, and a long-term gridded climate data. The public version of HYDUS-1D and another version with detailed freezing and thawing module are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack, and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGIS™ to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8 mm/year. Previous studies in the Okanagan Basin used Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance without any attempt of model performance evaluation, notwithstanding its inherent limitations. Thus, climate change impact results from this previous study and similar others, such as Jyrkama and Sykes (2007), need to be interpreted with caution.

Assefa, Kibreab Amare; Woodbury, Allan D.

2013-08-01

293

Brown Dwarf Variability: What's Varying and Why?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surveys by ground based telescopes, HST, and Spitzer have revealed that brown dwarfs of most spectral classes exhibit variability. The spectral and temporal signatures of the variability are complex and apparently defy simplistic classification which complicates efforts to model the changes. Important questions include understanding if clearings are forming in an otherwise uniform cloud deck or if thermal perturbations, perhaps associated with breaking gravity waves, are responsible. If clouds are responsible how long does it take for the atmospheric thermal profile to relax from a hot cloudy to a cooler cloudless state? If thermal perturbations are responsible then what atmospheric layers are varying? How do the observed variability timescales compare to atmospheric radiative, chemical, and dynamical timescales? I will address such questions by presenting modeling results for time-varying partly cloudy atmospheres and explore the importance of various atmospheric processes over the relevant timescales for brown dwarfs of a range of effective temperatures. Regardless of the origin of the observed variability, the complexity seen in the atmospheres of the field dwarfs hints at the variability that we may encounter in the next few years in directly imaged young Jupiters. Thus understanding the nature of variability in the field dwarfs, including sensitivity to gravity and metallicity, is of particular importance for exoplanet characterization.

Marley, Mark Scott

2014-01-01

294

Why Is Earth Called the "Water Planet?"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comparing the amounts of land and water on Earth's surface leads students to discover why it is called the water planet. Students examine photos of Earth taken from space, analyze the results of a globe toss game and compare ocean sizes using pieces of clay to gain a perspective on the amount of surface area that is covered by water. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. The teacher's guide will begin with a two-page module overview and a list of all standards addressed. This is Investigation 1 of four found in the Grades K-4 Module 2 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the four investigations in Module 2, while related, can be done independently.

295

Acoustic signal detection of manatee calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disc. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~=96% of the manatee vocalizations. However the system also results in a false positive rate of ~=16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

2003-04-01

296

Scientific American Frontiers: Calls of the Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As always, PBS offers a fantastic companion Web site to its popular series Scientific American Frontiers, this time for the episode "Calls of the Wild" (aired April 1, 2003). Viewers join researchers as they "listen in on animal communication as birds, bees, bugs, bats and elephants flirt, eavesdrop, and even give directions." Three lesson plans are available, as well as an answer key and a quiz based on the program, each for grades 5-8. The site also includes a number of Web-exclusive features, such as an in-depth interview with a spider biologist (cool audio clip of spider songs provided), a chance to email the scientists featured in the program (before April 8, 2003), and an interactive quiz about pair-bonding rituals (complete with detailed answers and related links for each question). As usual, visitors may view the entire episode online, and this is one that shouldn't be missed!

2003-01-01

297

Self reinforcing polymer composites  

SciTech Connect

In the advent of liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs), self reinforcing polymer composites comprising a polymer matrix and an LCP reinforcement, have become a reality. The so called self reinforcement is due to the LCPs orientability characteristics resulting from their rigid molecular backbone and anisotropy structure in the fluid state. Orientation development takes place during melt processing of the LCP composite blends where shear as well as elongational flows occur prior to consolidation to the solid state. By proper flow control anisotropy develops and in-situ composites are obtained. Polymer composites comprising self-reinforcement by LCPs during processing induced flow, were analyzed and studied with respect to their orientation development and resultant mechanical properties. The analysis commenced with the hydrodynamics of immiscible fluids in shear and elongational flows. Based on the analysis, orientation and morphology development in capillary extrusion was studied, using a variety of thermoplastic polymer matrices like amorphous and crystalline polyamides, polycarbonate and polyester in conjunction of a naphthalene based thermotropic LCP. Based on the flow-morphology relationship the amorphous polyamide/LCP composite was further investigated as it exhibited enhanced properties. Laminated composites based on LCP/amorphous polyamide were developed composed of unidirectional extruded and drawn sheets that were subsequently compression molded. Unidirectional, +45/{minus}45 and quasi-isotropic laminates were prepared and analyzed as to their microstructure and mechanical properties.

Kenig, S. [Israel Plastics and Rubber Center, Haifa (Israel)

1993-12-31

298

Linking Calling Orientations to Organizational Attachment via Organizational Instrumentality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite an emerging interest in callings, researchers know little about whether calling orientations matter in the workplace. We explore the under-examined relationship between a calling orientation and employees' attachment to their organizations. Although some theory suggests that callings may be negatively related to organizational attachment,…

Cardador, M. Teresa; Dane, Erik; Pratt, Michael G.

2011-01-01

299

Insensitive Call Admission Control for Wireless Multiservice Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

WO important quality of service measures for wireless networks are the fraction of new and handover calls that are blocked due to the lack of enough free resources. As handover blocking is more annoying than new call blocking for subscribers, efficient call admission control (CAC) strategies can be used to reject new calls in order to reserve resources for future

Jorge Martinez-Bauset; Vicent Pla; Elena Bernal-Mor

2011-01-01

300

Systematic controller design to drive high-load call centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directory assistance services play an important role in the establishment of telephone calls, particularly business calls, today and will play an even more important role in the future. The majority of these services is provided by specialized call centers, namely DA call centers. Due to severe availability requirements and often due to very specific wishes on the part of the

Michael Seidl

2006-01-01

301

The Sound of Danger: Threat Sensitivity to Predator Vocalizations, Alarm Calls, and Novelty in Gulls  

PubMed Central

The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

MacLean, Sarah A.; Bonter, David N.

2013-01-01

302

Acoustic features of male baboon loud calls: Influences of context, age, and individuality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic structure of loud calls (``wahoos'') recorded from free-ranging male baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) in the Moremi Game Reserve, Botswana, was examined for differences between and within contexts, using calls given in response to predators (alarm wahoos), during male contests (contest wahoos), and when a male had become separated from the group (contact wahoos). Calls were recorded from adolescent, subadult, and adult males. In addition, male alarm calls were compared with those recorded from females. Despite their superficial acoustic similarity, the analysis revealed a number of significant differences between alarm, contest, and contact wahoos. Contest wahoos are given at a much higher rate, exhibit lower frequency characteristics, have a longer ``hoo'' duration, and a relatively louder ``hoo'' portion than alarm wahoos. Contact wahoos are acoustically similar to contest wahoos, but are given at a much lower rate. Both alarm and contest wahoos also exhibit significant differences among individuals. Some of the acoustic features that vary in relation to age and sex presumably reflect differences in body size, whereas others are possibly related to male stamina and endurance. The finding that calls serving markedly different functions constitute variants of the same general call type suggests that the vocal production in nonhuman primates is evolutionarily constrained.

Fischer, Julia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

2002-03-01

303

Oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae derived methyl esters containing varying levels of methyl eicosapentaenoate and methyl docosahexaenoate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microalgae is currently receiving strong consideration as a potential biofuel feedstock to help meet the advanced biofuels mandate of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act because of its theoretically high yield (gallons/acre/year) in comparison to current terrestrial feedstocks. Additionally, microalgae also do not compete with food and can be cultivated with wastewater on non-arable land. Microalgae lipids can be converted into a variety of biofuels including fatty acid methyl esters (e.g. FAME biodiesel), renewable diesel, renewable gasoline, or jet fuel. For microalgae derived FAME, the fuel properties will be directly related to the fatty acid composition of the lipids produced by the given microalgae strain. Several microalgae species under consideration for wide scale cultivation, such as Nannochloropsis, produce lipids with fatty acid compositions containing substantially higher quantities of long chainpolyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in comparison to terrestrial feedstocks. It is expected that increased levels of LC-PUFA will be problematic in terms of meeting all of the current ASTM specifications for biodiesel. For example, it is known that oxidative stability and cetane number decrease with increasing levels of LC-PUFA. However, these same LC-PUFA fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6) are known to have high nutritional value thereby making separation of these compounds economically attractive. Given the uncertainty in the future value of these LC-PUFA compounds and the economic viability of the separation process, the goal of this study was to examine the oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae-based FAME with varying levels of EPA and DHA removal. Oxidative stability tests were conducted at a temperature of 110°C and airflow of 10 L/h using a Metrohm 743 Rancimat with automatic induction period determination following the EN 14112 Method from the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 Standards, which call for induction periods of at least three hours and six hours, respectively. Derived Cetane Number testing was conducted using a Waukesha FIT following the ASTM D7170 Method. Tests were conducted with synthetic algal oil blends manufactured from various sources to match the fatty acid compositions of several algae strains subjected to varying removal amounts of roughly 0 -- 100 percent LC-PUFA. In addition, tests were also conducted with real algal methyl esters produced from multiple sources. The bis-allylic position equivalent (BAPE) was calculated for each fuel sample to quantify the level of unsaturation. The induction period was then plotted as a function of BAPE, which showed that the oxidative stability varied exponentially with the amount of LC-PUFA. The results suggest that removal of 45 -- 65 percent of the LC-PUFA from Nannochloropsis-based algal methyl esters would be sufficient for meeting existing ASTM specifications for oxidative stability and 75 -- 85 percent removal would be needed to meet the EN specification. The oxidative stability additive tert-butylhydroquinone (THBQ) was found to increase Nannochloropsis-based algal methyl esters' oxidative stability to ASTM and EN specifications at only 0.03 percent and 0.06 percent additions by mass, respectively, when no LC-PUFA was removed. The ignition quality tests showed that the Derived Cetane Number varied linearly with BAPE and the algae formulations were found to pass the ASTM cetane specification of 47 only if all the LC-PUFA were removed.

Bucy, Harrison

304

Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states.  

PubMed

We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar sphere, which we term a generalized polarization state, that is preserved. Changes to the generalized polarization state can then be used in place of the absolute polarization states that make up the generalized state, to measure the change in polarization due to a sample under investigation. We illustrate the usefulness of this analysis approach by demonstrating fiber-based ellipsometry, where the polarization state of the probe light is unknown, and, yet, the ellipsometric angles of the investigated sample (? and ?) are obtained with an accuracy comparable to that of conventional ellipsometry instruments by measuring changes to the generalized polarization state. PMID:22274433

Liu, Feng; Lee, Chris J; Chen, Juequan; Louis, Eric; van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus J; Bijkerk, Fred

2012-01-16

305

String theory, cosmology and varying constants  

E-print Network

In string theory the coupling ``constants'' appearing in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are determined by the vacuum expectation values of some (a priori) massless scalar fields (dilaton, moduli). This naturally leads one to expect a correlated variation of all the coupling constants, and an associated violation of the equivalence principle. We review some string-inspired theoretical models which incorporate such a spacetime variation of coupling constants while remaining naturally compatible both with phenomenological constraints coming from geochemical data (Oklo; Rhenium decay) and with present equivalence principle tests. Barring a very unnatural fine-tuning of parameters, a variation of the fine-structure constant as large as that recently ``observed'' by Webb et al. in quasar absorption spectra appears to be incompatible with these phenomenological constraints. Independently of any model, it is emphasized that the best experimental probe of varying constants are high-precision tests of the universality of free fall, such as MICROSCOPE and STEP.

Thibault Damour

2002-10-18

306

Application of Hamilton's law of varying action  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The law of varying action enunciated by Hamilton in 1834-1835 permits the direct analytical solution of the problems of mechanics, both stationary and nonstationary, without consideration of force equilibrium and the theory of differential equations associated therewith. It has not been possible to obtain direct analytical solutions to nonstationary systems through the use of energy theory, which has been limited for 140 years to the principle of least action and to Hamilton's principle. It is shown here that Hamilton's law permits the direct analytical solution to nonstationary, initial value systems in the mechanics of solids without any knowledge or use of the theory of differential equations. Solutions are demonstrated for nonconservative, nonstationary particle motion, both linear and nonlinear.

Bailey, C. D.

1975-01-01

307

Time varying arctic climate change amplification  

SciTech Connect

During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

2009-01-01

308

Ensemble Control of Finite-Dimensional Time-Varying Linear Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we investigate the problem of simultaneously steering an\\u000auncountable family of finite dimensional time-varying linear systems. We call\\u000athis class of control problems Ensemble Control, a notion coming from the study\\u000aof spin dynamics in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging\\u000a(MRI). This subject involves controlling a continuum of parameterized dynamical\\u000asystems with the same open-loop

Jr-Shin Li

2011-01-01

309

Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the advantage of offering smooth animations, while spatial compression can handle volumes of larger dimensions.

Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

2010-01-01

310

Multi-component separation and analysis of bat echolocation calls.  

