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Sample records for calreticulin transacetylase catalyzed

  1. Calreticulin Transacetylase mediated activation of human platelet nitric oxide synthase by acetyl group donor compounds.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajit; Sushama, Anupam; Manral, Sushma; Sinha, Rajesh; Joshi, Rini; Singh, Usha; Rohil, Vishwajeet; Prasad, Ashok K; Parmar, Virinder S; Raj, Hanumantharao G

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenols have attracted immense interest because of their diverse biological and pharmacological activities. Surprisingly, not much is documented about the biological activities of acetoxy derivatives of polyphenol called polyphenolic acetates (PA). In our previous reports, we have conclusively established the Calreticulin Transacetylase (CRTAase) catalyzed activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by PA. In the present work, specificity of CRTAase to various classes of PA was characterized in human platelet. The effect of PA, on platelet NOS and intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation were studied in an elaborated manner. Platelet CRTAase exhibited differential specificities to polyphenolic acetates upon incubation with l-arginine leading to activation of NOS. The intraplatelet generation of NO was studied by flowcytometry using DCFH-DA. The differential specificities of CRTAase to PA were found to positively correlate with increased production of NO upon incubation of PRP with PA and l-arginine. Further, the inhibitory effect of l-NAME on PA induced NO formation in platelets substantiated the CRTAase catalyzed activation of NOS. The real-time RT-PCR profile of NOS isoforms confirmed the preponderance of eNOS over iNOS in human platelets on treatment with PA. Western blot analysis also reiterated the differential pattern of acetylation of eNOS by PA. PA were also found effective in increasing the intraplatelet cGMP levels and inhibiting ADP-induced platelet aggregation. It is worth mentioning that the effects of PA were found to be in tune with the specificities of platelet CRTAase to PA as the substrates. PMID:22100620

  2. Crystal Structure of Homoserine Transacetylase from Haemophilus Influenzae Reveals a New Family of alpha/beta-Hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Mirza,I.; Nazi, I.; Korczynska, M.; Wright, G.; Berghuis, A.

    2005-01-01

    Homoserine transacetylase catalyzes one of the required steps in the biosynthesis of methionine in fungi and several bacteria. We have determined the crystal structure of homoserine transacetylase from Haemophilus influenzae to a resolution of 1.65 A. The structure identifies this enzyme to be a member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase structural superfamily. The active site of the enzyme is located near the end of a deep tunnel formed by the juxtaposition of two domains and incorporates a catalytic triad involving Ser143, His337, and Asp304. A structural basis is given for the observed double displacement kinetic mechanism of homoserine transacetylase. Furthermore, the properties of the tunnel provide a rationale for how homoserine transacetylase catalyzes a transferase reaction vs. hydrolysis, despite extensive similarity in active site architecture to hydrolytic enzymes.

  3. Purification and characterization of Thermotoga maritima homoserine transsuccinylase indicates it is a transacetylase.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Born, Timothy L

    2006-10-01

    The methionine biosynthetic pathway found in bacteria is controlled at the first step, acylation of the gamma-hydroxyl of homoserine. This reaction is catalyzed by one of two unique enzymes, homoserine transacetylase or homoserine transsuccinylase, which have no amino acid sequence similarity. We cloned, expressed, and purified homoserine transsuccinylase from the thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Substrate specificity experiments demonstrated that acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) is the preferred acyl donor and is used at least 30-fold more efficiently than succinyl-CoA. Steady-state kinetic experiments confirm that the enzyme utilizes a ping-pong kinetic mechanism in which the acetate group of acetyl-CoA is initially transferred to an enzyme nucleophile before subsequent transfer to homoserine. The maximal velocity, V/K (acetyl-CoA) and V/K (homoserine), all exhibited bell-shaped pH curves with apparent pKs of 6.0-6.9 and 8.2-8.8. The enzyme was inactivated by iodoacetamide in a pH-dependent manner, with an apparent pK of 6.3, suggesting the presence of an active-site cysteine residue which forms an acetyl-enzyme thioester intermediate during catalytic turnover, similar to observations with other transsuccinylases. In addition, the enzyme is highly stable at elevated temperatures, maintaining full activity at 70 degrees C. Taken together, these data suggest that the T. maritima enzyme functions biochemically as a transacetylase, despite having the sequence of a transsuccinylase. PMID:16708165

  4. Calreticulin and focal-contact-dependent adhesion.

    PubMed

    Villagomez, Maria; Szabo, Eva; Podcheko, Alexey; Feng, Tianshu; Papp, Sylvia; Opas, Michal

    2009-08-01

    Cell adhesion is regulated by a variety of Ca2+-regulated pathways that depend on Ca2+-binding proteins. One such protein is calreticulin, an ER-resident protein. Calreticulin signalling from within the ER can affect processes outside the ER, such as expression of several adhesion-related genes, most notably vinculin and fibronectin. In addition, changes in the expression level of calreticulin strongly affect tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins, which is known to affect many adhesion-related functions. While calreticulin has been localized to cellular compartments other than the ER, it appears that only the ER-resident calreticulin affects focal-contact-dependent adhesion. In contrast, calreticulin residing outside the ER may be involved in contact disassembly and other adhesion phenomena. Here, we review the role of calreticulin in focal contact initiation, stabilization, and turnover. We propose that calreticulin may regulate cell-substratum adhesion by participating in an "ER-to-nucleus" signalling and in parallel "ER-to-cell surface" signalling based on posttranslational events. PMID:19767819

  5. Calreticulin inhibits vitamin D3 signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, D G; Horsford, J; Michalak, M; White, J H; Hendy, G N

    1995-01-01

    Calreticulin is a calcium binding protein present primarily in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. However, it can also localize to the cytoplasm adjacent to the cell membrane where it binds integrins, and to the nucleus. Recent studies showed that calreticulin inhibits DNA binding and transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid, androgen and retinoic acid receptors. The DNA binding domains of nuclear receptors share a common motif based upon the amino acid sequence KVFFKR which has been implicated in the binding of calreticulin. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) DNA binding domain contains the related motif KgFFrR. Here we show that calreticulin blocks specific DNA binding by the isolated VDR DNA binding domain in DNA mobility shift assays. Importantly, calreticulin blocks specific DNA binding by the full length VDR-RXR heterodimers. By contrast, calreticulin had no effect on specific DNA binding by the transcription factor ATF-a delta which lacks a KVFFKR-like motif in its DNA binding domain. We further showed that overexpression of calreticulin in the rat osteoblast-like cell line (ROS 17/2.8) inhibited the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] responsive transcriptional activation of a vitamin D-sensitive reporter gene, whereas the response to forskolin stimulation of a control promoter-reporter construct containing a cAMP response element (CRE), but no vitamin D response element (VDRE), was not affected by overexpression of calreticulin. Thus, calreticulin inhibits transcriptional activation by the VDR in vivo. Given the ubiquitous expression of calreticulin and the widespread expression of the VDR the studies described here may point to an important new mechanism whereby VDR mediated gene transcription can be modulated. Images PMID:7667104

  6. Calreticulin mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Lavi, Noa

    2014-10-01

    With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph(-)) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations) and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations) in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin) were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph(-) MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review. PMID:25386351

  7. Calreticulin: one protein, one gene, many functions.

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, M; Corbett, E F; Mesaeli, N; Nakamura, K; Opas, M

    1999-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a critical role in the synthesis and chaperoning of membrane-associated and secreted proteins. The membrane is also an important site of Ca(2+) storage and release. Calreticulin is a unique ER luminal resident protein. The protein affects many cellular functions, both in the ER lumen and outside of the ER environment. In the ER lumen, calreticulin performs two major functions: chaperoning and regulation of Ca(2+) homoeostasis. Calreticulin is a highly versatile lectin-like chaperone, and it participates during the synthesis of a variety of molecules, including ion channels, surface receptors, integrins and transporters. The protein also affects intracellular Ca(2+) homoeostasis by modulation of ER Ca(2+) storage and transport. Studies on the cell biology of calreticulin revealed that the ER membrane is a very dynamic intracellular compartment affecting many aspects of cell physiology. PMID:10567207

  8. Distinct clinical characteristics of myeloproliferative neoplasms with calreticulin mutations

    PubMed Central

    Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Krahling, Tunde; Balassa, Katalin; Halm, Gabriella; Bors, Andras; Koszarska, Magdalena; Batai, Arpad; Dolgos, Janos; Csomor, Judit; Egyed, Miklos; Sipos, Andrea; Remenyi, Peter; Tordai, Attila; Masszi, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Somatic insertions/deletions in the calreticulin gene have recently been discovered to be causative alterations in myeloproliferative neoplasms. A combination of qualitative and quantitative allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, fragment-sizing, high resolution melting and Sanger-sequencing was applied for the detection of three driver mutations (in Janus kinase 2, calreticulin and myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene genes) in 289 cases of essential thrombocythemia and 99 cases of primary myelofibrosis. In essential thrombocythemia, 154 (53%) Janus kinase 2 V617F, 96 (33%) calreticulin, 9 (3%) myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene gene mutation-positive and 30 triple-negative (11%) cases were identified, while in primary myelofibrosis 56 (57%) Janus kinase 2 V617F, 25 (25%) calreticulin, 7 (7%) myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene gene mutation-positive and 11 (11%) triple-negative cases were identified. Patients positive for the calreticulin mutation were younger and had higher platelet counts compared to Janus kinase 2 mutation-positive counterparts. Calreticulin mutation-positive patients with essential thrombocythemia showed a lower risk of developing venous thrombosis, but no difference in overall survival. Calreticulin mutation-positive patients with primary myelofibrosis had a better overall survival compared to that of the Janus kinase 2 mutation-positive (P=0.04) or triple-negative cases (P=0.01). Type 2 calreticulin mutation occurred more frequently in essential thrombocythemia than in primary myelofibrosis (P=0.049). In essential thrombocythemia, the calreticulin mutational load was higher than the Janus kinase 2 mutational load (P<0.001), and increased gradually in advanced stages. Calreticulin mutational load influenced blood counts even at the time point of diagnosis in essential thrombocythemia. We confirm that calreticulin mutation is associated with distinct clinical characteristics and explored relationships between mutation type, load and clinical outcome. PMID:24895336

  9. Distinct clinical characteristics of myeloproliferative neoplasms with calreticulin mutations.

    PubMed

    Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Krahling, Tunde; Balassa, Katalin; Halm, Gabriella; Bors, Andras; Koszarska, Magdalena; Batai, Arpad; Dolgos, Janos; Csomor, Judit; Egyed, Miklos; Sipos, Andrea; Remenyi, Peter; Tordai, Attila; Masszi, Tamas

    2014-07-01

    Somatic insertions/deletions in the calreticulin gene have recently been discovered to be causative alterations in myeloproliferative neoplasms. A combination of qualitative and quantitative allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, fragment-sizing, high resolution melting and Sanger-sequencing was applied for the detection of three driver mutations (in Janus kinase 2, calreticulin and myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene genes) in 289 cases of essential thrombocythemia and 99 cases of primary myelofibrosis. In essential thrombocythemia, 154 (53%) Janus kinase 2 V617F, 96 (33%) calreticulin, 9 (3%) myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene gene mutation-positive and 30 triple-negative (11%) cases were identified, while in primary myelofibrosis 56 (57%) Janus kinase 2 V617F, 25 (25%) calreticulin, 7 (7%) myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene gene mutation-positive and 11 (11%) triple-negative cases were identified. Patients positive for the calreticulin mutation were younger and had higher platelet counts compared to Janus kinase 2 mutation-positive counterparts. Calreticulin mutation-positive patients with essential thrombocythemia showed a lower risk of developing venous thrombosis, but no difference in overall survival. Calreticulin mutation-positive patients with primary myelofibrosis had a better overall survival compared to that of the Janus kinase 2 mutation-positive (P=0.04) or triple-negative cases (P=0.01). Type 2 calreticulin mutation occurred more frequently in essential thrombocythemia than in primary myelofibrosis (P=0.049). In essential thrombocythemia, the calreticulin mutational load was higher than the Janus kinase 2 mutational load (P<0.001), and increased gradually in advanced stages. Calreticulin mutational load influenced blood counts even at the time point of diagnosis in essential thrombocythemia. We confirm that calreticulin mutation is associated with distinct clinical characteristics and explored relationships between mutation type, load and clinical outcome. PMID:24895336

  10. Structural Basis of Carbohydrate Recognition by Calreticulin*

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Guennadi; Pocanschi, Cosmin L.; Rosenauer, Angelika; Bastos-Aristizabal, Sara; Gorelik, Alexei; Williams, David B.; Gehring, Kalle

    2010-01-01

    The calnexin cycle is a process by which glycosylated proteins are subjected to folding cycles in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen via binding to the membrane protein calnexin (CNX) or to its soluble homolog calreticulin (CRT). CNX and CRT specifically recognize monoglucosylated Glc1Man9GlcNAc2 glycans, but the structural determinants underlying this specificity are unknown. Here, we report a 1.95-Å crystal structure of the CRT lectin domain in complex with the tetrasaccharide α-Glc-(1→3)-α-Man-(1→2)-α-Man-(1→2)-Man. The tetrasaccharide binds to a long channel on CRT formed by a concave β-sheet. All four sugar moieties are engaged in the protein binding via an extensive network of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts. The structure explains the requirement for glucose at the nonreducing end of the carbohydrate; the oxygen O2 of glucose perfectly fits to a pocket formed by CRT side chains while forming direct hydrogen bonds with the carbonyl of Gly124 and the side chain of Lys111. The structure also explains a requirement for the Cys105–Cys137 disulfide bond in CRT/CNX for efficient carbohydrate binding. The Cys105–Cys137 disulfide bond is involved in intimate contacts with the third and fourth sugar moieties of the Glc1Man3 tetrasaccharide. Finally, the structure rationalizes previous mutagenesis of CRT and lays a structural groundwork for future studies of the role of CNX/CRT in diverse biological pathways. PMID:20880849

  11. CALRETICULIN IS ENRICHED IN THE CRYSTAL IDIOBLASTS OF PISTIA STRATIOTES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calreticulin (CRT) has the highest calcium-binding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins found thus far in plants. In this study, we isolated cDNAs encoding CRT from Pistia stratiotes and analyzed the temporal and spatial patterns of CRT expression in leaves. Northern analysis showed...

  12. Lipoyl content and other properties of the protein X and the transacetylase components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Radke, G.A.; Rahmatullah, M.; Jilka, J.M; Roche, T.E.

    1986-05-01

    Previous work demonstrated by structural and immunological techniques that protein X (X) was distinct from the transacetylase (E2) but that regions of X and E2 (specifically including the portions acetylated) were similar. Trypsin cleaved X and E2 into large domains giving acetylated portions with apparent M/sub r/ values of approx.20 kdal and approx.38 kdal, respectively. Purified (denatured) E2 and X subunits were prepared and amino acid compositions determined. Reduced subunits were reacted with FDNB and acid hydrolyzed. Bis(DNP)dihydrolipoic was extracted into ethylacetate and quantitated by HPLC (epsilon = 25 O.D.mM/sup -1/cm/sup -1/ at 340 nm) and the levels normalized based on the amino acid analysis of the acid hydrolysates. E2 and X were estimated to contain about 1 lipoyl moiety per subunit. Following dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase-dependent NADH reduction of E2-X, 1.5-2 /sup 14/C-NEM per subunit were incorporated into E2 and X consistent with reduction of one lipoyl moiety per subunit. Incorporation into E2-X subcomplex of > 90 acetyl groups per molecule of subcomplex led to > 1.5 acetyl group incorporated per X and per E2 subunit and nearly eliminated NADH-dependent incorporation of /sup 14/C-NEM into these subunits suggesting diacetyl moieties were formed. Consistent with that possibility, acetylation to high levels yielded rapid and slowly exchanging acetyl groups on both E2 and X.

  13. Ultrastructural analysis of development of myocardium in calreticulin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Lozyk, Mira D; Papp, Sylvia; Zhang, Xiaochu; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Michalak, Marek; Opas, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Background Calreticulin is a Ca2+ binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum which influences gene expression and cell adhesion. The levels of both vinculin and N-cadherin are induced by calreticulin expression, which play important roles in cell adhesiveness. Cardiac development is strictly dependent upon the ability of cells to adhere to their substratum and to communicate with their neighbours. Results We show here that the levels of N-cadherin are downregulated in calreticulin-deficient mouse embryonic hearts, which may lead to the disarray and wavy appearance of myofibrils in these mice, which we detected at all investigated stages of cardiac development. Calreticulin wild type mice exhibited straight, thick and abundant myofibrils, which were in stark contrast to the thin, less numerous, disorganized myofibrils of the calreticulin-deficient hearts. Interestingly, these major differences were only detected in the developing ventricles while the atria of both calreticulin phenotypes were similar in appearance at all developmental stages. Glycogen also accumulated in the ventricles of calreticulin-deficient mice, indicating an abnormality in cardiomyocyte metabolism. Conclusion Calreticulin is temporarily expressed during heart development where it is required for proper myofibrillogenesis. We postulate that calreticulin be considered as a novel cardiac fetal gene. PMID:17112388

  14. Comparison of Protein Acetyltransferase Action of CRTAase with the Prototypes of HAT

    PubMed Central

    Ponnan, Prija; Kumar, Ajit; Singh, Prabhjot; Gupta, Prachi; Joshi, Rini; Saso, Luciano; Prasad, Ashok K.; Rastogi, Ramesh C.; Parmar, Virinder S.; Raj, Hanumantharao G.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory is credited for the discovery of enzymatic acetylation of protein, a phenomenon unknown till we identified an enzyme termed acetoxy drug: protein transacetylase (TAase), catalyzing the transfer of acetyl group from polyphenolic acetates to receptor proteins (RP). Later, TAase was identified as calreticulin (CR), an endoplasmic reticulum luminal protein. CR was termed calreticulin transacetylase (CRTAase). Our persistent study revealed that CR like other families of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) such as p300, Rtt109, PCAF, and ESA1, undergoes autoacetylation. The autoacetylated CR was characterized as a stable intermediate in CRTAase catalyzed protein acetylation, and similar was the case with ESA1. The autoacetylation of CR like that of HATs was found to enhance protein-protein interaction. CR like HAT-1, CBP, and p300 mediated the acylation of RP utilizing acetyl CoA and propionyl CoA as the substrates. The similarities between CRTAase and HATs in mediating protein acylation are highlighted in this review. PMID:24688408

  15. Transient, lectin-like association of calreticulin with folding intermediates of cellular and viral glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, J R; Ora, A; Van, P N; Helenius, A

    1995-01-01

    The soluble, calcium-binding protein calreticulin shares high sequence homology with calnexin, a transmembrane chaperone of glycoprotein folding. Our experiments demonstrated that calreticulin, like calnexin, associated transiently with numerous newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. The population of proteins that bound to calreticulin was partially overlapping with those that bound to calnexin. Hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus was shown to associate with both calreticulin and calnexin. Using HA as a model substrate, it was found that both calreticulin- and calnexin-bound HA corresponded primarily to incompletely disulfide-bonded folding intermediates and conformationally trapped forms. Binding of all substrates was oligosaccharide-dependent and required the trimming of glucose residues from asparagine-linked core glycans by glucosidases I and II. In vitro, alpha-mannosidase digestion of calreticulin-bound HA indicated that calreticulin was specific for monoglucosylated glycans. Thus, calreticulin appeared to be a lectin with similar oligosaccharide specificity as its membrane-bound homologue, calnexin. Both are therefore likely to play an important role in glycoprotein maturation and quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum. Images PMID:8534914

  16. Induction of calreticulin expression in response to amino acid deprivation in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Heal, R; McGivan, J

    1998-01-01

    The role of calreticulin as a stress-induced molecular chaperone protein of the endoplasmic reticulum is becoming more apparent. We characterize here the induction of calreticulin in response to complete amino acid deprivation in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Amino acid deprivation caused a 4-fold increase in calreticulin protein levels over a period of 4-10 h. In addition to an overall increase in protein levels, the glycosylation of calreticulin was increased. This glycosylation event was blocked by tunicamycin and was not required for the increase in calreticulin protein levels. Immunofluorescence studies localized calreticulin to the ER of CHO cells, and no significant change was observed after amino acid deprivation. Northern-blot analysis showed that calreticulin mRNA levels were increased approx. 10-fold in response to complete amino acid deprivation. The response was sensitive to actinomycin D and alpha-amanitin, implying that regulation is primarily at the level of transcription. These results are similar to the large increases in asparagine synthetase mRNA observed in response to amino acid deprivation, but the amino acid-deprivation-response element identified to be involved in asparagine synthetase induction is absent from the calreticulin promoter. PMID:9425124

  17. Modes of calreticulin recruitment to the major histocompatibility complex class I assembly pathway.

    PubMed

    Del Cid, Natasha; Jeffery, Elise; Rizvi, Syed Monem; Stamper, Ericca; Peters, Larry Robert; Brown, William Clay; Provoda, Chester; Raghavan, Malini

    2010-02-12

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are ligands for T-cell receptors of CD8(+) T cells and inhibitory receptors of natural killer cells. Assembly of the heavy chain, light chain, and peptide components of MHC class I molecules occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Specific assembly factors and generic ER chaperones, collectively called the MHC class I peptide loading complex (PLC), are required for MHC class I assembly. Calreticulin has an important role within the PLC and induces MHC class I cell surface expression, but the interactions and mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. We show that interactions with the thiol oxidoreductase ERp57 and substrate glycans are important for the recruitment of calreticulin into the PLC and for its functional activities in MHC class I assembly. The glycan and ERp57 binding sites of calreticulin contribute directly or indirectly to complexes between calreticulin and the MHC class I assembly factor tapasin and are important for maintaining steady-state levels of both tapasin and MHC class I heavy chains. A number of destabilizing conditions and mutations induce generic polypeptide binding sites on calreticulin and contribute to calreticulin-mediated suppression of misfolded protein aggregation in vitro. We show that generic polypeptide binding sites per se are insufficient for stable recruitment of calreticulin to PLC substrates in cells. However, such binding sites could contribute to substrate stabilization in a step that follows the glycan and ERp57-dependent recruitment of calreticulin to the PLC. PMID:19959473

  18. Regulation of calreticulin-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I interactions by ATP.

    PubMed

    Wijeyesakere, Sanjeeva Joseph; Gagnon, Jessica K; Arora, Karunesh; Brooks, Charles L; Raghavan, Malini

    2015-10-13

    The MHC class I peptide loading complex (PLC) facilitates the assembly of MHC class I molecules with peptides, but factors that regulate the stability and dynamics of the assembly complex are largely uncharacterized. Based on initial findings that ATP, in addition to MHC class I-specific peptide, is able to induce MHC class I dissociation from the PLC, we investigated the interaction of ATP with the chaperone calreticulin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal, calcium-binding component of the PLC that is known to bind ATP. We combined computational and experimental measurements to identify residues within the globular domain of calreticulin, in proximity to the high-affinity calcium-binding site, that are important for high-affinity ATP binding and for ATPase activity. High-affinity calcium binding by calreticulin is required for optimal nucleotide binding, but both ATP and ADP destabilize enthalpy-driven high-affinity calcium binding to calreticulin. ATP also selectively destabilizes the interaction of calreticulin with cellular substrates, including MHC class I molecules. Calreticulin mutants that affect ATP or high-affinity calcium binding display prolonged associations with monoglucosylated forms of cellular MHC class I, delaying MHC class I dissociation from the PLC and their transit through the secretory pathway. These studies reveal central roles for ATP and calcium binding as regulators of calreticulin-substrate interactions and as key determinants of PLC dynamics. PMID:26420867

  19. Calreticulin: non-endoplasmic reticulum functions in physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Gold, Leslie I; Eggleton, Paul; Sweetwyne, Mariya T; Van Duyn, Lauren B; Greives, Matthew R; Naylor, Sara-Megumi; Michalak, Marek; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E

    2010-03-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), when localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has important functions in directing proper conformation of proteins and glycoproteins, as well as in homeostatic control of cytosolic and ER calcium levels. There is also steadily accumulating evidence for diverse roles for CRT localized outside the ER, including data suggesting important roles for CRT localized to the outer cell surface of a variety of cell types, in the cytosol, and in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Furthermore, the addition of exogenous CRT rescues numerous CRT-driven functions, such as adhesion, migration, phagocytosis, and immunoregulatory functions of CRT-null cells. Recent studies show that topically applied CRT has diverse and profound biological effects that enhance cutaneous wound healing in animal models. This evidence for extracellular bioactivities of CRT has provided new insights into this classically ER-resident protein, despite a lack of knowledge of how CRT exits from the ER to the cell surface or how it is released into the extracellular milieu. Nonetheless, it has become clear that CRT is a multicompartmental protein that regulates a wide array of cellular responses important in physiological and pathological processes, such as wound healing, the immune response, fibrosis, and cancer.-Gold, L. I., Eggleton, P., Sweetwyne, M. T., Van Duyn, L. B., Greives, M. R., Naylor, S.-M., Michalak, M., Murphy-Ullrich, J. E. Calreticulin: non-endoplamic reticulum functions in physiology and disease. PMID:19940256

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a calreticulin cDNA from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xundong; Zhuo, Kan; Luo, Mei; Sun, Longhua; Liao, Jinling

    2011-06-01

    The cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a calreticulin from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is described herein. The full-length cDNA (Bx-crt-1) contained a 1200 bp open reading frame that could be translated to a 399 amino acid polypeptide. The deduced protein contained highly conserved regions of a calreticulin gene and had 66.2-70.1% amino acid sequence identity to other calreticulin sequences from nematodes. RNAi, RT-PCR amplification, and southern blot suggest that Bx-crt-1 may be important for the development of B. xylophilus. PMID:21371475

  1. Functional characterization of Arabidopsis calreticulin1a: a key alleviator of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Anna; Svensson, Karin; Persson, Staffan; Jung, Joanna; Michalak, Marek; Widell, Susanne; Sommarin, Marianne

    2008-06-01

    The chaperone calreticulin plays important roles in a variety of processes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of animal cells, such as Ca2+ signaling and protein folding. Although the functions of calreticulin are well characterized in animals, only indirect evidence is available for plants. To increase our understanding of plant calreticulins we introduced one of the Arabidopsis isoforms, AtCRT1a, into calreticulin-deficient (crt-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. As a result of calreticulin deficiency, the mouse crt-/- fibroblasts have decreased levels of Ca2+ in the ER and impaired protein folding abilities. Expression of the AtCRT1a in mouse crt-/- fibroblasts rescued these phenotypes, i.e. AtCRT1a restored the Ca2+-holding capacity and chaperone functions in the ER of the mouse crt-/- fibroblasts, demonstrating that the animal sorting machinery was also functional for a plant protein, and that basic calreticulin functions are conserved across the Kingdoms. Expression analyses using a beta-glucuronidase (GUS)-AtCRT1a promoter construct revealed high expression of CRT1a in root tips, floral tissues and in association with vascular bundles. To assess the impact of AtCRT1a in planta, we generated Atcrt1a mutant plants. The Atcrt1a mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to the drug tunicamycin, an inducer of the unfolded protein response. We therefore conclude that AtCRT1a is an alleviator of the tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response, and propose that the use of the mouse crt-/- fibroblasts as a calreticulin expression system may prove useful to assess functionalities of calreticulins from different species. PMID:18436549

  2. Calreticulin is transcriptionally upregulated by heat shock, calcium and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T O; Capra, J D; Sontheimer, R D

    1996-01-01

    Calreticulin is a new human rheumatic disease-associated autoantigen that plays a multifaceted role in cell biology. In earlier studies, this protein was shown to share an intimate relationship with the Ro/SS-A autoantigen complex, although the nature of this association continues to be debated. Since modulation of the Ro/SS-A autoantigen in epidermal keratinocytes has been implicated in the pathogenesis of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus and neonatal lupus erythematosus, we have begun to examine the transcriptional regulation of calreticulin. A 504 bp calreticulin promoter fragment was subcloned into a reporter gene plasmid containing firefly luciferase. Calcium ionophore, heat shock, and heavy metals such as zinc and cadmium were consistently found to increase calreticulin transcriptional activities in A431 cells (a human epidermoid squamous carcinoma cell line) under transient transfection conditions. These studies suggest that (a) calreticulin is regulated at the transcriptional level, and (b) calreticulin, like some other LE-related autoantigens, appears to function as a heat shock/stress-response gene. PMID:8676889

  3. Cell surface calreticulin is a putative mannoside lectin which triggers mouse melanoma cell spreading.

    PubMed

    White, T K; Zhu, Q; Tanzer, M L

    1995-07-01

    B16 mouse melanoma cells adhere to and spread on laminin. We have previously shown that cell spreading is uncoupled from adhesion when unglycosylated laminin is used as a substratum; spreading was restored by a Pronase digest of laminin which became inactive when it was specifically depleted of its mannoside peptides; spreading was also specifically restored by mannosides such as mannan, Man9, and Man6, but not Man3. The effector mannosides bind to a cell surface receptor, previously shown by direct and indirect methods. We have now identified the receptor as cell surface calreticulin by isolating it via mannan affinity chromatography and showing its sequence identity with mouse calreticulin. Anti-calreticulin antibodies confirm this identity, decorate the B16 cell surface, and block cell spreading. Purified B16 cell calreticulin from whole cell lysates successfully competes with cell surface calreticulin and prevents cell spreading. The composite data implicate cell surface calreticulin as a putative lectin that must be occupied to initiate spreading of laminin-adherent B16 cells. PMID:7608143

  4. Entamoeba histolytica Cell Surface Calreticulin Binds Human C1q and Functions in Amebic Phagocytosis of Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaithilingam, Archana; Teixeira, Jose E.; Miller, Peter J.; Heron, Bradley T.

    2012-01-01

    Phagocytosis of host cells is characteristic of tissue invasion by the intestinal ameba Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amebic dysentery and liver abscesses. Entamoeba histolytica induces host cell apoptosis and uses ligands, including C1q, on apoptotic cells to engulf them. Two mass spectrometry analyses identified calreticulin in amebic phagosome preparations, and, in addition to its function as an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, calreticulin is believed to be the macrophage receptor for C1q. The purpose of this study was to determine if calreticulin functions as an E. histolytica C1q receptor during phagocytosis of host cells. Calreticulin was localized to the surface of E. histolytica during interaction with both Jurkat lymphocytes and erythrocytes and was present in over 75% of phagocytic cups during amebic erythrophagocytosis. Presence of calreticulin on the cell surface was further demonstrated using a method that selectively biotinylated cell surface proteins and by flow cytometry using trophozoites overexpressing epitope-tagged calreticulin. Regulated overexpression of calreticulin increased E. histolytica's ability to phagocytose apoptotic lymphocytes and calcium ionophore-treated erythrocytes but had no effect on amebic adherence to or destruction of cell monolayers or surface expression of the GalNAc lectin and serine-rich E. histolytica protein (SREHP) receptors. Finally, E. histolytica calreticulin bound specifically to apoptotic lymphocytes and to human C1q. Collectively, these data implicate cell surface calreticulin as a receptor for C1q during E. histolytica phagocytosis of host cells. PMID:22473608

  5. The Structure of Calreticulin C-terminal Domain Is Modulated by Physiological Variations of Calcium Concentration*

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Ana Mara Villamil; Medus, Mximo Lopez; Lebrero, Mariano Gonzalez; Pagano, Rodrigo S.; Labriola, Carlos A.; Landolfo, Lucas; Delfino, Jos M.; Parodi, Armando J.; Caramelo, Julio J.

    2010-01-01

    Calreticulin is an abundant endoplasmic reticulum resident protein that fulfills at least two basic functions. Firstly, due to its ability to bind monoglucosylated high mannose oligosaccharides, calreticulin is a central component of the folding quality control system of glycoproteins. On the other hand, thanks to its capacity to bind high amounts of calcium, calreticulin is one of the main calcium buffers in the endoplasmic reticulum. This last activity resides on a highly negatively charged domain located at the C terminus. Interestingly, this domain has been proposed to regulate the intracellular localization of calreticulin. Structural information for this domain is currently scarce. Here we address this issue by employing a combination of biophysical techniques and molecular dynamics simulation. We found that calreticulin C-terminal domain at low calcium concentration displays a disordered structure, whereas calcium addition induces a more rigid and compact conformation. Remarkably, this change develops when calcium concentration varies within a range similar to that taking place in the endoplasmic reticulum upon physiological fluctuations. In addition, a much higher calcium concentration is necessary to attain similar responses in a peptide displaying a randomized sequence of calreticulin C-terminal domain, illustrating the sequence specificity of this effect. Molecular dynamics simulation reveals that this ordering effect is a consequence of the ability of calcium to bring into close proximity residues that lie apart in the primary structure. These results place calreticulin in a new setting in which the protein behaves not only as a calcium-binding protein but as a finely tuned calcium sensor. PMID:20018892

  6. A Novel Complex Regulates cardiac actin Gene Expression through Interaction of Emb, a Class VI POU Domain Protein, MEF2D, and the Histone Transacetylase p300

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, S.; Relaix, F.; Lemonnier, M.; Kirschbaum, B.; Schfer, B.; Buckingham, M.

    2004-01-01

    Expression of the mouse cardiac actin gene depends on a distal enhancer (?7 kbp) which has been shown, in transgenic mice, to direct expression to embryonic skeletal muscle. The presence of this distal sequence is also associated with reproducible expression of cardiac actin transgenes. In differentiated skeletal muscle cells, activity of the enhancer is driven by an E box, binding MyoD family members, and by a 3? AT-rich sequence which is in the location of a DNase I-hypersensitive site. This sequence does not bind MEF2 proteins, or other known muscle transcription factors, directly. Oct1 and Emb, a class VI POU domain protein, bind to consensus sites on the DNA, and it is the binding of Emb which is important for activity. Emb binds as a major complex with MEF2D and the histone transacetylase p300. The form of Emb present in this complex and as a major form in muscle cell extracts is longer (80 kDa) than that previously described. These results demonstrate the importance of this novel complex in the transcriptional regulation of the cardiac actin gene and suggest a potential role in chromatin remodeling associated with muscle gene activation. PMID:15024082

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Topographical Variations in Parasites Infecting Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez, Andrea; Valck, Carolina; Snchez, Gittith; Hrtel, Steffen; Mansilla, Jorge; Ramrez, Galia; Fernndez, Mara Soledad; Arias, Jos Luis; Galanti, Norbel; Ferreira, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a 47-kDa chaperone, translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, it binds to complement components C1 and mannan-binding lectin (MBL), thus acting as a main virulence factor, and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways. The localization and functions of TcCRT, once the parasite is inside the host cell, are unknown. In parasites infecting murine macrophages, polyclonal anti-TcCRT antibodies detected TcCRT mainly in the parasite nucleus and kinetoplast. However, with a monoclonal antibody (E2G7), the resolution and specificity of the label markedly improved, and TcCRT was detected mainly in the parasite kinetoplast. Gold particles, bound to the respective antibodies, were used as probes in electron microscopy. This organelle may represent a stopover and accumulation site for TcCRT, previous its translocation to the area of flagellum emergence. Finally, early during T. cruzi infection and by unknown mechanisms, an important decrease in the number of MHC-I positive host cells was observed. PMID:25758653

  8. Overexpression of calreticulin sensitizes SERCA2a to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yoshito; Kageyama, Kan; Kondo, Takahito

    2005-04-22

    Calreticulin (CRT), a Ca(2+)-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a vital role in cardiac physiology and pathology. Oxidative stress is a main cause of myocardiac disorder in the ischemic heart, but the function of CRT under oxidative stress is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of overexpression of CRT on sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) 2a under oxidative stress was examined using myocardiac H9c2 cells transfected with the CRT gene. The in vitro activity of SERCA2a and uptake of (45)Ca(2+) into isolated microsomes were suppressed by H(2)O(2) in CRT-overexpressing cells compared with controls. Moreover, SERCA2a protein was degraded via a proteasome-dependent pathway following the formation of a complex with CRT under the stress with H(2)O(2). Thus, we conclude that overexpression of CRT enhances the inactivation and degradation of SERCA2a in the cells under oxidative stress, suggesting some pathophysiological functions of CRT in Ca(2+) homeostasis of myocardiac disease. PMID:15766574

  9. Calreticulin mutation profile in Indian patients with primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sazawal, Sudha; Singh, Neha; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu

    2015-12-01

    Introduction Somatic mutations in Calreticulin (CALR) have been recently discovered in JAK2/MPL unmutated patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) or essential thrombocythemia. Methods Clinical and hematologic features were obtained for 80 patients with PMF. JAK2V617F mutation was analyzed by DNA tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS-PCR). CALR and MPL mutations were identified by bi-directional Sanger sequencing. Results CALR mutations were detected in 11.2% (9/80) of all PMF patients and 25.7% (9/35) of all JAK2V617F and MPL unmutated patients all of which were Type I mutation or deletions. A novel CALR mutation pattern (c.1241_1288del) was identified in one (1/9) patient. No case of Type II mutations or scattered point mutations was found in any of these patients. Uni-variate analysis at presentation showed that CALR mutations were significantly associated with younger age (P=0.003) and larger spleen size (P=0.001). No significant correlation was found between CALR mutation and clinico-hematologic characteristics or international prognostic scoring system (IPSS) scoring of the PMF patients. Conclusion CALR mutations have a distinct molecular profile in Indian patients, different from that of other studies worldwide. Larger prospective studies need to be designed to establish the impact of paucity of Type II mutations in contributing to disease phenotype and prognostic outcome of patients. PMID:25959795

  10. Thrombopoietin receptor activation by myeloproliferative neoplasm associated calreticulin mutants.

    PubMed

    Chachoua, Ilyas; Pecquet, Christian; El-Khoury, Mira; Nivarthi, Harini; Albu, Roxana-Irina; Marty, Caroline; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Defour, Jean-Philippe; Vertenoeil, Gaëlle; Ngo, Anna; Koay, Ann; Raslova, Hana; Courtoy, Pierre J; Choong, Meng Ling; Plo, Isabelle; Vainchenker, William; Kralovics, Robert; Constantinescu, Stefan N

    2016-03-10

    Mutations in the calreticulin gene (CALR) represented by deletions and insertions in exon 9 inducing a -1/+2 frameshift are associated with a significant fraction of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The mechanisms by which CALR mutants induce MPN are unknown. Here, we show by transcriptional, proliferation, biochemical, and primary cell assays that the pathogenic CALR mutants specifically activate the thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR/MPL). No activation is detected with a battery of type I and II cytokine receptors, except granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, which supported only transient and weak activation. CALR mutants induce ligand-independent activation of JAK2/STAT/phosphatydylinositol-3'-kinase (PI3-K) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways via TpoR, and autonomous growth in Ba/F3 cells. In these transformed cells, no synergy is observed between JAK2 and PI3-K inhibitors in inhibiting cytokine-independent proliferation, thus showing a major difference from JAK2V617F cells where such synergy is strong. TpoR activation was dependent on its extracellular domain and its N-glycosylation, especially at N117. The glycan binding site and the novel C-terminal tail of the mutant CALR proteins were required for TpoR activation. A soluble form of TpoR was able to prevent activation of full-length TpoR provided that it was N-glycosylated. By confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation, CALR mutants exhibit different intracellular localization from that of wild-type CALR. Finally, knocking down either MPL/TpoR or JAK2 in megakaryocytic progenitors from patients carrying CALR mutations inhibited cytokine-independent megakaryocytic colony formation. Taken together, our study provides a novel signaling paradigm, whereby a mutated chaperone constitutively activates cytokine receptor signaling. PMID:26668133

  11. Higher Plant Calreticulins Have Acquired Specialized Functions in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Tintor, Nico; Prins, Daniel; Funke, Norma; Michalak, Marek; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Saijo, Yusuke; Sommarin, Marianne; Widell, Susanne; Persson, Staffan

    2010-01-01

    Background Calreticulin (CRT) is a ubiquitous ER protein involved in multiple cellular processes in animals, such as protein folding and calcium homeostasis. Like in animals, plants have evolved divergent CRTs, but their physiological functions are less understood. Arabidopsis contains three CRT proteins, where the two CRTs AtCRT1a and CRT1b represent one subgroup, and AtCRT3 a divergent member. Methodology/Principal Findings Through expression of single Arabidopsis family members in CRT-deficient mouse fibroblasts we show that both subgroups have retained basic CRT functions, including ER Ca2+-holding potential and putative chaperone capabilities. However, other more general cellular defects due to the absence of CRT in the fibroblasts, such as cell adhesion deficiencies, were not fully restored. Furthermore, in planta expression, protein localization and mutant analyses revealed that the three Arabidopsis CRTs have acquired specialized functions. The AtCRT1a and CRT1b family members appear to be components of a general ER chaperone network. In contrast, and as recently shown, AtCRT3 is associated with immune responses, and is essential for responsiveness to the bacterial Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) elf18, derived from elongation factor (EF)-Tu. Whereas constitutively expressed AtCRT1a fully complemented Atcrt1b mutants, AtCRT3 did not. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the physiological functions of the two CRT subgroups in Arabidopsis have diverged, resulting in a role for AtCRT3 in PAMP associated responses, and possibly more general chaperone functions for AtCRT1a and CRT1b. PMID:20596537

  12. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Comparison of Three Diagnostic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hye; Sevin, Margaux; Ramla, Selim; Truffot, Aurélie; Verrier, Tiffany; Bouchot, Dominique; Courtois, Martine; Bas, Mathilde; Benali, Sonia; Bailly, François; Favre, Bernardine; Guy, Julien; Martin, Laurent; Maynadié, Marc; Carillo, Serge; Girodon, François

    2015-01-01

    Calreticulin (CALR) mutations have recently been reported in 70–84% of JAK2V617F-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), and this detection has become necessary to improve the diagnosis of MPN. In a large single-centre cohort of 298 patients suffering from Essential Thrombocythemia (ET), the JAK2V617F, CALR and MPL mutations were noted in 179 (60%), 56 (18.5%) and 13 (4.5%) respectively. For the detection of the CALR mutations, three methods were compared in parallel: high-resolution melting-curve analysis (HRM), product-sizing analysis and Sanger sequencing. The sensitivity for the HRM, product-sizing analysis and Sanger sequencing was 96.4%, 98.2% and 89.3% respectively, whereas the specificity was 96.3%, 100% and 100%. In our cohort, the product-sizing analysis was the most sensitive method and was the easiest to interpret, while the HRM was sometimes difficult to interpret. In contrast, when large series of samples were tested, HRM provided results more quickly than did the other methods, which required more time. Finally, the sequencing method, which is the reference method, had the lowest sensitivity but can be used to describe the type of mutation precisely. Altogether, our results suggest that in routine laboratory practice, product-sizing analysis is globally similar to HRM for the detection of CALR mutations, and that both may be used as first-line screening tests. If the results are positive, Sanger sequencing can be used to confirm the mutation and to determine its type. Product-sizing analysis provides sensitive and specific results, moreover, with the quantitative measurement of CALR, which might be useful to monitor specific treatments. PMID:26501981

  13. NMR structures of 36 and 73-residue fragments of the calreticulin P-domain.

    PubMed

    Ellgaard, Lars; Bettendorff, Pascal; Braun, Daniel; Herrmann, Torsten; Fiorito, Francesco; Jelesarov, Ilian; Gntert, Peter; Helenius, Ari; Wthrich, Kurt

    2002-09-27

    Calreticulin (CRT) is an abundant, soluble molecular chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum. Similar to its membrane-bound homolog calnexin (CNX), it is a lectin that promotes the folding of proteins carrying N-linked glycans. Both proteins cooperate with an associated co-chaperone, the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase ERp57. This enzyme catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds in CNX and CRT-bound glycoprotein substrates. Previously, we solved the NMR structure of the central proline-rich P-domain of CRT comprising residues 189-288. This structure shows an extended hairpin topology, with three short anti-parallel beta-sheets, three small hydrophobic clusters, and one helical turn at the tip of the hairpin. We further demonstrated that the residues 225-251 at the tip of the CRT P-domain are involved in direct contacts with ERp57. Here, we show that the CRT P-domain fragment CRT(221-256) constitutes an autonomous folding unit, and has a structure highly similar to that of the corresponding region in CRT(189-288). Of the 36 residues present in CRT(221-256), 32 form a well-structured core, making this fragment one of the smallest known natural sequences to form a stable non-helical fold in the absence of disulfide bonds or tightly bound metal ions. CRT(221-256) comprises all the residues of the intact P-domain that were shown to interact with ERp57. Isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) now showed affinity of this fragment for ERp57 similar to that of the intact P-domain, demonstrating that CRT(221-256) may be used as a low molecular mass mimic of CRT for further investigations of the interaction with ERp57. We also solved the NMR structure of the 73-residue fragment CRT(189-261), in which the tip of the hairpin and the first beta-sheet are well structured, but the residues 189-213 are disordered, presumably due to lack of stabilizing interactions across the hairpin. PMID:12270713

  14. Recognition of the Inner Lipoyl-Bearing Domain of Dihydrolipoyl Transacetylase and of the Blood Glucose-Lowering Compound AZD7545 by Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Tuganova, Alina; Klyuyeva, Alla; Popov, Kirill M.

    2007-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDHK2) is a unique mitochondrial protein kinase that regulates the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDC). PDHK2 is an integral component of PDC tightly bound to the inner lipoyl-bearing domains (L2) of the dihydrolipoyl transacetylase component (E2) of PDC. This association has been reported to bring about an up to 10-fold increase in kinase activity. Despite the central role played by E2 in the maintenance of PDHK2 functionality in the PDC-bound state, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the recognition of L2 by PDHK2 and for the E2-dependent PDHK2 activation are largely unknown. In this study, we used a combination of molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis to identify the amino acid residues essential for the interaction between PDHK2 and L2 and for the activation of PDHK2 by E2. On the basis of the results of site-directed mutagenesis, it appears that a number of PDHK2 residues located in its R domain (P22, L23, F28, F31, F44, L45, and L160) and in the so-called cross arm structure (K368, R372, and K391) are critical in determining the strength of the interaction between PDHK2 and L2. The residues of L2 essential for recognition by PDHK2 include L140, K173, I176, E179, and to a lesser extent D164, D172, and A174. Importantly, certain PDHK2 residues forming interfaces with L2, i.e., K17, P22, F31, F44, R372, and K391, are also critical for the maintenance of enhanced PDHK2 activity in the E2-bound state. Finally, evidence that the blood glucose-lowering compound AZD7545 disrupts the interactions between PDHK2 and L2 and thereby inhibits PDHK2 activity is presented. PMID:17602666

  15. Transient dissociation of polyribosomes and concurrent recruitment of calreticulin and calmodulin transcripts in gravistimulated maize pulvini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilmann, I.; Shin, J.; Huang, J.; Perera, I. Y.; Davies, E.

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of polyribosome abundance were studied in gravistimulated maize (Zea mays) stem pulvini. During the initial 15 min of gravistimulation, the amount of large polyribosomes transiently decreased. The transient decrease in polyribosome levels was accompanied by a transient decrease in polyribosome-associated mRNA. After 30 min of gravistimulation, the levels of polyribosomes and the amount of polyribosome-associated mRNA gradually increased over 24 h up to 3- to 4-fold of the initial value. Within 15 min of gravistimulation, total levels of transcripts coding for calreticulin and calmodulin were elevated 5-fold in maize pulvinus total RNA. Transcripts coding for calreticulin and calmodulin were recruited into polyribosomes within 15 min of gravistimulation. Over 4 h of gravistimulation, a gradual increase in the association of calreticulin and calmodulin transcripts with polyribosomes was seen predominantly in the lower one-half of the maize pulvinus; the association of transcripts for vacuolar invertase with polyribosomes did not change over this period. Our results suggest that within 15 min of gravistimulation, the translation of the majority of transcripts associated with polyribosomes decreased, resembling a general stress response. Recruitment of calreticulin and calmodulin transcripts into polyribosomes occurred predominantly in the lower pulvinus one-half during the first 4 h when the presentation time for gravistimulation in the maize pulvinus is not yet complete.

  16. A comparative proteomic study identified calreticulin and prohibitin up-regulated in adrenocortical carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying novel tumor biomarkers to develop more effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with ACC is urgently needed. The aim of the study was to compare the proteomic profiles between adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) and normal adrenocortical tissues in order to identify novel potential biomarkers for ACC. Methods The protein samples from 12 ACC tissues and their paired adjacent normal adrenocortical tissues were profiled with two-dimensional electrophoresis; and differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Expression patterns of three differently expressed proteins calreticulin, prohibitin and HSP60 in ACC, adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) and normal adrenocortical tissues were further validated by immunohistochemistry. Results In our proteomic study, we identified 20 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated proteins in ACC tissues compared with paired normal controls. Most of the up-regulated proteins were focused in protein binding and oxidoreductase activity in Gene Ontology (GO) molecular function classification. By immunohistochemistry, two biomarkers calreticulin and prohibitin were validated to be overexpressed in ACC compared with adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) and normal tissues, but also calreticulin overexpression was significantly associated with tumor stages of ACC. Conclusion For the first time, calreticulin and prohibitin were identified to be novel candidate biomarkers for ACC, and their roles during ACC carcinogenesis and clinical significance deserves further investigation. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1897372598927465 PMID:23587357

  17. Confirmation of Tick Bite by Detection of Antibody to Ixodes Calreticulin Salivary Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon-Chaidez, Francisco; Ryan, Raymond; Wikel, Stephen; Dardick, Kenneth; Lawler, Caroline; Foppa, Ivo M.; Tomas, Patricio; Cushman, Alexis; Hsieh, Ann; Spielman, Andrew; Bouchard, Keith R.; Dias, Filiciano; Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Krause, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Ticks introduce a variety of pharmacologically active molecules into their host during attachment and feeding in order to obtain a blood meal. People who are repeatedly exposed to ticks may develop an immune response to tick salivary proteins. Despite this response, people usually are unaware of having been bitten, especially if they are not repeatedly exposed to ticks. In order to develop a laboratory marker of tick exposure that would be useful in understanding the epidemiology of tick-borne infection and the immune response to tick bite, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibody to a recombinant form of calreticulin protein found in the salivary glands of Ixodes scapularis, a member of a complex of Ixodes ticks that serve as the vectors for Lyme disease, human babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Using this assay, we tested sera obtained from C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice before and after experimental deer tick infestation. These mice developed antibody to Ixodes calreticulin antigen after infestation. We then used the same assay to test sera obtained from people before and after they experienced deer tick bite(s). People experiencing deer tick bite(s) developed Ixodes calreticulin-specific antibody responses that persisted for up to 17 months. This Ixodes recombinant calreticulin ELISA provides objective evidence of deer tick exposure in people. PMID:16928887

  18. [Relationship between Calreticulin Gene Mutation and JAK2/MPL Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Dong, Lu; Shen, Xu-Liang; Wei, Wu

    2015-10-01

    In 2008, WHO made the JAK2V617F gene mutation as one of the specific molecular diagnostic markers of BCR/ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). In 2013 two research teams demonstrated that whole genome sequencing technology (WGS) was used to detect calreticulin gene mutation in essential thrombocythaemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) patients with JAK2V617F? and MPL? mutations. In this review, the relationship of CALR gene mutation with MPN is briefly summarized. PMID:26524072

  19. Antitumor immunity triggered by melphalan is potentiated by melanoma cell surface-associated calreticulin.

    PubMed

    Dudek-Peri?, Aleksandra M; Ferreira, Gabriela B; Muchowicz, Angelika; Wouters, Jasper; Prada, Nicole; Martin, Shaun; Kiviluoto, Santeri; Winiarska, Magdalena; Boon, Louis; Mathieu, Chantal; van den Oord, Joost; Stas, Marguerite; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Golab, Jakub; Garg, Abhishek D; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2015-04-15

    Systemic chemotherapy generally has been considered immunosuppressive, but it has become evident that certain chemotherapeutic drugs elicit immunogenic danger signals in dying cancer cells that can incite protective antitumor immunity. In this study, we investigated whether locoregionally applied therapies, such as melphalan, used in limb perfusion for melanoma (Mel-ILP) produce related immunogenic effects. In human melanoma biopsies, Mel-ILP treatment upregulated IL1B, IL8, and IL6 associated with their release in patients' locoregional sera. Although induction of apoptosis in melanoma cells by melphalan in vitro did not elicit threshold levels of endoplasmic reticulum and reactive oxygen species stress associated with danger signals, such as induction of cell-surface calreticulin, prophylactic immunization and T-cell depletion experiments showed that melphalan administration in vivo could stimulate a CD8(+) T cell-dependent protective antitumor response. Interestingly, the vaccination effect was potentiated in combination with exogenous calreticulin, but not tumor necrosis factor, a cytokine often combined with Mel-ILP. Our results illustrate how melphalan triggers inflammatory cell death that can be leveraged by immunomodulators such as the danger signal calreticulin. PMID:25762540

  20. Cloning and characterization of calreticulin and its association with salinity stress in P. trituberculatus.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jianjian; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Dening; Gao, Baoquan; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved and multifunctional endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein and plays important roles in salinity stress response. Portunus trituberculatus is a commercially important fishery species, and water salinity conditions influence its commercial farming significantly. In order to research the function of calreticulin under salinity stress, the full-length cDNA sequence of calreticulin from P. trituberculatus (PtCRT) was firstly cloned and characterized. The complete cDNA sequence of PtCRT is 1676 bp with 1218 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a polypeptide of 405 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignments showed that the deduced acid amino sequences of PtCRT shared the highest homology to CRT of Fenneropenaeus chinensis (89%). Fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that PtCRT was expressed in all detected tissues and showed the highest expression level in hepatopancreas. In addition, salinity challenge significantly influenced the expression level of PtCRT in gill. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in cDNA sequence of PtCRT, and one SNP was associated with the salt tolerant trait. All results indicated that PtCRT plays an important role in mediating the salinity adaption of P. trituberculatus. PMID:25995067

  1. Mutant calreticulin-expressing cells induce monocyte hyperreactivity through a paracrine mechanism.

    PubMed

    Garbati, Michael R; Welgan, Catherine A; Landefeld, Sally H; Newell, Laura F; Agarwal, Anupriya; Dunlap, Jennifer B; Chourasia, Tapan K; Lee, Hyunjung; Elferich, Johannes; Traer, Elie; Rattray, Rogan; Cascio, Michael J; Press, Richard D; Bagby, Grover C; Tyner, Jeffrey W; Druker, Brian J; Dao, Kim-Hien T

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in the calreticulin gene (CALR) were recently identified in approximately 70-80% of patients with JAK2-V617F-negative essential thrombocytosis and primary myelofibrosis. All frameshift mutations generate a recurring novel C-terminus. Here we provide evidence that mutant calreticulin does not accumulate efficiently in cells and is abnormally enriched in the nucleus and extracellular space compared to wildtype calreticulin. The main determinant of these findings is the loss of the calcium-binding and KDEL domains. Expression of type I mutant CALR in Ba/F3 cells confers minimal IL-3-independent growth. Interestingly, expression of type I and type II mutant CALR in a nonhematopoietic cell line does not directly activate JAK/STAT signaling compared to wildtype CALR and JAK2-V617F expression. These results led us to investigate paracrine mechanisms of JAK/STAT activation. Here we show that conditioned media from cells expressing type I mutant CALR exaggerate cytokine production from normal monocytes with or without treatment with a toll-like receptor agonist. These effects are not dependent on the novel C-terminus. These studies offer novel insights into the mechanism of JAK/STAT activation in patients with JAK2-V617F-negative essential thrombocytosis and primary myelofibrosis. Am. J. Hematol. 91:211-219, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26573090

  2. Agarose gel shift assay reveals that calreticulin favors substrates with a quaternary structure in solution.

    PubMed

    Boelt, Sanne Grundvad; Houen, Gunnar; Højrup, Peter

    2015-07-15

    Here we present an agarose gel shift assay that, in contrast to other electrophoresis approaches, is loaded in the center of the gel. This allows proteins to migrate in either direction according to their isoelectric points. Therefore, the presented assay enables a direct visualization, separation, and prefractionation of protein interactions in solution independent of isoelectric point. We demonstrate that this assay is compatible with immunochemical methods and mass spectrometry. The assay was used to investigate interactions with several potential substrates for calreticulin, a chaperone that is involved in different biological aspects through interaction with other proteins. The current analytical assays used to investigate these interactions are mainly spectroscopic aggregation assays or solid phase assays that do not provide a direct visualization of the stable protein complex but rather provide an indirect measure of interactions. Therefore, no interaction studies between calreticulin and substrates in solution have been investigated previously. The results presented here indicate that calreticulin has a preference for substrates with a quaternary structure and primarily β-sheets in their secondary structure. It is also demonstrated that the agarose gel shift assay is useful in the study of other protein interactions and can be used as an alternative method to native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:25908558

  3. Generation of Amyloid-β Is Reduced by the Interaction of Calreticulin with Amyloid Precursor Protein, Presenilin and Nicastrin

    PubMed Central

    Plöger, Frank; Loers, Gabriele; Lutz, David; Buck, Friedrich; Michalak, Marek; Schachner, Melitta; Kleene, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein by γ-secretase and the ensuing generation of amyloid-β is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, the identification of amyloid precursor protein binding proteins involved in regulating processing of amyloid precursor protein by the γ-secretase complex is essential for understanding the mechanisms underlying the molecular pathology of the disease. We identified calreticulin as novel amyloid precursor protein interaction partner that binds to the γ-secretase cleavage site within amyloid precursor protein and showed that this Ca2+- and N-glycan-independent interaction is mediated by amino acids 330–344 in the C-terminal C-domain of calreticulin. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that calreticulin is not only associated with amyloid precursor protein but also with the γ-secretase complex members presenilin and nicastrin. Calreticulin was detected at the cell surface by surface biotinylation of cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein and was co-localized by immunostaining with amyloid precursor protein and presenilin at the cell surface of hippocampal neurons. The P-domain of calreticulin located between the N-terminal N-domain and the C-domain interacts with presenilin, the catalytic subunit of the γ-secretase complex. The P- and C-domains also interact with nicastrin, another functionally important subunit of this complex. Transfection of amyloid precursor protein overexpressing cells with full-length calreticulin leads to a decrease in amyloid-β42 levels in culture supernatants, while transfection with the P-domain increases amyloid-β40 levels. Similarly, application of the recombinant P- or C-domains and of a synthetic calreticulin peptide comprising amino acid 330–344 to amyloid precursor protein overexpressing cells result in elevated amyloid-β40 and amyloid-β42 levels, respectively. These findings indicate that the interaction of calreticulin with amyloid precursor protein and the γ-secretase complex regulates the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein by the γ-secretase complex, pointing to calreticulin as a potential target for therapy in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23585889

  4. N-linked oligosaccharides are necessary and sufficient for association of glycosylated forms of bovine RNase with calnexin and calreticulin.