PubMed

The vast majority of animal vocalizations contain multiple frequency modulated (FM) components with varying amounts of non-linear modulation and harmonic instability. This is especially true of biosonar sounds where precise time-frequency templates are essential for neural information processing of echoes. Understanding the dynamic waveform design by bats and other echolocating animals may help to improve the efficacy of man-made sonar through biomimetic design. Bats are known to adapt their call structure based on the echolocation task, proximity to nearby objects, and density of acoustic clutter. To interpret the significance of these changes, a method was developed for component separation and analysis of biosonar waveforms. Techniques for imaging in the time-frequency plane are typically limited due to the uncertainty principle and interference cross terms. This problem is addressed by extending the use of the fractional Fourier transform to isolate each non-linear component for separate analysis. Once separated, empirical mode decomposition can be used to further examine each component. The Hilbert transform may then successfully extract detailed time-frequency information from each isolated component. This multi-component analysis method is applied to the sonar signals of four species of bats recorded in-flight by radiotelemetry along with a comparison of other common time-frequency representations. PMID:23297925

DiCecco, John; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, James A

2013-01-01

311

Resin hybrid composite laminates  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid composites are generally referred to as the materials that combine two or more fibers in a suitable binding resin. Resin hybrid composites described in this paper utilize two or more resins with a suitable reinforcement. The resins are rigid resin and flexible resins. The elongation of the rigid resin is less than 2% and elongation of the flexible resins are varied between 25% to 100% by blending a very flexible resin with the rigid resin. Test laminates are fabricated by using either glass, carbon or aramid reinforcement in a layered sequence. This produces rigid-flexible-rigid and flexible-rigid-flexible laminates. These laminates are tested for impact, compression, flexural and inter-laminar strengths. Results show that the resin hybriding provides a wide choice of mechanical properties to the composite industry.

Bhatnagar, A.

1986-01-01

312

Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives  

PubMed Central

Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise. PMID:21345867

Jensen, Frants H.; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T.

2011-01-01

313

Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma"  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, “hilar and perihilar CC” are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately differentiated conventional type (biliary) carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, CK7, CK20, CEA and MUC1 are normally expressed, being MUC2 positive in less than 50% of cases. Two main premalignant lesions are known: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB). IPNB includes the lesions previously named biliary papillomatosis and papillary carcinoma. A series of 29 resected hilar CC from our archives is reviewed. Most (82.8%) were conventional type adenocarcinomas, mostly well to moderately differentiated, although with a broad morphological spectrum; three cases exhibited a poorly differentiated cell component resembling signet ring cells. IPNB was observed in 5 (17.2%), four of them with an associated invasive carcinoma. A clear cell type carcinoma, an adenosquamous carcinoma and two gastric foveolar type carcinomas were observed. PMID:23919110

Castellano-Megías, Víctor M; Ibarrola-de Andrés, Carolina; Colina-Ruizdelgado, Francisco

2013-01-01

314

Varied line-space gratings: past, present and future  

SciTech Connect

A classically ruled diffraction grating consists of grooves which are equidistant, straight and parallel. Conversely, the so-called ''holographic'' grating (formed by the interfering waves of coherent visible light), although severely constrained by the recording wavelength and recording geometry, has grooves which are typically neither equidistant, straight nor parallel. In contrast, a varied line-space (VLS) grating, in common nomenclature, is a design in which the groove positions are relatively unconstrained yet possess sufficient symmetry to permit mechanical ruling. Such seemingly exotic gratings are no longer only a theoretical curiosity, but have been ruled and used in a wide variety of applications. These include: (1) aberration-corrected normal incidence concave gratings for Seya-Namioka monochromators and optical de-multiplexers, (2) flat-field grazing incidence concave gratings for plasma diagnostics, (3) aberration-corrected grazing incidence plane gratings for space-borne spectrometers, (4) focusing grazing incidence plane grating for synchrotron radiation monochromators, and (5) wavefront generators for visible interferometry of optical surfaces (particularly aspheres). Future prospects of VLS gratings as dispersing elements, wavefront correctors and beamsplitters appear promising. The author discusses the history of VLS gratings, their present applications, and their potential in the future. 61 refs., 24 figs.

Hettrick, M.C.

1985-08-01

315

Open-loop control of IPMC actuators under varying temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of size and complexity concerns, implementing feedback control for ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators is often difficult or costly in many of their envisioned biomedical and robotic applications. It is thus of interest to develop open-loop control strategies for these actuators. Such strategies, however, are susceptible to change of IPMC dynamics under varying environmental conditions, a predominant example being the temperature. In this paper we present a novel approach to open-loop control of IPMC actuators in the presence of ambient temperature changes. First, a method is proposed for modeling the temperature-dependent actuation dynamics. The empirical frequency response of an IPMC actuator, submerged in a water bath with controlled temperature, is obtained for a set of temperatures. For each temperature, a transfer function of a given structure is found to fit the measured data. A temperature-dependent transfer function model is then derived by curve-fitting each zero or pole as a simple polynomial function of the temperature. Open-loop control is then realized by inverting the model at a given temperature based on the auxiliary temperature measurement. However, the obtained model for IPMC actuators is of non-minimum phase and cannot be inverted directly. A stable but non-causal algorithm is adopted to implement the inversion. Furthermore, a finite-preview algorithm is proposed to enable near real-time tracking of desired outputs. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is effective in improving the tracking performance of IPMC actuators under varying temperatures.

Dong, Roy; Tan, Xiaobo

2011-04-01

316

Contact Calls of the Northern and Southern White Rhinoceros Allow for Individual and Species Identification  

PubMed Central

Inter-individual relationships particularly in socially living mammals often require a well-developed communication system. Vocal and olfactory signals are the most important for the communication of rhinos, however, their vocal communication has been investigated to a very limited extent so far. White rhinos have the most developed social system out of all the rhinoceros species and vocal signals might therefore play an important role in their social interactions. We recorded repetitive contact pant calls from six captive northern white rhinos (Ceratotherium cottoni) and 14 captive and free-ranging southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) and examined if they transmit information about individual identity, species, social context and age class. Discriminant analyses revealed that a high percentage of the pant calls of both species could be classified to a correct individual. We calculated signature information capacity of pant calls recorded from adult animals in isolation at 3.19 bits for the northern white rhinos and at 3.15 bits for the southern white rhinos, which can potentially allow for a vocal discrimination of nine individuals of both species. We found that pant calls varied by species. Northern white rhinos had longer calls and also differed from the southern white rhinos in several frequency parameters of their calls. We also analysed the pant calls of southern white rhinos for the differences between the age classes and between social contexts in which they were recorded. Our results show that pant calls carry information about individual, species, age class and context. The ability to recognize this information would allow rhinos, in addition to olfactory cues, to communicate with highly increased accuracy. A better understanding of communication of white rhinos has potential practical use in their management and conservation particularly because of the low breeding success of white rhinos in captivity. PMID:24901244

Cinková, Ivana; Policht, Richard

2014-01-01

317

Electrocatalyst compositions  

DOEpatents

Compositions for use as catalysts in electrochemical reactions are described. The compositions are alloys prepared from two or more elemental metals selected from platinum, molybdenum, osmium, ruthenium, rhodium, and iridium. Also described are electrode compositions including such alloys and electrochemical reaction devices including such catalysts.

Mallouk, Thomas E.; Chan, Benny C.; Reddington, Erik; Sapienza, Anthony; Chen, Guoying; Smotkin, Eugene; Gurau, Bogdan; Viswanathan, Rameshkrishnan; Liu, Renxuan

2001-09-04

318

Asphaltic compositions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an asphaltic composition of enhanced utility for vehicular pavement which composition comprises a road paving grade of asphalt in admixture with at least one alkylene dithiocarbamate. The composition is characterized by having a reduced increase in absolute viscosity to original absolute viscosity after thin film aging as measured by ASTM Test D 1754 at 140/sup 0/F.

Wright, W.E.; Zaweski, E.F.

1987-02-24

319

Essays and Addresses on Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following book on composition in the elementary school grows out of the activities of the Tri-University Project (now called the Nebraska TTT Institute in Elementary Education). The project is concerned with improving the education of young children by working to improve the education of the teachers in Higher Education who educate the…

Summerfield, Geoffrey, Ed.

320

Constructing and exploring composite items  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, online shopping has become a daily activity. Web users purchase a variety of items ranging from books to electronics. The large supply of online products calls for sophisticated techniques to help users explore available items. We propose to build composite items which associate a central item with a set of packages, formed by satellite items, and help users explore

Senjuti Basu Roy; Sihem Amer-Yahia; Ashish Chawla; Gautam Das; Cong Yu

2010-01-01

321

Intelligent scissors for image composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new, interactive tool called Intelligent Scissors which we use for image segmentation and composition. Fully auto- mated segmentation is an unsolved problem, while manual tracing is inaccurate and laboriously unacceptable. However, Intelligent Scissors allow objects within digital images to be extracted quickly and accurately using simple gesture motions with a mouse. When the gestured mouse position comes

Eric N. Mortensen; William A. Barrett

1995-01-01

322

Effectiveness of the call in beach volleyball attacking play.  

PubMed

In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a "call". The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent's court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women's and men's Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (?(2)(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women's beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (?(2)(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women's beach volleyball, while its effect in men's game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

2014-12-01

323

Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play  

PubMed Central

In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (?2(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (?2(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

2014-01-01

324

Repairs of composite structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and the host composite structure.

Roh, Hee Seok

325

Acoustic characteristics of the low-frequency nest call of discomfort of the house mouse ( Mus musculus) early ontogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic characteristics of the low-frequency nest call signaling discomfort of mouse pups are considered. The spectral temporal analysis of the call is realized for house mouse pups. In the structure of some calls, the frequency modulation and components of the noise are established. Signal duration varies from 20 to 170 ms. A statistically significant decrease of call duration and its fundamental frequency is shown from the 6th to 29th day of the mouse pups’ lives. The most stable parameters of the call-the harmonic structure, low-frequency range (up to 20 kHz), and location of the fundamental frequency between 4 and 8 kHz are recognized.

Egorova, M. A.; Akimov, A. G.

2010-05-01

326

Hypothermia for Stroke: call to action 2010.  

PubMed

The European Hypothermia Stroke Research Workshop was held in January 2010, in response to the alarming prospects of a significant increase of stroke expected in the coming years globally. Considering that a minority of patients (around 10%) are currently eligible for thrombolytic treatment, there is a need for an efficacious, cost-effective novel therapy that can be implemented broadly within European health care systems. Accordingly, the primary objective of the workshop was the definition of a research agenda aiming to assess the therapeutic benefits of hypothermia in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. The meeting was organised by the European Stroke Research Network for Hypothermia (EuroHyp) and attended by the representatives of World Stroke Organisation, European Stroke Organisation, Stroke Alliance for Europe, Society for Cryobiology and other organisations--specifically the European Space Agency, and small- and medium-sized enterprises based in EU member states. The participants adopted the 'Hypothermia for Stroke--Call to Action 2010', a declaration specifying the priorities for hypothermia research in acute ischaemic stroke. The research programme outlined--a clinical study programme designed to identify and validate therapeutic cooling as a novel treatment providing benefit to a large number of stroke patients--contains a well-integrated series of Phase II studies aiming to refine the intervention (depth, duration, and mode of cooling; antishivering strategy; patient selection) and a pivotal Phase III clinical trial. The proposed integrated Phase II and III clinical study programme would test the effectiveness of this optimised intervention, and would allow the development of evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines describing the optimal use of therapeutic hypothermia as a treatment strategy for stroke. PMID:21086713

Macleod, Malcolm R; Petersson, Jesper; Norrving, Bo; Hacke, Werner; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Wagner, Markus; Schwab, Stefan

2010-12-01

327

Memristive biosensors under varying humidity conditions.  

PubMed

We attempt to examine the potential of silicon nanowire memristors in the field of nanobiosensing. The memristive devices are crystalline Silicon (Si) Nanowires (NWs) with Nickel Silicide (NiSi) terminals. The nanowires are fabricated on a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer by an Ebeam Lithography Technique (EBL) process that allows high resolution at the nanoscale. A Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) technique is used to define free-standing nanowires. The close alignment between Silicon (Si) and Nickel-Silicide (NiSi) terminals forms a Schottky-barrier at their junction. The memristive effect of the fabricated devices matches well with the memristor theory. An equivalent circuit reproducing the memristive effect in current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of our silicon nanowires is presented too. The memristive silicon nanowire devices are then functionalized with anti-human VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) antibody and I-V characteristics are examined for the nanowires prior to and after protein functionalization. The uptake of bio-molecules linked to the surface of the memristive NWs is confirmed by the increased voltage gap in the hysteresis curve. The effects of varying humidity conditions on the conductivity of bio-modified memristive silicon nanowires are deeply investigated. PMID:24594511

Puppo, Francesca; Dave, Akshat; Doucey, Marie-Agnès; Sacchetto, Davide; Baj-Rossi, Camilla; Leblebici, Yusuf; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro

2014-03-01

328

Time-varying Dynamical Star Formation Rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t 2. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

2015-02-01

329

Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

1990-01-01

330

Pediatric lupus: varied haematological picture and presentation.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem, autoimmune disease characterized by periods of increased disease activity caused by inflammation of blood vessels and connective tissue. Pediatric patients with SLE have a more severe clinical course when compared with adults. Patients commonly present with rash, fever, and arthritis, although the presentation may be unpredictable. Hematological findings are more predominant in children than adults. Thirty-nine percent of children with SLE will develop hematological abnormalities, one of the American Rheumatic Association criteria for classifying the disease. In our case series we found varied hematological picture and presentation. We present here four case reports of SLE cases with interesting hematological features. Our first case is a 13 month old female child who was initially diagnosed as Evans syndrome and 2 years later diagnosed as SLE. Second case is a 3 year old male child who had SLE with warm antibody AIHA. Third case is a 6 year old female child who presented with AIHA and was diagnosed with SLE 6 years later. Fourth case is a 6 year old female child diagnosed as SLE with aplastic anemia. Hematological findings should be carefully assessed and treated in order to decrease disease related morbidity. PMID:25548448

Thakur, Neha; Chandra, Jagdish; Dhingra, Bhavna; Singh, V

2015-03-01

331

Ambient noise induces independent shifts in call frequency and amplitude within the Lombard effect in echolocating bats  

PubMed Central

The Lombard effect, an involuntary rise in call amplitude in response to masking ambient noise, represents one of the most efficient mechanisms to optimize signal-to-noise ratio. The Lombard effect occurs in birds and mammals, including humans, and is often associated with several other vocal changes, such as call frequency and duration. Most studies, however, have focused on noise-dependent changes in call amplitude. It is therefore still largely unknown how the adaptive changes in call amplitude relate to associated vocal changes such as frequency shifts, how the underlying mechanisms are linked, and if auditory feedback from the changing vocal output is needed. Here, we examined the Lombard effect and the associated changes in call frequency in a highly vocal mammal, echolocating horseshoe bats. We analyzed how bandpass-filtered noise (BFN; bandwidth 20 kHz) affected their echolocation behavior when BFN was centered on different frequencies within their hearing range. Call amplitudes increased only when BFN was centered on the dominant frequency component of the bats’ calls. In contrast, call frequencies increased for all but one BFN center frequency tested. Both amplitude and frequency rises were extremely fast and occurred in the first call uttered after noise onset, suggesting that no auditory feedback was required. The different effects that varying the BFN center frequency had on amplitude and frequency rises indicate different neural circuits and/or mechanisms underlying these changes. PMID:23431172

Hage, Steffen R.; Jiang, Tinglei; Berquist, Sean W.; Feng, Jiang; Metzner, Walter

2013-01-01

332

Failure models for textile composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of this investigation were to: (1) identify mechanisms of failure and determine how the architecture of reinforcing fibers in 3D woven composites controlled stiffness, strength, strain to failure, work of fracture, notch sensitivity, and fatigue life; and (2) to model composite stiffness, strength, and fatigue life. A total of 11 different angle and orthogonal interlock woven composites were examined. Composite properties depended on the weave architecture, the tow size, and the spatial distributions and strength of geometrical flaws. Simple models were developed for elastic properties, strength, and fatigue life. A more complicated stochastic model, called the 'Binary Model,' was developed for damage tolerance and ultimate failure. These 3D woven composites possessed an extraordinary combination of strength, damage tolerance, and notch insensitivity.

Cox, Brian

1995-01-01

333

Parts and Theories in Compositional Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

I analyze the importance of parts in the style of biological theorizing that I call compositional biology. I do this by investigating\\u000a various aspects, including partitioning frames and explanatory accounts, of the theoretical perspectives that fall under and\\u000a are guided by compositional biology. I ground this general examination in a comparative analysis of three different disciplines\\u000a with their associated compositional

Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther

2006-01-01

334

On current compositing algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several techniques exist for compositing the multitemporal NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data for vegetation studies. The major pixel selection criteria of these techniques rely on the characteristics of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetative Index): appearance of clouds, poor atmospheric conditions, and off-nadir viewing geometries would depress the NDVI values. Consequently, selecting the pixels with the maximum value of NDVI would presumably eliminate these external perturbating effects. However, the maximum NDVI does not always correspond to these ideal conditions. In fact, the NDVI varies with these external factors in an unpredictable way. There was an indication that the maximum NDVI tended to favor the off-nadir view in the forward direction. The resultant composite product would be consequently affected. To improve the multitemporal data via compositing, therefore, both the pixel selection criteria and the classifier NDVI need to be modified or corrected for external factors. The current compositing algorithms were reviewed, and alternatives were proposed to use the combinations of the red and near infrared channels and biological characteristics of vegetation as second criteria in pixel selections. The traditional classifier NDVI was replaced with different vegetation indices. The approach was applied to an AVHRR data set over the HAPEX study site in Niger in 1992. The results showed that the approach improved the AVHRR time series quality and was promising towards the development of an efficient compositing algorithm.

Qi, J.; Kerr, Y.

1994-01-01

335

Operator bias in software-aided bat call identification  

PubMed Central

Software-aided identification facilitates the handling of large sets of bat call recordings, which is particularly useful in extensive acoustic surveys with several collaborators. Species lists are generated by “objective” automated classification. Subsequent validation consists of removing any species not believed to be present. So far, very little is known about the identification bias introduced by individual validation of operators with varying degrees of experience. Effects on the quality of the resulting data may be considerable, especially for bat species that are difficult to identify acoustically. Using the batcorder system as an example, we compared validation results from 21 volunteer operators with 1–26 years of experience of working on bats. All of them validated identical recordings of bats from eastern Austria. The final outcomes were individual validated lists of plausible species. A questionnaire was used to enquire about individual experience and validation procedures. In the course of species validation, the operators reduced the software's estimate of species richness. The most experienced operators accepted the smallest percentage of species from the software's output and validated conservatively with low interoperator variability. Operators with intermediate experience accepted the largest percentage, with larger variability. Sixty-six percent of the operators, mainly with intermediate and low levels of experience, reintroduced species to their validated lists which had been identified by the automated classification, but were finally excluded from the unvalidated lists. These were, in many cases, rare and infrequently recorded species. The average dissimilarity of the validated species lists dropped with increasing numbers of recordings, tending toward a level of ˜20%. Our results suggest that the operators succeeded in removing false positives and that they detected species that had been wrongly excluded during automated classification. Thus, manual validation of the software's unvalidated output is indispensable for reasonable results. However, although application seems easy, software-aided bat call identification requires an advanced level of operator experience. Identification bias during validation is a major issue, particularly in studies with more than one participant. Measures should be taken to standardize the validation process and harmonize the results of different operators. PMID:25077021

Fritsch, Georg; Bruckner, Alexander

2014-01-01

336

47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Payphone call tracking system audits. 64.1320 Section 64.1320...1320 Payphone call tracking system audits. (a) Unless it has entered...report from the auditor (the “System Audit Report”) regarding the...

2010-10-01

337

Modeling and frequency tracking of marine mammal whistle calls  

E-print Network

Marine mammal whistle calls present an attractive medium for covert underwater communications. High quality models of the whistle calls are needed in order to synthesize natural-sounding whistles with embedded information. ...

Severson, Jared

2009-01-01

338

78 FR 17469 - Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...called for the submission of Large Position Reports by those entities whose reportable positions in the 2% Treasury Notes of February...

2013-03-21

339

Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality.  

PubMed

Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration). PMID:21928067

Guillette, Lauren M; Sturdy, Christopher B

2011-11-01

340

Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

2011-11-01

341

The Chemical Composition of Honey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution, created by bees, and used by human beings as a sweetener. However, honey is more than just a supersaturated sugar solution; it also contains acids, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids in varying quantities. In this article, we will briefly explore the chemical composition of honey. (Contains 2 figures and…

Ball, David W.

2007-01-01

342

Artistic Composition for Image Creation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altering the viewing parameters of a 3D object results in computer graphics images of varying quality. One aspect of image quality is the composi- tion of the image. While the esthetic properties of an image are subjective, some heuristics used by artists to create images can be approximated quantitatively. We present an algorithm based on heuristic compositional rules for finding

Bruce Gooch; Erik Reinhard; Chris Moulding; Peter Shirley

2001-01-01

343

A practical mimicry attack against powerful system-call monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

System-call monitoring has become the basis for many host-based intrusion detection as well as policy enforce- ment techniques. Previous work on mimicry attacks showed that system-call monitors can be evaded, but these attacks are effective primarily against relatively weak sy stem-call monitors, e.g., those that ignore system-call ar gu- ments. As more powerful monitoring techniques continue to be discovered, a

Chetan Parampalli; R. Sekar; Rob Johnson

2008-01-01

344

Test suite reduction and prioritization with call trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a tool that (i) constructs tree-based models of a program's behavior during testing and (ii) em- ploys these trees while reordering and reducing a test suite. Using either a dynamic call tree or a calling context tree, the test reduction component identifies a subset of the original tests that covers the same call tree paths. The prioritiza-

Adam M. Smith; Joshua Geiger; Gregory M. Kapfhammer; Mary Lou Soffa

2007-01-01

345

Path Models of Vocational Calling in Christian College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Christian college environment, students are encouraged to understand their vocational calling, yet quantitative research on how college students conceptualize calling is sparse. This correlational study extends the research literature significantly by empirically examining variables that affect sense of vocational calling in 270 college students as they near graduation. Relationships among demographic variables (gender, race, resident status, GPA, and

Sheri L. Phillips

2011-01-01

346

AE5 Security Notions Definitions Implicit in the CAESAR Call  

E-print Network

AE5 Security Notions Definitions Implicit in the CAESAR Call Chanathip Namprempre1 and Phillip, Portland State University, USA April 30, 2013 Abstract. A draft call for the CAESAR authenticated A call for authenticated-encryption (AE) mechanisms, CAESAR, was recently put forward by Dan Bernstein [3

Rogaway, Phillip

347

Employee perceptions of service quality in a call centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess service quality of a call centre as perceived by its employees using the SERVQUAL model. It also aims to explore factors predicting front-line employee satisfaction and behavioural intentions in a call centre. Behavioural intentions are to be measured in terms of employees' willingness to recommend the call centre and their

Prabha Ramseook-Munhurrun; Perunjodi Naidoo; Soolakshna D. Lukea-Bhiwajee

2009-01-01

348

Exploiting Execution Context for the Detection of Anomalous System Calls  

E-print Network

Exploiting Execution Context for the Detection of Anomalous System Calls Darren Mutz, William. In the last few years, several approaches have been proposed to detect anomalous system calls analysis and learning techniques to characterize anomalous system call invocations in terms of both

California at Santa Barbara, University of

349

Bats aloft: Variation in echolocation call structure at high altitudes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bats alter their echolocation calls in response to changes in ecological and behavioral conditions, but little is known about how they adjust their call structure in response to changes in altitude. This study examines altitudinal variation in the echolocation calls of Brazilian free-tailed bats, T...

350

46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169...and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated...partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently displayed or...

2014-10-01

351

Vocal Imitation and Individual Recognition of Finch Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

American goldfinch females recognize individual males by their individually distinctive flight calls. Goldfinches and other cardueline finch species are also capable of learning new flight calls by imitation during pair and flock formation. Vocal imitation can occur between members of different species as well as between members of the same species. Learning of new flight calls differs in several respects

Paul C. Mundinger

1970-01-01

352

Representation of individual elements of a complex call sequence in primary auditory cortex  

PubMed Central

Conspecific communication calls can be rhythmic or contain extended, discontinuous series of either constant or frequency modulated harmonic tones and noise bursts separated by brief periods of silence. In the guinea pig, rhythmic calls can produce isomorphic responses within the primary auditory cortex (AI) where single units respond to every call element. Other calls such as the chutter comprise a series of short irregular syllables that vary in their spectral content and are more like human speech. These calls can also evoke isomorphic responses, but may only do so in fields in the auditory belt and not in AI. Here we present evidence that cells in AI treat the individual elements within a syllable as separate auditory objects and respond selectively to one or a subset of them. We used a single chutter exemplar to compare single/multi-unit responses in the low-frequency portion of AI—AI(LF) and the low-frequency part of the thalamic medial geniculate body—MGB(LF) in urethane anaesthetized guinea pigs. Both thalamic and cortical cells responded with brief increases in firing rate to one, or more, of the 8 main elements present in the chutter call. Almost none of the units responded to all 8 elements. While there were many different combinations of responses to between one and five of the elements, MBG(LF) and AI(LF) neurons exhibited the same specific types of response combinations. Nearby units in the upper layers of the cortex tended to respond to similar combinations of elements while the deep layers were less responsive. Thus, the responses from a number of AI units would need to be combined in order to represent the entire chutter call. Our results don't rule out the possibility of constructive convergence but there was no evidence that a convergence of inputs within AI led to a complete representation of all eight elements. PMID:24198766

Wallace, Mark N.; Grimsley, Jasmine M. S.; Anderson, Lucy A.; Palmer, Alan R.

2013-01-01

353

Multiscale Multifunctional Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells. Global fracture is enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads. The old reference denotes that nothing has been added to this comprehensive report since then.

Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

2012-01-01

354

Composites review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The properties and applications of composite materials are reviewed. Glass, carbon, Kevlar, ceramic, whisker, and metal fibers are discussed along with polyester, epoxy, polyimide, Peek, carbon, ceramic, and metal matrices. The quantitative distribution of high technology fiber in various applications is given. The role of aerospace industry in the development and promotion of composite utilization is discussed. Consumption trends indicate a rapid development of the composite market.

Hordonneau, A.