    PubMed Central

    Rodan, A R; Simons, J F; Trombetta, E S; Helenius, A

    1996-01-01

    Calnexin and calreticulin are lectin-like molecular chaperones that promote folding and assembly of newly synthesized glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. While it is well established that they interact with substrate monoglucosylated N-linked oligosaccharides, it has been proposed that they also interact with polypeptide moieties. To test this notion, glycosylated forms of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase) were translated in the presence of microsomes and their folding and association with calnexin and calreticulin were monitored. When expressed with two N-linked glycans in the presence of micromolar concentrations of deoxynojirimycin, this small soluble protein was found to bind firmly to both calnexin and calreticulin. The oligosaccharides were necessary for association, but it made no difference whether the RNase was folded or not. This indicated that unlike other chaperones, calnexin and calreticulin do not select their substrates on the basis of folding status. Moreover, enzymatic removal of the oligosaccharide chains using peptide N-glycosidase F or removal of the glucoses by ER glucosidase II resulted in dissociation of the complexes. This indicated that the lectin-like interaction, and not a protein-protein interaction, played the central role in stabilizing RNase-calnexin/calreticulin complexes. Images PMID:9003768

  5. Differential requirement of unfolded protein response pathway for calreticulin expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dukgyu; Singaravelu, Gunasekaran; Park, Byung-Jae; Ahnn, Joohong

    2007-09-14

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, which increases the expression of chaperones to maintain the homeostasis. Calreticulin is a calcium-binding chaperone located in the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we show that in response to a UPR inducing reagent, tunicamycin, the expression of calreticulin (crt-1) is specifically up-regulated in Caenorhabditis elegans. Tunicamycin (TM) induced expression of the crt-1 requires IRE-1 and XBP-1 but is ATF-6 and PEK-1 independent. Analysis of the crt-1 promoter reveals a putative XBP-1 binding site at the -284 to -278 bp region, which was shown to be necessary for TM-mediated induction. Genetic analysis of crt-1 mutants and mutants of UPR pathway genes show various degrees of developmental arrest upon TM treatment. Our results suggest that the TM-induced UPR pathway culminates in the up-regulation of crt-1, which protects the worm from deleterious accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. Knockdown of the crt-1, pdi-2, or pdi-3 increased the crt-1 expression, whereas knockdown of the hsp-3 or hsp-4 did not have any effect on crt-1 expression, indicating the existence of complex compensatory networks to cope up with ER stress. PMID:17651753

  6. Calreticulin is a microbial-binding molecule with phagocytosis-enhancing capacity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuemei; Xu, Na; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-09-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved calcium-binding protein mainly involved in directing proper conformation of proteins and controlling calcium level. Accumulating data also show that CRT is emerging as an immune-relevant molecule. In this study, we demonstrated that the CRT gene from the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum, named Bjcrt, consisted of a signal peptide, three domains (N-, P-, C-domains) and an ER retrieval signal sequence (KDEL), which appears to be the ancient form of vertebrate CRTs, and Bjcrt was expressed in a tissue-specific manner, with the most abundant expression in the notochord. We also demonstrated for the first time that the recombinant BjCRT (rBjCRT) was able to bind the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, both BjCRT as well as human recombinant calreticulin were able to promote the phagocytosis of E. coli and S. aureus by sea bass macrophages. These results indicate that CRT is a microbial-binding molecule and possesses an ability to enhance phagocytosis, a novel function assigned to CRT, reenforcing the notion that CRT is an immune-relevant molecule associated with host immune responses. PMID:23791863

  7. Roles of Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin in parasite-host interactions and in tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Ramrez, Galia; Valck, Carolina; Aguilar, Lorena; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Lpez-Muoz, Rodrigo; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Morello, Antonio; Ferreira, Jorge; Maya, Juan Diego; Galanti, Norbel; Ferreira, Arturo

    2012-10-01

    In Latin America, there are about 10-12 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, one of the most important neglected tropical parasitism. Identification of molecular targets, specific for the aggressor or host cells or both, may be useful in the development of pharmacological and/or immunological therapeutic tools. Classic efforts in Chagas' disease explore those strategies. Although the immune system frequently controls parasite aggressions, sterile immunity is seldom achieved and chronic interactions are thus established. However, laboratory-modified immunologic probes aimed at selected parasite targets, may be more effective than their unmodified counterparts. Calreticulin (CRT) from vertebrates is a calcium binding protein, present mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it directs the conformation of proteins and controls calcium levels. We have isolated, gene-cloned, expressed and characterized T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT). Upon infection, the parasite can translocate this molecule from the ER to the surface, where it inhibits both the classical and lectin complement pathways. Moreover, by virtue of its capacity to bind and inactivate first complement component C1, it promotes parasite infectivity. These two related properties reside in the central domain of this molecule. A different domain, amino terminal, binds to endothelial cells, thus inhibiting their angiogenic capacity. Since tumor growth depends, to a large extent on angiogenesis, their growth is also inhibited. PMID:22673211

  8. Oncogenic Drivers in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: From JAK2 to Calreticulin Mutations.

    PubMed

    Cahu, Xavier; Constantinescu, Stefan N

    2015-12-01

    During the past 10 years, major progress has been accomplished with the discovery of activating mutations that are associated with the vast majority of BCR-ABL negative human myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The identification in 2005 of JAK2 V617F triggered great interest in the JAK2-STAT5/STAT3 pathway. Discovery in 2006 of mutants of thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R/MPL) and later on of mutants in negative regulators of JAK-STAT pathway led to the notion that persistent JAK2 activation is a hallmark of MPNs. In 2013, mutations in the gene coding for the chaperone calreticulin were reported in 20-30 % of essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis patients. Here, we will address the question: what do we know about calreticulin that could help us understand its role in MPNs? In addition to oncogenic driver mutations, certain MPNs also exhibit epigenetic mutations. Targeting of both oncogenic drivers and epigenetic defects could be required for effective therapy. PMID:26370832

  9. Calreticulin mutation burden--is it a stable clone in patients with essential thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis?

    PubMed

    Shuly, Yulia; Nagar, Meital; Ben-Asaf, Lior; Kneller, Abraham; Steinberg, David M; Amariglio, Ninette; Salomon, Ophira

    2015-12-01

    Calreticulin mutation represents the second most frequent mutation after JAK2 V617F in myeloproliferative disorder and is considered to be a driving mutation. Herein the mutation burden was evaluated in patients with essential thrombocythemia or myelofibrosis and found to increase by 5.7% over time unrelated to the time elapsed from the initial to the final positive test. The longer the course of the disease when first tested (range 0-30 years, mean 7.9 years) the lower mutation burden was observed. The mutated clone was larger in type II in comparison with type I mutation when first tested but the difference in mutation burden from the final to the first positive test was significantly higher in those with type I. Similarly, the difference in mutation burden was higher in patients with essential thrombocythemia reaching almost 8% in comparison to 1.3% in post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis. Thus a repeat calreticulin quantitative test is not warranted. PMID:26460248

  10. Calreticulin mRNA expression and clinicopathological characteristics in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Sholhui; Huh, Hee Jin; Mun, Yeung Chul; Seong, Chu-Myong; Chung, Wha Soon; Chung, Hae-Sun; Huh, Jungwon

    2015-12-01

    Calreticulin, encoded by CALR, is a multifunctional protein with roles in calcium homeostasis and chaperoning molecular processes. This study aimed to evaluate calreticulin mRNA expression levels in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared with other hematologic malignancies, and to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics associated with expression in AML patients. The study group included 43 patients diagnosed with AML, 57 with other hematologic malignancies, and 21 benign hematologic conditions. CALR mRNA quantification using real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed it to be significantly higher in AML compared with other hematologic malignancies (P?

  11. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; vila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

  12. Cytokine, Antibody and Proliferative Cellular Responses Elicited by Taenia solium Calreticulin upon Experimental Infection in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

  13. Expression of the high capacity calcium-binding domain of calreticulin increases bioavailable calcium stores in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Sarah E.; Tsou, Pei-Lan; Robertson, Dominique; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Modulation of cytosolic calcium levels in both plants and animals is achieved by a system of Ca2+-transport and storage pathways that include Ca2+ buffering proteins in the lumen of intracellular compartments. To date, most research has focused on the role of transporters in regulating cytosolic calcium. We used a reverse genetics approach to modulate calcium stores in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Our goals were two-fold: to use the low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ binding characteristics of the C-domain of calreticulin to selectively increase Ca2+ storage in the endoplasmic reticulum, and to determine if those alterations affected plant physiological responses to stress. The C-domain of calreticulin is a highly acidic region that binds 20-50 moles of Ca2+ per mole of protein and has been shown to be the major site of Ca2+ storage within the endoplasmic reticulum of plant cells. A 377-bp fragment encoding the C-domain and ER retention signal from the maize calreticulin gene was fused to a gene for the green fluorescent protein and expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of a heat shock promoter. Following induction on normal medium, the C-domain transformants showed delayed loss of chlorophyll after transfer to calcium depleted medium when compared to seedlings transformed with green fluorescent protein alone. Total calcium measurements showed a 9-35% increase for induced C-domain transformants compared to controls. The data suggest that ectopic expression of the calreticulin C-domain increases Ca2+ stores, and that this Ca2+ reserve can be used by the plant in times of stress.

  14. Calreticulin contributes to C1q-dependent recruitment of microglia in the leech Hirudo medicinalis following a CNS injury

    PubMed Central

    Le Marrec-Croq, Françoise; Bocquet-Garcon, Annelise; Vizioli, Jacopo; Vancamp, Christelle; Drago, Francesco; Franck, Julien; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Sautiere, Pierre-Eric; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Background The medicinal leech is considered as a complementary and appropriate model to study immune functions in the central nervous system (CNS). In a context in which an injured leech’s CNS can naturally restore normal synaptic connections, the accumulation of microglia (immune cells of the CNS that are exclusively resident in leeches) has been shown to be essential at the lesion to engage the axonal sprouting. HmC1q (Hm for Hirudo medicinalis) possesses chemotactic properties that are important in the microglial cell recruitment by recognizing at least a C1q binding protein (HmC1qBP alias gC1qR). Material/Methods Recombinant forms of C1q were used in affinity purification and in vitro chemotaxis assays. Anti-calreticulin antibodies were used to neutralize C1q-mediated chemotaxis and locate the production of calreticulin in leech CNS. Results A newly characterized leech calreticulin (HmCalR) has been shown to interact with C1q and participate to the HmC1q-dependent microglia accumulation. HmCalR, which has been detected in only some microglial cells, is consequently a second binding protein for HmC1q, allowing the chemoattraction of resident microglia in the nerve repair process. Conclusions These data give new insight into calreticulin/C1q interaction in an immune function of neuroprotection, suggesting another molecular target to use in investigation of microglia reactivity in a model of CNS injury. PMID:24747831

  15. Proteomic identification of calcium-binding chaperone calreticulin as a potential mediator for the neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of fruit-derived glycoside amygdalin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Tse, Hung Fat; Rong, Jianhui

    2015-02-01

    Amygdalin is a fruit-derived glycoside with the potential for treating neurodegenerative diseases. This study was designed to identify the neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of amygdalin. We initially demonstrated that amygdalin enhanced nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuritogenesis and attenuated 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. To define protein targets for amygdalin, we selected a total of 11 mostly regulated protein spots from two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels for protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. We verified the effect of amygdalin on six representative proteins (i.e., calreticulin, Hsp90β, Grp94, 14-3-3η, 14-3-3ζ/δ and Rab GDI-α) for biological relevance to neuronal survival and differentiation. Calcium-binding chaperone calreticulin is of special interest for its activities to promote folding, oligomeric assembly and quality control of proteins that modulate cell survival and differentiation. We transiently knocked down calreticulin expression by specific siRNA and studied its effect on the neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of amygdalin. We found that amygdalin failed to enhance NGF-induced neuritogenesis in calreticulin-siRNA transfected cells. On the other hand, amygdalin rescued 6-OHDA-induced loss of calreticulin expression. We also found that amygdalin increased the intracellular calcium concentration possibly via inducing calreticulin. Collectively, our results demonstrated the role of calreticulin in mediating the neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of amygdalin. PMID:25465157

  16. Calreticulin expression in the clonal plasma cells of patients with systemic light-chain (AL-) amyloidosis is associated with response to high-dose melphalan

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ping; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Lu, Ping; Fleisher, Martin; Olshen, Adam

    2008-01-01

    In high doses with stem-cell transplantation, melphalan is an effective but toxic therapy for patients with systemic light-chain (AL-) amyloidosis, a protein deposition and monoclonal plasma cell disease. Melphalan can eliminate the indolent clonal plasma cells that cause the disease, an achievement called a complete response. Such a response is usually associated with extended survival, while no response (a less than 50% reduction) is not. Gene-expression studies and a stringently supervised analysis identified calreticulin as having significantly higher expression in the pretreatment plasma cells of patients with systemic AL-amyloidosis who then had a complete response to high-dose melphalan. Calreticulin is a pleiotropic calcium-binding protein found in the endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus whose overexpression is associated with increased sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining also showed that expression of calreticulin was higher in the plasma cells of those with a complete response. Furthermore, wild-type murine embryonic fibroblasts were significantly more sensitive to melphalan than calreticulin knock-out murine embryonic fibroblasts. These data have important implications for understanding the activity of melphalan in plasma-cell diseases and support further investigation of calreticulin and its modulation in patients with systemic AL-amyloidosis receiving high-dose melphalan. PMID:17982021

  17. Calreticulin is required for development of the cumulus oocyte complex and female fertility

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhiro, Keizo; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Nozawa, Kaori; Isotani, Ayako; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Hirashima, Yumiko; Matsumura, Hiroyuki; Takumi, Kazuhiro; Miyano, Takashi; Okabe, Masaru; Benham, Adam M.; Ikawa, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Calnexin (CANX) and calreticulin (CALR) chaperones mediate nascent glycoprotein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we report that these chaperones have distinct roles in male and female fertility. Canx null mice are growth retarded but fertile. Calr null mice die during embryonic development, rendering indeterminate any effect on reproduction. Therefore, we conditionally ablated Calr in male and female germ cells using Stra8 (mcKO) and Zp3 (fcKO) promoter-driven Cre recombinase, respectively. Calr mcKO male mice were fertile, but fcKO female mice were sterile despite normal mating behavior. Strikingly, we found that Calr fcKO female mice had impaired folliculogenesis and decreased ovulatory rates due to defective proliferation of cuboidal granulosa cells. Oocyte-derived, TGF-beta family proteins play a major role in follicular development and molecular analysis revealed that the normal processing of GDF9 and BMP15 was defective in Calr fcKO oocytes. These findings highlight the importance of CALR in female reproduction and demonstrate that compromised CALR function leads to ovarian insufficiency and female infertility. PMID:26388295

  18. Overview of the role for calreticulin in the enhancement of wound healing through multiple biological effects.

    PubMed

    Gold, Leslie I; Rahman, Mohammad; Blechman, Keith M; Greives, Matthew R; Churgin, Samara; Michaels, Joseph; Callaghan, Matthew J; Cardwell, Nancy L; Pollins, Alonda C; Michalak, Marek; Siebert, John W; Levine, Jamie P; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Nanney, Lillian B; Galiano, Robert D; Cadacio, Caprice L

    2006-09-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), an intracellular chaperone protein crucial for the proper folding and transport of proteins through the endoplasmic reticulum, has more recent acclaim as a critical regulator of extracellular functions, particularly in mediating cellular migration and as a requirement for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Consistent with these functions, we show that the topical application of CRT has profound effects on the process of wound healing by causing a dose-dependent increase in epithelial migration and granulation tissue formation in both murine and porcine normal and impaired animal models of skin injury. These effects of CRTare substantiated, in vitro, as we show that CRT strongly induces cell migration/wound closure of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, using a wound/scratch plate assay, and stimulates cellular proliferation of human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and vascular endothelial cells, providing mechanistic insight into how CRT functions in repair. Similarly, in both animal models, the histology of the wounds show marked proliferation of basal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, dense cellularity of the dermis with notably increased numbers of macrophages and well-organized collagen fibril deposition. Thus, CRT profoundly affects the wound healing process by recruiting cells essential for repair into the wound, stimulating cell growth, and increasing extracellular matrix production. PMID:17069011

  19. Overexpression of a Triticum aestivum Calreticulin gene (TaCRT1) Improves Salinity Tolerance in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min; Wang, Yun; Xu, Wenqi; Wu, Lintao; Wang, Hancheng; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved and abundant multifunctional protein that is encoded by a small gene family and is often associated with abiotic/biotic stress responses in plants. However, the roles played by this protein in salt stress responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain obscure. In this study, three TaCRT genes were identified in wheat and named TaCRT1, TaCRT2 and TaCRT3-1 based on their sequence characteristics and their high homology to other known CRT genes. Quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that these three genes exhibit different expression patterns in different tissues and are strongly induced under salt stress in wheat. The calcium-binding properties of the purified recombinant TaCRT1 protein were determined using a PIPES/Arsenazo III analysis. TaCRT1 gene overexpression in Nicotiana tabacum decreased salt stress damage in transgenic tobacco plants. Physiological measurements indicated that transgenic tobacco plants showed higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) than non-transgenic tobacco under normal growth conditions. Interestingly, overexpression of the entire TaCRT1 gene or of partial TaCRT1 segments resulted in significantly higher tolerance to salt stress in transgenic plants compared with their WT counterparts, thus revealing the essential role of the C-domain of TaCRT1 in countering salt stress in plants. PMID:26469859

  20. Arginylated Calreticulin at Plasma Membrane Increases Susceptibility of Cells to Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Lpez Sambrooks, Cecilia; Carpio, Marcos A.; Hallak, Marta E.

    2012-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of proteins are important for the regulation of cell fate and functions; one of these post-translational modifications is arginylation. We have previously established that calreticulin (CRT), an endoplasmic reticulum resident, is also one of the arginylated substrates found in the cytoplasm. In the present study, we describe that arginylated CRT (R-CRT) binds to the cell membrane and identified its role as a preapoptotic signal. We also show that cells lacking arginyl-tRNA protein transferase are less susceptible to apoptosis than wild type cells. Under these conditions R-CRT is present on the cell membrane but at early stages is differently localized in stress granules. Moreover, cells induced to undergo apoptosis by arsenite show increased R-CRT on their cell surface. Exogenously applied R-CRT binds to the cell membrane and is able to both increase the number of cells undergoing apoptosis in wild type cells and overcome apoptosis resistance in cells lacking arginyl-tRNA protein transferase that express R-CRT on the cell surface. Thus, these results demonstrate the importance of surface R-CRT in the apoptotic response of cells, implying that post-translational arginylation of CRT can regulate its intracellular localization, cell function, and survival. PMID:22577148

  1. Activation of the thrombopoietin receptor by mutant calreticulin in CALR-mutant myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Araki, Marito; Yang, Yinjie; Masubuchi, Nami; Hironaka, Yumi; Takei, Hiraku; Morishita, Soji; Mizukami, Yoshihisa; Kan, Shin; Shirane, Shuichi; Edahiro, Yoko; Sunami, Yoshitaka; Ohsaka, Akimichi; Komatsu, Norio

    2016-03-10

    Recurrent somatic mutations of calreticulin (CALR) have been identified in patients harboring myeloproliferative neoplasms; however, their role in tumorigenesis remains elusive. Here, we found that the expression of mutant but not wild-type CALR induces the thrombopoietin (TPO)-independent growth of UT-7/TPO cells. We demonstrated that c-MPL, the TPO receptor, is required for this cytokine-independent growth of UT-7/TPO cells. Mutant CALR preferentially associates with c-MPL that is bound to Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) over the wild-type protein. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mutant-specific carboxyl terminus portion of CALR interferes with the P-domain of CALR to allow the N-domain to interact with c-MPL, providing an explanation for the gain-of-function property of mutant CALR. We showed that mutant CALR induces the phosphorylation of JAK2 and its downstream signaling molecules in UT-7/TPO cells and that this induction was blocked by JAK2 inhibitor treatment. Finally, we demonstrated that c-MPL is required for TPO-independent megakaryopoiesis in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hematopoietic stem cells harboring the CALR mutation. These findings imply that mutant CALR activates the JAK2 downstream pathway via its association with c-MPL. Considering these results, we propose that mutant CALR promotes myeloproliferative neoplasm development by activating c-MPL and its downstream pathway. PMID:26817954

  2. Calreticulin is required for development of the cumulus oocyte complex and female fertility.

    PubMed

    Tokuhiro, Keizo; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Nozawa, Kaori; Isotani, Ayako; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Hirashima, Yumiko; Matsumura, Hiroyuki; Takumi, Kazuhiro; Miyano, Takashi; Okabe, Masaru; Benham, Adam M; Ikawa, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Calnexin (CANX) and calreticulin (CALR) chaperones mediate nascent glycoprotein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we report that these chaperones have distinct roles in male and female fertility. Canx null mice are growth retarded but fertile. Calr null mice die during embryonic development, rendering indeterminate any effect on reproduction. Therefore, we conditionally ablated Calr in male and female germ cells using Stra8 (mcKO) and Zp3 (fcKO) promoter-driven Cre recombinase, respectively. Calr mcKO male mice were fertile, but fcKO female mice were sterile despite normal mating behavior. Strikingly, we found that Calr fcKO female mice had impaired folliculogenesis and decreased ovulatory rates due to defective proliferation of cuboidal granulosa cells. Oocyte-derived, TGF-beta family proteins play a major role in follicular development and molecular analysis revealed that the normal processing of GDF9 and BMP15 was defective in Calr fcKO oocytes. These findings highlight the importance of CALR in female reproduction and demonstrate that compromised CALR function leads to ovarian insufficiency and female infertility. PMID:26388295

  3. Plasmodesmata without callose and calreticulin in higher plants – open channels for fast symplastic transport?

    PubMed Central

    Demchenko, Kirill N.; Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V.; Pawlowski, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) represent membrane-lined channels that link adjacent plant cells across the cell wall. PD of higher plants contain a central tube of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) called desmotubule. Membrane and lumen proteins seem to be able to move through the desmotubule, but most transport processes through PD occur through the cytoplasmic annulus (Brunkard etal., 2013). Calreticulin (CRT), a highly conserved Ca2+-binding protein found in all multicellular eukaryotes, predominantly located in the ER, was shown to localize to PD, though not all PD accumulate CRT. In nitrogen-fixing actinorhizal root nodules of the Australian tree Casuarina glauca, the primary walls of infected cells containing the microsymbiont become lignified upon infection. TEM analysis of these nodules showed that during the differentiation of infected cells, PD connecting infected cells, and connecting infected and adjacent uninfected cells, were reduced in number as well as diameter (Schubert etal., 2013). In contrast with PD connecting young infected cells, and most PD connecting mature infected and adjacent uninfected cells, PD connecting mature infected cells did not accumulate CRT. Furthermore, as shown here, these PD were not associated with callose, and based on their diameter, they probably had lost their desmotubules. We speculate that either this is a slow path to PD degradation, or that the loss of callose accumulation and presumably also desmotubules leads to the PD becoming open channels and improves metabolite exchange between cells. PMID:24634671

  4. Calreticulin is localized at mitochondria of rat cardiomyocytes and affected by furazolidone.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hu; Wei, Jin; Zhang, Ming; Lin, Lin; Yan, Rui; Zhu, Yanhe; Zhang, Rong

    2014-12-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a calcium-buffering protein which is predominantly located in endoplasmic reticulum. In the previous mitochondria proteome analysis, we accidentally found that CRT may be also localized at myocardial mitochondria and was upregulated in a rat model of furazolidone-induced dilated cardiomyopathy. To our knowledge, there has not yet been any report of its presence in mitochondria of any cell types. The present study aimed to determine whether CRT was located at the mitochondria of rat cardiomyocytes and whether the mitochondrial CRT was affected by furazolidone. Mitochondrial preparations were isolated from primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and purified by differential centrifugation. The purity of mitochondria was assessed by the reduction or elimination of the immunoreactivities of markers for cytosol, nucleus, sarcolemma, and endoplasmic reticulum. Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of CRT in purified mitochondria of rat cardiomyocytes. The distribution of CRT to mitochondria was further confirmed by immuno-electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and laser scanning confocal microscopy (double staining with MitoTracker Red and CRT-Alexa Fluor 488). Western blot analysis also demonstrated that the mitochondrial content of CRT was significantly enhanced by furazolidone treatment by 2.730.13 fold (P<0.05) in rat cardiomyocytes, which was verified by immuno-electron microscopy. In summary, the present results suggest that CRT is localized at mitochondria of rat cardiomyocytes and such localization is affected by furazolidone. PMID:25087122

  5. Novel distribution of calreticulin to cardiomyocyte mitochondria and its increase in a rat model of dilated cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming; Wei, Jin; Li, Yali; Shan, Hu; Yan, Rui; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Qiuhong; Xue, Jiahong

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • Calreticulin can also be found in cardiomyocyte mitochondria. • The mitochondrial content of calreticulin is increased in DCM hearts. • Increased expression of mitochondrial CRT may induce mitochondrial damage. • Mitochondrial CRT may inhibit the phosphorylation of mitochondrial STAT3. - Abstract: Background: Calreticulin (CRT), a Ca{sup 2+}-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum, can also be found in several other locations including the cytosol, nucleus, secretory granules, the outer side of the plasma membrane, and the extracellular matrix. Whether CRT is localized at mitochondria of cardiomyocytes and whether such localization is affected under DCM are still unclear. Methods and results: The DCM model was generated in rats by the daily oral administration of furazolidone for thirty weeks. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic studies demonstrated enlarged left ventricular dimensions and reduced systolic and diastolic function in DCM rats. Immuno-electron microscopy and Western blot showed that CRT was present in cardiomyocyte mitochondria and the mitochondrial content of CRT was increased in DCM hearts (P < 0.05). Morphometric analysis showed notable myocardial apoptosis and mitochondrial swelling with fractured or dissolved cristae in the DCM hearts. Compared with the control group, the mitochondrial membrane potential level of the freshly isolated cardiac mitochondria and the enzyme activities of cytochrome c oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase in the model group were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the myocardial apoptosis index and the caspase activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Pearson linear correlation analysis showed that the mitochondrial content of CRT had negative correlations with the mitochondrial function, and a positive correlation with myocardial apoptosis index (P < 0.001). The protein expression level of cytochrome c and the phosphorylation activity of STAT3 in the mitochondrial fraction were significantly decreased in the model group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that CRT is localized at cardiomyocyte mitochondria and its mitochondrial content is increased in DCM hearts.

  6. A new approach for investigating venom function applied to venom calreticulin in a parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Aisha L; Wheeler, David; Werren, John H

    2015-12-01

    A new method is developed to investigate functions of venom components, using venom gene RNA interference knockdown in the venomous animal coupled with RNA sequencing in the envenomated host animal. The vRNAi/eRNA-Seq approach is applied to the venom calreticulin component (v-crc) of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Parasitoids are common, venomous animals that inject venom proteins into host insects, where they modulate physiology and metabolism to produce a better food resource for the parasitoid larvae. vRNAi/eRNA-Seq indicates that v-crc acts to suppress expression of innate immune cell response, enhance expression of clotting genes in the host, and up-regulate cuticle genes. V-crc KD also results in an increased melanization reaction immediately following envenomation. We propose that v-crc inhibits innate immune response to parasitoid venom and reduces host bleeding during adult and larval parasitoid feeding. Experiments do not support the hypothesis that v-crc is required for the developmental arrest phenotype observed in envenomated hosts. We propose that an important role for some venom components is to reduce (modulate) the exaggerated effects of other venom components on target host gene expression, physiology, and survival, and term this venom mitigation. A model is developed that uses vRNAi/eRNA-Seq to quantify the contribution of individual venom components to total venom phenotypes, and to define different categories of mitigation by individual venoms on host gene expression. Mitigating functions likely contribute to the diversity of venom proteins in parasitoids and other venomous organisms. PMID:26359852

  7. EPAC2-mediated calreticulin regulates LIF and COX2 expression in human endometrial glandular cells.

    PubMed

    Kusama, Kazuya; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Tamura, Kazuhiro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Tachikawa, Eiichi

    2015-02-01

    The proper production of the implantation-related factors, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2, PTGS2), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the uterine glands is essential for embryo implantation and the establishment of endometrial receptivity. It has been shown that cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) signaling regulates the production of these factors. We have previously reported that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 2 (EPAC2, RAPGEF4), another cAMP mediator, is involved in the differentiation of endometrial stromal cells through the regulation of the expression of calreticulin (CALR). To address whether EPAC2-CALR signaling is involved in the expression of implantation-related factors, we examined the effect of EPAC2 and CALR knockdown on their expression in cultured human endometrial glandular epithelial EM1 cells, treated with forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, an EPAC-selective cAMP analog (8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl cAMP (CPT)), or a PKA-selective cAMP analog (N(6)-phenyl-cAMP (Phe)). In addition, the status of cell senescence was examined. EPAC2 knockdown suppressed the expression of CALR protein and mRNA in EM1 cells. Forskolin- or Phe-, but not CPT-, induced expression of LIF or PTGS2 and secretion of PGE2 was inhibited in EPAC2- or CALR-silenced EM1 cells. In addition, knockdown of EPAC2 or CALR increased senescence-associated beta galactosidase activity and expression of p21 but decreased expression of p53. These findings indicate that expression of CALR regulated by EPAC2 in endometrial glandular epithelial cells is critical for the expression of LIF and PTGS2-mediated production of PGE2 through cAMP signaling. Furthermore, EPAC2 and CALR could play a role in the maintenance of gland function. PMID:25378661

  8. Immunogenic calreticulin exposure occurs through a phylogenetically conserved stress pathway involving the chemokine CXCL8

    PubMed Central

    Sukkurwala, A Q; Martins, I; Wang, Y; Schlemmer, F; Ruckenstuhl, C; Durchschlag, M; Michaud, M; Senovilla, L; Sistigu, A; Ma, Y; Vacchelli, E; Sulpice, E; Gidrol, X; Zitvogel, L; Madeo, F; Galluzzi, L; Kepp, O; Kroemer, G

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of calreticulin (CRT) on the surface of stressed and dying cancer cells facilitates their uptake by dendritic cells and the subsequent presentation of tumor-associated antigens to T lymphocytes, hence stimulating an anticancer immune response. The chemotherapeutic agent mitoxantrone (MTX) can stimulate the peripheral relocation of CRT in both human and yeast cells, suggesting that the CRT exposure pathway is phylogenetically conserved. Here, we show that pheromones can act as physiological inducers of CRT exposure in yeast cells, thereby facilitating the formation of mating conjugates, and that a large-spectrum inhibitor of G protein-coupled receptors (which resemble the yeast pheromone receptor) prevents CRT exposure in human cancer cells exposed to MTX. An RNA interference screen as well as transcriptome analyses revealed that chemokines, in particular human CXCL8 (best known as interleukin-8) and its mouse ortholog Cxcl2, are involved in the immunogenic translocation of CRT to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. MTX stimulated the production of CXCL8 by human cancer cells in vitro and that of Cxcl2 by murine tumors in vivo. The knockdown of CXCL8/Cxcl2 receptors (CXCR1/Cxcr1 and Cxcr2) reduced MTX-induced CRT exposure in both human and murine cancer cells, as well as the capacity of the latter-on exposure to MTX-to elicit an anticancer immune response in vivo. Conversely, the addition of exogenous Cxcl2 increased the immunogenicity of dying cells in a CRT-dependent manner. Altogether, these results identify autocrine and paracrine chemokine signaling circuitries that modulate CRT exposure and the immunogenicity of cell death. PMID:23787997

  9. Immunogenic calreticulin exposure occurs through a phylogenetically conserved stress pathway involving the chemokine CXCL8.

    PubMed

    Sukkurwala, A Q; Martins, I; Wang, Y; Schlemmer, F; Ruckenstuhl, C; Durchschlag, M; Michaud, M; Senovilla, L; Sistigu, A; Ma, Y; Vacchelli, E; Sulpice, E; Gidrol, X; Zitvogel, L; Madeo, F; Galluzzi, L; Kepp, O; Kroemer, G

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of calreticulin (CRT) on the surface of stressed and dying cancer cells facilitates their uptake by dendritic cells and the subsequent presentation of tumor-associated antigens to T lymphocytes, hence stimulating an anticancer immune response. The chemotherapeutic agent mitoxantrone (MTX) can stimulate the peripheral relocation of CRT in both human and yeast cells, suggesting that the CRT exposure pathway is phylogenetically conserved. Here, we show that pheromones can act as physiological inducers of CRT exposure in yeast cells, thereby facilitating the formation of mating conjugates, and that a large-spectrum inhibitor of G protein-coupled receptors (which resemble the yeast pheromone receptor) prevents CRT exposure in human cancer cells exposed to MTX. An RNA interference screen as well as transcriptome analyses revealed that chemokines, in particular human CXCL8 (best known as interleukin-8) and its mouse ortholog Cxcl2, are involved in the immunogenic translocation of CRT to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. MTX stimulated the production of CXCL8 by human cancer cells in vitro and that of Cxcl2 by murine tumors in vivo. The knockdown of CXCL8/Cxcl2 receptors (CXCR1/Cxcr1 and Cxcr2) reduced MTX-induced CRT exposure in both human and murine cancer cells, as well as the capacity of the latter-on exposure to MTX-to elicit an anticancer immune response in vivo. Conversely, the addition of exogenous Cxcl2 increased the immunogenicity of dying cells in a CRT-dependent manner. Altogether, these results identify autocrine and paracrine chemokine signaling circuitries that modulate CRT exposure and the immunogenicity of cell death. PMID:23787997

  10. Calreticulin in rainbow trout: a limited response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.

    PubMed

    Kales, Stephen C; Bols, Niels C; Dixon, Brian

    2007-08-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a resident protein of the endoplasmic reticulum where it serves as a calcium modulator and chaperone to newly synthesized glycoproteins. In mammals, CRT is a structurally conserved 46 kDa protein that demonstrates anomalous migration at 60 kDa on SDS polyacrylamide gels and can be up-regulated by A23187 and thapsigargin due to the endoplasmic reticulum stress elements (ERSE) in the promoter region of its gene. CRT has numerous proposed functions and has been localized to the surface of PHA-stimulated T lymphocytes. CRT has been identified in mammals, plants and more recently from rainbow trout. Here, we report the cloning of the CRT proximal promoter from rainbow trout which includes elements typical of genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II including a TATA box, an Sp1 binding site, CCAAT boxes and the conservation of promoter stress elements (ERSE) demonstrated to be responsible for calcium modulation in mammals. This report demonstrates that the anomalous 60 kDa gel migration of mammalian CRT is conserved in rainbow trout and that CRT exists primarily as a dimer or oligomer in all tissues tested, excluding muscle and sperm in which it exists as a single polypeptide. Although it contains a potential N-glycosylation site, rainbow trout CRT is not subject to N-type glycosylation. Through the use of reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR along with western blotting, in both primary cultured leukocytes and the macrophage cell line RTS11, this report demonstrates that, unlike mammals, rainbow trout CRT is not strongly up-regulated by the calcium homeostasis antagonists, A23187 and thapsigargin, but is present on the cell surface of PHA-stimulated leukocytes. Taken together, this data suggests that CRT may have an alternative mode of regulation or function in fish. PMID:17490907

  11. Calreticulin mutants in mice induce an MPL-dependent thrombocytosis with frequent progression to myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Marty, Caroline; Pecquet, Christian; Nivarthi, Harini; El-Khoury, Mira; Chachoua, Ilyas; Tulliez, Micheline; Villeval, Jean-Luc; Raslova, Hana; Kralovics, Robert; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Plo, Isabelle; Vainchenker, William

    2016-03-10

    Frameshift mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene are seen in about 30% of essential thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis patients. To address the contribution of the CALR mutants to the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms, we engrafted lethally irradiated recipient mice with bone marrow cells transduced with retroviruses expressing these mutants. In contrast to wild-type CALR, CALRdel52 (type I) and, to a lesser extent, CALRins5 (type II) induced thrombocytosis due to a megakaryocyte (MK) hyperplasia. Disease was transplantable into secondary recipients. After 6 months, CALRdel52-, in contrast to rare CALRins5-, transduced mice developed a myelofibrosis associated with a splenomegaly and a marked osteosclerosis. Monitoring of virus-transduced populations indicated that CALRdel52 leads to expansion at earlier stages of hematopoiesis than CALRins5. However, both mutants still specifically amplified the MK lineage and platelet production. Moreover, a mutant deleted of the entire exon 9 (CALRdelex9) did not induce a disease, suggesting that the oncogenic property of CALR mutants was related to the new C-terminus peptide. To understand how the CALR mutants target the MK lineage, we used a cell-line model and demonstrated that the CALR mutants, but not CALRdelex9, specifically activate the thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor (MPL) to induce constitutive activation of Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5/3/1. We confirmed in c-mpl- and tpo-deficient mice that expression of Mpl, but not of Tpo, was essential for the CALR mutants to induce thrombocytosis in vivo, although Tpo contributes to disease penetrance. Thus, CALR mutants are sufficient to induce thrombocytosis through MPL activation. PMID:26608331

  12. Social defeat leads to changes in the endocannabinoid system: An overexpression of calreticulin and motor impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Tomas-Roig, J; Piscitelli, F; Gil, V; Del Río, J A; Moore, T P; Agbemenyah, H; Salinas-Riester, G; Pommerenke, C; Lorenzen, S; Beißbarth, T; Hoyer-Fender, S; Di Marzo, V; Havemann-Reinecke, U

    2016-04-15

    Prolonged and sustained stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis have adverse effects on numerous brain regions, including the cerebellum. Motor coordination and motor learning are essential for animal and require the regulation of cerebellar neurons. The G-protein-coupled cannabinoid CB1 receptor coordinates synaptic transmission throughout the CNS and is of highest abundance in the cerebellum. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the long-lasting effects of chronic psychosocial stress on motor coordination and motor learning, CB1 receptor expression, endogenous cannabinoid ligands and gene expression in the cerebellum. After chronic psychosocial stress, motor coordination and motor learning were impaired as indicated the righting reflex and the rota-rod. The amount of the endocannabinoid 2-AG increased while CB1 mRNA and protein expression were downregulated after chronic stress. Transcriptome analysis revealed 319 genes differentially expressed by chronic psychosocial stress in the cerebellum; mainly involved in synaptic transmission, transmission of nerve impulse, and cell-cell signaling. Calreticulin was validated as a stress candidate gene. The present study provides evidence that chronic stress activates calreticulin and might be one of the pathological mechanisms underlying the motor coordination and motor learning dysfunctions seen in social defeat mice. PMID:26815100

  13. Ectopic expression of a maize calreticulin mitigates calcium deficiency-like disorders in "sCAX1"-expressing tobacco and tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deregulated expression of an Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) antiporter (sCAX1) in agricultural crops increases total calcium (Ca(2+)) but may result in yield losses due to Ca(2+) deficiency-like symptoms. Here we demonstrate that co-expression of a maize calreticulin (CRT, a Ca(2+) binding protein located ...

  14. Human Survivin and Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Act in Synergy against a Murine Melanoma In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Guzmn, Lorena; Lobos-Gonzlez, Lorena; Rosas, Carlos; Vallejos, Gerardo; Falcn, Cristin; Sosoniuk, Eduardo; Coddou, Francisca; Leyton, Lisette; Lemus, David; Quest, Andrew F. G.; Ferreira, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Immune-based anti-tumor or anti-angiogenic therapies hold considerable promise for the treatment of cancer. The first approach seeks to activate tumor antigen-specific T lymphocytes while, the second, delays tumor growth by interfering with blood supply. Tumor Associated Antigens are often employed to target tumors with therapeutic drugs, but some are also essential for tumor viability. Survivin (Surv) is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family that is considered a Tumor Associated Antigen important for cancer cell viability and proliferation. On the other hand, Trypanosoma cruzi (the agent of Chagas disease) calreticulin (TcCRT) displays remarkable anti-angiogenic properties. Because these molecules are associated with different tumor targets, we reasoned that immunization with a Surv-encoding plasmid (pSurv) and concomitant TcCRT administration should generate a stronger anti-tumor response than application of either treatment separately. To evaluate this possibility, C57BL/6 mice were immunized with pSurv and challenged with an isogenic melanoma cell line that had been pre-incubated with recombinant TcCRT (rTcCRT). Following tumor cell inoculation, mice were injected with additional doses of rTcCRT. For the combined regimen we observed in mice that: i). Tumor growth was impaired, ii). Humoral anti-rTcCRT immunity was induced and, iii). In vitro rTcCRT bound to melanocytes, thereby promoting the incorporation of human C1q and subsequent macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells. These observations are interpreted to reflect the consequence of the following sequence of events: rTcCRT anti-angiogenic activity leads to stress in tumor cells. Murine CRT is then translocated to the external membrane where, together with rTcCRT, complement C1 is captured, thus promoting tumor phagocytosis. Presentation of the Tumor Associated Antigen Surv induces the adaptive anti-tumor immunity and, independently, mediates anti-endothelial cell immunity leading to an important delay in tumor growth. PMID:24755644

  15. Calreticulin and other components of endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat and human inflammatory demyelination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calreticulin (CRT) is a chaperone protein, which aids correct folding of glycosylated proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Under conditions of ER stress, CRT is upregulated and may be displayed on the surface of cells or be secreted. This ecto-CRT may activate the innate immune response or it may aid clearance of apoptotic cells. Our and other studies have demonstrated upregulation of ER stress markers CHOP, BiP, ATF4, XBP1 and phosphorylated e-IF2 alpha (p-eIF2 alpha) in biopsy and post-mortem human multiple sclerosis (MS) samples. We extend this work by analysing changes in expression of CRT, BiP, CHOP, XBP1 and p-eIF2 alpha in a rat model of inflammatory demyelination. Demyelination was induced in the spinal cord by intradermal injection of recombinant mouse MOG mixed with incomplete Freunds adjuvant (IFA) at the base of the tail. Tissue samples were analysed by semi-quantitative scoring of immunohistochemically stained frozen tissue sections. Data generated following sampling of tissue from animals with spinal cord lesions, was compared to that obtained using tissue derived from IFA- or saline-injected controls. CRT present in rat serum and in a cohort of human serum derived from 14 multiple sclerosis patients and 11 healthy controls was measured by ELISA. Results Stained tissue scores revealed significantly (p<0.05) increased amounts of CRT, CHOP and p-eIF2 alpha in the lesion, lesion edge and normal-appearing white matter when compared to controls. CHOP and p-eIF2 alpha were also significantly raised in regions of grey matter and the central canal (p<0.05). Immunofluorescent dual-label staining confirmed expression of these markers in astrocytes, microglia or neurons. Dual staining of rat and human spinal cord lesions with Oil Red O and CRT antibody showed co-localisation of CRT with the rim of myelin fragments. ELISA testing of sera from control and EAE rats demonstrated significant down-regulation (p<0.05) of CRT in the serum of EAE animals, compared to saline and IFA controls. This contrasted with significantly increased amounts of CRT detected in the sera of MS patients (p<0.05), compared to controls. Conclusion This data highlights the potential importance of CRT and other ER stress proteins in inflammatory demyelination. PMID:24252779

  16. Human survivin and Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin act in synergy against a murine melanoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Guzmn, Lorena; Lobos-Gonzlez, Lorena; Rosas, Carlos; Vallejos, Gerardo; Falcn, Cristin; Sosoniuk, Eduardo; Coddou, Francisca; Leyton, Lisette; Lemus, David; Quest, Andrew F G; Ferreira, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Immune-based anti-tumor or anti-angiogenic therapies hold considerable promise for the treatment of cancer. The first approach seeks to activate tumor antigen-specific T lymphocytes while, the second, delays tumor growth by interfering with blood supply. Tumor Associated Antigens are often employed to target tumors with therapeutic drugs, but some are also essential for tumor viability. Survivin (Surv) is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family that is considered a Tumor Associated Antigen important for cancer cell viability and proliferation. On the other hand, Trypanosoma cruzi (the agent of Chagas' disease) calreticulin (TcCRT) displays remarkable anti-angiogenic properties. Because these molecules are associated with different tumor targets, we reasoned that immunization with a Surv-encoding plasmid (pSurv) and concomitant TcCRT administration should generate a stronger anti-tumor response than application of either treatment separately. To evaluate this possibility, C57BL/6 mice were immunized with pSurv and challenged with an isogenic melanoma cell line that had been pre-incubated with recombinant TcCRT (rTcCRT). Following tumor cell inoculation, mice were injected with additional doses of rTcCRT. For the combined regimen we observed in mice that: i). Tumor growth was impaired, ii). Humoral anti-rTcCRT immunity was induced and, iii). In vitro rTcCRT bound to melanocytes, thereby promoting the incorporation of human C1q and subsequent macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells. These observations are interpreted to reflect the consequence of the following sequence of events: rTcCRT anti-angiogenic activity leads to stress in tumor cells. Murine CRT is then translocated to the external membrane where, together with rTcCRT, complement C1 is captured, thus promoting tumor phagocytosis. Presentation of the Tumor Associated Antigen Surv induces the adaptive anti-tumor immunity and, independently, mediates anti-endothelial cell immunity leading to an important delay in tumor growth. PMID:24755644

  17. The miR-27a-calreticulin axis affects drug-induced immunogenic cell death in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, T; Polcaro, G; Ziccardi, P; Muccillo, L; Galgani, M; Pucci, B; Rita Milone, M; Budillon, A; Santopaolo, M; Mazzoccoli, G; Matarese, G; Sabatino, L; Colantuoni, V

    2016-01-01

    Immunogenic cell death (ICD) evoked by chemotherapeutic agents implies emission of selected damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) such as cell surface exposure of calreticulin, secretion of ATP and HMGB1. We sought to verify whether miR-27a is implicated in ICD, having demonstrated that it directly targets calreticulin. To this goal, we exposed colorectal cancer cell lines, genetically modified to express high or low miR-27a levels, to two bona fide ICD inducers (mitoxantrone and oxaliplatin). Low miR-27a-expressing cells displayed more ecto-calreticulin on the cell surface and increased ATP and HMGB1 secretion than high miR-27a-expressing ones in time-course experiments upon drug exposure. A calreticulin target protector counteracted the miR-27a effects while specific siRNAs mimicked them, confirming the results reported. In addition, miR-27a negatively influenced the PERK-mediated route and the late PI3K-dependent secretory step of the unfolded protein response to endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting that miR-27a modulates the entire ICD program. Interestingly, upon chemotherapeutic exposure, low miR-27a levels associated with an earlier and stronger induction of apoptosis and with morphological and molecular features of autophagy. Remarkably, in ex vivo setting, under the same chemotherapeutic induction, the conditioned media from high miR-27a-expressing cells impeded dendritic cell maturation while increased the secretion of specific cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8) and negatively influenced CD4(+) T-cell interferon ? production and proliferation, all markers of a tumor immunoevasion strategy. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence that miR-27a impairs the cell response to drug-induced ICD through the regulatory axis with calreticulin. PMID:26913599

  18. The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone calreticulin is recruited to the uropod during capping of surface receptors in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Girard-Misguich, Fabienne; Sachse, Martin; Santi-Rocca, Julien; Guillén, Nancy

    2008-02-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), an intracellular chaperone protein, is crucial for proper folding and transport of proteins through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It has recently been identified as a critical regulator of some several different cellular functions such as migration, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte- or natural killer cell-mediated lysis. Characterization of CRT isolated from parasites may thus help to decipher the contribution of this protein in the parasites' biology and host-parasite interactions. Here, we report descriptive data on the localization of Entamoeba histolytica's CRT at rest and following cap formation by Concanavalin A. As expected, CRT from E. histolytica localizes in the ER. However, the protein was surprisingly found to localize to the parasite surface and, furthermore, to concentrate in the uropod following activation of surface receptors by capping with Concanavalin A. PMID:18160113

  19. Epitopes of the Onchocerca volvulus RAL1 antigen, a member of the calreticulin family of proteins, recognized by sera from patients with onchocerciasis.

    PubMed Central

    Rokeach, L A; Zimmerman, P A; Unnasch, T R

    1994-01-01

    RAL1 is an antigen (Ag) encoded by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, the parasite causing onchocerciasis (river blindness). RAL1 shares 64.4% identity with the autoantigen calreticulin. The striking similarity of the parasite Ag and the human autoantigen has led to the hypothesis that RAL1 may induce a cross-reactive immune response to calreticulin, which in turn may be involved in the pathogenesis of onchocerciasis. To test this hypothesis, we explored the immune response to RAL1 recombinant Ag (RAL1 rAg) and human calreticulin in patients with O. volvulus infection. A total of 86% of the O. volvulus-infected individuals produced antibodies recognizing RAL1 rAg. Antibody reactivity to RAL1 rAg in patient sera was confined primarily to the central and carboxyl-terminal parts of the molecule. No significant correlations were found to associate recognition of RAL1 rAg, or any particular portion thereof, with a particular disease state. Antibodies against RAL1 thus appear to be produced as a general immune reaction to O. volvulus infection and do not necessarily lead to a cross-reacting response with the host protein. In contrast, 33% of the patient sera tested bound recombinant human calreticulin. All of these sera also recognized a polypeptide encompassing the carboxyl-terminal portion of the RAL1 rAg. These results suggest that recognition of an epitope encoded in the carboxyl-terminal portion of RAL1 is at least in part responsible for inducing a cross-reacting immune response to the host protein. Images PMID:7520419

  20. Proteomic screening identifies calreticulin as a miR-27a direct target repressing MHC class I cell surface exposure in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, T; Polcaro, G; Ziccardi, P; Pucci, B; Muccillo, L; Galgani, M; Fucci, A; Milone, M R; Budillon, A; Santopaolo, M; Votino, C; Pancione, M; Piepoli, A; Mazzoccoli, G; Binaschi, M; Bigioni, M; Maggi, C A; Fassan, M; Laudanna, C; Matarese, G; Sabatino, L; Colantuoni, V

    2016-01-01

    Impairment of the immune response and aberrant expression of microRNAs are emerging hallmarks of tumour initiation/progression, in addition to driver gene mutations and epigenetic modifications. We performed a preliminary survey of independent adenoma and colorectal cancer (CRC) miRnoma data sets and, among the most dysregulated miRNAs, we selected miR-27a and disclosed that it is already upregulated in adenoma and further increases during the evolution to adenocarcinoma. To identify novel genes and pathways regulated by this miRNA, we employed a differential 2DE-DIGE proteome analysis. We showed that miR-27a modulates a group of proteins involved in MHC class I cell surface exposure and, mechanistically, demonstrated that calreticulin is a miR-27a direct target responsible for most downstream effects in epistasis experiments. In vitro miR-27a affected cell proliferation and angiogenesis; mouse xenografts of human CRC cell lines expressing different miR-27a levels confirmed the protein variations and recapitulated the cell growth and apoptosis effects. In vivo miR-27a inversely correlated with MHC class I molecules and calreticulin expression, CD8(+) T cells infiltration and cytotoxic activity (LAMP-1 exposure and perforin release). Tumours with high miR-27a, low calreticulin and CD8(+) T cells' infiltration were associated with distant metastasis and poor prognosis. Our data demonstrate that miR-27a acts as an oncomiRNA, represses MHC class I expression through calreticulin downregulation and affects tumour progression. These results may pave the way for better diagnosis, patient stratification and novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26913609

  1. Catalyzed sodium chlorate candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malich, C. W.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    The catalytic effect of cobalt powder on chlorate decomposition has been confirmed. Catalysis is enhanced by oxidation of the metal during burning. Catalysts other than cobalt compounds should also be effective; the complete elimination of fuel has shown that the oxidation of cobalt during decomposition is not a vital factor in the improved performance of catalyzed candles.

  2. The Interaction of Classical Complement Component C1 with Parasite and Host Calreticulin Mediates Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Christian; Ramírez, Galia; Valck, Carolina; Aguilar, Lorena; Maldonado, Ismael; Rosas, Carlos; Galanti, Norbel; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Ferreira, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Background 9 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in Latin America, plus more than 300,000 in the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and Japan. Approximately 30% of infected individuals develop circulatory or digestive pathology. While in underdeveloped countries transmission is mainly through hematophagous arthropods, transplacental infection prevails in developed ones. Methodology/Principal Findings During infection, T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT) translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, TcCRT acts as virulence factor since it binds maternal classical complement component C1q that recognizes human calreticulin (HuCRT) in placenta, with increased parasite infectivity. As measured ex vivo by quantitative PCR in human placenta chorionic villi explants (HPCVE) (the closest available correlate of human congenital T. cruzi infection), C1q mediated up to a 3–5-fold increase in parasite load. Because anti-TcCRT and anti-HuCRT F(ab′)2 antibody fragments are devoid of their Fc-dependent capacity to recruit C1q, they reverted the C1q-mediated increase in parasite load by respectively preventing its interaction with cell-bound CRTs from both parasite and HPCVE origins. The use of competing fluid-phase recombinant HuCRT and F(ab′)2 antibody fragments anti-TcCRT corroborated this. These results are consistent with a high expression of fetal CRT on placental free chorionic villi. Increased C1q-mediated infection is paralleled by placental tissue damage, as evidenced by histopathology, a damage that is ameliorated by anti-TcCRT F(ab′)2 antibody fragments or fluid-phase HuCRT. Conclusions/Significance T. cruzi infection of HPCVE is importantly mediated by human and parasite CRTs and C1q. Most likely, C1q bridges CRT on the parasite surface with its receptor orthologue on human placental cells, thus facilitating the first encounter between the parasite and the fetal derived placental tissue. The results presented here have several potential translational medicine aspects, specifically related with the capacity of antibody fragments to inhibit the C1q/CRT interactions and thus T. cruzi infectivity. PMID:23991234

  3. Tritium catalyzed deuterium tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.; Jung, J.; Gilligan, J.

    1984-04-01

    A preliminary assessment of the promise of the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium (TCD) tokamak power reactors relative to that of deuterium-tritium (D-T) and catalyzed deuterium (Cat-D) tokamaks is undertaken. The TCD mode of operation is arrived at by converting the /sup 3/He from the D(D,n)/sup 3/He reaction into tritium, by neutron capture in the blanket; the tritium thus produced is fed into the plasma. There are three main parts to the assessment: blanket study, reactor design and economic analysis and an assessment of the prospects for improvements in the performance of TCD reactors (and in the promise of the TCD mode of operation, in general).

  4. The root-knot nematode calreticulin Mi-CRT is a key effector in plant defense suppression.

    PubMed

    Jaouannet, M; Magliano, M; Arguel, M J; Gourgues, M; Evangelisti, E; Abad, P; Rosso, M N

    2013-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are obligate biotrophic parasites that settle close to the vascular tissues in roots, where they induce the differentiation of specialized feeding cells and maintain a compatible interaction for 3 to 8 weeks. Transcriptome analyses of the plant response to parasitic infection have shown that plant defenses are strictly controlled during the interaction. This suggests that, similar to other pathogens, RKN secrete effectors that suppress host defenses. We show here that Mi-CRT, a calreticulin (CRT) secreted by the nematode into the apoplasm of infected tissues, plays an important role in infection success, because Mi-CRT knockdown by RNA interference affected the ability of the nematodes to infect plants. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana plants producing the secreted form of Mi-CRT were more susceptible to nematode infection than wild-type plants. They were also more susceptible to infection with another root pathogen, the oomycete Phytophthora parasitica. Mi-CRT overexpression in A. thaliana suppressed the induction of defense marker genes and callose deposition after treatment with the pathogen-associated molecular pattern elf18. Our results show that Mi-CRT secreted in the apoplasm by the nematode has a role in the suppression of plant basal defenses during the interaction. PMID:22857385

  5. Functional interplay of SP family members and nuclear factor Y is essential for transcriptional activation of the human Calreticulin gene.

    PubMed

    Schardt, Julian A; Keller, Manuela; Seipel, Katja; Pabst, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Calreticulin (CALR) is a highly conserved, multifunctional protein involved in a variety of cellular processes including the maintenance of intracellular calcium homeostasis, proper protein folding, differentiation and immunogenic cell death. More recently, a crucial role for CALR in the pathogenesis of certain hematologic malignancies was discovered: in clinical subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia, CALR overexpression mediates a block in differentiation, while somatic mutations have been found in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) or thrombopoietin receptor gene (MPL). However, the mechanisms underlying CALR promoter activation have insufficiently been investigated so far. By dissecting the core promoter region, we could identify a functional TATA-box relevant for transcriptional activation. In addition, we characterized two evolutionary highly conserved cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) within the proximal promoter each composed of one binding site for the transcription factors SP1 and SP3 as well as for the nuclear transcription factor Y (NFY) and we verified binding of these factors to their cognate sites in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26162987

  6. Combating HER2-overexpressing breast cancer through induction of calreticulin exposure by Tras-Permut CrossMab

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Moyan; Zhao, Lichao; LingHu, RuiXia; Feng, Fan; Gao, Xudong; Jiao, Shunchang; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Yi; Yang, Junlan

    2015-01-01

    Although trastuzumab has succeeded in breast cancer treatment, acquired resistance is one of the prime obstacles for breast cancer therapies. There is an urgent need to develop novel HER2 antibodies against trastuzumab resistance. Here, we first rational designed avidity-imporved trastuzumab and pertuzumab variants, and explored the correlation between the binding avidity improvement and their antitumor activities. After characterization of a pertuzumab variant L56TY with potent antitumor activities, a bispecific immunoglobulin G-like CrossMab (Tras-Permut CrossMab) was generated from trastuzumab and binding avidity-improved pertuzumab variant L56TY. Although, the antitumor efficacy of trastuzumab was not enhanced by improving its binding avidity, binding avidity improvement could significantly increase the anti-proliferative and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activities of pertuzumab. Further studies showed that Tras-Permut CrossMab exhibited exceptional high efficiency to inhibit the progression of trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer. Notably, we found that calreticulin (CRT) exposure induced by Tras-Permut CrossMab was essential for induction of tumor-specific T cell immunity against tumor recurrence. These data indicated that simultaneous blockade of HER2 protein by Tras-Permut CrossMab could trigger CRT exposure and subsequently induce potent tumor-specific T cell immunity, suggesting it could be a promising therapeutic strategy against trastuzumab resistance. PMID:25949918

  7. Occurrence of calreticulin during the exchange of nucleohistones into protamine-type proteins in Chara vulgaris spermiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Popłońska, Katarzyna

    2013-02-01

    During spermiogenesis of an alga Chara vulgaris, which resembles that of animals, nucleohistones are replaced by protamine-type proteins. This exchange takes place in a spermatid nucleus during the key V spermiogenesis stage, in which rough endoplasmic reticulum is the site of protamine-type protein synthesis and is also the pathway guiding the proteins to their destination, nucleus. In the present work, it was shown that a chaperon protein, calreticulin (CRT), abundantly present at this significant V stage of spermiogenesis in a few cellular compartments, i.e., a nucleus, lumen of cisternae, and vesicles of significantly swollen ER as well as outside these structures, e.g., in Golgi apparatus, could have taken part in the process of exchange of nuclear proteins. Colocalization of two proteins, protamine-type proteins, crucial for reproduction, and CRT, was especially visible in a nucleus, mainly on its peripheries where condensed chromatin was present. Localization of protamine-type proteins and CRT in nucleus is in agreement with our previous results showing that protamine-type proteins were twofold more labelled in the peripheral area in comparison to the nucleus center occupied by noncondensed chromatin. The role of CRT in the reproduction of both plants and animals is also discussed. PMID:22198493

  8. Abundant accumulation of the calcium-binding molecular chaperone calreticulin in specific floral tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, D E; Glaunsinger, B; Bohnert, H J

    1997-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a calcium-binding protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with an established role as a molecular chaper-one. An additional function in signal transduction, specifically in calcium distribution, is suggested but not proven. We have analyzed the expression pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana CRTs for a comparison with these proposed roles. Three CRT genes were expressed, with identities of the encoded proteins ranging from 54 to 86%. Protein motifs with established functions found in CRTs of other species were conserved. CRT was found in all of the cells in low amounts, whereas three distinct floral tissues showed abundant expression: secreting nectaries, ovules early in development, and a set of subepidermal cells near the abaxial surface of the anther. Localization in the developing endosperm, which is characterized by high protein synthesis rates, can be reconciled with a specific chaperone function. Equally, nectar production and secretion, a developmental stage marked by abundant ER, may require abundant CRT to accommodate the traffic of secretory proteins through the ER. Localization of CRT in the anthers, which are degenerating at the time of maximum expression of CRT, cannot easily be reconciled with a chaperone function but may indicate a role for CRT in anther maturation or dehiscence. PMID:9159940

  9. A new monoclonal antibody (CAL2) detects CALRETICULIN mutations in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Stein, H; Bob, R; Drkop, H; Erck, C; Kmpfe, D; Kvasnicka, H-M; Martens, H; Roth, A; Streubel, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the diagnostic of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) discovered CALRETICULIN (CALR) mutations as a major driver in these disorders. In contrast to JAK2 mutations being mainly associated with polycythaemia vera, CALR mutations are only associated with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET). CALR mutations are present in the majority of PMF and ET patients lacking JAK2 and MPL mutations. As these CALR mutations are absent from reactive bone marrow (BM) lesions their presence indicates ET or PMF. So far these mutations are detectable only by molecular assays. Their molecular detection is cumbersome because of the great CALR mutation heterogeneity. Therefore, the availability of a simple assay would be of great help. All CALR mutations reported lead to a frameshift generating a new 36 amino-acid C-terminus. We generated a monoclonal antibody (CAL2) to this C-neoterminus by immunizing mice with a representative peptide and compared its performance with Sanger sequencing data in 173 MPNs and other BM diseases. There was a 100% correlation between the molecular and the CAL2 immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Thus, the detection of CALR mutations by the CAL2 IHC is a specific, sensitive, rapid, simple and low-cost method. PMID:26202929

  10. Calreticulin is required for responding to stress, foraging, and fertility in the white-tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hui; Wei, Lihui; Chen, Huaigu; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-08-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) regulates a wide array of cellular responses in physiological and pathological processes. A full-length cDNA-encoding CRT protein, namely AbCRT-1, was isolated from Aphelenchoides besseyi, an ectoparasitic plant nematode and the agent of white tip disease of rice. The deduced amino acid sequence of AbCRT-1 was highly homologous with other nematode CRTs, and showed the closest evolutionary relationship with BxCRT-1. In-situ hybridization showed that AbCRT-1 is specifically located in the oesophageal gland and gonads of A. besseyi, suggesting its potential role in parasitism and reproduction. Quantity real-time PCR analysis showed that AbCRT-1 is highly expressed in female nematodes but poorly expressed in eggs, juveniles, and male nematodes. Exposing the nematode to relatively low osmotic stress promotes the transcription of AbCRT-1 whereas extreme desiccation suppresses the transcription significantly. Nematodes in which AbCRT-1 mRNA level had been knocked down by soaking them in AbCRT-1 dsRNA solution distributed randomly and did not aggregate temporally, with a decreased capacity of food discernment. Thus the affected nematodes were markedly less fecund. These results demonstrate that AbCRT-1 is required in A. besseyi for responding to stress, foraging, and fertility. PMID:25999293

  11. A new monoclonal antibody (CAL2) detects CALRETICULIN mutations in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsies.