1987-01-01

355

Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composites are lighter and stronger than metals. Aramid fibers like Kevlar and Nomex were developed by DuPont Corporation and can be combined in a honeycomb structure which can give an airplane a light, tough structure. Composites can be molded into many aerodynamic shapes eliminating rivets and fasteners. Langley Research Center has tested composites for both aerospace and non-aerospace applications. They are also used in boat hulls, military shelters, etc.

1985-01-01

356

Isosurface Extraction in Time-Varying Fields Using a Temporal Hierarchical Index Tree  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many high-performance isosurface extraction algorithms have been proposed in the past several years as a result of intensive research efforts. When applying these algorithms to large-scale time-varying fields, the storage overhead incurred from storing the search index often becomes overwhelming. this paper proposes an algorithm for locating isosurface cells in time-varying fields. We devise a new data structure, called Temporal Hierarchical Index Tree, which utilizes the temporal coherence that exists in a time-varying field and adoptively coalesces the cells' extreme values over time; the resulting extreme values are then used to create the isosurface cell search index. For a typical time-varying scalar data set, not only does this temporal hierarchical index tree require much less storage space, but also the amount of I/O required to access the indices from the disk at different time steps is substantially reduced. We illustrate the utility and speed of our algorithm with data from several large-scale time-varying CID simulations. Our algorithm can achieve more than 80% of disk-space savings when compared with the existing techniques, while the isosurface extraction time is nearly optimal.

Shen, Han-Wei; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

357

Song trait similarity in great tits varies with social structure.  

PubMed

For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership) with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called "dear enemy" relations). Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major) in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping variation in territorial birdsong. PMID:25692873

Snijders, Lysanne; van der Eijk, Jerine; van Rooij, Erica P; de Goede, Piet; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc

2015-01-01

358

Song Trait Similarity in Great Tits Varies with Social Structure  

PubMed Central

For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership) with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called “dear enemy” relations). Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major) in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping variation in territorial birdsong. PMID:25692873

Snijders, Lysanne; van der Eijk, Jerine; van Rooij, Erica P.; de Goede, Piet; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc

2015-01-01

359

Detailed comparison of two popular variant calling packages for exome and targeted exon studies  

PubMed Central

The Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK) is commonly used for variant calling of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions and deletions (indels) from short-read sequencing data aligned against a reference genome. There have been a number of variant calling comparisons against GATK, but an equally comprehensive comparison for VarScan not yet been performed. More specifically, we compare (1) the effects of different pre-processing steps prior to variant calling with both GATK and VarScan, (2) VarScan variants called with increasingly conservative parameters, and (3) filtered and unfiltered GATK variant calls (for both the UnifiedGenotyper and the HaplotypeCaller). Variant calling was performed on three datasets (1 targeted exon dataset and 2 exome datasets), each with approximately a dozen subjects. In most cases, pre-processing steps (e.g., indel realignment and quality score base recalibration using GATK) had only a modest impact on the variant calls, but the importance of the pre-processing steps varied between datasets and variant callers. Based upon concordance statistics presented in this study, we recommend GATK users focus on “high-quality” GATK variants by filtering out variants flagged as low-quality. We also found that running VarScan with a conservative set of parameters (referred to as “VarScan-Cons”) resulted in a reproducible list of variants, with high concordance (>97%) to high-quality variants called by the GATK UnifiedGenotyper and HaplotypeCaller. These conservative parameters result in decreased sensitivity, but the VarScan-Cons variant list could still recover 84–88% of the high-quality GATK SNPs in the exome datasets. This study also provides limited evidence that VarScan-Cons has a decreased false positive rate among novel variants (relative to high-quality GATK SNPs) and that the GATK HaplotypeCaller has an increased false positive rate for indels (relative to VarScan-Cons and high-quality GATK UnifiedGenotyper indels). More broadly, we believe the metrics used for comparison in this study can be useful in assessing the quality of variant calls in the context of a specific experimental design. As an example, a limited number of variant calling comparisons are also performed on two additional variant callers. PMID:25289185

Adamson, Aaron W.; Neuhausen, Susan L.

2014-01-01

360

The So-Called 'Face on Mars'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north-facing slopes. The presence of water ice in these layers is a likely possibility to account for their preservation only on the colder surfaces. Alternatively, these unique features could be the result of the slow downslope motion of the surface layer, possibly enhanced by the presence of ground ice. One argument against downslope motion is the observation that the uppermost rounded boundary of these layers typically occurs at approximately the same distance below the ridge crest. This would suggest the (seemingly) unlikely possibility that all of these layers had moved downslope the same amount regardless of where they are located. In either case, ground ice likely plays an important role in the formation and preservation of these deposits because they only occur on the cold slopes facing away from the Sun where ground ice is more stable and may still be present today. The Story Nature is an imaginative artist, creating all kinds of wonderful landforms, cloud shapes, and other patterned features that remind people of familiar things in our lives. We see a 'man in the moon' when it is full in the night sky, and dream of a dromedary-dotted desert when coming upon Arizona's Camelback Mountain or Colorado's 'Kissing Camels' in the 'Garden of the Gods.' Near Ludlow, California, a lonely prospector once noticed that the appealing outline of the mountains resembled a reclining woman, and named the place Sleeping Beauty. And this naming delight isn't limited to Earth. The Mars Pathfinder mission team couldn't help but name the rocks at the landing site, including a bear-headed-looking one named Yogi. Part of the fun of exploration is not just visiting a strange world, but relating to it in human terms. On Mars, we've already seen a valentine heart-shaped crater, a happy-faced crater, and even a murky and mysterious 'face' on Mars. This face (seen here about halfway down the image and to the right) is really just a hill with slopes and ridges that are shadowed in a way that can sometimes resemble a face from far away. The first picture of

2002-01-01

361

Individual Distinctiveness in Call Types of Wild Western Female Gorillas  

PubMed Central

Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo). Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC) was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized), suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication. PMID:25029238

Salmi, Roberta; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M.

2014-01-01

362

Balancing Act: Student Valuation and Cultural Studies Composition Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Composition scholars have contributed many theoretical analyses that WPAs and teachers might apply to first-year composition textbooks in order to make informed decisions about book adoption and implementation. As they offer critiques of the ideological effects of FYC books, many of these studies call composition textbooks "tools" without…

Rendleman, Eliot

2011-01-01

363

Composition: What's Love Got To Do with It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent trend in composition studies has been a call for the "feminization" of composition pedagogy. Collaborative learning pedagogues have sought to reconstruct the classroom as a site of social cooperation, connectedness, and nurturance and have re-envisioned composition as an act of understanding rather than of agonistics. Reconstituting the…

Ballif, Michelle

364

Red-winged blackbird females fail to increase feeding in response to begging call playbacks.  

PubMed

The begging behaviour of nestling birds appears to be the main signal telling parents how much food is needed by the brood. Not only may the accuracy of that information be reduced through exaggeration due to competition, but it may also vary with the age of the nestling. Younger nestlings may vary more in how frequently they call than older nestlings because they cannot discriminate stimuli as well. Thus, even if 'honest', begging from younger nestlings could be a less reliable hunger signal than that from older nestlings. We tested the prediction that parents should respond less to the increased frequency of begging from very young versus older nestlings by playing back begging calls at the nests of both younger (/=6 days) red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. In neither case did parents respond with consistent increases in feeding, nor did young gain more weight during playbacks. This lack of response is discussed in relation to two other recent studies of blackbirds that did demonstrate increased feeding with playbacks of begging calls. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9784204

Clark; Lee

1998-09-01

365

The Supercritical Galton-Watson Process in Varying Environments  

E-print Network

in * Varying Environments J.C. D'Souza, J.D. Biggins, Department The Supercritical Galton-Watson Process Let {Zn} be a supercritical Galton-Watson process in varying envir- onments. It is known that Zn

366

Economic evaluation of the differential benefits of home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only in transitional discharge support  

PubMed Central

Background: home visits and telephone calls are two often used approaches in transitional care, but their differential economic effects are unknown. Objective: to examine the differential economic benefits of home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only in transitional discharge support. Design: cost-effectiveness analysis conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants: patients discharged from medical units randomly assigned to control (control, N = 210), home visits with calls (home, N = 196) and calls only (call, N = 204). Methods: cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted from the societal perspective comparing monetary benefits and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Results: the home arm was less costly but less effective at 28 days and was dominating (less costly and more effective) at 84 days. The call arm was dominating at both 28 and 84 days. The incremental QALY for the home arm was ?0.0002/0.0008 (28/84 days), and the call arm was 0.0022/0.0104 (28/84 days). When the three groups were compared, the call arm had a higher probability being cost-effective at 84 days but not at 28 days (home: 53%, call: 35% (28 days) versus home: 22%, call: 73% (84 days)) measuring against the NICE threshold of £20,000. Conclusion: the original RCT showed that the bundled intervention involving home visits and calls was more effective than calls only in the reduction of hospital readmissions. This study adds a cost perspective to inform policymakers that both home visits and calls only are cost-effective for transitional care support, but calls only have a higher chance of being cost-effective for a sustained period after intervention. PMID:25355620

Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; So, Ching; Chau, June; Law, Antony Kwan Pui; Tam, Stanley Ku Fu; McGhee, Sarah

2015-01-01

367

Atmospheric composition of cold super-Earths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planets of masses below 10 times that of Earth (so-called Super-Earths) orbiting far away from their central star have been discovered by Microlensing surveys. Super-Earth atmospheres cannot be characterized remotely yet. However, based on climate modelling and analogies with our solar system, we can put constraints on possible atmospheric compositions. Whenever the triple point of a gaseous constituent is reached on the surface, this constituent is likely to freeze out until equilibrium between ice and vapour/liquid is reached. Important greenhouse gases which are essential for habitability considerations are water (triple point 6.5 mb, 273 K) and carbon dioxide (triple point 5.18 bar, 216 K). In our work we apply a 1D radiative-convective model to Super-Earth atmospheres. We investigate the effect of varying orbital distance, stellar type and planetary mass upon the ability of water and carbon dioxide to remain in the atmosphere. Our results indicate a threshold regime where atmospheres switch from being CO2-rich to being N2-dominated. Implications for habitability and surface conditions are discussed.

von Paris, P.; Patzer, B.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hedelt, P.; Stracke, B.; Rauer, H.

2008-09-01

368

Advanced Composite Pistons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New concept involving improved configuration of reinforcing fibers and improved fabrication process proposed to improve thermal and mechanical properties of composite piston structures. Reduces amount of labor necessary to manufacture piston structures, with attendant reductions in costs. Single knitted-carbon-fiber sock used to form external surfaces of piston. Advantages include elimination of heavy dependence on inherently weak interlaminar properties of carbon-carbon; ease of automation to reduce fabrication costs; readily modifiable architecture to vary mechanical properties to desired values; and reduction in number of elements required to fabricate pistons. Advantage of piston structures lies in applications where light weight and high specific performance primary considerations.

Taylor, Allan H.; Ransone, Philip O.

1990-01-01

369

Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism  

SciTech Connect

The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results.

G. Rewoldt

2003-09-08

370

Electrode compositions  

DOEpatents

An electrode composition for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5-4.5 volts.

Block, Jacob (Rockville, MD); Fan, Xiyun (Orange, TX)

1998-01-01

371

Electrode compositions  

DOEpatents

An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

Block, J.; Fan, X.

1998-10-27

372

Modified Epoxy Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The properties of a rubber-modified experimental epoxy resin and a standard epoxy as composite matrices were studied. In addition, a brominated epoxy resin was used in varying quantities to improve the fire resistance of the composite. The experimental resin was tris-(hydroxyphenyl)methane triglycidyl ether, known as tris epoxy novolac (TEN). The standard epoxy resin used was tetraglycidyl 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDDM). The above resins were modified with carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber. It is concluded that: (1) modification of TEN resin with bromine gives better impact resistance than rubber modification alone; (2) 25% rubber addition is necessary to obtain significant improvement in impact resistance; (3) impact resistance increases with bromine content; (4) impact velocity does not significantly affect the energy absorbed by the test sample; (5) Tg did not decline with rubber modification; and (6) TEN resin had better hot/wet properties than TGDDM resin.

Gilwee, W. J.

1984-01-01

373

Composite Z'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the possibility of a composite Z' vector boson. For the compositeness, the required gauge coupling g in low energy is not so big, g2/(4 ? )?0.015 in the case of the U (1 )B -L model. We show that the Stückelberg model is effectively induced in low energy via the fermion loop from the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model having the vectorial four-fermion interaction. In terms of the renormalization group equations, this situation is expressed by the compositeness conditions. We find that the solutions of the renormalization group equations with the compositeness conditions are determined by the infrared fixed points. As a result, the ratio of the masses of the extra electroweak singlet scalar and the right-handed neutrino is fixed. The mass of the composite Z' boson contains the contribution ? of the Stückelberg mass term. This nonzero ? might be a remnant of a strongly interacting theory in high energy.

Hashimoto, Michio

2014-11-01

374

The adaptive response of jaw muscles to varying functional demands.  

PubMed

Jaw muscles are versatile entities that are able to adapt their anatomical characteristics, such as size, cross-sectional area, and fibre properties, to altered functional demands. The dynamic nature of muscle fibres allows them to change their phenotype to optimize the required contractile function while minimizing energy use. Changes in these anatomical parameters are associated with changes in neuromuscular activity as the pattern of muscle activation by the central nervous system plays an important role in the modulation of muscle properties. This review summarizes the adaptive response of jaw muscles to various stimuli or perturbations in the orofacial system and addresses general changes in muscles as they adapt, specific adaptive changes in jaw muscles under various physiologic and pathologic conditions, and their adaptive response to non-surgical and surgical therapeutic interventions. Although the jaw muscles are used concertedly in the masticatory system, their adaptive changes are not always uniform and vary with the nature, intensity, and duration of the stimulus. In general, stretch, increases neuromuscular activity, and resistance training result in hypertrophy, elicits increases in mitochondrial content and cross-sectional area of the fibres, and may change the fibre-type composition of the muscle towards a larger percentage of slow-type fibres. In contrast, changes in the opposite direction occur when neuromuscular activity is reduced, the muscle is immobilized in a shortened position, or paralysed. The broad range of stimuli that affect the properties of jaw muscles might help explain the large variability in the anatomical and physiological characteristics found among individuals, muscles, and muscle portions. PMID:19656804

Grünheid, Thorsten; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Korfage, Joannes A M; Zentner, Andrej; van Eijden, Theo M G J

2009-12-01

375

Interpenetrating PZT\\/polymer composites for hydrophones: Models and experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

PZT\\/Polymer composites with various polymer content and connectivity patterns have been manufactured for hydrophone applications. The composites were investigated in terms of permittivity, hydrostatic charge (dh), voltage (gh) coefficients and hydrostatic figure of merit (dhgh) with varying polymer content. The results are compared with analytical and numerical models. The composite with 80% polymer content showed an improved hydrostatic figure of

Hudai Kara; Andrew Perry; Ron Stevens; Chris R. Bowen

2002-01-01

376

[The microflora of sour dough. IV. Communication: bacterial composition of sourdough starters genus Lactobacillus beijerinck (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The bacterial composition of three so called pure culture sourdough starters of varying origin was investigated. 245 isolates were obtained all belonging to the genus Beijerinck. According to their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics they were classified into the subgroups: Thermobacterium (L. acidophilus), Streptobacterium (L. casei, L. plantarum, L. farciminis, L. alimentarius) and Betabacterium (L. brevis, L. brevis var. lindneri, L buchneri, L. fermentum, L. fructi vorans). In the three sourdough starters the identified lactic organisms varied in number and proportion. In starter preparation "A" only the varieties L. fructi vorans and L. fermentum were present. Preparation "B" contained a great variety of microorganisms with L. brevis and L. brevis L. lindneri predominating. In starter "C" L. brevis, L. plantarum and L. alimentarius predominated. PMID:735416

Spicher, G; Schröder, R

1978-11-28

377

Macroscopic and Nanoscale Measurements of the Adhesion of Bacteria with Varying Outer Layer Surface Composition  

E-print Network

adhesion to glass beads. Collision efficiencies increased when the solution ionic strength was increased, California 91765, Department of Chemical Engineering, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania 17837, and Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University

378

Holographic cinematography of time-varying reflecting and time-varying phase objects using a Nd:YAG laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of a Nd:YAG laser to record holographic motion pictures of time-varying reflecting objects and time-varying phase objects is discussed. Sample frames from both types of holographic motion pictures are presented. The holographic system discussed is intended for three-dimensional flow visualization of the time-varying flows that occur in jet-engine components.

Decker, A. J.

1982-01-01

379

Call-based species recognition in black-capped chickadees.  

PubMed

Species recognition is essential for efficient communication between conspecifics. For this to occur, species information must be unambiguously encoded in the repertoire of each species' vocalizations. Until now, the study of species recognition in songbirds has been focused mainly on male songs and male territorial behaviour. Species recognition of other learned vocalizations, such as calls, have not been explored, and could prove useful as calls are used in a wider range of contexts. Here, we present an experimental field study investigating the coding of species information in a learned vocalization, the 'chick-a-dee' call of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). By modifying natural calls in both temporal and spectral domains and by observing the vocal responses of black-capped chickadees following the playback of these modified calls, we demonstrate that species recognition in chickadees relies on several acoustic features including syntax, frequency modulation, amplitude modulation, and to a lesser extent, call rhythmicity and frequency range. PMID:16139440

Charrier, Isabelle; Sturdy, Christopher B

2005-11-01

380

Discovery of Social Groups Using Call Detail Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose the affinity model for classifying social groups based on mobile phone call detail records. We use\\u000a affinity to measure the similarity between probability distributions. Since phone calls are stochastic process, it makes more\\u000a sense to use probability affinity to classify the social groups. This work is useful for enhancing homeland security, detecting\\u000a unwanted calls (e.g.,

Huiqi Zhang; Ram Dantu

2008-01-01

381

Sound imaging of nocturnal animal calls in their natural habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel method for imaging acoustic communication between nocturnal animals. Investigating the spatio-temporal\\u000a calling behavior of nocturnal animals, e.g., frogs and crickets, has been difficult because of the need to distinguish many\\u000a animals’ calls in noisy environments without being able to see them. Our method visualizes the spatial and temporal dynamics\\u000a using dozens of sound-to-light conversion devices (called

Takeshi Mizumoto; Ikkyu Aihara; Takuma Otsuka; Ryu Takeda; Kazuyuki Aihara; Hiroshi G. Okuno

382

Can I add a VoIP call?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the inherent limitations of the 802.11 (a\\/b) distributed coordination function (DCF) in supporting VoIP calls over a wireless LAN. Specifically, we evaluate the upper bound on the number of simultaneous VoIP calls that can be placed in a single cell of an 802.11 (a\\/b) network. Making one additional VoIP call in that cell would degrade

Sachin Garg; Martin Kappes

2003-01-01

383

Vocal imitation and individual recognition of finch calls.  

PubMed

American goldfinch females recognize individual males by their individually distinctive flight calls. Goldfinches and other cardueline finch species are also capable of learning new flight calls by imitation during pair and flock formation. Vocal imitation can occur between members of different species as well as between members of the same species. Learning of new flight calls differs in several respects from typical passerine song learning. PMID:17838128

Mundinger, P C

1970-04-24

384

Why do Gunnison's prairie dogs give anti-predator calls?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a colony of Gunnison's prairie dogs, Sciuridae:Cynomys gunnisoni, containing marked individuals of known genetic relationships, anti-predator calling was investigated in response to moving, stuffed specimens of a natural predator, the American badger,Taxidea taxus. Females with kin in the home territory called more often than females without nearby kin, and females with nearby offspring were especially likely to call. Male

JOHN L. HOOGLAND

1996-01-01

385

naiveBayesCall: An Efficient Model-Based Base-Calling Algorithm for High-Throughput Sequencing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immense amounts of raw instrument data (i.e., images of fluorescence) are currently being generated using ultra high-throughput sequencing platforms. An important computational challenge associated with this rapid advancement is to develop efficient algorithms that can extract accurate sequence information from raw data. To address this challenge, we recently introduced a novel model-based base-calling algorithm that is fully parametric and has several advantages over previously proposed methods. Our original algorithm, called BayesCall, significantly reduced the error rate, particularly in the later cycles of a sequencing run, and also produced useful base-specific quality scores with a high discrimination ability. Unfortunately, however, BayesCall is too computationally expensive to be of broad practical use. In this paper, we build on our previous model-based approach to devise an efficient base-calling algorithm that is orders of magnitude faster than BayesCall, while still maintaining a comparably high level of accuracy. Our new algorithm is called naiveBayesCall, and it utilizes approximation and optimization methods to achieve scalability. We describe the performance of naiveBayesCall and demonstrate how improved base-calling accuracy may facilitate de novo assembly when the coverage is low to moderate.

Kao, Wei-Chun; Song, Yun S.

386

Cooperative Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization with Dynamic Varying Search Areas and Lévy Flight Disturbance  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a novel variant of cooperative quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (CQPSO) algorithm with two mechanisms to reduce the search space and avoid the stagnation, called CQPSO-DVSA-LFD. One mechanism is called Dynamic Varying Search Area (DVSA), which takes charge of limiting the ranges of particles' activity into a reduced area. On the other hand, in order to escape the local optima, Lévy flights are used to generate the stochastic disturbance in the movement of particles. To test the performance of CQPSO-DVSA-LFD, numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed algorithm with different variants of PSO. According to the experimental results, the proposed method performs better than other variants of PSO on both benchmark test functions and the combinatorial optimization issue, that is, the job-shop scheduling problem. PMID:24851085

Li, Desheng

2014-01-01

387

Cooperative quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with dynamic varying search areas and Lévy flight disturbance.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel variant of cooperative quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (CQPSO) algorithm with two mechanisms to reduce the search space and avoid the stagnation, called CQPSO-DVSA-LFD. One mechanism is called Dynamic Varying Search Area (DVSA), which takes charge of limiting the ranges of particles' activity into a reduced area. On the other hand, in order to escape the local optima, Lévy flights are used to generate the stochastic disturbance in the movement of particles. To test the performance of CQPSO-DVSA-LFD, numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed algorithm with different variants of PSO. According to the experimental results, the proposed method performs better than other variants of PSO on both benchmark test functions and the combinatorial optimization issue, that is, the job-shop scheduling problem. PMID:24851085

Li, Desheng

2014-01-01

388

JEC Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

JEC, "a service provider whose vocation is the international promotion of composite materials around the world, and as both an information transmitter and receiver" offers the JEC Composites website. From here, you can learn about what's new in the composites industry across the world and read about recent technological advances in various sectors such as aeronautics, automotive, and construction. For example, have you heard about the material used to make stab-resistant jackets in Japan? Or the material that was used to construct the bike Lance Armstrong used to win the Tour de France? Those in the industry can also get updates on business news, trends, and upcoming conferences.

389

Variable Food Begging Calls Are Harbingers of Vocal Learning  

PubMed Central

Vocal learning has evolved in only a few groups of mammals and birds. The developmental and evolutionary origins of vocal learning remain unclear. The imitation of a memorized sound is a clear example of vocal learning, but is that when vocal learning starts? Here we use an ontogenetic approach to examine how vocal learning emerges in a songbird, the chipping sparrow. The first vocalizations of songbirds, food begging calls, were thought to be innate, and vocal learning emerges later during subsong, a behavior reminiscent of infant babbling. Here we report that the food begging calls of male sparrows show several characteristics associated with learned song: male begging calls are highly variable between individuals and are altered by deafening; the production of food begging calls induces c-fos expression in a forebrain motor nucleus, RA, that is involved with the production of learned song. Electrolytic lesions of RA significantly reduce the variability of male calls. The male begging calls are subsequently incorporated into subsong, which in turn transitions into recognizable attempts at vocal imitation. Females do not sing and their begging calls are not affected by deafening or RA lesion. Our results suggest that, in chipping sparrows, intact hearing can influence the quality of male begging calls, auditory-sensitive vocal variability during food begging calls is the first step in a modification of vocal output that eventually culminates with vocal imitation. PMID:19529766

Liu, Wan-chun; Wada, Kazuhiro; Nottebohm, Fernando

2009-01-01

390

Varying incorporation of fatty acids into phospholipids from muscle, adipose and pancreatic exocrine tissues and thymocytes in adult rats fed with diets rich in different fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite numerous studies, the importance which the tissue or the composition of the diet may have in the biological distribution of each fatty acid is not well known. To determine the importance of tissue origin and dietary fatty acids in the fatty acid composition of cell phospholipids, 54 male adult rats were fed isocaloric diets for one month varying only

F. J. Soriguer; F. J. Tinahones; A. Monzón; A. Pareja; G. Rojo-Martínez; F. Moreno; I. Esteva; J. M. Gómez-Zumaquero

2000-01-01

391

Mechanical properties of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A composite material incorporates high strength, high modulus fibers in a matrix (polymer, metal, or ceramic). The fibers may be oriented in a manner to give varying in-plane properties (longitudinal, transverse-stress, strain, and modulus of elasticity). The lay-up of the composite laminates is such that a center line of symmetry and no bending moment exist through the thickness. The laminates are tabbed, with either aluminum or fiberglass, and are ready for tensile testing. The determination of the tensile properties of resin matrix composites, reinforced by continuous fibers, is outlined in ASTM standard D 3039, Tensile Properties of Oriented Fiber Composites. The tabbed flat tensile coupons are placed into the grips of a tensile machine and load-deformation curves plotted. The load-deformation data are translated into stress-strain curves for determination of mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity).

Thornton, H. Richard; Cornwell, L. R.

1993-01-01

392

Influence of varying dielectric window thickness on the relative inductive and capacitive coupling in a planar ICP  

Microsoft Academic Search

In inductively coupled plasmas, the dielectric window separating the rf coil and the plasma volume influences both the purposeful inductive and the parasitic capacitive coupling to the plasma. We have experimentally investigated the relative contributions of both inductive and capacitive coupling in a planar inductively coupled plasma source when varying dielectric window thickness and window composition. Experimental conditions are 1

M. Watanabe; H. Uchiyama; D. M. Shaw; G. J. Collins

1999-01-01

393

Empirical evidences in favor of a varying-speed-of-light  

E-print Network

The empirical evidences in favor of the hypothesis that the speed of light decreases by a few centimeters per second each year are examined. Lunar laser ranging data are found to be consistent with this hypothesis, which also provides a straightforward explanation for the so-called Pioneer anomaly, that is, a time-dependent blue-shift observed when analyzing radio tracking data from distant spacecrafts, as well as an alternative explanation for both the apparent time-dilation of remote events and the apparent acceleration of the Universe. The main argument against this hypothesis, namely, the constancy of fine-structure and Rydberg constants, is discussed. Both of them being combinations of several physical constants, their constancy imply that, if the speed of light is indeed time-dependent, then at least two other "fundamental constants" have to vary as well. This defines strong constraints which will have to be fulfilled by future varying-speed-of-light theories.