    PubMed

    Stein, H; Bob, R; Dürkop, H; Erck, C; Kämpfe, D; Kvasnicka, H-M; Martens, H; Roth, A; Streubel, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the diagnostic of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) discovered CALRETICULIN (CALR) mutations as a major driver in these disorders. In contrast to JAK2 mutations being mainly associated with polycythaemia vera, CALR mutations are only associated with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET). CALR mutations are present in the majority of PMF and ET patients lacking JAK2 and MPL mutations. As these CALR mutations are absent from reactive bone marrow (BM) lesions their presence indicates ET or PMF. So far these mutations are detectable only by molecular assays. Their molecular detection is cumbersome because of the great CALR mutation heterogeneity. Therefore, the availability of a simple assay would be of great help. All CALR mutations reported lead to a frameshift generating a new 36 amino-acid C-terminus. We generated a monoclonal antibody (CAL2) to this C-neoterminus by immunizing mice with a representative peptide and compared its performance with Sanger sequencing data in 173 MPNs and other BM diseases. There was a 100% correlation between the molecular and the CAL2 immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Thus, the detection of CALR mutations by the CAL2 IHC is a specific, sensitive, rapid, simple and low-cost method. PMID:26202929

  12. A long non-coding RNA links calreticulin-mediated immunogenic cell removal to RB1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Musahl, A-S; Huang, X; Rusakiewicz, S; Ntini, E; Marsico, A; Kroemer, G; Kepp, O; rom, U A

    2015-09-24

    A subset of promoters bidirectionally expresses long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of unknown function and protein-coding genes (PCGs) in parallel. Here, we define a set of 1107 highly conserved human bidirectional promoters that mediate the linked expression of long ncRNAs and PCGs. Depletion of the long ncRNA expressed from the RB1 promoter, ncRNA-RB1, reveals regulatory effects different from the RB1-controlled transcriptional program. ncRNA-RB1 positively regulates the expression of calreticulin (CALR) that in response to certain therapeutic interventions can translocate from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface, hence activating anticancer immune responses. Knockdown of ncRNA-RB1 in tumor cells reduced expression of CALR, impaired the translocation of the protein to the cell surface upon treatment with anthracylines and consequently inhibited the cellular uptake by macrophages. In conclusion, co-transcription of ncRNA-RB1 and RB1 provides a positive link between the expression of the two tumor suppressors RB1 and the immune-relevant CALR protein. This regulatory interplay exemplifies disease-relevant co-regulation of two distinct gene products, in which loss of expression of one oncosuppressor protein entails the abolition of additional tumor-inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:25579178

  13. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

    2012-06-29

    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant period in accomplishing these objectives. Our work in the area of Pd-based, methane oxidation catalysts has led to the development of highly active catalysts with relatively low loadings of Pd metal using proprietary coating methods. The thermal stability of these Pd-based catalysts were characterized using SEM and BET analyses, further demonstrating that certain catalyst supports offer enhanced stability toward both PdO decomposition and/or thermal sintering/growth of Pd particles. When applied to commercially available fiber mesh substrates (both metallic and ceramic) and tested in an open-air burner, these catalyst-support chemistries showed modest improvements in the NOx emissions and radiant output compared to uncatalyzed substrates. More significant, though, was the performance of the catalyst-support chemistries on novel media substrates. These substrates were developed to overcome the limitations that are present with commercially available substrate designs and increase the gas-catalyst contact time. When catalyzed, these substrates demonstrated a 65-75% reduction in NOx emissions across the firing range when tested in an open air burner. In testing in a residential boiler, this translated into NOx emissions of <15 ppm over the 15-150 kBtu/hr firing range.

  14. Amblyomma americanum tick calreticulin binds C1q but does not inhibit activation of the classical complement cascade

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Kwon; Ibelli, Adriana Mrcia Guaratini; Mulenga, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In this study we characterized Amblyomma americanum (Aam) tick calreticulin (CRT) homolog in tick feeding physiology. In nature, different tick species can be found feeding on the same animal host. This suggests that different tick species found feeding on the same host can modulate the same host anti-tick defense pathways to successfully feed. From this perspective its plausible that different tick species can utilize universally conserved proteins such as CRT to regulate and facilitate feeding. CRT is a multi-functional protein found in most taxa that is injected into the vertebrate host during tick feeding. Apart from its current use as a biomarker for human tick bites, role(s) of this protein in tick feeding physiology have not been elucidated. Here we show that annotated functional CRT amino acid motifs are well conserved in tick CRT. However our data show that despite high amino acid identity levels to functionally characterized CRT homologs in other organisms, AamCRT is apparently functionally different. Pichia pastoris expressed recombinant (r) AamCRT bound C1q, the first component of the classical complement system, but it did not inhibit activation of this pathway. This contrast with reports of other parasite CRT that inhibited activation of the classical complement pathway through sequestration of C1q. Furthermore rAamCRT did not bind factor Xa in contrast to reports of parasite CRT binding factor Xa, an important protease in the blood clotting system. Consistent with this observation, rAamCRT did not affect plasma clotting or platelet aggregation aggregation. We discuss our findings in the context of tick feeding physiology. PMID:25454607

  15. A Nematode Calreticulin, Rs-CRT, Is a Key Effector in Reproduction and Pathogenicity of Radopholus similis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Wang, Ke; Xie, Hui; Wang, Yan-Tao; Wang, Dong-Wei; Xu, Chun-Lin; Huang, Xin; Wang, De-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Radopholus similis is a migratory plant-parasitic nematode that causes severe damage to many agricultural and horticultural crops. Calreticulin (CRT) is a Ca2+-binding multifunctional protein that plays key roles in the parasitism, immune evasion, reproduction and pathogenesis of many animal parasites and plant nematodes. Therefore, CRT is a promising target for controlling R. similis. In this study, we obtained the full-length sequence of the CRT gene from R. similis (Rs-crt), which is 1,527-bp long and includes a 1,206-bp ORF that encodes 401 amino acids. Rs-CRT and Mi-CRT from Meloidogyne incognita showed the highest similarity and were grouped on the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. Rs-crt is a multi-copy gene that is expressed in the oesophageal glands and gonads of females, the gonads of males, the intestines of juveniles and the eggs of R. similis. The highest Rs-crt expression was detected in females, followed by juveniles, eggs and males. The reproductive capability and pathogenicity of R. similis were significantly reduced after treatment with Rs-crt dsRNA for 36 h. Using plant-mediated RNAi, we confirmed that Rs-crt expression was significantly inhibited in the nematodes, and resistance to R. similis was significantly improved in transgenic tomato plants. Plant-mediated RNAi-induced silencing of Rs-crt could be effectively transmitted to the F2 generation of R. similis; however, the silencing effect of Rs-crt induced by in vitro RNAi was no longer detectable in F1 and F2 nematodes. Thus, Rs-crt is essential for the reproduction and pathogenicity of R. similis. PMID:26061142

  16. Role of calreticulin in the sensitivity of myocardiac H9c2 cells to oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yoshito; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Kondo, Takahito

    2006-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), a Ca2+-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a vital role in cardiac physiology and pathology. Oxidative stress is a main cause of myocardiac apoptosis in the ischemic heart, but the function of CRT under oxidative stress is not fully understood. In the present study, the effect of overexpression of CRT on susceptibility to apoptosis under oxidative stress was examined using myocardiac H9c2 cells transfected with the CRT gene. Under oxidative stress due to H2O2, the CRT-overexpressing cells were highly susceptible to apoptosis compared with controls. In the overexpressing cells, the levels of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) were significantly increased by H2O2, whereas in controls, only a slight increase was observed. The H2O2-induced apoptosis was enhanced by the increase in [Ca2+]i caused by thapsigargin in control cells but was suppressed by BAPTA-AM, a cell-permeable Ca2+ chelator in the CRT-overexpressing cells, indicating the importance of the level of [Ca2+]i in the sensitivity to H2O2-induced apoptosis. Suppression of CRT by the introduction of the antisense cDNA of CRT enhanced cytoprotection against oxidative stress compared with controls. Furthermore, we found that the levels of activity of calpain and caspase-12 were elevated through the regulation of [Ca2+]i in the CRT-overexpressing cells treated with H2O2 compared with controls. Thus we conclude that the level of CRT regulates the sensitivity to apoptosis under oxidative stress due to H2O2 through a change in Ca2+ homeostasis and the regulation of the Ca2+-calpain-caspase-12 pathway in myocardiac cells. PMID:16135540

  17. Artificial feeding of Rhipicephalus microplus female ticks with anti calreticulin serum do not influence tick and Babesia bigemina acquisition.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Sandra; Merino, Octávio; Lérias, Joana; Domingues, Nuno; Mosqueda, Juan; de la Fuente, José; Domingos, Ana

    2015-02-01

    Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites considered the principal vectors of disease among animals. Rhipicephalus microplus and R. annulatus ticks are the most important vectors for Babesia bigemina and B. bovis, two of the most important intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites species in cattle, responsible for babesiosis which together with anaplasmosis account for substantial economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. Anti-tick vaccines are a proved alternative to traditional tick and tick borne diseases control methods but are still limited primarily due to the lack of effective antigens. Subsequently to the identification of antigens the validation is a laborious work often expensive. Tick artificial feeding, is a low cost alternative to test antigens allowing achieving critical data. Herein, R. microplus females were successfully artificially fed using capillary tubes. Calreticulin (CRT) protein, which in a previous study has been identified as being involved in B. bigemina infection in R. annulatus ticks, was expressed as recombinant protein (rCRT) in an E. coli expression system and antibodies raised against rCRT. Anti-rCRT serum was supplemented to a blood meal, offered to partially engorged R. microplus females and their effect in feeding process as well as infection by B. bigemina was analyzed. No significant reductions in tick and egg weight were observed when ticks fed with anti-rCRT serum. Furthermore, B. bigemina infection levels did not show a statistically significant decrease when ticks fed with anti-rCRT antibodies. Results suggest that CRT is not a suitable candidate for cattle vaccination trials. PMID:25262467

  18. The Ca(2+) status of the endoplasmic reticulum is altered by induction of calreticulin expression in transgenic plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persson, S.; Wyatt, S. E.; Love, J.; Thompson, W. F.; Robertson, D.; Boss, W. F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores in plant cells, we generated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; NT1) suspension cells and Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of calreticulin (CRT), an ER-localized Ca(2+)-binding protein. NT1 cells and Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a maize (Zea mays) CRT gene in both sense and antisense orientations under the control of an Arabidopsis heat shock promoter. ER-enriched membrane fractions from NT1 cells were used to examine how altered expression of CRT affects Ca(2+) uptake and release. We found that a 2.5-fold increase in CRT led to a 2-fold increase in ATP-dependent (45)Ca(2+) accumulation in the ER-enriched fraction compared with heat-shocked wild-type controls. Furthermore, after treatment with the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin, ER microsomes from NT1 cells overproducing CRT showed a 2-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) released, and a 2- to 3-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) retained compared with wild type. These data indicate that altering the production of CRT affects the ER Ca(2+) pool. In addition, CRT transgenic Arabidopsis plants were used to determine if altered CRT levels had any physiological effects. We found that the level of CRT in heat shock-induced CRT transgenic plants correlated positively with the retention of chlorophyll when the plants were transferred from Ca(2+)-containing medium to Ca(2+)-depleted medium. Together these data are consistent with the hypothesis that increasing CRT in the ER increases the ER Ca(2+) stores and thereby enhances the survival of plants grown in low Ca(2+) medium.

  19. Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

  20. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  1. Performance of catalyzed hydrazine in field applications

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, T.B.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of newly developed oxygen scavengers for boilers is often compared to sulfite and hydrazine. Catalyzed hydrazine out-performs hydrazine and might be preferred when catalyzed sulfite cannot be used. Data from a Midwest Utility confirms that, under field conditions, catalyzed hydrazine out-performance hydrazine and carbohydrazine when feedwater oxygen and iron levels were critical. Catalyzed hydrazine might be preferred when high performance and economics are the primary concerns.

  2. Identification of Up- and Down-Regulated Proteins in Pemetrexed-Resistant Human Lung Adenocarcinoma: Flavin Reductase and Calreticulin Play Key Roles in the Development of Pemetrexed-Associated Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsiu-Chuan; Chen, Jing-Yi; Lin, Dai-Ying; Wen, Yueh-Feng; Lin, Chi-Chen; Lin, Sheng-Hao; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Chung, Ting-Wen; Liao, En-Chi; Chen, Ying-Jen; Wei, Yu-Shan; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Chan, Hong-Lin

    2015-11-01

    Drug resistance is one of the major causes of cancer chemotherapy failure. In the current study, we used a pair of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and the pemetrexed-resistant A549/PEM cells, as a model to monitor resistance-dependent cellular responses and identify potential therapeutic targets. By means of 2D differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), we investigated the global protein expression alterations induced by pemetrexed treatment and resistance. The proteomic result revealed that pemetrexed exposure obviously altered the expression of 81 proteins in the A549 cells, whereas no significant response was observed in the similarly treated A549/PEM cells, hence implying an association between these proteins and the drug-specific response. Moreover, 72 proteins including flavin reductase and calreticulin demonstrated differential expression between the A549 and A549/PEM cells, indicating baseline resistance. Additional tests employed siRNA silencing, protein overexpression, cell viability analysis, and analysis of apoptosis to examine and confirm the potency of flavin reductase and calreticulin proteins in the development of pemetrexed resistance. In summary, by using a proteomic approach, we identified numerous proteins, including flavin reductase and calreticulin, involved in pemetrexed drug resistance-developing mechanisms. Our results provide useful diagnostic markers and therapeutic candidates for pemetrexed-resistant lung cancer treatment. PMID:26452990

  3. Gold-Catalyzed Synthesis of Heterocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcadi, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Synthesis of Heterocycles via Gold-Catalyzed Heteroatom Addition to Unsaturated C-C Bonds * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Cyclization of Polyunsaturated Compounds * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds via ?-Oxo Gold Carbenoid * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Cycloaddition Reactions * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Activation of Carbonyl Groups and Alcohols * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds through Gold-Mediated C-H Bond Functionalization * Gold-Catalyzed Domino Cyclization/Oxidative Coupling Reactions * Conclusions * References

  4. Catalyzed oxidation for nanowire growth.

    PubMed

    Tai, Kaiping; Sun, Ke; Huang, Bo; Dillon, Shen J

    2014-04-11

    A simple, low-cost and scalable route to substrate-supported nanowire growth is reported based on catalyzed oxidation. The process shares common features with popular catalyzed nanowire growth techniques such as vapor-liquid-solid (VLS), vapor-solid-solid (VSS), or vapor-quasi-solid (VQS) that use catalyst nanoparticles to direct the deposition of reactants from the vapor phase. Catalyzed oxidation for nanowire growth (CONG) utilizes catalyzed anion (e.g.O2) reduction from the vapor phase and metal (e.g.Fe) oxidation from the substrate to produce oxide nanowires (e.g.Fe3O4). The approach represents a new class of nanowire growth methodology that may be applied to a broad range of systems. CONG does not require expensive chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition equipment and can be implemented at intermediate temperatures (400-600?C) in a standard laboratory furnace. This work also demonstrates a passive approach to catalyst deposition that allows the process to be implemented simply with no lithography or physical vapor deposition steps. This effort validates the general approach by synthesizing MnO, Fe3O4, WO3, MgO, TiO2, ZnO, ReO3, and NiO nanowires via CONG. The process produces single crystalline nanowires that can be grown to high aspect ratio and as high-density nanowire forests. Applications of the as-grown Fe3O4 and ReO3 nanowires for lithium ion battery systems are demonstrated to display high areal energy density and power. PMID:24633154

  5. Catalyzed oxidation for nanowire growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Kaiping; Sun, Ke; Huang, Bo; Dillon, Shen J.

    2014-04-01

    A simple, low-cost and scalable route to substrate-supported nanowire growth is reported based on catalyzed oxidation. The process shares common features with popular catalyzed nanowire growth techniques such as vapor-liquid-solid (VLS), vapor-solid-solid (VSS), or vapor-quasi-solid (VQS) that use catalyst nanoparticles to direct the deposition of reactants from the vapor phase. Catalyzed oxidation for nanowire growth (CONG) utilizes catalyzed anion (e.g. O2) reduction from the vapor phase and metal (e.g. Fe) oxidation from the substrate to produce oxide nanowires (e.g. Fe3O4). The approach represents a new class of nanowire growth methodology that may be applied to a broad range of systems. CONG does not require expensive chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition equipment and can be implemented at intermediate temperatures (400-600?C) in a standard laboratory furnace. This work also demonstrates a passive approach to catalyst deposition that allows the process to be implemented simply with no lithography or physical vapor deposition steps. This effort validates the general approach by synthesizing MnO, Fe3O4, WO3, MgO, TiO2, ZnO, ReO3, and NiO nanowires via CONG. The process produces single crystalline nanowires that can be grown to high aspect ratio and as high-density nanowire forests. Applications of the as-grown Fe3O4 and ReO3 nanowires for lithium ion battery systems are demonstrated to display high areal energy density and power.

  6. Calreticulin expression in relation to exchangeable Ca(2+) level that changes dynamically during anthesis, progamic phase, and double fertilization in Petunia.

    PubMed

    Lenartowski, Robert; Suwi?ska, Anna; Lenartowska, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) plays essential roles in plant sexual reproduction, but the sites and the mechanism of Ca(2+) mobile storage during pollen-pistil interactions have not been fully defined. Because the Ca(2+)-buffering protein calreticulin (CRT) is able to bind and sequester Ca(2+), it can serve as a mobile intracellular store of easily releasable Ca(2+) and control its local concentration within the cytoplasm. Our previous studies showed an enhanced expression of Petunia hybrida CRT gene (PhCRT) during pistil transmitting tract maturation, pollen germination and tube outgrowth on the stigma, gamete fusion, and early embryogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that elevated expression of CRT results in the accumulation of this protein in response to anthesis, pollination, sperm cells deposition within the receptive synergid and fertilization, when the level of exchangeable Ca(2+) changes dynamically. CRT localizes mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments in the pistil transmitting tract cells, germinated pollen/tubes, and sporophytic/gametophytic cells of the ovule and corresponds with loosely bound Ca(2+). Additionally, the immunogold research shows, for the first time, highly selective CRT distribution in specific nuclear sub-domains. On the basis of our results, we discuss the possible functions of CRT with respect to the critical role of Ca(2+) homeostasis during key events of the multi-step process of generative reproduction in angiosperms. PMID:25262422

  7. Is it all That Bad When Living with an Intracellular Protozoan? The Role of Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin in Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ramrez-Toloza, Galia; Aguilar-Guzmn, Lorena; Valck, Carolina; Abello, Paula; Ferreira, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The immune system protects against disease, but may aberrantly silence immunity against altered self, with consequent development of malignancies. Among the components of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), important in immunity, is calreticulin (CRT) that, in spite of its residence in the ER, can be translocated to the exterior. Trypanosoma cruzi is the agent of Chagas disease, one of the most important global neglected infections, affecting several hundred thousand people. The syndrome, mainly digestive and circulatory, affects only one-third of those infected. The anti-tumor effects of the infection are known for several decades, but advances in the identification of responsible T. cruzi molecules are scarce. We have shown that T. cruzi CRT (TcCRT) better executes the antiangiogenic and anti-tumor effects of mammal CRT and its N-terminus vasostatin. In this regard, recombinant TcCRT (rTcCRT) and/or its N-terminus inhibit angiogenesis in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. TcCRT also inhibits the growth of murine adenocarcinomas and melanomas. Finally, rTcCRT fully reproduces the anti-tumor effect of T. cruzi infection in mice. Thus, we hypothesize that, the long reported anti-tumor effect of T. cruzi infection is mediated at least in part by TcCRT. PMID:25629005

  8. Soluble Calreticulin Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor-? (TNF-?) and Interleukin (IL)-6 Production by Macrophages through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and NF?B Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Duo, Cui-Cui; Gong, Fang-Yuan; He, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yan-Mei; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We have recently reported that soluble calreticulin (CRT) accumulates in the sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. Moreover, following self-oligomerization, soluble recombinant CRT (rCRT) polypeptides exhibit potent immunostimulatory activities including macrophage activation in vitro and antibody induction in vivo. This study was designed to further investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms for soluble CRT-induced macrophage activation. Treatment of murine macrophages with oligomerized rCRT (OrCRT) led to (i) TNF-? and IL-6 transcription and protein expression without affecting intracellular mRNA stability; and (ii) I?B? degradation, NF?B phosphorylation and sustained MAPK phosphorylation in cells. Inhibition of IKK and JNK in macrophages substantially abrogated production of TNF-? and IL-6 induced by OrCRT, while ERK suppression only reduced IL-6 expression in parallel experiments. In vitro, fucoidan, a scavenger receptor A (SRA)-specific ligand, significantly reduced the uptake of FITC-labeled OrCRT by macrophages and subsequent MAPK and NF?B activation, thereby suggesting SRA as one of the potential cell surface receptors for soluble CRT. Together, these data indicate that soluble CRT in oligomerized form could play a pathogenic role in autoimmune diseases through induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-? and IL-6) by macrophages via MAPK-NF?B signaling pathway. PMID:24566135

  9. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  10. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, John F.; Pouy, Mark J.

    Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution has become a valuable method to prepare products from the addition of nucleophiles at the more substituted carbon of an allyl unit. The most active and selective catalysts contain a phosphoramidite ligand possessing at least one arylethyl substituent on the nitrogen atom of the ligand. In these systems, the active catalyst is generated by a base-induced cyclometalation at the methyl group of this substituent to generate an iridium metalacycle bound by the COD ligand of the [Ir(COD)Cl]2 precursor and one additional labile dative ligand. Such complexes catalyze the reactions of linear allylic esters with alkylamines, arylamines, phenols, alcohols, imides, carbamates, ammonia, enolates and enolate equivalents, as well as typical stabilized carbon nucleophiles generated from malonates and cyanoesters. Iridium catalysts for enantioselective allylic substitution have also been generated from phosphorus ligands with substituents bound by heteroatoms, and an account of the studies of such systems, along with a description of the development of iridium catalysts is included.

  11. Molecular cloning and transcriptional activity of a new Petunia calreticulin gene involved in pistil transmitting tract maturation, progamic phase, and double fertilization.

    PubMed

    Lenartowski, Robert; Suwi?ska, Anna; Prusi?ska, Justyna; Gumowski, Krzysztof; Lenartowska, Marta

    2014-02-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed Ca?-binding protein in multicellular eukaryotes. As an endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein, CRT plays a key role in many cellular processes including Ca? storage and release, protein synthesis, and molecular chaperoning in both animals and plants. CRT has long been suggested to play a role in plant sexual reproduction. To begin to address this possibility, we cloned and characterized the full-length cDNA of a new CRT gene (PhCRT) from Petunia. The deduced amino acid sequence of PhCRT shares homology with other known plant CRTs, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that the PhCRT cDNA clone belongs to the CRT1/CRT2 subclass. Northern blot analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization were used to assess PhCRT gene expression in different parts of the pistil before pollination, during subsequent stages of the progamic phase, and at fertilization. The highest level of PhCRT mRNA was detected in the stigma-style part of the unpollinated pistil 1 day before anthesis and during the early stage of the progamic phase, when pollen is germinated and tubes outgrow on the stigma. In the ovary, PhCRT mRNA was most abundant after pollination and reached maximum at the late stage of the progamic phase, when pollen tubes grow into the ovules and fertilization occurs. PhCRT mRNA transcripts were seen to accumulate predominantly in transmitting tract cells of maturing and receptive stigma, in germinated pollen/growing tubes, and at the micropylar region of the ovule, where the female gametophyte is located. From these results, we suggest that PhCRT gene expression is up-regulated during secretory activity of the pistil transmitting tract cells, pollen germination and outgrowth of the tubes, and then during gamete fusion and early embryogenesis. PMID:24213153

  12. BEND3 is involved in the human-specific repression of calreticulin: Implication for the evolution of higher brain functions in human.

    PubMed

    Aghajanirefah, A; Nguyen, L N; Ohadi, M

    2016-01-15

    Recent emerging evidence indicates that changes in gene expression levels are linked to human evolution. We have previously reported a human-specific nucleotide in the promoter sequence of the calreticulin (CALR) gene at position -220C, which is the site of action of valproic acid. Reversion of this nucleotide to the ancestral A-allele has been detected in patients with degrees of deficit in higher brain cognitive functions. This mutation has since been reported in the 1000 genomes database at an approximate frequency of <0.0004 in humans (rs138452745). In the study reported here, we present update on the status of rs138452745 across evolution, based on the Ensembl and NCBI databases. The DNA pulldown assay was also used to identify the proteins binding to the C- and A-alleles, using two cell lines, SK-N-BE and HeLa. Consistent with our previous findings, the C-allele is human-specific, and the A-allele is the rule across all other species (N=38). This nucleotide resides in a block of 12-nucleotides that is strictly conserved across evolution. The DNA pulldown experiments revealed that in both SK-N-BE and HeLa cells, the transcription repressor BEN domain containing 3 (BEND3) binds to the human-specific C-allele, whereas the nuclear factor I (NFI) family members, NF1A, B, C, and X, specifically bind to the ancestral A-allele. This binding pattern is consistent with a previously reported decreased promoter activity of the C-allele vs. the A-allele. We propose that there is a link between binding of BEND3 to the CALR rs138452745 C-allele and removal of NFI binding site from this nucleotide, and the evolution of human-specific higher brain functions. To our knowledge, CALR rs138452745 is the first instance of enormous nucleotide conservation across evolution, except in the human species. PMID:26481236

  13. The generality of kinase-catalyzed biotinylation.

    PubMed

    Senevirathne, Chamara; Embogama, D Maheeka; Anthony, Thilani A; Fouda, Ahmed E; Pflum, Mary Kay H

    2016-01-01

    Kinase-catalyzed protein phosphorylation is involved in a wide variety of cellular events. Development of methods to monitor phosphoproteins in normal and diseased states is critical to fully characterize cell signaling. Towards phosphoprotein analysis tools, our lab reported kinase-catalyzed labeling where γ-phosphate modified ATP analogs are utilized by kinases to label peptides or protein substrates with a functional tag. In particular, the ATP-biotin analog was developed for kinase-catalyzed biotinylation. However, kinase-catalyzed labeling has been tested rigorously with only a few kinases, preventing use of ATP-biotin as a general tool. Here, biotinylation experiments, gel or HPLC-based quantification, and kinetic measurements indicated that twenty-five kinases throughout the kinome tree accepted ATP-biotin as a cosubstrate. With this rigorous characterization of ATP-biotin compatibility, kinase-catalyzed labeling is now immediately useful for studying phosphoproteins and characterizing the role of phosphorylation in various biological events. PMID:26672511

  14. Silver-Catalyzed Vinylogous Fluorination of Vinyldiazoacetates

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Changming

    2013-01-01

    A silver-catalyzed vinylogous fluorination of vinyldiazoacetates to generate ?-fluoro-?,?-unsaturated carbonyls is presented. Application of this method to the fluorination of farnesol and steroid derivatives was achieved. PMID:24228754

  15. Iron Catalyzed Cycloaddition of Alkynenitriles and Alkynes

    PubMed Central

    DSouza, Brendan R.; Lane, Timothy K.

    2011-01-01

    The combination of Fe(OAc)2 and an electron-donating, sterically-hindered pyridyl bisimine ligand catalyzes the cycloaddition of alkynenitriles and alkynes. A variety of substituted pyridines were obtained in good yields. PMID:21557582

  16. In Silico and In Vitro Studies on the Protein-Protein Interactions between Brugia malayi Immunomodulatory Protein Calreticulin and Human C1q

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sunita; Gupta, Smita; Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Doharey, Pawan Kumar; Verma, Anita; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Filarial parasites modulate effective immune response of their host by releasing a variety of immunomodulatory molecules, which help in the long persistence of the parasite within the host. The present study was aimed to characterize an immunomodulatory protein of Brugia malayi and its interaction with the host immune component at the structural and functional level. Our findings showed that Brugia malayi Calreticulin (BmCRT) is responsible for the prevention of classical complement pathway activation via its interaction with the first component C1q of the human host. This was confirmed by inhibition of C1q dependent lysis of immunoglobulin-sensitized Red Blood Cells (S-RBCs). This is possibly the first report which predicts CRT-C1q interaction on the structural content of proteins to explain how BmCRT inhibits this pathway. The molecular docking of BmCRT-C1q complex indicated that C1qB chain (IgG/M and CRP binding sites on C1q) played a major role in the interaction with conserved and non-conserved regions of N and P domain of BmCRT. Out of 37 amino acids of BmCRT involved in the interaction, nine amino acids (Pro126, Glu132, His147, Arg151, His153, Met154, Lys156, Ala196 and Lys212) are absent in human CRT. Both ELISA and in silico analysis showed the significant role of Ca+2 in BmCRT-HuC1q complex formation and deactivation of C1r2–C1s2. Molecular dynamics studies of BmCRT-HuC1q complex showed a deviation from ∼0.4 nm to ∼1.0 nm. CD analyses indicated that BmCRT is composed of 49.6% α helix, 9.6% β sheet and 43.6% random coil. These findings provided valuable information on the architecture and chemistry of BmCRT-C1q interaction and supported the hypothesis that BmCRT binds with huC1q at their targets (IgG/M, CRP) binding sites. This interaction enables the parasite to interfere with the initial stage of host complement activation, which might be helpful in parasites establishment. These results might be utilized for help in blocking the C1q/CRT interaction and preventing parasite infection. PMID:25184227

  17. Anticancer effects of adenovirus-mediated calreticulin and melanoma-associated antigen 3 expression on non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinli; Sun, Nan; Dong, Yinan; Li, Jijia; Liu, Yang; Ren, Yi; Yang, Chengliang; Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Yang; Tong, Zhuang; Ding, Jianqiao; Zhao, Xiang; Liu, Yu; He, Rong; Xu, Ke; Wu, Yongkai; Huang, Yanfeng; Wang, Hui; Tao, Xiujuan; Liu, Yongyu

    2015-04-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is highly prevalent and needs novel therapies. Melanoma-associated antigen 3 (MAGE-A3) is a lung cancer antigen and calreticulin (CALR) can modulate immune responses. Our previous study has shown that up-regulated MAGE-A3 and CALR expression inhibits the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells. In this study, we examined the effect of adenovirus (Ad)-mediated MAGE-A3 and/or CALR expression on the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of human NSCLC cells and on the vascular tube formation of human endothelial cells as well as on dendritic cell (DC) activation and induced CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity in vitro. We found that low levels of CALR and MAGE-A3 were expressed by A549 cells, but only very low CALR was expressed by DC. Up-regulated CALR and MAGE-A3 expression by infection with Ad-CALR/MAGE-A3 significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion, but promoted the apoptosis of A549 cells. Up-regulated CALR and MAGE-A3 expression significantly inhibited cyclin D1 expression and the AKT, ERK1/2 and NF-?B expression and phosphorylation in A549 cells. Up-regulated CALR expression inhibited the tube formation in human endothelial cells. Up-regulated CALR and MAGE-A3 expression synergistically enhanced classical DC activation by enhancing IL-12, but reducing IL-10 secretion. Furthermore, CTLs induced by up-regulated CALR and MAGE-A3 expressing DCs synergistically triggered A549 cell apoptosis, which was abrogated by treatment with anti-HLA I, but not anti-HLA II antibodies. Moreover, CTLs induced by CALR and MAGE-A3-expressing DCs had a higher frequency of A549-specific IFN-?-secreting T cells. Our data indicated that up-regulated CALR and MAGE-A3 expression inhibited the carcinogenesis of NSCLC by modulating the AKT, ERK MAPK and NF-?B signaling and enhanced classical DC activation and MAGE-A3-specific CTL cytotoxicity. Therefore, our findings may provide new insights in understanding the role of CALR in modulating antigen-specific T cell immunity and may aid in the design of new therapies for NSCLC. PMID:25704851

  18. Calreticulin acts as an adjuvant to promote dendritic cell maturation and enhances antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinli; Li, Jijia; Liu, Yu; Ding, Jianqiao; Tong, Zhuang; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Yongyu

    2016-02-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy has promising for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Melanoma-associated antigen 3 (MAGE-A3) is a tumor-specific antigen and expressed in approximately 35-40% of NSCLC tissues. Calreticulin (CALR) is a protein chaperone and can enhance DC maturation and antigen presentation. In this study, we evaluated the adjuvant activity of CALR in human DC maturation and their capacity to induce MAGE-A3-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to NSCLC in vitro. Infection with recombinant Ad-CALR and/or Ad-MAGE-A3, but not with control Ads, induced CALR and/or MAGE-A3 expression in DCs. Infection with Ad-CALR significantly increased the percentages of CD80+, CD83+, CD86+ and HLA-DR+ DCs and IL-12 secretion, but reduced IL-10 production in DCs. Co-culture of autologous lymphocytes with DC-Ad-CALR or DC-Ad-CM significantly increased the numbers of induced CD8+ CTLs. The percentages of IFN?-secreting CTLs responding to SK-LU-1 and NCI-H522 NSCLC, but not to non-tumor NL-20 cells in Ad-C-CTL, Ad-M-CTL and Ad-CM-CTL were significantly higher than that of DC-CTL and Ad-null-CTL. Ad-C-CTL, Ad-M-CTL and Ad-CM-CTL, but not control DC-CTL and Ad-null-CTL, induced higher frequency of MAGE-A3+HLA-A2+ NCI-H-522 cell apoptosis, but did not affect the survival of MAGE-A3+HLA-A2- SK-LU-1 and non-tumor NL20 cells in vitro. Treatment with anti-HLA-I antibody, but not with anti-HLA-II, dramatically diminished the cytotoxicity of Ad-CM-CTLs against NCI-H522 cells. Our data indicated that CALR acted as an adjuvant to promote DC maturation, which induced CTL development and enhanced MAGE-A3-specific CTL cytotoxicity against NSCLC. PMID:26702740

  19. Can laccases catalyze bond cleavage in lignin?

    PubMed

    Munk, Line; Sitarz, Anna K; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Mikkelsen, J Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Modification of lignin is recognized as an important aspect of the successful refining of lignocellulosic biomass, and enzyme-assisted processing and upcycling of lignin is receiving significant attention in the literature. Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are taking the centerstage of this attention, since these enzymes may help degrading lignin, using oxygen as the oxidant. Laccases can catalyze polymerization of lignin, but the question is whether and how laccases can directly catalyze modification of lignin via catalytic bond cleavage. Via a thorough review of the available literature and detailed illustrations of the putative laccase catalyzed reactions, including the possible reactions of the reactive radical intermediates taking place after the initial oxidation of the phenol-hydroxyl groups, we show that i) Laccase activity is able to catalyze bond cleavage in low molecular weight phenolic lignin model compounds; ii) For laccases to catalyze inter-unit bond cleavage in lignin substrates, the presence of a mediator system is required. Clearly, the higher the redox potential of the laccase enzyme, the broader the range of substrates, including o- and p-diphenols, aminophenols, methoxy-substituted phenols, benzenethiols, polyphenols, and polyamines, which may be oxidized. In addition, the currently available analytical methods that can be used to detect enzyme catalyzed changes in lignin are summarized, and an improved nomenclature for unequivocal interpretation of the action of laccases on lignin is proposed. PMID:25560931

  20. Attractor Explosions and Catalyzed Vacuum Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Silverstein, Eva; Starr, David

    2006-05-05

    We present a mechanism for catalyzed vacuum bubble production obtained by combining moduli stabilization with a generalized attractor phenomenon in which moduli are sourced by compact objects. This leads straightforwardly to a class of examples in which the Hawking decay process for black holes unveils a bubble of a different vacuum from the ambient one, generalizing the new endpoint for Hawking evaporation discovered recently by Horowitz. Catalyzed vacuum bubble production can occur for both charged and uncharged bodies, including Schwarzschild black holes for which massive particles produced in the Hawking process can trigger vacuum decay. We briefly discuss applications of this process to the population and stability of metastable vacua.

  1. Oligonucleotide formation catalyzed by mononucleotide matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Pb(2+)-containing precipitates of mononucleotides form matrices which catalyze the self-condensation of nucleotide 5-prime-phosphorimidazolides and their condensation with nucleosides. The reactions exhibit base-pairing specificity between matrix nucleotide and substrate, and usually follow the Watson-Crick pairing rules. Although purine polynucleotides do not facilitate the oligomerization of pyrimidine nucleotide monomers in solution, it is interesting that purine-containing matrices do catalyze such a reaction. The significance of the results in the context of the prebiotic evolution of polynucleotides is discussed.

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Acetylation of Arenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of aryl methyl ketones is reported. The transformation involves the Pd-catalyzed coupling of an acyl anion equivalent, acetyltrimethylsilane, with aryl bromides to afford the corresponding acetylated arenes in synthetically useful yields. The methodology is tolerant of heterocycles and provides a new method for arene functionalization. PMID:24405108

  3. Palladium-catalyzed aminosulfonylation of aryl halides.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Bao; Emmett, Edward J; Willis, Michael C

    2010-11-24

    The palladium-catalyzed three-component coupling of aryl iodides, sulfur dioxide, and hydrazines to deliver aryl N-aminosulfonamides is described. The colorless crystalline solid DABCO(SO(2))(2) was used as a convenient source of sulfur dioxide. The reaction tolerates significant variation of both the aryl iodide and hydrazine coupling partners. PMID:21028814

  4. Zeolite 5A Catalyzed Etherification of Diphenylmethanol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.; Lightbody, Owen C.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment for the synthetic undergraduate laboratory is described in which zeolite 5A catalyzes the room temperature dehydration of diphenylmethanol, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOH, producing 1,1,1',1'-tetraphenyldimethyl ether, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOCH(C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]. The…

  5. Copper-Catalyzed Hydroamination of Terminal Allenes.

    PubMed

    Blieck, Rémi; Bahri, Janet; Taillefer, Marc; Monnier, Florian

    2016-03-18

    The ligand-free copper-catalyzed hydroamination of allenes has been accomplished in the presence of cyclic secondary amines or anilines derivatives. This novel methodology undergoes the selective generation of (E)-allylamines under smooth conditions with total regio- and stereoselectivity. PMID:26959973

  6. Data, Leadership, and Catalyzing Culture Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, R. Todd; Trower, Cathy A.

    2012-01-01

    It is crucial to understand today's tenure-track workers so that colleges and universities can continue to attract and retain a large subset of them by understanding and supporting their satisfaction and success at work. In this article, the authors talk about data, leadership, and catalyzing culture change. They discuss data use in the academy

  7. Data, Leadership, and Catalyzing Culture Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, R. Todd; Trower, Cathy A.

    2012-01-01

    It is crucial to understand today's tenure-track workers so that colleges and universities can continue to attract and retain a large subset of them by understanding and supporting their satisfaction and success at work. In this article, the authors talk about data, leadership, and catalyzing culture change. They discuss data use in the academy…

  8. Zeolite 5A Catalyzed Etherification of Diphenylmethanol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.; Lightbody, Owen C.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment for the synthetic undergraduate laboratory is described in which zeolite 5A catalyzes the room temperature dehydration of diphenylmethanol, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOH, producing 1,1,1',1'-tetraphenyldimethyl ether, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOCH(C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]. The

  9. Copper Hydride Catalyzed Reductive Claisen Rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kong Ching; Ng, Elvis; Wong, Wing-Tak; Chiu, Pauline

    2016-03-01

    An efficient reductive Claisen rearrangement, catalyzed by in situ generated copper hydride and stoichiometric in diethoxymethylsilane, has been developed. Yields of up to 95 % with good to excellent diastereoselectivities were observed in this reaction. Mechanistic studies showed that the stereospecific rearrangement proceeded via a chair transition state of (E)-silyl ketene acetals as intermediates and not via the copper enolates. PMID:26780971

  10. Mechanochemical ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis.

    PubMed

    Do, Jean-Louis; Mottillo, Cristina; Tan, Davin; trukil, Vjekoslav; Fri?i?, Tomislav

    2015-02-25

    We describe the development of a mechanochemical approach for Ru-catalyzed olefin metathesis, including cross-metathesis and ring-closing metathesis. The method uses commercially available catalysts to achieve high-yielding, rapid, room-temperature metathesis of solid or liquid olefins on a multigram scale using either no or only a catalytic amount of a liquid. PMID:25668586

  11. Enantioselective iridium-catalyzed allylic arylation.

    PubMed

    Polet, Damien; Rathgeb, Xavier; Falciola, Caroline A; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; El Hajjaji, Samir; Alexakis, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    We describe herein the development of the first iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution using arylzinc nucleophiles. High enantioselectivities were obtained from the reactions, which used commercially available Grignard reagents as the starting materials. This methodology was also shown to be compatible with halogen/metal exchange reactions. Its synthetic potential is demonstrated by its application towards the formal synthesis of (+)-sertraline. PMID:19072966

  12. Iridium-catalyzed enantioselective polyene cyclization.

    PubMed

    Schafroth, Michael A; Sarlah, David; Krautwald, Simon; Carreira, Erick M

    2012-12-19

    A highly enantioselective polycyclization method has been developed using the combination of Lewis acid activation with iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution. This strategy relies on direct use of branched, racemic allylic alcohols and furnishes a diverse and unique set of carbo- and heteropolycyclic ring systems in good yields and ?99% ee. PMID:23193947

  13. Copper-catalyzed ?-trifluoromethylation of conjugated hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Alexis; Jeamet, Emeric; Monteiro, Nuno; Bouyssi, Didier; Baudoin, Olivier

    2014-09-19

    The Cu-catalyzed direct ?-trifluoromethylation of ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde N,N-dibenzylhydrazones with Togni hypervalent iodine reagent is described. The reaction yields stereodefined CF3-alkenyl derivatives under mild conditions and is proposed to proceed via a radical process. PMID:25181453

  14. Microorganisms detected by enzyme-catalyzed reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vango, S. P.; Weetall, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Enzymes detect the presence of microorganisms in soils. The enzyme lysozymi is used to release the enzyme catalase from the microorganisms in a soil sample. The catalase catalyzes the decomposition of added hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen which is detected manometrically. The partial pressure of the oxygen serves as an index of the samples bacteria content.

  15. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C; Hu, Jianli; Hart,; Todd, R; Neuenschwander, Gary G

    2011-06-07

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  16. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hu, Jianli; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.

    2008-09-16

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  17. Cold fusion catalyzed by muons and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1990-10-01

    Two alternative methods have been suggested to produce fusion power at low temperature. The first, muon catalyzed fusion or MCF, uses muons to spontaneously catalyze fusion through the muon mesomolecule formation. Unfortunately, this method fails to generate enough fusion energy to supply the muons, by a factor of about ten. The physics of MCF is discussed, and a possible approach to increasing the number of MCF fusions generated by each muon is mentioned. The second method, which has become known as Cold Fusion,'' involves catalysis by electrons in electrolytic cells. The physics of this process, if it exists, is more mysterious than MCF. However, it now appears to be an artifact, the claims for its reality resting largely on experimental errors occurring in rather delicate experiments. However, a very low level of such fusion claimed by Jones may be real. Experiments in cold fusion will also be discussed.

  18. Stop-catalyzed baryogenesis beyond the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Andrey; Perelstein, Maxim; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Winslow, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Nonminimal supersymmetric models that predict a tree-level Higgs mass above the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) bound are well motivated by naturalness considerations. Indirect constraints on the stop sector parameters of such models are significantly relaxed compared to the MSSM; in particular, both stops can have weak-scale masses. We revisit the stop-catalyzed electroweak baryogenesis (EWB) scenario in this context. We find that the LHC measurements of the Higgs boson production and decay rates already rule out the possibility of stop-catalyzed EWB. We also introduce a gauge-invariant analysis framework that may generalize to other scenarios in which interactions outside the gauge sector drive the electroweak phase transition.

  19. Analytical rheology of metallocene-catalyzed polyethylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanbhag, Sachin; Takeh, Arsia

    2011-03-01

    A computational algorithm that seeks to invert the linear viscoelastic spectrum of single-site metallocene-catalyzed polyethylenes is presented. The algorithm uses a general linear rheological model of branched polymers as its underlying engine, and is based on a Bayesian formulation that transforms the inverse problem into a sampling problem. Given experimental rheological data on unknown single-site metallocene- catalyzed polyethylenes, it is able to quantitatively describe the range of values of weight-averaged molecular molecular weight, MW , and average branching density, bm , consistent with the data. The algorithm uses a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method to simulate the sampling problem. If, and when information about the molecular weight is available through supplementary experiments, such as chromatography or light scattering, it can easily be incorporated into the algorithm, as demonstrated. Financial support from NSF DMR 0953002.

  20. Cobalt-Catalyzed Alkenylzincation of Unfunctionalized Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junliang; Yoshikai, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    While transition metal catalyzed addition reactions of arylmetal reagents to unfunctionalized alkynes have been extensively developed in the last decade, analogous reactions using alkenylmetal reagents remain rare regardless of their potential utility for the synthesis of unsymmetrical 1,3-dienes. Reported herein is the development of a cobalt/diphosphine catalyst which promotes efficient and stereoselective addition of alkenylzinc reagents to unfunctionalized internal alkynes. The resulting dienylzinc species serve as versatile intermediates for further synthetic transformations. PMID:26555023

  1. Antiproton catalyzed microfission/fusion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Pi-Ren; Lewis, Raymond A.; Smith, Gerald A.; Newton, Richard; Dailey, James; Werthman, W. Lance; Chakrabarti, Suman

    1994-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) utilizing an antiproton catalyzed hybrid fission/fusion target is discussed as a potential energy source for interplanetary propulsion. A proof-of-principle experiment underway at Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB and antiproton trapping experiments at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, are presented. The ICAN propulsion concept is described and results of performance analyses are reviewed. Future work to further define the ICAN concept is outlined.

  2. Gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective cycloaddition reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary In recent years there have been extraordinary developments of gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective processes. This includes progress in the area of cycloaddition reactions, which are of particular interest due to their potential for the rapid construction of optically active cyclic products. In this article we will summarize some of the most remarkable examples, emphasizing reaction mechanisms and key intermediates involved in the processes. PMID:24204438

  3. Iodine-catalyzed etherification of morroniside.

    PubMed

    Sunghwa, Fortunatus; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Saiki, Ikuo; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we describe a highly selective etherification procedure of unprotected morroniside catalyzed by molecular iodine in acetone. The etherification reaction furnished 7-O-alkyl ether derivatives in reasonable yields within few hours under neutral conditions. Studies of the obtained products on cytotoxicity activity in colon 26-L5 cell line were examined. Among the tested compounds, 7-O-dodecylmorroniside showed moderate cytotoxic activity, having IC50 values equal to 20.9 microM. PMID:19122330

  4. Reductive Cyclopropanations Catalyzed by Dinuclear Nickel Complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You-Yun; Uyeda, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    Dinuclear Ni complexes supported by naphthyridine-diimine (NDI) ligands catalyze the reductive cyclopropanation of alkenes with CH2 Cl2 as the methylene source. The use of mild terminal reductants (Zn or Et2 Zn) confers significant functional-group tolerance, and the catalyst accommodates structurally and electronically diverse alkenes. Mononickel catalysts bearing related N chelates afford comparatively low cyclopropane yields (≤20 %). These results constitute an entry into catalytic carbene transformations from oxidized methylene precursors. PMID:26822193

  5. Interactive Muon Catalyzed and Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cripps, Gregory Ronald

    Energetic viability calculations of nuclear fusion energy systems based on two distinct approaches to a symbiotic combination of Muon Catalyzed Fusion (mu CF) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) have been performed. The first approach involves a deuterium-tritium ICF pellet ignited by muon catalyzed fusion heating; the second approach is based on the energy generated by muCF reactions in deuterium-tritium compressed to high density. Viability evaluations rely upon modelling of identified critical energy gain parameters for energy systems based upon each of the muCF-ICF approaches. Analysis leading to viability evaluation consists of outlining the general technological requirements of an interactive muCF-ICF system and developing muon catalyzed reaction models in conditions found in high density compressions. An energy system based on muCF in compressed deuterium-tritium was found to be non-viable due primarily to the sharp decrease in the muon induced fusion rate for temperatures greater than 40 eV. The viability of a fusion energy system based on the mu CF triggered spark ignition is favourable provided that technology can be developed which allows for the deposition of sufficient quantities of muons into a very small volume within a very short duration.

  6. Imidazole catalyzes chlorination by unreactive primary chloramines.

    PubMed

    Roemeling, Margo D; Williams, Jared; Beckman, Joseph S; Hurst, James K

    2015-05-01

    Hypochlorous acid and simple chloramines (RNHCl) are stable biologically derived chlorinating agents. In general, the chlorination potential of HOCl is much greater than that of RNHCl, allowing it to oxidize or chlorinate a much wider variety of reaction partners. However, in this study we demonstrate by kinetic analysis that the reactivity of RNHCl can be dramatically promoted by imidazole and histidyl model compounds via intermediary formation of the corresponding imidazole chloramines. Two biologically relevant reactions were investigated--loss of imidazole-catalyzed chlorinating capacity and phenolic ring chlorination using fluorescein and the tyrosine analog, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPA). HOCl reacted stoichiometrically with imidazole, N-acetylhistidine (NAH), or imidazoleacetic acid to generate the corresponding imidazole chloramines which subsequently decomposed. Chloramine (NH2Cl) also underwent a markedly accelerated loss in chlorinating capacity when NAH was present, although in this case N-?-acetylhistidine chloramine (NAHCl) did not accumulate, indicating that the catalytic intermediate must be highly reactive. Mixing HOCl with 1-methylimidazole (MeIm) led to very rapid loss in chlorinating capacity via formation of a highly reactive chlorinium ion (MeImCl(+)) intermediate; this behavior suggests that the reactive forms of the analogous imidazole chloramines are their conjugate acids, e.g., the imidazolechlorinium ion (HImCl(+)). HOCl-generated imidazole chloramine (ImCl) reacted rapidly with fluorescein in a specific acid-catalyzed second-order reaction to give 3'-monochloro and 3',5'-dichloro products. Equilibrium constants for the transchlorination reactions HOCl + HIm = H2O + ImCl and NH2Cl + HIm = NH3 + ImCl were estimated from the dependence of the rate constants on [HIm]/[HOCl] and literature data. Acid catalysis again suggests that the actual chlorinating agent is HImCl(+); consistent with this interpretation, MeIm markedly catalyzed fluorescein chlorination by HOCl. Time-dependent imidazole-catalyzed HPA chlorination by NH2Cl was also demonstrated by product analyses. Quantitative assessment of the data suggests that physiological levels of histidyl groups will react with primary chloramines to generate a flux of imidazole chloramine sufficient to catalyze biological chlorination via HImCl(+), particularly in environments that generate high concentrations of HOCl such as the neutrophil phagosome. PMID:25660996

  7. Ferric microperoxidase-11 catalyzes peroxynitrite isomerization.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Leboffe, Loris; Santucci, Roberto; Coletta, Massimo

    2015-03-01

    Microperoxidase-11 (MP11) is an undecapeptide derived from horse heart cytochrome c offering the possibility to study the reactivity of the heme group relatively unshielded by the protein. Here, the peroxynitrite isomerization to NO3(-) catalyzed by ferric MP11 (MP11-Fe(III)) is reported. Data were obtained between pH3.6 and 8.1, at 20.0C. The value of the second-order rate constant (kon) for peroxynitrite isomerization to NO3(-) by MP11-Fe(III) decreases from (1.10.1)10(5)M(-1)s(-1), at pH3.6, to (6.10.6)10(3)M(-1)s(-1), at pH8.1. The pH dependence of kon (pKa=6.9) suggests that peroxynitrous acid reacts preferentially with MP11-Fe(III). The MP11-Fe(III)-catalyzed isomerization of peroxynitrite to NO3(-) has been ascribed to the reactive penta-coordinated heme-Fe atom of MP11-Fe(III). In fact, cyanide binding to the sixth coordination position of the heme-Fe atom inhibits the MP11-Fe(III)-catalyzed isomerization of peroxynitrite to NO3(-). The values of the first-order rate constant (k0) for isomerization of peroxynitrite to NO3(-) in the presence of the MP11-Fe(III)-CN complex are superimposable to those obtained in the absence of MP-Fe(III). Values of kon for peroxynitrite isomerization to NO3(-) by MP11-Fe(III) overlap those obtained for penta-coordinated cardiolipin-cytochrome c complex and for carboxymethylated cytochrome c in absence and presence of cardiolipin. Present results highlight the role of the heme-Fe(III) co-ordination state in the modulation of cytochrome c reactivity. PMID:25578411

  8. Association of HTLV Tax proteins with TAK1-binding protein 2 and RelA in calreticulin-containing cytoplasmic structures participates in Tax-mediated NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Avesani, Francesca; Romanelli, Maria Grazia; Turci, Marco; Di Gennaro, Gianfranco; Sampaio, Carla; Bidoia, Carlo; Bertazzoni, Umberto; Bex, Françoise

    2010-12-01

    HTLV-1 is more pathogenic than HTLV-2 despite having a similar genome and closely related transactivating oncoproteins. Both Tax-1 protein from HTLV-1 and Tax-2 from HTLV-2 activate the NF-κB pathway. The mechanisms involved in Tax-1 deregulation of this signalling pathway have been thoroughly investigated, but little is known about regulation by Tax-2. We have compared the interaction of Tax-1 and Tax-2 with two key NF-κB signalling factors: TAK1-binding protein 2 (TAB2), an adaptor involved in the activation of TAK1 kinase, and RelA, the active subunit of the canonical RelA/p50 NF-κB transcription factor. Tax-2 formed stable complexes with both RelA and TAB2. These two NF-κB factors colocalized with Tax proteins in dotted cytoplasmic structures targeted by calreticulin, a multi-process calcium-buffering chaperone. Co-expression of RelA and/or TAB2 markedly increased Tax-mediated NF-κB activation. These findings provide new insights into the role of RelA, TAB2 and Tax in the deregulation of the NF-κB pathway. PMID:20875659

  9. Ligand Intermediates in Metal-Catalyzed Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gladysz, John A.

    1999-07-31

    The longest-running goal of this project has been the synthesis, isolation, and physical chemical characterization of homogeneous transition metal complexes containing ligand types believed to be intermediates in the metal-catalyzed conversion of CO/H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and similar raw materials to organic fuels, feedstocks, etc. In the current project period, complexes that contain unusual new types of C{sub x}(carbide) and C{sub x}O{sub y} (carbon oxide) ligands have been emphasized. A new program in homogeneous fluorous phase catalysis has been launched as described in the final report.

  10. Muon-catalyzed [ital pt] fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, P.; Daniel, H.; Grunewald, S.; Hartmann, F.J.; Lipowsky, R.; Moser, E.; Schott, W.; von Egidy, T. ); Ackerbauer, P.; Breunlich, W.H.; Fuchs, M.; Jeitler, M.; Kammel, P.; Marton, J.; Naegele, N.; Werner, J.; Zmeskal, J. ); Bossy, H.; Crowe, K.M. ); Sherman, R.H. ); Lou, K.; Petitjean, C. ); Markushin, V.E. )

    1993-06-14

    Gamma rays and, for the first time, conversion muons of [ital pt] fusion have been measured from liquid mixtures of protium, deuterium, and tritium. The rate [lambda][sub 10] for spin flip from the triplet to the singlet state of [ital t][mu](1[ital s]) was found to be [lambda][sub 10]=(1.06[plus minus]0.13)[times]10[sup 3][mu][ital s][sup [minus]1], the rate for muon-catalyzed [ital pt] fusion from the ([ital I]=1) nuclear-spin state to be [lambda][sub [ital p][ital t

  11. Ir-Catalyzed enantioselective group transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Andrew G; Blakey, Simon B

    2015-10-01

    Recently, several novel iridium complexes have been shown to catalyse group transfer reactions in a highly selective fashion. Rhodium complexes, and in particular dirhodium tetracarboxylate salts, have proven to be a remarkably useful class of catalysts for these reactions through several decades of development. Recent results suggest that iridium may offer opportunities to address challenges in this chemistry and provide complementary reactivity patterns. This tutorial review outlines the recent developments in Ir-catalyzed enantioselective group transfer chemistry with highlights on examples which display this unique reactivity. PMID:26051004

  12. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Synthesis of Cyanidophosphates.

    PubMed

    Bläsing, Kevin; Ellinger, Stefan; Harloff, Jörg; Schulz, Axel; Sievert, Katharina; Täschler, Christoph; Villinger, Alexander; Zur Täschler, Cornelia

    2016-03-14

    Salts containing new cyanido(fluorido)phosphate anions of the general formula [PF6-n (CN)n ](-) (n=1-4) were synthesized by a very mild Lewis-acid-catalyzed synthetic protocol and fully characterized. All [PF6-n (CN)n ](-) (n=1-4) salts could be isolated on a preparative scale. It was also possible to detect the [PF(CN)5 ](-) but not the [P(CN)6 ](-) anion. The best results with respect to purity, yield, and low cost were obtained when the F(-) /CN(-) substitution reactions were carried out in ionic liquids. PMID:26849385

  13. Metal-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions for Indoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie Jack; Gribble, Gordon W.

    Metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions for indoles are reviewed. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are the most widely explored and applied of all metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Applications of Kumada coupling, Negishi coupling, Suzuki coupling, Stille coupling, Sonogashira reaction, the Heck reaction, carbonylation, and C-N bond formation reactions in indoles are summarized. In addition, other transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions using copper, rhodium, iron, and nickel in indole synthesis are also discussed.

  14. Biginelli Reaction Catalyzed by Copper Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Manika; Kumar, Ajeet; Saxena, Amit; De, Arnab; Mozumdar, Subho

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported a novel synthesis of copper nanoparticles from copper sulphate utilizing the charge-compensatory effect of ionic liquid [bmim]BF4 and ethylene glycol. The nanoparticles were characterized and found to be stable for one year. Here we hypothesize that the stabilized nanoparticles should be able to catalyze one-pot multicomponent organic reactions. We show that the nanoparticles catalyzed Biginelli reaction at room temperature to give the product 3,4-dihydopyrimidinone (>90% yield in ?15 minutes) from aldehydes, ?-diketoester (ethylacetoacetate) and urea (or thiourea). ). Remarkably, such high yields and rapid kinetics was found to be independent of the electronic density on the reactant aryl-aldehyde. This was probably because even the surface-active particles reacted faster in the presence of ionic liquid as compared to conventional methods. The heterocyclic dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs) and their derivatives are widely used in natural and synthetic organic chemistry due to their wide spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties (resulting from their antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities. Our method has an easy work-up procedure and the nanoparticles could be recycled with minimal loss of efficiency. PMID:22912792

  15. Manganese Catalyzed C-H Halogenation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Groves, John T

    2015-06-16

    The remarkable aliphatic C-H hydroxylations catalyzed by the heme-containing enzyme, cytochrome P450, have attracted sustained attention for more than four decades. The effectiveness of P450 enzymes as highly selective biocatalysts for a wide range of oxygenation reactions of complex substrates has driven chemists to develop synthetic metalloporphyrin model compounds that mimic P450 reactivity. Among various known metalloporphyrins, manganese derivatives have received considerable attention since they have been shown to be versatile and powerful mediators for alkane hydroxylation and olefin epoxidation. Mechanistic studies have shown that the key intermediates of the manganese porphyrin-catalyzed oxygenation reactions include oxo- and dioxomanganese(V) species that transfer an oxygen atom to the substrate through a hydrogen abstraction/oxygen recombination pathway known as the oxygen rebound mechanism. Application of manganese porphyrins has been largely restricted to catalysis of oxygenation reactions until recently, however, due to ultrafast oxygen transfer rates. In this Account, we discuss recently developed carbon-halogen bond formation, including fluorination reactions catalyzed by manganese porphyrins and related salen species. We found that biphasic sodium hypochlorite/manganese porphyrin systems can efficiently and selectively convert even unactivated aliphatic C-H bonds to C-Cl bonds. An understanding of this novel reactivity derived from results obtained for the oxidation of the mechanistically diagnostic substrate and radical clock, norcarane. Significantly, the oxygen rebound rate in Mn-mediated hydroxylation is highly correlated with the nature of the trans-axial ligands bound to the manganese center (L-Mn(V)?O). Based on the ability of fluoride ion to decelerate the oxygen rebound step, we envisaged that a relatively long-lived substrate radical could be trapped by a Mn-F fluorine source, effecting carbon-fluorine bond formation. Indeed, this idea led to the discovery of the first Mn-catalyzed direct aliphatic C-H fluorination reactions utilizing simple, nucleophilic fluoride salts. Mechanistic studies and DFT calculations have revealed a trans-difluoromanganese(IV) species as the key fluorine transfer intermediate. In addition to catalyzing normal (19)F-fluorination reactions, manganese salen complexes were found to enable the incorporation of radioactive (18)F fluorine via C-H activation. This advance represented the first direct Csp(3)-H bond (18)F labeling with no-carrier-added [(18)F]fluoride and facilitated the late-stage labeling of drug molecules for PET imaging. Given the high reactivity and enzymatic-like selectively of metalloporphyrins, we envision that this new Heteroatom-Rebound Catalysis (HRC) strategy will find widespread application in the C-H functionalization arena and serve as an effective tool for forming new carbon-heteroatom bonds at otherwise inaccessible sites in target molecules. PMID:26042637

  16. Highly efficient iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of ?-acylamino nitroolefins.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiaozhi; Liu, Man; Kong, Duanyang; Zi, Guofu; Hou, Guohua

    2014-11-01

    The first highly efficient Ir-catalyzed enantioselective hydrogenation of ?-acylamino nitroolefins is reported. This reaction provides straightforward access to chiral ?-amino nitroalkanes in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities (up to >99.9% ee) catalyzed by an Ir-(R,R)-f-spiroPhos complex. PMID:25213369

  17. Acid-Catalyzed Isomerization of Carvone to Carvacrol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjonaas, Richard A.; Mattingly, Shawn P.

    2005-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed isomerization of carvone to carvacrol, first reported by Ritter and Ginsburg, is especially well suited with a permanent-magnet FT instrument. The acid-catalyzed isomerization of carvone to carvacrol produced a 61% yield after a three hour reflux with 30% aqueous sulfuric acid.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ENVIROFUELS DIESEL FUEL CATALYZER FUEL ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested EnviroFuels diesel fuel additive, called the Diesel Fuel Catalyzer. EnviroFuels has stated that heavy-duty on and off road diesel engines are the intended market for the catalyzer. Preliminary tests conducted indicate...

  19. Representing Rate Equations for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2011-01-01

    Rate equations for enzyme-catalyzed reactions are derived and presented in a way that makes it easier for the nonspecialist to see how the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction depends upon kinetic constants and concentrations. This is done with distribution equations that show how the rate of the reaction depends upon the relative quantities of…

  20. Representing Rate Equations for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2011-01-01

    Rate equations for enzyme-catalyzed reactions are derived and presented in a way that makes it easier for the nonspecialist to see how the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction depends upon kinetic constants and concentrations. This is done with distribution equations that show how the rate of the reaction depends upon the relative quantities of

  1. Iron-catalyzed amination of alcohols assisted by Lewis acid.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hui-Jie; Ng, Teng Wei; Zhao, Yu

    2015-07-28

    An efficient Lewis acid-assisted, iron-catalyzed amination of alcohols using borrowing hydrogen methodology was developed. In particular, silver fluoride was identified to be a highly effective additive to overcome the low efficiency in the amination of secondary alcohols catalyzed by Knlker's complex. PMID:26111504

  2. Titanium-catalyzed C-F activation of fluoroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Khnel, Moritz F; Lentz, Dieter

    2010-04-01

    Detox: air-stable titanocene difluoride efficiently catalyzes the chemoselective hydrodefluorination of fluoroalkenes at room temperature leading to hydrofluoroalkenes in high yields (see scheme: Cp=cyclopentadienyl). This is a rare example of the catalyzed conversion of fluoroalkenes into less-fluorinated compounds, which have a lower climatic impact, and is a potential method for breaking down toxic perfluoroalkenes. PMID:20229554

  3. Fabrication of catalyzed ion transport membrane systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Kibby, Charles Leonard

    2013-06-04

    Process for fabricating a catalyzed ion transport membrane (ITM). In one embodiment, an uncatalyzed ITM is (a) contacted with a non-reducing gaseous stream while heating to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM possessing anion mobility; (b) contacted with a reducing gaseous stream for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM having anion mobility and essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry; (c) cooled while contacting the ITM with the reducing gaseous stream to provide an ITM having essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry and no anion mobility; and (d) treated by applying catalyst to at least one of (1) a porous mixed conducting multicomponent metallic oxide (MCMO) layer contiguous with a first side of a dense layer of MCMO and (2) a second side of the dense MCMO layer. In another embodiment, these steps are carried out in the alternative order of (a), (d), (b), and (c).

  4. Porphyrin-catalyzed oxidation of trichlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, S.; Sublette, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    Porphyrin-metal complexes are potentially useful to catalyze redox reactions, which convert toxic and biologically recalcitrant compounds to compounds that are less toxic and more amenable to biotreatment. Porphyrins, in the absence of proteins as in ligninases, peroxidases, and oxidases, are potentially more robust than enzymes and microbial cultures in the treatment of inhibitory substances. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol was used as a model compound for chlorinated phenols and as a substrate for various porphyrin-metal complexes acting as oxidation catalysts. t-Butyl hydroperoxide was the oxidizing agent. TCP was shown to be at least partially dechlorinated and the aromatic ring broken in reaction products. All porphyrins exhibited saturation kinetics with regard to the initial TCP concentration in reaction mixtures. Electron-withdrawing substituents on the porphyrins were observed to increase stability of the catalysts to inactivating ring-centered oxidation. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Nickel-catalyzed hydroimination of alkynes.

    PubMed

    Manan, Rajith S; Kilaru, Praveen; Zhao, Pinjing

    2015-05-20

    A modular and atom-efficient synthesis of 2-aza-1,3-butadiene derivatives has been developed via nickel-catalyzed intermolecular coupling between internal alkynes and aromatic N-H ketimines. This novel alkyne hydroimination process is promoted by a catalyst system of a Ni(0) precursor ([Ni(cod)2]), N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand (IPr), and Cs2CO3 additive. The exclusive formation of (Z)-enamine stereoisomers is consistent with a proposed anti-iminometalation of alkyne by ?-complexation with Ni(0) and subsequent attack by the N-H ketimine nucleophile. An NHC-ligated Ni(0) ?-imine complex, [(IPr)Ni(?(1)-HN?CPh2)(?(2)-HN?CPh2)], was independently synthesized and displayed improved reactivity as the catalyst precursor. PMID:25923248

  6. Tin-catalyzed hydrophosphination of alkenes.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, John P W; Bange, Christine A; Waterman, Rory

    2016-04-14

    Simple tin derivatives, Cp*2SnCl2 (1) and Ph2SnCl2 (2), catalyze the hydrophosphination of alkene substrates with diphenylphosphine. Competitive dehydrocoupling to give Ph4P2 was observed, but this side reaction can be mitigated when the catalysis is conducted under an H2 atmosphere. Efforts to prepare stable tin bis(phosphido) compounds commonly resulted in decomposition to Ph4P2. Lewis acidic inorganic tin compounds do not show dehydrocoupling reactivity. It was found that the Lewis acid, B(C6F5)3, is able to engage in the hydrophosphination of alkenes, but it is poorly effective under the conditions tested. PMID:26763199

  7. Efficient antibody-catalyzed oxygenation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, L.C.; Stephans, J.C.; Schultz, P.G. )

    1994-03-09

    Biological oxygen-transfer reactions are essential for the biosynthesis of steroids and neurotransmitters, the degradation of endogenous substances, and the detoxification of xenobiotics. The monooxygenase enzymes responsible for these transformations require biological cofactors such as flavin, heme and non-heme iron, copper, or pterin and typically utilize NADPH for cofactor regeneration. We now report an antibody-catalyzed sulfide oxygenation reaction mediated by the chemical cofactor sodium periodate, with turnover numbers similar to those of the corresponding enzymatic reactions. Sodium periodate NaIO[sub 4]O was chosen as the oxidant, since sulfoxide formation occurs under mild aqueous conditions with minimal overoxidation to the sulfone. Furthermore, compared to the flavin and heme cofactors required by the monooxygenase enzymes, NaIO[sub 4] is very inexpensive, obviating the need for cofactor recycling. Overall, these results raise the possibility of using antibodies as catalysts for regio- and stereoselective sulfide oxidations. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Myoglobin-Catalyzed Olefination of Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Vikas; Fasan, Rudi

    2016-02-01

    The olefination of aldehydes constitutes a most valuable and widely adopted strategy for constructing carbon-carbon double bonds in organic chemistry. While various synthetic methods have been made available for this purpose, no biocatalysts are known to mediate this transformation. Reported herein is that engineered myoglobin variants can catalyze the olefination of aldehydes in the presence of ?-diazoesters with high catalytic efficiency (up to 4,900 turnovers) and excellent E?diastereoselectivity (92-99.9?% de). This transformation could be applied to the olefination of a variety of substituted benzaldehydes and heteroaromatic aldehydes, also in combination with different alkyl ?-diazoacetate reagents. This work provides a first example of biocatalytic aldehyde olefination and extends the spectrum of synthetically valuable chemical transformations accessible using metalloprotein-based catalysts. PMID:26765247

  9. RNA-Catalyzed RNA Ligation on an External RNA Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    Variants of the hc ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes ligation of the 3' end of an RNA substrate to the 5' end of the ribozyme, were utilized to evolve a ribozyme that catalyzes ligation reactions on an external RNA template. The evolved ribozyme catalyzes the joining of an oligonucleotide 3'-hydroxyl to the 5'-triphosphate of an RNA hairpin molecule. The ribozyme can also utilize various substrate sequences, demonstrating a largely sequence-independent mechanism for substrate recognition. The ribozyme also carries out the ligation of two oligonucleotides that are bound at adjacent positions on a complementary template. Finally, it catalyzes addition of mononucleoside '5-triphosphates onto the '3 end of an oligonucleotide primer in a template-dependent manner. The development of ribozymes that catalyze polymerase-type reactions contributes to the notion that an RNA world could have existed during the early history of life on Earth.

  10. Enzyme-catalyzed degradation of carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchey, Gregg P.

    Carbon nanotubes and graphene, the nanoscale sp 2 allotropes of carbon, have garnered widespread attention as a result of their remarkable electrical, mechanical, and optical properties and the promise of new technologies that harness these properties. Consequently, these carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) have been employed for diverse applications such as electronics, sensors, composite materials, energy conversion devices, and nanomedicine. The manufacture and eventual disposal of these products may result in the release of CNMs into the environment and subsequent exposure to humans, animals, and vegetation. Given the possible pro-inflammatory and toxic effects of CNMs, much attention has been focused on the distribution, toxicity, and persistence of CNMs both in living systems and the environment. This dissertation will guide the reader though recent studies aimed at elucidating fundamental insight into the persistence of CNMs such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene derivatives (i.e., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide). In particular, in-testtube oxidation/degradation of CNMs catalyzed by peroxidase enzymes will be examined, and the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying these processes will be discussed. Finally, an outlook of the current field including in vitro and in vivo biodegradation experiments, which have benefits in terms of human health and environmental safety, and future directions that could have implications for nanomedical applications such as imaging and drug delivery will be presented. Armed with an understanding of how and why CNMs undergo enzyme-catalyzed oxidation/biodegradation, researchers can tailor the structure of CNMs to either promote or inhibit these processes. For example, in nanomedical applications such as drug delivery, the incorporation of carboxylate functional groups could facilitate biodegradation of the nanomaterial after delivery of the cargo. Also, the incorporation of CNMs with defect sites in consumer goods could provide a mechanism that promotes the degradation of these materials once these products reach landfills.

  11. Iridium-Catalyzed Hydrogen Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Ourida; Williams, Jonathan M. J.

    This chapter describes the application of iridium complexes to catalytic hydrogen transfer reactions. Transfer hydrogenation reactions provide an alternative to direct hydrogenation for the reduction of a range of substrates. A hydrogen donor, typically an alcohol or formic acid, can be used as the source of hydrogen for the reduction of carbonyl compounds, imines, and alkenes. Heteroaromatic compounds and even carbon dioxide have also been reduced by transfer hydrogenation reactions. In the reverse process, the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds can be achieved by iridium-catalyzed hydrogen transfer reactions, where a ketone or alkene is used as a suitable hydrogen acceptor. The reversible nature of many hydrogen transfer processes has been exploited for the racemization of alcohols, where temporary removal of hydrogen generates an achiral ketone intermediate. In addition, there is a growing body of work where temporary removal of hydrogen provides an opportunity for using alcohols as alkylating agents. In this chemistry, an iridium catalyst "borrows" hydrogen from an alcohol to give an aldehyde or ketone intermediate, which can be transformed into either an imine or alkene under the reaction conditions. Return of the hydrogen from the catalyst provides methodology for the formation of amines or C-C bonds where the only by-product is typically water.

  12. Cyclophilin catalyzes protein folding in yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Matouschek, A; Rospert, S; Schmid, K; Glick, B S; Schatz, G

    1995-01-01

    Cyclophilins are a family of ubiquitous proteins that are the intracellular target of the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A. Although cyclophilins catalyze peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerization in vitro, it has remained open whether they also perform this function in vivo. Here we show that Cpr3p, a cyclophilin in the matrix of yeast mitochondria, accelerates the refolding of a fusion protein that was synthesized in a reticulocyte lysate and imported into the matrix of isolated yeast mitochondria. The fusion protein consisted of the matrix-targeting sequence of subunit 9 of F1F0-ATPase fused to mouse dihydrofolate reductase. Refolding of the dihydrofolate reductase moiety in the matrix was monitored by acquisition of resistance to proteinase K. The rate of refolding was reduced by a factor of 2-6 by 2.5 microM cyclosporin A. This reduced rate of folding was also observed with mitochondria lacking Cpr3p. In these mitochondria, protein folding was insensitive to cyclosporin A. The rate of protein import was not affected by cyclosporin A or by deletion of Cpr3p. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7603990

  13. Mechanistic insights for ?-cyclodextrin catalyzed phosphodiester hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Mahboobeh; Yeole, Sachin D; Gejji, Shridhar P

    2014-04-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphodiester bond in different substrates containing alkyl or aryl substituents, in the presence of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) as a catalyst, has been investigated employing the density functional theory. It has been shown that the mechanism of ?-CD catalyzed phosphodiester hydrolysis in modeled substrates viz. [p-nitrophenyl][(2,2) methylpropan] phosphodiester (G1); [p-nitrophenyl] [(2,2)methyl butan] phosphodiester (G2); (p-nitrophenyl) (2-methyl pentan) phosphodiester (G3); (p-nitrophenyl) (phenyl) phosphodiester (G4); (p-nitrophenyl) (m-tert-butyl phenyl) phosphodiester (G5) and (p-nitrophenyl) (p-nitrophenyl) phosphodiester (G6) involves net phosphoryl transfer from p-nitrophenyl to the catalyst. The hydrolysis occurs in a single-step D(N)A(N) mechanism wherein the ?-CD acts as a competitive general base. The nucleophile addition is facilitated via face-to-face hydrogen-bonded interactions from the secondary hydroxyl groups attached to the top rim of ?-CD. The insights for cleavage of phosphodiester along the dissociative pathway have been derived using the molecular electrostatic potential studies as a tool. The activation barrier of substrates containing alkyl group (G2 and G3) are found to be lower than those containing aryl groups (G4, G5 and G6). PMID:24652502

  14. Iodide effects in transition metal catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Maitlis, Peter M; Haynes, Anthony; James, Brian R; Catellani, Marta; Chiusoli, Gian Paolo

    2004-11-01

    The unique properties of I(-) allow it to be involved in several different ways in reactions catalyzed by the late transition metals: in the oxidative addition, the migration, and the coupling/reductive elimination steps, as well as in substrate activation. Most steps are accelerated by I(-)(for example through an increased nucleophilicity of the metal center), but some are retarded, because a coordination site is blocked. The "soft" iodide ligand binds more strongly to soft metals (low oxidation state, electron rich, and polarizable) such as the later and heavier transition metals, than do the other halides, or N- and O-centered ligands. Hence in a catalytic cycle that includes the metal in a formally low oxidation state there will be less tendency for the metal to precipitate (and be removed from the cycle) in the presence of I(-) than most other ligands. Iodide is a good nucleophile and is also easily and reversibly oxidized to I(2). In addition, I(-) can play key roles in purely organic reactions that occur as part of a catalytic cycle. Thus to understand the function of iodide requires careful analysis, since two or sometimes more effects occur in different steps of one single cycle. Each of these topics is illustrated with examples of the influence of iodide from homogeneous catalytic reactions in the literature: methanol carbonylation to acetic acid and related reactions; CO hydrogenation; imine hydrogenation; and C-C and C-N coupling reactions. General features are summarised in the Conclusions. PMID:15510253

  15. Mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Picardal, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    Nine bacteria were tested for the ability to dehalogenate tetrachloromethane (CT), tetrachloroethene (PCE), and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (TCA) under anaerobic conditions. Three bacteria were able to reductively dehalogenate CT. Dehalogenation ability was not readily linked to a common metabolism or changes in culture redox potential. None of the bacteria tested were able to dehalogenate PCE or TCA. One of the bacteria capable of dehalogenating CT, Shewanella putrefaciens, was chosen as a model organism to study mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation. The effect of a variety of alternate electron acceptors on CT dehalogenation ability by S. putrefaciens was determined. oxygen and nitrogen oxides were inhibitory but Fe (III), trimethylamine oxide, and fumarate were not. A model of the electron transport chain of S. putrefaciens was developed to explain inhibition patterns. A period of microaerobic growth prior to CT exposure increased the ability of S. putrefaciens to dehalogenate CT. A microaerobic growth period also increased cytochrome concentrations. A relationship between cytochrome content and dehalogenation ability was developed from studies in which cytochrome concentrations in S. putrefaciens were manipulated by changing growth conditions. Stoichiometry studies using {sup 14}C-CT suggested that CT was first reduced to form a trichloromethyl radical. Reduction of the radical to produce chloroform and reaction of the radical with cellular biochemicals explained observed product distributions. Carbon dioxide or other fully dehalogenated products were not found.

  16. Thioglycoside hydrolysis catalyzed by {beta}-glucosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Hong; Byers, Larry D.

    2007-10-26

    Sweet almond {beta}-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) has been shown to have significant thioglycohydrolase activity. While the K{sub m} values for the S- and O-glycosides are similar, the k{sub cat} values are about 1000-times lower for the S-glycosides. Remarkably, the pH-profile for k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl thioglucoside (pNPSG) shows the identical dependence on a deprotonated carboxylate (pK{sub a} 4.5) and a protonated group (pK{sub a} 6.7) as does the pH-profile for hydrolysis of the corresponding O-glycoside. Not surprisingly, in spite of the requirement for the presence of this protonated group in catalytically active {beta}-glucosidase, thioglucoside hydrolysis does not involve general acid catalysis. There is no solvent kinetic isotope effect on the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of pNPSG.

  17. A Scheme for Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulsrud, Russell

    1998-11-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a beautiful physical process for producing D-T reactions. It fails to produce useful energy only by an unfortunate combination of atomic constants which leads to a rather high value for the sticking probability of the muon to the reactant alpha particle leading to a He_?^+ ion. It is possible to lower this sticking probability by fragmenting the D-T target into little frozen slabs and keeping the He_?^+ ion moving at a high speed by cyclotron acceleration in an external field until the muon is stripped off to be used again. However, one must pay for refreezing the slabs which melt under the production of fusions, as well as for the muons. By working in a pulsed mode and including some metallic Li in the slabs it turns out that one can slow down the expansion of the slabs enough for the fusions to pay for both the slabs and the fresh muons, provided that the magnetic field is sufficiently strong. Ways of reducing the required strength of the field will be described but so far the minimum required field has been found to be 1.3 Megagauss.

  18. Enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed synthesis of indenopyrones.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun-Quan; Zhang, Han-Ming; Wang, Dong-Ling; Sun, De-Qun; Ye, Song

    2015-06-28

    The chiral N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed [4 + 2] cyclization of α-chloroaldehydes and arylidene indanediones was developed, giving the corresponding indenopyrones in good yields with high diastereoselectivities and enantioselectivities. PMID:26006112

  19. Rh-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Cyclic ?-Dehydroamino Ketones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenfeng; Hu, Qiupeng; Wang, Yingjie; Chen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Wanbin

    2015-11-01

    Catalyzed by a rhodium complex of P-stereogenic diphosphine trichickenfootphos, five-membered cyclic ?-dehydroamino ketones bearing endocyclic acyl and endocyclic vinyl groups were hydrogenated to give chiral ?-amino ketones with quantitative conversions and excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:26497221

  20. Protein Hydroxylation Catalyzed by 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent Oxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Markolovic, Suzana; Wilkins, Sarah E.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The post-translational hydroxylation of prolyl and lysyl residues, as catalyzed by 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases, was first identified in collagen biosynthesis. 2OG oxygenases also catalyze prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylation of the hypoxia-inducible factors that play important roles in the adaptive response to hypoxia. Subsequently, they have been shown to catalyze N-demethylation (via hydroxylation) of Nϵ-methylated histone lysyl residues, as well as hydroxylation of multiple other residues. Recent work has identified roles for 2OG oxygenases in the modification of translation-associated proteins, which in some cases appears to be conserved from microorganisms through to humans. Here we give an overview of protein hydroxylation catalyzed by 2OG oxygenases, focusing on recent discoveries. PMID:26152730

  1. Copper-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation of Polysubstituted Alkenes Assisted by Decarboxylation.

    PubMed

    He, Zhengbiao; Tan, Ping; Hu, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    An efficient copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of polysubstituted alkenes assisted by decarboxylation of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids has been achieved. The reaction provides a general method to construct allylic and vinylic CF3-substituted compounds under mild conditions. PMID:26651277

  2. The Iron-Catalyzed Oxidation of Hydrazine by Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    2001-07-17

    To assess the importance of iron to hydrazine stability, the study of hydrazine oxidation by nitric acid has been extended to investigate the iron-catalyzed oxidation. This report describes those results.

  3. Rhodium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Borylation of Cyclic Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Kondoh, Azusa; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2010-01-01

    A rhodium-catalyzed dehydrogenative borylation of cyclic alkenes is described. This reaction provides direct access to cyclic 1-alkenylboronic acid pinacol esters, useful intermediates in organic synthesis. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling applications are also presented. PMID:20107646

  4. Ni-catalyzed reductive addition of alkyl halides to isocyanides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Dai, Yijing; Tong, Weiqi; Gong, Hegui

    2015-12-21

    This paper highlights Ni-catalyzed reductive trapping of secondary and tertiary alkyl radicals with both electron-rich and electron-deficient aryl isocyanides using zinc as the terminal reductant, affording 6-alkylated phenanthridine in good yields. The employment of carbene ligands necessitates the alkyl radical process, and represents the first utility in the Ni-catalyzed reductive conditions for the generation of unactivated alkyl radicals from the halide precursors. PMID:26524544

  5. Nickel-Catalyzed Coupling of Alkenes, Aldehydes, and Silyl Triflates

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sze-sze; Ho, Chun-Yu; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    A full account of two recently developed nickel-catalyzed coupling reactions of alkenes, aldehydes and silyl triflates is presented. These reactions provide either allylic alcohol or homoallylic alcohol derivatives selectively, depending on the ligand employed. These processes are believed to be mechanistically distinct from Lewis acid-catalyzed carbonyl-ene reactions, and several lines of evidence supporting this hypothesis are discussed. PMID:16939275

  6. Copper-Catalyzed Aerobic CH Trifluoromethylation of Phenanthrolines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Yuan, Yong-An

    2016-01-01

    Direct CH trifluoromethylation of heterocycles is a valuable transformation. In particular, nonprecious metal-catalyzed CH trifluoromethylation processes, which do not proceed through CF3 radical species, have been less developed. In this cluster report, a new copper-catalyzed aerobic CH trifluoromethylation of phenanthrolines is described. This transformation affords trifluoromethylated phenanthrolines that have not been synthesized and preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that the CF3 group transfer may occur through cooperative activation. PMID:26855477

  7. Surface-catalyzed air oxidation of hydrazines: Environmental chamber studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilduff, Jan E.; Davis, Dennis D.; Koontz, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    The surface-catalyzed air oxidation reactions of fuel hydrazines were studied in a 6500-liter fluorocarbon-film chamber at 80 to 100 ppm concentrations. First-order rate constants for the reactions catalyzed by aluminum, water-damaged aluminum (Al/Al2O3), stainless steel 304L, galvanized steel and titanium plates with surface areas of 2 to 24 sq m were determined. With 23.8 sq m of Al/Al2O3 the surface-catalyzed air oxidation of hydrazine had a half-life of 2 hours, diimide (N2H2) was observed as an intermediate and traces of ammonia were present in the final product mixture. The Al/Al2O3 catalyzed oxidation of monomethylhydrazine yielded methyldiazine (HN = NCH3) as an intermediate and traces of methanol. Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine gave no detectable products. The relative reactivities of hydrazine, MMH and UDMH were 130 : 7.3 : 1.0, respectively. The rate constants for Al/Al2O3-catalyzed oxidation of hydrazine and MMH were proportional to the square of the surface area of the plates. Mechanisms for the surface-catalyzed oxidation of hydrazine and diimide and the formation of ammonia are proposed.

  8. Rate equations of solid-catalyzed reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mezaki, R.; Inoue, H.

    1991-01-01

    Rate Equations of Solid-Catalyzed Reactions, edited by Mezaki and Inoue, contains a comprehensive compilation of kinetic rate expressions for a large number of relevant catalytic reaction systems. Mezaki and Inoue should be commended for their effort. For the practicing catalytic engineer the book should serve as a quick reference guide for assessing the functional dependence of rate on various operating conditions for a catalytic reaction system of interest. Even in this age of computer-aid literature searches this book should reduce the typically large activation barrier and search time associated with locating kinetic rate expressions for a particular reaction system. It is a recommended reference book for all whom are involved in the business of catalytic reactions. However, its format is not amenable for teaching. The book is structured according to the reaction system type. Chapter (1) focuses on synthesis (e.g., of sulfur trioxide, ammonia, methanol), (2) on hydrogenations (e.g., of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ethylene, cyclohexene), (3) on hydrogenolysis (of low molecular weight alkanes such as ethane and/or pentane), (4) on hydrocracking (of higher molecular weight components such as n-hexane and n-dodecane), (5) on dehydrogenation (e.g., of ethanol, ethane, cyclohexane), (6) on complete oxidation (e.g., of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, alkanes, and olefins), (7) on partial oxidation (e.g., of methanol, ethylene, xylenes, and ammonia), (8) on isomerization (e.g., of methane, ethane, and cyclohexane), (10) on decomposition of ammonia and nitric oxide, (11) on dehydration of various alcohols, (12) on cumene cracking, and (13) on other key reactions such as water-gas shift and nitric oxide reduction.

  9. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and motivate volunteers ensures that we are able to collect quality data, cost effectively, and in a fraction of the traditional timeframe.

  10. Group V sensitive vapor-liquid-solid growth of Au-catalyzed and self-catalyzed III-V nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, Vladimir G.

    2016-04-01

    We present a new theoretical model that treats the group V sensitive growth rates and structures of Au-catalyzed and self-catalyzed III-V nanowires within a single kinetic picture. It is shown that Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires can grow with a time-independent radius within a wide range of parameters. At high V/III flux ratios, the vapor-liquid-solid growth of Au catalyzed III-V nanowires is controlled by surface diffusion of the group III adatoms, while at low V/III flux ratios it becomes nucleation-limited. Conversely, self-catalyzed III-V nanowires cannot grow with a time-independent droplet size and instead such nanowires may either swell or shrink or converge to a certain stationary radius depending on the V/III flux ratio. Quite importantly, the results are presented in a concise analytical form which is convenient for comparison with experimental data or prior theoretical works. We demonstrate how the model fits the data obtained previously for Au- and Ga-catalyzed GaAs nanowires.

  11. Atom transfer and rearrangement reactions catalyzed by methyltrioxorhenium, MTO

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, J.

    1999-05-10

    Methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) catalyzes the desulfurization of thiiranes by triphenylphosphine. Enormous enhancement in rate is observed when the catalyst is pretreated with hydrogen sulfide prior to the reaction. Using 2-mercaptomethylthiophenol as a ligand, the author synthesized several model complexes to study the mechanism of this reaction. With suitable model systems, they were able to show that the active catalyst is a Re(V) species. The reactions are highly stereospecific and very tolerant to functional groups. As part of the studies, he synthesized and crystallographically characterized the first examples of neutral terminal and bridging Re(V)sulfidocomplexes. Some of these complexes undergo fast oxygen atom transfer reactions with organic and inorganic oxidants. Studies on these model complexes led them to the discovery that MTO catalyzes the selective oxidation of thiols to disulfides. This report contains the Introduction; ``Chapter 6: Isomerization of Propargylic Alcohols to Enones and Enals Catalyzed by Methylrhenium Trioxide``; and Conclusions.

  12. Palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Kevin H

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic modification of nucleoside structures provides access to molecules of interest as pharmaceuticals, biochemical probes, and models to study diseases. Covalent modification of the purine and pyrimidine bases is an important strategy for the synthesis of these adducts. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling is a powerful method to attach groups to the base heterocycles through the formation of new carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. In this review, approaches to palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides are reviewed. Polar reaction media, such as water or polar aprotic solvents, allow reactions to be performed directly on the hydrophilic nucleosides and nucleotides without the need to use protecting groups. Homogeneous aqueous-phase coupling reactions catalyzed by palladium complexes of water-soluble ligands provide a general approach to the synthesis of modified nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides. PMID:26007192

  13. Cobalt-Catalyzed Alkylation of Aromatic Amines by Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Rösler, Sina; Ertl, Michael; Irrgang, Torsten; Kempe, Rhett

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of inexpensive, Earth-abundant metals in typical noble-metal-mediated chemistry is a major goal in homogeneous catalysis. A sustainable or green reaction that has received a lot of attention in recent years and is preferentially catalyzed by Ir or Ru complexes is the alkylation of amines by alcohols. It is based on the borrowing hydrogen or hydrogen autotransfer concept. Herein, we report on the Co-catalyzed alkylation of aromatic amines by alcohols. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions, and selectively generates monoalkylated amines. The observed selectivity allows the synthesis of unsymmetrically substituted diamines. A novel Co complex stabilized by a PN5 P ligand catalyzes the reactions most efficiently. PMID:26474443

  14. New Palladium-Catalyzed Approaches to Heterocycles and Carbocycles

    SciTech Connect

    Qinhua Huang

    2004-12-19

    The tert-butylimines of o-(1-alkynyl)benzaldehydes and analogous pyridinecarbaldehydes have been cyclized under very mild reaction conditions in the presence of I{sub 2}, ICl, PhSeCl, PhSCl and p-O{sub 2}NC{sub 6}H{sub 4}SCl to give the corresponding halogen-, selenium- and sulfur-containing disubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines, respectively. Monosubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines have been synthesized by the metal-catalyzed ring closure of these same iminoalkynes. This methodology accommodates a variety of iminoalkynes and affords the anticipated heterocycles in moderate to excellent yields. The Pd(II)-catalyzed cyclization of 2-(1-alkynyl)arylaldimines in the presence of various alkenes provides an efficient way to synthesize a variety of 4-(1-alkenyl)-3-arylisoquinolines in moderate to excellent yields. The introduction of an ortho-methoxy group on the arylaldimine promotes the Pd-catalyzed cyclization and stabilizes the resulting Pd(II) intermediate, improving the yields of the isoquinoline products. Highly substituted naphthalenes have been synthesized by the palladium-catalyzed annulation of a variety of internal alkynes, in which two new carbon-carbon bonds are formed in a single step under relatively mild reaction conditions. This method has also been used to synthesize carbazoles, although a higher reaction temperature is necessary. The process involves arylpalladation of the alkyne, followed by intramolecular Heck olefination and double bond isomerization. This method accommodates a variety of functional groups and affords the anticipated highly substituted naphthalenes and carbazoles in good to excellent yields. Novel palladium migratiodarylation methodology for the synthesis of complex fused polycycles has been developed, in which one or more sequential Pd-catalyzed intramolecular migration processes involving C-H activation are employed. The chemistry works best with electron-rich aromatics, which is in agreement with the idea that these palladium-catalyzed C-H activation reactions parallel electrophilic aromatic substitution. A relatively efficient synthesis of cyclopropanes has been developed using palladium-catalyzed C-H activation chemistry, in which two new carbon-carbon bonds are formed in a single step. This method involves the palladium-catalyzed activation of relatively unreactive C-H bonds, and provides a very efficient way to synthesize cyclopropapyrrolo[1,2-a]indoles, analogues of the mitomycin antibiotics.

  15. Transition metal catalyzed borylation of functional π-systems

    PubMed Central

    SHINOKUBO, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Borylated functional π-systems are useful building blocks to enable efficient synthesis of novel molecular architectures with beautiful structures, intriguing properties and unique functions. Introduction of boronic ester substituents to a variety of extended π-systems can be achieved through either iridium-catalyzed direct C–H borylation or the two-step procedure via electrophilic halogenation followed by palladium-catalyzed borylation. This review article focuses on our recent progress on borylation of large π-conjugated systems such as porphyrins, perylene bisimides, hexabenzocoronenes and dipyrrins. PMID:24492644

  16. Radiation catalyzed conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, C.E.; Bennett, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of water production dependence on tritium concentration and external radiation fields has been made for the tritium-in-air concentration range of 0.01 to 1 Ci/m/sup 3/. Results of reactions taking place under static conditions (in Pyrex flasks at 20/sup 0/C) indicate that: (1) self-catalyzed rates may be first-order-dependent on tritium concentration; and (2) external radiation fields may cause a virtual steady-state condition to occur (in terms of additional self-catalyzed water production).

  17. Molecular Mechanism by which One Enzyme Catalyzes Two Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Fushinobu, Shinya; Wakagi, Takayoshi

    Unlike ordinary enzymes, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) aldolase/phosphatase (FBPA/P) catalyzes two distinct reactions : (1) the aldol condensation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to FBP, and (2) the dephosphorylation of FBP to fructose-6-phosphate. We solved the crystal structures of FBPA/P in complex with DHAP (its aldolase form) and FBP (its phosphatase form). The crystal structures revealed that FBPA/P exhibits the dual activities through a dramatic conformational change in the active-site architecture. Our findings expand the conventional concept that one enzyme catalyzes one reaction.

  18. Microbial-Catalyzed Biotransformation of Multifunctional Triterpenoids Derived from Phytonutrients

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Tan, Huey Ling; Sultan, Sadia; Mohd Faridz, Muhammad Afifi Bin; Mohd Shah, Mohamad Azlan Bin; Nurfazilah, Sharifah; Hussain, Munawar

    2014-01-01

    Microbial-catalyzed biotransformations have considerable potential for the generation of an enormous variety of structurally diversified organic compounds, especially natural products with complex structures like triterpenoids. They offer efficient and economical ways to produce semi-synthetic analogues and novel lead molecules. Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi could catalyze chemo-, regio- and stereospecific hydroxylations of diverse triterpenoid substrates that are extremely difficult to produce by chemical routes. During recent years, considerable research has been performed on the microbial transformation of bioactive triterpenoids, in order to obtain biologically active molecules with diverse structures features. This article reviews the microbial modifications of tetranortriterpenoids, tetracyclic triterpenoids and pentacyclic triterpenoids. PMID:25003642

  19. Recent advances in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Copper-catalyzed (or -mediated) asymmetric coupling reactions have received significant attention over the past few years. Especially the coupling reactions of aryl or alkyl halides with nucleophiles became a very powerful tool for the formation of C–C, C–N, C–O and other carbon–heteroatom bonds as well as for the construction of heteroatom-containing ring systems. This review summarizes the recent progress in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions for the formation of C–C and carbon–heteroatom bonds. PMID:26734106

  20. The RimL Transacetylase Provides Resistance to Translation Inhibitor Microcin C

    PubMed Central

    Kazakov, Teymur; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Semenova, Ekaterina; Mukhamedyarov, Damir; Datsenko, Kirill A.; Metlitskaya, Anastasija; Vondenhoff, Gaston H.; Tikhonov, Anton; Agarwal, Vinayak; Nair, Satish; Van Aerschot, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Peptide-nucleotide antibiotic microcin C (McC) is produced by some Escherichia coli strains. Inside a sensitive cell, McC is processed, releasing a nonhydrolyzable analog of aspartyl-adenylate, which inhibits aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. The product of mccE, a gene from the plasmid-borne McC biosynthetic cluster, acetylates processed McC, converting it into a nontoxic compound. MccE is homologous to chromosomally encoded acetyltransferases RimI, RimJ, and RimL, which acetylate, correspondingly, the N termini of ribosomal proteins S18, S5, and L12. Here, we show that E. coli RimL, but not other Rim acetyltransferases, provides a basal level of resistance to McC and various toxic nonhydrolyzable aminoacyl adenylates. RimL acts by acetylating processed McC, which along with ribosomal protein L12 should be considered a natural RimL substrate. When overproduced, RimL also makes cells resistant to albomycin, an antibiotic that upon intracellular processing gives rise to a seryl-thioribosyl pyrimidine that targets seryl-tRNA synthetase. We further show that E. coli YhhY, a protein related to Rim acetyltransferases but without a known function, is also able to detoxify several nonhydrolyzable aminoacyl adenylates but not processed McC. We propose that RimL and YhhY protect bacteria from various toxic aminoacyl nucleotides, either exogenous or those generated inside the cell during normal metabolism. PMID:25002546

  1. Cu-Catalyzed Fluorination of Diaryliodonium Salts with KF

    PubMed Central

    Ichiishi, Naoko; Canty, Allan J.; Yates, Brian F.

    2014-01-01

    A mild Cu-catalyzed nucleophilic fluorination of unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salts with KF is described. This protocol preferentially fluorinates less sterically hindered aromatic rings. The reaction exhibits a broad substrate scope and proceeds with high chemoselectivity and functional group tolerance. DFT calculations implicate a CuI/CuIII catalytic cycle. PMID:24063629

  2. Dinuclear zinc-catalyzed enantioselective Aza-Henry reaction.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Lupton, David W

    2007-05-10

    The dinuclear zinc catalyst 1a was found to catalyze the addition of nitroalkanes to carbamate-protected imines. This aza-Henry reaction proceeds with high enantioselectivity when various carbamate-protected imines are used. alpha,beta-Unsaturated imines proved to be a particularly useful class of substrate routinely giving the alpha-nitro amine products in high enantiomeric excess. PMID:17439228

  3. Asymmetric NHC-catalyzed redox ?-amination of ?-aroyloxyaldehydes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James E; Daniels, David S B; Smith, Andrew D

    2013-12-01

    Asymmetric ?-amination through an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed redox reaction of ?-aroyloxyaldehydes with N-aryl-N-aroyldiazenes to form ?-hydrazino esters with high enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee) is reported. The hydrazide products are readily converted into enantioenriched N-aryl amino esters through samarium(II) iodide mediated N-N bond cleavage. PMID:24215115

  4. Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, Frances Helen (Santa Fe, NM); Baker, Ralph Thomas (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-01-12

    A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. The method generates hydrogen and produces a solid polymeric [R.sup.1R.sup.2B--NR.sup.3R.sup.4].sub.n product. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources.

  5. Palladium-catalyzed enantioselective 1,1-fluoroarylation of aminoalkenes.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Yang, Zhenyu; Thornbury, Richard T; Toste, F Dean

    2015-09-30

    The development of an enantioselective palladium-catalyzed 1,1-fluoroarylation of unactivated aminoalkenes is described. The reaction uses arylboronic acids as the arene source and Selectfluor as the fluorine source to generate benzylic fluorides in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. This transformation, likely proceeding through an oxidative Heck mechanism, affords 1,1-difunctionalized alkene products. PMID:26378886

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Direct C=H Functionalization of Benzoquinone**

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Sarah E; Jordan-Hore, James A; Johnson, David G; Macgregor, Stuart A; Lee, Ai-Lan

    2014-01-01

    A direct Pd-catalyzed C=H functionalization of benzoquinone (BQ) can be controlled to give either mono- or disubstituted BQ, including the installation of two different groups in a one-pot procedure. BQ can now be directly functionalized with aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, and cycloalkene groups and, moreover, the reaction is conducted in environmentally benign water or acetone as solvents. PMID:25302965

  7. Nickel-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Difluoroalkylation of ?,?-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Wang, Tao; Fei, Fan; Su, Yi-Ming; Li, Yan; Lan, Quan; Wang, Xi-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    The first example of nickel-catalyzed decarboxylative fluoroalkylation of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids has been developed with commonly available fluoroalkyl halides. This novel transformation has demonstrated broad substrate scope, excellent functional-group tolerance, mild reaction conditions, and excellent stereoselectivity. Mechanistic investigations indicate that a fluoroalkyl radical is involved in the catalytic cycle. PMID:26837053

  8. Catalyzing Graduate Teaching Assistants' Laboratory Teaching through Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond-Robinson, Janet; Rodriques, Romola A. Bernard

    2006-01-01

    We report on a study of a laboratory teaching apprenticeship program designed to improve graduate teaching assistant (GTA) performance. To catalyze GTAs as laboratory teachers we constructed learning goals, synthesized previous literature into a design model and a developmental path, and built two instruments to measure 12 strategic pedagogical…

  9. ACID CATALYZED SYNTHESIS OF HYPERBRANCHED POLY(GLYCEROL-DIACID) OLIGOMERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel oligomeric prepolymers were synthesized by acid-catalyzed condensation of glycerol with iminodiacetic, azelaic, or succinic acid. The prepolymers were obtained, on average in 62% yield and were characterized by 13C NMR, 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and GPC. The synthesized oligomers ...

  10. Copper(I)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Trifluoromethylation of Methylenecyclopropanes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Chen, Kai; Yu, Liu-Zhu; Tang, Xiang-Ying; Shi, Min

    2015-12-18

    Copper(I)-catalyzed intramolecular trifluoromethylation of methylenecyclopropanes has been developed to produce a variety of CF3-substituted dihydronaphthalenes in moderate to good yields, relying on the construction of C(sp(2))-CF3 bonds under mild conditions. The reactions proceed through a radical process under copper(I) catalysis with a good compatibility for the functional group. PMID:26635072

  11. Copper-catalyzed stereoselective conjugate addition of alkylboranes to alkynoates

    PubMed Central

    Wakamatsu, Takamichi; Nagao, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Summary A copper-catalyzed conjugate addition of alkylboron compounds (alkyl-9-BBN, prepared by hydroboration of alkenes with 9-BBN-H) to alkynoates to form ?-disubstituted acrylates is reported. The addition occurred in a formal syn-hydroalkylation mode. The syn stereoselectivity was excellent regardless of the substrate structure. A variety of functional groups were compatible with the conjugate addition. PMID:26734092

  12. Total Synthesis of Gelsenicine via a Catalyzed Cycloisomerization Strategy.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Eric T; Knutson, Phil C; Pedersen, Blaine A; Ferreira, Eric M

    2016-01-13

    The first total synthesis of ()-gelsenicine is reported. The synthetic route is highly efficient (13 steps), featuring (1) a pivotal metal-catalyzed isomerization/rearrangement process that forges the central core of the molecule and (2) two facile C-N bond-forming steps that establish the flanking heterocycles. PMID:26716762

  13. CU(II): catalyzed hydrazine reduction of ferric nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    1981-11-01

    A method is described for producing ferrous nitrate solutions by the cupric ion-catalyzed reduction of ferric nitrate with hydrazine. The reaction is complete in about 1.5 hours at 40/sup 0/C. Hydrazoic acid is also produced in substantial quantities as a reaction byproduct.

  14. Copper-catalyzed direct C-H fluoroalkenylation of heteroarenes.

    PubMed

    Rousée, Kevin; Schneider, Cédric; Bouillon, Jean-Philippe; Levacher, Vincent; Hoarau, Christophe; Couve-Bonnaire, Samuel; Pannecoucke, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Copper-catalyzed direct C-H fluoroalkenylation of heterocycles using various gem-bromofluoroalkenes as electrophiles is reported. This efficient method offers step-economical, low-cost and stereocontrolled access to relevant heteroarylated monofluoroalkenes. The synthesis of fluorinated analogues of biomolecules and therapeutic agents for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy as application is reported. PMID:26603641

  15. Strictosidine Synthase: Mechanism of a PictetSpengler Catalyzing Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Maresh, Justin J.; Giddings, Lesley-Ann; Friedrich, Anne; Loris, Elke A.; Panjikar, Santosh; Trout, Bernhardt L.

    2010-01-01

    The PictetSpengler reaction, which yields either a ?-carboline or a tetrahydroquinoline product from an aromatic amine and an aldehyde, is widely utilized in plant alkaloid biosynthesis. Here we deconvolute the role that the biosynthetic enzyme strictosidine synthase plays in catalyzing the stereoselective synthesis of a ?-carboline product. Notably, the rate-controlling step of the enzyme mechanism, as identified by the appearance of a primary kinetic isotope effect (KIE), is the rearomatization of a positively charged intermediate. The KIE of a nonenzymatic PictetSpengler reaction indicates that rearomatization is also rate-controlling in solution, suggesting that the enzyme does not significantly change the mechanism of the reaction. Additionally, the pH dependence of the solution and enzymatic reactions provides evidence for a sequence of acidbase catalysis steps that catalyze the PictetSpengler reaction. An additional acid-catalyzed step, most likely protonation of a carbinolamine intermediate, is also significantly rate controlling. We propose that this step is efficiently catalyzed by the enzyme. Structural analysis of a bisubstrate inhibitor bound to the enzyme suggests that the active site is exquisitely tuned to correctly orient the iminium intermediate for productive cyclization to form the diastereoselective product. Furthermore, ab initio calculations suggest the structures of possible productive transition states involved in the mechanism. Importantly, these calculations suggest that a spiroindolenine intermediate, often invoked in the PictetSpengler mechanism, does not occur. A detailed mechanism for enzymatic catalysis of the ?-carboline product is proposed from these data. PMID:18081287

  16. Chiral Brnsted acid catalyzed enantioselective intermolecular allylic aminations.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Minyang; Du, Haifeng

    2014-07-14

    This paper describes an enantioselective intermolecular allylic amination catalyzed by a chiral Brnsted acid via a possible chiral contact ion pair intermediate. A variety of symmetrical or unsymmetrical allylic alcohols can be smoothly aminated to afford the desired products in moderate to high yields with good enantioselectivities and/or regioselectivities. PMID:24872122

  17. Ruthenium-catalyzed C–H activation of thioxanthones

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Summary Thioxanthones – being readily available in one step from thiosalicylic acid and arenes – were used in ruthenium-catalyzed C–H-activation reaction to produce 1-mono- or 1,8-disubstituted thioxanthones in good to excellent yields. Scope and limitation of this reaction are presented. PMID:25977717

  18. Cu(II) - Catalyzed Hydrazine Reduction of Ferrous Nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses the results of a study of catalyzed hydrazine reduction of ferrous nitrate. It is apparent that there is a substantial reaction between hydrazine and nitrate ion (or nitric acid) to produce HN3 during both the reduction of Fe(III) and during storage at room temperature.

  19. Metal-Catalyzed Cleavage of tRNA[superscript Phe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Sarah R.; Silverstein, Todd P.; McFarlane Holman, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    This laboratory project is one component of a semester-long advanced biochemistry laboratory course that uses several complementary techniques to study tRNA[superscript Phe] conformational changes induced by ligand binding. In this article we describe a set of experiments in which students assay metal-catalyzed hydrolysis of tRNA[superscript Phe]…

  20. Rhodium-Catalyzed Boron Arylation of 1,2-Azaborines**

    PubMed Central

    Rudebusch, Gabriel E.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    A Sn-phony in B! BN isosteres of biphenyl compounds are prepared through Rh-catalyzed cross-coupling between 2-chloro-1,2-azaborines and arylstannanes (see scheme). The synthetic method should enable investigations of structureactivity relationships (SARs) by expanding the chemical space of the pharmaceutically relevant biphenyl structure through BN/CC isosterism. PMID:23832871

  1. Fused iron catalyzed conversion of benzene to toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.M.; Hudson, C.W. )

    1990-08-01

    Whereas benzene hydrogenation catalyzed over group VIII metals has been investigated, intensively, very few reports have considered ring hydrogenolysis of this simple aromatic hydrocarbon. The authors have recently discovered that surface carbon reincorporation to produce toluene and xylenes is an important reaction operating during benzene hydrogenolysis over a conventional fused iron ammonia synthesis catalyst.

  2. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polichnowski, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

  3. Catalyzing Graduate Teaching Assistants' Laboratory Teaching through Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond-Robinson, Janet; Rodriques, Romola A. Bernard

    2006-01-01

    We report on a study of a laboratory teaching apprenticeship program designed to improve graduate teaching assistant (GTA) performance. To catalyze GTAs as laboratory teachers we constructed learning goals, synthesized previous literature into a design model and a developmental path, and built two instruments to measure 12 strategic pedagogical

  4. Metal-Catalyzed Cleavage of tRNA[superscript Phe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Sarah R.; Silverstein, Todd P.; McFarlane Holman, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    This laboratory project is one component of a semester-long advanced biochemistry laboratory course that uses several complementary techniques to study tRNA[superscript Phe] conformational changes induced by ligand binding. In this article we describe a set of experiments in which students assay metal-catalyzed hydrolysis of tRNA[superscript Phe]

  5. Silver-catalyzed protodecarboxylation of heteroaromatic carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pengfei; Sanchez, Carolina; Cornella, Josep; Larrosa, Igor

    2009-12-17

    A simple and highly efficient protodecarboxylation procedure for a variety of heteroaromatic carboxylic acids catalyzed by Ag(2)CO(3) and AcOH in DMSO is described. This methodology can also perform the selective monoprotodecarboxylation of several aromatic dicarboxylic acids. PMID:19924891

  6. Selective iron-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of terminal alkynes.

    PubMed

    Wienhöfer, Gerrit; Westerhaus, Felix A; Jagadeesh, Rajenahally V; Junge, Kathrin; Junge, Henrik; Beller, Matthias

    2012-05-18

    A novel iron-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of alkynes to the corresponding alkenes applying formic acid as a hydrogen donor is reported. An in situ combination of Fe(BF(4))(2)·6H(2)O and tetraphos allows for highly selective hydrogenation of a broad range of aromatic and aliphatic alkynes tolerating different functional groups. PMID:22498907

  7. Development of a Lewis Base Catalyzed Selenocyclization Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, William

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Lewis base activation of selenium Lewis acids has been effectively reduced to practice in the Lewis base catalyzed selenofunctionalization of unactivated olefins. In this reaction, the weakly acidic species, "N"-phenylselenyl succinimide, is cooperatively activated by the addition of a "soft" Lewis base donor (phosphine sulfides,

  8. Ligand-Controlled Regiodivergent Copper-Catalyzed Alkylboration of Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei; Gong, Tian-Jun; Lu, Xi; Xu, Meng-Yu; Yu, Chu-Guo; Xu, Zheng-Yang; Yu, Hai-Zhu; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2015-10-26

    A novel copper-catalyzed regiodivergent alkylboration of alkenes with bis(pinacolato)diboron and alkyl halides has been developed. The regioselectivity of the alkylboration was controlled by subtle differences in the ligand structure. The reaction thus enables the practical, regiodivergent synthesis of two different alkyl boronic esters with complex structures from a single alkene. PMID:26338141

  9. Zinc-catalyzed cyclopropenation of alkynes via 2-furylcarbenoids.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez, Mara J; Lpez, Luis A; Vicente, Rubn

    2014-11-01

    An unprecedented cyclopropenation reaction of alkynes catalyzed by ZnCl2 is reported. While Simmons-Smith-type carbenoids failed in the [2 + 1]-cycloaddition with alkynes, the use of enynones as the carbene source enables the preparation of substituted 2-furyl cyclopropene derivatives with remarkable scope. PMID:25338218

  10. Flavin-catalyzed insertion of oxygen into rhenium-methyl bonds.

    PubMed

    Pouy, Mark J; Milczek, Erika M; Figg, Travis M; Otten, Brooke M; Prince, Bruce M; Gunnoe, T Brent; Cundari, Thomas R; Groves, John T

    2012-08-01

    Flavins and related molecules catalyze organic Baeyer-Villiger reactions. Combined experimental and DFT studies indicate that these molecules also catalyze the insertion of oxygen into metal-carbon bonds through a Baeyer-Villiger-like transition state. PMID:22827584

  11. Kinetics of Imidazole Catalyzed Ester Hydrolysis: Use of Buffer Dilutions to Determine Spontaneous Rate, Catalyzed Rate, and Reaction Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Anthony

    1982-01-01

    Described is an advanced undergraduate kinetics experiment using buffer dilutions to determine spontaneous rate, catalyzed rate, and reaction order. The reaction utilized is hydrolysis of p-nitro-phenyl acetate in presence of imidazole, which has been shown to enhance rate of the reaction. (Author/JN)

  12. 4-Dimenthylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Esters: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    A set of highly atom-economic experiments was developed to highlight the differences between acid- and base-catalyzed ester syntheses and to introduce the principles of atom economy. The hydrochloric acid-catalyzed formation of an ester was compared with the 4-dimethylaminopyradine-catalyzed ester synthesis.

  13. Cytochrome c catalyzes the in vitro synthesis of arachidonoyl glycine

    SciTech Connect

    McCue, Jeffrey M.; Driscoll, William J.; Mueller, Gregory P.

    2008-01-11

    Long chain fatty acyl glycines are an emerging class of biologically active molecules that occur naturally and produce a wide array of physiological effects. Their biosynthetic pathway, however, remains unknown. Here we report that cytochrome c catalyzes the synthesis of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) from arachidonoyl coenzyme A and glycine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The identity of the NAGly product was verified by isotope labeling and mass analysis. Other heme-containing proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin, were considerably less effective in generating arachidonoyl glycine as compared to cytochrome c. The reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c in vitro points to its potential role in the formation of NAGly and other long chain fatty acyl glycines in vivo.

  14. Palladium catalyzed hydro-carbonation of allenes with pronucleophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    1995-12-31

    The addition of pronucleophiles to dialkyl- or monoalkylallenes is catalyzed by Pd{sub 2}(dba){sub 3}{sm_bullet}CHCl{sub 3}/dppb to give the terminal({gamma}) adducts. The regioselectivity of the addition of pronucleophiles is highly dependent upon the substituent of allenes. Arylallenes having an electron withdrawing group at the para-position afford the {beta}-adducts, whereas alkoxy(or phenoxy)allenes give the {alpha}-adducts. The palladium catalyzed reaction of allylstannanes with pronucleophiles produces the corresponding allylated derivatives in good to high yields. The reaction of allenyl- and propargyl-stannanes with pronucleophiles in the presence of palladium catalyst gives the double addition products. The reaction mechanism of the above reactions will be discussed.

  15. Ruthenium-catalyzed cascade C-H functionalization of phenylacetophenones.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vaibhav P; Garca-Lpez, Jos-Antonio; Greaney, Michael F

    2014-02-01

    Three orthogonal cascade C?H functionalization processes are described, based on ruthenium-catalyzed C?H alkenylation. 1-Indanones, indeno indenes, and indeno furanones were accessed through cascade pathways by using arylacetophenones as substrates under conditions of catalytic [{Ru(p-cymene)Cl2 }2 ] and stoichiometric Cu(OAc)2 . Each transformation uses C?H functionalization methods to form C?C bonds sequentially, with the indeno furanone synthesis featuring a C?O bond formation as the terminating step. This work demonstrates the power of ruthenium-catalyzed alkenylation as a platform reaction to develop more complex transformations, with multiple C?H functionalization steps taking place in a single operation to access novel carbocyclic structures. PMID:24453063

  16. Phospholipase D-catalyzed transphosphatidylation in anhydrous organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Rich, J O; Khmelnitsky, Y L

    2001-02-01

    A new reaction system suitable for phospholipase D (PLD)-catalyzed transphosphatidylation of alcohols with phosphatidylcholine under anhydrous conditions is reported. The key innovation of the reaction system is a cation-exchange resin serving as a scavenger for choline that forms as a byproduct in the transphosphatidylation reaction. Due to the absence of water in this system, the reaction path dramatically shifts in favor of the target transphosphatidylated product, whereas the undesirable side hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine is completely suppressed, in contrast to commonly used biphasic water-organic systems. In addition, a salt activation technique is successfully applied to increase the catalytic activity of PLD in this anhydrous system. The new reaction system is successfully used for transphosphatidylation of a wide range of primary, secondary, and aromatic alcohols catalyzed by PLD from Streptomyces sp. PMID:11135209

  17. Actinide-Catalyzed Intermolecular Addition of Alcohols to Carbodiimides.

    PubMed

    Batrice, Rami J; Kefalidis, Christos E; Maron, Laurent; Eisen, Moris S

    2016-02-24

    The unprecedented actinide-catalyzed addition of alcohols to carbodiimides is presented. This represents a rare example of thorium-catalyzed transformations of an alcoholic substrate and the first example of uranium complexes showing catalytic reactivity with alcohols. Using the uranium and thorium amides U[N(SiMe3)2]3 and [(Me3Si)2N]2An[κ(2)-(N,C)-CH2Si(CH3)2N(SiMe3)] (An = Th or U), alcohol additions to unsaturated carbon-nitrogen bonds are achieved in short reaction times with excellent selectivities and high to excellent yields. Computational studies, supported by experimental thermodynamic data, suggest plausible models of the profile of the reaction which allow the system to overcome the high barrier of scission of the actinide-oxygen bond. Accompanied by experimentally determined kinetic parameters, a plausible mechanism is proposed for the catalytic cycle. PMID:26844823

  18. Iron-catalyzed diboration and carboboration of alkynes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Naohisa; Hatakeyama, Takuji; Nakamura, Masaharu

    2015-03-01

    An iron-catalyzed diboration reaction of alkynes with bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2pin2) and external borating agents (MeOB(OR)2) affords diverse symmetrical or unsymmetrical cis-1,2-diborylalkenes. The simple protocol for the diboration reaction can be extended to the iron-catalyzed carboboration of alkynes with primary and, unprecedentedly, secondary alkyl halides, affording various tetrasubstituted monoborylalkenes in a highly stereoselective manner. DFT calculations indicate that a boryliron intermediate adds across the triple bond of an alkyne to afford an alkenyliron intermediate, which can react with the external trapping agents, borates and alkyl halides. In situ trapping experiments support the intermediacy of the alkenyl iron species using radical probe stubstrates. PMID:25631242

  19. Cholera toxin can catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kaslow, H.R.; Groppi, V.E.; Abood, M.E.; Bourne, H.R.

    1981-11-01

    Cholera toxin catalyzes transfer of radiolabel from (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ to several peptides in particulate preparations of human foreskin fibroblasts. Resolution of these peptides by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed identification of two peptides of M/sub r/ = 42,000 and 52,000 as peptide subunits of a regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. The radiolabeling of another group of peptides (M/sub r/ = 50,000 to 65,000) suggested that cholera toxin could catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins. This suggestion was confirmed by showing that incubation with cholera toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ caused radiolabeling of purified microtubule and intermediate filament proteins.

  20. Investigation of catalyzed Li/SOCl2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilroy, W. P.; Alamgir, M.; Perrotti, S. J.; Abraham, K. M.

    The performance of Co-TAA catalyzed, spirally wound, C-size Li/SOCl2 cells was investigated by examining their discharge capacities at current densities in the 2 to 40 mA/sq cm range, by performing discharge at -30 C, and by evaluating their capacity and voltage delay after storage at 70 C. Impressive beneficial effects of the catalyst were found at high rates and low temperatures. At -30 C, Co-TAA-catalyzed cells offered the advantages of higher load voltages and better voltage regulation, resulting in a tripling of the cell's capacity to 2.0 V cutoff. Preliminary results indicate that the catalyst produced no apparent deleterious effects on the storage capability of the cells.

  1. Cross-ligation and exchange reactions catalyzed by hairpin ribozymes.

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Y; Koizumi, M; Sekiguchi, A; Ohtsuka, E

    1993-01-01

    The negative strand of the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus (sTobRV(-)) contains a hairpin catalytic domain that shows self-cleavage and self-ligation activities in the presence of magnesium ions. We describe here that the minimal catalytic domain can catalyze a cross-ligation reaction between two kinds of substrates in trans. The cross-ligated product increased when the reaction temperature was decreased during the reaction from 37 degrees C to 4 degrees C. A two-stranded hairpin ribozyme, divided into two fragments between G45 and U46 in a hairpin loop, showed higher ligation activity than the nondivided ribozyme. The two stranded ribozyme also catalyzed an exchange reaction of the 3'-portion of the cleavage site. Images PMID:8441626

  2. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cascade CH Functionalization of Phenylacetophenones**

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Vaibhav P; Garca-Lpez, Jos-Antonio; Greaney, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Three orthogonal cascade CH functionalization processes are described, based on ruthenium-catalyzed CH alkenylation. 1-Indanones, indeno indenes, and indeno furanones were accessed through cascade pathways by using arylacetophenones as substrates under conditions of catalytic [{Ru(p-cymene)Cl2}2] and stoichiometric Cu(OAc)2. Each transformation uses CH functionalization methods to form CC bonds sequentially, with the indeno furanone synthesis featuring a CO bond formation as the terminating step. This work demonstrates the power of ruthenium-catalyzed alkenylation as a platform reaction to develop more complex transformations, with multiple CH functionalization steps taking place in a single operation to access novel carbocyclic structures. PMID:24453063

  3. Polymerization of phenols catalyzed by peroxidase in nonaqueous media

    SciTech Connect

    Dordick, J.S.; Marletta, M.A.; Klibanov, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Polymers produced by horseradish-peroxidase-catalyzed coupling of phenols have been explored as potential substitutes for phenol-formaldehyde resins. To overcome low substrate solubilities and product molecular weights in water, enzymatic polymerizations in aqueous-organic mixtures have been examined. Peroxidase vigorously polymerizes a number of phenols in mixtures of water with water-miscible solvents such as dioxane, acetone, dimethylformamide, and methyl formate with the solvent content up to 95%. As a result, various phenolic polymers with average molecular weights from 400 to 2.6 x 10/sup 4/ D were obtained depending on the reaction medium composition and the nature of the phenol. Peroxidase-catalyzed copolymerization of different phenols in 85% dioxane was demonstrated. Poly(p-phenylphenol) and poly(p-cresol) were enzymatically prepared on a gram scale. They had much higher melting points, and in addition, poly(p-phenylphenol) was found to have a much higher electrical conductivity than phenol-formaldehyde resins.

  4. Competitive partial inhibitors of serum albumin-catalyzed sulfur cyanolysis.

    PubMed

    Jarabak, R; Westley, J

    1990-01-01

    Efforts to locate the active site for sulfur cyanolysis catalyzed by bovine serum albumin have led to systematic tests of several compounds that inhibit the catalyzed reaction. Hexanoate and 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonate bind at the same site and are partial inhibitors competitive with cyanide, uncompetitive with respect to sulfur. Various dansyl amino acids and 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate display the same inhibitory behavior but bis (1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate) is a total inhibitor competitive with cyanide. These findings are interpreted to indicate that the cyanolysis active site is near, but not at, one of the short-chain fatty acid binding sites on albumin subdomain 2-AB or 3-AB. Both ionic repulsion and steric considerations are implicated in the mechanisms of inhibition. PMID:2402002

  5. Copper-Catalyzed Intramolecular Oxidative Amination of Unactivated Internal Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Peng; Xu, Fan; Qian, Xiang-Yang; Yohannes, Yared; Song, Jinshuai; Lu, Xin; Xu, Hai-Chao

    2016-03-18

    A copper-catalyzed oxidative amination of unactivated internal alkenes has been developed. The Wacker-type oxidative alkene amination reaction is traditionally catalyzed by a palladium through a mechanism involving aminopalladation and β-hydride elimination. Replacing the precious and scarce palladium with a cheap and abundant copper for this transformation has been challenging because of the difficulty associated with the aminocupration of internal alkenes. The combination of a simple copper salt, without additional ligand, as the catalyst and Dess-Martin periodinane as the oxidant, promotes efficiently the oxidative amination of allylic carbamates and ureas bearing di- and trisubstituted alkenes leading to oxazolidinones and imidazolidinones. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggested a hybrid radical-organometallic mechanism involving an amidyl radical cyclization to form the key C-N bond. PMID:26878987

  6. Comparing Ru and Fe-catalyzed olefin metathesis.

    PubMed

    Poater, Albert; Chaitanya Vummaleti, Sai Vikrama; Pump, Eva; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-08-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to explore the potential of Fe-based complexes with an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, as olefin metathesis catalysts. Apart from a less endothermic reaction energy profile, a small reduction in the predicted upper energy barriers (? 2 kcal mol(-1)) is calculated in the Fe catalyzed profile with respect to the Ru catalysed profile. Overall, this study indicates that Fe-based catalysts have the potential to be very effective olefin metathesis catalysts. PMID:24821502

  7. The gravitino-stau scenario after catalyzed big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kersten, Joern; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai E-mail: kai.schmidt-hoberg@ph.tum.de

    2008-01-15

    We consider the impact of catalyzed big bang nucleosynthesis on theories with a gravitino lightest superparticle and a charged slepton next-to-lightest superparticle. In models where the gravitino to gaugino mass ratio is bounded from below, such as gaugino-mediated supersymmetry breaking, we derive a lower bound on the gaugino mass parameter m{sub 1/2}. As a concrete example, we determine the parameter space of gaugino mediation that is compatible with all cosmological constraints.

  8. Electrophilic phosphonium cations catalyze hydroarylation and hydrothiolation of olefins.

    PubMed

    Prez, Manuel; Mahdi, Tayseer; Hounjet, Lindsay J; Stephan, Douglas W

    2015-06-30

    Electrophilic phosphonium cations (EPCs) are efficient main group catalysts for the hydroarylation of olefins under mild conditions, providing a facile route to substituted aniline, bis-arylamine, phenol, furan, thiophene, pyrrole, and indole derivatives. Similarly, EPCs catalyze the hydrothiolation of aryl olefins with thiophenol affording a series of alkyl aryl thioethers. Experimental data support a mechanism for these reactions that involves initial activation of the olefin. PMID:26083901

  9. Direct Alkylation of Amines with Alcohols Catalyzed by Base.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang-Qiang; Xiao, Zu-Feng; Yao, Chuan-Zhi; Zheng, Hong-Xing; Kang, Yan-Biao

    2015-11-01

    A base-catalyzed/promoted transition-metal-free direct alkylation of amines with alcohols has been developed, giving the desired amines in generally high yields from either aromatic or aliphatic alcohols. On the basis of the (1)H NMR and in situ IR (React-IR) monitoring experiments, isotope-labeling experiments, as well as control experiments, a novel "hemiaminal" model is proposed to understand the mechanism, which explains the formation of the "extra" aldehyde in the reaction. PMID:26473336

  10. Copper-catalyzed arylation of alkyl halides with arylaluminum reagents

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bijay

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report a Cu-catalyzed coupling between triarylaluminum reagents and alkyl halides to form arylalkanes. The reaction proceeds in the presence of N,N,N,N-tetramethyl-o-phenylenediamine (NN-1) as a ligand in combination with CuI as a catalyst. This catalyst system enables the coupling of primary alkyl iodides and bromides with electron-neutral and electron-rich triarylaluminum reagents and affords the cross-coupled products in good to excellent yields. PMID:26734088

  11. Iron-Catalyzed Intramolecular C(sp(2) )-H Amination.

    PubMed

    Alt, Isabel T; Plietker, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The nucleophilic iron complex Bu4 N[Fe(CO)3 (NO)] (TBA[Fe]) catalyzes the direct intramolecular C-H amination of ?-azidobiaryls and (azidoaryl)alkenes into the corresponding carbazoles and indoles, respectively, under mild conditions and with low catalyst loadings. These features and the broad functional-group tolerance render this method a particularly attractive alternative to established noble-metal-based procedures. PMID:26663257

  12. Lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution of aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Dayvson J; Abreu, Juliana C; Andrade, Leandro H

    2011-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution of aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols through a transesterification reaction was studied. The optimal conditions found for the kinetic resolution of m- and p-aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols, led to excellent results, high conversions (c = 50%), high enantiomeric ratios (E > 200) and enantiomeric excesses for the remaining (S)-alcohol and (R)-acetylated product (>99%). However, kinetic resolution of o-aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols did not occur under the same conditions applied to the other isomers. PMID:22113578

  13. Synthesis of Graphite Encapsulated Metal Nanoparticles and Metal Catalyzed Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWal, R. L.; Dravid, V. P.

    1999-01-01

    This work focuses on the growth and inception of graphite encapsulated metal nanoparticles and metal catalyzed nanotubes using combustion chemistry. Deciphering the inception and growth mechanism(s) for these unique nanostructures is essential for purposeful synthesis. Detailed knowledge of these mechanism(s) may yield insights into alternative synthesis pathways or provide data on unfavorable conditions. Production of these materials is highly desirable given many promising technological applications.

  14. Iron-catalyzed synthesis of arylsulfinates through radical coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weixi; Luo, Meiming

    2016-02-01

    A novel strategy for installation of a sulfonyl fragment into arenes has been accomplished via an iron-catalyzed radical coupling reaction. Arene radicals derived from diaryliodoniums via single electron transfer reaction combine with sulfoxylate anion radicals readily generated from commercially available rongalite (HOCH2SO2Na2H2O) to afford arylsulfinates efficiently at room temperature. In this protocol, a broad range of functional groups are tolerated to give products in good yields. PMID:26781163

  15. Copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of trisubstituted allylic and homoallylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jian; Liu, Xiaowu; Zhang, Shaolin; Jiang, Shuang; Huang, Minhao; Wu, Xiaoxing; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-04-27

    An efficient copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of trisubstituted allylic and homoallylic alcohols with Togni's reagent has been developed. This strategy, accompanied by a double-bond migration, leads to various branched CF3-substituted alcohols by using readily available trisubstituted cyclic/acyclic alcohols as substrates. Moreover, for alcohols in which ?-H elimination is prohibited, CF3-containing oxetanes are isolated as the sole product. PMID:25810003

  16. [Synthesis of carbohydrate related compounds by using aldolase catalyzed reaction].

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, T

    2000-01-01

    Enzymes proceed the reaction with high regio- and stereoselectivity under mild conditions, i.e. in an aqueous medium at room temperature. However, enzymatic reactions that catalyze carbon-carbon bond formation have not been utilized in organic synthesis until recently. We had an interest in an aldolase-catalyzed reaction which proceed carbon-carbon bond formation referred to aldol condensation, by which many bioactive compounds have been rationally synthesized. On the other hand, recent biological studies on cell recognition (cell adhesion) have disclosed the important roles of oligosaccharides on cell surfaces, especially which include glucuronic acid, 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (KDO), and sialic acid in the structures e.g., sialyl Lewis X and endotoxins, in differentiation, induction, viral and bacterial infections, and immune response. As well as acidic oligosaccharides, basic ones have been utilized as practical medicines in the clinical level, like acarbose that acts as an amylase inhibitor. Based on these background, we embarked the synthesis of carbohydrate related compounds which can control the interaction between carbohydrates and carbohydrate recognition protein by the use of several aldolases. Azasugars, potent inhibitors toward glycosidases, were synthesized using fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP)-aldolase and other dihdroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP)-dependent aldolases in the key step. Sialyl Lewis X mimetic, peptidic mimetic of RNA having anti-Vero toxin activity, mycestericin D, and aza-idulonic acid were prepared by taking advantage of L-threonine aldolase catalyzed reaction, which afford beta-hydroxy-alpha-L-amino acids. A precursor of KDO, featured acidic sugar of endotoxins was provided by the reaction catalyzed with kynureninase, which generates beta-anion of L-alanine in its active site during the metabolic reaction from kynurenine to anthranilic acid. PMID:10655781

  17. Copper-catalyzed olefinic C-H difluoroacetylation of enamides.

    PubMed

    Caillot, Gilles; Dufour, Jérémy; Belhomme, Marie-Charlotte; Poisson, Thomas; Grimaud, Laurence; Pannecoucke, Xavier; Gillaizeau, Isabelle

    2014-06-01

    Copper-catalyzed olefinic difluoroacetylation of enamides via direct C-H bond functionalization using BrCF2CO2Et is reported for the first time. It constitutes an efficient radical-free method for the regioselective synthesis of β-difluoroester substituted enamides which exhibits broad substrate scope, and thus demonstrates its potent application in a late stage fluorination strategy. PMID:24760345

  18. Palladium Catalyzed Intramolecular Acylcyanation of Alkenes Using ?-Iminonitriles

    PubMed Central

    Rondla, Naveen R.; Ogilvie, Jodi M.; Pan, Zhongda

    2014-01-01

    Reported here is a palladium catalyzed intramolecular acylcyanation of alkenes using ?-iminonitriles. Through this method, highly functionalized indanones are synthesized in moderate to high yields using Pd(PPh3)4, without need for any additional ligands, and a common Lewis acid (ZnCl2). Additionally, the reaction tolerates substitution at various positions on the aromatic ring including electron donating, and electron withdrawing groups. PMID:24980625

  19. Rh catalyzed olefination and vinylation of unactivated acetanilides.

    PubMed

    Patureau, Frederic W; Glorius, Frank

    2010-07-28

    In the catalyzed oxidative olefination of acetanilides (oxidative-Heck coupling), Rh offers great advantages over more common Pd catalysts. Lower catalyst loadings, large functional group tolerance (in particular to halides), and higher reactivity of electron-neutral olefins (styrenes) are some of the attractive features. Most interestingly, even ethylene reacts to yield the corresponding acetanilido-styrene. Moreover, the Cu(II) oxidant can also be utilized in catalytic amounts with air serving as the terminal oxidant. PMID:20593901

  20. Biaryl Phosphine Ligands in Palladium-Catalyzed Amination

    PubMed Central

    Surry, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed amination of aryl halides has undergone rapid development in the last 12 years. This has been largely driven by implementation of new classes of ligands. Biaryl phosphines have proven to provide especially active catalysts in this context. This review discusses the applications that these catalysts have found in C-N cross-coupling in heterocycle synthesis, pharmaceuticals, materials science and natural product synthesis. PMID:18663711

  1. Pd-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Fluorination of Aryl Bromides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of mechanism-driven reaction design, a Pd-catalyzed nucleophilic fluorination of aryl bromides and iodides has been developed. The method exhibits a broad substrate scope, especially with respect to nitrogen-containing heteroaryl bromides, and proceeds with minimal formation of the corresponding reduction products. A facilitated ligand modification process was shown to be critical to the success of the reaction. PMID:24559304

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Cyclization of Alkenes with Organohalides.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xue-Qiang; Liu, Dan; Xing, Zhen-Hua; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Ji, Shun-Jun

    2016-02-19

    A palladium-catalyzed tandem C-Br/C-H functionalization and cyclization of alkenes with organohalides is reported. This reaction provides an operationally simple method for the synthesis of various fluorene, pyrroloindole, and benzoxazine derivatives, which are useful pharmaceutical framework and photoelectronic devices. Two new C-C/O bonds, a quaternary carbon center and a new ring, are simultaneously formed in this one-pot reaction. PMID:26836399

  3. Synthesis of Aryldifluoroamides by Copper-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling.

    PubMed

    Arlow, Sophie I; Hartwig, John F

    2016-03-24

    A copper-catalyzed coupling of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl iodides with α-silyldifluoroamides is reported. The reaction forms α,α-difluoro-α-aryl amides from electron-rich, electron-poor, and sterically hindered aryl iodides in high yield and tolerates a variety of functional groups. The aryldifluoroamide products can be transformed further to provide access to a diverse array of difluoroalkylarenes, including compounds of potential biological interest. PMID:26929068

  4. Deglutathionylation of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin is specifically catalyzed by sulfiredoxin.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Won; Mieyal, John J; Rhee, Sue Goo; Chock, P Boon

    2009-08-28

    Reversible protein glutathionylation plays a key role in cellular regulation and cell signaling and protects protein thiols from hyperoxidation. Sulfiredoxin (Srx), an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of Cys-sulfinic acid derivatives of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prxs), has been shown to catalyze the deglutathionylation of actin. We show that deglutathionylation of 2-Cys Prx, a family of peroxidases, is specifically catalyzed by Srx. Using the ubiquitously expressed member of 2-Cys Prx, Prx I, we revealed the following. (i) Among its four Cys residues, Cys(52), Cys(83), and Cys(173) can be glutathionylated in vitro. Deglutathionylation with Cys mutants showed that Cys(83) and Cys(173) were preferentially catalyzed by Srx, with glutathionylated Srx as the reaction intermediate, whereas glutaredoxin I was more favorable for deglutathionylating Cys(52). (ii) Studies using site-directed mutagenesis coupled with binding and deglutathionylation activities revealed that Pro(174) and Pro(179) of Prx I and Tyr(92) of Srx are essential for both activities. Furthermore, relative to glutaredoxin I, Srx exhibited negligible deglutathionylation activity for glutathionylated cysteine and glutathionylated BSA. These results indicate that Srx is specific for deglutathionylating Prx I due to its favorable affinity for Prx I. To assess the biological relevance of these observations, we showed that Prx I is glutathionylated in A549 and HeLa cells under modest levels of H(2)O(2). In addition, the level of glutathionylated Prx I was substantially elevated in small interfering RNA-mediated Srx-knocked down cells, whereas the reverse was observed in Srx-overexpressing cells. However, glutathionylation of Prx V, not known to bind to Srx, was not affected by the change in Srx expression levels. PMID:19561357

  5. Rhodium-Catalyzed Transnitrilation of Aryl Boronic Acids with Dimethylmalononitrile.

    PubMed

    Malapit, Christian A; Reeves, Jonathan T; Busacca, Carl A; Howell, Amy R; Senanayake, Chris H

    2016-01-01

    An efficient transnitrilation of aryl boronic acids with dimethylmalononitrile (DMMN) is described. This rhodium-catalyzed electrophilic cyanation presents a novel approach to prepare aryl nitriles by using a carbon-bound cyanating reagent which undergoes cross-coupling with the aryl boronic acid. The reaction expands the degree of functional-group compatibility exhibited by the transnitrilation of aryl Grignard and aryllithium reagents. A variety of aryl boronic acid derivatives and dialkylmalononitriles were amenable to the transnitrilation. PMID:26483150

  6. Transglutaminase 2-Catalyzed Intramolecular Cross-Linking of Osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Brian; Zachariae, Elias D; Scavenius, Carsten; Klverpris, Sren; Oxvig, Claus; Petersen, Steen V; Enghild, Jan J; Srensen, Esben S

    2016-01-19

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional integrin-binding protein present in several tissues and body fluids. OPN is a substrate for the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2), which catalyzes inter- and intramolecular cross-linking affecting the biological activity of the protein. Polymerization of OPN by intermolecular cross-linking has mostly been studied using relatively high TG2 concentrations, whereas the effect of lower concentrations of TG2 has remained unexplored. Here we show that TG2 at physiologically relevant concentrations predominantly catalyzes the formation of intramolecular cross-links in OPN. By site-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that Gln(42) and Gln(193) serve as the primary amine acceptor sites for isopeptide bond formation. We find that Gln(42) predominantly is linked to Lys(4) and that Gln(193) participates in a cross-link with Lys(154), Lys(157), or Lys(231). The formation of specific isopeptide bonds was not dependent on OPN phosphorylation, and similar patterns of cross-linking were observed in human and mouse OPN. Furthermore, we find that OPN purified from human urine contains the Lys(154)-Gln(193) isopeptide bond, indicating that intramolecular cross-linking of OPN occurs in vivo. Collectively, these data suggest that specific intramolecular cross-linking in the N- and C-terminal parts of OPN is most likely the dominant step in TG2-catalyzed modification of OPN. PMID:26678563

  7. Carrier gas effects on aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yue; Hainey, Mel, Jr.; Won, Dongjin; Weng, Xiaojun; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2016-04-01

    Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowire growth under low-pressure chemical vapor deposition conditions requires higher reactor pressures than gold-catalyzed growth, but the reasons for this difference are not well understood. In this study, the effects of reactor pressure and hydrogen partial pressure on silicon nanowire growth using an aluminum catalyst were studied by growing nanowires in hydrogen and hydrogen/nitrogen carrier gas mixtures at different total reactor pressures. Nanowires grown in the nitrogen/hydrogen mixture have faceted catalyst droplet tips, minimal evidence of aluminum diffusion from the tip down the nanowire sidewalls, and significant vapor–solid deposition of silicon on the sidewalls. In comparison, wires grown in pure hydrogen show less well-defined tips, evidence of aluminum diffusion down the nanowire sidewalls at increasing reactor pressures and reduced vapor–solid deposition of silicon on the sidewalls. The results are explained in terms of a model wherein the hydrogen partial pressure plays a critical role in aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth by controlling hydrogen termination of the silicon nanowire sidewalls. For a given reactor pressure, increased hydrogen partial pressures increase the extent of hydrogen termination of the sidewalls which suppresses SiH4 adsorption thereby reducing vapor–solid deposition of silicon but increases the surface diffusion length of aluminum. Conversely, lower hydrogen partial pressures reduce the hydrogen termination and also increase the extent of SiH4 gas phase decomposition, shifting the nanowire growth window to lower growth temperatures and silane partial pressures.

  8. Stau-catalyzed big-bang nucleosynthesis reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamimura, Masayasu; Kino, Yasushi; Hiyama, Emiko

    2010-06-01

    We study the new type of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) reactions that are catalyzed by a hypothetical long-lived negatively charged, massive leptonic particle (called X{sup -}) such as the supersymmetric (SUSY) particle stau, the scalar partner of the tau lepton. It is known that if the X{sup -} particle has a lifetime of tau{sub X} > or approx. 10{sup 3} s, it can capture a light element previously synthesized in standard BBN and form a Coulombic bound state and induces various types of reactions in which X{sup -} acts as a catalyst. Some of these X{sup -} catalyzed reactions have significantly large cross sections so that the inclusion of the reactions into the BBN network calculation can markedly change the abundances of some elements. We use a high-accuracy three-body calculation method developed by the authors and provide precise cross sections and rates of these catalyzed BBN reactions for use in the BBN network calculation.

  9. Reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide catalyzed by xanthine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Godber, B L; Doel, J J; Sapkota, G P; Blake, D R; Stevens, C R; Eisenthal, R; Harrison, R

    2000-03-17

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) was shown to catalyze the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), under anaerobic conditions, in the presence of either NADH or xanthine as reducing substrate. NO production was directly demonstrated by ozone chemiluminescence and showed stoichiometry of approximately 2:1 versus NADH depletion. With xanthine as reducing substrate, the kinetics of NO production were complicated by enzyme inactivation, resulting from NO-induced conversion of XO to its relatively inactive desulfo-form. Steady-state kinetic parameters were determined spectrophotometrically for urate production and NADH oxidation catalyzed by XO and xanthine dehydrogenase in the presence of nitrite under anaerobic conditions. pH optima for anaerobic NO production catalyzed by XO in the presence of nitrite were 7.0 for NADH and

  10. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid diethanolamides.

    PubMed

    Liu, K J; Nag, A; Shaw, J F

    2001-12-01

    Diethanolamides are nonionic emulsifiers widely used in industries such as cosmetics and as corrosion inhibitors. Candida antarctica lipase (Novozym 435) was used to catalyze the amidation of various fatty acids with diethanolamine. Contents of fatty acids, metal ions, and water affected the yields of diethanolamides. Hexanoic acid was the best substrate among all acyl donors. Yields of hexanoyl diethanolamide (HADEA), lauroyl diethanolamide (LADEA), and oleoyl diethanolamide (OADEA), obtained after 24 h of lipase-catalyzed reaction at 50 degrees C and 250 rpm with 90 mM fatty acid and 360 mM diethanolamine in acetonitrile, were 76.5, 49.5, and 12.1%, respectively. Addition of 1 mM metal salts increased the yields of HADEA and LADEA. Kinetic analysis showed that the yields of HADEA and LADEA in lipase-catalyzed reactions were largely associated with the rate of the forward reaction constant k(1). Anhydrous enzyme was found to be the best for the amidation reaction. Study on the enzyme operational stability showed that C. antarctica lipase retained 95 and 85% of the initial activity for the syntheses of HADEA and LADEA, respectively (even after repeated use for 10 days). The reaction runs smoothly without the use of hazardous reactants, and the developed method is useful for the industrial application. PMID:11743760

  11. Carrier gas effects on aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yue; Hainey, Mel; Won, Dongjin; Weng, Xiaojun; Eichfeld, Sarah M; Redwing, Joan M

    2016-04-01

    Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowire growth under low-pressure chemical vapor deposition conditions requires higher reactor pressures than gold-catalyzed growth, but the reasons for this difference are not well understood. In this study, the effects of reactor pressure and hydrogen partial pressure on silicon nanowire growth using an aluminum catalyst were studied by growing nanowires in hydrogen and hydrogen/nitrogen carrier gas mixtures at different total reactor pressures. Nanowires grown in the nitrogen/hydrogen mixture have faceted catalyst droplet tips, minimal evidence of aluminum diffusion from the tip down the nanowire sidewalls, and significant vapor-solid deposition of silicon on the sidewalls. In comparison, wires grown in pure hydrogen show less well-defined tips, evidence of aluminum diffusion down the nanowire sidewalls at increasing reactor pressures and reduced vapor-solid deposition of silicon on the sidewalls. The results are explained in terms of a model wherein the hydrogen partial pressure plays a critical role in aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth by controlling hydrogen termination of the silicon nanowire sidewalls. For a given reactor pressure, increased hydrogen partial pressures increase the extent of hydrogen termination of the sidewalls which suppresses SiH4 adsorption thereby reducing vapor-solid deposition of silicon but increases the surface diffusion length of aluminum. Conversely, lower hydrogen partial pressures reduce the hydrogen termination and also increase the extent of SiH4 gas phase decomposition, shifting the nanowire growth window to lower growth temperatures and silane partial pressures. PMID:26900836

  12. Protection of Wood from Microorganisms by Laccase-Catalyzed Iodination

    PubMed Central

    Engel, J.; Thöny-Meyer, L.; Schwarze, F. W. M. R.; Ihssen, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I−) to iodine (I2) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection. PMID:22865075

  13. Aspergillus parasiticus Cyclase Catalyzes Two Dehydration Steps in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sakuno, Emi; Wen, Ying; Hatabayashi, Hidemi; Arai, Hatsue; Aoki, Chiemi; Yabe, Kimiko; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2005-01-01

    In the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway, 5?-oxoaverantin (OAVN) cyclase, the cytosolic enzyme, catalyzes the reaction from OAVN to (2?S,5?S)-averufin (AVR) (E. Sakuno, K. Yabe, and H. Nakajima, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:6418-6426, 2003). Interestingly, the N-terminal 25-amino-acid sequence of OAVN cyclase completely matched an internal sequence of the versiconal (VHOH) cyclase that was deduced from its gene (vbs). The purified OAVN cyclase also catalyzed the reaction from VHOH to versicolorin B (VB). In a competition experiment using the cytosol fraction of Aspergillus parasiticus, a high concentration of VHOH inhibited the enzyme reaction from OAVN to AVR, and instead VB was newly formed. The recombinant Vbs protein, which was expressed in Pichia pastoris, showed OAVN cyclase activity, as well as VHOH cyclase activity. A mutant of A. parasiticus SYS-4 (= NRRL 2999) with vbs deleted accumulated large amounts of OAVN, 5?-hydroxyaverantin, averantin, AVR, and averufanin in the mycelium. These results indicated that the cyclase encoded by the vbs gene is also involved in the reaction from OAVN to AVR in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Small amounts of VHOH, VB, and aflatoxins also accumulated in the same mutant, and this accumulation may have been due to an unknown enzyme(s) not involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report of one enzyme catalyzing two different reactions in a pathway of secondary metabolism. PMID:15932995

  14. Enantioselective Total Syntheses of (?)-Taiwaniaquinone H and (?)-Taiwaniaquinol B by Iridium-Catalyzed Borylation and Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric ?-Arylation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xuebin; Stanley, Levi M.; Hartwig, John F.

    2011-01-01

    We report a concise, enantioselective total synthesis of (?)-taiwaniaquinone H and the first enantioselective total synthesis of (?)-taiwaniaquinol B by a route that includes enantioselective, palladium-catalyzed ?-arylation of a ketone with an aryl bromide that was generated by sterically controlled halogenation via iridium-catalyzed CH borylation. This asymmetric ?-arylation creates the benzylic, quaternary stereogenic center present in the taiwaniaquinoids. The synthesis was completed efficiently by developing a Lewis acid-promoted cascade to construct the [6,5,6] tricyclic core of an intermediate common to the synthesis of a number of taiwaniaquinoids. Through the preparation of these compounds, we demonstrate the utility of constructing benzylic, quaternary, stereogenic centers, even those lacking a carbonyl group in the ?-position, by asymmetric ?-arylation. PMID:21268578

  15. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  16. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when

  17. On the Temperature Dependence of Enzyme-Catalyzed Rates.

    PubMed

    Arcus, Vickery L; Prentice, Erica J; Hobbs, Joanne K; Mulholland, Adrian J; Van der Kamp, Marc W; Pudney, Christopher R; Parker, Emily J; Schipper, Louis A

    2016-03-29

    One of the critical variables that determine the rate of any reaction is temperature. For biological systems, the effects of temperature are convoluted with myriad (and often opposing) contributions from enzyme catalysis, protein stability, and temperature-dependent regulation, for example. We have coined the phrase "macromolecular rate theory (MMRT)" to describe the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates independent of stability or regulatory processes. Central to MMRT is the observation that enzyme-catalyzed reactions occur with significant values of ΔCp(‡) that are in general negative. That is, the heat capacity (Cp) for the enzyme-substrate complex is generally larger than the Cp for the enzyme-transition state complex. Consistent with a classical description of enzyme catalysis, a negative value for ΔCp(‡) is the result of the enzyme binding relatively weakly to the substrate and very tightly to the transition state. This observation of negative ΔCp(‡) has important implications for the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates. Here, we lay out the fundamentals of MMRT. We present a number of hypotheses that arise directly from MMRT including a theoretical justification for the large size of enzymes and the basis for their optimum temperatures. We rationalize the behavior of psychrophilic enzymes and describe a "psychrophilic trap" which places limits on the evolution of enzymes in low temperature environments. One of the defining characteristics of biology is catalysis of chemical reactions by enzymes, and enzymes drive much of metabolism. Therefore, we also expect to see characteristics of MMRT at the level of cells, whole organisms, and even ecosystems. PMID:26881922

  18. Investigations of the partial reactions catalyzed by pyruvate phosphate dikinase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.C.; Ciskanik, L.; Dunaway-Mariano, D.; von der Saal, W.; Villafranca, J.J.

    1988-01-26

    The kinetic mechanism of pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) from Bacteroides symbiosus was investigated with several different kinetic diagnostics. Initial velocity patterns were intersecting for AMP/PPi and ATP/Pi substrate pairs and parallel for all other substrate pairs. PPDK was shown to catalyze (/sup 14/C)pyruvate in equilibrium phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) exchange in the absence of cosubstrates, (/sup 14/C)AMP in equilibrium ATP exchange in the presence of Pi/PPi but not in their absence, and (/sup 32/P)Pi in equilibrium PPi exchange in the presence of ATP/AMP but not in their absence. The enzyme was also shown, by using (alpha beta-18O, beta, beta-/sup 18/O/sub 2/)ATP and (beta gamma-18O, gamma, gamma, gamma-/sup 18/O/sub 3/)ATP and 31P NMR techniques, to catalyze exchange in ATP between the alpha beta-bridge oxygen and the alpha-P nonbridge oxygen and also between the beta gamma-bridge oxygen and the beta-P nonbridge oxygen. The exchanges were catalyzed by PPDK in the presence of Pi but not in its absence. These results were interpreted to support a bi(ATP,Pi) bi(AMP,PPi) uni(pyruvate) uni(PEP) mechanism. AMP and Pi binding order was examined by carrying out dead-end inhibition studies. The dead-end inhibitor adenosine 5'-monophosphorothioate (AMPS) was found to be competitive vs AMP, noncompetitive vs PPi, and uncompetitive vs PEP. The dead-end inhibitor imidodiphosphate (PNP) was found to be competitive vs PPi, uncompetitive vs AMP, and uncompetitive vs PEP. These results showed that AMP binds before PPi. The ATP and Pi binding order was studied by carrying out inhibition, positional isotope exchange, and alternate substrate studies.

  19. A SABATH Methyltransferase from the moss Physcomitrella patens catalyzes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Nan; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Moon, Hong S; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Stewart, Neal C.; Gang, David R.; Chen, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Known SABATH methyltransferases, all of which were identified from seed plants, catalyze methylation of either the carboxyl group of a variety of low molecular weight metabolites or the nitrogen moiety of precursors of caffeine. In this study, the SABATH family from the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens was identified and characterized. Four SABATH-like sequences (PpSABATH1, PpSABATH2, PpSABATH3, and PpSABATH4) were identified from the P. patens genome. Only PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 showed expression in the leafy gametophyte of P. patens. Full-length cDNAs of PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were cloned and expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli. Recombinant PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were tested for methyltransferase activity with a total of 75 compounds. While showing no activity with carboxylic acids or nitrogen-containing compounds, PpSABATH1 displayed methyltransferase activity with a number of thiols. PpSABATH2 did not show activity with any of the compounds tested. Among the thiols analyzed, PpSABATH1 showed the highest level of activity with thiobenzoic acid with an apparent Km value of 95.5 lM, which is comparable to those of known SABATHs. Using thiobenzoic acid as substrate, GC MS analysis indicated that the methylation catalyzed by PpSABATH1 is on the sulfur atom. The mechanism for S-methylation of thiols catalyzed by PpSABATH1 was partially revealed by homology-based structural modeling. The expression of PpSABATH1 was induced by the treatment of thiobenzoic acid. Further transgenic studies showed that tobacco plants overexpressing PpSABATH1 exhibited enhanced tolerance to thiobenzoic acid, suggesting that PpSABATH1 have a role in the detoxification of xenobiotic thiols.

  20. Physio-pathological roles of transglutaminase-catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Ricotta, Mariangela; Iannuzzi, Maura; Vivo, Giulia De; Gentile, Vittorio

    2010-05-26

    Transglutaminases (TGs) are a large family of related and ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. The main activity of these enzymes is the cross-linking of a glutaminyl residue of a protein/peptide substrate to a lysyl residue of a protein/peptide co-substrate. In addition to lysyl residues, other second nucleophilic co-substrates may include monoamines or polyamines (to form mono- or bi-substituted /crosslinked adducts) or -OH groups (to form ester linkages). In the absence of co-substrates, the nucleophile may be water, resulting in the net deamidation of the glutaminyl residue. The TG enzymes are also capable of catalyzing other reactions important for cell viability. The distribution and the physiological roles of TG enzymes have been widely studied in numerous cell types and tissues and their roles in several diseases have begun to be identified. "Tissue" TG (TG2), a member of the TG family of enzymes, has definitely been shown to be involved in the molecular mechanisms responsible for a very widespread human pathology: i.e. celiac disease (CD). TG activity has also been hypothesized to be directly involved in the pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for several other human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, which are often associated with CD. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease and other recently identified polyglutamine diseases, are characterized, in part, by aberrant cerebral TG activity and by increased cross-linked proteins in affected brains. In this review, we discuss the physio-pathological role of TG-catalyzed reactions, with particular interest in the molecular mechanisms that could involve these enzymes in the physio-pathological processes responsible for human neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21541002

  1. Gold-catalyzed transformations of ?-diazocarbonyl compounds: selectivity and diversity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Junliang

    2016-02-01

    Metal carbenes, generated from the decomposition of diazo compounds by transition-metals, have a broad range of applications in organic synthesis. The progress of organic transformation via transition metal (such as Rh, Cu, Fe, Ag) carbenes has been well summarized in a few excellent reviews. This review will summarize gold-catalyzed transformations of ?-diazocarbonyl compounds by highlighting the specificity and applicability of these diverse transformations such as X-H insertion, C-H functionalization, cyclopropanation, cycloaddition, and coupling reactions. In order to understand these reactions, the mechanistic rationale for selected examples is also provided. PMID:26658761

  2. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    SciTech Connect

    Roman Vladimirovich Rozhkov

    2004-12-19

    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a {beta}-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in {beta}-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the {alpha}-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  3. Can Chlorine Anion Catalyze the Reaction fo HOCl with HCl?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, S. L.; Francisco, J. S.; Mebel, A. M.; Morokuma, K.

    1997-01-01

    The reaction of HOCl + HCl -> Cl2 + H20 in the presence of Cl has been studied using ab initio methods. This reaction has been shown to have a high activation barrier of 46.5 kcal/mol. The chlorine anion, Cl- is found to catalyze the reaction, viz. two mechanisms. The first involves Cl- interacting through the concerted four-center transition state of the neutral reaction. The other mechanism involves the formation of a HCl-HOCl-Cl- intermediate which dissociates into Cl2 + Cl- + H20. The steps are found to have no barriers. The overall exothermicity is 15.5 kcal/mol.

  4. A Lewis Acid Catalyzed Annulation to 2,1-Benzisoxazoles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report here a new, atom economical annulation to 2,1-benzisoxazole scaffolds via the BF3Et2O-catalyzed reaction of glyoxylate esters and nitrosoarenes. The developed method represents a convergent route to this compound class from previously unexplored inputs and provides a range of 2,1-benzisoxazoles in moderate to high yields under convenient conditions. Along with exploration of substrate scope, initial mechanistic investigation through 18O labeling and the synthesis of a reaction intermediate provides evidence for an unusual umpolung addition of glyoxylates to nitrosobenzenes with high O-selectivity, followed by a new type of FriedelCrafts cyclization. PMID:25157596

  5. Muon catalyzed fusion in deuterium at 3 K

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, P.E.; Beer, G.A.; Bailey, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion in deuterium has traditionally been studied in gaseous and liquid targets. The TRIUMF solid hydrogen layer target system has been used to study the fusion reaction rates in the solid phase at a target temperature of 3 K. Both branches of the cycle were observed; neutrons by a liquid organic scintillator, and protons by a silicon detector located inside the target system. The effective molecular formation rate from the upper hyperfine state and the spin exchange rate have been measured, and information on the branching ratio parameters has been extracted.

  6. Kinetics of liquefaction of coal catalyzed by coal minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, C.P.P.; Carr, N.L.

    1987-03-01

    This work describes the development of a fundamental engineering understanding of the kinetics of coal liquefaction using a semiempirical kinetic model for SRC-II coal liquefaction, and experimental data for liquefaction of several bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals in the presence of iron pyrite catalysts. The study establishes the applicability of one kinetic model to the liquefaction of widely different coals catalyzed by iron-sulfur catalysts in the coal minerals and/or iron pyrite catalysts. The source of the iron-sulfur catalyst has no effect, whereas H/sub 2/S has a strong inhibitive effect on the rate of hydrogenation reactions.

  7. Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin: Separation of Monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneault, A.; Johnson, D. K.; Chornet, E.

    2007-12-01

    In our quest for fractionating lignocellulosic biomass and valorizing specific constitutive fractions, we have developed a strategy for the separation of 12 added value monomers generated during the hydrolytic based-catalyzed depolymerization of a Steam Exploded Aspen Lignin. The separation strategy combines liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE), followed by vacuum distillation, liquid chromatography (LC) and crystallization. LLE, vacuum distillation and flash LC were tested experimentally. Batch vacuum distillation produced up to 4 fractions. Process simulation confirmed that a series of 4 vacuum distillation columns could produce 5 distinct monomer streams, 3 of which require further chromatography and crystallization for purification.

  8. Nickel-Catalyzed Negishi Cross-Coupling of Bromodifluoroacetamides.

    PubMed

    Tarui, Atsushi; Shinohara, Saori; Sato, Kazuyuki; Omote, Masaaki; Ando, Akira

    2016-03-01

    A nickel-catalyzed Negishi coupling of bromodifluoroacetamides with arylzinc reagents has been developed. This reaction allows access to difluoromethylated aromatic compounds containing a variety of aryl groups and amide moieties. Furthermore, highly effective transformation of the functionalized difluoromethyl group (-CF2CONR(1)R(2)) was realized via microwave-assisted reduction under mild conditions. The notable features of this strategy are its generality and its use of a low-cost nickel catalyst and ligand; thus, this reaction provides a facile method for applications in drug discovery and development. PMID:26910536

  9. Photoredox-Catalyzed Intramolecular Aminodifluoromethylation of Unactivated Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuxiao; Tang, Xiaojun; Thomoson, Charles S; Dolbier, William R

    2015-07-17

    A photoredox catalyzed aminodifluoromethylation of unactivated alkenes has been developed in which HCF2SO2Cl is used as the HCF2 radical source. Sulfonamides were active nucleophiles in the final step of a tandem addition/oxidation/cyclization process to form pyrrolidines, and esters were found to cyclize to form lactones. Thus, a variety of pyrrolidines and lactones were obtained in moderate to excellent yield. In order for the cyclization reactions to be efficient, a combination of a copper catalyst (Cu(dap)2Cl) and silver carbonate was crucial to suppressing a competing chloro, difluoroalkylation process. PMID:26120767

  10. Nickel-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution of Simple Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Ryosuke; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a nickel-catalyzed allylic substitution process of simple alkenes whereby an important structural motif, a 1,4-diene, was prepared. A key for this success is the use of an appropriate Ni-phosphine complex and a stoichiometric amount of silyl triflate. Reactions of 1-alkyl-substituted alkenes consistently provided 1,1-disubstituted alkenes with high selectivity. Insight into the reaction mechanism as well as miscellaneous application of the developed catalytic process is also documented. PMID:21387565

  11. Iridium-catalyzed reductive nitro-Mannich cyclization.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Alex W; Chambers, Alan; Hawkins, Alison; Jakubec, Pavol; Dixon, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    A new chemoselective reductive nitro-Mannich cyclization reaction sequence of nitroalkyl-tethered lactams has been developed. Relying on the rapid and chemoselective iridium(I)-catalyzed reduction of lactams to the corresponding enamine, subsequent nitro-Mannich cyclization of tethered nitroalkyl functionality provides direct access to important alkaloid natural-product-like structures in yields up to 81?% and in diastereoselectivities that are typically good to excellent. An in-depth understanding of the reaction mechanism has been gained through NMR studies and characterization of reaction intermediates. The new methodology has been applied to the total synthesis of ()-epi-epiquinamide in four steps. PMID:25399919

  12. Ruthenium-Catalyzed meta-Selective CH Bromination

    PubMed Central

    Teskey, Christopher J; Lui, Andrew Y W; Greaney, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    The first example of a transition-metal-catalyzed, meta-selective CH bromination procedure is reported. In the presence of catalytic [{Ru(p-cymene)Cl2}2], tetrabutylammonium tribromide can be used to functionalize the meta CH bond of 2-phenylpyridine derivatives, thus affording difficult to access products which are highly predisposed to further derivatization. We demonstrate this utility with one-pot bromination/arylation and bromination/alkenylation procedures to deliver meta-arylated and meta-alkenylated products, respectively, in a single step. PMID:26288217

  13. Iridium-Catalyzed Reductive Nitro-Mannich Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Alex W; Chambers, Alan; Hawkins, Alison; Jakubec, Pavol; Dixon, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    A new chemoselective reductive nitro-Mannich cyclization reaction sequence of nitroalkyl-tethered lactams has been developed. Relying on the rapid and chemoselective iridium(I)-catalyzed reduction of lactams to the corresponding enamine, subsequent nitro-Mannich cyclization of tethered nitroalkyl functionality provides direct access to important alkaloid natural-product-like structures in yields up to 81 % and in diastereoselectivities that are typically good to excellent. An in-depth understanding of the reaction mechanism has been gained through NMR studies and characterization of reaction intermediates. The new methodology has been applied to the total synthesis of (±)-epi-epiquinamide in four steps. PMID:25399919

  14. Stereoretentive Copper (II) Catalyzed Ritter Reactions of Secondary Cycloalkanols

    PubMed Central

    Al-huniti, Mohammed H.

    2013-01-01

    A Ritter-like coupling reaction of cyclic alcohols and both aryl and alkyl nitriles to form amides catalyzed by copper (II) triflate is described. These reactions proceed in good yields under mild and often solvent-free conditions. With 2- and 3-substituted cycloalkanols, amide products are formed with near complete retention of configuration. This is likely due to fast nucleophilic capture of a non-planar carbocations (hyperconjomers) stabilized by ring hyperconjugation. A critical aspect of this novel catalytic cycle is the in situ activation of the alcohol substrates by thionyl chloride to form chlorosulfites. PMID:24376393

  15. Recent Developments in Metal-Catalyzed Additions of Oxygen Nucleophiles to Alkenes and Alkynes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintermann, Lukas

    Progress in the field of metal-catalyzed redox-neutral additions of oxygen nucleophiles (water, alcohols, carboxylic acids, and others) to alkenes, alkynes, and allenes between 2001 and 2009 is critically reviewed. Major advances in reaction chemistry include development of chiral Lewis acid catalyzed asymmetric oxa-Michael additions and Lewis-acid catalyzed hydro-alkoxylations of nonactivated olefins, as well as further development of Markovnikov-selective cationic gold complex-catalyzed additions of alcohols or water to alkynes and allenes.

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming, catalyzed interconnect for use therewith, and methods

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Di-Jia; Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2010-06-08

    A catalyzed interconnect for an SOFC electrically connects an anode and an anodic current collector and comprises a metallic substrate, which provides space between the anode and anodic current collector for fuel gas flow over at least a portion of the anode, and a catalytic coating on the metallic substrate comprising a catalyst for catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel in the fuel gas to hydrogen rich reformate. An SOFC including the catalyzed anodic inter-connect, a method for operating an SOFC, and a method for making a catalyzed anodic interconnect are also disclosed.

  17. Subtilisin-catalyzed resolution of N-acyl arylsulfinamides.

    PubMed

    Savile, Christopher K; Magloire, Vladimir P; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2005-02-23

    We report the first biocatalytic route to sulfinamides (R-S(O)-NH2), whose sulfur stereocenter makes them important chiral auxiliaries for the asymmetric synthesis of amines. Subtilisin E did not catalyze hydrolysis of N-acetyl or N-butanoyl arylsulfinamides, but did catalyze a highly enantioselective (E > 150 favoring the (R)-enantiomer) hydrolysis of N-chloroacetyl and N-dihydrocinnamoyl arylsulfinamides. Gram-scale resolutions using subtilisin E overexpressed in Bacillus subtilis yielded, after recrystallization, three synthetically useful auxiliaries: (R)-p-toluenesulfinamide (42% yield, 95% ee), (R)-p-chlorobenzenesulfinamide (30% yield, 97% ee), and (R)-2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfinamide (30% yield, 99% ee). Molecular modeling suggests that the N-chloroacetyl and N-dihydrocinnamoyl groups mimic a phenylalanine moiety and thus bind the sulfinamide to the active site. Molecular modeling further suggests that enantioselectivity stems from a favorable hydrophobic interaction between the aryl group of the fast-reacting (R)-arylsulfinamide and the S1' leaving group pocket in subtilisin E. PMID:15713087

  18. Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, M.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl{sub 3}) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report.

  19. Mechanism of Rhodium-Catalyzed Formyl Activation: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoling; Bai, Ruopeng; Liu, Song; Shan, Chunhui; Chen, Changguo; Lan, Yu

    2016-03-18

    Metal-catalyzed transfer hydroformylation is an important way of cleaving C-C bonds and constructing new double bonds. The newly reported density functional theory (DFT) method, M11-L, has been used to clarify the mechanism of the rhodium-catalyzed transfer hydroformylation reported by Dong et al. DFT calculations depict a deformylation and formylation reaction pathway. The deformylation step involves an oxidative addition to the formyl C-H bond, deprotonation with a counterion, decarbonylation, and β-hydride elimination. After olefin exchange, the formylation step takes place via olefin insertion into the Rh-H bond, carbonyl insertion, and a final protonation with the conjugate acid of the counterion. Theoretical calculations indicate that the alkalinity of the counterion is important for this reaction because both deprotonation and protonation occur during the catalytic cycle. A theoretical study into the formyl acceptor shows that the driving force of the reaction is correlated with the stability of the unsaturated bond in the acceptor. Our computational results suggest that alkynes or ring-strained olefins could be used as formyl acceptors in this reaction. PMID:26909857

  20. Lipase-catalyzed polyester synthesis – A green polymer chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shiro

    2010-01-01

    This article is a short comprehensive review describing in vitro polyester synthesis catalyzed by a hydrolysis enzyme of lipase, most of which has been developed for these two decades. Polyesters are prepared by repeated ester bond-formation reactions; they include two major modes, ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic monomers such as cyclic esters (lactones) and condensation polymerization via the reaction between a carboxylic acid or its ester group and an alcohol group. Polyester synthesis is, therefore, a reaction in reverse way of in vivo lipase catalysis of ester bond-cleavage with hydrolysis. The lipase-catalyzed polymerizations show very high chemo-, regio-, and enantio-selectivities and involve various advantageous characteristics. Lipase is robust and compatible with other chemical catalysts, which allows novel chemo-enzymatic processes. New syntheses of a variety of functional polyesters and a plausible reaction mechanism of lipase catalysis are mentioned. The polymerization characteristics are of green nature currently demanded for sustainable society, and hence, desirable for conducting ‘green polymer chemistry’. PMID:20431260

  1. Renalase does not catalyze the oxidation of catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Beaupre, Brett A; Hoag, Matthew R; Moran, Graham R

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that the function of human renalase is to oxidize catecholamines in blood. However, this belief is based on experiments that did not account for slow, facile catecholamine autoxidation reactions. Recent evidence has shown that renalase has substrates with which it reacts rapidly. The reaction catalyzed defines renalase as an oxidase, one that harvests two electrons from either 2-dihydroNAD(P) or 6-dihydroNAD(P) to form ?-NAD(P)(+) and hydrogen peroxide. The apparent metabolic purpose of such a reaction is to avoid inhibition of primary dehydrogenase enzymes by these ?-NAD(P)H isomers. This article demonstrates that renalase does not catalyze the oxidation of neurotransmitter catecholamines. Using high-performance liquid chromatography we show that there is no evidence of consumption of epinephrine by renalase. Using time-dependent spectrophotometry we show that the renalase FAD cofactor spectrum is unresponsive to added catecholamines, that adrenochromes are not observed to accumulate in the presence of renalase and that the kinetics of single turnover reactions with 6-dihydroNAD are unaltered by the addition of catecholamines. Lastly we show using an oxygen electrode assay that plasma renalase activity is below the level of detection and only when exogenous renalase and 6-dihydroNAD are added can dioxygen be observed to be consumed. PMID:26049000

  2. Mechanistic investigation of palladium-catalyzed amidation of aryl halides.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yun; Ren, Ying; Jia, Jianfeng; Wu, Hai-Shun

    2016-03-01

    A mechanistic investigation using Becke3LYP density functional theory (DFT) was carried out on the palladium-catalyzed amidition of bromobenzene and (t)Bu-isocyanide. The whole catalytic cycle consists of five steps: oxidative addition, migratory insertion, anion exchange, reductive elimination, and hydrogen migration. The rate-determining step is oxidative addition, with a small Gibbs free energy of 14.6 kcal mol(-1). In the migratory insertion step, (t)Bu-isocyanide provides an important source of carboxy and amino groups to establish the amide group. For anion exchange, path 1a is suggested as the most favorable pathway with the help of the base, and water provides a source of oxygen which is perfectly in line with experimental observations. Finally, in the hydrogen migration step, we illustrate that the six-membered ring path is energetically favored due to the assisting influence of water. In addition, our calculations indicate that using dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent does not change the rate-determining step. Graphical Abstract Palladium-catalyzed amidation. PMID:26860502

  3. Titanium-Catalyzed Silicon Nanostructures Grown by APCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Mohammad A. U.; Smith, Brady J.; Jackson, Justin B.; De Long, Matthew C.; Miller, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on growth of Ti-catalyzed silicon nanostructures (SNCs) through atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition. An extensive growth study relating the growth condition parameters, including the partial pressure of SiCl4 gas, reaction temperature, and reaction time, was carried out to obtain insight into the growth regimes for the observed SNCs. Based on phase diagram analysis of Ti-Si alloy and growth rate analysis of the silicon nanowires (SNWs) and silicon nanoplatelets, we believe the growth mechanism to be strongly dependent on the thermodynamics of the system, exhibiting a delicate balance that can easily tip between the growth and etching regimes of the system. Three types of SNCs were observed frequently throughout the study: nanowires, nanoplatelets, and balls. Regimes for highly etched growth were also noted through growth conditions plots. Ti-catalyzed SNWs grown using SiCl4 gas strongly suggest growth occurring through a type of vapor-solid-solid (VSS) mechanism that is limited by diffusion through the solid-catalyst interface. On the other hand, the two-dimensional SNP morphologies suggest growth occurring through the twin-plane mechanism at the edges, at 10 nm to 100 nm scales, also through a similar, VSS mechanism.

  4. Cu-Catalyzed Click Reaction in Carbohydrate Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vinod K; Mishra, Bhuwan B; Mishra, Kunj B; Mishra, Nidhi; Singh, Anoop S; Chen, Xi

    2016-03-01

    Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC), popularly known as the "click reaction", serves as the most potent and highly dependable tool for facile construction of simple to complex architectures at the molecular level. Click-knitted threads of two exclusively different molecular entities have created some really interesting structures for more than 15 years with a broad spectrum of applicability, including in the fascinating fields of synthetic chemistry, medicinal science, biochemistry, pharmacology, material science, and catalysis. The unique properties of the carbohydrate moiety and the advantages of highly chemo- and regioselective click chemistry, such as mild reaction conditions, efficient performance with a wide range of solvents, and compatibility with different functionalities, together produce miraculous neoglycoconjugates and neoglycopolymers with various synthetic, biological, and pharmaceutical applications. In this review we highlight the successful advancement of Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry in glycoscience and its applications as well as future scope in different streams of applied sciences. PMID:26796328

  5. Study of microwave effects on the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Chen; Reddy, P Muralidhar; Devi, C Shobha; Chang, Po-Chi; Ho, Yen-Peng

    2016-01-01

    The effect of microwave heating on lipase-catalyzed reaction remains controversial. It is not clear whether the reaction rate enhancements are purely due to thermal/heating effects or to non-thermal effects. Therefore, quantitative mass spectrometry was used to conduct accurate kinetic analysis of lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of triolein by microwave and conventional heating. Commercial lipases from Candida rugosa (CRL), Porcine Pancreas (PPL), and Burkholderia cepacia (BCL) were used. Hydrolysis reactions were performed at various temperatures and pH levels, along with various amounts of buffer and enzymes. Hydrolysis product yields at each time point using an internal-standard method showed no significant difference between microwave and conventional heating conditions when the reaction was carried out at the same temperature. CRL showed optimum catalytic activity at 37C, while PPL and BCL had better activities at 50C. The phosphate buffer was found to give a better hydrolysis yield than the Tris-HCl buffer. Overall results prove that a non-thermal effect does not exist in microwave-assisted lipase hydrolysis of triolein. Therefore, conventional heating at high temperatures (e.g., 50C) can be also used to accelerate hydrolysis reactions. PMID:26672464

  6. Hydrogen sensing by enzyme-catalyzed electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Brent J; Fan, Z Hugh; Burgdorf, Tanja; Friedrich, Bärbel

    2005-08-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is a possible future alternative to current fossil-based transportation fuels; however, its lower explosive limit in air requires a reliable sensor to detect leaks wherever H2 is produced, stored, or used. Most current H2 sensors employ palladium or its alloy as the sensing element, featuring high operating temperature and limited selectivity. In this study, we report using soluble hydrogenase (SH) of aerobic beta-proteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha strain H16 to accomplish ambient, electrochemical detection of H2. Gas samples were collected in a solution containing SH that catalyzed the oxidation of H2. The electrons released during the H2 oxidation reaction were accepted by benzyl viologen (BV2+). The product of the redox reaction, BV+, was then detected using chronoamperometry. Using this sensing scheme, we demonstrate detection of H2 ranging from 1 to 100%. In addition, enzyme kinetics and the effect of oxygen on signal response were studied. Our results indicate that it is feasible to develop a sensor to detect H2 in the atmosphere that is based on enzyme-catalyzed electrochemical detection. PMID:16053311

  7. Lewis acid catalyzed trans-hydrostannation of acetylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Asao, Naoki; Liu, Jian-Xiu; Sudoh, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    1995-12-31

    A Lewis acid such as ZrCl{sub 4} or HfCl{sub 4} catalyzed the hydrostannation of acetylenes 1 to produce the trans-hydrostannation products 2 regio- and stereoselectively. The use of non-polar solvents such as toluene or hexane was essential for obtaining high stereoselectivity and chemical yield. Since ZrCl{sub 4} or HfCl{sub 4} is not soluble in such solvents, this hydrostannation process was carried out in heterogeneous system. The reactions of internal acetylenes proceeded smoothly, although the use of stoichiometric amounts of ZrCl{sub 4} gave better results. The ZrCl{sub 4} catalyzed hydrostannation of 1-octyne with Bu{sub 3}SnH was monitored by {sup 1}H and {sup 119}Sn NMR spectroscopy, and it was found that an equilibrium process was involved in ZrCl{sub 4}-Bu{sub 3}SnH system and that a complex formed from Bu{sub 3}SnH and ZrCl{sub 4} would be a reactive species.

  8. Ionic Liquid Catalyzed Electrolyte for Electrochemical Polyaniline Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, A. I.; Im, Hyunsik; Jung, Woong; Kim, Hyungsang; Kim, Byungchul; Yu, Kook-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Sang; Hwang, Sung-Min

    2013-05-01

    The effect of different wt.% of ionic liquid "1,6-bis (trimethylammonium-1-yl) hexane tetrafluoroborate" in 0.5 M LiClO4+PC electrolyte on the supercapacitor properties of polyaniline (PANI) thin film are investigated. The PANI film is synthesized using electropolymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfuric acid. The electrochemical properties of the PANI thin film are studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The optimum amount of the ionic liquid is found to be 2 wt.% which provides better ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. The highest specific capacitance of 259 F/g is obtained using the 2 wt.% electrolyte. This capacitance remains at up to 208 F/g (80% capacity retention) after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 0.5 mA/g. The PANI film in the 2 wt.% ionic liquid catalyzed 0.5 M LiClO4+PC electrolyte shows small electrochemical resistance, better rate performance and higher cyclability. The increased ionic conductivity of the 2 wt.% ionic liquid catalyzed electrolyte causes a reduction in resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interface, which can be useful in electrochemically-preferred power devices for better applicability.

  9. Small molecule screening in context: Lipid-catalyzed amyloid formation

    PubMed Central

    Hebda, James A; Magzoub, Mazin; Miranker, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP) is a 37-residue hormone cosecreted with insulin by the ?-cells of the pancreas. Amyloid fiber aggregation of IAPP has been correlated with the dysfunction and death of these cells in type II diabetics. The likely mechanisms by which IAPP gains toxic function include energy independent cell membrane penetration and induction of membrane depolarization. These processes have been correlated with solution biophysical observations of lipid bilayer catalyzed acceleration of amyloid formation. Although the relationship between amyloid formation and toxicity is poorly understood, the fact that conditions promoting one also favor the other suggests related membrane active structural states. Here, a novel high throughput screening protocol is described that capitalizes on this correlation to identify compounds that target membrane active species. Applied to a small library of 960 known bioactive compounds, we are able to report identification of 37 compounds of which 36 were not previously reported as active toward IAPP fiber formation. Several compounds tested in secondary cell viability assays also demonstrate cytoprotective effects. It is a general observation that peptide induced toxicity in several amyloid diseases (such as Alzhiemers and Parkinsons) involves a membrane bound, preamyloid oligomeric species. Our data here suggest that a screening protocol based on lipid-catalyzed assembly will find mechanistically informative small molecule hits in this subclass of amyloid diseases. PMID:25043951

  10. Metalloporphyrin solubility: a trigger for catalyzing reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Dror, Ishai; Schlautman, Mark A

    2004-02-01

    Metalloporphyrins are well known for their electron-transfer roles in many natural redox systems. In addition, several metalloporphyrins and related tetrapyrrole macrocycles complexed with various core metals have been shown to catalyze the reductive dechlorination of certain organic compounds, thus demonstrating the potential for using naturally occurring metalloporphyrins to attenuate toxic and persistent chlorinated organic pollutants in the environment. However, despite the great interest in reductive dechlorination reactions and the wide variety of natural and synthetic porphyrins currently available, only soluble porphyrins, which comprise a small fraction of this particular family of organic macrocycles, have been used as electron-transfer shuttles in these reactions. Results from the present study clearly demonstrate that metalloporphyrin solubility is a key factor in their ability to catalyze the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene and its daughter compounds. Additionally, we show that certain insoluble and nonreactive metalloporphyrins can be activated as catalysts merely by changing solution conditions to bring about their dissolution. Furthermore, once a metalloporphyrin is fully dissolved and activated, tetrachloroethylene transformation proceeds rapidly, giving nonchlorinated and less toxic alkenes as the major reaction products. Results from the present study suggest that if the right environmental conditions exist or can be created, specific metalloporphyrins may provide a solution for cleaning up sites that are contaminated with chlorinated organic pollutants. PMID:14982369

  11. Solution-solid-solid mechanism: superionic conductors catalyze nanowire growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junli; Chen, Kangmin; Gong, Ming; Xu, Bin; Yang, Qing

    2013-09-11

    The catalytic mechanism offers an efficient tool to produce crystalline semiconductor nanowires, in which the choice, state, and structure of catalysts are active research issues of much interest. Here we report a novel solution-solid-solid (SSS) mechanism for nanowire growth catalyzed by solid-phase superionic conductor nanocrystals in low-temperature solution. The preparation of Ag2Se-catalyzed ZnSe nanowires at 100-210 C is exampled to elucidate the SSS model, which can be extendable to grow other II-VI semiconductor (e.g., CdSe, ZnS, and CdS) nanowires by the catalysis of nanoscale superionic-phase silver or copper(I) chalcogenides (Ag2Se, Ag2S, and Cu2S). The exceptional catalytic ability of these superionic conductors originates from their structure characteristics, known for high-density vacancies and fast mobility of silver or copper(I) cations in the rigid sublattice of Se(2-) or S(2-) ions. Insights into the SSS mechanism are provided based on the formation of solid solution and the solid-state ion diffusion/transport at solid-solid interface between catalyst and nanowire. PMID:23919513

  12. Enzyme catalyzed electricity-driven water softening system.

    PubMed

    Arugula, Mary A; Brastad, Kristen S; Minteer, Shelley D; He, Zhen

    2012-12-10

    Hardness in water, which is caused by divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium ions, presents a major water quality problem. Because hard water must be softened before use in residential applications, there is great interest in the saltless water softening process because, unlike ion exchange softeners, it does not introduce additional ions into water. In this study, a saltless hardness removal driven by bioelectrochemical energy produced through enzymatic oxidation of glucose was proposed and investigated. Glucose dehydrogenase was coated on a carbon electrode to catalyze glucose oxidation in the presence of NAD? as a cofactor/mediator and methylene green as an electrocatalyst. The results showed that electricity generation stimulated hardness removal compared with non-electricity conditions. The enzymatic water softener worked upon a 6h batch operation per day for eight days, and achieved an average hardness removal of 46% at a high initial concentration of 800 mg/L as CaCO?. More hardness was removed at a lower initial concentration. For instance, at 200mg/L as CaCO? the enzymatic water softener removed 76.44.6% of total hardness. The presence of magnesium ions decreased hardness removal because of its larger hydrated radius than calcium ions. The enzymatic water softener removed 70-80% of total hardness from three actual hard water samples. These results demonstrated a proof-of-concept that enzyme catalyzed electricity generation can be used to soften hard water. PMID:23040397

  13. The mechanisms of platinum-catalyzed silicon nanowire growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibst, N.; Knittel, P.; Biskupek, J.; Kranz, C.; Mizaikoff, B.; Strehle, S.

    2016-02-01

    Platinum (Pt) has been known as a catalyst material for vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) synthesis since the mid 1960s with the potential to grow electronic grade silicon nanowires (SiNWs). In contrast to gold-based growth, Pt-catalyzed SiNW synthesis has rarely been studied, most likely due to higher synthesis temperatures and the formation of multiple Pt silicide phases. Here we present the growth of SiNWs from a Pt catalyst deposited by a focused ion or electron beam, which opens new strategies for the assembly of Pt-catalyzed SiNW-based devices, as well as SiNW growth from Pt nanoparticles and thin films. We show that single-crystalline SiNWs exhibit either the well-known catalyst tip or a polycrystalline silicon tip so far not reported. The local Pt concentration was found to be one key parameter triggering the growth mode. The proposed growth model for both types of SiNWs is based on a solid-state silicide-mediated crystallization rather than VLS. The discussion of the growth modes is supported by a variation of several growth parameters and SiNW synthesis using the substrate materials silicon nitride, single-crystalline silicon, fused silica, and sapphire.

  14. Porous silicon formation during Au-catalyzed etching

    SciTech Connect

    Algasinger, Michael; Bernt, Maximilian; Koynov, Svetoslav; Stutzmann, Martin

    2014-04-28

    The formation of black nano-textured Si during the Au-catalyzed wet-chemical etch process was investigated with respect to photovoltaic applications. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images recorded at different stages of the etch process exhibit an evolution of a two-layer structure, consisting of cone-like Si hillocks covered with a nano-porous Si (np-Si) layer. Optical measurements confirm the presence of a np-Si phase which appears after the first ?10?s of the etch process and continuously increases with the etch time. Furthermore, the etch process was investigated on Si substrates with different doping levels (?0.01100 ? cm). SEM images show a transition from the two-layer morphology to a structure consisting entirely of np-Si for higher doping levels (<0.1 ? cm). The experimental results are discussed on the basis of the model of a local electrochemical etch process. A better understanding of the metal-catalyzed etch process facilitates the fabrication of black Si on various Si substrates, which is of significant interest for photovoltaic applications.

  15. Gold-catalyzed tandem reactions of methylenecyclopropanes and vinylidenecyclopropanes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di-Han; Tang, Xiang-Ying; Shi, Min

    2014-03-18

    Gold catalysis is often the key step in the synthesis of natural products, and is a powerful tool for tandem or domino reaction processes. Both gold salts and complexes are among the most powerful soft Lewis acids for electrophilic activation of carbon-carbon multiple bonds toward a variety of nucleophiles. The core of these reactions relies on the interaction between gold catalysts and ?-bonds of alkenes, alkynes, and allenes. Activation of functional groups by gold complexes provides a useful and important method for facilitating many different organic transformations with high atom efficiency. Although they are highly strained, methylenecyclopropanes (MCPs) and vinylidenecyclopropanes (VDCPs) are readily accessible molecules that have served as useful building blocks in organic synthesis. Because of their unique structural and electronic properties, significant developments have been made in the presence of transition metal catalysts such as nickel, rhodium, palladium, and ruthenium during the past decades. However, less attention has been paid to the gold-catalyzed chemistry of MCPs and VDCPs. In this Account, we describe gold-catalyzed chemical transformations of MCPs and VDCPs developed both in our laboratory and by other researchers. Chemists have demonstrated that MCPs and VDCPs have amphiphilic properties. When MCPs or VDCPs are activated by a gold catalyst, subsequent nucleophilic attack by other reagents or ring-opening (ring-expansion) of the cyclopropane moiety will occur. However, the C-C double bonds of MCPs and VDCPs can also serve as nucleophilic reagents while more electrophilic reagents are present and activated by gold catalyst, and then further cascade reactions take place as triggered by the release of ring strain of cyclopropane. Based on this strategy, both our group and others have found some interesting gold-catalyzed transformations in recent years. These transformations of MCPs and VDCPs can produce a variety of polycyclic and heterocyclic structures, containing different sized skeletons. Moreover, we have carried out some isotopic labeling experiments and computational studies for mechanistic investigation. These reactions always give the desired products with high level control of chemo-, regio-, and diastereoselectivities, making them highly valuable for the synthesis of natural products and to the pharmaceutical industry and medicine in general. PMID:24168021

  16. Copper-catalyzed cascade reactions of ?,?-unsaturated esters with keto esters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chongnian; Li, Zengchang

    2015-01-01

    Summary A copper-catalyzed cascade reaction of ?,?-unsaturated esters with keto esters is reported. It features a copper-catalyzed reductive aldolization followed by a lactonization. This method provides a facile approach to prepare ?-carboxymethyl-?-lactones and ?-carboxymethyl-?-lactones under mild reaction conditions. PMID:25815072

  17. Pd(0)-catalyzed intramolecular ?-arylation of sulfones: domino reactions in the synthesis of functionalized tetrahydroisoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Sol, Daniel; Prez-Janer, Ferran; Mancuso, Raffaella

    2015-03-16

    A new strategy for the synthesis of tetrahydroisoquinolines based on the Pd(0)-catalyzed intramolecular ?-arylation of sulfones is reported. The combination of this Pd-catalyzed reaction with intermolecular Michael and aza-Michael reactions allows the development of two- and three-step domino processes to synthesize diversely functionalized scaffolds from readily available starting materials. PMID:25677083

  18. Cu-Catalyzed Direct Amidation of Aromatic CH Bonds: An Access to Arylamines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A Cu-catalyzed aromatic CH amidation with phthalimide under oxygen as a terminal oxidant without using additional additives has been achieved. This reaction has the broad substrate scope and shows moderate to good yields in most cases. This method is complementary to the previously reported metal-catalyzed CH amination systems. PMID:24735227

  19. IONIC LIQUIDS: THE PROSPECTS OF ENZYME-CATALYZED GLYCOSYLATIONS WITHOUT WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reversing the hydrolytic reaction catalyzed by glycosidases has great potential for the enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of new glycoconjugates. Hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds requires water as a co-reactant, and the reverse reaction (referred to as transglycosylation) is therefore favored by low- or non...

  20. ENZYME-CATALYZED GEL-FORMATION OF GELATIN AND CHITOSAN. POTENTIAL FOR IN SITU APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the ability of two enzymes to catalyze the formation of gels from solutions of gelatin and chitosan. A microbial transglutaminase, currently under investigation for food applications, was observed to catalyze the formation of strong and permanent gels from gelatin solutions. Chitosan w...

  1. ROLE OF COPPER,ZINC-SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN CATALYZING NITROTYROSINE FORMATION IN MURINE LIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solely known function of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is to catalyze the dismutation of superoxide anion into hydrogen peroxide. Our objective was to determine if SOD1 catalyzed murine liver protein nitration induced by acetaminophen (APAP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Liver and plasma ...

  2. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (?)-Nardoaristolone B via a Gold(I)-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (?)-nardoaristolone B is accomplished by the implementation of an enantio- and diastereoselective copper(I)-catalyzed conjugate addition/enolate trapping sequence and a gold(I)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization (intermolecular oxidant), employed for the first time in total synthesis. PMID:25563976

  3. Copper-catalyzed reactions: Research in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Tsybizova, Alexandra; Roithov, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is becoming an important tool for mechanistic studies in organic and organometallic chemistry. It allows investigation of reaction mixtures including monitoring of reactants, products, and intermediates, studying properties of the intermediates and their reactivity. Studying the reactive species in the gas phase can be advantageously combined with theoretical calculations. This review is focused on ESI-MS studies of copper-catalyzed reactions. Possible effects of the electrospray process on the transfer of the copper complexes to the gas phase are discussed. The plethora of mass spectrometric approaches is demonstrated on copper mediated C-H activations, cross coupling reactions, rearrangements, organocuprate chemistry, and other examples. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 35: 85-110, 2016. PMID:25975564

  4. Measurements of muon-catalyzed dt fusion in solid HD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcelli, Tracy Ann

    1999-12-01

    The first measurement of muon catalyzed dt fusion ( dtm--> 4He + n + m- ) in solid HD at ~ 3 K has been performed. The theory describing the formation of the [(dtm)pe e] muonic molecule from the resonant reaction tm+HD-->[(dtm) pee] , a key process in the dt fusion cycle, can now be tested against the experimental results. Using an experimental technique which employs solid layers of hydrogen isotopes, the energy of molecular formation is determined via time of flight, and dt fusion time spectra in solid HD have been measured. The theory describing the resonant formation of the dtm muonic molecule is compared to the experimental results through Monte Carlo simulations. The energy dependent molecular formation rates calculated for HD at 3 K have been employed in the Monte Carlo with the resultant simulated fusion time spectra in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Measurements of Muon Catalyzed dt Fusion in Solid HD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcelli, Tracy

    1999-05-01

    The first measurement of muon catalyzed dt fusion (dt? arrow ^4He + n + ?^-) in solid HD at ~ 3 K has been performed. The theory describing the formation of the [(dt?)pee)] muonic molecule from the resonant reaction t? + HD arrow [(dt?)pee], a key process in the dt fusion cycle, can now be tested against experimental results. Using an experimental technique which employs solid layers of hydrogen isotopes, the energy of molecular formation is determined via time of flight, and dt fusion time spectra in solid HD have been measured. The theory describing the resonant formation of the dt? muonic molecule is compared to the experimental results through Monte Carlo simulations. The energy dependent molecular formation rates calculated for HD at 3 K have been employed in the Monte Carlo with the resultant fusion time spectra in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Muon-catalyzed D-T fusion at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Breunlich, W.H.; Cargnelli, M.; Kammel, P.; Marton, J.; Naegele, N.; Pawlek, P.; Scrinzi, A.; Werner, J.; Zmeskal, J.; Bistirlich, J.; and others

    1987-01-26

    Muon-catalyzed deuterium-tritium fusion was investigated within a wide range of mixtures in liquid and gas (23--35 K) by detection of fusion neutrons. Our improved analysis includes hyperfine effects and allows a clear separation of intrinsic dt sticking ..omega../sub s/ from kinetic effects. Strongly density-dependent cycle rates with values up to 1.45 x 10/sup 8/ s/sup -1/, yields of 113 fusions per muon, and ..omega../sub s/ = (0.45 +- 0.05)% are found. In comparison with previous experiments we confirm that ..omega../sub s/ in liquid is lower than theoretically predicted, but do not find a strong dependence on either c/sub t/ or density.

  7. Oligonucleotide synthesis catalyzed by the Zn/2+/ ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawai, H.; Orgel, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Results of experiments are reported in which Zn(2+) ion catalyzed the formation of oligonucleotides from nucleoside phosphorimidazolides in aqueous solution, even in the absence of a template. Specifically, the imidazolides (ImpU or ImpA) polymerized to form ImpApA, and pApA, pApApA, and pApApApA, or the analogous uracil compounds. In addition, the expected hydrolysis products of the hydrolysis of ImpA were formed (pA, imidazole). Judging from the ratio of pA(n) over pA (with and without zinc ion), this ion increased the efficiency of phosphodiester-bond formation by up to 10 times. Possible mechanisms for the reaction are tentatively proposed.

  8. The role of fluoride in montmorillonite-catalyzed RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Aldersley, Michael F; Joshi, Prakash C

    2014-05-01

    The montmorillonite-catalyzed reactions of the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of adenosine in the presence of fluoride were investigated to complete our study on the effect of salts on this type of reaction. Both anions and cations have been found to influence the oligomerization reactions of the activated nucleotides, being used here as a model system for pre-biotic RNA synthesis. However, in total contrast to the behavior of the activated nucleotides in the presence of montmorillonite and other salts, alkali metal fluorides did not yield any detectable oligomerization products except in very dilute (<0.005 M) solutions of fluoride. Instead, 5'-phosphorofluoridates were formed. Their identity was confirmed by a combination of HPLC, mass spectrometry, synthesis, and NMR. PMID:24756181

  9. Olefin hydroaryloxylation catalyzed by pincer-iridium complexes.

    PubMed

    Haibach, Michael C; Guan, Changjian; Wang, David Y; Li, Bo; Lease, Nicholas; Steffens, Andrew M; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten; Goldman, Alan S

    2013-10-01

    Aryl alkyl ethers, which are widely used throughout the chemical industry, are typically produced via the Williamson ether synthesis. Olefin hydroaryloxylation potentially offers a much more atom-economical alternative. Known acidic catalysts for hydroaryloxylation, however, afford very poor selectivity. We report the organometallic-catalyzed intermolecular hydroaryloxylation of unactivated olefins by iridium "pincer" complexes. These catalysts do not operate via the hidden Brønsted acid pathway common to previously developed transition-metal-based catalysts. The reaction is proposed to proceed via olefin insertion into an iridium-alkoxide bond, followed by rate-determining C-H reductive elimination to yield the ether product. The reaction is highly chemo- and regioselective and offers a new approach to the atom-economical synthesis of industrially important ethers and, potentially, a wide range of other oxygenates. PMID:24028199

  10. Quinone-Catalyzed Selective Oxidation of Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Wendlandt, Alison E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2015-12-01

    Quinones are common stoichiometric reagents in organic chemistry. Para-quinones with high reduction potentials, such as DDQ and chloranil, are widely used and typically promote hydride abstraction. In recent years, many catalytic applications of these methods have been achieved by using transition metals, electrochemistry, or O2 to regenerate the oxidized quinone in?situ. Complementary studies have led to the development of a different class of quinones that resemble the ortho-quinone cofactors in copper amine oxidases and mediate the efficient and selective aerobic and/or electrochemical dehydrogenation of amines. The latter reactions typically proceed by electrophilic transamination and/or addition-elimination reaction mechanisms, rather than hydride abstraction pathways. The collective observations show that the quinone structure has a significant influence on the reaction mechanism and has important implications for the development of new quinone reagents and quinone-catalyzed transformations. PMID:26530485

  11. The pyrite iron cycle catalyzed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Dumett, Miguel A; Keener, James P

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we study a model of the biotic pyrite iron cycle catalyzed by bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, in mining activity sites waste dumps. Chemical reactions, reaction rates and the population growth model are mostly taken from the existing literature. Analysis of the corresponding dynamical system shows the existence of up to four non-trivial steady state solutions. The stability of the equilibria solutions is determined, finding up to two coexisting stable solutions. Two Hopf bifurcations and a region of parameter space in which there are stable periodic solutions are found. In addition, we find a homoclinic bifurcation which gives rise to a stable periodic orbit of large period. The existence of these stable oscillatory solutions gives a possible explanation for the oscillations of bacteria concentration and pH for the iron cycle, described in Jaynes et al. (Water Resour Res 20:233-242, 1984). PMID:23852143

  12. Experimental investigation of muon-catalyzed t + t fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanova, L. N.; Bom, V. R.; Demin, A. M.; Demin, D. L.; Eijk, C. W. E. van; Filchagin, S. V.; Filchenkov, V. V.; Grafov, N. N. Grishechkin, S. K.; Gritsaj, K. I.; Konin, A. D.; Kuryakin, A. V.; Medved', S. V.; Musyaev, R. K.; Rudenko, A. I.; Tumkin, D. P.; Vinogradov, Yu. I.; Yukhimchuk, A. A.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.; Zinov, V. G.

    2009-02-15

    The muon-catalyzed fusion ({mu}CF) process in tritium was studied by the {mu}CF collaboration on the muon beam of the JINR Phasotron. The measurements were carried out with a liquid tritium target at the temperature 22 K and density approximately 1.25 of the liquid hydrogen density (LHD). Parameters of the {mu}CF cycle were determined: the tt{mu} muonic molecule formation rate {lambda}{sub tt{mu}} = 2.84(0.32) {mu}s{sup -1}, the tt{mu} fusion reaction rate {lambda}{sub f} = 15.6(2.0) {mu}s{sup -1}, and the probability of muon sticking to helium {omega}{sub tt}= 13.9(1.5)%. The results agree with those obtained earlier by other groups, but better accuracy was achieved due to our unique experimental method.

  13. WILDCAT: a catalyzed D-D tokamak reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.

    1981-11-01

    WILDCAT is a conceptual design of a catalyzed D-D, tokamak, commercial, fusion reactor. WILDCAT utilizes the beneficial features of no tritium breeding, while not extrapolating unnecessarily from existing D-T designs. The reactor is larger and has higher magnetic fields and plasma pressures than typical D-T devices. It is more costly, but eliminates problems associated with tritium breeding and has tritium inventories and throughputs approximately two orders of magnitude less than typical D-T reactors. There are both a steady-state version with Alfven-wave current drive and a pulsed version. Extensive comparison with D-T devices has been made, and cost and safety analyses have been included. All of the major reactor systems have been worked out to a level of detail appropriate to a complete, conceptual design.

  14. Transition Metals Catalyzed Element-Cyano Bonds Activations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Falck, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Cyano group as a versatile functionalized intermediate has been explored for several decades, as it readily transfers to many useful functionalization groups such as amine, amide, acid, etc., which make it possess high popularization and use value in organic synthesis. Reactions involved with element-cyano bond cleavage can provide not only a new cyano group but also a freshly functionalized skeleton in one-pot, consequently making it of high importance. The highlights reviewed herein include H-CN, Si-CN, C-CN, B-CN, Sn-CN, Ge-CN, S-CN, Halo-CN, N-CN, and O-CN bonds cleavages and will summarize progress in such an important research area. This review article will focus on transition metal catalyzed reactions involving element-cyano bond activation. PMID:25558119

  15. Decomposition of peracetic acid catalyzed by vanadium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, A.P.; Gekhman, A.E.; Moiseev, I.I.; Polotryuk, O.Y.

    1986-02-01

    This paper studies the decomposition of peracetic acid (AcOOH) in acetic acid (AcOH) catalyzed by vanadium complexes. It is shown that peractic acid in acetic acid solutions of ammonium anadate decomposes with the predominant formation of 0/sub 2/ and small amounts of CO/sub 2/, the yield of which increases with increasing temperature and peracetic acid concentration. Both reactions proceed without the formation of free radicals in amounts detectable by ESR spectroscopy. The rate of oxygen release under conditions in which the formation of CO/sub 2/ is insignificant obeys a kinetic equation indicating the intermediate formation of a complex between V/sup 5 +/ ions and peracetic acid and the slow conversion of this complex into the observed products.

  16. Flavoenzyme-catalyzed formation of disulfide bonds in natural products.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Daniel H; Groll, Michael; Habel, Andreas; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Hertweck, Christian; Brakhage, Axel A; Huber, Eva M

    2014-02-17

    Nature provides a rich source of compounds with diverse chemical structures and biological activities, among them, sulfur-containing metabolites from bacteria and fungi. Some of these compounds bear a disulfide moiety that is indispensable for their bioactivity. Specialized oxidoreductases such as GliT, HlmI, and DepH catalyze the formation of this disulfide bridge in the virulence factor gliotoxin, the antibiotic holomycin, and the anticancer drug romidepsin, respectively. We have examined all three enzymes by X-ray crystallography and activity assays. Despite their differently sized substrate binding clefts and hence, their diverse substrate preferences, a unifying reaction mechanism is proposed based on the obtained crystal structures and further supported by mutagenesis experiments. PMID:24446392

  17. Site-specific DNA transesterification catalyzed by a restriction enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Connolly, Bernard A.; Halford, Stephen E.; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2007-01-01

    Most restriction endonucleases use Mg2+ to hydrolyze phosphodiester bonds at specific DNA sites. We show here that BfiI, a metal-independent restriction enzyme from the phospholipase D superfamily, catalyzes both DNA hydrolysis and transesterification reactions at its recognition site. In the presence of alcohols such as ethanol or glycerol, it attaches the alcohol covalently to the 5? terminus of the cleaved DNA. Under certain conditions, the terminal 3?-OH of one DNA strand can attack the target phosphodiester bond in the other strand to create a DNA hairpin. Transesterification reactions on DNA with phosphorothioate linkages at the target bond proceed with retention of stereoconfiguration at the phosphorus, indicating, uniquely for a restriction enzyme, a two-step mechanism. We propose that BfiI first makes a covalent enzymeDNA intermediate, and then it resolves it by a nucleophilic attack of water or an alcohol, to yield hydrolysis or transesterification products, respectively. PMID:17267608

  18. Hemoglobin-catalyzed fluorometric method for the determination of glutathione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Lin; Li, Hua; Wang, Yi; Gou, Rong; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fang, Yudong; Chen, Fengmei

    2016-01-01

    A new spectrofluorometric method for the determination of glutathione based on the reaction catalyzed by hemoglobin was reported. The reaction product gave a highly fluorescent intensity with the excitation and emission wavelengths of 320.0 nm and 413.0 nm, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions were investigated. Results showed that low concentration glutathione enhanced the fluorescence intensity significantly. The line ranges were 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-5 mol L-1 of glutathione and 6.0 × 10-10 mol L-1-1.0 × 10-8 mol L-1, respectively. The detection limit was calculated to be 1.1 × 10-11 mol L-1. The recovery test by the standard addition method gave values in the range of 90.78%-102.20%. This method was used for the determination of glutathione in synthetic and real samples with satisfactory results.

  19. Alkaline phosphatase-catalyzed silver deposition for electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo; Hernndez-Santos, David; Gonzlez-Garca, Mara Begoa; Costa-Garca, Agustn

    2007-07-15

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is one of the most used enzymatic labels for the development of ELISAs, immunosensors, DNA hybridization assays, etc. This enzyme catalyzes the dephosphorylation of a substrate into a detectable product usually quantified by optical or electrochemical measurements. This work is based on a substrate (3-indoxyl phosphate) that produces a compound able to reduce silver ions in solution into a metallic deposit, which is localized where the enzymatic label AP is attached. The deposited silver is electrochemically stripped into solution and measured by anodic stripping voltammetry. Its application to an enzymatic genosensor on streptavidin-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes for the detection of virulence nucleic acid determinants of autolysin gene, exclusively present on the genome of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, is described. Compared with the direct voltammetric detection of indigo carmine, the anodic stripping voltammetry of silver ions is 14-fold more sensitive. PMID:17569504

  20. Palladium-catalyzed pentannulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Avlasevich, Yuri; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus

    2011-11-01

    We present a new and versatile one-step synthesis of a series of small molecular chromophores based on cyclopentannulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Easily available pyrene, anthracene, and perylene bromides serve as starting materials for the reactions. The formation of the five-membered ring is achieved by the straightforward palladium(0)-catalyzed carbannulation with various substituted acetylenes. This approach is applicable either to single or multiple annulation procedures leading to hitherto inaccessible PAH topologies. According to the resulting products of the diverse reactions, a mechanistic explanation is proposed. UV/Vis absorption as well as cyclovoltammetric measurements were performed for characterization demonstrating the value of this annulation technique. Optical absorptions of up to 780 nm and absorption coefficients ranging from 8000 to 34,000 M(-1) cm(-1) were detected. PMID:21956345

  1. Trypsin-catalyzed oxygen-18 labeling for quantitative proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Weijun; Petritis, Brianne O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-07-01

    Stable isotope labeling based on relative peptide/protein abundance measurements is commonly applied for quantitative proteomics. Recently, trypsin-catalyzed oxygen-18 labeling has grown in popularity due to its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and its ability to universally label peptides with high sample recovery. In (18)O labeling, both C-terminal carboxyl group atoms of tryptic peptides can be enzymatically exchanged with (18)O, thus providing the labeled peptide with a 4 Da mass shift from the (16)O-labeled sample. Peptide (18)O labeling is ideally suited for generating a labeled "universal" reference sample used for obtaining accurate and reproducible quantitative measurements across large number of samples in quantitative discovery proteomics.

  2. Synthesis of rosin acid starch catalyzed by lipase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rihui; Li, He; Long, Han; Su, Jiating; Huang, Wenqin

    2014-01-01

    Rosin, an abundant raw material from pine trees, was used as a starting material directly for the synthesis of rosin acid starch. The esterification reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Novozym 435) under mild conditions. Based on single factor experimentation, the optimal esterification conditions were obtained as follows: rosin acid/anhydrous glucose unit in the molar ratio 2:1, reaction time 4 h at 45C, and 15% of lipase dosage. The degree of substitution (DS) reaches 0.098. Product from esterification of cassava starch with rosin acid was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and iodine coloration analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the morphology and crystallinity of the cassava starch were largely destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that thermal stability of rosin acid starch decreased compared with native starch. PMID:24977156

  3. Activity of formylphosphate in the reaction catalyzed by formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Jahansouz, H.; Kofron, J.L.; Smithers, G.W.; Himes, R.H.; Reed, G.H.

    1986-05-01

    Formylphosphate (FP), a putative enzyme-bound intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate synthetase, was synthesized from formylfluoride and Pi. Measurement of hydrolysis rates by /sup 31/P NMR showed that FP is very unstable with a half-life of 48 min at 20/sup 0/C and pH 7. At pH 7 hydrolysis occurs with O-P bond cleavage as shown by /sup 18/O incorporation from /sup 18/O-H/sub 2/O into Pi. The substrate activity of FP was tested in the reaction catalyzed by N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate synthetase isolated from Clostridium cylindrosporum. MgATP + H/sub 4/folate + HCOO/sup -/ in equilibrium MgADP + Pi +N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate FP supports the reaction in both the forward and reverse directions. Thus, N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate is produced from H/sub 4/-folate and FP but only if ADP is present, and ATP is produced from FP and ADP but only if H/sub 4/folate is present. The requirements for H/sub 4/folate in the synthesis of ATP from ADP and FP and for ADP in the synthesis of N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate from FP and H/sub 4/folate, are consistent with past kinetic and isotope exchange studies which showed that the reaction proceeds by a sequential mechanism and that all three substrates must be present for any reaction to occur.

  4. Cytochromes P450 Catalyze the Reduction of ?,?-Unsaturated Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Amunom, Immaculate; Dieter, Laura J.; Tamasi, Viola; Cai, Jan; Conklin, Daniel J.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Martin, Martha V.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Prough, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolism of ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, e.g. 4-hydroxynonenal, involves oxidation to carboxylic acids, reduction to alcohols, and glutathionylation to eventually form mercapturide conjugates. Recently we demonstrated that P450s can oxidize aldehydes to carboxylic acids, a reaction previously thought to involve aldehyde dehydrogenase. When recombinant cytochrome P450 3A4 was incubated with 4-hydroxynonenal, O2, and NADPH, several products were produced, including 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid (HNA), and an unknown metabolite. Several P450s catalyzed the reduction reaction in the order (human) P450 2B6 ? P450 3A4 > P450 1A2 > P450 2J2 > (mouse) P450 2c29. Other P450s did not catalyze the reduction reaction (human P450 2E1 & rabbit P450 2B4). Metabolism by isolated rat hepatocytes showed that HNA formation was inhibited by cyanamide, while DHN formation was not affected. Troleandomycin increased HNA production 1.6-fold while inhibiting DHN formation, suggesting that P450 3A11 is a major enzyme involved in rat hepatic clearance of 4-HNE. A fluorescent assay was developed using 9-anthracenealdehyde to measure both reactions. Feeding mice diet containing t-butylated hydroxyanisole increased the level of both activities with hepatic microsomal fractions, but not proportionally. Miconazole (0.5 mM) was a potent inhibitor of these microsomal reduction reactions, while phenytoin and ?-naphthoflavone (both at 0.5 mM) were partial inhibitors, suggesting the role of multiple P450 enzymes. The oxidative metabolism of these aldehydes was inhibited >90% in an Ar or CO atmosphere, while the reductive reactions were not greatly affected. These results suggest that P450s are significant catalysts of reduction of ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes in liver. PMID:21766881

  5. Protoporphyrin IX catalyzed hydrogen peroxide to generate singlet oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jun; Sun, Qiyin; Su, Jihui; Han, Jihui; Zhang, Quanshi; Jin, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the role of protoporphyrin IX (pPIX) in mitochondrial metabolism of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methods: O2 - specific fluorescent markers DMA (9,10-dimerthylanthracence) and SOSG (Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green reagent) were used for measurement of singlet oxygen (1O2). Catalyzing conversion of H2O2 into 1O2 by pPIX was monitored in vitro under varied H2O2 content, temperature, and PH value in the reaction. Ex vivo mitochondrial model was used to analyze effects of ferrochelatase (FECH) and high energy X-rays on this catalytic reaction. Results: In complete dark, measurable 1O2 was generated when 1.5 mM of H2O2 was incubated with 24 ?M of pPIX H2O2 at 37C for 3 hours. Mitochondrial yield of H2O2 was 0.110.03 nmole/mg/min. Mitochondrial FECH significantly improve the catalytic ability of pPIX converting H2O2 into 1O2. At presence of high-energy X-ray, incubation of 14.4 ?M of pPIX with 0.54 ?M of H2O2 also generated 1O2, during which the fluorescence density of 1.05 ?M of DMA decreased by 41.5% (P < 0.05). This conversion was not observed when pPIX was replaced with structurally similar hematoporphyrin. Conclusion: pPIX can catalyze conversion of H2O2 into 1O2. PMID:26221221

  6. Metal-catalyzed protein tyrosine nitration in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Campolo, Nicolás; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Radi, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is an oxidative postranslational modification that can affect protein structure and function. It is mediated in vivo by the production of nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and nitrogen dioxide ((•)NO₂). Redox-active transition metals such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) can actively participate in the processes of tyrosine nitration in biological systems, as they catalyze the production of both reactive oxygen species and RNS, enhance nitration yields and provide site-specificity to this process. Early after the discovery that protein tyrosine nitration can occur under biologically relevant conditions, it was shown that some low molecular weight transition-metal centers and metalloproteins could promote peroxynitrite-dependent nitration. Later studies showed that nitration could be achieved by peroxynitrite-independent routes as well, depending on the transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of nitrite (NO₂(-)) to (•)NO₂ in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Processes like these can be achieved either by hemeperoxidase-dependent reactions or by ferrous and cuprous ions through Fenton-type chemistry. Besides the in vitro evidence, there are now several in vivo studies that support the close relationship between transition metal levels and protein tyrosine nitration. So, the contribution of transition metals to the levels of tyrosine nitrated proteins observed under basal conditions and, specially, in disease states related with high levels of these metal ions, seems to be quite clear. Altogether, current evidence unambiguously supports a central role of transition metals in determining the extent and selectivity of protein tyrosine nitration mediated both by peroxynitrite-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:24977336

  7. The general base in the thymidylate synthase catalyzed proton abstraction.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ananda K; Islam, Zahidul; Krueger, Jonathan; Abeysinghe, Thelma; Kohen, Amnon

    2015-11-18

    The enzyme thymidylate synthase (TSase), an important chemotherapeutic drug target, catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate (dTMP), a precursor of one of the DNA building blocks. TSase catalyzes a multi-step mechanism that includes the abstraction of a proton from the C5 of the substrate 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (dUMP). Previous studies on ecTSase proposed that an active-site residue, Y94 serves the role of the general base abstracting this proton. However, since Y94 is neither very basic, nor connected to basic residues, nor located close enough to the pyrimidine proton to be abstracted, the actual identity of this base remains enigmatic. Based on crystal structures, an alternative hypothesis is that the nearest potential proton-acceptor of C5 of dUMP is a water molecule that is part of a hydrogen bond (H-bond) network comprised of several water molecules and several protein residues including H147, E58, N177, and Y94. Here, we examine the role of the residue Y94 in the proton abstraction step by removing its hydroxyl group (Y94F mutant). We investigated the effect of the mutation on the temperature dependence of intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and found that these KIEs are more temperature dependent than those of the wild-type enzyme (WT). These results suggest that the phenolic -OH of Y94 is a component of the transition state for the proton abstraction step. The findings further support the hypothesis that no single functional group is the general base, but a network of bases and hydroxyls (from water molecules and tyrosine) sharing H-bonds across the active site can serve the role of the general base to remove the pyrimidine proton. PMID:25912171

  8. New metal catalyzed syntheses of nanostructured boron nitride and alkenyldecaboranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Shahana

    The goals of the research described in this dissertation were two-fold. The first goal was to develop new methods, employing metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition reactions of molecular polyborane precursors, for the production of boron nitride nanostructured materials, including both boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS). The second goal was to develop new systematic metal-catalyzed reactions for polyboranes that would facilitate their functionalization for possible biomedical and/or materials applications. The syntheses of multi- and double-walled BNNTs were achieved with the aid of a floating nickel catalyst via the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) of borazine (B3N3H6) or decaborane (B10H14) molecular precursors in ammonia atmospheres, with each precursor having its own advantages. While borazine is a single-source precursor containing both boron and nitrogen, the decaborane-based syntheses required the additional step of reaction with ammonia. However, the higher observed BNNT yields and the ease of handling and commercial availability of decaborane are distinct advantages. The BNNTs derived from both precursors were crystalline with highly ordered structures. The BNNTs grown at 1200 C from borazine were mainly double walled, with lengths up to 0.2 m and 2 nm diameters. The BNNTs grown at 1200-1300 C from decaborane were double- and multi-walled, with the double-walled nanotubes having 2 nm inner diameters and the multi-walled nanotubes (10 walls) having 4-5 nm inner diameters and 12-14 nm outer diameters. BNNTs grown from decaborane at 1300 C were longer, averaging 0.6 m, whereas those grown at 1200 C had average lengths of 0.2 m. The BNNTs were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). This floating catalyst method now provides a catalytic and potentially scalable route to BNNTs with low defect density from safe and commercially available precursor compounds. A catalytic CVD method, employing the thermally induced reactions of ammonia with decaborane on polycrystalline nickel and copper foils, was also successfully developed for the production of BNNS. The metals were readily etched and the BNNS transferred to other substrates. The EELS and Raman spectra and the electron diffraction patterns of the BNNS confirmed the formation of h-BN and their optical, AFM and TEM characterizations showed BNNS with large micron-scale areas with some crumpling and folding. Most of the BNNS deposited on Ni were two- or three-layered; however, some regions were thicker containing up to six BN sheets. The films on Cu also contained two- and three-layered BNNS, but had large amorphous BN regions. Many of the BNNS grown on Ni exhibited well-defined angular edges, with near regular angles of 30, 60 or 90, suggesting that with a fine-tuning of the decaborane/ammonia pressure and growth conditions, controlled growth of regular polygonal BNNS structures can be achieved. To achieve the second goal, transition-metal-catalyzed decaborane-alkyne hydroboration reactions were developed that provide high-yield routes to the previously unknown di- and monoalkenyldecaboranes. An unusual catalyst product selectivity was observed, with the reactions catalyzed by the [RuCl2 (p-cymene)]2 and [Cp*IrCl2]2 complexes giving the ?-E alkenyldecaboranes and the corresponding reactions with the [RuI2(p-cymene)]2 complex giving the ?-alkenyldecaborane isomers. These product selectivities coupled with the differences observed in NMR studies of catalyzed reactions in progress, suggest quite distinct mechanistic steps for the different catalysts. It was further demonstrated that the new alkenyldecaboranes could be easily modified with the aid of metal-catalyzed hydroborations and homo and cross metathesis reactions to yield both linked cage and chemically active derivatives. These results demonstrate that the alkenyldecaboranes could serve as important materials for many potential polyborane biomedica

  9. Gold-Catalyzed Benzylic Azidation of Phthalans and Isochromans and Subsequent FeCl3-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Substitutions.

    PubMed

    Asai, Shota; Yabe, Yuki; Goto, Ryota; Nagata, Saori; Monguchi, Yasunari; Kita, Yasuyuki; Sajiki, Hironao; Sawama, Yoshinari

    2015-01-01

    The benzylic positions of the phthalan and isochroman derivatives (1) as benzene-fused cyclic ethers effectively underwent gold-catalyzed direct azidation using trimethylsilylazide (TMSN3) to give the corresponding 1-azidated products (2) possessing the N,O-acetal partial structure. The azido group of the N,O-acetal behaved as a leaving group in the presence of catalytic iron(III) chloride, and 1-aryl or allyl phthalan and isochroman derivatives were obtained by nucleophilic arylation or allylation, respectively. Meanwhile, a double nucleophilic substitution toward the 1-azidated products (2) occurred at the 1-position using indole derivatives as a nucleophile accompanied by elimination of the azido group and subsequent ring opening of the cyclic ether nucleus produced the bisindolylarylmethane derivatives. PMID:26423031

  10. Recent advances in osmium-catalyzed hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions.

    PubMed

    Chelucci, Giorgio; Baldino, Salvatore; Baratta, Walter

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: A current issue in metal-catalyzed reactions is the search for highly efficient transition-metal complexes affording high productivity and selectivity in a variety of processes. Moreover, there is also a great interest in multitasking catalysts that are able to efficiently promote different organic transformations by careful switching of the reaction parameters, such as temperature, solvent, and cocatalyst. In this context, osmium complexes have shown the ability to catalyze efficiently different types of reactions involving hydrogen, proving at the same time high thermal stability and simple synthesis. In the catalytic reduction of C?X (X = O, N) bonds by both hydrogenation (HY) and transfer hydrogenation (TH) reactions, the most interest has been focused on homogeneous systems based on rhodium, iridium, and in particular ruthenium catalysts, which have proved to catalyze chemo- and stereoselective hydrogenations with remarkable efficiency. By contrast, osmium catalysts have received much less attention because they are considered less active on account of their slower ligand exchange kinetics. Thus, this area remained almost neglected until recent studies refuted these prejudices. The aim of this Account is to highlight the impressive developments achieved over the past few years by our and other groups on the design of new classes of osmium complexes and their applications in homogeneous catalytic reactions involving the hydrogenation of carbon-oxygen and carbon-nitrogen bonds by both HY and TH reactions as well as in alcohol deydrogenation (DHY) reactions. The work described in this Account demonstrates that osmium complexes are emerging as powerful catalysts for asymmetric and non-asymmetric syntheses, showing a remarkably high catalytic activity in HY and TH reactions of ketones, aldehydes, imines, and esters as well in DHY reactions of alcohols. Thus, for instance, the introduction of ligands with an NH function, possibly in combination with a pyridine ring, led to a new family of [OsCl2(PP)(NN)] (NN = diamine, 2-aminomethylpyridine; PP = diphosphine) and pincer [OsCl(CNN)(PP)] (HCNN = 6-aryl-2-aminomethylpyridine, 2-aminomethylbenzo[h]quinoline) complexes, which are outstanding catalysts for (asymmetric) HY and TH of carbonyl compounds and DHY of alcohols with turnover numbers and turnover frequencies up to 10(5) and 10(6) h(-1), respectively. In addition, PNN osmium complexes containing the 2-aminomethylpyridine motif have been found to be among the most active catalysts for HY of esters. These complexes have shown catalytic activities that are comparable and in some cases superior to those reported for analogous ruthenium systems. These results give an idea of the potential of Os complexes for the design of new highly productive and robust catalysts for the synthesis of chiral and nonchiral alcohols and amines as well as ketones from alcohols. Thus, we hope that this report will promote increased interest in the chemistry of these metal complexes, opening novel opportunities for new catalytic processes as well as the improvement of existing ones. PMID:25650714

  11. Rh(I)-Catalyzed Direct Arylation of Pyridines and Quinolines

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Ashley; Lewis, Jared; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2008-07-29

    The pyridine and quinoline nuclei are privileged scaffolds that occupy a central role in many medicinally relevant compounds. Consequently, methods for their expeditious functionalization are of immediate interest. However, despite the immense importance of transition-metal catalyzed cross-coupling for the functionalization of aromatic scaffolds, general solutions for coupling 2-pyridyl organometallics with aryl halides have only recently been presented. Direct arylation at the ortho position of pyridine would constitute an even more efficient approach because it eliminates the need for the stoichiometric preparation and isolation of 2-pyridyl organometallics. Progress towards this goal has been achieved by activation of the pyridine nucleus for arylation via conversion to the corresponding pyridine N-oxide or N-iminopyridinium ylide. However, this approach necessitates two additional steps: activation of the pyridine or quinoline starting material, and then unmasking the arylated product. The use of pyridines directly would clearly represent the ideal situation both in terms of cost and simplicity. We now wish to document our efforts in this vein, culminating in an operationally simple Rh(I)-catalyzed direct arylation of pyridines and quinolines. We recently developed an electron-rich Rh(I) system for catalytic alkylation at the ortho position of pyridines and quinolines with alkenes. Therefore, we initially focused our attention on the use of similarly electron-rich Rh(I) catalysts for the proposed direct arylation. After screening an array of electron-rich phosphine ligands and Rh(I) salts, only marginal yields (<20%) of the desired product were obtained. Much more efficient was an electron-poor Rh(I) system with [RhCl(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} as precatalyst (Table 1). For the direct arylation of picoline with 3,5-dimethyl-bromobenzene, addition of P(OiPr){sub 3} afforded a promising 40% yield of the cross coupled product 1a (entry 1). The exclusion of phosphite additive proved even more effective, with the yield of 1a improving to 61% (entry 2). Further enhancement in yield was not observed upon the inclusion of other additives such as MgO (entry 3), various organic bases (entries 4, 5), or a protic acid source (entry 6). Absolute concentration proved very important, with the best results being obtained at relatively high concentrations of the aryl bromide (compare entries 7 and 8). A marginal improvement was observed upon running the reaction with 6 equivalents of 2-methyl pyridine (entry 9). The reaction temperature could also be increased to 175 or 190 C while maintaining reaction yield, to enable the reaction time to be reduced to 24 h (entries 10 and 11). In summary, we have developed a Rh(I)-catalyzed strategy for the direct arylation of pyridines and quinolines. The heterocycle is used without the need for prefunctionalization, and all reaction components are inexpensive and readily available. The strategy represents an expeditious route to an important class of bis(hetero)aryls and should be of broad utility.

  12. High power density yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Rahul

    Microbial fuel cells leverage whole cell biocatalysis to convert the energy stored in energy-rich renewable biomolecules such as sugar, directly to electrical energy at high efficiencies. Advantages of the process include ambient temperature operation, operation in natural streams such as wastewater without the need to clean electrodes, minimal balance-of-plant requirements compared to conventional fuel cells, and environmentally friendly operation. These make the technology very attractive as portable power sources and waste-to-energy converters. The principal problem facing the technology is the low power densities compared to other conventional portable power sources such as batteries and traditional fuel cells. In this work we examined the yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cell and developed methods to increase the power density from such fuel cells. A combination of cyclic voltammetry and optical absorption measurements were used to establish significant adsorption of electron mediators by the microbes. Mediator adsorption was demonstrated to be an important limitation in achieving high power densities in yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cells. Specifically, the power densities are low for the length of time mediator adsorption continues to occur. Once the mediator adsorption stops, the power densities increase. Rotating disk chronoamperometry was used to extract reaction rate information, and a simple kinetic expression was developed for the current observed in the anodic half-cell. Since the rate expression showed that the current was directly related to microbe concentration close to the electrode, methods to increase cell mass attached to the anode was investigated. Electrically biased electrodes were demonstrated to develop biofilm-like layers of the Baker's yeast with a high concentration of cells directly connected to the electrode. The increased cell mass did increase the power density 2 times compared to a non biofilm fuel cell, but the power density increase was shown to quickly saturate with cell mass attached on the electrode. Based on recent modelling data that suggested that the electrode currents might be limited by the poor electrical conductivity of the anode, the power density versus electrical conductivity of a yeast-immobilized anode was investigated. Introduction of high aspect ratio carbon fiber filaments to the immobilization matrix increased the electrical conductivity of the anode. Although a higher electrical conductivity clearly led to an increase in power densities, it was shown that the principal limitation to power density increase was coming from proton transfer limitations in the immobilized anode. Partial overcoming of the gradients lead a power density of ca. 250 microW cm-2, which is the highest reported for yeast powered MFCs. A yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cell was investigated as a power source for low power sensors using raw tree sap. It was shown that yeast can efficiently utilize the sucrose present in the raw tree sap to produce electricity when excess salt is added to the medium. Therefore the salinity of a potential energy source is an important consideration when MFCs are being considered for energy harvesting from natural sources.

  13. Effective alkaline metal-catalyzed oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bhalla, Aditya; Bansal, Namita; Stoklosa, Ryan J.; Fountain, Mackenzie; Ralph, John; Hodge, David B.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2016-02-09

    Background: Strategies to improve copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment of hybrid poplar were investigated. These improvements included a combination of increasing hydrolysis yields, while simultaneously decreasing process inputs through (i) more efficient utilization of H2O2 and (ii) the addition of an alkaline extraction step prior to the metal-catalyzed AHP pretreatment. We hypothesized that utilizing this improved process could substantially lower the chemical inputs needed during pretreatment. Results: Hybrid poplar was pretreated utilizing a modified process in which an alkaline extraction step was incorporated prior to the Cu-AHP treatment step and H2O2 was added batch-wise over the course of 10more » h. Our results revealed that the alkaline pre-extraction step improved both lignin and xylan solubilization, which ultimately led to improved glucose (86 %) and xylose (95 %) yields following enzymatic hydrolysis. An increase in the lignin solubilization was also observed with fed-batch H2O2 addition relative to batch-only addition, which again resulted in increased glucose and xylose yields (77 and 93 % versus 63 and 74 %, respectively). Importantly, combining these strategies led to significantly improved sugar yields (96 % glucose and 94 % xylose) following enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, we found that we could substantially lower the chemical inputs (enzyme, H2O2, and catalyst), while still maintaining high product yields utilizing the improved Cu-AHP process. This pretreatment also provided a relatively pure lignin stream consisting of ≥90 % Klason lignin and only 3 % xylan and 2 % ash following precipitation. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (2D HSQC) NMR and size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that the solubilized lignin was high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 22,000 Da) and only slightly oxidized relative to lignin from untreated poplar. In conclusion: This study demonstrated that the fed-batch, two-stage Cu-AHP pretreatment process was effective in pretreating hybrid poplar for its conversion into fermentable sugars. Results showed sugar yields near the theoretical maximum were achieved from enzymatically hydrolyzed hybrid poplar by incorporating an alkaline extraction step prior to pretreatment and by efficiently utilizing H2O2 during the Cu-AHP process. Significantly, this study reports high sugar yields from woody biomass treated with an AHP pretreatment under mild reaction conditions.« less

  14. Bonding by Hydroxide-Catalyzed Hydration and Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung

    2008-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive method for bonding solid objects exploits hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration to form silicate-like networks in thin surface and interfacial layers between the objects. The method can be practiced at room temperature or over a wide range of temperatures. The method was developed especially to enable the formation of precise, reliable bonds between precise optical components. The bonds thus formed exhibit the precision and transparency of bonds formed by the conventional optical-contact method and the strength and reliability of high-temperature frit bonds. The method also lends itself to numerous non-optical applications in which there are requirements for precise bonds and/or requirements for bonds, whether precise or imprecise, that can reliably withstand severe environmental conditions. Categories of such non-optical applications include forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. The method is applicable to materials that either (1) can form silicate-like networks in the sense that they have silicate-like molecular structures that are extensible into silicate-like networks or (2) can be chemically linked to silicate-like networks by means of hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration. When hydrated, a material of either type features surface hydroxyl (-OH) groups. In this method, a silicate-like network that bonds two substrates can be formed either by a bonding material alone or by the bonding material together with material from either or both of the substrates. Typically, an aqueous hydroxide bonding solution is dispensed and allowed to flow between the mating surfaces by capillary action. If the surface figures of the substrates do not match precisely, bonding could be improved by including a filling material in the bonding solution. Preferably, the filling material should include at least one ingredient that can be hydrated to have exposed hydroxyl groups and that can be chemically linked, by hydroxide catalysis, to a silicate-like network. The silicate-like network could be generated in situ from the filling material and/or substrate material, or could be originally present in the bonding material.

  15. Acid-catalyzed Heterogeneous Reactions in SOA Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, N.; Keywood, M.; Varutbangkul, V.; Gao, S.; Loewer, E.; Surratt, J.; Richard, F. C.; John, S. H.

    2003-12-01

    The importance of heterogeneous reactions in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has recently excited a great deal of interest in the aerosol community. Jang and Kamens (2001) showed enhanced aerosol yield from aldehydes, which can be produced by atmospheric photochemical reactions, in the presence of acidic seed. They suggest that the carbonyl functional groups of the aldehydes further react in the aerosol phase via hydration, polymerization, and hemiacetal/acetal formation with alcohols at an accelerated rate in the presence of acid. Jang et al. (2003) demonstrated similar results using a flow reactor and Czoschke et al. (in press) qualitatively showed increased yields for isoprene and alpha-pinene ozonolysis in the presence of acidic seed. While these findings are intriguing and important, the conditions under which the experiments were carried out were atmospherically unrealistic. A series of SOA formation experiments have been carried out in the Caltech Indoor Chamber Facility, which is comprised of dual 28 m3 FEP Teflon chambers, with the flexibility to carry out both dark ozonolysis and photochemical OH oxidation reactions. Cycloheptene and alpha-pinene were oxidized in the presence of neutral seed under dry (<10% RH) and humid (50% RH) conditions and in the presence of acidic seed under humid (50% RH) conditions. The SOA yields for these experiments will be presented, and the extent of the influence of acid-catalyzed reactions on SOA yield will be discussed. Reference List 1. Cocker, D. R. III. and R. C. Flagan and J. H. Seinfeld, State-of-the-art chamber facility for studying atmospheric aerosol chemistry, Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 2594-2601, 2001. 2. Czoschke, N. M., M. Jang, and R. M. Kamens, Effect of acid seed on biogenic sceondary organic aerosol growth, Atmospheric Environment, In press. 3. Jang, M., S. Lee, and R. M. Kamens, Organic aerosol growth by acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions of octanal in a flow reactor, Atmospheric Environment, 37, 2125-2138, 2003. 4. Jang, M. S. and R. M Kamens, Atmospheric secondary aerosol formation by heterogeneous reactions of aldehydes in the presence of a sulfuric acid aerosol catalyst. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 4758-4766,2001.

  16. Flame Synthesis Used to Create Metal-Catalyzed Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.

    2001-01-01

    Metal-catalyzed carbon nanotubes are highly ordered carbon structures of nanoscale dimensions. They may be thought of as hollow cylinders whose walls are formed by single atomic layers of graphite. Such cylinders may be composed of many nested, concentric atomic layers of carbon or only a single layer, the latter forming a single-walled carbon nanotube. This article reports unique results using a flame for their synthesis. Only recently were carbon nanotubes discovered within an arc discharge and recognized as fullerene derivatives. Today metal-catalyzed carbon nanotubes are of great interest for many reasons. They can be used as supports for the metal catalysts like those found in catalytic converters. Open-ended nanotubes are highly desirable because they can be filled by other elements, metals or gases, for battery and fuel cell applications. Because of their highly crystalline structure, they are significantly stronger than the commercial carbon fibers that are currently available (10 times as strong as steel but possessing one-sixth of the weight). This property makes them highly desirable for strengthening polymer and ceramic composite materials. Current methods of synthesizing carbon nanotubes include thermal pyrolysis of organometallics, laser ablation of metal targets within hydrocarbon atmospheres at high temperatures, and arc discharges. Each of these methods is costly, and it is unclear if they can be scaled for the commercial synthesis of carbon nanotubes. In contrast, flame synthesis is an economical means of bulk synthesis of a variety of aerosol materials such as carbon black. Flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes could potentially realize an economy of scale that would enable their use in common structural materials such as car-body panels. The top figure is a transmission electron micrograph of a multiwalled carbon nanotube. The image shows a cross section of the atomic structure of the nanotube. The dark lines are individual atomic layer planes of carbon, seen here in cross section. They form a nested series of concentric cylinders, much like the growth rings on a tree. This sample was obtained by the supported catalyst method, whereby the nanoscale catalysts are dispersed on a substrate providing their support. The substrate with catalyst particles was immersed within an acetylene diffusion flame to which nitrogen had been added to eliminate soot formation. Upon removal from the flame, the nanotubes were dispersed on a holder suitable for electron microscopy. Although not seen in the figure, the tube diameter reflects that of the catalyst particle.

  17. Evaluating Transition-Metal Catalyzed Transformations for the Synthesis of Laulimalide

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Amans, Dominique; Seganish, W. Michael; Chung, Cheol K.

    2009-01-01

    Laulimalide is a structurally unique 20-membered marine macrolide displaying microtubule stabilizing activity similar to that of paclitaxel and the epothilones. The use of atom economical transformations such as a rhodium-catalyzed cycloisomerization to form the endocyclic dihydropyran, a dinuclear zinc-catalyzed asymmetric glycolate aldol to prepare the syn 1,2-diol and an intramolecular ruthenium-catalyzed alkene-alkyne coupling to build the macrocycle enabled us to synthesize laulimalide via an efficient and convergent pathway. The designed synthetic route also allowed us to prepare an analogue of the natural product that possesses significant cytotoxic activity. PMID:19891433

  18. Carbon-catalyzed gasification of organic feedstocks in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Matsumura, Y.; Stenberg, J.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    Spruce wood charcoal, macadamia shell charcoal, coal activated carbon, and coconut shell activated carbon catalyze the gasification of organic compounds in supercritical water. Feedstocks studied in this paper include glycerol, glucose, cellobiose, whole biomass feedstocks (depithed bagasse liquid extract and sewage sludge), and representative Department of Defense (DoD) wastes (methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, and phenol). The effects of temperature, pressure, reactant concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and the type of catalyst on the gasification of glucose are reported. Complete conversion of glucose (22% by weight in water) to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas was realized at a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 22.2 h{sup {minus}1} in supercritical water at 600 C, 34.5 MPa. Complete conversions of the whole biomass feeds were also achieved at the same temperature and pressure. The destruction efficiencies for the representative DoD wastes were also high. Deactivation of the carbon catalyst was observed after 4 h of operation without swirl in the entrance region of the reactor, but the carbon gasification efficiency remained near 100% for more than 6 h when a swirl generator was employed in the entrance of the reactor.

  19. Electrophoresis-chemiluminescence detection of phenols catalyzed by hemin.

    PubMed

    Shu, Lu; Zhu, Jinkun; Wang, Qingjiang; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2014-09-01

    Based on the catalytic activity of hemin, an efficient biocatalyst, an indirect capillary electrophoresis-chemiluminescence (CE-CL) detection method for phenols using a hemin-luminol-hydrogen peroxide system was developed. Through a series of static injection experiments, hemin was found to perform best in a neutral solution rather than an acidic or alkaline medium. Although halide ions such as Br(-) and F(-) could further enhance the CL signal catalyzed by hemin, it is difficult to apply these conditions to this CE-CL detection system because of the self-polymerization of hemin, as it hinders the CE process. The addition of concentrated ammonium hydroxide to an aqueous/dimethyl sulfoxide solution of hemin-luminol afforded a stable CE-CL baseline. The indirect CE-CL detection of five phenols using this method gave the following limits of detections: 4.8 × 10(-8) mol/L (o-sec-butylphenol), 4.9 × 10(-8) mol/L (o-cresol), 5.4 × 10(-8) mol/L (m-cresol), 5.3 × 10(-8) mol/L (2,4-dichlorophenol) and 7.1 × 10(-8) mol/L (phenol). PMID:24115262

  20. Predictive modeling of metal-catalyzed polyolefin processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Neeraj Prasad

    2003-10-01

    This dissertation describes the essential modeling components and techniques for building comprehensive polymer process models for metal-catalyzed polyolefin processes. The significance of this work is that it presents a comprehensive approach to polymer process modeling applied to large-scale commercial processes. Most researchers focus only on polymerization mechanisms and reaction kinetics, and neglect physical properties and phase equilibrium. Both physical properties and phase equilibrium play key roles in the accuracy and robustness of a model. This work presents the fundamental principles and practical guidelines used to develop and validate both steady-state and dynamic simulation models for two large-scale commercial processes involving the Ziegler-Natta polymerization to produce high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). It also provides a model for the solution polymerization of ethylene using a metallocene catalyst. Existing modeling efforts do not include physical properties or phase equilibrium in their calculations. These omissions undermine the accuracy and predictive power of the models. The forward chapters of the dissertation discuss the fundamental concepts we consider in polymer process modeling. These include physical and thermodynamic properties, phase equilibrium, and polymerization kinetics. The later chapters provide the modeling applications described above.

  1. Polysilsesquioxanes through base-catalyzed redistribution of oligohydridosiloxanes

    SciTech Connect

    RAHIMIAN,KAMYAR; ASSINK,ROGER A.; LANG,DAVID P.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.

    2000-05-01

    Organopolysilsesquioxanes have recently gained much interest as materials for low-K dielectrics, ceramic precursors and photoresists. Typical sol-gel synthesis of polysilsesquioxanes involves the hydrolysis of organotricholorosilanes and/or organotrialkoxysilanes in the presence of acid or base catalysts and organic solvents. However, under sol-gel conditions most organotrialkoxysilanes do not afford silsesquioxane gels. This limits the range of organic functionalities that can be introduced into these hybrid organic-inorganic materials. An alternative route to polysilsesquioxanes is through oligohydridosiloxanes. Catalytic disproportionation, by titanium complexes, of linear or cyclic oligomers of methylhydridosiloxanes can lead to polymethylsilsesquioxanes. The authors have shown that disproportionation of oligomethylhydridosiloxanes can also be catalyzed by tetrabutylammonium hydroxide to yield polymethylsilsesquioxanes (scheme 1). This replaces the step-growth sol-gel polymerization process of organotrialkoxysilanes, which requires solvent, stoichiometric water and produces alcohol and water condensation by-products. Tetraalkylammonium hydroxides, as catalysts, are also attractive because they readily decompose by heating above 150 C; thus, they can be easily removed from the final materials. In this paper the authors report on both the catalytic and stoichiometric redistribution of organohydridosiloxanes to produce polysilsesquioxane foams and gels of the formula (RSiO{sub 1.5}){sub n} which otherwise cannot be obtained through traditional sol-gel means.

  2. Direct analysis of enzyme-catalyzed DNA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Karkhanina, Anna A; Mecinovi?, Jasmin; Musheev, Michael U; Krylova, Svetlana M; Petrov, Alexander P; Hewitson, Kirsty S; Flashman, Emily; Schofield, Christopher J; Krylov, Sergey N

    2009-07-15

    N/O-methylation of DNA can be cytotoxic and mutagenic; therefore, enzymes that reverse DNA methylation are essential for organism survival. Several 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases and methyltransferases that remove a methyl group from a methylated DNA base have been identified. Studies of their kinetics and search for their inhibitors have been retarded by the lack of an approach to directly quantitate DNA substrates and products that differ by a single methyl group. Here, we introduce such an approach, which is based on capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. We achieved baseline separation of a fluorescently labeled 15-nucleotide-long single-base methylated DNA substrate from its demethylated product, followed by its quantitative detection. We then used this approach to study the kinetics of AlkB-catalyzed DNA demethylation and screen a number of potential inhibitors of this reaction. Ten new inhibitors, which can be used as templates in developing therapies targeting AlkB-like enzymes, were identified. Our approach will be applicable for in vitro kinetic studies of known DNA demethylating and methylating enzymes and in the discovery of new ones. PMID:19518090

  3. Reductive dechlorination catalyzed by bacterial transition-metal coenzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Gantzer, C.J.; Wackett, L.P. )

    1991-04-01

    The bacterial transition-metal coenzymes vitamin B{sub 12} (Co), coenzyme F{sub 430} (ni), and hematin (Fe) catalyzed the reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated ethylenes and benzenes, whereas the electron-transfer proteins four-iron ferredoxin, two-iron ferredoxin, and azurin (Cu) did not. For vitamin B{sub 12} and coenzyme F{sub 430}, reductive dechlorination rates for different classes of perchlorinated compounds had the following order: carbon tetrachloride > tetrachloroethylene > hexachlorobenzene. For hematin, the order of reductive dechlorination rates was carbon tetrachloride > hexachlorobenzene > tetrachloroethylene. Within each class of compounds, rates of dechlorination decreased with decreasing chlorine content. Regio- and stereospecificity were observed in these reactions. In the reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene was the predominant product formed with vitamin B{sub 12}, coenzyme F{sub 430}, and hematin. Pentachlorobenzene and pentachlorophenol were each dechlorinated by vitamin B{sub 12} to yield two out of three possible isomeric tetrachlorobenzenes. Similar relative kinetics and dechlorination products have been observed in anaerobic cultures, suggesting a possible role of transition-metal coenzymes in the reductive dechlorination of poly-chlorinated compounds in natural and engineered environments.

  4. A Personal Adventure in Muon-Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, John David

    2010-03-01

    Luis Alvarez and colleagues discovered muon-catalyzed fusion of hydrogen isotopes by chance in late 1956. On sabbatical leave at Princeton University during that year, I read the first public announcement of the discovery at the end of December in that well-known scientific journal, The New York Times. A nuclear theorist by prior training, I was intrigued enough in the phenomenon to begin some calculations. I describe my work here, my interaction with Alvarez, and a summary of the surprising developments, both before and after Alvarezs discovery. The rare proton-deuteron ( p-d) fusion events in Alvarezs liquid-hydrogen bubble chamber occurred only because of the natural presence of a tiny amount of deuterium (heavy hydrogen). Additionally, the fusion rate, once the proton-deuteron-muon ( pd? - ) molecular ion has been formed, is sufficiently slow that only rarely does an additional catalytic act occur. A far different situation occurs for muons stopping in pure deuterium or a deuterium-tritium ( d- t) mixture where the fusion rates are many orders of magnitude larger and the molecular-formation rates are large compared to the muons decay rate. The intricate interplay of atomic, molecular, and nuclear science, together with highly fortuitous accidents in the molecular dynamics and the hope of practical application, breathed life into a seeming curiosity. A small but vigorous worldwide community has explored these myriad phenomena in the past 50 years.

  5. Clay-catalyzed reactions of coagulant polymers during water chlorination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.-F.; Liao, P.-M.; Lee, C.-K.; Chao, H.-P.; Peng, C.-L.; Chiou, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of suspended clay/solid particles on organic-coagulant reactions during water chlorination was investigated by analyses of total product formation potential (TPFP) and disinfection by-product (DBP) distribution as a function of exchanged clay cation, coagulant organic polymer, and reaction time. Montmorillonite clays appeared to act as a catalytic center where the reaction between adsorbed polymer and disinfectant (chlorine) was mediated closely by the exchanged clay cation. The transition-metal cations in clays catalyzed more effectively than other cations the reactions between a coagulant polymer and chlorine, forming a large number of volatile DBPs. The relative catalytic effects of clays/solids followed the order Ti-Mont > Fe-Mont > Cu-Mont > Mn-Mont > Ca-Mont > Na-Mont > quartz > talc. The effects of coagulant polymers on TPFP follow the order nonionic polymer > anionic polymer > cationic polymer. The catalytic role of the clay cation was further confirmed by the observed inhibition in DBP formation when strong chelating agents (o-phenanthroline and ethylenediamine) were added to the clay suspension. Moreover, in the presence of clays, total DBPs increased appreciably when either the reaction time or the amount of the added clay or coagulant polymer increased. For volatile DBPs, the formation of halogenated methanes was usually time-dependent, with chloroform and dichloromethane showing the greatest dependence. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Deoxycholic acid transformations catalyzed by selected filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Kollerov, V V; Lobastova, T G; Monti, D; Deshcherevskaya, N O; Ferrandi, E E; Fronza, G; Riva, S; Donova, M V

    2016-03-01

    More than 100 filamentous fungi strains, mostly ascomycetes and zygomycetes from different phyla, were screened for the ability to convert deoxycholic acid (DCA) to valuable bile acid derivatives. Along with 11 molds which fully degraded DCA, several strains were revealed capable of producing cholic acid, ursocholic acid, 12-keto-lithocholic acid (12-keto-LCA), 3-keto-DCA, 15?-hydroxy-DCA and 15?-hydroxy-12-oxo-LCA as major products from DCA. The last metabolite was found to be a new compound. The ability to catalyze the introduction of a hydroxyl group at the 7(?/?)-positions of the DCA molecule was shown for 32 strains with the highest 7?-hydroxylase activity level for Fusarium merismoides VKM F-2310. Curvularia lunata VKM F-644 exhibited 12?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and formed 12-keto-LCA from DCA. Acremonium rutilum VKM F-2853 and Neurospora crassa VKM F-875 produced 15?-hydroxy-DCA and 15?-hydroxy-12-oxo-LCA, respectively, as major products from DCA, as confirmed by MS and NMR analyses. For most of the positive strains, the described DCA-transforming activity was unreported to date. The presented results expand the knowledge on bile acid metabolism by filamentous fungi, and might be suitable for preparative-scale exploitation aimed at the production of marketed bile acids. PMID:26718089

  7. Feasibility of an antiproton catalyzed fission fragment rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Hdinger, D.S.

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of an antiproton catalyzed fission fragment rocket (FFR). The FFR is characterized by the extraction of fission fragments from the fissile fuel, and the utilization of their kinetic energy for thrust generation. A significant drawback to previous FFR designs was the requirement to maintain a critical nuclear pile as the fission fragment source. The author examined the possibility of replacing the critical pile with a sub-critical pile driven by antiprotons. Recent experiments have revealed that antiprotons stimulate highly energetic fissions in {sup 238}U, with a neutron multiplicity of 13.7 neutrons per fission. This interaction was used as a throttled neutron source. The pile consisted of layers of fissile coated fibers which are designed to allow fission fragments to escape them, where the fragments collide with a fluid. The heated fluid is then ejected from the rocket to provide thrust. The calculations performed indicate that each antiproton injected into the pile can stimulate 8 or more fissions while maintaining a neutron multiplication of less than 0.4. Based on the results seen, the engine design presented is inadequate. Limitations introduced by the reaction fluid far outweigh the simplicity-of-design gained. Despite this, the basic idea of using the antiproton-U interaction as a source of spacecraft propulsion warrants further study.

  8. Production of Chemoenzymatic Catalyzed Monoepoxide Biolubricant: Optimization and Physicochemical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Salimon, Jumat; Salih, Nadia; Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar

    2012-01-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) is converted to per-carboxylic acid catalyzed by an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435). This per-carboxylic acid is only intermediate and epoxidized itself in good yields and almost without consecutive reactions. Monoepoxide linoleic acid 9(12)-10(13)-monoepoxy 12(9)-octadecanoic acid (MEOA) was optimized using D-optimal design. At optimum conditions, higher yield% (82.14) and medium oxirane oxygen content (OOC) (4.91%) of MEOA were predicted at 15??L of H2O2, 120?mg of Novozym 435, and 7?h of reaction time. In order to develop better-quality biolubricants, pour point (PP), flash point (FP), viscosity index (VI), and oxidative stability (OT) were determined for LA and MEOA. The results showed that MEOA exhibited good low-temperature behavior with PP of ?41C. FP of MEOA increased to 128C comparing with 115C of LA. In a similar fashion, VI for LA was 224 generally several hundred centistokes (cSt) more viscous than MEOA 130.8. The ability of a substance to resist oxidative degradation is another important property for biolubricants. Therefore, LA and MEOA were screened to measure their OT which was observed at 189 and 168C, respectively. PMID:22346338

  9. MEMS-Based Satellite Micropropulsion Via Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitt, Darren L.; Zakrzwski, Charles M.; Thomas, Michael A.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques offer great potential in satisfying the mission requirements for the next generation of "micro-scale" satellites being designed by NASA and Department of Defense agencies. More commonly referred to as "nanosats", these miniature satellites feature masses in the range of 10-100 kg and therefore have unique propulsion requirements. The propulsion systems must be capable of providing extremely low levels of thrust and impulse while also satisfying stringent demands on size, mass, power consumption and cost. We begin with an overview of micropropulsion requirements and some current MEMS-based strategies being developed to meet these needs. The remainder of the article focuses the progress being made at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center towards the development of a prototype monopropellant MEMS thruster which uses the catalyzed chemical decomposition of high concentration hydrogen peroxide as a propulsion mechanism. The products of decomposition are delivered to a micro-scale converging/diverging supersonic nozzle which produces the thrust vector; the targeted thrust level approximately 500 N with a specific impulse of 140-180 seconds. Macro-scale hydrogen peroxide thrusters have been used for satellite propulsion for decades; however, the implementation of traditional thruster designs on a MEMS scale has uncovered new challenges in fabrication, materials compatibility, and combustion and hydrodynamic modeling. A summary of the achievements of the project to date is given, as is a discussion of remaining challenges and future prospects.

  10. Process Intensification in Base-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; Tsouris, Costas; Jennings, Hal L

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered a means to diversify our supply of transportation fuel, addressing the goal of reducing our dependence on oil. Recent interest has resulted in biodiesel manufacture becoming more widely undertaken by commercial enterprises that are interested in minimizing the cost of feedstock materials and waste production, as well as maximizing the efficiency of production. Various means to accelerate batch processing have been investigated. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has experience in developing process intensification methods for nuclear separations, and this paper will discuss how technologies developed for very different applications have been modified for continuous reaction/separation of biodiesel. In collaboration with an industrial partner, this work addresses the aspect of base-catalyzed biodiesel production that limits it to a slow batch process. In particular, we have found that interfacial mass transfer and phase separation control the transesterification process and have developed a continuous two-phase reactor for online production of a methyl ester and glycerol. Enhancing the mass transfer has additional benefits such as being able to use an alcohol-to-oil phase ratio closer to stoichiometric than in conventional processing, hence minimizing the amount of solvent that has to be recycled and reducing post-processing clean up costs. Various technical issues associated with the application of process intensification technology will be discussed, including scale-up from the laboratory to a pilot-scale undertaking.

  11. Iodine-catalyzed prins cyclization of homoallylic alcohols and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kachi R Kishore Kumar; Rosa, Iara M L; Doriguetto, Antnio C; Bastos, Erick L; Silva, Luiz F

    2013-01-01

    The iodine-catalyzed Prins cyclization of homoallylic alcohols and aldehydes was investigated under metal-free conditions and without additives. Anhydrous conditions and inert atmosphere are not required. The reaction of 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl)propan-1-ol and 21 aldehydes (aliphatic and aromatic) in CH?Cl? in the presence of 5 mol % of iodine gave 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[f]isochromenes in 54%-86% yield. Under similar conditions, the Prins cyclization of six alcohols containing an endocyclic double bond (primary, secondary, or tertiary) led to dihydropyrans in 52%-91% yield. The acyclic homoallylic alcohols gave 4-iodo-tetrahydropyran in 29%-41% yield in the presence of 50 mol % of iodine. This type of substrate is the main limitation of the methodology. The relative configuration of the products was assigned by NMR and X-ray analysis. The mechanism and the ratio of the products are discussed, based on DFT calculations. PMID:24025458

  12. Tin(IV) catalyzed D-galacturonic acid anomerization.

    PubMed

    Rotondo, Archimede; Rotondo, Enrico; Casella, Girolamo A; Grasso, Giulia

    2008-02-01

    A comparative kinetic study of anomerization between the four main forms (alpha/beta-pyranosides and alpha/beta-furanosides) of D-galacturonic acid (GalAH(2), 1) and tin(IV) complexed D-galacturonate ([Sn(CH(3))(2)(GalA)(H(2)O)(2)], 2) in D(2)O, is reported. Important differences are shown by pD vs. mutarotation rate profiles of 1 and 2. Coordination, in fact, causes: i) a spectacular increase of the rate due to kinetic template assistance of the carboxylic tail holding the metal in close proximity to the reactive centre and ii) a change in the dependence of the rate on the pD. Entropic and enthalpic factors contribute to the huge activation energy decrease in 2. Anomerization rates of the complexed ligand are determined by 2D-EXSY cross-peak integration. Analysis of up to twelve direct and reverse rate constants in the pD range 7.0-2.5 evidences ring size memory, and at least one reaction path which bypasses the aldehydo open chain intermediate. Solvent oxygen atom incorporation into the ligand is, at pH 4.5, about ten fold faster when catalyzed by the metal, and proves that the metal-assisted nucleophilic attack of water on the anomeric carbon atom cannot significantly contribute to mutarotation rates that are thousands of times faster. PMID:18217114

  13. Acid-Catalyzed Amine-Borane Reduction of Nitrite.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kevin E.; Kelly, Henry C.

    1996-12-01

    The rate of reduction of nitrite by trimethylamine-borane was followed by observing the decrease in nitrite absorbance under pseudo-first-order conditions. The reaction is acid-catalyzed and exhibits a first-order dependence on both amine-borane and total nitrite concentration. The molar equivalence of NaNO(2) to (CH(3))(3)NBH(3) = 2:1. Equimolar amounts of hydrogen and nitrous oxide are formed, and the molar ratio of nitrite reacted to N(2)O produced is 2:1. In concentrated HCl or H(2)SO(4), a correlation of rate with the Hammett acidity function, h(o), is observed. The reaction is subject to a pronounced inversesolvent isotope effect (k(D)()2(O)/k(H)()2(O) approximately 2.7) and a modest normal substrate effect (k((CH)()3())()3(N.BH)()3/k((CH)()3())()3(N.BD)()3 approximately 1.4). The reaction is first-order in H(3)O(+) in the region pH 0.7-2.7, but a second-order dependence is observed above pH 4 with the transition occurring at pH approximately pK(a) for HNO(2). Results are consistent with a mechanistic model involving preequilibration protonation of molecular nitrous acid followed by rate-limiting hydride attack on H(2)ONO(+) or free NO(+) to produce nitrosyl hydride as a reactive intermediate. PMID:11666911

  14. Studies on the catalyzed interconversions of vitamin A derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Rando, R.R.; Chang, A.

    1983-05-04

    The kinetics of I/sub 2/-catalyzed isomerization of the retinal isomers were studied. The all-trans isomer formed 13-cis-retinal rapidly with a rate constant of 1.9 X 10/sup -4/ s/sup -1/. The reverse reaction occurred with a rate constant of 4.5 X 10/sup -4/ s/sup -1/. The 11-cis isomer was first converted to all-trans-retinal with a rate constant of 3.1 X 10/sup -4/ s/sup -1/, although the 13-cis isomer was also rapidly formed. The 9-cis isomer was isomerized to the 9-cis, 13-cis isomer before the other isomers were generated and the 13-cis isomer was converted to its all-trans congener prior to the formation of the other isomers. Similar results appear to occur when other methods of catalysis are used. This isomerization about the C/sub 13/-C/sub 14/ doubled bond appears to be a kinetically favored event, eliminating the possibility that 11-cis might be a kinetic product formed from the all-trans isomer. At equilibrium, only 0.1% of 11-cis-retinal is found. Equilibration of all-trans-retinol palmitate also generated very little of the 11-cis isomer (less than or equal to0.2%) 11-cis-retinol palmitate at equilibrium. The implications of these results for an 11-cis-retinal regeneration mechanism in the eye are discussed.

  15. Iodide-catalyzed ozonation of terpenes on aqueous surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enami, S.; Hayase, S.; Kawasaki, M.; Hoffmann, M. R.; Colussi, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Biogenic terpenes are the dominant global source of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Their atmospheric chemistry has therefore major direct and indirect impacts on global climate change. At the same time, it has become apparent that organic and inorganic iodine species of marine origin are ubiquitous in the troposphere. They are found over the open ocean (even in the absence of biogenic sources), the Antarctic coast, in rain, aerosols, ice, and snow, and participate in HOx/NOx cycles in the troposphere. Here we report that iodide catalyzes the ozonation of alpha-pinene on aqueous surfaces. Nebulizer-assisted online electrospray mass spectrometry of alpha-pinene solutions briefly exposed to gaseous ozone reveals that alpha-pinene, which is unreactive during 10 microsecond contact times, is converted into acids (e.g., pinonic acid) and previously unreported iodine-containing species in the presence of millimolar iodide. These newly found products were characterized by MS/MS in conjunction with isotope and kinetic studies, and may account for unidentified organoiodine species observed in recent field measurements.

  16. Kinetics of phenolic polymerization catalyzed by peroxidase in organic media

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.P.; Huang, G.L; Yu, Y.T.

    1995-07-05

    Phenolic polymerization was carried out by enzymatic catalysis in organic media, and its kinetics was studied by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phenols and aromatic amines with electron-withdrawing groups could hardly be polymerized by HRP catalysis, but phenols and aromatic amines with electron-donating groups could easily by polymerized. The reaction rate of either the para-substituted substrate or meta-substituted substrate was higher than that of ortho-substituted substrate. When ortho-position of hydroxy group of phenols was occupied by an electron-donating group and if another electron-donating group occupied para-position of hydroxy group, the reaction rate increased. Horseradish peroxidase and lactoperoxidase could easily catalyze the polymerization, but chloroperoxidase and laccase failed to yield polymers. Metallic ions such as Mn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, or Fe{sup 3+}, and Cu{sup 2+} could poison horseradish peroxidase to various extents, but ions such as Co{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and K{sup +} were not found to inhibit the reaction.

  17. Nanocrystalline TiO?-catalyzed photoreversible color switching.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenshou; Ye, Miaomiao; He, Le; Yin, Yadong

    2014-03-12

    We report a novel photoreversible color switching system based on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystals and the redox-driven color switching property of methylene blue (MB). This system rapidly changes from blue to colorless under UV irradiation and recovers its original blue color under visible light irradiation. We have identified four major competing reactions that contribute to the photoreversible switching, among which two are dominant: the decoloration process is mainly driven by the reduction of MB to leuco MB by photogenerated electrons from TiO2 nanocrystals under UV irradiation, and the recoloration process operates by the TiO2-induced self-catalyzed oxidation of LMB under visible irradiation. Compared with the conventional color switching systems based on photoisomerization of chromophores, our system has not only low toxicity but also significantly improved switching rate and cycling performance. It is envisioned that this photoreversible system may promise unique opportunities for many light-driven actuating or color switching applications. PMID:24555513

  18. Benzylic monooxygenation catalyzed by toluene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida

    SciTech Connect

    Wackett, L.P.; Kwart, L.D.; Gibson, D.T.

    1988-02-23

    Toluene dioxygenase, a multicomponent enzyme system known to oxidize mononuclear aromatic hydrocarbons to cis-dihydrodiols, oxidized indene and indan to 1-indenol and 1-indanol, respectively. In addition, the enzyme catalyzed dioxygen addition to the nonaromatic double bond of indene to form cis-1,2-indandiol. The oxygen atoms in 1-indenol and cis-1,2-indandiol were shown to be derived from molecular oxygen, whereas 70% of the oxygen in 1-indanol was derived from water. All of the isolated products were optically active as demonstrated by /sup 19/F NMR and HPLC discrimination of diastereomeric esters and by chiroptic methods. The high optical purity of (-)-(1R)-indanol (84% enantiomeric excess) and the failure of scavengers of reactive oxygen species to inhibit the monooxygenation reaction supported the contention that monooxygen insertion is mediated by an active-site process. Experiments with 3-(/sup 2/H) indene indicated that equilibration between C-1 and C-3 occurred prior to the formation of the carbon-oxygen bond to yield 1-indenol. Naphthalene dioxygenase also oxidized indan to 1-indanol, which suggested that benzylic monoxygenation may be typical of this group of dioxygenases.

  19. Manganese peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative degradation of vanillylacetone.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sangpill; Lee, Chang-Ha; Ahn, Ik-Sung; Park, Kwangyong

    2008-06-01

    When 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-2-butanone (vanillylacetone) was tested for manganese peroxidase (MnP)-catalyzed oxidation, it was found to be degraded with the cleavage of an aromatic ring. Among numerous products of vanillylacetone oxidation, four major ones were purified by thin-layer chromatography and identified using mass spectroscopy (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Three of them maintained the aromatic ring structure and were identified as 4-[6,2'-dihydroxy-5,3'-dimethoxy-5'-(3-oxo-butyl)-biphenyl]-butan-2-one, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one, and 4-[6,2'-dihydroxy-5,3'-dimethoxy-5'-(3-oxo-butyl)-biphenyl]-3-buten-2-one. Even though the fourth product could not be purified to a single compound, data from infrared spectroscopy showed that it did not have a benzene ring. From MS and NMR analysis, 3-(3-oxo-butyl)-hexa-2,4-dienedioic acid-1-methyl ester was tentatively suggested as the dominant species. The reaction mechanism was suggested on the basis of the structural information of these products. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on aromatic ring cleavage of the phenolic compound by MnP. PMID:18472135

  20. Temperature dependences of rate coefficients for electron catalyzed mutual neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji

    2011-07-14

    The flowing afterglow technique of variable electron and neutral density attachment mass spectrometry (VENDAMS) has recently yielded evidence for a novel plasma charge loss process, electron catalyzed mutual neutralization (ECMN), i.e., A{sup +}+ B{sup -}+ e{sup -}{yields} A + B + e{sup -}. Here, rate constants for ECMN of two polyatomic species (POCl{sub 3}{sup -} and POCl{sub 2}{sup -}) and one diatomic species (Br{sub 2}{sup -}) each with two monatomic cations (Ar{sup +}and Kr{sup +}) are measured using VENDAMS over the temperature range 300 K-500 K. All rate constants show a steep negative temperature dependence, consistent with that expected for a three body process involving two ions and an electron. No variation in rate constants as a function of the cation type is observed outside of uncertainty; however, rate constants of the polyatomic anions ({approx}1 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} at 300 K) are measurably higher than that for Br{sub 2}{sup -}[(5.5 {+-} 2) x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} at 300 K].

  1. Kinetics of Platinum-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Tiffany A.; Colombo, D. Philip, Jr.

    2003-07-01

    CIBA Vision Corporation markets a contact lens cleaning system that consists of an AOSEPT disinfectant solution and an AOSEPT lens cup. The disinfectant is a buffered 3.0% m/v hydrogen peroxide solution and the cup includes a platinum-coated AOSEPT disc. The hydrogen peroxide disinfects by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses found on the contact lenses. Because the concentration of hydrogen peroxide needed to disinfect is irritating to eyes, the hydrogen peroxide needs to be neutralized, or decomposed, before the contact lenses can be used again. A general chemistry experiment is described where the kinetics of the catalyzed decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide are studied by measuring the amount of oxygen generated as a function of time. The order of the reaction with respect to the hydrogen peroxide, the rate constant, and the energy of activation are determined. The integrated rate law is used to determine the time required to decompose the hydrogen peroxide to a concentration that is safe for eyes.

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation of Enol Carbonates

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Xu, Jiayi; Schmidt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative asymmetric allylic alkylation (DAAA) of allyl enol carbonates as a highly chemo-, regio- and enantio-selective process for the synthesis of ketones bearing either a quaternary or a tertiary α-stereogenic center has been investigated in detail. Chiral ligand L4 was found to be optimal in the DAAA of a broad scope of cyclic and acyclic ketones including simple aliphatic ketones with more than one enolizable proton. The allyl moiety of the carbonates has been extended to a variety of cyclic or acyclic di-substituted allyl groups. Our mechanistic studies reveal that, similar to the direct allylation of lithium enolates, the DAAA reaction proceeds through an “outer sphere” SN2 type of attack on the π-allylpalladium complex by the enolate. An important difference between the DAAA reaction and the direct allylation of lithium enolates is that in the DAAA reaction, the nucleophile and the electrophile were generated simultaneously. Since the π-allylpalladium cation must serve as the counterion for the enolate, the enolate probably exists as a tight-ion-pair. This largely prevents the common side reactions of enolates associated with the equilibrium between different enolates. The much milder reaction conditions as well as the much broader substrate scope also represent the advantages of the DAAA reaction over the direct allylation of preformed metal enolates. PMID:19928805

  3. Broadening the scope of glycosyltransferase-catalyzed sugar nucleotide synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gantt, Richard W.; Peltier-Pain, Pauline; Singh, Shanteri; Zhou, Maoquan; Thorson, Jon S.

    2013-01-01

    We described the integration of the general reversibility of glycosyltransferase-catalyzed reactions, artificial glycosyl donors, and a high throughput colorimetric screen to enable the engineering of glycosyltransferases for combinatorial sugar nucleotide synthesis. The best engineered catalyst from this study, the OleD Loki variant, contained the mutations P67T/I112P/T113M/S132F/A242I compared with the OleD wild-type sequence. Evaluated against the parental sequence OleD TDP16 variant used for screening, the OleD Loki variant displayed maximum improvements in kcat/Km of >400-fold and >15-fold for formation of NDPglucoses and UDPsugars, respectively. This OleD Loki variant also demonstrated efficient turnover with five variant NDP acceptors and six variant 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl glycoside donors to produce 30 distinct NDPsugars. This study highlights a convenient strategy to rapidly optimize glycosyltransferase catalysts for the synthesis of complex sugar nucleotides and the practical synthesis of a unique set of sugar nucleotides. PMID:23610417

  4. Kinetic modeling of Pt-catalyzed glycolaldehyde decomposition to syngas.

    PubMed

    Salciccioli, Michael; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2012-05-10

    Fundamental knowledge of the elementary reaction mechanisms involved in oxygenate decomposition on transition metal catalysts can facilitate the optimization of future catalyst and reactor systems for biomass upgrade to fuels and chemicals. Pt-catalyzed decomposition of glycolaldehyde, as the smallest oxygenate with alcohol and aldehyde functionality, was studied via a DFT-based microkinetic model. It was found that two decomposition pathways exist. Under conditions of low hydrogen surface coverage, the initial C-H bond breaking reaction to HOCH(2)CO* is prevalent, while under conditions of high hydrogen coverage, the rather unexpected O-H bond forming reaction to HOCH(2)CHOH* is more active (subsequent decomposition is energetically favorable from HOCH(2)CHOH*). Our results indicate the possibility that (de)hydrogenation chemistry is rate-controlling in many small polyoxygenate biomass derivatives, and suitable catalysts are needed. Finally, DFT was used to understand the increased decomposition activity observed on the surface segregated Ni-Pt-Pt bimetallic catalyst. It was found that the initial O-H bond breaking of glycolaldehyde to OCH(2)CHO* has an activation barrier of just 0.21 eV. This barrier is lower than that of any glycolaldehyde consuming reaction on Pt. These computational predictions are in qualitative agreement with experimental results. PMID:22483365

  5. Dephenolization of industrial wastewaters catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Atlow, S.C.; Bonadonna-Aparo, L.; Klibanov, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    A new enzymatic method for the removal of phenols from industrial aqueous effluents has been developed. The method uses the enzyme polyphenol oxidase which oxidizes phenols to the corresponding o-quinones; the latter then undergo a nonenzymatic polymerization to form water-insoluble aggregates. Therefore, the enzyme in effect precipitates phenols from water. Polyphenol oxidase has been found to nearly completely dephenolize solutions of phenol in the concentration range from 0.01 to 1.0 g/L. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide range of pH and temperature; a crude preparation of polyphenol oxidase (mushroom extract) is as effective as a purified, commercially obtained version. In addition to phenol itself, polyphenol oxidase is capable of precipitating from water a number of substituted phenols (cresols, chlorophenols, naphthol, etc.). Also, even pollutants which are unreactive towards polyphenol oxidase can be enzymatically coprecipitated with phenol. The polyphenol oxidase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize two different real industrial wastewater samples, from a plant producing triarylphosphates and from a coke plant. The advantage of the polyphenol oxidase dephenolization over the peroxidase-catalyzed one previously elaborated by the authors is that the former enzyme uses molecular oxygen instead of costly hydrogen peroxide (used by peroxidase) as an oxidant.

  6. Ab initio study of ice catalyzation of HOCl + HCl reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y.F.; Liu, C.B.

    2000-06-15

    The observations by Farman et al. revealed remarkable depletions in the total atmospheric ozone content in Antarctica. The observed total ozone decreased smoothing during the spring season from about 1975. Satellite observations have proved Antarctic ozone depletions over a very extended region, in general agreement with the local ground-based data of Farman et al. It was suggested that heterogeneous reactions occurring on particles in polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a central role in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Experiments proved that the reaction of HOCl + HCl was very slow in the gas phase, but on ice surface it was rapid. In this work the ice catalysis of HOCl + HCl reaction was investigated by using ab initio molecular orbital theory. The authors applied the Hartree-Fock self-consistent field and the second-order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory with the basis sets of 6-31G* to the model system. The complexes and transition state were obtained along the reaction with and without the presence of ice surface. By comparing the results, a possible catalyzation mechanism of ice on the reaction is proposed.

  7. Stable Self-Catalyzed Growth of III-V Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tersoff, J

    2015-10-14

    Nanowire growth has generally relied on an initial particle of a catalyst such as Au to define the wire diameter and stabilize the growth. Self-catalyzed growth of III-V nanowires avoids the need for a foreign element, with the nanowire growing from the vapor via a droplet of the native group-III liquid. However, as suggested by Gibbs' phase rule, the absence of third element has a destabilizing effect. Here we analyze this system theoretically, finding that growth can be dynamically stable at pressures far above the equilibrium vapor pressure. Steady-state growth occurs via kinetic self-regulation of the droplet volume and wire diameter. In particular, for a given temperature and source-gas pressures there is a unique stable wire diameter and droplet volume, both of which decrease with increasing V/III ratio. We also examine the evolution of the droplet size and wire diameter toward the steady state as the wire grows and discuss implications for structural control. PMID:26389697

  8. Nickel-catalyzed alkyl coupling reactions: evaluation of computational methods.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Lawrence M; Voit, Stewart; Okeke, Fabian N; Kambe, Nobuaki

    2011-03-24

    The B3LYP, M06, M06L, M062X, MPW1K, and PBE1PBE DFT methods were evaluated for modeling nickel-catalyzed coupling reactions. The reaction consists of a nucleophilic attack by a carbanion equivalent on the nickel complex, S(N)2 attack by the anionic nickel complex on an alkyl halide, and reductive elimination of the coupled alkane product, regenerating the nickel catalyst. On the basis of CCSD(T)//DFT single-point energies, the B3LYP, M06, and PBE1PBE functionals were judged to generate the best ground state geometries. M06 energies are generally comparable or superior to B3LYP and PBE1PBE energies for transition state calculations. The MP2 and CCSD methods were also evaluated for single-point energies at the M06 geometries. The rate-determining step of this reaction was found to be nucleophilic attack of a L(2)NiR anion on the alkyl halide. PMID:21351749

  9. Ultrasound enhances lipase-catalyzed synthesis of poly (ethylene glutarate).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoman; Bansode, Sneha Ramrao; Ribeiro, Artur; Abreu, Ana S; Oliveira, César; Parpot, Pier; Gogate, P R; Rathod, V K; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-07-01

    The present work explores the best conditions for the enzymatic synthesis of poly (ethylene glutarate) for the first time. The start-up materials are the liquids; diethyl glutarate and ethylene glycol diacetate, without the need of addition of extra solvent. The reactions are catalyzed by lipase B from Candida antarctica immobilized on glycidyl methacrylate-ter-divinylbenzene-ter-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate at 40°C during 18h in water bath with mechanical stirring or 1h in ultrasonic bath followed by 6h in vacuum in both the cases for evaporation of ethyl acetate. The application of ultrasound significantly intensified the polyesterification reaction with reduction of the processing time from 24h to 7h. The same degree of polymerization was obtained for the same enzyme loading in less time of reaction when using the ultrasound treatment. The degree of polymerization for long-term polyesterification was improved approximately 8-fold due to the presence of sonication during the reaction. The highest degree of polymerization achieved was 31, with a monomer conversion of 96.77%. The ultrasound treatment demonstrated to be an effective green approach to intensify the polyesterification reaction with enhanced initial kinetics and high degree of polymerization. PMID:26964978

  10. Simple cyclohexanediamine-derived primary amine thiourea catalyzed highly enantioselective conjugate addition of nitroalkanes to enones.

    PubMed

    Mei, Kui; Jin, Mei; Zhang, Shilei; Li, Ping; Liu, Wenjing; Chen, Xiaobei; Xue, Fei; Duan, Wenhu; Wang, Wei

    2009-07-01

    A highly enantioselective conjugate addition of nitroalkanes to enones has been developed. The process is efficiently catalyzed by a simple chiral cyclohexanediamine-derived primary amine thiourea with a broad substrate scope. PMID:19485350

  11. Hydrosilylation of epoxides catalyzed by a cationic ?1-silane iridium(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Park, Sehoon; Brookhart, Maurice

    2011-03-28

    Cationic silane complex 2, catalyzes the hydrosilylation of epoxides and cyclic ethers to give the silyl-protected alcohols, regioselectively. A mechanistic study shows that the epoxide undergoes isomerization to the ketone, followed by hydrosilylation. PMID:21321708

  12. Synthesis of (-)-?9-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol - Stereocontrol via Mo-catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Dogra, Kalindi

    2008-01-01

    ?9-THC is synthesized in enantiomericaly pure form, where all of the stereochemistry is derived from the molybdenum catalyzed asymmetric alkylation reaction of the extremely sterically congested bis-ortho substituted cinnamyl carbonate in high regio- and enantioselectivity. PMID:17266321

  13. Pd(II)-Catalyzed ortho-Alkylation of Benzoic Acids with Alkyl Halides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang-Hui; Shi, Bing-Feng; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2010-01-01

    The first Pd(II)-catalyzed alkylation of aryl CH bonds is achieved without using a co-oxidant. The alkylation reaction was followed thereafter by an intramolecular lactonization to give broadly useful ? and benzolactones. PMID:19591182

  14. Gold-catalyzed reactions of 2-alkynyl-phenylamines with alpha,beta-enones.

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, Maria; Arcadi, Antonio; Aschi, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Gabriele; Marinelli, Fabio

    2005-03-18

    [reaction: see text] The gold-catalyzed reaction of 2-alkynyl-phenylamines with alpha,beta-enones represents a new general one-pot entry into C-3-alkyl-indoles by sequential reactions. Gold-catalyzed sequential cyclization/alkylation, N-alkylation/cyclization, or N-alkylation/cyclization/alkylation reactions leading to different indoles can be directed by changing the 2-alkynyl-phenylamine 1/alpha,beta-enone 3 ratio and the reaction temperature. Unusual gold-catalyzed rearrangement reaction of indoles are observed at 140 degrees C. New gold-catalyzed formation of propargyl-alkyl ether under mild conditions and the hydration reaction of N-acetyl-2-ethynyl-phenylamine are reported. PMID:15760214

  15. Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-H Amidation of Indoles with Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Taejoo; Han, Sangil; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Sharma, Satyasheel; Lee, Seok-Yong; Oh, Joa Sub; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Su

    2015-07-17

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed direct amidation of indoles and pyrroles with aryl and alkyl isocyanates is described. These transformations provide a facile and efficient construction of C2-amidated N-heterocyclic scaffolds. PMID:26107613

  16. Myoglobin-catalyzed intermolecular carbene N-H insertion with arylamine substrates.

    PubMed

    Sreenilayam, Gopeekrishnan; Fasan, Rudi

    2015-01-28

    Engineered variants of the heme-containing protein myoglobin can efficiently catalyze the insertion of ?-diazo esters into the N-H bond of arylamines, featuring a combination of high chemoselectivity, elevated turnover numbers, and broad substrate scope. PMID:25504318

  17. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Amino Phosphonates via Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhong; Wu, Bo; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Mu-Wang; Zhou, Yong-Gui

    2016-02-19

    A highly enantioselective palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of a series of linear and cyclic α-iminophosphonates has been achieved, providing efficient access to optically active α-aminophosphonates with up to 99% ee. PMID:26827611

  18. Structural basis for Diels-Alder ribozyme-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation

    PubMed Central

    Serganov, Alexander; Keiper, Sonja; Malinina, Lucy; Tereshko, Valentina; Skripkin, Eugene; Hbartner, Claudia; Polonskaia, Anna; Phan, Anh Tun; Wombacher, Richard; Micura, Ronald; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jschke, Andres; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2015-01-01

    The majority of structural efforts addressing RNAs catalytic function have focused on natural ribozymes, which catalyze phosphodiester transfer reactions. By contrast, little is known about how RNA catalyzes other types of chemical reactions. We report here the crystal structures of a ribozyme that catalyzes enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation by the Diels-Alder reaction in the unbound state and in complex with a reaction product. The RNA adopts a ?-shaped nested pseudoknot architecture whose preformed hydrophobic pocket is precisely complementary in shape to the reaction product. RNA folding and product binding are dictated by extensive stacking and hydrogen bonding, whereas stereoselection is governed by the shape of the catalytic pocket. Catalysis is apparently achieved by a combination of proximity, complementarity and electronic effects. We observe structural parallels in the independently evolved catalytic pocket architectures for ribozyme- and antibody-catalyzed Diels-Alder carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. PMID:15723077

  19. 53. VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT THE CATALYZER BUILDINGS, COOLING SHEDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT THE CATALYZER BUILDINGS, COOLING SHEDS AND ABSORPTION BUILDINGS IN THE BACKGROUND. MAY 29, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  20. Palladium-catalyzed direct ?-arylation of methyl sulfones with aryl bromides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing; Jia, Tiezheng; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-04-01

    A direct and efficient approach for palladium-catalyzed arylation of aryl and alkyl methyl sulfones with aryl bromides has been developed. The catalytic system affords arylated sulfones in good to excellent yields (73-90%). PMID:23517309

  1. Triazole-assisted ruthenium-catalyzed C-H arylation of aromatic amides.

    PubMed

    Al Mamari, Hamad H; Diers, Emelyne; Ackermann, Lutz

    2014-07-28

    Site-selective ruthenium(II)-catalyzed direct arylation of amides was achieved through C?H cleavages with modular auxiliaries, derived from easily accessible 1,2,3-triazoles. The triazolyldimethylmethyl (TAM) bidentate directing group was prepared in a highly modular fashion through copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and allowed for ruthenium-catalyzed C?H arylations on arenes and heteroarenes, as well as alkenes, by using easy-to-handle aryl bromides as the arylating reagents. The triazole-assisted C?H activation strategy was found to be widely applicable, to occur under mild reaction conditions, and the catalytic system was tolerant of important electrophilic functionalities. Notably, the flexible triazole-based auxiliary proved to be a more potent directing group for the optimized ruthenium(II)-catalyzed direct arylations, compared with pyridyl-substituted amides or substrates derived from 8-aminoquinoline. PMID:24957002

  2. GREEN CATALYZED OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENT SYSTEMS GENERATED BY PARIS II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Catalyzed Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in Alternative Solvent Systems Generated by PARIS II

    Michael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas M. Becker, and Paul F. Harten; Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26...

  3. Phosphine-free palladium-catalyzed direct bisarylation of pyrroles with aryl iodides on water.

    PubMed

    Cho, Beom Shin; Bae, Hyun Jung; Chung, Young Keun

    2015-05-15

    The Pd-catalyzed bisarylation of pyrroles with aryl iodides on water is described. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions, i.e., relatively low temperature (40 °C) and phosphine-free. PMID:25919427

  4. OXIDATIVE 4-DECHLORINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED PHENOLS IS CATALYZED BY EXTRACELLULAR FUNGAL LIGNIN PEROXIDASES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extracellular lignin peroxidases (ligninases) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium catalyzed H2O2-dependent spectral changes in several environmentally significant polychlorinated phenols: 2,4-dichloro-,2,4,5-trichloro-, and pentachlorophenol. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry s...

  5. Pd-Catalyzed C-H Bond Functionalization on the Indole and Pyrrole Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Elizabeth M.; Gaunt, Matthew J.

    This review details recent developments in the Pd-catalyzed C-H bond arylation and alkenylation of indoles and pyrroles, aromatic heterocycles that are frequently displayed in natural products and medicinal agents.

  6. Gold(I)-Catalyzed Enantioselective Intramolecular Hydroamination of Allenes with Ureas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Lee, Seong Du; Widenhoefer, Ross A.

    2011-01-01

    Enantioselective intramolecular hydroamination of N-allenyl ureas catalyzed by an enantiomerically enriched bis(gold) phosphine complex forms pyrrolidine derivatives in good yield with up to 93% ee. PMID:21909160

  7. PALLADIUM-CATALYZED OXIDATION OF STYRENE AND ALKENES IN PRESENCE OF IONIC LIQUIDS (WACKER REACTION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of ionic liquids in various synthetic transformations is gaining significance due to the enhanced reaction rates, potential for recycling and compatibility with various organic compounds and organometallic catalysts. Palladium-catalyzed oxidation of styrene and other alk...

  8. Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric [2 + 2 + 2] Cycloaddition of 1,6-Enynes with Cyclopropylideneacetamides.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Soichi; Nakamura, Yu; Masutomi, Koji; Yoshida, Tomoka; Noguchi, Keiichi; Shibata, Yu; Tanaka, Ken

    2016-02-01

    It has been established that a cationic rhodium(I)/H8-BINAP complex catalyzes the asymmetric [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition of 1,6-enynes with cyclopropylideneacetamides to produce spirocyclohexenes in excellent enantioselectivity with retaining cyclopropane rings. PMID:26756430

  9. Mo-catalyzed asymmetric olefin metathesis in target-oriented synthesis: Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-africanol

    PubMed Central

    Weatherhead, Gabriel S.; Cortez, G. A.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2004-01-01

    Catalytic asymmetric ring-opening metathesis (AROM) provides an efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of optically enriched small organic molecules that cannot be easily prepared by alternative methods. The development of Mo-catalyzed AROM transformations that occur in tandem with ring-closing metathesis are described. The utility of the Mo-catalyzed AROM/ring-closing metathesis is demonstrated through an enantioselective approach to the synthesis of (+)-africanol. PMID:15056762

  10. Triazole-Directed Pd-Catalyzed C(sp(2))-H Oxygenation of Arenes and Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Irastorza, Aitziber; Aizpurua, Jesús M; Correa, Arkaitz

    2016-03-01

    Selective Pd-catalyzed C(sp(2))-H oxygenation of 4-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles is described. Unlike previous metal-catalyzed C-H functionalization events, which preferentially occur at the activated heterocyclic C-H bond, the regioselective oxygenation of the arene/alkene moiety is now achieved featuring the unconventional role of a simple triazole scaffold as a modular and selective directing group. PMID:26910636

  11. Transition-metal-catalyzed facile access to 3,11-dialkylfulminenes for transistor applications.

    PubMed

    Murai, Masahito; Maekawa, Hiroyuki; Hamao, Shino; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Roy, David; Takai, Kazuhiko

    2015-02-01

    Novel [6]phenacenes (fulminenes) with two long alkyl chains at the axis positions were synthesized. This short synthesis comprises the following three steps: (1) ruthenium-catalyzed direct C-H bond arylation; (2) conversion of directing groups by Wittig reaction; and (3) bismuth- or gold-catalyzed cyclization of vinyl ether. Organic field-effect transistor devices fabricated with a thin film of 3,11-di(tetradecyl)fulminene exhibited typical p-channel normally-off properties. PMID:25633847

  12. The Biginelli Reaction Is a Urea-Catalyzed Organocatalytic Multicomponent Reaction.

    PubMed

    Puripat, Maneeporn; Ramozzi, Romain; Hatanaka, Miho; Parasuk, Waraporn; Parasuk, Vudhichai; Morokuma, Keiji

    2015-07-17

    The recently developed artificial force induced reaction (AFIR) method was applied to search systematically all possible multicomponent pathways for the Biginelli reaction mechanism. The most favorable pathway starts with the condensation of the urea and benzaldehyde, followed by the addition of ethyl acetoacetate. Remarkably, a second urea molecule catalyzes nearly every step of the reaction. Thus, the Biginelli reaction is a urea-catalyzed multicomponent reaction. The reaction mechanism was found to be identical in both protic and aprotic solvents. PMID:26066623

  13. Cp*Rh(III) -Catalyzed Arylation of C(sp(3) )-H Bonds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Yu, Da-Gang; Glorius, Frank

    2015-08-24

    The first Cp*Rh(III) -catalyzed arylation of unactivated C(sp(3) )-H bonds is presented. The unactivated primary C(sp(3) )-H bond of 2-alkylpyridines can be activated by Rh(III) and further reacts with triarylboroxines to efficiently build new C(sp(3) )-aryl bonds. The methodology also provides a facile and efficient synthesis of unsymmetrical triarylmethanes by Rh(III) -catalyzed C(sp(3) )-H arylation of diarylmethanes. PMID:26095347

  14. Copper-catalyzed oxidative homo- and cross-coupling of Grignard reagents using diaziridinone.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingguang; Xiong, Tao; Han, Wenyong; Shi, Yian

    2014-12-01

    Transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are among the most powerful synthetic transformations. This paper describes an efficient copper-catalyzed homo- and cross-coupling of Grignard reagents with di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as oxidant under mild conditions, giving the coupling products in good to excellent yields. The reaction process has a broad substrate scope and is also effective for the C(sp)-C(sp(3)) coupling. PMID:25420218

  15. A concise synthetic approach to brazilin via Pd-catalyzed allylic arylation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youngeun; Kim, Ikyon

    2015-04-14

    A short synthetic route to the trimethyl ether of brazilin was developed in 6 steps from 7-methoxychromene with 78% overall yield. Regioselective installation of a formyl group onto 7-methoxychromene followed by reduction and acetylation afforded allylic acetate. Palladium-catalyzed allylic coupling of allylic acetate with arylboronic acid provided direct access to 3-benzylchromene which was converted to the target molecule upon ensuing dihydroxylation and acid-catalyzed cyclization in a highly concise manner. PMID:25767080

  16. Silver-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Addition/Cyclization of Activated Alkenes with Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Su-Li; Chen, Chao; Wang, Haijun; Liang, Yong-Min

    2016-02-01

    A silver-catalyzed decarboxylative addition/aryl migration/desulfonylation of N-phenyl-N-(phenylsulfonyl)methacrylamide with primary, secondary, and tertiary carboxylic acids was described. The protocol provides an efficient approach for the synthesis of α-all-carbon quaternary stereocenters amides and isoquinolinediones. It was proposed that the radical generated from the silver-catalyzed decarboxylation was involved in the sequence reaction. PMID:26760053

  17. Cobalt-Catalyzed Carbonylative Cyclization of Pyridinyl Diazoacetates for the Synthesis of Pyridoisoquinolinones.

    PubMed

    Baek, Yonghyeon; Kim, Sunghwa; Jeon, Bongkeun; Lee, Phil Ho

    2016-01-01

    Dicobalt octacarbonyl-catalyzed carbonylative cyclization of pyridinyl diazoacetates is developed for the synthesis of pyridoisoquinolinones under mild conditions (room temperature) in a carbon monoxide atmosphere. Moreover, a synthetic method for various pyridoisoquinolinones from ethylpyridinyl aryl acetates is demonstrated through diazotization using TsN3 and DBU followed by Co-catalyzed carbonylation to generate ketene intermediates, which can subsequently undergo intramolecular cyclization under mild conditions in a carbon monoxide atmosphere in a semi-one-pot fashion. PMID:26653102

  18. Iron/Copper co-catalyzed synthesis of vinyl sulfones from sulfonyl hydrazides and alkyne derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rong, Guangwei; Mao, Jincheng; Yan, Hong; Zheng, Yang; Zhang, Guoqi

    2015-05-01

    A new approach to the selective synthesis of (E)-vinyl sulfones has been developed via a Fe/Cu co-catalyzed sulfonylation of arylpropiolic acid or phenylacetylene with sulfonyl hydrazides. A variety of vinyl sulfones have been obtained in moderate to good yields, comparable to the best results reported so far. The inexpensive Fe/Cu co-catalyzed method features a simple experimental procedure and good tolerance of substrate. PMID:25876519

  19. Nickel-Catalyzed Heck-Type Reactions of Benzyl Chlorides and Simple Olefins

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Ryosuke; Gutierrez, Alicia C.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-catalyzed intermolecular benzylation and heterobenzylation of unactivated alkenes to provide functionalized allylbenzene derivatives is described. A wide range of both the benzyl chloride and alkene coupling partners are tolerated. In contrast to analogous palladium-catalyzed variants of this process, all reactions described herein employ electronically unbiased aliphatic olefins (including ethylene), proceed at room temperature and provide 1,1-disubstituted olefins over the more commonly observed 1,2-disubstituted olefins with very high selectivity. PMID:22066899

  20. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Denitrogenative Transannulation: Converting Triazoles into Other Heterocyclic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Buddhadeb

    2012-01-01

    Transition metal catalyzed denitrogenative transannulation of a triazole ring has recently received considerable attention as a new concept for the construction of diverse nitrogen-containing heterocyclic cores. This method allows a single-step synthesis of complex nitrogen heterocycles from easily available and cheap triazole precursors. In this Minireview, recent progress of the transition metal catalyzed denitrogenative transannulation of a triazole ring, which was discovered in 2007, is discussed. PMID:22121072

  1. An electrochemical nickel-catalyzed arylation of 3-amino-6-chloropyridazines.

    PubMed

    Sengmany, Stéphane; Vitu-Thiebaud, Arnaud; Le Gall, Erwan; Condon, Sylvie; Léonel, Eric; Thobie-Gautier, Christine; Pipelier, Muriel; Lebreton, Jacques; Dubreuil, Didier

    2013-01-18

    3-Amino-6-aryl- and 3-amino-6-heteroarylpyridazines have been obtained in generally good yield using a nickel-catalyzed electrochemical cross-coupling between 3-amino-6-chloropyridazines and aryl or heteroaryl halides at room temperature. Comparative experiments involving classical palladium-catalyzed reactions, such as Suzuki, Stille, or Negishi cross-couplings, reveal that the electrochemical method can constitute a reliable alternative tool for biaryl formation. A possible reaction mechanism is proposed on the basis of electrochemical analyses. PMID:23241172

  2. Metabolism of Monoterpenes

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Rodney; Hooper, Caroline Lee

    1978-01-01

    The essential oil from mature leaves of flowering peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) contains up to 15% (—)-menthyl acetate, and leaf discs converted exogenous (—)-[G-3H]menthol into this ester in approximately 15% yield of the incorporated precursor. Leaf extracts catalyzed the acetyl coenzyme A-dependent acetylation of (—)-[G-3H]menthol and the product of this transacetylase reaction was identified by radiochromatographic techniques. Transacetylase activity was located mainly in the 100,000g supernatant fraction, and the preparation was partially purified by combination of Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and chromatography on O-diethylaminoethyl-cellulose. The transacetylase had a molecular weight of about 37,000 as judged by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration, and a pH optimum near 9. The apparent Km and velocity for (—)-menthol were 0.3 mm and 16 nmol/hr· mg of protein, respectively. The saturation curve for acetyl coenzyme A was sigmoidal, showing apparent saturation near 0.1 mm. Dithioerythritol was required for maximum activity and stability of the enzyme, and the enzyme was inhibited by thiol directed reagents such as p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Diisopropylfluorophosphate also inhibited transacylation suggesting the involvement of a serine residue in catalysis. The transacylase was highly specific for acetyl coenzyme A; propionyl coenzyme A and butyryl coenzyme A were not nearly as efficient as acyl donors (11% and 2%, respectively). However, the enzyme was much less selective with regard to the alcohol substrate, suggesting that the nature of the acetate ester synthesized in mint is more dependent on the type of alcohol available than on the specificity of the transacetylase. This is the first report on an enzyme involved in monoterpenol acetylation in plants. A very similar enzyme, catalyzing this key reaction in the metabolism of menthol, was also isolated from the flowers of peppermint. PMID:16660375

  3. Kinetics of catalyzed sodium borohydride hydrolysis and fuel cell applicability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Joshua C.

    Metal boride catalysts have been developed through reduction of (Ni, Co, and Ru) metal salts with sodium borohydride solutions. The resulting metal borides were determined to be Ni3B, Co3B, and elemental Ru by use of XRD analysis. SEM images give the particle size of the catalyst to be in the range or 65-150nm. Optimum heat treatment for the samples was determined to be 150°C for Ni3B, 200°C for Co3B, and 400°C for Ru. Ruthenium catalysts were found to have the greatest catalytic activity followed by cobalt boride and nickel boride. Hydrolysis testing with nickel boride catalysts has shown that the maximum hydrolysis rate as a function of sodium borohydride occurs at 5-10 wt% NaBH 4 when considered in solution with 5 wt% NaOH. The hydrolysis rate increases for the nickel boride catalyst with increasing NaOH concentration. Tests were performed at elevated pressures and showed that reaction rate could be controlled and even stopped with sufficient hydrogen pressures on the order of 10 MPa. Decreases in system pressure cause the reaction rate to increase, which tends to maintain the system at the equilibrium pressure. Thus, a high pressure hydrogen generator is considered. 210mg of Co3B catalyst in a 30 wt% solution of sodium borohydride can produce 30kW of hydrogen electrical power equivalent if utilized within a fuel cell operating at 40% efficiency. A semi-empirical isotherm model has been developed to accurately calculate the reaction rate for a Co3B catalyzed reaction as a function of temperature (35-80°C) and pressure (0.1-10MPa).

  4. Mechanism of base-catalyzed Schiff base deprotonation in halorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Lanyi, J.K.

    1986-10-21

    It has been shown earlier that the deprotonation of the Schiff base of illuminated halorhodopsin proceeds with a much lower pK/sub a/ than that of the unilluminated pigment and the reversible protonation change is catalyzed by azide and cyanate. The authors have studied the kinetics of the proton-transfer events with flash spectroscopy and compared a variety of anionic bases with different pK/sub a/ with regard to the apparent binding constants and the catalytic activities. The results suggest a general base catalysis mechanism in which the anionic bases bind with apparently low affinity to halorhodopsin, although with some degree of size- and/or shape-dependent specificity. The locus of the catalysis is accessible from the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and is not at site I, where various anions bind and shift the pK/sub a/ of the deprotonation. Neither is it at site II, where a few specific anions (like chloride) bind to the all-trans pigment. It may be concluded that while the all-trans pigment loses its Schiff base proton very rapidly at its pK/sub a/, there is a kinetic barrier to this deprotonation in the 13-cis photointermediate that can be partially overcome by the reversible protonation of an extrinsic anionic base, which shuttles protons between the interior of the protein and the aqueous medium. The need for an extrinsic proton acceptor for efficient deprotonation of the Schiff base of halorhodopsin is one of the main differences between this pigment and the analogous retinal protein, bacteriorhodopsin.

  5. Mesoporous Silica-Supported Amidozirconium-Catalyzed Carbonyl Hydroboration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Eedugurala, Naresh; Wang, Zhuoran; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas; Kandel, Kapil; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Slowing, Igor I.; Pruski, Marek; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-11-04

    The hydroboration of aldehydes and ketones using a silica-supported zirconium catalyst is reported. Reaction of Zr(NMe2)4 and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) provides the catalytic material Zr(NMe2)n@MSN. Exhaustive characterization of Zr(NMe2)n@MSN with solid-state (SS)NMR and infrared spectroscopy, as well as through reactivity studies, suggests its surface structure is primarily ≡SiOZr(NMe2)3. The presence of these nitrogen-containing zirconium sites is supported by 15N NMR spectroscopy, including natural abundance 15N NMR measurements using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) SSNMR. The Zr(NMe2)n@MSN material reacts with pinacolborane (HBpin) to provide Me2NBpin and the material ZrH/Bpin@MSN that is composed of interacting surface-bonded zirconium hydride and surface-bonded borane ≡SiOBpinmore » moieties in an approximately 1:1 ratio, as well as zirconium sites coordinated by dimethylamine. The ZrH/Bpin@MSN is characterized by 1H/2H and 11B SSNMR and infrared spectroscopy and through its reactivity with D2. The zirconium hydride material or the zirconium amide precursor Zr(NMe2)n@MSN catalyzes the selective hydroboration of aldehydes and ketones with HBpin in the presence of functional groups that are often reduced under hydroboration conditions or are sensitive to metal hydrides, including olefins, alkynes, nitro groups, halides, and ethers. Remarkably, this catalytic material may be recycled without loss of activity at least eight times, and air-exposed materials are catalytically active. These supported zirconium centers are robust catalytic sites for carbonyl reduction and that surface-supported, catalytically reactive zirconium hydride may be generated from zirconium-amide or zirconium alkoxide sites.« less

  6. Spectroscopy and kinetics of tyrosinase catalyzed trans-resveratrol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gonzlvez, Alicia G; Gonzlez Urea, ngel; Lewis, Richard J; van der Zwan, Gert

    2012-03-01

    The spectroscopy and kinetics of the tyrosinase catalyzed trans-resveratrol oxidation were investigated by measuring both UV-vis absorption spectra over the 200-500 nm range and Raman spectra over the 600-1800 cm(-1) region. Room temperature UV-vis absorption spectra, as a function of time, showed the presence of two isosbestic points located at ?(1) = 270 nm and ?(2) = 345.5 nm delimiting two different regions: the reactant region around 300 nm, where the absorption decreased with time, and the product region over the low wavelength (? < 260 nm) and high wavelength (? > 390 nm) wavelength zone in which the absorption increased with time until, in both cases, constant values were achieved. A first-order kinetics was deduced with a rate coefficient of k(1) = (0.10 0.001) min(-1), which turned out to be independent of substrate concentration over the 50-5 ?M range; a feature that was rationalized by invoking the limiting case of the Michaelis-Menten scheme appropriate for substrate concentration much lower than the respective Michaelis constant. The observation of the distinct resonance enhanced Raman lines, specifically those peaking at 830 cm(-1), 753 cm(-1), and 642 cm(-1) together with their time evolution, permitted us to gain insight into some crucial features and steps of the catalytic reaction. Namely, that the formation of the so-called trans-resveratrol and tyrosinase (S)P complex with its O-O bridge plays a crucial role in the first steps of this enzymatic reaction and that the hydroxylation of the ortho C-H bond of the trans-resveratrol OH group occurs after O-O bond cleavage in the tyrosinase active site. The present study makes clear that a class of potential inhibitors of tyrosinase can be found in compounds able to bind the two Cu (II) ions of the enzyme bidentate form. PMID:22300300

  7. The mechanism for iron-catalyzed alkene isomerization in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Karma R.; Glascoe, Elizabeth A.; Cahoon, James F.; Schlegel, Jacob P.; Harris, Charles B.

    2008-05-27

    Here we report nano- through microsecond time-resolved IR experiments of iron-catalyzed alkene isomerization in room-temperature solution. We have monitored the photochemistry of a model system, Fe(CO){sub 4}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene), in neat 1-hexene solution. UV-photolysis of the starting material leads to the dissociation of a single CO to form Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene), in a singlet spin state. This CO loss complex shows a dramatic selectivity to form an allyl hydride, HFe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 3}-C{sub 6}H{sub 11}), via an internal C-H bond-cleavage reaction in 5-25 ns. We find no evidence for the coordination of an alkene molecule from the bath to the CO loss complex, but do observe coordination to the allyl hydride, indicating that it is the key intermediate in the isomerization mechanism. Coordination of the alkene ligand to the allyl hydride leads to the formation of the bis-alkene isomers, Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene)({eta}{sup 2}-2-hexene) and Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene){sub 2}. Because of the thermodynamic stability of Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene)({eta}{sup 2}-2-hexene) over Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene){sub 2} (ca. 12 kcal/mol), nearly 100% of the alkene population will be 2-alkene. The results presented herein provide the first direct evidence for this mechanism in solution and suggest modifications to the currently accepted mechanism.

  8. Copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition polymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzahrani, Abeer Ahmed

    The click reaction concept, introduced in 2001, has since spurred the rapid development and reexamination of efficient, high yield reactions which proceed rapidly under mild conditions. Prior to the discovery of facile copper catalysis in 2002, the thermally activated azide-alkyne or Huisgen cycloaddition reaction was largely ignored following its discovery in large part due to its slow kinetics, requirement for elevated temperature and limited selectivity. Now, arguably, the most prolific and capable of the click reactions, the copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction is extremely efficient and affords exquisite control of the reaction. The orthogonally and chemoselectivity of this reaction enable its wide utility across varied scientific fields. Despite numerous inherent advantages and widespread use for small molecule synthesis and solution-based polymer chemistry, it has only recently and rarely been utilized to form polymer networks. This work focuses on the synthesis, mechanisms, and unique attributes of the CuAAC reaction for the fabrication of functional polymer networks. The photo-reduction of a series of copper(II)/amine complexes via ligand metal charge transfer was examined to determine their relative efficiency and selectivity in catalyzing the CuAAC reaction. The aliphatic amine ligands were used as an electron transfer species to reduce Cu(II) upon irradiation with 365 nm light while also functioning as an accelerating agent and as protecting ligands for the Cu(I) that was formed. Among the aliphatic amines studied, tertiary amines such as triethylamine (TEA), tetramethyldiamine (TMDA), N,N,N',N",N"-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDTA), and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTETA) were found to be the most effective. The reaction kinetics were accelerated by increasing the PMDETA : Cu(II) ratio with a ratio of ligand to Cu(II) of 4:1 yielding the maximum conversion in the shortest time. The sequential and orthogonal nature of the photo-CuAAC reaction and a chain-growth acrylate homopolymerization were demonstrated and used to form branched polymer structures. A bulk, organic soluble initiation system consisting of a Cu(II) salt and a primary amine was also examined in both model reactions and in bulk polymerizations. The system was shown to be highly efficient, leading to nearly complete CuAAC polymerization at ambient temperature. Increasing the ratio of amine to copper from 1 to 4 increases the CuAAC reaction rate significantly from 4 mM/min for 1:1 ratio of Cu(II):hexyalmine to 14mM/min for 1:4 ratio. The concentration dependence of the amine on the reaction rate enables the polymerization rate to be controlled simply by manipulating the hexylamine concentration. Sequential thiol--acrylate and photo-CuAAC click reactions were utilized to form two-stage reactive polymer networks capable of generating wrinkles in a facile manner. The click thiol-Michael addition reaction was utilized to form a cross-linked polymer with residual, reactive alkyne sites that remained tethered throughout the network. The latent, unreacted alkyne sites are subsequently reacted with diazide monomers via a photoinduced Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to increase the cross-link density. Increased cross-linking raised the modulus and glass transition temperature from 1.6 MPa and 2 °C after the thiol-acrylate reaction to 4.4 MPa and 22 °C after the CuAAC reaction, respectively. The double click reaction approach led to micro-wrinkles with well-controlled wavelength and amplitude of 8.50 +/- 1.6 and 1.4 μm, respectively, for a polymer with a 1280 μm total film thickness. Additionally, this approach further enables spatial selectivity of wrinkle formation by photo-patterning. The CuAAC-based polymerization was also used to design smart, responsive porous materials from well-defined CuAAC networks, which possesses a high glass transition temperature (Tg= 115°C) due to the formation of the triazole linkages. The toughness, recovery, fixity, and shape memory attributes of this material were examined. The unique recovery behavior of the porous CuAAC material is characterized by its ability to recover plastic deformation upon heating. The tough and stiff nature of the glassy CuAAC polymer networks translates into desirable high compressive strain shape memory foams. The CuAAC foam exhibited excellent shape-memory behavior and was able to recover through each of five successive cycles of 80% compression at ambient temperature, presenting a significant volume change and resistance to fracture. In addition, the glassy CuAAC foam was able to withstand more than 10 cycles of compression to 50% strain and subsequent recovery at ambient temperature, indicative of ductile behavior in the glassy state.

  9. Growth and characterization of gold catalyzed SiGe nanowires and alternative metal-catalyzed Si nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The growth of semiconductor (SC) nanowires (NW) by CVD using Au-catalyzed VLS process has been widely studied over the past few years. Among others SC, it is possible to grow pure Si or SiGe NW thanks to these techniques. Nevertheless, Au could deteriorate the electric properties of SC and the use of other metal catalysts will be mandatory if NW are to be designed for innovating electronic. First, this article's focus will be on SiGe NW's growth using Au catalyst. The authors managed to grow SiGe NW between 350 and 400C. Ge concentration (x) in Si1-xGex NW has been successfully varied by modifying the gas flow ratio: R = GeH4/(SiH4 + GeH4). Characterization (by Raman spectroscopy and XRD) revealed concentrations varying from 0.2 to 0.46 on NW grown at 375C, with R varying from 0.05 to 0.15. Second, the results of Si NW growths by CVD using alternatives catalysts such as platinum-, palladium- and nickel-silicides are presented. This study, carried out on a LPCVD furnace, aimed at defining Si NW growth conditions when using such catalysts. Since the growth temperatures investigated are lower than the eutectic temperatures of these Si-metal alloys, VSS growth is expected and observed. Different temperatures and HCl flow rates have been tested with the aim of minimizing 2D growth which induces an important tapering of the NW. Finally, mechanical characterization of single NW has been carried out using an AFM method developed at the LTM. It consists in measuring the deflection of an AFM tip while performing approach-retract curves at various positions along the length of a cantilevered NW. This approach allows the measurement of as-grown single NW's Young modulus and spring constant, and alleviates uncertainties inherent in single point measurement. PMID:21711709

  10. Removal of emerging pollutants by Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Sun, Bo; Xiong, Xinmei; Gao, Naiyun; Song, Weihua; Du, Erdeng; Guan, Xiaohong; Zhou, Gongming

    2014-10-15

    TiO2 supported ruthenium nanoparticles, Ru/TiO2 (0.94 as Ru), was synthesized to catalyze permanganate oxidation for degrading emerging pollutants (EPs) with diverse organic moieties. The presence of 1.0 g L(-1) Ru/TiO2 increased the second order reaction rate constants of bisphenol A, diclofenac, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, benzotriazole, carbamazepine, butylparaben, diclofenac, ciprofloxacin and aniline at mg L(-1) level (5.0 ?M) by permanganate oxidation at pH 7.0 by 0.3-119 times. The second order reaction rate constants of EPs with permanganate or Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation obtained at EPs concentration of mg L(-1) level (5.0 ?M) underestimated those obtained at EPs concentration of ?g L(-1) level (0.050 ?M). Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate could decompose a mixture of nine EPs at ?g L(-1) level efficiently and the second order rate constant for each EP was not decreased due to the competition of other EPs. The toxicity tests revealed that Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation was effective not only for elimination of EPs but also for detoxification. The removal rates of sulfamethoxazole by Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation in ten successive cycles remained almost constant in ultrapure water and slightly decreased in Songhua river water since the sixth run, indicating the satisfactory stability of Ru/TiO2. Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation was selective and could remove selected EPs spiked in real waters more efficiently than chlorination. Therefore, Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation is promising for removing EPs with electron-rich moieties. PMID:25016299

  11. Rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jing-Cherng; Nicholas, K.M.

    1992-06-17

    The complex [Rh(NBD)(PMe{sub 2}Ph){sub 3}]BF{sub 4} (2; NBD = norbornadiene) has been found to serve as a precatalyst for the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to formic acid at moderate temperatures in THF solution, with turnover numbers of 10-60/day. Water accelerates formic acid production, whereas PMe{sub 2}Ph is an inhibitor. Kinetic studies show that the rate of formic acid appearance in first order each in [2], pH{sub 2}, and p{sub CO2} in the range 50-300 psi (following prehydrogenation). In situ high-pressure IR and NMR experiments reveal that the addition of H{sub 2} to [Rh(NBD)(PMe{sub 2}Ph){sub 3}]BF{sub 4} (2) produces rhodium dihydride complexes [H{sub 2}Rh(PMe{sub 2}Ph){sub 3}(S)]BF{sub 4}(4, 5; S = H{sub 2}O, THF) and [H{sub 2}Rh(PMe{sub 2}Ph){sub 4}]BF{sub 4} (3). IR and NMR studies of the reaction of 3-5 with CO{sub 2} indicate that 3 is unreactive toward CO{sub 2} but that 4 and 5 insert CO{sub 2} to give species 6 and 7, formulated as formato complexes [HRh(S)(PMe{sub 2}Ph){sub 2}({eta}{sup 2}-OCHO)]BF{sub 4}, respectively; complexes 6 and 7 are also detected under catalytic conditions by IR spectroscopy. Aquo dihydride complex 4 has been found to insert CO{sub 2} more rapidly than the THF complex 5. [H{sub 2}Rh(PMe{sub 2}Ph){sub 3}(S)]BF{sub 4} (4, 5) also catalyze the decomposition of formic acid to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. Combined kinetic and spectroscopic results suggest that reductive elimination of formic acid from the intermediate formato complexes is the rate-limiting step in the catalytic cycle. 30 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Mesoporous Silica-Supported Amidozirconium-Catalyzed Carbonyl Hydroboration

    SciTech Connect

    Eedugurala, Naresh; Wang, Zhuoran; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas; Kandel, Kapil; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Slowing, Igor I.; Pruski, Marek; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-11-04

    The hydroboration of aldehydes and ketones using a silica-supported zirconium catalyst is reported. Reaction of Zr(NMe2)4 and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) provides the catalytic material Zr(NMe2)n@MSN. Exhaustive characterization of Zr(NMe2)n@MSN with solid-state (SS)NMR and infrared spectroscopy, as well as through reactivity studies, suggests its surface structure is primarily ≡SiOZr(NMe2)3. The presence of these nitrogen-containing zirconium sites is supported by 15N NMR spectroscopy, including natural abundance 15N NMR measurements using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) SSNMR. The Zr(NMe2)n@MSN material reacts with pinacolborane (HBpin) to provide Me2NBpin and the material ZrH/Bpin@MSN that is composed of interacting surface-bonded zirconium hydride and surface-bonded borane ≡SiOBpin moieties in an approximately 1:1 ratio, as well as zirconium sites coordinated by dimethylamine. The ZrH/Bpin@MSN is characterized by 1H/2H and 11B SSNMR and infrared spectroscopy and through its reactivity with D2. The zirconium hydride material or the zirconium amide precursor Zr(NMe2)n@MSN catalyzes the selective hydroboration of aldehydes and ketones with HBpin in the presence of functional groups that are often reduced under hydroboration conditions or are sensitive to metal hydrides, including olefins, alkynes, nitro groups, halides, and ethers. Remarkably, this catalytic material may be recycled without loss of activity at least eight times, and air-exposed materials are catalytically active. These supported zirconium centers are robust catalytic sites for carbonyl reduction and that surface-supported, catalytically reactive zirconium hydride may be generated from zirconium-amide or zirconium alkoxide sites.

  13. Expeditious Synthesis of 2-Phenylquinazolin-4-amines via a Fe/Cu Relay-Catalyzed Domino Strategy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feng-Cheng; Zhou, Zhi-Wen; Xu, Cheng; Cai, Qun; Li, Deng-Kui; Wu, An-Xin

    2015-09-01

    A highly efficient Fe/Cu relay-catalyzed domino protocol has been developed for the synthesis of 2-phenylquinazolin-4-amines from commercially available ortho-halogenated benzonitriles, aldehydes, and sodium azide. This elegant domino process involved consecutive iron-mediated [3 + 2] cycloaddition, copper-catalyzed SNAr, reduction, cyclization, oxidation, and copper-catalyzed denitrogenation sequences. The formed structure is the privileged core in drugs and bioactive molecules. PMID:26301892

  14. Contaminated Groundwater Remediation by Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide and Persulfate Oxidants System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, N.; Wang, Y.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    A binary oxidant system, catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) coupled with persulfate (S2O82-), was investigated for use in in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) applications. Trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,4-dioxane were used as target contaminants. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the catalytic efficiency between ferrous ion (Fe2+) and base (NaOH), oxidant decomposition rates, and contaminant degradation efficiency. For the base-catalyzed H2O2-S2O82- system, oxidant release was moderate and sustained over the entire test period of 96 hours. Conversely, the oxidants were depleted within 24 hours for the Fe2+-catalyzed system. Solution pH decreased slightly for the Fe2+-catalyzed system, whereas the pH increased for the base-catalyzed system. The rates of degradation for TCE and 1,4-dioxane are compared as a function of system conditions. The results of this study indicate that the binary H2O2-S2O82- oxidant system is effective for oxidation of the tested contaminants.

  15. Cysteine oxidation reactions catalyzed by a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme (OvoA) in ovothiol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Heng; Her, Ampon Sae; Raso, Fiona; Zhen, Zhibin; Huo, Yuda; Liu, Pinghua

    2014-04-18

    OvoA in ovothiol biosynthesis is a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme catalyzing the oxidative coupling between histidine and cysteine. It can also catalyze the oxidative coupling between hercynine and cysteine, yet with a different regio-selectivity. Due to the potential application of this reaction for industrial ergothioneine production, in this study, we systematically characterized OvoA by a combination of three different assays. Our studies revealed that OvoA can also catalyze the oxidation of cysteine to either cysteine sulfinic acid or cystine. Remarkably, these OvoA-catalyzed reactions can be systematically modulated by a slight modification of one of its substrates, histidine. PMID:24684381

  16. Asymmetric oxidation of sulfides catalyzed by titanium and vanadium complexes in the synthesis of biologically active sulfoxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volcho, Konstantin P.; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F.

    2009-05-01

    Published data on the asymmetric synthesis of chiral biologically active sulfoxides by oxidation of appropriate sulfides catalyzed by titanium and vanadium complexes are generalized. Bibliography — 87 references.

  17. Investigation of parameters critical to muon-catalyzed fusion: Annual performance report, 1986-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.E.; Palmer, E.P.; Thorne, J.M.; Mueller, B.; Rafelski, J.; Anderson, A.N.

    1987-05-19

    It has been demonstrated (in conjunction with our colleagues) that muon catalysis cycling rates increase rapidly with increasing deuterium-tritium gas temperatures and densities. Furthermore, muon-capture losses are significantly smaller than predicted before the experiments began, although recent theoretical work narrows the gap between theory and observation. As a result of these effects, it was possible to achieve muon-catalyzed fusion yields of 150 fusions/muon (average). The fusion energy thereby released, nearly 3 GeV/muon, significantly exceeds theoretical expectations, and still higher yields are expected. Therefore, the limits of muon-catalyzed fusion are being explored to provide answers to questions regarding energy applications of muon-catalyzed fusion.

  18. Oxidation of dibenzothiophene catalyzed by hemoglobin and other hemoproteins in various aqueous-organic media

    SciTech Connect

    Klyachko, N.L. Klibanov, A.M. )

    1992-10-01

    Biocatalytic oxidation of dibenzothiophene (a model of organic sulfur in coal) with hydrogen peroxide was investigated. It was found that various hemoproteins, both enzymic (e.g., horseradish peroxidase) and nonenzymic (e.g., bovine blood hemoglobin), readily oxidized dibensothiophene to its S-oxide and, to a minor extent, further to its S-dioxide (sulfone). This process catalyzed by hemoglobin was competent as an oxidation catalyst even in nearly dry organic solvents (with protic, acidic solvents being optimal), the highest conversions were observed in predominantly aqueous media. The hemoglobin-catalyzed oxidation of dibenzothiophene at low concentrations of the protein stopped long before all the substrate was oxidized. This phenomenon was caused by inactivation of hemoglobin by hydrogen peroxide that destroyed the heme moiety. The maximal degree of the hemoglobin-catalyzed dibenzothiophene oxidation was predicted, and found, to be strongly dependent on the reaction medium composition. 24 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Development of a novel cost effective methanol electrolyzer stack with Pt-catalyzed membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethu, Sundar Pethaiah; Gangadharan, Sasikumar; Chan, Siew Hwa; Stimming, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    This paper demonstrates a novel polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) based methanol electrolyzer stack with a catalyzed membrane for hydrogen production. The physical and electrochemical properties of the catalyzed membrane, single cell and stack are examined using various characterization techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with EDX and polarization studies. The results demonstrate that the with Pt-catalyzed membrane electrode assembly (MEA) exhibits significantly better performance than a normal MEA. The developed electrolyzer stack produces 102 L h-1 of 99% pure hydrogen without CO and CO2. The excellent stability of the PEM methanol electrolyzer system is demonstrated by running the stack for 2500 h of intermittent operation with constant current density.

  20. Iridium and ruthenium catalyzed syntheses, hydroborations, and metathesis reactions of alkenyl-decaboranes.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shahana; Carroll, Patrick J; Sneddon, Larry G

    2013-08-01

    The selective syntheses of new classes of 6,9-dialkenyl- and 6-alkenyl-decaboranes and 6-alkyl-9-alkenyl-decaboranes have been achieved via iridium and ruthenium catalyzed decaborane and 6-alkyl-decaborane alkyne-hydroborations. Reactions employing [Cp*IrCl2]2 and [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 precatalysts gave ?-E-alkenyl-decaboranes, while the corresponding reactions with [RuI2(p-cymene)]2 gave the ?-alkenyl-decaborane isomers, with the differences in product selectivity suggesting quite different mechanistic steps for the catalysts. The alkenyl-decaboranes were easily converted to other useful derivatives, including coupled-cage and functionally substituted compounds, via iridium-catalyzed hydroborations and ruthenium-catalyzed homo and cross olefin-metathesis reactions. PMID:23859100

  1. Primary product of the horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Kazunga, C.; Aitken, M.D.; Gold, A.

    1999-05-01

    Peroxidases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of various phenolic substrates by hydrogen peroxide. They are common enzymes in soil and are also available commercially, so that they have been proposed as agents of phenolic pollutant transformation both in the environment and in engineered systems. Previous research on the peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) has suggested that tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (chloranil) is the principal product and that a considerable fraction of the PCP added to reaction mixtures appears to be resistant to oxidation. In experiments employing alternative methods of product separation and analysis, the authors found that both of these observations are artifacts of extraction and analytical methods used in previous studies. The major product of the horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of pentachlorophenol from pH 4--7 was 2,3,4,5,6-pentachloro-4-pentachlorophenoxy-2,5-cyclohexadienone (PPCHD), which is formed by the coupling of two pentachlorophenoxyl radicals.

  2. Water-gas shift reaction catalyzed by redox enzymes on conducting graphite platelets.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Oliver; Woolerton, Thomas W; Parkin, Alison; Lukey, Michael J; Reisner, Erwin; Seravalli, Javier; Pierce, Elizabeth; Ragsdale, Stephen W; Sargent, Frank; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2009-10-14

    The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction (CO + H(2)O <==> CO(2) + H(2)) is of major industrial significance in the production of H(2) from hydrocarbon sources. High temperatures are required, typically in excess of 200 degrees C, using d-metal catalysts on oxide supports. In our study the WGS process is separated into two half-cell electrochemical reactions (H(+) reduction and CO oxidation), catalyzed by enzymes attached to a conducting particle. The H(+) reduction reaction is catalyzed by a hydrogenase, Hyd-2, from Escherichia coli, and CO oxidation is catalyzed by a carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH I) from Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. This results in a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst with a turnover frequency, at 30 degrees C, of at least 2.5 s(-1) per minimum functional unit (a CODH/Hyd-2 pair) which is comparable to conventional high-temperature catalysts. PMID:19807170

  3. RNA as an RNA Polymerase: Net Elongation of an RNA Primer Catalyzed by the Tetrahymena Ribozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Been, Michael D.; Cech, Thomas R.

    1988-03-01

    A catalytic RNA (ribozyme) derived from an intervening sequence (IVS) RNA of Tetrahymena thermophila will catalyze an RNA polymerization reaction in which pentacytidylic acid (C5) is extended by the successive addition of mononucleotides derived from a guanylyl-(3', 5')-nucleotide (GpN). Cytidines or uridines are added to C5 to generate chain lengths of 10 to 11 nucleotides, with longer products being generated at greatly reduced efficiency. The reaction is analogous to that catalyzed by a replicase with C5 acting as the primer, GpNs as the nucleoside triphosphates, and a sequence in the ribozyme providing a template. The demonstration that an RNA enzyme can catalyze net elongation of an RNA primer supports theories of prebiotic RNA self-replication.

  4. Rhodium-Catalyzed Acyloxy Migration of Propargylic Esters in Cycloadditions, Inspiration from Recent Gold Rush

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xing-Zhong; Shu, Dongxu; Schienebeck, Casi M.

    2012-01-01

    Transition metal-catalyzed acyloxy migration of propargylic esters offers versatile entries to allene and vinyl carbene intermediates for various fascinating subsequent transformations. Most ?-acidic metals (e.g. gold and platinum) are capable of facilitating these acyloxy migration events. However, very few of these processes involve redox chemistry, which are well-known for most other transition metals such as rhodium. The coupling of acyloxy migration of propargylic esters with oxidative addition, migratory insertion, and reductive elimination may lead to ample new opportunities for the design of new reactions. This tutorial review summarizes recent developments in Rh-catalyzed 1,3- and 1,2-acyloxy migration of propargylic esters in a number of cycloaddition reactions. Related Au- and Pt-catalyzed cycloadditions involving acyloxy migration are also discussed. PMID:22895533

  5. Carbon dioxide reduction to methane and coupling with acetylene to form propylene catalyzed by remodeled nitrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi-Yong; Moure, Vivian R.; Dean, Dennis R.; Seefeldt, Lance C.

    2012-01-01

    A doubly substituted form of the nitrogenase MoFe protein (α-70Val→Ala, α-195His→Gln) has the capacity to catalyze the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to yield methane (CH4). Under optimized conditions, 1 nmol of the substituted MoFe protein catalyzes the formation of 21 nmol of CH4 within 20 min. The catalytic rate depends on the partial pressure of CO2 (or concentration of HCO3−) and the electron flux through nitrogenase. The doubly substituted MoFe protein also has the capacity to catalyze the unprecedented formation of propylene (H2C = CH-CH3) through the reductive coupling of CO2 and acetylene (HC≡CH). In light of these observations, we suggest that an emerging understanding of the mechanistic features of nitrogenase could be relevant to the design of synthetic catalysts for CO2 sequestration and formation of olefins. PMID:23150564

  6. Glucosamine condensation catalyzed by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate: mechanistic insight from NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lingyu; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Qiao, Yan; Deng, Tiansheng; Zuo, Pingping; Ge, Wenzhi; Qin, Zhangfeng; Hou, Xianglin; Wang, Yingxiong

    2015-09-21

    The basic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]) could efficiently catalyze the conversion of 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose (GlcNH2) into deoxyfructosazine (DOF) and fructosazine (FZ). Mechanistic investigation by NMR studies disclosed that [C2C1Im][OAc], exhibiting strong hydrogen bonding basicity, could coordinate with the hydroxyl and amino groups of GlcNH2via the promotion of hydrogen bonding in bifunctional activation of substrates and further catalyzing product formation, based on which a plausible reaction pathway involved in this homogeneous base-catalyzed reaction was proposed. Hydrogen bonding as an activation force, therefore, is responsible for the remarkable selectivity and rate enhancement observed. PMID:26278065

  7. Continuous In Vitro Evolution of a Ribozyme that Catalyzes Three Successive Nucleotidyl Addition Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Wright, Martin C.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    Variants of the class I ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes joining of the 3' end of a template bound oligonucleotide to its own 5' end, have been made to evolve in a continuous manner by a simple serial transfer procedure that can be carried out indefinitely. This process was expanded to allow the evolution of ribozymes that catalyze three successive nucleotidyl addition reactions, two template-directed mononucleotide additions followed by RNA ligation. During the development of this behavior, a population of ribozymes was maintained against an overall dilution of more than 10(exp 406). The resulting ribozymes were capable of catalyzing the three-step reaction pathway, with nucleotide addition occurring in either a 5' yieldig 3' or a 3' yielding 5' direction. This purely chemical system provides a functional model of a multi-step reaction pathway that is undergoing Darwinian evolution.

  8. Theoretical mechanistic study of the TBD-catalyzed intramolecular aldol reaction of ketoaldehydes.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Peter; Ghobril, Cynthia; Antheaume, Cyril; Wagner, Alain; Baati, Rachid; Himo, Fahmi

    2010-07-16

    The intramolecular aldol reaction of acyclic ketoaldehydes catalyzed by 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD) is investigated using density functional theory calculations. Compared to the proline-catalyzed aldol reaction, the use of TBD provides a unique and unusual complete switch of product selectivity. Three mechanistic pathways are proposed and evaluated. The calculations provide new insights into the activation mode of bifunctional guanidine catalysts. In the favored mechanism, TBD first catalyzes the enolization of the substrate and then the C-C bond formation through two concerted proton transfers. In addition, the computationally predicted stereochemical outcome of the reaction is in agreement with the experimental findings. PMID:20545376

  9. First Novozym 435 lipase-catalyzed Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction in the presence of amides.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xuemei; Zhang, Suoqin; Zheng, Liangyu

    2016-03-01

    The first Novozym 435 lipase-catalyzed Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reaction with amides as co-catalyst was realized. Results showed that neither Novozym 435 nor amide can independently catalyze the reaction. This co-catalytic system that used a catalytic amount of Novozym 435 with a corresponding amount of amide was established and optimized. The MBH reaction strongly depended on the structure of aldehyde substrate, amide co-catalyst, and reaction additives. The optimized reaction yield (43.4%) was achieved in the Novozym 435-catalyzed MBH reaction of 2, 4-dinitrobenzaldehyde and cyclohexenone with isonicotinamide as co-catalyst and ?-cyclodextrin as additive only in 2 days. Although enantioselectivity of Novozym 435 was not found, the results were still significant because an MBH reaction using lipase as biocatalyst was realized for the first time. PMID:26827772

  10. Comparative evaluation of autohydrolysis and acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of Eucalyptus globulus wood.

    PubMed

    Gtsch, Jenny Sabrina; Nousiainen, Tiia; Sixta, Herbert

    2012-04-01

    Three different acids (acetic, oxalic and sulfuric acid) were tested for their catalytic activity during the pretreatment of Eucalyptus globulus wood comparatively to autohydrolysis in order to extract valuable products prior to kraft pulping and to reduce lignin precipitation in the pretreatment step. The utilization of oxalic and sulfuric acid reduces treatment temperatures at a given wood yield as compared to autohydrolysis and acetic acid addition and thus decreases the insoluble lignin content in the hydrolyzates. Due to the high temperatures of autohydrolysis xylose dehydration to furfural occurs at high wood yield losses, while during acid catalyzed hydrolysis degradation of cellulose to glucose is more pronounced. The main difference between the acid catalyzed and non-catalyzed reaction constitutes the ratio of monomeric xylose and xylooligosaccharides in solution. PMID:22297049

  11. Transesterification of oil mixtures catalyzed by microencapsulated cutinase in reversed micelles.

    PubMed

    Badenes, Sara M; Lemos, Francisco; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2010-03-01

    Recombinant cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi was used to catalyze the transesterification reaction between a mixture of triglycerides (oils) and methanol in reversed micelles of bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) in isooctane for the purposes of producing biodiesel. The use of a bi-phase lipase-catalyzed system brings advantages in terms of catalyst re-use and the control of water activity in the medium and around the enzyme micro-environment. Small-scale batch studies were performed to study the influence of the initial enzyme and alcohol concentrations, and the substrates molar ratio. Conversions in excess of 75 were obtained with reaction times under 24 h, which makes this enzymatic process highly competitive when compared to similar lipase catalyzed reactions for biodiesel production using methanol. PMID:19943181

  12. Synthesis of Fused Dibenzofuran Derivatives via Palladium-Catalyzed Domino C-C Bond Formation and Iron-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization/Aromatization.

    PubMed

    Paul, Kartick; Jalal, Swapnadeep; Kundal, Sandip; Jana, Umasish

    2016-02-01

    A range of tetracyclic dibenzofuran derivatives bearing a variety of functional groups was readily synthesized via a two-stage domino strategy starting from propargyl ethers of 2-halo phenol derivatives. The first stage in the strategy involves Pd(0)-catalyzed domino intramolecular carbopalladation/Suzuki coupling via 5-exo-dig cyclization onto the alkyne, leading to 3-methylene-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran derivatives. In the second stage of the domino strategy, an iron(III)-catalyzed cycloisomerization and aromatization reaction produces tetracyclic benzofuran derivatives. This two-step sequence provides efficient access to diversely substituted polycyclic dibenzofuran derivatives in high yields and in an atom-efficient and environmentally friendly manner. Moreover, this strategy was also successfully used for the synthesis of a naturally occurring tetracyclic dibenzofuran, β-brazan. PMID:26728954

  13. Nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of photoredox-generated radicals: uncovering a general manifold for stereoconvergence in nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Tellis, John C; Primer, David N; Molander, Gary A; Kozlowski, Marisa C

    2015-04-22

    The cross-coupling of sp(3)-hybridized organoboron reagents via photoredox/nickel dual catalysis represents a new paradigm of reactivity for engaging alkylmetallic reagents in transition-metal-catalyzed processes. Reported here is an investigation into the mechanistic details of this important transformation using density functional theory. Calculations bring to light a new reaction pathway involving an alkylnickel(I) complex generated by addition of an alkyl radical to Ni(0) that is likely to operate simultaneously with the previously proposed mechanism. Analysis of the enantioselective variant of the transformation reveals an unexpected manifold for stereoinduction involving dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of a Ni(III) intermediate wherein the stereodetermining step is reductive elimination. Furthermore, calculations suggest that the DKR-based stereoinduction manifold may be responsible for stereoselectivity observed in numerous other stereoconvergent Ni-catalyzed cross-couplings and reductive couplings. PMID:25836634

  14. Advances in nickel-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions to construct carbocycles and heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ashish; Louie, Janis

    2015-08-18

    Transition-metal catalysis has revolutionized the field of organic synthesis by facilitating the construction of complex organic molecules in a highly efficient manner. Although these catalysts are typically based on precious metals, researchers have made great strides in discovering new base metal catalysts over the past decade. This Account describes our efforts in this area and details the development of versatile Ni complexes that catalyze a variety of cycloaddition reactions to afford interesting carbocycles and heterocycles. First, we describe our early work in investigating the efficacy of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands in Ni-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions with carbon dioxide and isocyanate. The use of sterically hindered, electron donating NHC ligands in these reactions significantly improved the substrate scope as well as reaction conditions in the syntheses of a variety of pyrones and pyridones. The high reactivity and versatility of these unique Ni(NHC) catalytic systems allowed us to develop unprecedented Ni-catalyzed cycloadditions that were unexplored due to the inefficacy of early Ni catalysts to promote hetero-oxidative coupling steps. We describe the development and mechanistic analysis of Ni/NHC catalysts that couple diynes and nitriles to form pyridines. Kinetic studies and stoichiometric reactions confirmed a hetero-oxidative coupling pathway associated with this Ni-catalyzed cycloaddition. We then describe a series of new substrates for Ni-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions such as vinylcyclopropanes, aldehydes, ketones, tropones, 3-azetidinones, and 3-oxetanones. In reactions with vinycyclopropanes and tropones, DFT calculations reveal noteworthy mechanistic steps such as a C-C σ-bond activation and an 8π-insertion of vinylcyclopropane and tropone, respectively. Similarly, the cycloaddition of 3-azetidinones and 3-oxetanones also requires Ni-catalyzed C-C σ-bond activation to form N- and O-containing heterocycles. PMID:26200651

  15. Dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by the catalyzed Fe-Cu process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Ying; Gao, Ting-Yao

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction characteristics of carbon tetrachloride (CT) were investigated using cyclic voltammetry in this study. In addition, the difference in reduction mechanisms of CT between Master Builders' iron and the catalyzed Fe-Cu process was discussed. The results showed that CT was reduced directly on the surface of copper rather than by atomic hydrogen produced at the cathode in the catalyzed Fe-Cu process. The reduction was realized largely by atomic hydrogen in Master Builders' iron. The entire CT in 350 ml aqueous solution with 320 mg/L was reduced to trichloromethane and dichloromethane in 2.25 h when 100 g of scrap iron with Fe/Cu ratio of 10:1 (w/w) were used. Moreover, the reduction rate slowed with time. CT could be reduced at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH from solution by Fe-Cu bimetallic media, but the mechanisms were different. The degradation rate was not significantly influenced by pH in the catalyzed Fe-Cu process; in Master Builders' iron it clearly increased with decreasing pH. The kinetics of the reductions followed pseudo-first order in both cases. Furthermore, the reductions under acidic conditions proceeded faster than that under the neutral and alkaline conditions. The catalyzed Fe-Cu process was superior to Master Builders' iron in treating CT-containing water and this advantage was particularly noticeable under alkaline conditions. The reduction was investigated in the cathode (Cu) and anode (Fe) compartments respectively, the results showed that the direct reduction pathway played an important role in the reduction by the catalyzed Fe-Cu process. The catalyzed Fe-Cu process is of practical value. PMID:17966865

  16. Biofuel-Promoted Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxin/furan Formation in an Iron-Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filter.

    PubMed

    Heeb, Norbert V; Rey, Maria Dolores; Zennegg, Markus; Haag, Regula; Wichser, Adrian; Schmid, Peter; Seiler, Cornelia; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Mohn, Joachim; Bürki, Samuel; Zimmerli, Yan; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Iron-catalyzed diesel particle filters (DPFs) are widely used for particle abatement. Active catalyst particles, so-called fuel-borne catalysts (FBCs), are formed in situ, in the engine, when combusting precursors, which were premixed with the fuel. The obtained iron oxide particles catalyze soot oxidation in filters. Iron-catalyzed DPFs are considered as safe with respect to their potential to form polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). We reported that a bimetallic potassium/iron FBC supported an intense PCDD/F formation in a DPF. Here, we discuss the impact of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biofuel on PCDD/F emissions. The iron-catalyzed DPF indeed supported a PCDD/F formation with biofuel but remained inactive with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. PCDD/F emissions (I-TEQ) increased 23-fold when comparing biofuel and diesel data. Emissions of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most toxic congener [toxicity equivalence factor (TEF) = 1.0], increased 90-fold, and those of 2,3,7,8-TCDF (TEF = 0.1) increased 170-fold. Congener patterns also changed, indicating a preferential formation of tetra- and penta-chlorodibenzofurans. Thus, an inactive iron-catalyzed DPF becomes active, supporting a PCDD/F formation, when operated with biofuel containing impurities of potassium. Alkali metals are inherent constituents of biofuels. According to the current European Union (EU) legislation, levels of 5 μg/g are accepted. We conclude that risks for a secondary PCDD/F formation in iron-catalyzed DPFs increase when combusting potassium-containing biofuels. PMID:26176879

  17. Reaction pathways and free energy profiles for cholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of 6-monoacetylmorphine

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yan; Han, Keli; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2014-01-01

    As the most active metabolite of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) can penetrate into the brain for the rapid onset of heroin effects. The primary enzymes responsible for the metabolism of 6-MAM to the less potent morphine in humans are acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The detailed reaction pathways for AChE- and BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of 6-MAM to morphine have been explored, for the first time, in the present study by performing first-principles quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy calculations. It has been demonstrated that the two enzymatic reaction processes follow the similar catalytic reaction mechanism, and the whole catalytic reaction pathway for each enzyme consists of four reaction steps. According to the calculated results, the second reaction step associated with the transition state TS2a/TS2b should be rate-determining for the AChE/BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis, and the free energy barrier calculated for the AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis (18.3 kcal/mol) is 2.5 kcal/mol lower than that for the BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis (20.8 kcal/mol). The free energy barriers calculated for the AChE- and BChE-catalyzed reactions are in good agreement with the experimentally derived activation free energies (17.5 and 20.7 kcal/mol for the AChE- and BChE-catalyzed reactions, respectively). Further structural analysis reveals that the aromatic residues Phe295 and Phe297 in the acyl pocket of AChE (corresponding to Leu286 and Val288 in BChE) contribute to the lower energy of TS2a relative to TS2b. The obtained structural and mechanistic insights could be valuable for use in future rational design of a novel therapeutic treatment of heroin abuse. PMID:24595354

  18. Reactivity and Chemoselectivity of Allenes in Rh(I)-Catalyzed Intermolecular (5 + 2) Cycloadditions with Vinylcyclopropanes: Allene-Mediated Rhodacycle Formation Can Poison Rh(I)-Catalyzed Cycloadditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Allenes are important 2? building blocks in organic synthesis and engage as 2-carbon components in many metal-catalyzed reactions. Wender and co-workers discovered that methyl substituents on the terminal allene double bond counterintuitively change the reactivities of allenes in [Rh(CO)2Cl]2-catalyzed intermolecular (5 + 2) cycloadditions with vinylcyclopropanes (VCPs). More sterically encumbered allenes afford higher cycloadduct yields, and such effects are also observed in other Rh(I)-catalyzed intermolecular cycloadditions. Through density functional theory calculations (B3LYP and M06) and experiment, we explored this enigmatic reactivity and selectivity of allenes in [Rh(CO)2Cl]2-catalyzed intermolecular (5 + 2) cycloadditions with VCPs. The apparent low reactivity of terminally unsubstituted allenes is associated with a competing allene dimerization that irreversibly sequesters rhodium. With terminally substituted allenes, steric repulsion between the terminal substituents significantly increases the barrier of allene dimerization while the barrier of the (5 + 2) cycloaddition is not affected, and thus the cycloaddition prevails. Computation has also revealed the origin of chemoselectivity in (5 + 2) cycloadditions with allene-ynes. Although simple allene and acetylene have similar reaction barriers, intermolecular (5 + 2) cycloadditions of allene-ynes occur exclusively at the terminal allene double bond. The terminal double bond is more reactive due to the enhanced d??* backdonation. At the same time, insertion of the internal double bond of an allene-yne has a higher barrier as it would break ? conjugation. Substituted alkynes are more difficult to insert compared with acetylene, because of the steric repulsion from the additional substituents. This leads to the greater reactivity of the allene double bond relative to the alkynyl group in allene-ynes. PMID:25379606

  19. Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed Amidation of Unactivated C(sp(3) )?H Bonds.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Tang, Guodong; Li, Xingwei

    2015-10-26

    Nitrogenation by direct functionalization of C?H bonds represents an important strategy for constructing C?N bonds. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed direct amidation of unactivated C(sp(3) )?H bonds is rare, especially under mild reaction conditions. Herein, a broad scope of C(sp(3) )?H bonds are amidated under rhodium catalysis in high efficiency using 3-substituted 1,4,2-dioxazol-5-ones as the amide source. The protocol broadens the scope of rhodium(III)-catalyzed C(sp(3) )?H activation chemistry, and is applicable to the late-stage functionalization of natural products. PMID:26480337

  20. Growth behaviors of ultrathin ZnSe nanowires by Au-catalyzed molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Wong, T. L.; Chan, S. K.; Sou, I. K.; Wang, N.; Su, D. S.

    2008-12-08

    Ultrathin ZnSe nanowires grown by Au-catalyzed molecular-beam epitaxy show an interesting growth behavior of diameter dependence of growth rates. The smaller the nanowire diameter, the faster is its growth rate. This growth behavior is totally different from that of the nanowires with diameters greater than 60 nm and cannot be interpreted by the classical theories of the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. For the Au-catalyzed nanowire growth at low temperatures, we found that the surface and interface incorporation and diffusion of the source atoms at the nanowire tips controlled the growth of ultrathin ZnSe nanowires.

  1. Primary-tertiary diamine-catalyzed Michael addition of ketones to isatylidenemalononitrile derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Akshay; Chimni, Swapandeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Simple primary-tertiary diamines easily derived from natural primary amino acids were used to catalyze the Michael addition of ketones with isatylidenemalononitrile derivatives. Diamine 1a in combination with D-CSA as an additive provided Michael adducts in high yield (up to 94%) and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99%). The catalyst 1a was successfully used to catalyze the three-component version of the reaction by a domino Knoevenagel-Michael sequence. The Michael adduct 4a was transformed into spirooxindole 6 by a reduction with sodium borohydride in a highly enantioselective manner. PMID:24991242

  2. Copper-catalyzed aerobic radical C–C bond cleavage of N–H ketimines

    PubMed Central

    Tnay, Ya Lin; Ang, Gim Yean

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report herein studies on copper-catalyzed aerobic radical C–C bond cleavage of N–H ketimines. Treatment of N–H ketimines having an α-sp3 hybridized carbon under Cu-catalyzed aerobic reaction conditions resulted in a radical fragmentation with C–C bond cleavage to give the corresponding carbonitrile and carbon radical intermediate. This radical process has been applied for the construction of oxaspirocyclohexadienones as well as in the electrophilic cyanation of Grignard reagents with pivalonitrile as a CN source. PMID:26664613

  3. Isotope-labeling of the fibril binding compound FSB via a Pd-catalyzed double alkoxycarbonylation.

    PubMed

    Burhardt, Mia N; Taaning, Rolf; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2012-06-15

    We have synthesized two isotopically labeled variants of the ?-amyloid binding compound FSB possessing (13)C-labels on the two terminal aryl carboxylic acid moieties. One of these was also fully deuterated on the olefinic spacers. The (13)C-isotope labeling was achieved applying a Pd-catalyzed methoxycarbonylation of the corresponding aryl chlorides with externally (ex situ) generated (13)C-labeled CO. Application of the Shirakawa-Hayashi protocol for the Pd-catalyzed reduction of a dialkyne intermediate using D(2)O allowed for the selective deuterium labeling of the two trans-C,C double bonds of FSB. PMID:22612598

  4. Enantioselective TADMAP-Catalyzed Carboxyl Migration Reactions for the Synthesis of Stereogenic Quaternary Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Scott A.; Aleman, Pedro; Christy, Justin; Kampf, Jeff W.; Va, Porino

    2008-01-01

    The chiral, nucleophilic catalyst TADMAP (1) has been prepared from 3-lithio-4-dimethylamino-pyridine (5) and triphenylacetaldehyde (3), followed by acylation and resolution. TADMAP catalyzes the carboxyl migration of oxazolyl, furanyl, and benzofuranyl enol carbonates with good to excellent levels of enantioselection. The oxazole reactions are especially efficient, and are used to prepare chiral lactams (23) and lactones (30) containing a quaternary asymmetric carbon. TADMAP-catalyzed carboxyl migrations in the indole series are relatively slow and proceed with inconsistent enantioselectivity. Modeling studies (B3LYP/6-31G*) have been used in qualitative correlations of catalyst conformation, reactivity, and enantioselectivity. PMID:16417383

  5. Metal-catalyzed decaborane-alkyne hydroboration reactions: efficient routes to alkenyldecaboranes.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shahana; Carroll, Patrick J; Sneddon, Larry G

    2010-04-01

    Transition-metal-catalyzed decaborane-alkyne hydroboration reactions have been developed that provide high-yield routes to the previously unknown di- and monoalkenyldecaboranes. These alkenyl derivatives should be easily modified starting materials for many biomedical and/or materials applications. Unusual catalyst product selectivity was observed that suggests quite different mechanistic steps, with the reactions catalyzed by the [RuCl(2)(p-cymene)](2) and [Cp*IrCl(2)](2) complexes giving the beta-E alkenyldecaboranes and the corresponding reactions with the [RuI(2)(p-cymene)](2) complex giving the alpha-alkenyldecaborane isomers. PMID:20222715

  6. Nickel-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl Chlorides and Sulfamates in 2-Methyl-THF

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The nickel-catalyzed amination of aryl O-sulfamates and chlorides using the green solvent 2-methyl-THF is reported. This methodology employs the commercially available and air-stable precatalyst NiCl2(DME), is broad in scope, and provides access to aryl amines in synthetically useful yields. The utility of this methodology is underscored by examples of gram-scale couplings conducted with catalyst loadings as low as 1 mol % nickel. Moreover, the nickel-catalyzed amination described is tolerant of heterocycles and should prove useful in the synthesis of pharmaceutical candidates and other heteroatom-containing compounds. PMID:25243095

  7. Mild Palladium-Catalyzed Cyanation of (Hetero)aryl Halides and Triflates in Aqueous Media

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A mild, efficient, and low-temperature palladium-catalyzed cyanation of (hetero)aryl halides and triflates is reported. Previous palladium-catalyzed cyanations of (hetero)aryl halides have required higher temperatures to achieve good catalytic activity. This current reaction allows the cyanation of a general scope of (hetero)aryl halides and triflates at 2–5 mol % catalyst loadings with temperatures ranging from rt to 40 °C. This mild method was applied to the synthesis of lersivirine, a reverse transcriptase inhibitor. PMID:25555140

  8. Cu-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides with trifluoromethylzinc reagent prepared in situ from trifluoromethyl iodide

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yuzo; Fujiu, Motohiro; Murase, Tatsuya; Itoh, Yoshimitsu; Serizawa, Hiroki; Aikawa, Kohsuke

    2013-01-01

    Summary The trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides catalyzed by copper(I) salt with trifluoromethylzinc reagent prepared in situ from trifluoromethyl iodide and Zn dust was accomplished. The catalytic reactions proceeded under mild reaction conditions, providing the corresponding aromatic trifluoromethylated products in moderate to high yields. The advantage of this method is that additives such as metal fluoride (MF), which are indispensable to activate silyl groups for transmetallation in the corresponding reactions catalyzed by copper salt by using the RuppertPrakash reagents (CF3SiR3), are not required. PMID:24367406

  9. Pd- and Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in the synthesis of organic electronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiqing; Hoo Kim, Eun; Wei, Alexander; Negishi, Ei-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Organic molecules and polymers with extended ?-conjugation are appealing as advanced electronic materials, and have already found practical applications in thin-film transistors, light emitting diodes, and chemical sensors. Transition metal (TM)-catalyzed cross-coupling methodologies have evolved over the past four decades into one of the most powerful and versatile methods for C-C bond formation, enabling the construction of a diverse and sophisticated range of ?-conjugated oligomers and polymers. In this review, we focus our discussion on recent synthetic developments of several important classes of ?-conjugated systems using TM-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, with a perspective on their utility for organic electronic materials.

  10. A modified approach to muon-catalyzed fusion, employing helium-3 as fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Cooroo

    2012-09-01

    Muon-catalyzed fusion (μCF) or cold fusion, employing hydrogen isotopes, is the only known form of fusion not requiring extremely high temperatures in order to catalyze a reaction. A modified approach utilizing existing and currently developing technology but employing helium-3 as the fuel source is proposed, offering a potential solution to some inherent problems including the need to deal with radioactive materials. A prediction based on Monte Carlo simulations also points to a potential method to partially negate alpha sticking, allowing a greater energy output than input.

  11. Rhodium(III)- and iridium(III)-catalyzed C7 alkylation of indolines with diazo compounds.

    PubMed

    Ai, Wen; Yang, Xueyan; Wu, Yunxiang; Wang, Xuan; Li, Yuanchao; Yang, Yaxi; Zhou, Bing

    2014-12-22

    A Rh(III)-catalyzed procedure for the C7-selective C-H alkylation of various indolines with ?-diazo compounds at room temperature is reported. The advantages of this process are: 1)?simple, mild, and pH-neutral reaction conditions, 2)?broad substrate scope, 3)?complete regioselectivity, 4)?no need for an external oxidant, and 5)?N2 as the sole byproduct. Furthermore, alkylation and bis-alkylation of carbazoles at the C1 and C8 positions have also been developed. More significantly, for the first time, a successful Ir(III)-catalyzed intermolecular insertion of arene C-H bonds into ?-diazo compounds is reported. PMID:25359110

  12. Silica, alumina and clay catalyzed peptide bond formation: enhanced efficiency of alumina catalyst.

    PubMed

    Bujdk, J; Rode, B M

    1999-10-01

    Catalytic efficiencies of clay (hectorite), silica and alumina were tested in peptide bond formation reactions of glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), proline (Pro), valine (Val) and leucine (Leu). The reactions were performed as drying/wetting (hectorite) and temperature fluctuation (silica and alumina) experiments at 85 degrees C. The reactivity of amino acids decreased in order Gly > Ala > Pro approximately Val approximately Leu. The highest catalytic efficiency was observed for alumina, the only catalyst producing oligopeptides in all investigated reaction systems. The peptide bond formation on alumina is probably catalyzed by the same sites and via similar reaction mechanisms as some alumina-catalyzed dehydration reactions used in industrial chemistry. PMID:10573687

  13. Silica, Alumina and Clay Catalyzed Peptide Bond Formation: Enhanced Efficiency of Alumina Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujdk, Juraj; Rode, Bernd M.

    1999-10-01

    Catalytic efficiencies of clay (hectorite), silica and alumina were tested in peptide bond formation reactions of glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), proline (Pro), valine (Val) and leucine (Leu). The reactions were performed as drying/wetting (hectorite) and temperature fluctuation (silica and alumina) experiments at 85 C. The reactivity of amino acids decreased in order Gly > Ala > Pro ~ Val ~ Leu. The highest catalytic efficiency was observed for alumina, the only catalyst producing oligopeptides in all investigated reaction systems. The peptide bond formation on alumina is probably catalyzed by the same sites and via similar reaction mechanisms as some alumina-catalyzed dehydration reactions used in industrial chemistry.

  14. C1-symmetric aminosulfoximines in copper-catalyzed asymmetric vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Frings, Marcus; Atodiresei, Iuliana; Wang, Yutian; Runsink, Jan; Raabe, Gerhard; Bolm, Carsten

    2010-04-19

    Vinylogous Mukaiyama-type aldol reactions have been catalyzed by a combination of Cu(OTf)2 and readily available C1-symmetric aminosulfoximines. After a fine-tuning of the reaction conditions and an optimization of the modularly assembled ligand structure, high stereoselectivities and excellent yields have been achieved in catalyzed reactions involving various electrophile/nucleophile combinations. The relative and absolute configurations of two products were assigned by X-ray single crystal structure analysis and a comparison of calculated and experimental CD spectra. PMID:20229533

  15. Probability of twin formation on self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires on Si substrate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We attempted to control the incorporation of twin boundaries in self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires (NWs). Self-catalyzed GaAs NWs were grown on a Si substrate under various arsenic pressures using molecular beam epitaxy and the vapor-liquid-solid method. When the arsenic flux is low, wurtzite structures are dominant in the GaAs NWs. On the other hand, zinc blende structures become dominant as the arsenic flux rises. We discussed this phenomenon on the basis of thermodynamics and examined the probability of twin-boundary formation in detail. PMID:23043754

  16. The Enterobactin Synthetase Catalyzed Formation of P1, P3-diadenosine-5?-tetraphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Alison L.; Cahill, Sean M.; Blanchard, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The EntE enzyme involved in the synthesis of the iron siderophore enterobactin, catalyzes the adenylation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, followed by its transfer to the phosphopantetheine arm of holo-EntB, an aryl carrier protein. In the absence of EntB, EntE catalyzes the formation of Ap4A, a molecule that is implicated in regulating cell division during oxidative stress. We propose that the expression of EntE during iron starvation produces Ap4A to slow growth until intracellular iron stores can be restored. PMID:19852513

  17. Mechanism of maltal hydration catalyzed by. beta. -amylase: Role of protein structure in controlling the steric outcome of reactions catalyzed by a glycosylase

    SciTech Connect

    Kitahata, Sumio ); Chiba, S. ); Brewer, C.F.; Hehre, E.J. )

    1991-07-09

    Crystalline (monomeric) soybean and (tetrameric) sweet potato {beta}-amylase were shown to catalyze the cis hydration of maltal ({alpha}-D-glucopyranosyl-2-deoxy-D-arabino-hex-1-enitol) to form {beta}-2-deoxymaltose. As reported earlier with the sweet potato enzyme, maltal hydration in D{sub 2}O by soybean {beta}-amylase was found to exhibit an unusually large solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effect (V{sub H}/V{sub D}=6.5), a reaction rate linearly dependent on the mole fraction of deuterium, and 2-deoxy-(2(a)-{sup 2}H)maltose as product. These results indicate (for each {beta}-amylase) that protonation is the rate-limiting step in a reaction involving a nearly symmetric one-proton transition state and that maltal is specifically protonated from above the double bond. That maltal undergoes cis hydration provides evidence in support of a general-acid-catalyzed, carbonium ion mediated reaction. Of fundamental significance is that {beta}-amylase protonates maltal from a direction opposite that assumed for protonating strach, yet creates products of the same anomeric configuration from both. Such stereochemical dichotomy argues for the overriding role of protein structures is dictating the steric outcome of reactions catalyzed by a glycosylase, by limiting the approach and orientation of water or other acceptors to the reaction center.

  18. Nickel-catalyzed synthesis of (E)-olefins from benzylic alcohol derivatives and arylacetonitriles via C-O activation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jing; Yang, Jia; Chen, Tieqiao; Han, Li-Biao

    2016-01-26

    An efficient Ni-catalyzed synthesis of (E)-olefins using the readily available benzylic alcohol derivatives and arylacetonitriles is described. This transformation should proceed via a tandem process involving nickel-catalyzed cross coupling via C-O activation and subsequent stereoselective E2 elimination. PMID:26699396

  19. Copper-catalyzed decarboxylative C3-acylation of free (N-H) indoles with ?-oxocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuiping; Wang, Shaoyan; Li, Hua; Yan, Jingbo; Chi, Haijun; Chen, Xichao; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2014-03-21

    An efficient Cu-catalyzed decarboxylative C3-acylation of free (N-H) indoles using ?-oxocarboxylic acids as acylating agents has been developed. This method was compatible with a variety of functional groups and provided an attractive alternative access to 3-acylindoles in moderate to high yields. PMID:24514028

  20. Iron-catalyzed direct ?-arylation of ?-amino carbonyl compounds with indoles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ni, Minjie; Feng, Bainian

    2016-01-27

    A mild and general ?-arylation of ?-amino carbonyls with indoles catalyzed by Fe(ClO4)3 has been developed. C-H activation is smoothly fulfilled by using TBHP as the oxidant with good yields. Two hydrogen dissociations make this transformation more environmentally benign because of high atom efficiency. PMID:26739751

  1. Copper-Catalyzed Homo-Dimerization of Nitronates and Enolates under Oxygen Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Do, Hien-Quang; Tran-Vu, Hung

    2012-01-01

    A method for copper-catalyzed oxidative dimerization of nitronates and enolates using oxygen as terminal oxidant has been developed. Cyclization through oxidative intramolecular coupling is also feasible for both nitronates and enolates. The mild reaction conditions lead to good functional group tolerance. PMID:23413317

  2. Simple and sustainable iron-catalyzed aerobic C-H functionalization of N,N-dialkylanilines.

    PubMed

    Ratnikov, Maxim O; Xu, Xinfang; Doyle, Michael P

    2013-06-26

    Iron(III) chloride catalyzes the aerobic oxidation of tertiary anilines, including tetrahydroisoquinolines, to form reactive iminium ion intermediates that undergo Mannich reactions with silyloxyfurans, nitroalkanes, and other nucleophiles to give the corresponding butenolides, nitro compounds, and ?-substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines, respectively, in good to excellent yields. PMID:23734676

  3. Palladium-catalyzed regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective allylation of nitroalkanes with monosubstituted allylic substrates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Fei; Yu, Wei-Hua; Ding, Chang-Hua; Ding, Qiu-Ping; Wan, Shi-Li; Hou, Xue-Long; Dai, Li-Xin; Wang, Pin-Jie

    2013-07-01

    Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of nitroalkanes and monosubstituted allylic substrates was performed to afford products with two adjacent chiral centers and with excellent regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivities. The usefulness of the protocol in organic synthesis was demonstrated by transformation of the product to an optically active homoallylamine, a 2,3-disubstituted tetrahydropyridine, and an ?,?-disubstituted amino acid derivative. PMID:23741970

  4. Toward the Synthesis of Nuphar Sesquiterpene Thioalkaloids: Stereodivergent Rhodium-Catalyzed Synthesis of the Thiolane Subunit.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Herrmann, Aaron T; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-08-01

    A stereodivergent approach to the central thiolane subunit of Nuphar sesquiterpene thioalkaloids has been developed. This approach features a rhodium-catalyzed Stevens-type rearrangement in conjunction with an enzyme resolution reaction. Further elaboration into a polycyclic ring system via alcohol oxidation and ring-closing metathesis is also described. PMID:26147579

  5. Regioselective Ir(iii)-catalyzed C-H alkynylation directed by 7-azaindoles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xin; Ge, Zemei; Li, Runtao

    2016-03-01

    Herein we report a novel iridium(iii)-catalyzed ortho-mono-alkynylation of 7-azaindoles under mild conditions. This approach provides a general and straightforward access to form novel 7-azaindole derivatives with ample substrate scope and broad group tolerance. PMID:26878600

  6. Iridium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of cyclic imines of benzodiazepinones and benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kai; Wu, Bo; Yu, Chang-Bin; Chen, Qing-An; Ye, Zhi-Shi; Zhou, Yong-Gui

    2012-08-01

    Highly enantioselective Ir-catalyzed hydrogenation of seven-membered cyclic imines of benzodiazepinones and benzodiazepines was achieved with up to 96% ee. This method provides a direct access to synthesize a range of chiral cyclic amines existing in numerous important natural products and clinical drugs. PMID:22799531

  7. Catalytic enantioselective desymmetrization of meso cyclic anhydrides via iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tang-Lin; Li, Wei; Geng, Huiling; Wang, Chun-Jiang; Zhang, Xumu

    2013-04-01

    A novel method to desymmetrize meso-anhydrides into lactones via asymmetric hydrogenation catalyzed by the Ir-C3*-TunePhos complex has been developed. Various chiral lactones were synthesized with full conversion and excellent enantioselectivity under high reaction temperature. PMID:23485036

  8. N-Nosyl Oxaziridines as Terminal Oxidants in Copper(II)-Catalyzed Olefin Oxyaminations.

    PubMed

    Deporter, Sandra M; Jacobsen, Ashley C; Partridge, Katherine M; Williamson, Kevin S; Yoon, Tehshik P

    2010-10-01

    We report that N-4-nosyl-3-phenyloxaziridine is an effective terminal oxidant for copper(II)-catalyzed oxyamination recently developed in our labs. This oxaziridine can be prepared on multi-gram scale and is easily purified by recrystallization. The products of oxyamination using this oxaziridine bear protecting groups that can be readily removed in high yields under mild conditions. PMID:21076655

  9. The Isomerization of (-)-Menthone to (+)-Isomenthone Catalyzed by an Ion-Exchange Resin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginzburg, Aurora L.; Baca, Nicholas A.; Hampton, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    A traditional organic chemistry laboratory experiment involves the acid-catalyzed isomerization of (-)-menthone to (+)-isomenthone. This experiment generates large quantities of organic and aqueous waste, and only allows the final ratio of isomers to be determined. A "green" modification has been developed that replaces the mineral acid…

  10. Copper-Catalyzed Oxysulfenylation of Enolates with Sodium Sulfinates: A Strategy To Construct Sulfenylated Cyclic Ethers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yinglan; Gao, Yang; Tang, Xiaodong; Peng, Jianwen; Hu, Miao; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2016-03-01

    A new copper-catalyzed oxysulfenylation reaction of enolates with sodium sulfinates has been disclosed. A series of sulfenylated heterocycles including four- and seven-membered cyclic ether were obtained in mild to good yields. This reaction is proposed to go through a radical process, and the sulfur radical (RS()) may be a reactive species. PMID:26914291

  11. Optimizing the Acid Catalyzed Synthesis of Hyperbranched Poly(Glycerol-diacids) Oligomers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oligomeric pre-polymers were synthesized by the acid-catalyzed condensation of glycerol with succinic acid, glutaric acid and azelaic acid in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or dimethylformamide (DMF). The prepolymers were obtained, on average in 84% yield, and were characterized by proton NMR, MALDI-TOF ...

  12. Molybdenum nitrogenase catalyzes the reduction and coupling of CO to form hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Yong; Dean, Dennis R; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2011-06-01

    The molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase catalyzes the multi-electron reduction of protons and N(2) to yield H(2) and 2NH(3). It also catalyzes the reduction of a number of non-physiological doubly and triply bonded small molecules (e.g. C(2)H(2), N(2)O). Carbon monoxide (CO) is not reduced by the wild-type molybdenum nitrogenase but instead inhibits the reduction of all substrates catalyzed by nitrogenase except protons. Here, we report that when the nitrogenase MoFe protein α-Val(70) residue is substituted by alanine or glycine, the resulting variant proteins will catalyze the reduction and coupling of CO to form methane (CH(4)), ethane (C(2)H(6)), ethylene (C(2)H(4)), propene (C(3)H(6)), and propane (C(3)H(8)). The rates and ratios of hydrocarbon production from CO can be adjusted by changing the flux of electrons through nitrogenase, by substitution of other amino acids located near the FeMo-cofactor, or by changing the partial pressure of CO. Increasing the partial pressure of CO shifted the product ratio in favor of the longer chain alkanes and alkenes. The implications of these findings in understanding the nitrogenase mechanism and the relationship to Fischer-Tropsch production of hydrocarbons from CO are discussed. PMID:21454640

  13. Polystyrene-supported TBD catalyzed ring-opening of N-tosylaziridines with silylated nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Satoru; Harada, Takeru; Yasuda, Shiori

    2012-07-01

    Polystyrene-supported TBD (PS-TBD) catalyzes the ring-opening of N-tosylaziridines with silylated nucleophiles to give the corresponding products in high yields. PS-TBD was easily recovered and reused without significant loss of catalytic activity. PMID:22614120

  14. Rhodium-catalyzed tunable oxidative cyclization toward the selective synthesis of α-pyrones and furans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiaping; Wang, Dongxu; Wan, Yanjun; Ma, Cheng

    2016-01-28

    The rhodium(iii)-catalyzed tunable oxidative cyclization of readily available N-tosylacrylamides and diazo compounds is presented, which offers a novel method for the selective construction of fully substituted α-pyrones and furans in a regiospecific manner by employing the acylsulfonamide group as a versatile in situ removable directing group. PMID:26662209

  15. Formal synthesis of salinosporamide A via NHC-catalyzed intramolecular lactonization

    PubMed Central

    Struble, Justin R.; Bode, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    An N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyzed intramolecular lactonization to prepare densely functionalized bicyclic ?-lactam-?-lactone adducts from enals is reported. This method has been applied to the formal synthesis of salinosporamide A, a potent 20S proteasome inhibitor and anti-cancer therapeutic. PMID:20606761

  16. Organophosphorus-catalyzed diaza-Wittig reaction: application to the synthesis of pyridazines.

    PubMed

    Bel Abed, Hassen; Mammoliti, Oscar; Bande, Omprakash; Van Lommen, Guy; Herdewijn, Piet

    2014-09-28

    The elaboration of the first organophosphorus-catalyzed diaza-Wittig reaction is reported. This catalytic reaction is applied to the synthesis of substituted pyridazine and phthalazine derivatives bearing electron-withdrawing groups with good to excellent yields from substrates containing a diazo functionality as the starting material and a phospholene oxide as the catalyst. PMID:25101802

  17. Ruthenium-Catalyzed O- to S-Alkyl Migration: A Pseudoreversible Barton-McCombie Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mahy, William; Plucinski, Pawel; Jover, Jess; Frost, Christopher G

    2015-09-01

    A practical ruthenium-catalyzed O- to S-alkyl migration affords structurally diverse thiooxazolidinones in excellent yields. Our studies suggest this catalytic transformation proceeds through a pseudoreversible radical pathway drawing mechanistic parallels to the classic Barton-McCombie reaction. PMID:26223389

  18. Gold-Catalyzed Tandem Cycloisomerization-Halogenation of Chiral Homopropargyl Sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Shu, Chao; Li, Long; Shen, Cang-Hai; Ruan, Peng-Peng; Liu, Chao-Yue; Ye, Long-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Two new gold-catalyzed tandem cycloisomerization-halogenation reactions of chiral homopropargyl sulfonamides have been developed. Various enantioenriched 3,3-diiodopyrrolidin-2-ols and 3-fluoropyrrolidin-2-ols were obtained in moderate-to-good yields with excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivity. PMID:26749432

  19. Direct Synthesis of Thioethers from Carboxylates and Thiols Catalyzed by FeCl3.

    PubMed

    Venkatesham, Kunuru; Bhujanga Rao, Chitturi; Dokuburra, Chanti Babu; Bunce, Richard A; Venkateswarlu, Yenamandra

    2015-11-20

    A new and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of thioethers from carboxylates and thiols. The reaction proceeds via a Fe(III)-catalyzed direct displacement of carboxylates from benzylic or allylic esters by heterocyclic thiols. Short reaction times, good to excellent yields of products, and few side reactions are the significant features of the new protocol. PMID:26497695

  20. Copper-Catalyzed SN2'-Selective Allylic Substitution Reaction of gem-Diborylalkanes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Qi; Zhang, Ben; Lu, Xi; Liu, Jing-Hui; Lu, Xiao-Yu; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2016-03-01

    A Cu/(NHC)-catalyzed SN2'-selective substitution reaction of allylic electrophiles with gem-diborylalkanes is reported. Different substituted gem-diborylalkanes and allylic electrophiles can be employed in this reaction, and various synthetic valuable functional groups can be tolerated. The asymmetric version of this reaction was initially researched with chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands. PMID:26872072