Yves-Henri Sanejouand

2009-12-06

394

Electrically modulated microtransfer molding for fabrication of micropillar arrays with spatially varying heights.  

PubMed

The ability to generate a large area micropillar array with spatially varying heights allows for exploring numerous new interesting applications in biotechnology, surface engineering, microfluidics, and so forth. This Letter presents a clever and straightforward method, called electrically modulated microtransfer molding (EM3), for generating such unique microstructures from a silicon mold arrayed with microholes. The key to the process is an application of electrically tunable wettability caused by a spatially modulated voltage, which electrohydrodynamically drives a photocurable and dielectric prepolymer to fill the microholes to a depth depending on the voltage amplitude. Using EM3, micropillar arrays with stepwise or continuously varying heights are successfully fabricated, with the diameter scalable to 1.5 ?m and with the maximum height being equal to the depth of the high-aspect-ratio (more than 10:1) microholes. PMID:23347355

Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Liu, Hongzhong

2013-02-01

395

Varying Instructional Methods and Assessment of Students in High School Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New content standards call for the implementation of new and varied pedagogical interventions and instructional techniques. An experimental project in which chemistry was taught using new pedagogical and assessment standards with 10th- to 12th-grade students showed that students who participated in the project expressed satisfaction with the way they learned chemistry. This approach to assessment caused a significant decline in the student anxiety that accompanies the Israeli matriculation examinations. Teachers reported that participating in this project changed their teaching habits, moving them from delivering information to guiding students in the learning process.

Avi Hofstein

2006-01-01

396

With whom to dine? Ravens' responses to food-associated calls depend on individual characteristics of the caller  

PubMed Central

Upon discovering food, common ravens, Corvus corax, produce far-reaching ‘haa’ calls or yells, which are individually distinct and signal food availability to conspecifics. Here, we investigated whether ravens respond differently to ‘haa’ calls of known and unknown individuals. In a paired playback design, we tested responses to ‘haa’ call sequences in a group containing individually marked free-ranging ravens. We simultaneously played call sequences of a male and a female raven in two different locations and varied familiarity (known or unknown to the local group). Ravens responded strongest to dyads containing familiar females, performing more scan flights above and by perching in trees near the respective speaker. Acoustic analysis of the calls used as stimuli showed no sex-, age- or familiarity-specific acoustic cues, but highly significant classification results at the individual level. Taken together, our findings indicate that ravens respond to individual characteristics in ‘haa’ calls, and choose whom to approach for feeding, i.e. join social allies and avoid dominant conspecifics. This is the first study to investigate responses to ‘haa’ calls under natural conditions in a wild population containing individually marked ravens. PMID:25598542

Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Wascher, Claudia A.F.; Spreafico, Michela; Bugnyar, Thomas

2015-01-01

397

Comparing Composites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity that models the work of chemical engineers. Students design, fabricate, and perform mechanical tests on plaster matrix composites and compare the strength to mass ratios of several products. (PR)

Mathras, Michael S.

1993-01-01

398

Seawater Composition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference discusses the composition and chemistry of seawater, and how they affect organisms in the sea. Topics include salinity, temperature, density, dissolved gases, dissolved nutrients, and pH.

399

St. Lawrence blue whale vocalizations revisited: characterization of calls detected from 1998 to 2001.  

PubMed

From 1998 to 2001, 115 h of acoustic recordings were made in the presence of the well-studied St. Lawrence population of blue whales, using a calibrated omnidirectional hydrophone [flat (+/- 3 dB) response from 5 to 800 Hz] suspended at 50 m depth from a surface isolation buoy. The primary field site for this study was the estuary region of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada), with most recordings made between mid-August and late October. During the recordings, detailed field notes were taken on all cetaceans within sight. Characterization of the more than 1000 blue whale calls detected during this study revealed that the St. Lawrence repertoire is much more extensive than previously reported. Three infrasonic (<20 Hz) and three audible range (30-200 Hz) call types were detected, with much time/frequency variation seen within each type. Further variation is seen in the form of call segmentation, which appears (through examination of Lloyd's Mirror interference effects) to be controlled at least partially by the whales. Although St. Lawrence blue whale call characteristics are similar to those of the North Atlantic, comparisons of phrase composition and spacing among studies suggest the possibility of population dialects within the North Atlantic. PMID:17069329

Berchok, Catherine L; Bradley, David L; Gabrielson, Thomas B

2006-10-01

400

The neural pathways mediating color shifts induced by temporally varying light.  

PubMed

In natural viewing, an object's background often changes over time. Temporally varying backgrounds were investigated here with a steady test field within a time-varying surrounding chromaticity. With slow surround variation (below approximately 3 Hz), the color appearance of a steady test is also perceived to fluctuate. At somewhat higher temporal frequencies, however, temporal variation of the surround is visible but the test appears steady (R. L. De Valois, M. A. Webster, K. K. De Valois, & B. Lingelbach, 1986); also above approximately 3 Hz, temporal chromatic variation along the l- or s-axis of the MacLeod-Boynton space (symmetric about equal-energy-spectrum "white") shifts the steady appearance of the test field toward redness or yellowness, respectively (A. D. D'Antona & S. K. Shevell, 2006). In the study here, color shifts were measured with temporal surround modulation at 6 Hz or greater along axes intermediate to the l and s directions. Varying the relative phase of simultaneous surround variation in l and s should not change responses within independent l and s pathways but should differentially excite neural representations that combine l and s signals (so-called higher order chromatic mechanisms). Varying the phase of l and s showed that the induced color shifts were accounted for by neural responses both from nearly independent l and s pathways and from higher order chromatic mechanisms. PMID:19757904

Christiansen, Jens H; D'Antona, Anthony D; Shevell, Steven K

2009-01-01

401

Composite Flowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, part of Jim Conrad's Backyard Nature Plant web page, discusses this very large family of plants, which includes the sunflower, dandelion, and chrysanthemum. Here you will find information about the composite family's flower structure and the three kinds of composite flowers: ray only, disk only, and ray and disk. There is also a section on how to analyze disk and ray flower structures.

Conrad, Jim

402

When You Call The phone will be answered  

E-print Network

· Poisonous plants · Food poisoning · Pesticide information · Poisonings of animals · Workplace exposuresWhen You Call The phone will be answered · by a caring pharmacist who is a poison information...on what to do for a poisoning, bite or sting, or tips on poison-proofing your home · Call 1

Arizona, University of

403

Faculty Sense of Religious Calling at a Christian University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sense of calling is often described with language steeped in religious tradition. It is variously described as a spiritual process or endeavor or as a summons by God to fulfill a specific purpose or task in life. This ethnographic case study examines how 18 senior faculty members of differing faith traditions expressed a religious sense of calling

Swezey, James A.

2009-01-01

404

Enhancing Online CALL Design: The Case for Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whilst the potential of online Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in terms of access, immediacy and exposure is widely acknowledged, as yet remarkably little is known about its impact on the user population, be they language teachers or learners. Indeed, beyond its technological development, online CALL design is still affected by a dearth…

Hemard, Dominique

2004-01-01

405

Why We All Need Call Waiting on Our Phones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Have you ever noticed that you can go all day without a single call on your phone and then suddenly you get two calls at once? This is actually not as uncommon as it sounds and there is a mathematical reason for why we should expect it to happen, believe it or not.

Higbie, Jack

2013-01-01

406

Food calling in ravens: are yells referential signals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ravens, Corvus corax, yell when they approach rich but defended food sources. As in other species, such food-associated calls attract conspecifics. These calls may provide information about the sender, such as its behaviour or motivation, and about the type of stimuli to which the caller is responding, such as the location, quality or quantity of a food source. We investigated

Thomas Bugnyar; Maartje Kijne; Kurt Kotrschal

2001-01-01

407

AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory taking" will provide…

Schulze, Mathias

2008-01-01

408

Structure of Calling and Vocation across Gender and Age Cohort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) is a measure based on Dik and Duffy's (2009) theoretical conceptualization of calling, which includes three dimensions: (1) a transcendent summons, (2) deriving or expressing meaning or purpose through work, and (3) a prosocial orientation in work. Additionally, this definition posits two overarching…

Eldridge, Brandy M.

2010-01-01

409

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eaves- dropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black- capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of

C. N. Templeton; Erick Greene

2007-01-01

410

AACR, ASCO Call for E-cigarette Regulation.  

PubMed

In a joint policy statement, the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology call for the regulation of electronic cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems. The statement also calls for banning flavors that appeal to children and requiring manufacturers to disclose full ingredient lists to the FDA. PMID:25627454

2015-03-01

411

Personality Type, Tolerance of Ambiguity, and Vocabulary Retention in CALL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study (n=181 college students) examined effects of lexical ambiguity in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) on beginning second-language learners, focusing on whether personality type affects retention of second-language vocabulary independent of translation issues and in an ambiguous CALL context. Findings support the need for beginning…

Grace, Caroline

1998-01-01

412

Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the

Tobias Riede; Klaus Zuberbühler

2003-01-01

413

ICCCN 2003 1 Call Admission Control in Mobile Cellular Systems  

E-print Network

ICCCN 2003 1 Call Admission Control in Mobile Cellular Systems Using Fuzzy Associative Memory Memory, Call Admis- sion Control. I. INTRODUCTION WIRELESS cellular networks derive their name from Sivaramakrishna Mopati, and Dilip Sarkar Abstract-- In a mobile cellular system quality of service to mobile

Sarkar, Dilip

414

47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...height of a call box antenna may not exceed 6.1...structure (other than an antenna supporting structure...station transmitting antenna, together with its supporting...system from the central control station. Means shall...indicate the call box unit identifier when a...

2013-10-01

415

47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...height of a call box antenna may not exceed 6.1...structure (other than an antenna supporting structure...station transmitting antenna, together with its supporting...system from the central control station. Means shall...indicate the call box unit identifier when a...

2012-10-01

416

47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...height of a call box antenna may not exceed 6.1...structure (other than an antenna supporting structure...station transmitting antenna, together with its supporting...system from the central control station. Means shall...indicate the call box unit identifier when a...

2014-10-01

417

47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...height of a call box antenna may not exceed 6.1...structure (other than an antenna supporting structure...station transmitting antenna, together with its supporting...system from the central control station. Means shall...indicate the call box unit identifier when a...

2011-10-01

418

Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

Nesbitt, Dallas

2013-01-01

419

Female Chimpanzees Use Copulation Calls Flexibly to Prevent Social Competition  

PubMed Central

The adaptive function of copulation calls in female primates has been debated for years. One influential idea is that copulation calls are a sexually selected trait, which enables females to advertise their receptive state to males. Male-male competition ensues and females benefit by getting better mating partners and higher quality offspring. We analysed the copulation calling behaviour of wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Budongo Forest, Uganda, but found no support for the male-male competition hypothesis. Hormone analysis showed that the calling behaviour of copulating females was unrelated to their fertile period and likelihood of conception. Instead, females called significantly more while with high-ranking males, but suppressed their calls if high-ranking females were nearby. Copulation calling may therefore be one potential strategy employed by female chimpanzees to advertise receptivity to high-ranked males, confuse paternity and secure future support from these socially important individuals. Competition between females can be dangerously high in wild chimpanzees, and our results indicate that females use their copulation calls strategically to minimise the risks associated with such competition. PMID:22423311

Townsend, Simon W.; Deschner, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2008-01-01

420

Critical Considerations for Planning and Implementing a CALL Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) has transformed dramatically--from the days of the behaviourist approach that dominated CALL in the 1970s to the dynamism of Interactive approach in the 1990s under the immense influence of information communication technology (ICT). Regardless of these periodic changes and improvements,…

Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul

2009-01-01

421

Best practices for world-class call centers.  

PubMed

Quality, not quantity, counts more in performance measures for best-practice call centers. Spend money on effective upfront training to save later through increased employee and customer loyalty. Give structured feedback and strong internal support to call-center representatives. PMID:10187413

1998-11-01

422

Genotype and SNP calling from next-generation sequencing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meaningful analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, which are produced extensively by genetics and genomics studies, relies crucially on the accurate calling of SNPs and genotypes. Recently developed statistical methods both improve and quantify the considerable uncertainty associated with genotype calling, and will especially benefit the growing number of studies using low- to medium-coverage data. We review these methods and

Joshua S. Paul; Anders Albrechtsen; Rasmus Nielsen; Yun S. Song

2011-01-01

423

Stable Inversion for Nonlinear Nonminimum-Phase Time Varying Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we extend stable inversion to nonlinear time-varying systems and study computational issues; the technique is applicable to minimum-phase as well as nonminimum-phase systems. The inversion technique is new, even in the linear time-varying case, and relies on partitioning (the dichotomic split of) the linearized system dynamics into time-varying, stable, and unstable, submanifolds. This dichotomic split is used to build time-varying filters which are, in turn, the basis of a contraction used to find a bounded inverse input-state trajectory. Finding the inverse input-state trajectory allows the development or exact-output tracking controllers. The method is local to the time-varying trajectory and requires that the internal dynamics vary slowly; however, the method represents a significant advance relative to presently available tracking controllers. Present techniques are restricted to time-invariant nonlinear systems and, in the general case, track only asymptotically.

Devasia, S.; Paden, B.

1998-01-01

424

Herbaceous forage and selection patterns by ungulates across varying herbivore assemblages in a South African Savanna.  

PubMed

Herbivores generally have strong structural and compositional effects on vegetation, which in turn determines the plant forage species available. We investigated how selected large mammalian herbivore assemblages use and alter herbaceous vegetation structure and composition in a southern African savanna in and adjacent to the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We compared mixed and mono-specific herbivore assemblages of varying density and investigated similarities in vegetation patterns under wildlife and livestock herbivory. Grass species composition differed significantly, standing biomass and grass height were almost twice as high at sites of low density compared to high density mixed wildlife species. Selection of various grass species by herbivores was positively correlated with greenness, nutrient content and palatability. Nutrient-rich Urochloa mosambicensis Hack. and Panicum maximum Jacq. grasses were preferred forage species, which significantly differed in abundance across sites of varying grazing pressure. Green grasses growing beneath trees were grazed more frequently than dry grasses growing in the open. Our results indicate that grazing herbivores appear to base their grass species preferences on nutrient content cues and that a characteristic grass species abundance and herb layer structure can be matched with mammalian herbivory types. PMID:24358228

Treydte, Anna Christina; Baumgartner, Sabine; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; Grant, Catharina C; Getz, Wayne M

2013-01-01

425

Herbaceous Forage and Selection Patterns by Ungulates across Varying Herbivore Assemblages in a South African Savanna  

PubMed Central

Herbivores generally have strong structural and compositional effects on vegetation, which in turn determines the plant forage species available. We investigated how selected large mammalian herbivore assemblages use and alter herbaceous vegetation structure and composition in a southern African savanna in and adjacent to the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We compared mixed and mono-specific herbivore assemblages of varying density and investigated similarities in vegetation patterns under wildlife and livestock herbivory. Grass species composition differed significantly, standing biomass and grass height were almost twice as high at sites of low density compared to high density mixed wildlife species. Selection of various grass species by herbivores was positively correlated with greenness, nutrient content and palatability. Nutrient-rich Urochloa mosambicensis Hack. and Panicum maximum Jacq. grasses were preferred forage species, which significantly differed in abundance across sites of varying grazing pressure. Green grasses growing beneath trees were grazed more frequently than dry grasses growing in the open. Our results indicate that grazing herbivores appear to base their grass species preferences on nutrient content cues and that a characteristic grass species abundance and herb layer structure can be matched with mammalian herbivory types. PMID:24358228

Treydte, Anna Christina; Baumgartner, Sabine; Heitkönig, Ignas M. A.; Grant, Catharina C.; Getz, Wayne M.

2013-01-01

426

The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.  

PubMed

Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively. PMID:20659926

Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

2011-02-23

427

Frequency synchronization of blue whale calls near Pioneer Seamount.  

PubMed

Vocalizations of blue whales were recorded with a cabled hydrophone array at Pioneer Seamount, 50 miles off the California coast. Most calls occurred in repeated sequences of two-call pairs (A, then B). The B call is a frequency-modulated tone highly repeatable in form and pitch. A model of this sound is described which permits detecting very small frequency shifts. B calls are found to be aligned in frequency to about one part in 180. This requires very fine pitch discrimination and control over calling frequency, and suggests that synchronizing to a common frequency pattern carries some adaptive advantage. Some possibilities for acoustic sensing by whales requiring this fine frequency resolution are discussed. PMID:20649243

Hoffman, Michael D; Garfield, Newell; Bland, Roger W

2010-07-01

428

Contact calls of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): influence of age of caller on antiphonal calling and other vocal responses.  

PubMed

Marmosets, as do many other primates, live in forest environments, are group living and constantly at risk of predation. Retaining contact with one another is therefore a matter of survival. We ask here whether their contact calls (phee and twitter vocalizations) are in some way ordered acoustically by sex or age and whether the calls of older marmosets elicit different responses than those of younger marmosets. In our study, marmosets (2-14 years) were visually isolated from conspecifics and the vocal responses to each isolated caller by other marmosets in the colony were recorded. Vocal responses to phee calls largely consisted of phee calls and, less commonly, twitter calls. No differences between the responses to calls by males and females were apparent. However, we found a strong positive and significant correlation between the caller's age and the percentage of its phee calls receiving a phee response, and a significant negative correlation between the caller's age and the percentage of its phee calls receiving a twitter response. The older the marmoset, the more antiphonal calling occurred. Two-syllable phee calls were emitted more often by older marmosets (10-14 years) than by younger ones (2-6 years). Hence, we have found age-dependent differences in phee-call production and a consistent change in the response received across the adult life-span. This age-dependent effect was independent of kinship relations. This is the first evidence that marmosets distinguish age by vocal parameters alone and make social decisions based on age. PMID:19026011

Chen, H-C; Kaplan, G; Rogers, L J

2009-02-01

429

CALL FOR PROPOSALS FOR RESEARCH GRANTS CIGI's Africa Initiative (AI) announces a call for proposals for its research grants competition.  

E-print Network

CALL FOR PROPOSALS FOR RESEARCH GRANTS CIGI's Africa Initiative (AI) announces a call for proposals.africaportal.org/research Background The Africa Initiative (AI) is a multi-year, donor-supported program, with three components of capacity and knowledge in the thematic areas of conflict resolution, energy, food security, health

430

Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions  

DOEpatents

Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Jia, George D.; Lewis, Linda; Yen, Laurel C.

2014-06-24

431

Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions  

SciTech Connect

Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Yen, William; Yen, Laurel C.; Jia, George D.

2012-12-04

432

Elasticity theory equations and fracture condition for materials of varying moduli  

SciTech Connect

Many massive rocks and composite materials belong to the class of materials of varying moduli with definite distinct deformation and strength properties under tension and compression. The results of experiments indicate that the difference between the properties of materials of different moduli is not limited to tension and compression cases but can also appear clearly for any change in the form of the state of stress. Elasticity theory equations are constructed here to describe the strain of materials of varying moduli as well as the dependence of the strength properties on the form of the state of strain. Tests were done on coal, limestone, diabase and cement and results are shown. Using the dependencies obtained, Poisson's ratio and the elastic modulus can be calculated for these rocks. The equations and conditions of fracture proposed, are written in a simple invariant form.

Oleinikov, A.I.

1986-11-01

433

Eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls: from mechanisms to consequences.  

PubMed

Animals often gather information from other species by eavesdropping on signals intended for others. We review the extent, benefits, mechanisms, and ecological and evolutionary consequences of eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls. Eavesdropping has been shown experimentally in about 70 vertebrate species, and can entail closely or distantly related species. The benefits of eavesdropping include prompting immediate anti-predator responses, indirect enhancement of foraging or changed habitat use, and learning about predators. Eavesdropping on heterospecifics can provide more eyes looking for danger, complementary information to that from conspecifics, and potentially information at reduced cost. The response to heterospecific calls can be unlearned or learned. Unlearned responses occur when heterospecific calls have acoustic features similar to that used to recognize conspecific calls, or acoustic properties such as harsh sounds that prompt attention and may allow recognition or facilitate learning. Learning to recognize heterospecific alarm calls is probably essential to allow recognition of the diversity of alarm calls, but the evidence is largely indirect. The value of eavesdropping on different species is affected by problems of signal interception and the relevance of heterospecific alarm calls to the listener. These constraints on eavesdropping will affect how information flows among species and thus affect community function. Some species are 'keystone' information producers, while others largely seek information, and these differences probably affect the formation and function of mixed-species groups. Eavesdroppers might also integrate alarm calls from multiple species to extract relevant and reliable information. Eavesdropping appears to set the stage for the evolution of interspecific deception and communication, and potentially affects communication within species. Overall, we now know that eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls is an important source of information for many species across the globe, and there are ample opportunities for research on mechanisms, fitness consequences and implications for community function and signalling evolution. PMID:24917385

Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; Fallow, Pamela M; Radford, Andrew N

2014-06-11

434

Composite material  

DOEpatents

A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

Hutchens, Stacy A. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Solihull, GB); Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-02-07

435

Surfactant compositions  

SciTech Connect

A surfactant composition is described for subsequent addition to a soap slurring comprising an acyloxy alkane sulfonate salt. The sulfonate salt is present in an amount by weight of about 44 percent of about 56 percent. The polyol is present in an amount by weight of about 2 percent to about 6 percent, and water is present in an amount by weight of 26 to 36 percent. The composition constituting a solid reversible solution at ambient temperature and having a solids content of about 58 to 72 percent, whereby subsequent addition of the surfactant composition to a soap slurry results in formation of a soap/detergent bar having a smooth texture, uniform wear properties and a lack of grittiness.

Novakovic, M.; Abend, P.G.

1987-09-29

436

Photoimageable composition  

DOEpatents

The use of photoacid generators including an alkoxyphenylphenyliodonium salt and/or bis(t-butylphenyl)iodonium salt in a photoimageable composition helps improve resolution. Suitable photoimageable compositions includes: (a) a multifuctional polymeric epoxy resin that is dissolved in an organic solvent wherein the epoxy resin comprises oligomers of bisphenol A that is quantitatively protected by glycidyl ether and wherein the oligomers have an average functionality that ranges from about 3 to 12; and a photoacid generator comprising an alkoxyphenylphenyliodonium salt and/or bis(t-butylphenyl)iodonium salt. Preferred alkoxyphenylphenyliodonium salts include 4-octyloxyphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and 4-methoxyphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate. The photoimageable composition is particularly suited for producing high aspect ratio microstructures.

Dentinger, Paul; Krafick, Karen L.; Simison, Kelby Liv

2005-02-22

437

Photoimageable composition  

DOEpatents

The use of selected buffering amines in a photoimageable composition prevents process bias which with conventional photoresists causes designed features to be distorted, especially in corners and high resolution features. It is believed that the amines react with the catalysts, e.g., photoacids, generated to create an inert salt. The presence of the amines also increases resolution. Suitable photoimageable compositions includes: (a) a multifunctional polymeric epoxy resin that is dissolved in an organic solvent wherein the epoxy resin comprises oligomers of bisphenol A that is quantitatively protected by glycidyl ether and wherein the oligomers have an average functionality that ranges from about 3 to 12; (b) a photoactive compound; and (c) an amine that is selected from the group consisting of triisobutylamine, 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (also known as PROTON SPONGET.TM.), 2,2'-diazabicyclo[2.2.2] octane and mixtures thereof. The photoimageable composition is particularly suited for producing high aspect ratio metal microstructures.

Simison, Kelby Liv; Dentinger, Paul

2003-11-11

438

Augmented brain function by coordinated reset stimulation with slowly varying sequences  

PubMed Central

Several brain disorders are characterized by abnormally strong neuronal synchrony. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation was developed to selectively counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. For this, phase resetting stimuli are delivered to different subpopulations in a timely coordinated way. In neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may eventually lead to an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and abnormal synchrony. The spatiotemporal sequence by which all stimulation sites are stimulated exactly once is called the stimulation site sequence, or briefly sequence. So far, in simulations, pre-clinical and clinical applications CR was applied either with fixed sequences or rapidly varying sequences (RVS). In this computational study we show that appropriate repetition of the sequence with occasional random switching to the next sequence may significantly improve the anti-kindling effect of CR. To this end, a sequence is applied many times before randomly switching to the next sequence. This new method is called SVS CR stimulation, i.e., CR with slowly varying sequences. In a neuronal network with strong short-range excitatory and weak long-range inhibitory dynamic couplings SVS CR stimulation turns out to be superior to CR stimulation with fixed sequences or RVS. PMID:25873867

Zeitler, Magteld; Tass, Peter A.

2015-01-01

439

Database for waste glass composition and properties  

SciTech Connect

A database of waste glass composition and properties, called PNL Waste Glass Database, has been developed. The source of data is published literature and files from projects funded by the US Department of Energy. The glass data have been organized into categories and corresponding data files have been prepared. These categories are glass chemical composition, thermal properties, leaching data, waste composition, glass radionuclide composition and crystallinity data. The data files are compatible with commercial database software. Glass compositions are linked to properties across the various files using a unique glass code. Programs have been written in database software language to permit searches and retrievals of data. The database provides easy access to the vast quantities of glass compositions and properties that have been studied. It will be a tool for researchers and others investigating vitrification and glass waste forms.

Peters, R.D.; Chapman, C.C.; Mendel, J.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Williams, C.G. [Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant, MI (United States)

1993-09-01

440

Niklas Grip and Gotz E. Pfander Time Varying Narrowband Communications  

E-print Network

Niklas Grip and G¨otz E. Pfander Time Varying Narrowband Communications Channels: Analysis and Implementation Technical Report No. 12 October 2007 School of Engineering and Science #12;Time Varying Narrowband, simplifica- tions, and assumptions on the channel. The primary intended target application 1 The work

Pfander, Götz

441

ESTIMATING WAITING TIMES WITH THE TIME-VARYING LITTLE'S LAW  

E-print Network

-varying staffing, then the waiting time distribution may not be time- varying even though the arrival rate is time of patients in a hospital is 400 and the arrival rate is 100 per day, then the average length of stay should

Whitt, Ward

442

ESTIMATING WAITING TIMES WITH THE TIME-VARYING LITTLE'S LAW  

E-print Network

-varying staffing, then the waiting time distribution may not be time-varying even though the arrival rate is time in a hospital is 400 and the arrival rate is 100 per day, then the average length of stay should be about W = L

Whitt, Ward

443

Analyzing a Scene's Picture Set under Varying Lighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on physical laws of optics, this article analytically derives a complete description of the set of all pictures that can be taken from a given scene under varying lighting, where the camera, the scene, and the light sources are static but where each light source can vary arbitrarily in radiance. It will be shown that this picture set forms

Martin Bichsel

1998-01-01

444

On the modeling of time-varying delays  

E-print Network

This thesis is an effort to develop generalized dynamic models for systems with time-varying time delays. Unlike the simple time-delay model characterized by a transportation lag in the case of a fixed time delay, time-varying delays exhibit quite...

Shah, Chirag Laxmikant

2004-09-30

445

Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with  

E-print Network

Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light in turbid media and is accurately modeled by a correlation diffusion equation. We demonstrate ex of the spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media. The biomedical applicability of this diffuse

446

Analysis of time-varying signals with small BT values  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare four different methods for analyzing time-varying signals, the frequency and amplitude of which are both varying (small BT signals, where B is the bandwidth and T the duration). All four methods give results which depend on the frequency bandwidth of the analyzing filter. But the modified moving window method (MMWM) (Kodera et al. [10]) is the one which

K. Kodera; R. Gendrin; C. de Villedary

1978-01-01

447

Base-calling for next-generation sequencing platforms  

PubMed Central

Next-generation sequencing platforms are dramatically reducing the cost of DNA sequencing. With these technologies, bases are inferred from light intensity signals, a process commonly referred to as base-calling. Thus, understanding and improving the quality of sequence data generated using these approaches are of high interest. Recently, a number of papers have characterized the biases associated with base-calling and proposed methodological improvements. In this review, we summarize recent development of base-calling approaches for the Illumina and Roche 454 sequencing platforms. PMID:21245079

Ledergerber, Christian

2011-01-01

448

Composite Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity (located on page 3 of PDF) about composites, materials made of 2 or more different components. Learners will be challenged to build the best mud bricks, one of the earliest examples of composites. From a supply of various building components, which the learners will examine for their different properties, they will build mud bricks, then dry them and put them through several tests. *Bricks must bake in the sun for 2-3 days prior to testing. Resource contains information about how this activity relates to carbon nanotubes and links to video, DragonflyTV Nano: Hockey Sticks.

2012-05-09

449

Composite Riflescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bushnell Division of Bausch & Lomb's Armor-Sight riflescope combines the company's world-renowned optics with a graphite composite (Graphlon VI) developed for space applications. The riflescope is 10 percent lighter than aluminum scopes, and, because its thermal expansion coefficient is near zero, optical distortion from heat and cold extremes is eliminated. It is fogproof and waterproof; advanced multicoated optics provide maximum light transmission to brighten target ranges. Bushnell was assisted by NIAC/USC in searching for technical information on graphic composites and in overcoming difficulties with bonding and porosity.

1989-01-01

450

Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor  

DOEpatents

A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Thornton, Jimmy D. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, E. David (Morgantown, WV); Fincham, William (Fairmont, WV)

2011-04-19

451

CALL and the Man/Machine Interface. Proceedings of the Annual Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Workshop (4th, London, England, 1985). CALL Report 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of the workshop on the interface between humans and machines in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include the texts of four papers, descriptions of the software demonstrated, an information exchange section, a report of the plenary session, a comment on the workshop, a list of participants, a review of current research in…

Brown, Eric, Comp.

452

Seasonal variability and detection range modeling of baleen whale calls in the Gulf of Alaska, 1999-2002.  

PubMed

Five species of large whales, including the blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (B. physalus), sei (B. borealis), humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), and North Pacific right (Eubalaena japonica), were the target of commercial harvests in the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) during the 19th through mid-20th Centuries. Since this time, there have been a few summer time visual surveys for these species, but no overview of year-round use of these waters by endangered whales primarily because standard visual survey data are difficult and costly. From October 1999-May 2002, moored hydrophones were deployed in six locations in the GoA to record whale calls. Reception of calls from fin, humpback, and blue whales and an unknown source, called Watkins' whale, showed seasonal and geographic variation. Calls were detected more often during the winter than during the summer, suggesting that animals inhabit the GoA year-round. To estimate the distance at which species-diagnostic calls could be heard, parabolic equation propagation loss models for frequencies characteristic of each of each call type were run. Maximum detection ranges in the subarctic North Pacific ranged from 45 to 250 km among three species (fin, humpback, blue), although modeled detection ranges varied greatly with input parameters and choice of ambient noise level. PMID:18247747

Stafford, Kathleen M; Mellinger, David K; Moore, Sue E; Fox, Christopher G

2007-12-01

453

INTRODUCTION Chaetognaths, commonly called arrow worms, are among the  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Chaetognaths, commonly called arrow worms, are among the most abundant marine-670 (2002) Printed in Great Britain © The Company of Biologists Limited 2002 DEV3530 Chaetognaths (arrow worms) are abundant hermaphrodite marine organisms whose phylogenetic position amongst protostomes

Sardet, Christian

454

28 CFR 540.102 - Monitoring of inmate telephone calls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...telephone calls. The Warden shall establish procedures that enable monitoring...protect the public. The Warden must provide notice...to an attorney. The Warden shall notify an inmate of the proper procedures to have an...

2010-07-01

455

47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards...Direct-Printing Telegraph Equipment in the Maritime Mobile Service,” with Annex, 1995...Selective-calling System for Use in the Maritime Mobile Service,” with Annexes 1...

2011-10-01

456

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

2007-01-01

457

76 FR 67747 - Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee; Call for Nominations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institutes of Health Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee; Call for Nominations...with Public Law 112-32, The Combating Autism Reauthorization Act the Department of...to continue to support the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC)...

2011-11-02

458

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls.  

PubMed

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific "chick-a-dee" alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N; Greene, Erick

2007-03-27

459

A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.

Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.

1971-01-01

460

Call for Papers Ethics, Practical Ethics, Animal Ethics  

E-print Network

increased awareness of factory farming a shift in public concern with environmental ethicsCall for Papers Ethics, Practical Ethics, Animal Ethics Clemson University Undergraduate this conference is particularly concerned. Notably, the ethical treatment of nonhuman animals has gained

Duchowski, Andrew T.

461

The Bioengineering Program Bioengineers (also called biomedical or biomechanical  

E-print Network

The Bioengineering Program Bioengineers (also called biomedical or biomechanical engineers) use that improves human health. Bioengineers design and improve hospital, medical, and surgical equipment used systems, dialysis and heart-lung machines, and surgery- assisting robotic devices. The Bioengineering

Lu, Yi

462

Mentoring African Research in Mathematics (MARM) Call for prospective mentors  

E-print Network

Mentoring African Research in Mathematics (MARM) Call for prospective mentors The London and its teaching in universities in Africa. Four mentoring partnerships are to be awarded, each world, professional mentoring and opportunities for periodic research travel will contribute

Dixon, Peter

463

26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-1 Qualified covered calls. (a) In general. Section...

2010-04-01

464

9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

465

Diabetes Groups Call for Greater Scrutiny of Insulin Pumps  

MedlinePLUS

... National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Home About MedlinePlus Site ... Groups Call for Greater Scrutiny of Insulin Pumps American and European associations want more standardization ...

466

47 CFR 64.605 - Emergency calling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...911 calls” is defined as “any communication initiated by an VRS or IP Relay user dialing...the use of ANI and, if necessary, pseudo-ANI, via the dedicated Wireline...

2010-10-01

467

47 CFR 64.605 - Emergency calling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...911 calls” is defined as “any communication initiated by an VRS or IP Relay user dialing...the use of ANI and, if necessary, pseudo-ANI, via the dedicated Wireline...

2011-10-01

468

47 CFR 64.605 - Emergency calling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...911 calls” is defined as “any communication initiated by an VRS or IP Relay user dialing...the use of ANI and, if necessary, pseudo-ANI, via the dedicated Wireline...

2014-10-01

469

47 CFR 64.605 - Emergency calling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...911 calls” is defined as “any communication initiated by an VRS or IP Relay user dialing...the use of ANI and, if necessary, pseudo-ANI, via the dedicated Wireline...

2012-10-01

470

47 CFR 64.605 - Emergency calling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...911 calls” is defined as “any communication initiated by an VRS or IP Relay user dialing...the use of ANI and, if necessary, pseudo-ANI, via the dedicated Wireline...

2013-10-01

471

Administrator Bolden Calls Underwater NEEMO Crew - Duration: 16:00.  

NASA Video Gallery

From outside their underwater laboratory in Florida, NASA Astronaut and NEEMO 16 Commander Dottie Metcalf-Lindenburger and European Space Agency astronaut Timothy Peake took a call from NASA Admini...

472

47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (4) Whether the Completing Carrier adheres to established protocols to ensure that any software, personnel or any other network changes do not adversely affect its payphone call tracking ability; (5) Whether the Completing Carrier has created...

2011-10-01

473

CALL FOR PAPERS Methods and Applications in Natural Resources Management  

E-print Network

CALL FOR PAPERS Methods and Applications in Natural Resources Management Special Volume management, which are part of other natural resources like fisheries and water, Methods and Applications in Natural Resources Management are often presented at OR international conferences and workshops

474

16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNINGSTRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNING-STRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP HOUSE Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

475

47 CFR 10.510 - Call preemption prohibition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Equipment Requirements § 10.510 Call preemption prohibition...Devices marketed for public use under part 10 must not enable an Alert Message to preempt an active voice or data...

2014-10-01

476

47 CFR 10.510 - Call preemption prohibition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Equipment Requirements § 10.510 Call preemption...Devices marketed for public use under part 10 must not enable an Alert Message to preempt an active voice or data...

2010-10-01

477

47 CFR 10.510 - Call preemption prohibition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Equipment Requirements § 10.510 Call preemption...Devices marketed for public use under part 10 must not enable an Alert Message to preempt an active voice or data...

2011-10-01

478

47 CFR 10.510 - Call preemption prohibition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Equipment Requirements § 10.510 Call preemption...Devices marketed for public use under part 10 must not enable an Alert Message to preempt an active voice or data...

2012-10-01

479

47 CFR 10.510 - Call preemption prohibition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Equipment Requirements § 10.510 Call preemption prohibition...Devices marketed for public use under part 10 must not enable an Alert Message to preempt an active voice or data...

2013-10-01

480

National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory Call for Proposals--PAC 37  

E-print Network

National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory Call for Proposals--PAC 37 February 2, 2012 Dear NSCL. apparatus (including drawing); 2. Status of previous experiments completed at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility

Liu, Taosheng

481

47 CFR 80.459 - Digital selective calling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Public Coast Stations Use of Telegraphy § 80.459 Digital selective calling. Subpart H of this part lists frequencies assignable for...

2010-10-01

482

FIRST ANNOUCEMENT CALL FOR PAPERS International Neural Network Society  

E-print Network

FIRST ANNOUCEMENT ­ CALL FOR PAPERS International Neural Network Society Institute of Information Topics: Neural network theory & models Computational neuroscience Neuronal automata Connectionist interfaces Evolutionary neural networks Neurodynamics Complex systems Neuroinformatics Neuroengineering

Mustakerov, Ivan

483

Transformation Composition  

E-print Network

Proc. AGTIVE'99, to appear in LNCS Graph Transformation Modules and their Composition ? Frank,knirsch,kreo,kuskeg@informatik.uni-bremen.de Abstract. In this paper, we investigate the notion of transformation modules as a structuring principle. Based on the notion of transformation units, a concept that allows to specify binary relations on graphs

Drewes, Frank

484

Polyolefin composition  

SciTech Connect

A polyolefin composition is described comprising: 100 parts by weight of polyolefin, not less than 0.5 part by weight of a polyamide selected from the group consisting of nylon 6 and nylon 66, and from 3 to 30 percent by weight of a novolak based on the weight of the polyamide.

Takagi, K.; Kawai, Y.; Kamiya, Y.

1986-07-15

485

Communication patterns for the most serious poison center calls.  

PubMed

CONTEXT.?The communication demands faced by specialists in poison information (SPI) are unique in the health-care context. OBJECTIVES.?(1) To describe SPI communication patterns for the highest risk poison exposure calls using cluster analysis, and (2) to describe variation in communication patterns or clusters. METHODS.?A sample of 1 year of poison exposure calls to a regional poison control center with SPIs' perceived severity rating of major or moderate perceived was collected. Digital voice recordings were linked with medical records and were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis S