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1

The origin and distribution of HAPs elements in relation to maceral composition of the A1 lignite bed (Paleocene, Calvert Bluff Formation, Wilcox Group), Calvert mine area, east-central Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and distribution of twelve potentially Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs; As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U) identified in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments were examined in relation to the maceral composition of the A1 bed (Paleocene, Calvert Bluff Formation, Wilcox Group) of the Calvert mine in east-central Texas. The 3.2 m-thick

Sharon S. Crowley; Peter D. Warwick; Leslie F. Ruppert; James Pontolillo

1997-01-01

2

Stratigraphy of the Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group, Brazos County, Texas  

E-print Network

trend and net feet of sand of the Rockdale delta system (adapted from Fisher and McGowen, 1969). , 5 Location map showing strike oriented cross-section C-C' and Martins Prairie field. 20 6 Regional cross-section C-C' showing two incised valleys..., in Robertson and Brazos counties, the lignite zones are at the base of the formation. Cross-section C-C' location is shown in Figure 5. Regional strike oriented cross-section C-C' (Figure 6) shows two incised valleys within the Simsboro Formation (Appendix...

May, Audrey Gail

1994-01-01

3

The origin and distribution of HAPs elements in relation to maceral composition of the A1 lignite bed (Paleocene, Calvert Bluff Formation, Wilcox Group), Calvert mine area, east-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The origin and distribution of twelve potentially Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs; As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb Sb, Se, and U) identified in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments were examined in relation to the maceral composition of the A1 bed (Paleocene, Calvert Bluff Formation, Wilcox Group) of the Calvert mine in east-central Texas. The 3.2 m-thick A1 bed was divided into nine incremental channel samples (7 lignite samples and 2 shaley coal samples) on the basis of megascopic characteristics. Results indicate that As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb, and U are strongly correlated with ash yield and are enriched in the shaley coal samples. We infer that these elements are associated with inorganic constituents in the coal bed and may be derived from a penecontemporaneous stream channel located several kilometers southeast of the mining block. Of the HAPs elements studied, Mn and Hg are the most poorly correlated to ash yield. We infer an organic association for Mn; Hg may be associated with pyrite. The rest of the trace elements (Be, Co, and Se) are weakly correlated with ash yield. Further analytical work is necessary to determine the mode of occurrence for these elements. Overall, concentrations of the HAPs elements are generally similar to or less than those reported in previous studies of lignites of the Wilcox Group, east-central region, Texas. Petrographic analysis indicates the following ranges in composition for the seven lignite samples: liptinites (5-8%), huminites (88-95%), and inertinites (trace amounts to 7%). Samples from the middle portion of the A1 bed contain abundant crypto-eugelinite compared to the rest of the samples; this relationship suggests that the degradation of plant material was an important process during the development of the peat mire. With the exception of Hg and Mn, relatively low levels of the HAPs elements studied are found in the samples containing abundant crypto-eugelinite. We infer that the peat-forming environment for this portion of the coal bed was very wet with minimal detrital input. Relatively high concentrations of crypto-humotelinite were found in samples from the top and base of the coal bed. The presence of abundant crypto-humotelinite in this part of the coal bed suggests the accumulation of wood-rich peat under conditions conducive to a high degree of tissue preservation in the peat mire. Although several of the trace elements (Be, Co, Ni, and Sb) exhibit enrichment in these samples, they are not necessarily chemically associated with humotelinite. We infer that these elements, with the exception of Be, are possibly associated with deposition of the roof and floor rock of the coal bed; however, further analytical work would be necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Beryllium may have an organic origin. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

Crowley, S.S.; Warwick, P.D.; Ruppert, L.F.; Pontolillo, J.

1997-01-01

4

Coal geology of the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox Group) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group) in east-central Texas; field trip guidebook for the Society for Organic Petrology, Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Woodlands, Texas, August 30, 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Jackson and Wilcox Groups of eastern Texas (fig. 1) are the major lignite producing intervals in the Gulf Region. Within these groups, the major lignite-producing formations are the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson). According to the Keystone Coal Industry Manual (Maclean Hunter Publishing Company, 1994), the Gulf Coast basin produces about 57 million short tons of lignite annually. The state of Texas ranks number 6 in coal production in the United States. Most of the lignite is used for electric power generation in mine-mouth power plant facilities. In recent years, particular interest has been given to lignite quality and the distribution and concentration of about a dozen trace elements that have been identified as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As pointed out by Oman and Finkelman (1994), Gulf Coast lignite deposits have elevated concentrations of many of the HAPs elements (Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, U) on a as-received gm/mmBtu basis when compared to other United States coal deposits used for fuel in thermo-electric power plants. Although regulations have not yet been established for acceptable emissions of the HAPs elements during coal burning, considerable research effort has been given to the characterization of these elements in coal feed stocks. The general purpose of the present field trip and of the accompanying collection of papers is to investigate how various aspects of east Texas lignite geology might collectively influence the quality of the lignite fuel. We hope that this collection of papers will help future researchers understand the complex, multifaceted interrelations of coal geology, petrology, palynology and coal quality, and that this introduction to the geology of the lignite deposits of east Texas might serve as a stimulus for new ideas to be applied to other coal basins in the U.S. and abroad.

Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.

1995-01-01

5

Wind Erosion and Dune Formation on High Frozen Bluffs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frost penetration increases upslope on barren, windswept bluffs in cold environments. Along the south shore of Lake Superior, near the brow of 100 m high bluffs it typically exceeds 5 m. Frost increases the shear strength of damp sand to a level comparable to that of concrete, making winter slopes highly stable despite undercutting by waves and ground-water sapping along the footslope. Sublimation of interparticle ice in the slope face increases with wind speed and lower vapor pressures. The cold and dry winter winds of Lake Superior ablate these slopes through loss of binding ice. Wind erosion rates, based on measurements of sand accumulation on the forest floor downwind of the brow, show most airborne sand falls out within several meters of the brow, forming a berm 1 to 3 m high after many years. The spatial pattern of sand deposition, however, varies considerably over distances of several hundred meters along the top bluffs in response to frost conditions and the build-up of gravel lag on the slope face, sand exposure from mass movements, and local aerodynamics of the crest slope. The formation of perched sand dunes in the Great Lakes region is clearly related to wind erosion of sand from high bluffs in winter. Broadly similar processes may operate on Mars.

Marsh, W. M.; Marsh, B. D.

1984-01-01

6

Pumice in the interglacial Whidbey Formation at Blowers Bluff, central Whidbey Island, WA, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new 40Ar/39Ar age of 128??9 ka and chemical analyses of pumice layers from interglacial alluvium at Blowers Bluff, Whidbey Island, WA, show that the deposits are part of the Whidbey Formation, a widespread, mainly subsurface unit. Glass chemistry of the dated dacitic pumice does not match any analyzed northern Cascade source, but upper Pleistocene dacites from Glacier Peak and early Pleistocene silicic rocks from the Kulshan caldera are chemically similar. The chemistry of pumiceous dacite in younger units, including the latest Pleistocene Partridge Gravel, is similar to that of the dated material. The deep troughs of the modern northern Puget lowland must have been filled during deposition of the Whidbey Formation, allowing volcanic-rich sediment to reach what is now Whidbey Island. Topographic analysis of LIDAR images demonstrates that extensive erosion occurred during latest Pleistocene ice retreat. The Partridge Gravel likely records subglacial fluvial erosion along an ice tunnel and ice-marginal deposition into adjacent marine waters. Pumice in the Partridge Gravel probably was reworked from stratigraphically and topographically lower deposits, including those at Blowers Bluff. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Dethier, D.P.; Dragovich, J.D.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Fleck, R.J.

2008-01-01

7

Facies architecture of the upper Calvert Bluff Formation exposed in the highwall of Big Brown Mine, Fairfield, Texas  

E-print Network

of Big Brown Mine, near Fairfield, Texas. Observed bedding and facies architecture are interpreted in terms of temporal changes, depositional environments and sequence stratigraphic setting. A three dimensional grid of 89 subsurface logs is correlated...

Sturdy, Michael Dale

2006-10-30

8

Calvert: an historical geography  

E-print Network

48 64 66 71 171 REFERENCES 180 VITA 185 vii LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Sterling, Texas 2 Calvert 1870, White Population Nativity 3 Calvert 1870, Black Population Nativity 4 Calvert 1880, White Population Nativity 5 Calvert 1880, Black... constructed between 1870 and the early 1890s. Although a few of the buildings have been improved to attract customers to the antique businesses housed therein, the remainder need restoration. On weekends sightseers and antique shoppers park along the main...

McMillan, Frank N

1984-01-01

9

Bluff evolution along coastal drumlins: Boston Harbor Islands, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of partially drowned drumlins forms the backbone of the inner islands within Boston Harbor. The shoreline of these rounded glacial deposits is composed of actively retreating bluffs formed by continual wave attack. Comparisons of bluffs reveal variability in their height and lateral extent, as well as in the dominant mechanism causing their retreat. Two processes are responsible for bluff erosion and yield distinct bluff morphologies: (1) wave attack undercuts the bluff and causes episodic slumping, yielding planar bluff slopes, and (2) subaerial processes such as rainfall create irregular slopes characterized by rills and gullies. We propose a model of drumlin bluff evolution that is based on processes of erosion and physical characteristics such as bluff height, slope morphology, and the orientation of the bluff with respect to the long axis of the drumlin and its topographic crest. The four phases of drumlin bluff evolution consist of (1) initial formation of bluff, with retreat dominated by wave notching and slumping processes; (2) rill and gully development as bluff heights exceed 10 m and slumped sediment at bluff base inhibits wave attack; (3) return of wave notching and slumping as bluff heights decrease; and (4) final development of boulder retreat lag as last remnants of drumlin are eroded by wave action. These phases capture the important physical processes of drumlin evolution in Boston Harbor and could apply to other eroding coastal drumlin deposits.

Himmelstoss, E.A.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Rosen, P.S.; Allen, J.R.

2006-01-01

10

Calvert Cliffs tiger beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in RealPlayer, introduces students to the rare puritan tiger beetles that live in Maryland's Calvert Cliffs. The two and a half-minute clip addresses the beetle's lifecycle, focusing on its dependence on the area's beachside cliffs. A discussion of the beetle's reproduction and feeding behaviors is accompanied by footage of adult beetles on the shore and of larvae tunneling holes into the cliffs. An entomologist lists the conservation actions that need to be taken to remove the beetle from the state list of endangered species. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University Center for Technology in Ecducation

2004-01-01

11

Calvert Cliffs tiger beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in Windows Media Player, introduces students to the rare puritan tiger beetles that live in Maryland's Calvert Cliffs. The two and a half-minute clip addresses the beetle's lifecycle, focusing on its dependence on the area's beachside cliffs. A discussion of the beetle's reproduction and feeding behaviors is accompanied by footage of adult beetles on the shore and of larvae tunneling holes into the cliffs. An entomologist lists the conservation actions that need to be taken to remove the beetle from the state list of endangered species. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE)

2004-01-01

12

6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL RELIEF OF TRANSPORTATION BY AUTOMOBILE - Calvert Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

13

From Bluff to Backwater  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is an aerial view of Pool 7 of the Mississippi River south of Trempealeau, WI. This photo highlights the different habitats for plants and wildlife from the bluffs that parallel the river to its quiet backwaters. Balanced with that is the fact that the Mississippi River is a commercial highway ...

14

76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC is owned...Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC...indirect transfers of control would result from...Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the applicants...indirect transfer of control of the...

2011-07-07

15

33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 ...Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone...Guard Captain of the Port, Baltimore, Maryland. (2) Persons...

2010-07-01

16

33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 ...Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone...Guard Captain of the Port, Baltimore, Maryland. (2) Persons...

2013-07-01

17

33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 ...Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone...Guard Captain of the Port, Baltimore, Maryland. (2) Persons...

2014-07-01

18

33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 ...Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone...Guard Captain of the Port, Baltimore, Maryland. (2) Persons...

2012-07-01

19

33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 ...Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone...Guard Captain of the Port, Baltimore, Maryland. (2) Persons...

2011-07-01

20

76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee...Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...light-water nuclear power reactors,'' which requires...core designs, Framatome developed the M5 advanced fuel...

2011-01-10

21

A model of tephra dispersal from an early Palaeogene shallow submarine Surtseyan-style eruption(s), the Red Bluff Tuff Formation, Chatham Island, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Bluff Tuff Formation, an early Palaeogene volcano-sedimentary shallow marine succession from the Chatham Islands (New Zealand), provides a unique framework, in eastern 'Zealandia', to explore tephra dispersal processes associated with ancient small phreatomagmatic explosions (i.e. Surtseyan-style eruptions). Detailed sedimentological mapping, logging and sampling integrated with the results of extensive laboratory analyses (i.e. grain-size, componentry and applied palaeontological methods) elucidated the complex mechanisms of transport and deposition of nine identified resedimented fossiliferous volcaniclastic facies. These facies record the subaqueous reworking and deposition of tephra from the erosion and degradation of a proximal, entirely submerged ancient Surtseyan volcanic edifice (Cone II). South of this volcanic cone, the lowermost distal facies provides significant evidence of deposition as water-supported volcanic- or storm-driven mass flows (e.g. turbidity currents and mud/debris flows) of volcaniclastic and bioclastic debris, whereas the uppermost distal facies exhibit features of tractional sedimentary processes caused by shallow subaqueous currents. Further north, within the proximity of the volcanic edifice, the uppermost facies are represented by an abundant, diverse, large, and well preserved in situ fauna of shallow marine sessile invertebrates (e.g. corals and sponges) that reflect the protracted biotic stabiliszation and rebound following pulsed volcanic events. Over a period of time, these stable and wave-eroded volcanic platforms were inhabited by a flourishing and diversifying marine community of benthic and sessile pioneers (corals, bryozoans, molluscs, brachiopods, barnacles, sponges, foraminifera, etc.). This succession exhibits a vertical progression of sedimentary structures (i.e. density, cohesive and mass flows, and cross-bedding) and our interpretations indicate a shallowing upwards succession. This study reports for the first time mechanisms of degradation of a Surtseyan volcano on Chatham Islands and contributes to a better understanding of complex ancient volcano-sedimentary subaqueous terrains. This model of deposition (i.e. onlapping/overlapping features onto the remains of volcanic edifice(s), a vertical transition of structures from deeper- to shallower-marine environments, disaster faunas and subsequent preferential colonisation of diverse biota, including large in situ sessile invertebrates, on the summit), characterises an extraordinary example to be applied to other ancient subaqueous volcanic environments.

Sorrentino, Leonor; Stilwell, Jeffrey D.; Mays, Chris

2014-03-01

22

77 FR 34093 - License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's AGENCY: Nuclear...ISFSI) at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site near Lusby, Maryland...September 17, 2010, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (CCNPP)...

2012-06-08

23

A Bluff-Bidding Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consider an auction in which one potential buyer wishes to participate, but the other potential buyer would rather the bidding not start. However, once bidding starts, the reluctant firm participates (submits "bluff bids") simply to make the eventual winner pay more. This incentive exists when the marginal effect of the winning bid is to increase…

Meister, J. Patrick

2011-01-01

24

Gosses Bluff impact structure, Australia.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive study has been carried out of the Gosses Bluff structure in Central Australia, which is a typical cryptoexplosion structure. The study included detailed geologic mapping, and seismic reflection and refraction, gravity, aeromagnetic, and ground magnetic surveys. It is concluded that the structure is an eroded crater formed by a single nearly instantaneous shock event, and that the event can be explained only by impact.

Milton, D. J.; Barlow, B. C.; Brown, A. R.; Glikson, A. Y.; Manwaring, E. A.; Moss, F. J.; Sedmik, E. C. E.; Van Son, J.; Brett, R.; Young, G. A.

1972-01-01

25

77 FR 1748 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...regarding the application (COLA) by Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, L...located adjacent to the existing Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP), Units 1 and 2, near Lusby, Calvert County, Maryland. In addition, the Board...

2012-01-11

26

76 FR 29279 - Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and Unistar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Unit...EIS), NUREG- 1936, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP...located near the town of Lusby in Calvert County, Maryland, on the west shore of the...

2011-05-20

27

75 FR 31835 - Environmental Impact Statement: Calvert and St. Mary's Counties, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...St. Mary's Counties, MD AGENCY...replacement project in Calvert and St. Mary's Counties, Maryland (Federal Register...cooperation with the Maryland State Highway...2 to MD 235 in Calvert and St. Mary's Counties, a distance...

2010-06-04

28

Ray Lemoine, Cedar Bluffs Public Schools, Cedar Bluffs, NE 2008 Mineral Identification  

E-print Network

Ray Lemoine, Cedar Bluffs Public Schools, Cedar Bluffs, NE © 2008 Mineral Identification Materials is gray crystalline and one is red/yellow crystalline. They look vastly different but are all the same mineral. Then when I have the students identify the minerals, I throw in a red hematite sample, and a red

Frank, Tracy D.

29

The Vascular Flora of Cove Point, Calvert County, Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vascular flora of the Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Limited Partner- ship property at Cove Point, Calvert County, Maryland was surveyed from 1996 to 1999. A voucher specimen was collected for each taxon discovered and deposited in the herbarium of the Cove Point Natural Heritage Trust. A total of 698 species (705 taxa) from 383 genera in 119 families

BRENT W. S TEURY

30

Site Visit to Calvert County, Maryland ARC Family Support Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The site visit report describes the Family Support Services program run by the Calvert County (Maryland) Association for Retarded Citizens. The program's goal is to prevent any person 21 years of age or younger from being institutionalized. It provides respite care services, specialized family support, and integrated day care for approximately 50…

Bersani, Hank A., Jr.

31

The Hydrogen Economy as a Technological Bluff  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hydrogen economy is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen economy is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…

Vanderburg, Willem H.

2006-01-01

32

Conversations with Rep. Ken Calvert. Interview by Frank Sietzen Jr.  

PubMed

Rep. Calvert, chair of the House aeronautics and space subcommittee of the Science Committee, answers questions related to priorities for space in the current congressional session: the Vision for Space Exploration, development of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and other heavy-lift launch vehicles, entrepreneurial alliances in the space transportation industry, the U.S. aerospace industry, space tourism, entrepreneurs and NASA, U.S. aeronautics research, a service mission to the Hubble Space Telescope, and priority military space programs. PMID:16044613

Calvert, Ken

2005-07-01

33

77 FR 10784 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Operating License The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee...for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...under administrative controls for the purpose of...

2012-02-23

34

Variation in composition and abundance of Miocene shark teeth from Calvert Cliffs, Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shark teeth are the most common vertebrate fossils found along the western shore of Chesapeake Bay at Calvert Cliffs in Maryland. The stratigraphic distribution of teeth within the cliffs has not yet been documented. We utilized museum collections of in situ teeth to access their distribution within stratigraphic beds and a large selection of float teeth retrieved from Calvert County

Christy C. Visaggi; Stephen J. Godfrey

2010-01-01

35

24. Stereo view version of Southeast Light and Mohegan Bluffs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Stereo view version of Southeast Light and Mohegan Bluffs looking east from a distance, ca. 1890. From a contact print of a glass negative from the Mansfield Collection. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

36

Reading Jacques Ellul's "The Technological Bluff" in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a critical review of "The Technological Bluff," the last book on technology by Jacques Ellul. Although this work has attracted little attention, the concept of techno-logical bluff (1) provides a new perspective to understand contemporary technological society. After presenting Ellul's exposition of the concept of techno-logical…

Son, Wha-Chul

2004-01-01

37

76 FR 22935 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 72-8; NRC-2011-0085] Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC Independent Spent Fuel...Opportunity for a Hearing for Renewal of Special Nuclear Materials License No.-2505...

2011-04-25

38

75 FR 21372 - Calvert Social Investment Fund, et al.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 29209...812-13718] Calvert Social Investment Fund, et al.; Notice of Application...application under section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940...

2010-04-23

39

75 FR 60147 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...Branch, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation...Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (CCNPP...the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...Increases the maximum assembly average burnup limit...

2010-09-29

40

Scotts Bluff: Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located along the North Platte River Valley in Nebraska, the Scotts Bluff region is rich in history. The area was traversed by settlers on their way West throughout the 19th century, and it is the subject of this Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary created by the National Park Service. This Itinerary was produced in cooperation with the city of Scottsbluff, the city of Gering, the Nebraska State Historic Preservation Office, and the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers. As with the other itineraries in the series, this one includes a "List of Sites" (complete with information about their significance), maps, and thematic essays like "Trappers, Traders, and Travelers" and "Cultivation, Irrigation, and Urbanization". There are many highlights here, but visitors shouldn't miss the sections on the Morrill County Courthouse or the Marquis Opera House in Scottsbluff.

41

Overview from bluff east of facility. Note buildings #35 (left). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview from bluff east of facility. Note buildings #35 (left). #33 (center), and #31 A (right) VIEW WEST - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

42

76 FR 10581 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bluff Hub, LLC filed to revise its Statement of General Terms and Standard Operating Conditions to reflect the addition of Bobcat Gas Storage to the list of entities whose service agreements constitute a Valid Service Agreement as more fully described...

2011-02-25

43

15. GENERAL VEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING BLUFF, COAST GUARD'S HOUSE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. GENERAL VEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING BLUFF, COAST GUARD'S HOUSE, WARDEN'S HOUSE AND RUBBLE IN FOREGROUND - Alcatraz, Cell House, Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

44

Bluff Response in Glacial Till: South Shore of Lake Erie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bluff response to wave erosion was monitored from 1986 to 1998 at three sites along a 1.5 kilometre stretch of shoreline on the south shore of Lake Erie. This shoreline consists of bluffs ranging from five to 17 metres in height, developed in over-consolidated till. In 1986, during an eight-month field season, the study sites were monitored at one to

Shahalam M. N. Amin

45

Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas  

SciTech Connect

The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

1991-09-01

46

Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

2015-01-01

47

Bluff recession rates along the Lake Michigan shoreline in Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For two time periods, 1872-1937 and 1937-1987, rates of retreat vary from 10 to 75 cm/yr between discrete segments of bluffs (defined by lithology) and between time periods for a given bluff segment. The average retreat rates for the entire area, however, do not vary significantly between the two time periods and are approximately 20-25 cm/yr. The temporally constant regional retreat rates and the regular shape of the local shoreline indicate that a long-term uniform rate of retreat prevails and that local variations in rates balance out through time to produce long-term parallel (in map view) bluff retreat in the area. -from Authors

Jibson, R.W.; Staude, J.-M.

1992-01-01

48

Monitoring stream bluff erosion using repeat terrestrial laser scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology provides high-resolution topographic data that can be used to detect geomorphic change in fluvial environments. In this study, we utilize successive terrestrial laser scans to investigate the relationship between peak flow rates and stream bluff erosion in the Amity Creek watershed in Duluth, Minnesota. We also combine TLS scan results with bluff inventories from airborne lidar to estimate the volume of sediment erosion from bluffs in the watershed, which is an important source of fine sediment contributing to the creek's turbidity impairment. We selected nine study bluffs to conduct terrestrial laser scans on after all significant flood events over a two-year time period. The study employs a Faro Focus 3D phase-shift laser to collect data. Post-processing of the TLS-point cloud data sets involves: (1) removal of vegetation and objects other than the erosional surface of interest; (2) decimation of the point cloud in PC Tools and extraction of zmin values to produce a data set manageable in GIS; (3) creation of a bare earth digital elevation model (DEM) for each set of scans using ArcMap; and (4) utilization of Geomorphic Change Detection (GCD) software to generate DEMs of Difference (DODs) from subsequent terrestrial laser scans. Preliminary results from three flooding events indicate significant erosional activity at all field sites. Slumps were observed at two bluffs following spring melt and freeze/thaw cycling. Two major precipitation events in late spring and early summer provided a unique opportunity to observe the impact of extreme high flow events on bluff erosion throughout the watershed using TLS technology. 4.75 inches of intermittent rain over a six-day period in late May 2012 (May 23-28) resulted in slumping at many bluffs and one major failure. The ?100-year flood that occurred on June 19-20 (7.25 inches), 2012 was powerful enough to induce considerable channel change. Slumps occurred at six study sites, and at some locations, channel centerlines were permanently shifted by up to four to six meters. Additionally, all rebar control points were removed at four sites making post-flood data analysis challenging. Fortunately, adequate control remained at many bluffs, providing unique insight into geomorphic change that occurs in a fluvial setting during such a dramatic event.

Neitzel, G.; Gran, K. B.

2012-12-01

49

Projected dose probability distributions from hypothetical accidental releases at the Calvert Cliffs nuclear plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a set of scoping calculations for projected dose probability distributions resulting from postulated accidents at the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant. Accident dose descriptions were developed for the state of Maryland power plant siting program in response to recent recommendations regarding the establishment of emergency planning zones (EPZ) and proposed siting criteria. Dose calculations were made for

T. S. Margulies; T. W. Eagles

1980-01-01

50

Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of facility. Note Buildings #35. #33 and #31A in lower left of photograph. VIEW WEST - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

51

Learned Individual Recognition and Deceptive Communication: Do Crayfish Bluff Opponents?  

E-print Network

Abstract Learned Individual Recognition and Deceptive Communication: Do Crayfish Bluff Opponents examined the effects of molting and familiarity on crayfish aggressiveness. We found that some crayfish. Overall, there is no real evidence that crayfish increase their aggressiveness in order to alter

Childress, Michael J.

52

Jackson Bluff Hydroelectric Project: Final operation and maintenance report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jackson Bluff Hydroelectric Project is the first hydroelectric plant developed by the City of Tallahassee. The project is located on the Ochlockonee River approximately 66 miles upstream from its mouth at the Gulf of Mexico and approximately 20 miles west-southwest of the city of Tallahassee, Florida. The original hydroelectric generating facility with a total capacity of 8800 kw was

J. Hinton; F. deMontmollin

1988-01-01

53

Bluff body flow and vortex—its application to wind turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some interesting phenomena of vortex flows we have found in past experimental research are described. For a given flow configuration, multiple flow patterns can exist and a sudden change from one flow pattern to another can occur. We observed the alternate switching of the flow patterns with irregular periods around a bluff body. The change of vortex flow pattern around a bluff body with geometrical parameters or stratification is not always continuous but often shows a sudden change in the whole flow pattern. Based on our research on vortex flows, an innovative application of the vortex flow to a shrouded wind turbine is made in which the power output of a wind turbine is remarkably enhanced. Unlike the majority of conventional aerodynamic machinery, which tends to minimize vortex shedding, the vortex formation of our ‘brimmed’ shroud plays an important role in capturing and concentrating wind energy. Furthermore, aerodynamic noise is reduced in this design. The blade tip vortex is weakened by a counter-rotating vortex generated along the inner side of the shroud as they travel downstream, making the shrouded wind turbine much quieter than conventional turbines.

Ohya, Yuji

2014-12-01

54

78 FR 4467 - UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 (CCNPP Unit 3), and...Safeguard plans, and materials control and accounting inventory...

2013-01-22

55

Linking process-based measurements and observations with bluff recession estimates and inferred bluff erosion mechanisms on the Chukchi coast, North Slope, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work to the east of Pt. Barrow on the North Slope of Alaska's Arctic coast and along the Beaufort Sea coast has shown staggering rates of bluff recession. Bluff recession is also prevalent on the Chukchi Sea coast to the west of Pt. Barrow, but current knowledge suggests that the recession rates are smaller than those on the Beaufort

L. H. Erikson; C. D. Storlazzi; B. D. Collins

2009-01-01

56

Bluff-body flow simulations using vortex methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incompressible, viscous, two-dimensional unsteady flows over bluff bodies are simulated via the use of vortex methods. The vorticity domain is discretized into a number of Lagrangian point vortices. The vorticity transport equation is split into convection and diffusion parts, and each part is solved sequentially, rather than simultaneously, in each time step. The convection equation is solved using a ``vortex-in-cell'' method, and the diffusion equation is either simulated by a random walk method, or solved using a finite-difference ADI scheme. New vorticity is created on the body surface during each time step in order to satisfy the no-slip boundary condition. The no-flow boundary condition is satisfied through proper adjustment of the stream- function on the body surface. Impulsively started flow over an isolated circular cylinder is simulated, and early stages of flow development are studied. Also, the variation of force coefficients and vortex shedding frequency with Reynolds number for fully-developed flows are obtained. Transverse oscillations of a circular cylinder in a cross-flow are investigated, and a lock-in diagram is obtained. Effects of the frequency and amplitude of oscillation on force coefficients and Strouhal frequency are studied. In-line oscillations of a circular cylinder are also simulated, and a similar investigation is performed. Unsteady flow over elliptic cylinders at high angles of attack is simulated. A conformal transformation is used to map the body onto a unit circle, and computations are conducted in the transformed plane. Detailed information on the velocity and vorticity fields around stationary and pitching elliptic cylinders are given. The effects of several parameters on the flow field are investigated. The dynamic stall flow over a pitching NACA 0012 airfoil is simulated. A similar conformal transformation to that employed for the elliptic cylinder is also used in this case. The process of flow separation, vortex formation and release, and flow reattachment during pitching cycles are studied, through streamline and vorticity contour plots. Hysteresis loops for the force and pitching moment coefficients are obtained, and the effects of several parameters on the dynamic stall characteristics of the airfoil are investigated.

Akbari, Mohammad Hadi

57

Feedback Control Applied to the Bluff Body Wake  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the flow around a 2D bluff body with blunt stern is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The\\u000a goal is to decrease and stabilize drag by active control. Low-dimensional vortex models are used to describe actuation effects\\u000a on the coherent structures and the pressure field. Open-loop actuation as well as feedback control is applied using robust\\u000a H\\u000a ?-controllers

Lars Henning; Mark Pastoor; Rudibert King; Bernd R. Noack; Gilead Tadmor

58

Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite,

Lauf

1997-01-01

59

Age and correlation of the Pliocene Chowan River Formation of Virginia and northeastern North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on Aurora, North Carolina, radiometric ages and fossil assemblages, current literature equates the Chowan River and Bear Bluff formations. Age and correlation of the Pliocene Chowan River and Bear Bluff formations, assigning an age of approximately 2.5 ma. However, molluscan assemblages from the Chowan River stratotype and Virginian equivalents represent an older stage of molluscan assemblage evolution not contemperaneous

1993-01-01

60

33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation...REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and...

2014-07-01

61

33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation...REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and...

2013-07-01

62

33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation...REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and...

2012-07-01

63

33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation...REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and...

2011-07-01

64

33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170 Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla...times of high water, the discharge past the dam shall be regulated in such manner as...

2011-07-01

65

33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170 Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla...times of high water, the discharge past the dam shall be regulated in such manner as...

2013-07-01

66

33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170 Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla...times of high water, the discharge past the dam shall be regulated in such manner as...

2012-07-01

67

33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170 Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla...times of high water, the discharge past the dam shall be regulated in such manner as...

2014-07-01

68

Apparatus And Method For Reducing Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect Using Counter-Rotating Vortex Pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aerodynamic base drag reduction apparatus and method for bluff bodies, such as tractor-trailer trucks, utilizing a pair of lift surfaces extending to lift surface tips and located alongside the bluff body such as on opposing left and right side surfaces. In a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, the pair of lift surfaces generate

Jason M. Ortega; Kambiz Sabari

2005-01-01

69

Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis  

SciTech Connect

Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite, and diadochite. Additional specimens whose identification is more tentative include pickeringite, aluminite, basaluminite, and botryogen. Alum Cave is a ``Dana locality`` for apjohnite and potash alum, and is the first documented North American occurrence of slavikite.

Lauf, R.J.

1997-07-01

70

Fighting Online Click-Fraud Using Bluff Ads  

E-print Network

Online advertising is currently the greatest source of revenue for many Internet giants. The increased number of specialized websites and modern profiling techniques, have all contributed to an explosion of the income of ad brokers from online advertising. The single biggest threat to this growth, is however, click-fraud. Trained botnets and even individuals are hired by click-fraud specialists in order to maximize the revenue of certain users from the ads they publish on their websites, or to launch an attack between competing businesses. In this note we wish to raise the awareness of the networking research community on potential research areas within this emerging field. As an example strategy, we present Bluff ads; a class of ads that join forces in order to increase the effort level for click-fraud spammers. Bluff ads are either targeted ads, with irrelevant display text, or highly relevant display text, with irrelevant targeting information. They act as a litmus test for the legitimacy of the individual...

Haddadi, Hamed

2010-01-01

71

Coastal erosion: Processes, timing and magnitudes at the bluff toe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five Lake Erie bluffs (one interlaminated clay and silt, three clay-rich diamicts and one shale) were surveyed at about 2-week intervals and after wind storms for up to 5 years. Erosion of the bluff toes along this low-energy coast occurred during northeast wind storms, which produced surges of up to 1 m and surf-zone waves of up to 1.2 m. Wave impact and/or uprush caused quarrying, which removed most of the toe material, and abrasion. There were from 1 to 23 erosion events/sites, with maximum magnitudes of erosion ranging from 12 to 55 cm/event. Timing and magnitude were linked to erodibility, maximum water level, storm surge, storm duration and beach width. A threshold maximum water level and a threshold surge were necessary for erosion. At these thresholds, the beach was submerged and wave energy was directly expended on the toe. Erosion did not take place when there was shorefast ice or when debris slopes shielded the toe from waves. The originally cohesive toe materials are easily eroded when they weather to an essentially noncohesive state. Wave erosion is the crucial erosion process; removal of material from the toe prevents the development of a stable slope. ?? 1988.

Carter, C.H.; Guy, D.E., Jr.

1988-01-01

72

Blowoff dynamics of bluff body stabilized turbulent premixed flames  

SciTech Connect

This article concerns the flame dynamics of a bluff body stabilized turbulent premixed flame as it approaches lean blowoff. Time resolved chemiluminescence imaging along with simultaneous particle image velocimetry and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence were utilized in an axisymmetric bluff body stabilized, propane-air flame to determine the sequence of events leading to blowoff and provide a quantitative analysis of the experimental results. It was found that as lean blowoff is approached by reduction of equivalence ratio, flame speed decreases and the flame shape progressively changes from a conical to a columnar shape. For a stably burning conical flame away from blowoff, the flame front envelopes the shear layer vortices. Near blowoff, the columnar flame front and shear layer vortices overlap to induce high local stretch rates that exceed the extinction stretch rates instantaneously and in the mean, resulting in local flame extinction along the shear layers. Following shear layer extinction, fresh reactants can pass through the shear layers to react within the recirculation zone with all other parts of the flame extinguished. This flame kernel within the recirculation zone may survive for a few milliseconds and can reignite the shear layers such that the entire flame is reestablished for a short period. This extinction and reignition event can happen several times before final blowoff which occurs when the flame kernel fails to reignite the shear layers and ultimately leads to total flame extinguishment. (author)

Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Kostka, Stanislav; Renfro, Michael W.; Cetegen, Baki M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Road, U-3139, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

2010-04-15

73

Plasma actuators for bluff body flow control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamic plasma actuators have shown to be efficient flow control devices in various applications. In this study the results of flow control experiments utilizing single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators to control flow separation and unsteady vortex shedding from a circular cylinder in cross-flow are reported. This work is motivated by the need to reduce landing gear noise for commercial transport aircraft via an effective streamlining created by the actuators. The experiments are performed at Re D = 20,000...164,000. Circular cylinders in cross-flow are chosen for study since they represent a generic flow geometry that is similar in all essential aspects to a landing gear oleo or strut. The minimization of the unsteady flow separation from the models and associated large-scale wake vorticity by using actuators reduces the radiated aerodynamic noise. Using either steady or unsteady actuation at ReD = 25,000, Karman shedding is totally eliminated, turbulence levels in the wake decrease significantly and near-field sound pressure levels are reduced by 13.3 dB. Unsteady actuation at an excitation frequency of St D = 1 is found to be most effective. The unsteady actuation also has the advantage that total suppression of shedding is achieved for a duty cycle of only 25%. However, since unsteady actuation is associated with an unsteady body force and produces a tone at the actuation frequency, steady actuation is more suitable for noise control applications. Two actuation strategies are used at ReD = 82,000: spanwise and streamwise oriented actuators. Near field microphone measurements in an anechoic wind tunnel and detailed study of the near wake using LDA are presented in the study. Both spanwise and streamwise actuators give nearly the same noise reduction level of 11.2 dB and 14.2 dB, respectively, and similar changes in the wake velocity profiles. The contribution of the actuator induced noise is found to be small compared to the natural shedding noise. A tandem cylinder configuration with the plasma actuation on the upstream cylinder is investigated using surface dynamic pressure sensors. As a result of the plasma actuation, the surface pressure fluctuations on the downstream cylinder are reduced by about two times at the free-stream velocity of 40 m/s (ReD = 164,000). In addition, this study presents the results of a parametric experimental investigation aimed at optimizing the body force produced by single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators used for aerodynamic flow control. A primary goal of the study is the improvement of actuator authority for flow control applications at higher Reynolds number than previously possible. The study examines the effects of dielectric material and thickness, applied voltage amplitude and frequency, voltage waveform, exposed electrode geometry, covered electrode width and multiple actuator arrays. The metric used to evaluate the performance of the actuator in each case is the measured actuator-induced thrust which is proportional to the total body force. It is demonstrated that actuators constructed with thick dielectric material of low dielectric constant and operated at low frequency AC voltage produce a body force that is an order of magnitude larger than that obtained by the Kapton-based actuators used in many previous plasma flow control studies. These actuators allow operation at much higher applied voltages without the formation of discrete streamers which lead to body force saturation.

Kozlov, Alexey V.

74

Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report  

SciTech Connect

The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

1991-09-01

75

Monitoring of Coastal Bluffs Using 3-D Laser Scanning and Conventional Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal bluffs located south of San Francisco, California attract continuous attention due to the size and nature of their episodic failures both from large winter storms and from seismic shaking. Observations made by numerous researchers coupled with recent failures have led to a renewed interest in establishing proper set-back distances for future construction. However, data describing the size, volume, and geological setting of the bluff failures has not been collected as yet in this area. This is a limiting factor to developing models capable of analyzing these failures. To measure the size and volumetric change of these coastal bluff failures, we utilize a three-dimensional laser scanning system setup on the beach facing the bluff and capable of collecting 6000 data points per second of bluff face. The data is then post-processed to form a digital terrain model (DTM). The high resolution of the constructed DTM allows for the capture of small features of the evolving bluff face. We aim to scan the bluffs at least four times during the coming winter storm season so that scans can be overlaid with one another. This will allow for the measurement of volumetric change in the bluff as well as provide understanding of the failure morphology over time and due to the related failure mechanism (rainfall, groundwater seepage, wave erosion, etc.). In addition we are using a GPS-based digital mapping system that allows for the collection of pertinent information including lithology, joint structure, and failure planes. Active portions of the bluffs are currently being mapped both on aerial photographs and oblique photos taken from the beach level. Mapped oblique photos are then overlain on the DTM created using the 3-D laser.

Collins, B. D.; Sitar, N.

2002-12-01

76

Thermal Modeling of NUHOMS HSM-15 and HSM-1 Storage Modules at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station ISFSI  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the Department of Energy (DOE), visual inspections and temperature measurements were performed on two storage modules in the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station’s Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Detailed thermal models models were developed to obtain realistic temperature predictions for actual storage systems, in contrast to conservative and bounding design basis calculations.

Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Collins, Brian A.; Siciliano, Edward R.

2012-10-01

77

Visualization of turbulence in flow about a bluff body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A visual diagnostic investigation of turbulence in flow about a circular cylinder was conducted in order to gain a physical insight into the model for the structure of turbulence in flow around a bluff body advanced by the vorticity-amplification theory. A frame-by-frame qualitative and quantitative examination of selected movie strips over time intervals up to more than 800 ms was performed. The selective stretching of cross-vortex tubes, their streamwise tilting, the emergence of an organized turbulent flow pattern near the stagnation zone and the growth of a turbulent boundary layer were clearly revealed by the visualization. In particular, the visualization indicated that the cross-vortex tubes conveyed by the diverging stagnation flow constitute a coherent substructure within the overall turbulent flow that is triggered to its fullest manifestation by the stretching mechanism.

Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.

1979-01-01

78

Calculations of a Turbulent Bluff-Body Stabilized Flame , S. B. Pope and D. A. Caughey  

E-print Network

- 1 - Calculations of a Turbulent Bluff-Body Stabilized Flame K. Liu* , S. B. Pope and D. A to boundary conditions and model constants. At TNF6, Liu et al. [11] have shown results for this flame using

79

78 FR 39310 - Niobrara Confluence and Ponca Bluffs Conservation Areas, NE and SD; Draft Environmental Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Niobrara Confluence and Ponca Bluffs Conservation Areas, NE and SD; Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Land Protection Plan...Recreational River Headquarters, 508 East 2nd Street, Yankton, SD 57078. Mail: Nick Kaczor, USFWS, Division of Refuge...

2013-07-01

80

40 CFR 81.50 - Metropolitan Omaha-Council Bluffs Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Metropolitan Omaha-Council Bluffs Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.50 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.50...

2010-07-01

81

Water Balance, Salt Loading, and Salinity Control Options of Red Bluff Reservoir, Texas  

E-print Network

TR- 298 2007 Water Balance, Salt Loading, and Salinity Control Options of Red Bluff Reservoir, Texas by S. Miyamoto, Fasong Yuan, and Shilpa Anand Agricultural Research and Extension Center at El Paso Texas... Agricultural Experiment Station The Texas A&M University System Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University WATER BALANCE, SALT LOADING, AND SALINITY CONTROL OPTIONS OF RED BLUFF RESERVOIR, TEXAS S. Miyamoto, Fasong...

Miyamoto, S.; Yuan, Fasong; Anand, Shilpa

82

Extreme rates of riverbank erosion of the high bluff formed by the ice-rich syngenetic permafrost (yedoma), Itkillik River, Northern Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riverbank erosion in areas underlain by ice-rich permafrost is strongly affected by the processes of thawing of ground ice, which include (1) thermal erosion, and (2) thermal denudation. Thermal erosion is a process of combined thermal and mechanical action of moving water, which results in simultaneous thawing of frozen soil and its removal by water. Thermal erosion can cause block collapse of eroded banks. Thermal denudation is a process of thawing of frozen soils exposed in the bluff due to solar energy and consequent removal of thawed soils by gravity. Studies of riverbank and coastal erosion revealed that the highest rates of erosion are typical of bluffs composed by yedoma (ice- and organic-rich syngenetically frozen silty deposits). Yedoma deposits can be up to 50 m thick, and they contain huge ice wedges up to 10 m wide. Since 2006, we have studied the process of riverbank erosion of the 35 m high exposure of yedoma along the Itkillik River in northern Alaska. Based on five measurements of the areas occupied by wedge ice in panoramic photographs taken in 2006, 2007, 2011, and 2012, the average wedge-ice volume makes 61% of the entire exposed bluff. The total volumetric ground ice content of the Itkillik yedoma, including wedge, segregated and pore ice, is 85%. We detect three main stages of the riverbank erosion for the study site and other similar sites in the areas of ice-rich permafrost: (1) thermal erosion combined with thermal denudation, (2) thermal denudation, and (3) slope stabilization. The first stage includes formation of thermoerosional niches; development of sub-vertical cracks and block-fall collapse of cornices; and thawing and disintegration of blocks of ground ice and frozen soil in the water. All these processes are accompanied by thermal denudation of the exposed bluff. On August 16, 2007, a big portion of the bluff fell down along the crack sub-parallel to the bluff. As a result, the vertical wall more than 65 m long entirely formed by the wedge ice was exposed. This block-fall affected the area of approximately 800 m2, and the volume of frozen soil and ice involved in the block-fall was about 15,000 m3. The riverbank retreat due to thermal erosion and/or thermal denudation, measured from August 2007 to August 2011, varied from less than 10 to almost 100 m. An estimated retreat rate average for the whole 680 m long bluff was 11.4 m/year, but for the most actively eroded central part of the bluff (150 m long) it was 20.3 m/year, ranging from 16 to 24 m/year. During these 4 years, about 650,000 m3 of ice and organic-rich frozen soil were transported to the river from the retreating bank (more than 160,000 m3/year). Analysis of aerial photographs (1948-1979) and satellite images (1974-2013) showed that the riverbank was relatively stable till July 1995, when the Itkillik River changed its course and triggered extremely active thermal erosion. The total retreat of the riverbank in 1995-2010 varied from 180 to 280 m, which means that the average retreat rate for the most actively eroded part of the riverbank reached almost 19 m/year. Such a high rate of riverbank erosion over a long time period has not been reported before for any permafrost regions of Eurasia and North America.

Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Shur, Y.; Fortier, D.; Jorgenson, T.; Stephani, E.; Strauss, J.

2013-12-01

83

Apparatus And Method For Reducing Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect Using Counter-Rotating Vortex Pairs  

DOEpatents

An aerodynamic base drag reduction apparatus and method for bluff bodies, such as tractor-trailer trucks, utilizing a pair of lift surfaces extending to lift surface tips and located alongside the bluff body such as on opposing left and right side surfaces. In a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, the pair of lift surfaces generate a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices which confluence together in the wake of the bluff body in a direction orthogonal to the flowstream. The confluence draws or otherwise turns the flowstream, such as the flowstream passing over a top surface of the bluff body, in and around behind a trailing end of the bluff body to raise the pressure on a base surface at the trailing end and thereby reduce the aerodynamic base drag.

Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Salari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA)

2005-08-09

84

Apparatus And Method For Reducing Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect Using Counter-Rotating Vortex Pairs  

DOEpatents

An aerodynamic base drag reduction apparatus and method for bluff bodies, such as tractor-trailer trucks, utilizing a pair of lift surfaces extending to lift surface tips and located alongside the bluff body such as on opposing left and right side surfaces. In a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, the pair of lift surfaces generate a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices which confluence together in the wake of the bluff body in a direction orthogonal to the flowstream. The confluence draws or otherwise turns the flowstream, such as the flowstream passing over a top surface of the bluff body, in and around behind a trailing end of the bluff body to raise the pressure on a base surface at the trailing end and thereby reduce the aerodynamic base drag.

Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Sabari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA)

2005-12-27

85

Late Wisconsinan sub-glacial clastic intrusive sheets along Lake Erie bluffs, at Bradtville, Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous clastic intrusive sheets, a few decimetres to more than 16 m long, 1-120 cm thick, and extending one to more than 25 m laterally, occur along a 350 m long section of the late Wisconsinan Catfish Creek Drift in the Lake Erie bluffs at Bradtville, southwestern Ontario. Most of them are downglacier-dipping dikes, the largest one terminating in the underlying middle Wisconsinan Tyrconnell Formation. Most dikes strike NNE-SSW, at right angles to the local direction of glacier movement during the deposition of Catfish Creek Drift. The tops of some of them are truncated or displaced downglacier by shearing. The main concentration of clastic intrusive sheets is on the upglacier side of a glaciotectonically folded anticline of Tyrconnell Formation clays and silts underlying the Catfish Creek Drift. The host sediments are Catfish Creek till, gravel, sand and silt, and Tyrconnell Formation silt and clay. Most intrusive sheets, particularly the small to medium ones, consist of massive to crudely laminated sand and silt, intruded from below by a dewatering process. The largest dike reflects in its composition mainly the adjoining or higher-lying host-sediment materials, and its main part was formed by downward infilling, or by gravity flows into an open fracture. The large dike is flanked by small laminated silty sand sheets and several small apophyses, some of them injected downward and sideways, others upward by dewatering. The clastic intrusive sheets were formed under a moving glacier, the Erie lobe, probably both at the beginning and towards the end of the deposition of Catfish Creek till. Their location and position was predetermined by glaciotectonically induced listric planar structures and zones of weakness, mainly tension fractures, that strike transverse to glacier movement and dip downglacier and also by confinement of pore-water in a permeable sediment wedge between the less pervious Tyrconnell Formation and massive Catfish Creek basal till.

Dreimanis, Aleksis; Rappol, Martin

1997-07-01

86

Decade-scale coastal bluff retreat from LiDAR data: Lake Erie coast of Pennsylvania, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bluff retreat is a significant problem along many parts of the southern Great Lakes coastline of the United States. On the Pennsylvania coast of Lake Erie, where semi-consolidated clay-rich glacial till sequences overlie bedrock, erosion of the bluffs results in a permanent loss of fine-grained sediment from the coastal zone. Bluff retreat is of concern to coastal property owners and

A. M. Foyle; M. D. Naber

2010-01-01

87

Laboratory measurements of upwelled radiance and reflectance spectra of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effort to investigate the potential of remote sensing for monitoring nonpoint source pollution was conducted. Spectral reflectance characteristics for four types of soil sediments were measured for mixture concentrations between 4 and 173 ppm. For measurements at a spectral resolution of 32 mm, the spectral reflectances of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments were distinctly different over the wavelength range from 400 to 980 nm at each concentration tested. At high concentrations, spectral differences between the various sediments could be detected by measurements with a spectral resolution of 160 nm. At a low concentration, only small differences were observed between the various sediments when measurements were made with 160 nm spectral resolution. Radiance levels generally varied in a nonlinear manner with sediment concentration; linearity occurred in special cases, depending on sediment type, concentration range, and wavelength.

Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Gurganus, E. A.

1977-01-01

88

Thermal Modeling Studies for Active Storage Modules in the Calvert Cliffs ISFSI  

SciTech Connect

Temperature measurements obtained for two storage modules in the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station’s Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) as part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the Department of Energy (DOE) were used to perform validation and sensitivity studies on detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the concrete storage modules, including the dry storage canister within the modules. The storage modules in the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station’s ISFSI are a site-specific version of the standard NUHOMS® HSM. The two modules inspected each contained a 24P DSC loaded with 24 CE 14x14 spent fuel assemblies. The thermal analysis was performed using the STAR-CCM+ package, and the models developed for the specific ISFSI modules yielded temperature predictions in actual storage conditions for the concrete structure, the DSC and its contents, including preliminary estimates of fuel cladding temperatures for the used nuclear fuel. The results of this work demonstrate that existing CFD modeling tools can be used to obtain reasonable and accurate detailed representations of spent fuel storage systems with realistic decay heat loadings when the model omits specific conservatisms and bounding assumptions normally used in design-basis and safety-basis calculations. This paper presents sensitivity studies on modeling detail (for the storage module and the DSC), boundary conditions, and decay heat load, to evaluate the effect of the modeling approach on predicted temperatures and temperature distributions. Because nearly all degradation mechanisms for materials and structures comprising dry storage and transportation systems are dependent on temperature, accurate characterization of local temperatures and temperature gradients that the various components of these systems will experience over the entire storage period has been identified as a primary requirement for evaluation of very long term storage of used nuclear fuel.

Adkins, Harold E.; Fort, James A.; Suffield, Sarah R.; Cuta, Judith M.; Collins, Brian A.

2013-06-14

89

Bluff Body Flow Control Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of an experimental investigation involving the use of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators to control bluff body flow is presented. The motivation for the work is plasma landing gear noise control for commercial transport aircraft. For these flow control experiments, the cylinder in cross-flow is chosen for study since it represents a generic flow geometry that is similar in all essential aspects to a landing gear strut. The current work is aimed both at extending the plasma flow control concept to Reynolds numbers typical of landing approach and take-off and on the development of optimum plasma actuation strategies. The cylinder wake flow with and without actuation are documented in detail using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and constant temperature hot-wire anemometry. The experiments are performed over a Reynolds number range extending to ReD=10^5. Using either steady or unsteady plasma actuation, it is demonstrated that even at the highest Reynolds number Karman shedding is totally eliminated and turbulence levels in the wake decrease by more than 50%. By minimizing the unsteady flow separation from the cylinder and associated large-scale wake vorticity, the radiated aerodynamic noise is also reduced.

Thomas, Flint; Kozlov, Alexey

2008-11-01

90

Short-Term Bluff Recession Behavior Along Pennsylvania's Great Lakes Coastline, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal bluff retreat is a common problem along the world's unconsolidated coastlines. On the Great Lakes coast of Pennsylvania, Quaternary clay-rich glacial till, paleo-lake plain, and sandy strandplain sequences overlie Devonian bedrock. These Quaternary strata are subject to subaerial and lacustrine erosional processes that cause permanent coastal land loss at spatially variable rates, with the former (runoff, slumping, groundwater focusing, etc) dominating over the latter (wave and current scour, abrasion, etc). Land loss is of concern to environmental agencies because land-use planning should account for spatial and temporal variability in land-loss rates, and because bluff erosion contributes to a temporary degradation in coastal water quality. The goal of this study is to evaluate spatial variability in bluff retreat rates along a 20 km sector of Pennsylvania's short Great Lakes coast. High resolution LiDAR data covering a one-decade time frame (1998-2007) permit bluff-crest mapping on two comparable data sets that captures change within a timeframe similar to CZM planning intervals. Short-term recession data can be more useful, cost-effective, and accurate than long-term analyses that use lower-resolution field measurements, T-sheets, and historical aerial photography. Bluffs along the 20 km coastal study site consist of up to 26 m of unlithified Quaternary sediments overlying a 1-4 m ledge of sub-horizontal Devonian shale and sandstone. Bluff slopes range from 20-90 degrees, beaches are narrow (<8 m wide) or absent, and the bluffs are seasonally shielded by ground-freeze and lake ice. DEMs, hillshades, and slope and contour maps were generated from bare-earth 1998 and 2007 LiDAR data, and checked against 2005 aerial ortho-photography. Maps were analyzed at a scale of 1:120 in ArcGIS and the bluff crest was identified primarily by the visual-break-in-slope method. Rates of bluff retreat derived using DSAS vary from unresolvable to as much as 2.2 m/yr, averaging less than 0.3 m/yr which is consistent with known long-term rates. Very-short term rates of recession can locally exceed 11 m/yr. In general, bluffs retreat relatively linearly where poorly-vegetated glacial till dominates the bluff stratigraphy, while along higher-elevation strandplain-capped bluff sections, rotational earth slumps (<100 m diameter) are well developed. Retreat rates are highest at slump areas and at 1st - 2nd order ravines (100-300 m in length). Both of these settings are associated with focused groundwater discharge from thin lake plain and strandplain aquifers in particular. Other factors do influence bluff retreat temporally, but are not important at the scale of this study.

Foyle, A. M.; Naber, M. D.; Pluta, M. J.

2011-12-01

91

Near-Blowoff Dynamics of a Bluff-Body Stabilized Flame Woodward Industrial Controls, Fort Collins, Colorado 80525  

E-print Network

, they are often used in fundamental studies of turbulent flame characteristics [4] or as computational test casesNear-Blowoff Dynamics of a Bluff-Body Stabilized Flame Suraj Nair Woodward Industrial Controls-blowoff, bluff-body stabilized flame. This work is motivated by a number of prior observations showing that near

Lieuwen, Timothy C.

92

National Assessment of Historical Shoreline Change: A Pilot Study of Historical Coastal Bluff Retreat in the Great Lakes, Erie, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal bluff retreat is a chronic problem along many high-relief coastlines in the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regard-ing trends and rates of bluff retreat. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To address these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards Project, conducted a pilot study of bluff retreat along the Lake Erie, Pa., coastline to assess the feasibility of undertaking a larger, multi-state analysis in the Great Lakes region. This report provides an overview of the pilot-study location and bluff geomorphology, the data sources and methodology, results of the analysis, and a discussion of the feasibility of undertaking a similar analysis along eroding bluffs in other Great Lakes states. This pilot study is part of an ongoing effort by the USGS to provide a comprehensive analysis of historical shoreline change and cliff and bluff retreat along open-ocean coastlines of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of the work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing coastal change so that systematic and consistent periodic updates of coastal erosion can be made nationally. Bluff-retreat evaluations are conducted by comparing the location of a historical bluff edge digitized from aerial photographs with those of recent bluff edges interpreted from both aerial photographs and lidar topographic surveys. The historical bluff edge is from 1938, whereas the more recent bluff edges are from 1998 and 2006 lidar data. Long-term (68-year) rates of retreat are calculated using the available bluff-edge data. The rates of retreat presented in this report represent conditions from the 1930s to 1998/2006, and are not intended for predicting future bluff-edge positions or rates of retreat. The report presents bluff-retreat rates for 32 km of a 60-km stretch along the Lake Erie, Pa., coastline. Data are discontinuous due to gaps in source data and lack of continuous bluffs. The average rate of coastal bluff retreat for the Lake Erie, Pa., bluffs was -0.3 +- 0.1 m/yr (retreat rates are presented as negative numbers in this report), based on rates averaged from 1,595 individual transects. Retreat rates generally were lowest where bedrock outcrops are exposed as the basal unit in the bluff. The highest rates are associated with anthropogenic activities, including jetties that trap littoral sediment, depleting a source of material for the natural replenishment of protective beaches downcoast, and extensive irrigation of farmlands on the tops of the bluffs, which can destabilize bluffs by enhancing ground-water outflow.

Hapke, Cheryl J.; Malone, Shamus; Kratzmann, Meredith

2009-01-01

93

Alteration of volcaniclastic deposits at Minna Bluff: Geochemical insights on mineralizing environment and climate during the Late Miocene in Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

minerals in volcaniclastic deposits at Minna Bluff, a 45 km long peninsula in the Ross Sea, are used to infer processes of alteration and environmental conditions in the Late Miocene. Glassy volcaniclastic deposits are altered and contain phillipsite and chabazite, low to high-Mg carbonates, chalcedony, and clay. The ?18O of carbonates and chalcedony is variable, ranging from -0.50 to 21.53‰ and 0.68 to 10.37‰, respectively, and ?D for chalcedony is light (-187.8 to -220.6‰), corresponding to Antarctic meteoric water. A mean carbonate 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70327 ± 0.0009 (1?, n = 12) is comparable to lava and suggests freshwater, as opposed to seawater, caused the alteration. Minerals were precipitated at elevated temperatures (91 and 104°C) based on quartz-calcite equilibrium, carbonate 13C-18C thermometry (?47 derived temperature = 5° to 43°C) and stability of zeolites in geothermal systems (>10 to ˜100°C). The alteration was a result of isolated, ephemeral events involving the exchange between heated meteoric water and glass during or soon after the formation of each deposit. Near-surface evaporative distillation can explain 18O-enriched compositions for some Mg-rich carbonates and chalcedony. The ?18Owater calculated for carbonates (-15.8 to -22.9‰) reveals a broad change, becoming heavier between ˜12 and ˜7 Ma, consistent with a warming climate. These findings are independently corroborated by the interpretation of Late Miocene sedimentary sequences recovered from nearby sediment cores. However, in contrast to a cold-based thermal regime proposed for ice flow at core sites, wet-based conditions prevailed at Minna Bluff; a likely consequence of high heat flow associated with an active magma system.

Antibus, Joanne V.; Panter, Kurt S.; Wilch, Thomas I.; Dunbar, Nelia; McIntosh, William; Tripati, Aradhna; Bindeman, Ilya; Blusztajn, Jerzy

2014-08-01

94

Preventing Bluff Agent Invasions in Honest Societies Robert Lowe and Daniel Polani  

E-print Network

is the threat of an elevated punishment or cost. Statistics from the ``British Crime Survey 2000 capable of imposing a `punishment' cost on bluffer agents. We found that in order for honest signalling to be immune to invasion by a bluff strategy, the number of punishment enforcers in the society must be high

Polani, Daniel

95

Maastrichtian ammonites chiefly from the Prairie Bluff Chalk in Alabama and Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Prairie Bluff Chalk of Alabama and Mississippi yields a diverse ammonite fauna of Maastrichtian age. Twenty-eight species, of which three are new, are recorded. The bulk of the fauna can be referred to a Discoscaphites conradi assemblage zone, but some elements in the fauna are significantly older. -Authors

Cobban, W.A.; Kennedy, W.J.

1995-01-01

96

Streakline-based closed-loop control of a bluff body flow Pablo Roca,1  

E-print Network

model is built from these images and a Generalized Predictive Controller (GPC) algorithm is usedStreakline-based closed-loop control of a bluff body flow Pablo Roca,1 Thomas Duriez,1 Ada closed-loop control methodology is introduced to stabilize a cylinder wake flow based on images

Mathelin, Lionel

97

Flow field in the wake of a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wake produced by a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow is studied experimentally in a water facility using particle image velocimetry. The bluff body has a rectangular cross section of height, , and width, , such that the aspect ratio, AR = H/ D, is equal to 3. The motion of the bluff body is uniform and rectilinear, and corresponds to a Reynolds number based on width, Re D = 9,600. The recirculating flow is confined within a hemicylindrical enclosure and is generated by planar jets emanating from slots of width, , such that . Under these conditions, experiments are performed in a closed-loop facility that enables complete optical access to the near-wake. Velocity fields are obtained up to a distance of downstream of the moving body. Data include a selection of phase-averaged velocity fields representative of the wake for a baseline case (no recirculation) and an interaction case (with recirculation). Results indicate that the transient downwash flow typically observed in wakes behind finite bodies of small aspect ratio is significantly perturbed by the recirculating flow. The wake is displaced from the ground plane and exhibits a shorter recirculation zone downstream of the body. In summary, it was found that the interaction between a bluff body wake and a recirculating flow pattern alters profoundly the dynamics of the wake, which has implications on scalar transport in the wake.

Poussou, Stephane B.; Plesniak, Michael W.

2015-02-01

98

Investigating vortex streets behind real and virtual bluff bodies: An experiment for an advanced undergraduate laboratory  

E-print Network

laboratory and to introduce students to methods of dimensional analysis. While the experiment is simple1 Investigating vortex streets behind real and virtual bluff bodies: An experiment for an advanced@physics.mun.ca Abstract This paper describes a laboratory experiment designed to study regular arrays of vortices

deYoung, Brad

99

Twin solution calorimeter determines heats of formation of alloys at high temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calvert-type, twin liquid metal solution calorimeter determines the heats of formation of transition metal alloys at high temperatures. The twin differential calorimeter measures the small heat effects generated over extended periods of time, has maximum operating temperature of 1073 degrees K and an automatic data recording system.

Darby, J. B., Jr.; Kleb, R.; Kleppa, O. J.

1968-01-01

100

Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Surtsey Test Facility is used to perform scaled experiments simulating High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The experiments investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load. The results from Zion and Surry experiments can be extrapolated to other Westinghouse plants, but predicted containment loads cannot be generalized to all Combustion Engineering (CE) plants. Five CE plants have melt dispersal flow paths which circumvent the main mitigation of containment compartmentalization in most Westinghouse PWRs. Calvert Cliff-like plant geometries and the impact of codispersed water were addressed as part of the DCH issue resolution. Integral effects tests were performed with a scale model of the Calvert Cliffs NPP inside the Surtsey test vessel. The experiments investigated the effects of codispersal of water, steam, and molten core stimulant materials on DCH loads under prototypic accident conditions and plant configurations. The results indicated that large amounts of coejected water reduced the DCH load by a small amount. Large amounts of debris were dispersed from the cavity to the upper dome (via the annular gap). 22 refs., 84 figs., 30 tabs.

Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.

1997-02-01

101

Coccidioidomycosis in Northern California. An outbreak among archeology students near Red Bluff.  

PubMed

An outbreak of coccidioidomycosis occurred among 39 archeology students in the summer of 1972. The students excavated Indian ruins near Red Bluff in Tehama County, California, 20 miles north of the previously recognized northernmost limit of endemicity. At least 17 persons contracted an illness clinically compatible with a diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. Coccidioidomycosis was documented by skin test conversion as well as by specific serologic reactions. Coccidioides immitis was also isolated from two soil samples taken at the excavation site. In light of its ecological requirements, it is doubtful that C. immitis will be recovered much farther north than Red Bluff. The occupational hazard of coccidioidomycosis to archeologists and others employed in known endemic areas remains a substantial threat to health. PMID:4733266

Werner, S B; Pappagianis, D

1973-09-01

102

Coccidioidomycosis in Northern California—An Outbreak among Archeology Students near Red Bluff  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of coccidioidomycosis occurred among 39 archeology students in the summer of 1972. The students excavated Indian ruins near Red Bluff in Tehama County, California, 20 miles north of the previously recognized northernmost limit of endemicity. At least 17 persons contracted an illness clinically compatible with a diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. Coccidioidomycosis was documented by skin test conversion as well as by specific serologic reactions. Coccidioides immitis was also isolated from two soil samples taken at the excavation site. In light of its ecological requirements, it is doubtful that C. immitis will be recovered much farther north than Red Bluff. The occupational hazard of coccidioidomycosis to archeologists and others employed in known endemic areas remains a substantial threat to health. PMID:4733266

Werner, S. Benson; Pappagianis, Demosthenes

1973-01-01

103

Numerical Investigation of a Bluff-Body Stabilised Nonpremixed Flame with Differential Reynolds-Stress Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical investigation of a bluff-body stabilised nonpremixedflame, and the corresponding nonreacting flow, has been performed withdifferential Reynolds-stress models (DRSMs). The equilibrium chemistry model is employed and an assumed-shape beta function PDFapproach is used to represent the interaction between turbulence andchemistry. The Reynolds flux of the mixture fraction is obtained from atransport equation, hence a full second moment closure is

Guoxiu Li; Bertrand Naud; Dirk Roekaerts

2003-01-01

104

Modeling erosion of ice-rich permafrost bluffs along the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic climate is changing, inducing accelerating retreat of ice-rich permafrost coastal bluffs. Along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast, erosion rates have increased roughly threefold from 6.8 to 19 m yr-1 since 1955 while the sea ice-free season has increased roughly twofold from 45 to 100 days since 1979. We develop a numerical model of bluff retreat to assess the relative roles of the length of sea ice-free season, sea level, water temperature, nearshore wavefield, and permafrost temperature in controlling erosion rates in this setting. The model captures the processes of erosion observed in short-term monitoring experiments along the Beaufort Sea coast, including evolution of melt notches, topple of ice wedge-bounded blocks, and degradation of these blocks. Model results agree with time-lapse imagery of bluff evolution and time series of ocean-based instrumentation. Erosion is highly episodic with 40% of erosion is accomplished during less than 5% of the sea ice-free season. Among the formulations of the submarine erosion rate we assessed, we advocate those that employ both water temperature and nearshore wavefield. As high water levels are a prerequisite for erosion, any future changes that increase the frequency with which water levels exceed the base of the bluffs will increase rates of coastal erosion. The certain increases in sea level and potential changes in storminess will both contribute to this effect. As water temperature also influences erosion rates, any further expansion of the sea ice-free season into the midsummer period of greatest insolation is likely to result in an additional increase in coastal retreat rates.

Barnhart, Katherine R.; Anderson, Robert S.; Overeem, Irina; Wobus, Cameron; Clow, Gary D.; Urban, Frank E.

2014-05-01

105

3D unsteady RANS simulation of turbulent flow over bluff body by non-linear model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To perform 3D unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations to predict turbulent flow over bluff body. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Turbulence closure is achieved through a non-linear k?? model. This model is incorporated in commercial FLUENT software, through user defined functions (UDF). Findings – The study shows that the present URANS with standard wall functions predicts all the major unsteady

V. Ramesh; S. Vengadesan; J. L. Narasimhan

2006-01-01

106

The structure of the recirculation zone of a bluff-body combustor  

SciTech Connect

The instantaneous mixing and reactive scalar fields have been measured in the recirculation zones of turbulent non-premixed flames stabilized on a bluff body, using the spontaneous Raman scattering technique. The measured means and rms fluctuations of mixture fraction, temperature, and the mass fractions of stable species are presented for various axial locations in the recirculation zone of CH{sub 4}/CO and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} flames. The diameters of the bluff body and the central fuel jet are 50 and 2 mm, respectively. Both flames are about 40 cm in length and have a full, luminous recirculation zone that extends for about one bluff-body diameter from the exit plane. Two regions of almost homogeneous mixture are identified within the recirculation zone: A large outer region, which on average is fuel lean, and an inner region, which is smaller and closer to the central fuel jet. Combustion is more intense in the inner region, where mean mixture fraction is stoichiometric and the peak values for temperature and mass fractions of combustion products are reached. Finite-rate chemical kinetic effects exist but not a high enough levels to cause localized extinction in the recirculation zone.

Masri, A.R.; Dally, B.B. [Univ. of Sydney (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering; Barlow, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Carter, C.D. [Systems Research Labs., Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

1994-12-31

107

Alternative drag coefficient in the wake of an isolated bluff body.  

PubMed

An alternative drag coefficient Cda [=F[over]/(1/2rhoUinfinity2UinfinityTs)] , is proposed for an isolated bluff-body wake, where F[over] is the drag force on the body per unit length, U_{infinity} is the free-stream velocity, rho is the density of fluid, and Ts is the vortex shedding period. Theoretical analysis presently conducted indicates that, while the conventional drag coefficient Cd [=F[over]/(1/2rhoUinfinity2d)] may be interpreted as the intensity of the mean kinetic energy deficit distributed over the characteristic length of cylinder height d , Cda is the intensity of the mean kinetic energy deficit distributed over the characteristic length of the Karman vortex wavelength UinfinityTs . Therefore, Cda may be considered to be a drag coefficient with the characteristic length given by UinfinityTs , instead of d . As long as a bluff body is isolated, without energy exchange between the cylinder and its support, this drag coefficient is invariant, as confirmed by our experimental data as well as those in the literature, with respect to the bluff-body geometry, angle of attack, and Reynolds number, with a caveat of limited cases examined presently. PMID:18851156

Alam, Md Mahbub; Zhou, Y

2008-09-01

108

Feedback shear layer control for bluff body drag reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drag reduction strategies for the turbulent flow around a D-shaped body are examined experimentally and theoretically. A reduced-order vortex model describes the interaction between the shear layer and wake dynamics and guides a path to an efficient feedback control design. The derived feedback controller desynchronizes shear-layer and wake dynamics, thus postponing vortex formation. This actuation is tested in a wind

Mark Pastoor; Lars Henning; Bernd R. Noack; Rudibert King; Gilead Tadmor

2008-01-01

109

Decade-scale coastal bluff retreat from LiDAR data: Lake Erie coast of Pennsylvania, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bluff retreat is a significant problem along many parts of the southern Great Lakes coastline of the United States. On the Pennsylvania coast of Lake Erie, where semi-consolidated clay-rich glacial till sequences overlie bedrock, erosion of the bluffs results in a permanent loss of fine-grained sediment from the coastal zone. Bluff retreat is of concern to coastal property owners and regulators because evaluating landslide hazards and developing regulations on coastal development must account for spatial and temporal variability in coastal retreat. Bluff retreat also contributes to temporary degradation in coastal water quality. The goal of this pilot study is to evaluate medium-term spatial variability in bluff retreat magnitudes and rates along a sector of the Pennsylvania coast. Newly available high resolution LiDAR data cover a one-decade time frame (1998-2007) and permit mapping of the bluff-crest position on two comparable, high-quality data sets. In contrast, long-term coastal change analyses typically involve comparison of a recent LiDAR data set with an older, lower-resolution data set developed from either field measurements, T-sheets, or aerial photography. While the older data can have much larger inherent errors than the LiDAR data, they become less significant over the longer time frames involved. The 6 km, geologically homogeneous, coastal bluff site is characterized by ~20 m of unlithified Pleistocene glacial tills and lake plain sediments overlying a 3-4 m ledge of near-horizontal Devonian shale and sandstone bedrock. Bluff slopes range from 35-90 degrees, beaches are narrow to non-existent, and the coast is frequently protected by ground-freeze and a lake ice shelf during winter. DEMs, hillshades, and slope and contour maps were generated from the bare-earth 1998 and 2007 LiDAR data, and checked against 2005 aerial ortho-photography. Maps were analyzed at a scale of 1:120 in ArcGIS and the bluff crest was identified primarily by the visual-break-in-slope method. Rates of bluff retreat derived using DSAS vary from unresolvable to as much as 7 m/yr, averaging less than 0.3 m/yr which is consistent with longer-term rates derived by others. Most of the bluff retreats relatively linearly, while short stretches retreat as large (100 m in width) cuspate failure zones. Retreat is greatest at these cuspate failure zones, at narrow intervening promontories, and at 1st and 2nd order erosional gullies (100-300 m in length) driven by groundwater seepage. Observed variability in rates and patterns likely occurs because of along-coast variation in surface watershed size, groundwater recharge area, and topography which influence overland flow and groundwater discharge to the bluff face. Other factors influence bluff retreat spatially, but are inferred to be minor at the scale of this study.

Foyle, A. M.; Naber, M. D.

2010-12-01

110

THEORY ON DEVELOPMENT OF MOUNDS NEAR RED BLUFF, CALIF. By HAROLD A. GANGMARK, Fisllery Biologist, and F. BRUCE SANFORD, Chemist-in-Charge. BRANCH OF REPORTS,  

E-print Network

of the Sacramento River near Red Bluff, Calif., and the ter- Rounded mounds of earth, such as in figure 1, nre foundTHEORY ON DEVELOPMENT OF MOUNDS NEAR RED BLUFF, CALIF. By HAROLD A. GANGMARK, Fisllery Biologist appearance and puzzling features exhibited by the mounds have long made them objects 'of scientific curiosity

111

Finite Elemente Large Eddy Simulation of Flows Past Bluff Bodies with Active Flow Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A semi-implicit fractional step finite element large eddy simulation (LES) method for unstructured grids has been developed. The turbulence models implemented into the code are the constant and dynamic coefficient Smagorinsky models as well as the stress similarity model of Liu et al. The technique was applied to analyzing the effects of active flow control by massless oscillatory blowing from a slot. Especially flows past bluff bodies (e.g. circular cylinder; download on a tiltrotor wing) were investigated. Numerical optimization was used to find optimum parameters such as slot location, slot angle, frequency, etc. The numerical results are compared with experimental PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and pressure measurements.

Kjellgren, Per; Taubert, Lutz; Wygnanski, I. J.

2001-11-01

112

Reservoir characterization of Schrader Bluff heavy oil pool, Milne Point Unit, North Slope, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a reservoir description of the Schrader Bluff Pool in the Tract 14 area of the Milne Point Unit, North Slope, Alaska, is presented. The reservoir consists of fine sands which are very heterogeneous. The reservoir description is based on the analysis of logs from twenty-three wells in that area. An effective method for normalizing well logs using statistical analysis and geological knowledge of the area is presented. This method is especially useful when the field contains a small number of wells. Potential oil bearing zones, zonal correlation, and petrophysical property distribution are presented.

Sharma, G.D.; Khataniar, S.; Patil, S.L. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

113

Characterization of the turbulent bistable flow regime of a 2 D bluff body wake disturbed by a small control cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small control cylinder placed in a turbulent wake of a much larger 2 D bluff body can cause a significant increase in drag fluctuations. These fluctuations occur on timescales longer than the timescales of the vortex shedding. The critical positions of the control cylinder are highly localized. Ensemble averages of PIV acquisitions and pressure measurements at the base of the bluff body reveal a bistable wake regime. Long duration hot-wire measurements are used to characterize the states and the transition process. The results show that a stochastic process is responsible for the transitions between the two stable states.

Parezanovi?, Vladimir; Monchaux, Romain; Cadot, Olivier

2015-01-01

114

Characteristics of suspended sediment in the San Juan River near Bluff, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluvial-sediment data were collected for the San Juan River near Bluff beginning in 1914 and terminating in 1980. A double-mass curve showed a change in relationship between annual suspended-sediment discharge and annual stream discharge between the water years 1941-44 and 73. Possible causes for these changes in laboratory procedures, and unusually large runoff that occurred in 1941 and 1972. An unknown or unidentified factor may also be involved. The actual reason for this change in relationship may never be fully understood. Navajo Dam apparently has had no significant effect on fluvial sediment at the sampling site. Mean annual suspended sediment discharge in the San Juan River near Bluff was about 25,410,000 tons ranging from 3,234,000 tons in 1978 to 112,400,000 tons in 1941. The use of annual stream discharge to predict annual suspended-sediment discharge at the site will produce poor results because of size and diversity of the basin and the quality of records available. A positive correlation exists between sand concentration and stream discharge at this site, however, considerable variability is evident. This relationship does not exist when stream discharge exceeds 6,000 cubic feet per second. It is recommended that if collection of suspended-sediment records be resumed in this reach of the river an alternative sampling site should be selected and the use of pumping samplers considered because of the remoteness of the area. (USGS)

Thompson, K.R.; Mundorff, J.C.

1982-01-01

115

Power production locality of bluff body flutter mills using fully coupled 2D direct numerical simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional, fully coupled direct numerical simulations (DNS) are conducted to examine the local energy dynamics of a flexible cantilevered plate in the wake of a two-dimensional circular cylinder. The motion of the cantilevered plate is described using a finite element formulation and a fully compressible, finite volume Navier Stokes solver is used to compute the flow field. A sharp interface level set method is employed in conjunction with a ghost fluid method to describe the immersed boundaries of the bluff body and flexible plate. DNS is first conducted to validate the numerical methodology and compared with previous studies of flexible cantilevered plates and flow over bluff bodies; excellent agreement with previous results is observed. A newly defined power production/loss geometry metric is introduced based on surface curvature and plate velocity. The metric is found to be useful for determining which sections of the plate will produce energy based on curvature and deflection rate. Scatter plots and probability measures are presented showing a high correlation between the direction of energy transfer (i.e., to or from the plate) and the sign of the newly defined curvature-deflection-rate metric. The findings from this study suggest that a simple local geometry/kinematic based metric can be devised to aid in the development and design of flexible wind energy harvesting flutter mills.

Kuhl, J. M.; Desjardin, P. E.

2012-01-01

116

The use of plasma actuators for bluff body broadband noise control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were conducted using plasma actuators to control broadband noise generated by a bluff body flow. The motivation behind the study was to explore the potential of plasma actuators to reduce landing gear noise during approach phase of an aircraft. The control effectiveness of both dielectric barrier discharge and sliding discharge plasma actuators were tested in laboratory environment, using a representative bluff body consisting of a circular cylinder and an oblique strut. Noise measurements were taken in an anechoic chamber using a phased microphone array and far-field microphones. Results showed that the upstream directed plasma forcing, located at ±90 deg on the upstream cylinder with respect to the approaching flow, could effectively attenuate the broadband noise radiated from the wake flow interaction with the downstream strut. With the same AC electrical power consumption, the sliding discharge with additional DC voltage was found to be more effective due to its elongated plasma distribution and higher induced flow momentum. Measurements using particle image velocimetry suggested that the flow speed impinging on the downstream strut was reduced by the upstream plasma forcing, contributing to the reduced noise.

Li, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Xun

2010-08-01

117

The molluscan fauna of the Alum Bluff group of Florida, Part II, Astartacea, Carditacea, Chamacea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first of the series of papers upon the Mollusca of the Alum Bluff group covered the orders of the Prionodesmacea and the Anomalodesmacea. The Mollusca were by the beginning of Miocene time so far advances in development that the great majority are included under the highest of the three orders, the Teleodesmacea, characterized in the adult stages by the differentiation of the hinge teeth into distinct cardinals and laterals. This paper, the second of the series, covers the most primitive of the Teleodesmacea in the Alum Bluff group. All three of the superfamilies considered - the Astartacea, the Carditaeea, and the Chamacea-are included under Dall's group of the Diogenodonta, which is characterized in the normal forms by one or two laterals and not more than three cardinals. The Carditacea are very closely related to the Astartacea in hinge armature but differ in the development of a pronounced radial sculpture. The Chamacea have until recently been considered an offshooting group from the Carditacea that have been greatly modified by their sessile habit. Some doubt has been thrown upon this relationship by the late morphologic studies of Odhner.

Gardner, Julia

1926-01-01

118

EFFECTS OF DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRIC FIELD ON THE BLOWOFF CHARACTERISTICS OF BLUFF-BODY STABILIZED CONICAL PREMIXED FLAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was conducted on the stability enhancement of conical premixed flames by application of direct current electric fields. Turbulent conical premixed flames were stabilized at the tip of a circular cylindrical bluff-body flame holder. An electric field was set up between a positively charged upper electrode and a grounded flame holder to determine its effects on the lean

A. ATA; J. S. COWART; A. VRANOS; B. M. CETEGEN

2005-01-01

119

The Illinois Natural Heritage Conservation Education Kit V. [Ecology and Management of Special Habitats: Dune, Cave, Cliff, Bluff, and Urban.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ecology and management of special habitats is the theme of this instructional guide. It contains 24 activities designed to help teachers familiarize their students with dune, cave, cliff, bluff, and urban habitats in Illinois. Each activity (which is ready to be copied and given to students) includes an objective (called a mission) and…

Stone, Sally F.

120

The role of practice-based knowledge in resource management and planning: the case of the Bluff Oyster Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bluff oyster fishery in New Zealand has been the focus of considerable attention in recent years. This paper discusses an approach to engage primarily retired but also some active fishermen with more than two centuries of accumulated local fishing knowledge into the management and planning arena. To reflect the retired fishermen's extent of knowledge, as well as the role

G. Brent Hall; Antoni Moore; Peter Knight

121

High-Speed Linear Raman Spectroscopy for Instability Analysis of a Bluff Body Flame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report a high-speed laser diagnostics technique based on point-wise linear Raman spectroscopy for measuring the frequency content of a CH4-air premixed flame stabilized behind a circular bluff body. The technique, which primarily employs a Nd:YLF pulsed laser and a fast image-intensified CCD camera, successfully measures the time evolution of scalar parameters (N2, O2, CH4, and H2O) in the vortex-induced flame instability at a data rate of 1 kHz. Oscillation of the V-shaped flame front is quantified through frequency analysis of the combustion species data and their correlations. This technique promises to be a useful diagnostics tool for combustion instability studies.

Kojima, Jun; Fischer, David

2013-01-01

122

Instantaneous and Mean Compositional Structure of Bluff-Body StabilizedNonpremixed Flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbulent nonpremixed flames stabilized on an axisymmetric bluff-body\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009burner are studied with fuels ranging from simple H2\\/CO to complex\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009H2\\/CH4 and gaseous methanol. The fuel-jet velocity is varied to investigate\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009the Damköhler number effects on gas emissions, localized extinction\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009(LE) in the neck zone, and the structure of the recirculation zone\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009dependency on the flow field. Simultaneous, single-point measurements\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009of

B. B. Dally; A. R. Masri; R. S. Barlow; G. J. Fiechtner

1998-01-01

123

Unsteady separation and vortex shedding from a laminar separation bubble over a bluff body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boundary layers are subject to favorable and adverse pressure gradients because of both the temporal and spatial components of the pressure gradient. The adverse pressure gradient may cause the flow to separate. In a closed loop unsteady tunnel we have studied the initiation of separation in unsteady flow past a constriction (bluff body) in a channel. We have proposed two important scalings for the time when boundary layer separates. One is based on the local pressure gradient and the other is a convective time scale based on boundary layer parameters. The flow visualization using a dye injection technique shows the flow structure past the body. Nondimensional shedding frequency (Strouhal number) is calculated based on boundary layer and momentum thicknesses. Strouhal number based on the momentum thickness shows a close agreement with that for flat plate and circular cylinder.

Das, S. P.; Srinivasan, U.; Arakeri, J. H.

2013-07-01

124

Response dynamics of bluff-body stabilized conical premixed turbulent flames with spatial mixture gradients  

SciTech Connect

Response of bluff-body stabilized conical turbulent premixed flames was experimentally studied for a range of excitation frequencies (10-400 Hz), mean flow velocities (5, 10 and 15 m/s) and three different spatial mixture distributions (uniform, inner and outer enrichment). Upstream excitation was provided by a loudspeaker producing velocity oscillation amplitudes of about 8% of the mean flow velocity. Flame response was detected by a photomultiplier observing the CH{sup *} emission from the flame. The studied turbulent flames exhibited transfer function characteristics of a low-pass filter with a cutoff Strouhal number between 0.08 and 0.12. The amplification factors at low frequencies ranged from 2 to 20 and generally increased for mean flow velocities from 5 to 15 m/s. The highest levels of amplification were found for the outer mixture enrichment followed in decreasing order by uniform and inner mixture gradient cases. The high levels of flame response for the outer enrichment case were attributed to the enhanced flame-vortex interaction in outer jet shear layer. At high excitation levels (u{sup '}/U{sub m}{approx}0.3) for U{sub m}=5 m/ s where non-linear flame response is expected, the flame exhibited a reduced amplitude response in the frequency range between 40 and 100 Hz for the uniform and outer equivalence ratio gradient cases and no discernible effect for the inner equivalence ratio gradient. In all cases, transfer function phase was found to vary linearly with excitation frequency. Finally, a relationship between the amplitude characteristics of the bluff-body wake transfer function and flame blowoff equivalence ratio was presented. (author)

Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Cetegen, Baki M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States)

2009-03-15

125

Terrestrial LIDAR investigation of the December 2003 and January 2007 activations of the Northridge Bluff landslide, Daly City, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On December 20, 2003 and again on January 1, 2007, landslides occurred along the coastal bluff that forms the west boundary of Daly City, California sending debris as far as 290 meters downhill and 90 meters into the ocean. This area is known for large landslide events where 150-meter tall coastal bluffs extend southward along the west boundary of San Francisco and San Mateo Counties (Fig. 1). The 2003 and 2007 landslide events occurred west of Northridge Drive in Daly City and just south of Avalon Canyon, which bisects the bluffs in this area (Fig. 2). Residential development, utility lines and roads occupy the land immediately east of this location. As part of a comprehensive project to investigate the failure mechanisms of coastal bluff landslides in weakly lithified sediments along the west coast of the United States, members of the U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) Program performed reconnaissance mapping of these landslide events including collection of high-resolution topographic data using CMG's terrestrial LIDAR laser scanning system. This report provides a brief background on each landslide event and presents topographic datasets collected following each event. Downloadable contour data, images, and FGDC-compliant metadata of the surfaces generated from the LIDAR data are also provided. LIDAR data collection and processing techniques used to generate the datasets are outlined. Geometric and volumetric measurements are also presented along with high-resolution cross-sections through various areas of the slide masses and discussion concerning the slides present (2007) configuration is provided.

Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert; Reiss, Thomas; Sitar, Nicholas

2007-01-01

126

Theoretical analysis and experimental verification on valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segment bluff-body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing researches on no-moving part valves in valve-less piezoelectric pumps mainly concentrate on pipeline valves and chamber bottom valves, which leads to the complex structure and manufacturing process of pump channel and chamber bottom. Furthermore, position fixed valves with respect to the inlet and outlet also makes the adjustability and controllability of flow rate worse. In order to overcome these shortcomings, this paper puts forward a novel implantable structure of valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segments in the pump chamber. Based on the theory of flow around bluff-body, the flow resistance on the spherical and round surface of hemisphere-segment is different when fluid flows through, and the macroscopic flow resistance differences thus formed are also different. A novel valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segment bluff-body (HSBB) is presented and designed. HSBB is the no-moving part valve. By the method of volume and momentum comparison, the stress on the bluff-body in the pump chamber is analyzed. The essential reason of unidirectional fluid pumping is expounded, and the flow rate formula is obtained. To verify the theory, a prototype is produced. By using the prototype, experimental research on the relationship between flow rate, pressure difference, voltage, and frequency has been carried out, which proves the correctness of the above theory. This prototype has six hemisphere-segments in the chamber filled with water, and the effective diameter of the piezoelectric bimorph is 30mm. The experiment result shows that the flow rate can reach 0.50 mL/s at the frequency of 6 Hz and the voltage of 110 V. Besides, the pressure difference can reach 26.2 mm H2O at the frequency of 6 Hz and the voltage of 160 V. This research proposes a valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segment bluff-body, and its validity and feasibility is verified through theoretical analysis and experiment.

Ji, Jing; Zhang, Jianhui; Xia, Qixiao; Wang, Shouyin; Huang, Jun; Zhao, Chunsheng

2014-05-01

127

Boattail Plates With Non-Rectangular Geometries For Reducing Aerodynamic Base Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic base drag of a bluff body having a leading end, a trailing end, a top surface, opposing left and right side surfaces, and a base surface at the trailing end substantially normal to a longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, with the base surface joined (1) to the left side surface at a left trailing edge, (2) to the right side surface at a right trailing edge, and (3) to the top surface at a top trailing edge. The apparatus includes left and right vertical boattail plates which are orthogonally attached to the base surface of the bluff body and inwardly offset from the left and right trailing edges, respectively. This produces left and right vertical channels which generate, in a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline, respective left and right vertically-aligned vortical structures, with the left and right vertical boattail plates each having a plate width defined by a rear edge of the plate spaced from the base surface. Each plate also has a peak plate width at a location between top and bottom ends of the plate corresponding to a peak vortex of the respective vertically-aligned vortical structures.

Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Sabari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA)

2006-03-07

128

Lithofacies control of lignite distribution and ground-water quality, Wilcox group (Eocene), east-central Texas  

SciTech Connect

Deep lignite resources (200-2000 ft; 61-610 m) were evaluated regionally using 1470 geophysical well logs to interpret lithofacies, lignite occurrence, and resistivity (water quality). The regional distribution of lithofacies indicates that in the region, the Wilcox Group is a fluvial-deltaic system. The primary fluvial system entered the Wilcox coastal plain west of Waco, Texas, trended southeast, and supplied a 75-mi (120-km) wide fluvial-deltaic system comparable in size to the Mississippi system. Lignites are most abundant in the Calvert Bluff Formation (upper Wilcox). Lower Calvert Bluff lignites are thickest and most extensive southwest of the Navasota River, whereas those of the upper Calvert Bluff are thickest northeast of the Brazos River. In the shallow subsurface, Calvert Bluff lignites are found in dip-elongate low-sand areas (flood plains) between channel-sand belts. Basinward, laterally continuous lignites coincide with high net sand areas comprise of distributary channel sands indicative of a delta-plain setting. The wilcox Group is a major aquifer. Maps of resistivity values show that Wilcox channel sands are conduits for ground-water flow. High values of formation resistivity (low total dissolved solids) exist in recharge areas at outcrop and around salt domes. Elongate trends of high resistivity values extend tens of miles basinward and coincide with axes of major sands. Resistivity values decrease basinward and the 20 ohm-m contour delineates the downdip limit of fresh water. Lithofacies and lignite occurrence maps are guides to exploration for deep lignite. Resistivity maps can be used to explore for ground-water resources.

Ayers, W.B. Jr.; Lewis, A.H.

1984-04-01

129

Comparative study of micromixing models in transported scalar PDF simulations of turbulent nonpremixed bluff body flames  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulation results are presented for turbulent jet diffusion flames with various levels of turbulence-chemistry interaction, stabilized behind a bluff body (Sydney Flames HM1-3). Interaction between turbulence and combustion is modeled with the transported joint-scalar PDF approach. The mass density function transport equation is solved in a Lagrangian manner. A second-moment-closure turbulence model is applied to obtain accurate mean flow and turbulent mixing fields. The behavior of two micromixing models is discussed: the Euclidean minimum spanning tree model and the modified Curl coalescence dispersion model. The impact of the micromixing model choice on the results in physical space is small, although some influence becomes visible as the amount of local extinction increases. Scatter plots and profiles of conditional means and variances of thermochemical quantities, conditioned on the mixture fraction, are discussed both within and downstream of the recirculation region. A distinction is made between local extinction and incomplete combustion, based on the CO species mass fraction. The differences in qualitative behavior between the micromixing models are explained and quantitative comparison to experimental data is made. (author)

Merci, Bart [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, Ghent (Belgium); Roekaerts, Dirk [Department of Multi-Scale Physics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Naud, Bertrand [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Pope, Stephen B. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

2006-07-15

130

Dynamical-systems analysis and unstable periodic orbits in reacting flows behind symmetric bluff bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical systems analysis is performed for reacting flows stabilized behind four symmetric bluff bodies to determine the effects of shape on the nature of flame stability, acoustic coupling, and vortex shedding. The task requires separation of regular, repeatable aspects of the flow from experimental noise and highly irregular, nonrepeatable small-scale structures caused primarily by viscous-mediated energy cascading. The experimental systems are invariant under a reflection, and symmetric vortex shedding is observed throughout the parameter range. As the equivalence ratio—and, hence, acoustic coupling—is reduced, a symmetry-breaking transition to von Karman vortices is initiated. Combining principal-components analysis with a symmetry-based filtering, we construct bifurcation diagrams for the onset and growth of von Karman vortices. We also compute Lyapunov exponents for each flame holder to help quantify the transitions. Furthermore, we outline changes in the phase-space orbits that accompany the onset of von Karman vortex shedding and compute unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) embedded in the complex flows prior to and following the bifurcation. For each flame holder, we find a single UPO in flows without von Karman vortices and a pair of UPOs in flows with von Karman vortices. These periodic orbits organize the dynamics of the flow and can be used to reduce or control flow irregularities. By subtracting them from the overall flow, we are able to deduce the nature of irregular facets of the flows.

Hua, Jia-Chen; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.; Kostka, Stanislav; Jiang, Naibo; Kiel, Barry V.; Gord, James R.; Roy, Sukesh

2013-09-01

131

Biomimetic bluff body drag reduction by self-adaptive porous flaps  

E-print Network

The performances of an original passive control system based on a biomimetic approach are assessed by investigating the flow over a bluff-body. This control device consists in a couple of flaps made from the combination of a rigid plastic skeleton coated with a porous fabric mimicking the shaft and the vane of the bird's feathers, respectively. The sides of a square cylinder have been fitted with this system so as to enable the flaps to freely rotate around their leading edge. This feature allows the movable flaps to self-adapt to the flow conditions. Comparing both the uncontrolled and the controlled flow, a significant drag reduction (up to 22%) has been obtained over a broad range of Reynolds number. The investigation of the mean flow reveals a noticeable modification of the flow topology at large scale in the vicinity of the controlled cylinder accounting for the increase of the pressure base in comparison with the natural flow. Meanwhile, the study of the relative motion of both flaps points out that the...

Mazellier, Nicolas; Kourta, Azeddine

2011-01-01

132

Coherent substructure of turbulence near the stagnation zone of a bluff body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of freestream turbulence in crossflow about a circular cylinder was studied in order to identify the existence of a coherent substructure which is the outcome of the amplification of freesteam turbulence by the stretching mechanism in diverging flow about a bluff body. Visualization of the flow events revealed the selective stretching of cross-vortex tubes and the emergence of an organized turbulent flow pattern near the cylinder stagnation zone. Significant amplification of the total turbulent energy of the streamwise fluctuating velocity was consistently monitored. Realization of selective amplification at scales larger than the neutral scale of the stagnation flow was indicated by the variation of the discrete streamwise turbulent energy. A most amplified scale, characteristic of the energy containing eddies within the coherent substructure and commensurate with the boundary-layer thickness, was detected. Penetration of the amplified turbulence into the cylinder boundary layer led to the retardation of separation and to a concurrent decrease in the drag coefficient at subcritical cylinder-diameter Reynolds numbers.

Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.

1980-01-01

133

Erosional history of Cape Halkett and contemporary monitoring of bluff retreat, Beaufort Sea coast, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cape Halkett is located along the Beaufort Sea at the end of a low-lying tundra landscape. The area has been subject to major modifications over the last century as a result of erosion and migration of the coastline inland. Long-term mean annual erosion rates (1955-2009) for the entire cape are 7.6 m/yr, with a gradual increase in rates over the first five time periods of remotely sensed imagery analyzed and a large increase during the most recent time period. Division of the cape into three distinct coastal zones shows very different erosional patterns: the northeast-facing segment (Zone 1) showing a consistent and large increase; the southeast-facing segment (Zone 3) showing a gradual increase with recent, heightened erosion rates; and the east-facing segment (Zone 2) showing decreased rates due to the reformation of a sand and gravel spit. Monitoring of bluff erosion with time-lapse photography, differential GPS surveys, terrestrial and bathymetric surveys, and water level, sea and permafrost temperature data provide insights into the processes driving contemporary patterns of erosion and will provide valuable information for the prediction of future shoreline positions.

Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.; Beck, Richard A.; Grosse, Guido; Webster, James M.; Urban, Frank E.

2009-01-01

134

Paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar results from the Grant intrusive breccia and coparison to the Permian Downeys Bluff Sill; evidence for Permian igneous activity at Hicks Dome, southern Illinois Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Igneous processes at Hicks dome, a structural upwarp at lat 37.5 degrees N., long 88.4 degrees W. in the southern part of the Illinois Basin, may have thermally affected regional basinal fluid flow and may have provided fluorine for the formation of the Illinois-Kentucky Fluorspar district. The timing of both igneous activity and mineralization is poorly known. For this reason, we have dated an intrusive breccia at Hicks dome, the Grant intrusion, using 40Ar/39Ar geochronometric and paleomagnetic methods. Concordant plateau dates, giving Permian ages, were obtained from amphibole (272.1+or-0.7 [1 sigma] Ma) and phlogopite (272.7+or-0.7 [1 sigma] Ma). After alternating-field (AF) demagnetization, specimens that contain titanomagnetite-bearing igneous rock fragments give a mean remanent direction of declination (D)=168.4 degrees; inclination (I)=-8 degrees; alpha 95=8.6 degrees; number of specimens (N)=10; this direction yields a virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) at lat 54.8 degrees N., long 119.0 degrees E., delta p=4.4 degrees, delta m=8.7 degrees, near the late Paleozoic part of the North American apparent pole wander path. A nearly identical magnetization was found for the nearby Downeys Bluff sill (previously dated at about 275+or-24 Ma by the Rb-Sr method), in southern Illinois. Both AF and thermal demagnetization isolated shallow, southeasterly remanent directions carried by magnetite in the sill and from pyrrhotite in the baked contact of the Upper Mississippian Downeys Bluff Limestone: D=158.6 degrees; I=-11.8 degrees; alpha 95=3.8 degrees; N=15, yielding a VGP at lat 53.0 degrees N., long 128.7 degrees E., delta p=2.0 degrees, delta m=3.9 degrees. The paleomagnetic results, isotopic dates, and petrographic evidence thus favor the acquisition of thermal remanent magnetization by the Grant breccia and the Downeys Bluff sill during the Permian. The isotopic dates record rapid cooling from temperatures greater than 550 degrees C to less than 300 degrees C (the closure temperatures for diffusion of 40Ar in amphibole and phlogopite, respectively) after emplacement during the Permian. The results further indicate that individual clasts of the Grant breccia were emplaced at temperatures greater than about 550 degrees C, the magnetization-blocking temperature of the titanomagnetite in the breccia, and that it cooled very rapidly,within less than 1-2 m.y. After cooling, the breccia was not affected by thermal perturbations greater than about 300 degrees C.

Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Snee, Lawrence W.

1997-01-01

135

Instantaneous and mean compositional structure of bluff-body stabilized nonpremixed flames  

SciTech Connect

Turbulent nonpremixed flames stabilized on an axisymmetric bluff-body burner are studied with fuels ranging from simple H{sub 2}/CO to complex H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and gaseous methanol. The fuel-jet velocity is varied to investigate the Damkoehler number effects on gas emissions, localized extinction (LE) in the neck zone, and the structure of the recirculation zone dependency on the flow field. Simultaneous, single-point measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO are made using the Raman/Rayleigh/Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. The data are collected at different axial and radial locations along the full length of most flames and are presented in the form of ensemble means, root-mean-square (rms) fluctuations, scatter plots, and probability density functions (PDF). It is found that up to three mixing layers may exist in the recirculation zone, one on the air side of the outer vortex, one between the inner and the outer vortices, and one between the fuel jet and the inner vortex. With increasing jet momentum flux, the average mixture in the outer vortex loses its strength and the stoichiometric contour shifts closer to the fuel jet. The decay rate of the mixture fraction on the centerline exhibits similar trends to the ordinary jet flame downstream of the recirculation zone whereas different trends are found inside the recirculation zone. The laminar flame computations with constant mass diffusivities and Lewis number (Le) = 1 are found to better guides for the measured temperature and stable species mass fraction in the turbulent flames. The measured peak mass fractions of CO and H{sub 2} are similar to those reported earlier for pilot-stabilized flames of similar fuels. Hydroxyl radical and H{sub 2} are found not to be in superflamelet levels contrary to earlier findings in piloted flames.

Dally, B.B.; Masri, A.R. [Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering] [Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering; Barlow, R.S.; Fiechtner, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility] [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

1998-07-01

136

Unsteady Euler/Lagrange simulation of a confined bluff-body gas-solid turbulent flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unsteady Euler-Lagrangian approach is adopted to predict the gaseous carrier and disperse phases flow dynamics. The turbulence is captured using two different methods, i.e. the unsteady Reynolds averaging based numerical simulation (URANS) and the large eddy simulation (LES). In the latter one, the dynamic Smagorinsky approach is used to model the sub-grid scale stresses. The time-dependent solid particle and gas phase flow properties of a confined bluff-body turbulent flow including two-way coupling effects are evaluated through comparisons with experimental data. The configuration under study features an important recirculation zone and has a mass loading of 22%. So, collision effects are not considered while tracking the disperse phase that consists of glass beads. A thermodynamically consistent turbulence modulation approach is applied for the determination of the source terms that account for the effect of particles on the turbulence level of the carrier phase. Within the URANS technique the dispersion of particles is captured by the Markov sequence approach; this model is modified by integrating a drift factor term while modeling the pressure gradient. A particular emphasis is put on the disperse phase feedback on the carrier phase and coupling procedure within each Eulerian time step along with an unsteady coupling of both codes, the (Eulerian) FASTEST3D and the (Lagrangian) LAG3D codes. Quantitative results of the disperse phase properties as well as those of the carrier phase are presented at different positions around the recirculation zone. The numerical results using both, the LES and/or the URANS delivered comparable results that agree reasonably with experimental data. However, a slight advantage of LES over URANS could be observed.

Chrigui, Mouldi; Hidouri, Ammar; Sadiki, Amsini; Janicka, Johannes

2013-10-01

137

Closed-loop bluff-body wake stabilization via fluidic excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes an experimental study aimed at stabilizing the wake of a shedding bluff-body by means of closed-loop active flow control at low Reynolds numbers. A D-shaped (6.5 mm thick) cylinder was used to allow a direct wake interaction rather than mixed wake-boundary-layer separation control. The fluidic actuators, installed inside the thin body, were ideally located at the separation locations, i.e., the trailing edges' upper and lower corners. The wake unsteadiness was monitored by a pair of hot wires (HWs), while a single surface-mounted hot-film (HF) sensor was used as a frequency and phase reference for closed-loop control. The HF signal was contaminated by noise. Hence, a technique for real-time tracking of a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) signal was necessary. This was achieved by means of a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL), common in communications systems. The closed-loop scheme was based on real-time measurement of the wake-state, using the surface-mounted HF sensor, and control authority imposed by the fluidic actuators. By using opposition control at frequencies close to the natural vortex shedding frequency (VSF), it was possible to significantly reduce the wake unsteadiness. Applying the same approach, but sensing the wake HW signal, rather than the surface-mounted HF signal, as the controller input did not result in wake stabilization. On the contrary, the unsteadiness increased at all the tested conditions. It is expected that a similar approach would work at much higher Reynolds numbers as well, as long as a clearly identifiable and nominally 2D vortex shedding occurs, even when the background flow is fully turbulent.

Stalnov, O.; Fono, I.; Seifert, A.

2011-06-01

138

Global mode analysis of axisymmetric bluff-body wakes: Stabilization by base bleed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow around a slender body with a blunt trailing edge is unstable in most situations of interest. Usually the flow instabilities are generated within the wake behind the bluff body, inducing fluctuating forces and introducing the possibility of resonance mechanisms with modes of the structure. Base bleed is a simple and well-known means of stabilizing the wake. In the present research, we investigate the global instability properties of the laminar-incompressible flow that develops behind a cylinder with sharp edges and axis aligned with the free stream using a spectral domain decomposition method. In particular, we describe the flow instability characteristics as a function of the Reynolds number, Re=?W?D/?, and the bleed coefficient, defined as the bleed-to-free-stream velocity ratio, Cb=Wb/W?, where D is the diameter of the body and ? and ? the density and viscosity of the free stream, respectively. For a truncated cylinder of aspect ratio L /D=5, where L is the length of the body, our calculations reveal the presence of a first steady bifurcation in the wake at Re?391, as well as a second oscillatory one at Re?715 with an associated Strouhal number St?0.0905 for the most unstable azimuthal mode |m|=1. In addition, we report the existence of two critical values of the bleed coefficient Cb1?(Re,|m |) and Cb2?(Re,|m |)

Sanmiguel-Rojas, E.; Sevilla, A.; Martínez-Bazán, C.; Chomaz, J.-M.

2009-11-01

139

Turbulence effects on the flow and pressure distributions around three-dimensional bluff bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of turbulence on the pressure distributions on two surface mounted square prism models, one with dimensions twice the other, are investigated. Mean and fluctuating pressure distributions on the front, side, wake and roof faces of the three-dimensional bluff bodies exposed to a simulated neutral urban boundary layer flow in the wind tunnel are presented. All the measurements were carried out for 0 degree approach wind except for the roof face. For the roof face, measurements were conducted for both 0 and 45 degree wind. Simultaneous pressure measurements at typical locations on the same face of the model as well as on different faces were carried out to obtain pressure correlations. The pressure distributions on the side and roof faces of both models showed reattachment of the flow. The trends of the pressure distributions including the peak pressure distributions were the same for both models. The pressure coefficients for the smaller model was lower than for the taller one due to the different ratios of the heights of model and boundary layer. Side face cross correlation measurements showed clearly side flow reattachment. Smoke flow and sand erosion visualization study also corroborated very well the flow reattachment. From the analysis of pressure spectra, no vortex shedding was observed on the side face. Changing the Reynolds number did not change the small scale content of the turbulence. The characteristics of the boundary layer measured in the wind tunnel were compared with atmospheric data and a model scale of around 1:400 was obtained. A simple cost effective common sample and hold computer controlled data acquisition set-up for simultaneous pressure and velocity measurements was devised. A simple and accurate dynamic calibration technique was developed to determine the optimum upper limit of flat frequency response of pressure transducer-tube systems.

Sitheeq, Mohamed K.

140

Monitoring channel morphology and bluff erosion at two installations of flow-deflecting vanes, North Fish Creek, Wisconsin, 2000-03  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flow-deflecting vanes were installed in the streambed along two meander bends with eroding bluffs in 2000 and 2001 in the upper main stem of North Fish Creek, a tributary to Lake Superior in Wisconsin. About 45 vanes were arranged in 15 arrays at each site to deflect the flow away from the eroding toe or base of the bluff (outside of a bend) and toward the point bar (inside of a bend). Channel cross-section and bluff-erosion surveys were done and streamflow and stage were measured before, during, and after vane installation to monitor changes in channel morphology and bluff erosion in the context of hydrologic conditions. There were two large floods in the study area in spring 2001 (recurrence interval of approximately 100 years) and in spring 2002 (recurrence intervals of approximately 50 years). Some maintenance and replacement of vanes were needed after the floods. Most of the channel-morphology changes resulted from the large floods, and fewer changes resulted from near-bankfull or at-bankfull flows (one in October 2002 and four in April and May 2003). At the bluff located 16.4 river miles upstream of the creek mouth (site 16.4), the vanes deflected flow and caused the channel to migrate away from the base of the bluff and toward the point bar, allowing sediment to deposit along the bluff base. The 361-foot reach at site 16.4 had a net gain of 6,740 cubic feet of sediment over the entire monitoring period (2000?03). Deposition (10,660 cubic feet) occurred mainly along the base of the bluff in the downstream part of the bend. Erosion occurred at site 16.4 along the streambed, the point bar side of the channel, and along a midchannel bar (1,220, 1,610, and 1,090 cubic feet, respectively). Less channel migration was observed during 2001-03 at another bluff located 12.2 river miles upstream of the creek mouth (site 12.2), which had a net loss of sediment through the 439-foot reach of 2,800 cubic feet over the monitored time period. The main volume of sediment was lost from the bluff toe in the downstream part of the bend (7,100 cubic feet). Monitored channel-morphology changes at site 12.2 were less than at site 16.4, most likely because installation was done after the April 2001 flood, which caused major changes in channel morphology at site 16.4, and because the monitoring period was shorter than at site 16.4. Bluff-erosion data from both sites indicate that mass wasting and block failures from the bluff top occur episodically and will continue to occur for decades or more.

Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Schwar, Heather E.; Hoopes, John A.; Diebel, Matthew W.

2005-01-01

141

Calvert Marine Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Facility in Solomons, MD, interprets regional paleontology, estuarine ecosystem, maritime history. Natural history exhibits: shark, whale and other fossils; aquariums, displays and outdoor trails introducing life of marshes, oyster bars, the Patuxent River and Chesapeake Bay. Maritime history exhibits include woodcarving and boatbuilding shed, oyster house, lighthouse, and traditional Chesapeake Bay wooden sailing vessel. Educational programs for school groups, Elderhostel and the public include: field trips, lectures, cruises, classes, and demonstrations. Admission and program fees apply.

142

Scappoose Formation, Columbia County, Oregon: new evidence of age and relation to Columbia River basalt group  

SciTech Connect

The Scappoose Formation, considered to be late Oligocene to early Miocene in age, was originally believed to be disconformably separated from both the underlying Pittsburg Bluff Formation and the overlying Yakima subgroup of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Recent mapping and petrography show that it lies disconformably on both the Keasey and Pittsburg Bluff Formations, and interfingers with the Yakima Basalt. The Scappoose is composed of fluvial sandstone, conglomerate, and carbonaceous to coal-bearing mud rock, intertongued with shallow neritic to estuarine siltstone, mud rock, and minor sandstone. Chemistry of basalt clasts from fluvial conglomerates reveals that they are derived from the Yakima subgroup. Basalt conglomerate and palagonitic sediments in the upper part of the formation are intercalated with Grande Ronde basalt (Yakima subgroup) flows at many localities. Flows of Yakima Basalt are also invasive into originally wet, unconsolidated Scappoose sediment. Grande Ronde basalt and the Frenchman Springs Member of the Wanapum basalt overlie conglomerate of the Scappoose. In places, the Scappoose Formation is absent, and Yakima Basalt lies directly on the Pittsburg Bluff and Keasey Formations. The thickness of both the Scappoose Formation and the Columbia River Basalt Group varies widely, indicating that both were deposited over a paleotopography with a relief up to 800 ft (245 m). The definition of the boundaries of the Scappoose Formation should be revised, owing to the disconformable relation of the Scappoose to both the underlying Keasey and Pittsburg Bluff Formations and to the Scappoose's intercalation with the overlying Yakima Basalt. Definition of age must also be revised, inasmuch as sedimentation of the formation was coeval with Columbia River Basalt volcanism.

VanAtta, R.O.; Kelty, K.B.

1985-05-01

143

Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

NONE

1995-05-01

144

Transfer function characteristics of bluff-body stabilized, conical V-shaped premixed turbulent propane-air flames  

SciTech Connect

The response of bluff-body stabilized conical V-shaped premixed flames to periodic upstream velocity oscillations was characterized as a function of oscillation frequency, mean flow velocity, and equivalence ratio. The flame heat release response to the imposed velocity oscillations was determined from the CH* chemiluminescence captured by two photomultiplier (PMT) detectors at a wavelength of 430 nm. One of the PMTs viewed flame radiation in a 10-mm horizontal slice, 50 mm above the bluff-body. The second PMT observed the overall flame radiation. The flame transfer function characteristics were determined from the spectral analysis of the velocity and PMT signals. It was found that the flame heat release amplitude response is confined to low-frequency excitation below a Strouhal number of 4. The phase relationship of the transfer function for these turbulent flames was evaluated using the signal from the spatially masked PMT. The transfer function estimate based on these data exhibits second-order characteristics with a phase lag between the velocity and heat release signals. The localized heat-release response contains frequencies that are multiples of the excitation frequency, suggesting splitting and tilting of flame structures as well as some nonlinear effects. Increase of flame equivalence ratio from lean toward stoichiometric resulted in slight amplification of the high-frequency response. (author)

Chaparro, Andres; Landry, Eric; Cetegen, Baki M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States)

2006-04-15

145

Modeling 3-D Slope Stability of Coastal Bluffs Using 3-D Ground-Water Flow, Southwestern Seattle, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landslides are a common problem on coastal bluffs throughout the world. Along the coastal bluffs of the Puget Sound in Seattle, Washington, landslides range from small, shallow failures to large, deep-seated landslides. Landslides of all types can pose hazards to human lives and property, but deep-seated landslides are of significant concern because their large areal extent can cause extensive property damage. Although many geomorphic processes shape the coastal bluffs of Seattle, we focus on large (greater than 3,000 m3), deepseated, rotational landslides that occur on the steep bluffs along Puget Sound. Many of these larger failures occur in advance outwash deposits of the Vashon Drift (Qva); some failures extend into the underlying Lawton Clay Member of the Vashon Drift (Qvlc). The slope stability of coastal bluffs is controlled by the interplay of three-dimensional (3-D) variations in gravitational stress, strength, and pore-water pressure. We assess 3-D slope-stability using SCOOPS (Reid and others, 2000), a computer program that allows us to search a high-resolution digital-elevation model (DEM) to quantify the relative stability of all parts of the landscape by computing the stability and volume of thousands of potential spherical failures. SCOOPS incorporates topography, 3-D strength variations, and 3-D pore pressures. Initially, we use our 3-D analysis methods to examine the effects of topography and geology by using heterogeneous material properties, as defined by stratigraphy, without pore pressures. In this scenario, the least-stable areas are located on the steepest slopes, commonly in Qva or Qvlc. However, these locations do not agree well with observations of deep-seated landslides. Historically, both shallow colluvial landslides and deep-seated landslides have been observed near the contact between Qva and Qvlc, and commonly occur in Qva. The low hydraulic conductivity of Qvlc impedes ground-water flow, resulting in elevated pore pressures at the base of Qva, thereby increasing the potential for landslides. Our analysis simulates the ground-water flow using the results of a 3-D ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000 (Harbaugh and others, 2000), to generate a 3-D pore-pressure field. Areas of elevated pore pressure reflect the influence of a perched ground-water table in Qva, as well as ground-water convergence in the coastal re-entrants. We obtain a realistic model of deep-seated landsliding by combining 3-D pore pressures with heterogeneous strength properties. The results show the least-stable areas where pore pressures are locally elevated in Qva. We compare our results with records of past landslides. The predicted leaststable areas include two historically active deep-seated landslides and areas adjacent to these landslides.

Brien, Dianne L.; Reid, Mark E.

2007-01-01

146

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 3 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pine Bluff Arsenal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the ''Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Pine Bluff

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

147

Comparison of submodels for conditional velocity and scalar dissipation in CMC simulation of piloted jet and bluff-body flames  

SciTech Connect

No meaningful difference is observed between the predictions with the conditional velocity modeled by linear scaling and gradient diffusion assumption for the test flames under consideration. The AMC and Girimaji's model for CSDR show similar results, while the pdf integration method results in an asymmetric profile with some deviation from the other two. The difference tends to decrease as mixing proceeds, to result in a lower level of scalar dissipation at downstream locations. Reasonable agreement is achieved with measured scalar dissipation rates at different axial locations for the Sandia Flame D, while direct comparison is difficult due to radially averaged pdfs and no measured scalar dissipation rates being available for the Sydney bluff-body flame.

Sreedhara, S.; Lee, Y.; Huh, Kang Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 790-784 (Korea); Ahn, D.H. [Power Generation Research Lab, Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea)

2008-01-15

148

Vortex dynamics and scalar transport in the wake of a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air ventilation system in wide-body aircraft cabins provides passengers with a healthy breathing environment. In recent years, the increase in global air traffic has amplified contamination risks by airborne flu-like diseases and terrorist threats involving the onboard release of noxious materials. In particular, passengers moving through a ventilated cabin may transport infectious pathogens in their wake. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the wake produced by a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow. Data were obtained in a water facility using particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence. Ventilation attenuated the downward convection of counter-rotating vortices produced near the free-end corners of the body and decoupled the downwash mechanism from forward entrainment, creating stagnant contaminant regions.

Poussou, Stephane B.; Plesniak, Michael W.

2012-09-01

149

Laboratory measurements of selected optical, physical, chemical, and remote-sensing properties of five water mixtures containing Calvert clay and a nonfluorescing dye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total suspended solids concentrations ranged from 6.1 ppm to 24.3 ppm and sizes ranged between 1.5 micrometers and 10 micrometers with the most frequently occurring size less than 2 micrometers. Iron concentration was less than 1 percent of the total suspended solids. Nonfluorescing dye concentrations of the two mixtures were 20 ppm and 40 ppm. Attenuation coefficient for the five mixtures ranged from 4.8/m to 21.3/m. Variations in volume scattering function with phase angle were typical. Variations in attenuation and absorption coefficient with wavelength were similar for the mixtures without the dye. Attenuation coefficient of the mixtures with the dye increased for wavelengths less than 600 nm due to the dye's strong absorption peak near 500 nm. Reflectance increased as the concentration of Calvert clay increased and peaked near 600 nm. The nonfluorescent dye decreased the magnitude of the peak, but had practically no effect on the variation for wavelengths greater than 640 nm. At wavelengths less than 600 nm, the spectral variations of the mixtures with the dye were significantly different from those mixtures without the dye.

Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Poole, L. R.; Witte, W. G., Jr.

1981-01-01

150

Reconnaissance of Acid Drainage Sources and Preliminary Evaluation of Remedial Alternatives at the Copper Bluff Mine, Hoopa Valley Reservation, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acidic drainage from the inactive Copper Bluff mine cascades down a steep embankment into the Trinity River, on the Hoopa Valley Reservation in northern California. The Copper Bluff mine produced about 100,000 tons of sulfide-bearing copper-zinc-gold-silver ore during 1957?1962. This report summarizes the results of a water-resources investigation begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1994 with the overall objective of gathering sufficient geochemical, hydrologic, and geologic information so that a sound remediation strategy for the Copper Bluff mine could be selected and implemented by the Hoopa Valley Tribe. This study had the following specific objectives: (1) monitor the quality and quantity of the mine discharge, (2) determine seasonal variability of metal concentrations and loads, (3) map and sample the underground mine workings to determine sources of flow and suitability of mine plugging options, and (4) analyze the likely consequences of various remediation and treatment options. Analysis of weekly water samples of adit discharge over parts of two wet seasons (January to July 1995 and October 1995 to May 1996) shows that dissolved copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations (in samples filtered with 0.20-micrometer membranes) varied systematically in a seasonal pattern. Metal concentrations increased dramatically in response to the first increase in discharge, or first flush, early in the wet season. The value of Zn/Cu in the adit discharge exhibited systematic seasonal variations; an annual Zn/Cu cycle was observed, beginning with values between 3 and 5 during the main part of the wet season, rising to values between 6 and 10 during the period of lowest discharge late in the dry season, and then dropping dramatically to values less than 3 during the first-flush period. Values of pH were fairly constant in the range of 3.1 to 3.8 throughout the wet season and into the beginning of the dry season, but rose to values between 4.5 and 5.6 during the period of lowest discharge, from October to early December 1995. Underground reconnaissance was conducted once during dry-season conditions (September 1995) and twice during wet-season conditions (March 1995 and March 1996). The main tunnel was accessed to a distance of about 600 feet from the portal entrance. Water samples were collected at nine locations along the floor of the main tunnel and from several ore shoots to evaluate the contributions of water and dissolved constituents from different portions of the mine. Values of pH ranged from 2.5 to 6.4 at different underground locations, concentrations of copper ranged from 0.020 to 44 mg/L (milligram per liter), zinc from 6.3 to 160 mg/L, and cadmium from 0.010 to 0.47 mg/L. Discharge from the ore shoots ranged from less than 1 gallon per minute to more than 30 gallons per minute and was always a small component of the total mine flow compared with the tunnel floor drainage. During March 1996, the main flow originated in the northernmost portion of the underground workings (inaccessible) and mixed with an unknown quantity of water upwelling from flooded lower workings. High-water marks observed on the tunnel walls indicate that past blockages impounded more than 100,000 gallons of water. Sudden release of a large volume of metal-rich water could have serious effects on fish and other aquatic resources in the Trinity River. Because of the hydrogeologic setting, mine plugging is not likely to offer an effective long-term solution to the problem of acid mine drainage at the Copper Bluff mine. The underground workings are close to a state highway and underlie a 500-foot-high bluff with highly fractured rocks that seep during the wet season. Total plugging likely would result in additional uncontrolled seepage and could potentially destabilize the highway. Partial plugging to restrict flow during periods of highest discharge may provide benefits in terms of reduced risk of catastrophic release without the addi

Alpers, Charles N.; Hunerlach, Michael P.; Hamlin, Scott N.; Zierenberg, Robert A.

2003-01-01

151

Analysis of river planforms in the New Madrid region and possible relations to tectonic warping across the loess bluffs and within the meander belt of the Mississippi River  

SciTech Connect

Stream channel planforms measured from such streams as the Hatchie (H), L'Anguille (LA), St. Francis, White (W) and Little Red (LR) rivers provide a way to study influences of topographic warping between the loess bluffs that bound the Mississippi river valley. Planforms are analyzed using sinuosity, Richardson analysis, and pattern. Pattern changes include transitions from braided to meandering and meandering to straight. Sinuosities of the W and LR rivers show a transition from low sinuosity, [1.3, 1.4] to higher sinuosity [2.6, 2.8], over a short distance, as they cross the bluffs from the uplands to the Western Lowlands. On the east, the Hatchie changes from a braided to meandering pattern upon crossing the bluffs. Its sinuosity varies from a low of about 1.4 to a high of 2.2, coincident with a marsh area. The LA river flows on the west side of Crowley's Ridge and is paralleled by the St. Francis river on the east. These rivers, with very different drainage areas and sinuosities, show matching meander bends at similar wavelengths along Crowley's Ridge. The bends are about 10 km in 1/2 wavelength suggesting some extraordinary influence on pattern perpendicular to the ridge. Richardson analysis indicates that features with a 1/2 wavelength of 2 km may control several rivers' bending patterns. These features are analyzed to determine their spatial relations with one another.

Johnson, K.A.; Mayer, L. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

152

Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

NONE

1995-11-01

153

Large Eddy Simulations of forced ignition of a non-premixed bluff-body methane flame with Conditional Moment Closure  

SciTech Connect

Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of forced ignition of a bluff-body stabilised non-premixed methane flame using the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) turbulent combustion model have been performed. The aim is to investigate the feasibility of the use of CMC/LES for ignition problems and to examine which, if any, of the characteristics already observed in related experiments could be predicted. A three-dimensional formulation of the CMC equation was used with simple and detailed chemical mechanisms, and sparks with different parameters (location, size) were used. It was found that the correct pattern of flame expansion and overall flame appearance were predicted with reasonable accuracy with both mechanisms, but the detailed mechanism resulted in expansion rates closer to the experiment. Moreover, the distribution of OH was predicted qualitatively accurately, with patches of high and low concentration in the recirculation zone during the ignition transient, consistent with experimental data. The location of the spark relative to the recirculation zone was found to determine the pattern of the flame propagation and the total time for the flame stabilisation. The size was also an important parameter, since it was found that the flame extinguishes when the spark is very small, in agreement with expectations from experiment. The stabilisation mechanism of the flame was dominated by the convection and sub-grid scale diffusion of hot combustion products from the recirculation zone to the cold gases that enter the burner, as revealed by analysis of the CMC equation. (author)

Triantafyllidis, A.; Mastorakos, E. [Hopkinson Laboratory, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Eggels, R.L.G.M. [Rolls Royce Deutschland, Blankenfelde-Mahlow (Germany)

2009-12-15

154

Paleoenvironment of the Ogallala (Neogene) Formation in west-central Kansas  

SciTech Connect

At Lake Scott (Scott County) in west-central Kansas, the Ogallala Formation unconformably overlies the Niobrara Formation (Cretaceous) and forms the bluffs of the north-trending Ladder Creek valley. Two sections (Devil's Backbone, 23 m thick; Suicide Bluff, 45 m thick) contain fluvial sands that grade upward into probable eolian sands. The lower sections contain poorly cemented, moderately sorted, arkosic sand, some mud gravel, and poorly defined fluvial channels. In the lower part of Devil's Backbone, cross-bedded sand is capped by mud drapes. At Suicide Bluff, beds of cross-bedded and better sorted sand occur high in the section. Paleosols and secondary calcite and opal dominate the sections. Pedogenic calcretes with more than 52% CaCO[sub 3] are especially abundant and range up to morphologic Stage VI. The [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O in the calcretes range from [minus]4.8 to [minus]6.5 and [minus]8.2 to [minus]6.7 per mil (PDB), respectively. Opal-A has replaced most rhizoliths of the Ogallala. Silicified fossil seeds (Celtis sp., Biorbia sp.) and probable fossil mammal burrows also occur in the sections. Rhyolitic tephra, about 10 Ma, occurs 12 m below the calcrete caprock of Suicide Bluff. A massive layer of opal occurs about 8 m above the tephra and below a diatomaceous bed. Siliceous cement occurs throughout each section, possibly originating from opal phytoliths, tephra, and/or diatoms. These sections afford the potential for understanding the stratigraphic succession and paleoclimate during the late Miocene to possibly early Pliocene in the central High Plains region.

Twiss, P.C.; McCahon, T.J.; Oviatt, C.G. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-02-01

155

Petrology of Inclusion-Rich Lavas at Minna Bluff, Antarctica: Implications for Magma Origin, Differentiation and Eruption Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusion-bearing lava, dome and cinder cone deposits are distributed along the top of Minna Bluff, a 45 km long volcanic peninsula located in the southern Ross Sea. One deposit, informally named Xeno Ridge, consists of phonolitic lavas that host a diversity of inclusion types that vary in size (<1 to 25 cm), shape (angular to teardrop), texture (porphyritic to granular) and composition (mafic to felsic). The dominate types include salt and peppered colored enclaves (nepheline-bearing syenite and kaersutite-rich diorite) that have granular textures and sharp contact margins with the host lava indicating that they were fully solidified when entrained. Others are dark, highly vesicular, amphibole-rich phonotephrite inclusions with fluidal forms and crenulate contact margins with the host lava indicating magma comingling. All amphibole is kaersutite and phenocrysts within the host lava are often mantled by thick fine-grained rims of diopside, plagioclase and magnetite formed by devolatilization and reaction with the surrounding melt at shallow depth. Semi- quantitative thermobarometric results for kaersutite and clinopyroxene indicate P-T conditions for crystallization of hydrous magmas within the lower crust and upper mantle (5-9 kbars, ~ 15-27 km depth; >= 1000°C). High water contents caused early crystallization of amphibole and clinopyroxene and suppression of plagioclase, which crystallized later with magnetite at lower pressures. The magmatic history of Xeno Ridge is summarized as follows: first, phonolitic magmas rise into the upper crust, stagnate and devolatilize; second, replenishing mafic magmas mix with phonolite and trigger eruption; third, the mixed magmas entrain crystalline selvages from conduit walls on ascent to the surface.

Scanlan, M.; Panter, K. S.; Wilch, T. I.; Dunbar, N. W.; McIntosh, W. C.

2008-12-01

156

Blowoff characteristics of bluff-body stabilized conical premixed flames with upstream spatial mixture gradients and velocity oscillations  

SciTech Connect

This experimental study concerns determination of blowoff equivalence ratios for lean premixed conical flames for different mixture approach velocities ranging from 5 to 16 m/s in the presence of spatial mixture gradients and upstream velocity modulation. Conical flames were anchored on a disk-shaped bluff body that was attached to a central rod in the burner nozzle. A combustible propane-air mixture flowed through a converging axisymmetric nozzle with a concentric insert, allowing radial mixture variation by tailoring the composition in the inner and outer parts of the nozzle. The radial mixture profiles were characterized near the location of the flame holder by laser Rayleigh light scattering. Additionally, a loudspeaker at the nozzle base allowed introduction of periodic velocity oscillations with an amplitude of 9% of the mean flow velocity up to a frequency of 350 Hz. The flame blowoff equivalence ratio was experimentally determined by continuously lowering the fuel flow rates and determining the flame detachment point from the flame holder. Flame detachment was detected by a rapid reduction of CH* emission from the flame base imaged by a photomultiplier detector. It was found that the flame blowoff is preceded by progressive narrowing of the flame cone for the case of higher inner jet equivalence ratios. In this case, the fuel-lean outer flow cannot sustain combustion, and clearly this is not a good way of operating a combustor. Nevertheless, the overall blowoff equivalence ratio is reduced by inner stream fuel enrichment. A possible explanation for this behavior is given based on the radial extent of the variable-equivalence-ratio mixture burning near the flame stabilization region. Fuel enrichment in the outer flow was found to have no effect on blowoff as compared to the case of uniform mixture. The results were similar for the whole range of mean flow velocities and upstream excitation frequencies. (author)

Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Cetegen, Baki M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States)

2008-06-15

157

A revision of Metaleptobasis Calvert (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) with seven synonymies and the description of eighteen new species from South America.  

PubMed

Examination of over 1,400 specimens of the neotropical genus Metaleptobasis Calvert, 1907, including primary types or paratypes of 18 of the 20 currently available species names and large series of specimens including pairs in tandem and copula, allowed me to unequivocally associate older names with species, distinguish between specific and intraspecific variability, associate both sexes for each species, and recognize the existence of female polymorphism. As a result, seven names are found to be junior synonyms: Metaleptobasis mauritia Williamson, 1915 junior synonym of M. bicornis (Selys, 1877), M. manicaria Williamson, 1915 and M. fernandezi Rácenis, 1955 junior synonyms of M. diceras (Selys, 1877), M. westfalli Cumming, 1954 junior synonym of M. foreli Ris, 1915, and M. tetragena Calvert, 1947, M. weibezahni Rácenis, 1955, and M. incisula De Marmels, 1989 junior synonyms of M. brysonima Williamson, 1915. Lectotypes are designated for M. amazonica and Leptobasis diceras. Eighteen new species of Metaleptobasis are described: M. brevicauda (Holotype ?, Peru, Huánuco Dep., Shapajilla, jungle, 11 v 1939, F. Woytkowski leg., in UMMZ); M. falcifera (Holotype ?, Peru, Madre De Dios Dep., Pakitza, Reserved Zone, Manu National Park, T2 to R2 to T1 to base camp, 11°55'48''S, 71°15'18''W, 250 m, 17 ix 1989, J.A. Louton leg., in USNM); M. furcifera (Holotype ?, Peru, Loreto Dep., Iquitos, iii 1936, G.G. Klug leg., in BMNH); M. gabrielae (Holotype ?, Peru, Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, forest interior (4°23'40''S, 73°14'56''W), 27 vii 2009, T. Faasen leg., in RMNH); M. guillermoi (Holotype ?, Peru, Loreto Dep., Yarinacocha, temporary forest stream (8°17'S, 74°37'W, 145 m), 2 vi 1972, D.L. Pearson leg., in FSCA); M. inermis (Holotype ?, Brazil, Pará State, Jacareacanga, vii 1969, F.R. Barbosa leg., in UMMZ); M. leniloba (Holotype ?, Peru, Loreto Dep., Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, Santa Luisa trail (5°15'S, 74°40'W), 10 vi 2008, C. Beatty, A. Cordero & J. Hoffmann leg., in FSCA); M. longicauda (Holotype ?, Brazil, Mato Grosso State, C. Teles Pires, Alto Tapajos, 1-31 viii 1956,  Sick leg., in MNRJ); M. orthogonia (Holotype ?, Peru, Loreto Dep., San Juan, Río Amazonas, near Iquitos, viii 1939, J. Schunke leg., in FSCA); M. paludicola (Holotype ?, Peru, Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, swamp, 4°23'49''S, 73°14'57''W, 27 ii 2009, T. Faasen leg., in RMNH); M. panguanae (Holotype ?, Peru, Huánuco Dep., Biological Station Panguana, E side Río Yuyapichis, 9°37'S, 74°57'W, 6-17 iv 2003, H.J. & E.-G. Burmeister leg., in ZSM); M. peltata (Holotype ?, Peru Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, 4°21'22''S, 73°11'0''W, 19 ii 2010, T. Faasen leg., in RMNH); M. prostrata (Holotype ?, Peru, Junín Dep., Satipo, v 1945, P. Paprzycki leg., in UMMZ); M. silvicola (Holotype ?, Peru, Madre de Dios Dep., Explorer's Inn on Río Tambopata, 30 km SW Puerto Maldonado, main trail, 1 viii 1979, M. Perkins & P. Donahue leg., in FSCA); M. spatulata (Holotype ?, Peru, Huánuco Dep., 10 km N of Cucharas, confluence of Huallaga and Pacay rivers, viii 1954, F. Woytkowski leg., in UMMZ); M. tridentigera (Holotype ?, Brazil, Rondônia State, Porto Velho, Area Abunan, T11 Aleatorio, 8°46'S, 63°54'W, 86 m, 16 v 2010, Nogueira & Mendes leg., in MZUSP); M. truncata (Holotype ?, Brazil, Pará State, Jacareacanga, xi 1969, F.R. Barbosa leg., in UMMZ); and M. turbinata (Holotype ?, Peru, Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, forest swamp (4°24'18''S, 73°14'38''W), 25 ii 2010, T. Fassen leg., in RMNH). Illustrations, keys, diagnoses, and distribution maps for all 31 currently known species are provided. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Metaleptobasis are analyzed based on 33 adult morphological characters, including the 31 currently described species of Metaleptobasis and eleven outgroup taxa of other Coenagrionidae of the subfamily Teinobasinae. The cladistic analysis recovered Metaleptobasis as monophyletic, and as sister group of Aceratobasis Kennedy, a teinobasine genus s

Von Ellenrieder, Natalia

2013-01-01

158

Ground-water conditions in the Dutch Flats area, Scotts Bluff and Sioux Counties, Nebraska, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) studied contamination induced by irrigation drainage in 26 areas of the Western United States during 1986-95. Comprehensive compilation, synthesis, and evaluation of the data resulting from these studies were initiated by DOI in 1992. Soils and ground water in irrigated areas of the West can contain high concentrations of selenium because of (1) residual selenium from the soil's parent rock beneath irrigated land; (2) selenium derived from rocks in mountains upland from irrigated land by erosion and transport along local drainages, and (3) selenium brought into the area in surface water imported for irrigation. Application of irrigation water to seleniferous soils can dissolve and mobilize selenium and create hydraulic gradients that cause the discharge of seleniferous ground water into irrigation drains. Given a source of selenium, the magnitude of selenium contamination in drainage-affected aquatic ecosystems is strongly related to the aridity of the area and the presence of terminal lakes and ponds. Marine sedimentary rocks and deposits of Late Cretaceous or Tertiary age are generally seleniferous in the Western United States. Depending on their origin and history, some Tertiary continental sedimentary deposits also are seleniferous. Irrigation of areas associated with these rocks and deposits can result in concentrations of selenium in water that exceed criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Geologic and climatic data for the Western United States were evaluated and incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to produce a map identifying areas susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination. Land is considered susceptible where a geologic source of selenium is in or near the area and where the evaporation rate is more than 2.5 times the precipitation rate. In the Western United States, about 160,000 square miles of land, which includes about 4,100 square miles (2.6 million acres) of land irrigated for agriculture, has been identified as being susceptible. Biological data were used to evaluate the reliability of the map. In 12 of DOI's 26 study areas, concentrations of selenium measured in bird eggs were elevated sufficiently to significantly reduce hatchability of the eggs. The GIS map identifies 9 of those 12 areas. Deformed bird embryos having classic symptoms of selenium toxicosis were found in four of the study areas, and the map identifies all four as susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination. The report describes the geography, geology, and ground-water resources of the Dutch Flats area in Scotts Bluff and Sioux Counties, Nebr. The area comprises about 60 square miles and consists predominantly of relatively flat-lying terraces. Farming is the principal occupation in the area. The farm lands are irrigated largely from surface water; ground water is used only as a supplementary supply during drought periods. The climate in the area is semiarid, and the mean annual precipitation is about 16 inches. The rocks exposed in the Dutch Flats area are of Tertiary sad Quaternary age. A map showing the areas of outcrop of the rock formations is included in the report. Sufficient unconfined ground water for irrigation supplies is contained in the deposits of the .third terrace, and wells that yield 1,000 to 2,000 gallons a minute probably could be developed. The depth to water in the area ranges from a few feet to about 80 feet sad averages about 30 feet. The depth to water varies throughout the year; it is least in the late summer when the recharge from irrigation is greatest, sad it is greatest in the early spring before irrigation is begun. A map showing the depth to water in September 1949 is included in the report. The ground-water reservoir is recharged by seepage from irrigation canals and laterals, by seepage from irrigation water applied to the farms, and, to a much lesser extent, by precipitation. In the area b

Babcock, H.M.; Visher, F.N.; Durum, W.H.

1951-01-01

159

Modification of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Bluff Bodies Using Synthetic Jet Actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The apparent aerodynamic shape (and thus lift and drag) of a 2-D cylinder is modified in wind tunnel experiments using a spanwise pair of synthetic jet actuators. The interaction of the jets with the embedding flow leads to the formation of closed recirculation regions and thus to an apparent modification of the flow boundary. Smoke visualization experiments demonstrate that the closed recirculating flow regimes near the surface scale with the momentum coefficient and can displace local streamlines well outside the surface boundary layer. Azimuthal distributions of surface pressure measured over a range of jet angles demonstrate that the jets effect substantial increase in lift (up to C_L=0.6) and a reduction in drag (up to 30%). Velocity measurements in the wake of the cylinder demonstrate that these changes are accompanied by vectoring and loss of symmetry. The small scale motions induced by the actuators in the near wake lead to increased dissipation and a reduction in the turbulent kinetic energy.

Amitay, Michael; Honohan, Andrew; Glezer, Ari

1997-11-01

160

A petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (O, H, C and Sr) investigation of secondary minerals in volcaniclastic rocks at Minna Bluff, Antarctica: Petrogenesis of alteration and implications for paleoenvironmental conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alteration of volcanic deposits is a function of eruptive style, environment of deposition and post-depositional processes. In this study we use petrographic and geochemical data on secondary minerals in volcaniclastic deposits at Minna Bluff, a 45-km-long volcanic peninsula in the southern Ross Sea active between 12 and 4 Ma, to unravel their history and study the environmental conditions responsible for their alteration. Glassy volcaniclastic deposits, including lapilli tuff, hyaloclastite breccia and volcanic sediments, have been altered to contain secondary minerals zeolite, carbonate and rare chalcedony and clay (dickite). Carbonates include calcite, Mg-calcite (MgCO3> 4 to <48 mol%), dolomite, magnesite, siderite and rhodochrosite. Zeolites include phillipsite and chabazite and have high and variable alkali contents (Na+K/Ca up to 154) relative to fresh lavas (<15). During the alteration of these deposits, phillipsite formed first followed by chabazite and/or carbonate although carbonates are still thought to be a very early diagenetic precipitate. Compositional zoning in zeolites is poorly developed while carbonates are commonly complex showing changes in Fe, Mn and Sr and Mg/Ca ratios across layers. Carbonate ?18O and ?13C values show wide variations ranging from -0.50 to 21.53‰ and -1.04 to 8.98‰, respectively. Chalcedony ?18O, measured on multiple aliquots from individual vugs and within each vug from one sample, range from 0.68 to 10.37‰ and ?D values are light (-187.8 to -220.6‰), matching Antarctic meteoric water. A mean 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70327 ±0.0009 (1?, n = 12) for carbonates is comparable to values from lavas in this region (Erebus Volcanic Province), indicating that seawater even at low elevations (<40 m asl) was not involved in the alteration of these deposits. Field relationships and laboratory results indicate that alteration and associated mineral precipitation was a result of isolated, ephemeral events involving the exchange between meteoric water (ice and snow) and glass-rich volcaniclastics during or soon after the formation of each deposit. Changing conditions between anoxic and oxic environments are indicated by variations in the intensity of luminescence and Fe2+/Mn ratios measured in zoned carbonates. Secondary minerals were formed at elevated temperatures based on the stability of the zeolites (10°-99°C) and refined further using estimates from carbonate 13C-18O paleothermometry (5°-43°C). Evaporative distillation, possibly from steam vents, can explain enriched 18O compositions of some Mg-rich carbonates and chalcedony. The results may provide a record of climate variability during the growth of Minna Bluff. Using the estimated temperatures of formation and published fractionation factors, the ?18O of meteoric water in equilibrium with carbonates is calculated. In conjunction with estimates for the timing of alteration constrained by lavas dated above and below each deposit, these data reveal a broad shift from lighter (-24‰) to heavier (-16‰) values between ~11 and ~8.5 Ma, consistent with a period of climate warming. These findings are independently corroborated by the interpretation of Late Miocene sedimentary sequences recovered from the nearby AND-1B core.

Antibus, J. V.; Panter, K. S.; Wilch, T. I.; Dunbar, N. W.; McIntosh, W. C.; Blusztajn, J.; Tripati, A. K.; Bindeman, I. N.

2012-12-01

161

Interglacial Extension of the Boreal Forest Limit in the Noatak Valley, Northwest Alaska: Evidence from an Exhumed River-Cut Bluff and Debris Apron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numerous exposures of Pleistocene sediments occur in the Noatak basin, which extends for 130 km along the Noatak River in northwestern Alaska. Nk-37, an extensive bluff exposure near the west end of the basin, contains a record of at least three glacial advances separated by interglacial and interstadial deposits. An ancient river-cut bluff and associated debris apron is exposed in profile through the central part of Nk-37. The debris apron contains a rich biotic record and represents part of an interglaciation that is probably assignable to marine-isotope stage 5. Pollen spectra from the lower part of the debris apron closely resemble modern samples taken from the Noatak floodplain in spruce gallery forest, and macrofossils of spruce are also present at this level. Fossil bark beetles and carpenter ants occur higher in the debris apron. Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) estimates from the fossil beetles suggest temperatures similar to or warmer than today. Together, these fossils indicate the presence of an interglacial spruce forest in the western part of the Noatak Basin, which lies about 80 km upstream of the modern limit of spruce forest.

Edwards, M.E.; Hamilton, T.D.; Elias, S.A.; Bigelow, N.H.; Krumhardt, A.P.

2003-01-01

162

Aerodynamics of the flying snake Chrysopelea paradisi: how a bluff body cross-sectional shape contributes to gliding performance.  

PubMed

A prominent feature of gliding flight in snakes of the genus Chrysopelea is the unique cross-sectional shape of the body, which acts as the lifting surface in the absence of wings. When gliding, the flying snake Chrysopelea paradisi morphs its circular cross-section into a triangular shape by splaying its ribs and flattening its body in the dorsoventral axis, forming a geometry with fore-aft symmetry and a thick profile. Here, we aimed to understand the aerodynamic properties of the snake's cross-sectional shape to determine its contribution to gliding at low Reynolds numbers. We used a straight physical model in a water tunnel to isolate the effects of 2D shape, analogously to studying the profile of an airfoil of a more typical flyer. Force measurements and time-resolved (TR) digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) were used to determine lift and drag coefficients, wake dynamics and vortex-shedding characteristics of the shape across a behaviorally relevant range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. The snake's cross-sectional shape produced a maximum lift coefficient of 1.9 and maximum lift-to-drag ratio of 2.7, maintained increases in lift up to 35 deg, and exhibited two distinctly different vortex-shedding modes. Within the measured Reynolds number regime (Re=3000-15,000), this geometry generated significantly larger maximum lift coefficients than many other shapes including bluff bodies, thick airfoils, symmetric airfoils and circular arc airfoils. In addition, the snake's shape exhibited a gentle stall region that maintained relatively high lift production even up to the highest angle of attack tested (60 deg). Overall, the cross-sectional geometry of the flying snake demonstrated robust aerodynamic behavior by maintaining significant lift production and near-maximum lift-to-drag ratios over a wide range of parameters. These aerodynamic characteristics help to explain how the snake can glide at steep angles and over a wide range of angles of attack, but more complex models that account for 3D effects and the dynamic movements of aerial undulation are required to fully understand the gliding performance of flying snakes. PMID:24477611

Holden, Daniel; Socha, John J; Cardwell, Nicholas D; Vlachos, Pavlos P

2014-02-01

163

Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, December 1, 1992--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The shallow Cretaceous sands of the Schrader Bluff Reservoir occur between depths of 4,000 and 4,800 feet below surface and are estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. Initial production indicated that primary recovery will fall short of earlier estimates and waterflooding will have to be employed much earlier than expected. A large portion of the oil-in-place thus would still be left behind in this reservoir after primary and secondary recovery methods have been applied. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be needed to recover the additional portion of remaining oil in this huge reservoir and to add significant additional reserves. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader Bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Such studies are essential because the API gravity of the crude in Schrader Bluff reservoir varies significantly from well to well. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the oil recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. This report contains the following: reservoir description; slim tube displacement studies; and coreflood experiments.

Sharma, G.D.

1994-01-01

164

Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Alaska is the second largest oil producing state in the nation and currently contributes nearly 24% of the nations oil production. It is imperative that Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought into production. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, which is part of the heavy oil field known as West Sak is estimated to contain 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21 degree API) oil-in-place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. The eventual implementation of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be vital for the recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The availability of hydrocarbon gases (solvents) on the Alaska North Slope make the hydrocarbon miscible solvent injection process an important consideration for the EOR project in Schrader Bluff reservoir. Since Schrader Bluff oil is heavy and viscous, a water-alternating-gas (WAG) type of process for oil recovery is appropriate since such a process tends to derive synergetic benefits from both water injection (which provides mobility control and improvement in sweep efficiency) and miscible gas injection (which provides improved displacement efficiency). A miscible solvent slug injection process rather than continuous solvent injection is considered appropriate. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine the effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir.

Sharma, G.D.

1995-07-01

165

The Knowledge Bluff  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our knowledge "system" is built up from disciplines and specialties as its components, which are "wired" by patterns of collaboration that constitute its organization. The intellectual autonomy of these components prevents this knowledge system from adequately accounting for what we have gradually discovered during the past 50 years: In human…

Vanderburg, Willem H.

2007-01-01

166

Age and correlation of the Pliocene Chowan River Formation of Virginia and northeastern North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

Based on Aurora, North Carolina, radiometric ages and fossil assemblages, current literature equates the Chowan River and Bear Bluff formations. Age and correlation of the Pliocene Chowan River and Bear Bluff formations, assigning an age of approximately 2.5 ma. However, molluscan assemblages from the Chowan River stratotype and Virginian equivalents represent an older stage of molluscan assemblage evolution not contemperaneous with the 2.5 ma beds at Aurora. Rather, the Chowan River molluscan fauna is intermediate between that of the upper Yorktown (3.2 ma) and that of the older Waccamaw (2.5 ma). The Oxygen isotope model of Krantz (1991) postulates related transgressions at 2.7 and 2.9 ma, which coincide with the two members at the stratotype area and with the two-fold division of the unit in Virginia. In southern North Carolina, Chowan River-equivalent beds at Tar Heel and Elizabethtown have been assigned to the Bear Bluff Formation, a composite of non-contiguous beds ranging from 2.5 to 3.7 ma. No equivalents are known between Elizabethtown and southern Florida where beds 2 and 3 at the APAC pit in Sarasota appear correlative. Faunal assemblages of these beds remain imperfectly documented, but their intermediate character, younger than typical Pinecrest but older than typical Caloosahatchee, is evident from preliminary reports. The intermediate nature of the fauna containing index species once thought to be mutually exclusive, will necessitate a thorough revision of Pliocene index species zonation when the faunas become better known.

Campbell, L.D. (Univ. of South Carolina, Spartanburg, SC (United States). Div. of Natural Sciences)

1993-03-01

167

The lithology, environment of deposition, and reservoir properties of sandstones in the Upper Queen Formation (Guadalupian, Permian) at Concho Bluff Queen Field, Crane County, Texas  

E-print Network

Table 2. Measured Characteristics of the Sheep Bones Table 3. Phantom and Bone Counting Information Table 4. Phantom Counting Data and Activity Page . . . . . 38 . . . 39 . . . 39 LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. Gamma-ray Spectra for 4 MeV and 14... constructed anthmpomorphic torso phantom (Fixoonzia et al. 1986). The major advantage of QCT is the capability for three-dimensional localization of trabecular and cortical bone. This cystic allows the user to obtain a density measurement of a pxedeuzmined...

Newsom, Douglas Floyd

1989-01-01

168

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Mid-America Tanning site, Sergeant bBluff, IA. (First remedial action), September 1991  

SciTech Connect

The 98.7-acre Mid-America Tanning site is a former leather tannery in Sergeant Bluff, Woodbury County, Iowa. Surrounding land use is mixed industrial and agricultural. A portion of the site is bordered by Oxbow Lake and lies within the 100-year floodplain. The Missouri River is approximately 1.5 miles to the southwest of the site and receives discharges from Oxbow Lake. The facility began onsite processing of animal hides in 1970. In 1980, the State confirmed the onsite burial of chromium-containing sludge in trenches, and the company was cited for permit violations. A 1985 EPA investigation identified excessive chromium contamination in onsite soil, sediment, and ground water. In 1990, EPA conducted a removal action that included excavating and consolidating onsite 1,290 cubic yards of sludge from the trench disposal area. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the contaminated soil, impoundment sediment and water, and the excavated trench material. A future ROD will address onsite ground water contamination. The primary contaminant of concern affecting the soil, sediment, debris, sludge, and surface water are metals including chromium and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

Not Available

1991-09-24

169

Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ammo Fire Perimeter, San Onofre Bluff Quadrangle, San Diego County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

2008-01-01

170

Habitat quality and recruitment success of cui-ui in the Truckee River downstream of Marble Bluff Dam, Pyramid Lake, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared cui-ui (Chasmistes cujus) recruitment from two reaches of the Truckee River with histories of severe erosional downcutting caused by a decline in Pyramid Lake surface elevation. In 1975, Marble Bluff Dam (MBD) was constructed 5 kilometers upstream of the extant mouth of the Truckee River to stabilize the upstream reach of the river; the downstream reach of the river remained unstable and consequently unsuitable for cui-ui recruitment. By the early 2000s, there was a decrease in the Truckee River’s slope from MBD to Pyramid Lake after a series of wet years in the 1990s. This was followed by changes in river morphology and erosion abatement. These changes led to the question as to cui-ui recruitment potential in the Truckee River downstream of MBD. In 2012, more than 7,000 cui-ui spawners were passed upstream of MBD, although an indeterminate number of cui-ui spawned downstream of MBD. In this study, we compared cui-ui recruitment upstream and downstream of MBD during a Truckee River low-flow year (2012). Cui-ui larvae emigration to Pyramid Lake began earlier and ended later downstream of MBD. A greater number of cui-ui larvae was produced downstream of MBD than upstream. This also was true for native Tahoe sucker (Catostomus tahoensis) and Lahontan redside (Richardsonius egregius). The improved Truckee River stability downstream of MBD and concomitant cui-ui recruitment success is attributed to a rise in Pyramid Lake's surface elevation. A decline in lake elevation may lead to a shift in stream morphology and substrate composition to the detriment of cui-ui reproductive success as well as the reproductive success of other native fishes.

Scoppettone, G. Gary; Rissler, Peter H.; Salgado, J. Antonio; Harry, Beverly

2013-01-01

171

Identification of local extinction topology in axisymmetric bluff-body diffusion flames with a reactedness-mixture fraction presumed probability density function model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of finite-rate chemistry, such as partial extinctions and re-ignitions, are investigated in turbulent non-pre-mixed reacting flows stabilized in the wake of an axisymmetric bluff-body burner. A two-dimensional large-eddy simulation procedure is employed that uses a partial equilibrium/two-scalar reactedness mixture fraction probability density function (PDF) combustion sub-model, which is applied at the sub-grid scale (SGS) level. An anisotropic sub-grid eddy-viscosity and two equations for the SGS turbulence kinetic and scalar energies complete the SGS closure model. The scalar covariances required in the joint PDF formulation are obtained from an extended scale-similarity assumption between the resolved and the sub-grid fluctuations. Extinction due to strong turbulence/chemistry interactions is recognized with the help of a critical, locally variable, turbulent Damkohler number criterion, while transient localized extinctions and re-ignitions are treated with a Lagrangian transport equation for a reactedness progress variable. Comparisons with available experimental data suggested that the formulated approach was capable of identifying the effects of large-scale vortex structure activity, which were inherent in the reacting wake and dominant in the counterpart isothermal flows that otherwise would have been obscured if a standard time-averaged procedure had been used. Additionally, the post-extinction and re-ignition behaviour and its time-varying interaction with the large-scale structure dynamics were more appropriately addressed within the context of the present time-dependent method. Copyright

Koutmos, P.; Marazioti, P.

2001-04-01

172

Quaternary geology of the Duck Hawk Bluffs, southwest Banks Island, Arctic Canada: a re-investigation of a critical terrestrial type locality for glacial and interglacial events bordering the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Duck Hawk Bluffs, southwest Banks Island, is a primary section (8 km long and 60 m high) in the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago exposing a long record of Quaternary sedimentation adjacent to the Arctic Ocean. A reinvestigation of Duck Hawk Bluffs demonstrates that it is a previously unrecognized thrust-block moraine emplaced from the northeast by Laurentide ice. Previous stratigraphic models of Duck Hawk Bluffs reported a basal unit of preglacial fluvial sand and gravel (Beaufort Fm, forested Arctic), overlain by a succession of three glaciations and at least two interglacials. Our observations dismiss the occurrence of preglacial sediments and amalgamate the entire record into three glacial intervals and one prominent interglacial. The first glacigenic sedimentation is recorded by an ice-contact sandur containing redeposited allochthonous organics previously assigned to the Beaufort Fm. This is overlain by fine-grained sediments with ice wedge pseudomorphs and well-preserved bryophyte assemblages corresponding to an interglacial environment similar to modern. The second glacial interval is recorded by ice-proximal mass flows and marine rhythmites that were glacitectonized when Laurentide ice overrode the site from Amundsen Gulf to the south. Sediments of this interval have been reported to be magnetically reversed (>780 ka). The third interval of glacigenic sedimentation includes glacifluvial sand and gravel recording the arrival of Laurentide ice that overrode the site from the northeast (island interior) depositing a glacitectonite and constructing the thrust block moraine that comprises Duck Hawk Bluffs. Sediments of this interval have been reported to be magnetically normal (<780 ka). The glacitectonite contains a highly deformed melange of pre-existing sediments that were previously assigned to several formally named, marine and interglacial deposits resting in an undeformed sequence. In contrast, the tectonism associated with the thrust block moraine imparted pervasive deformation throughout all underlying units, highlighted by a previously unrecognized raft of Cretaceous bedrock. During this advance, Laurentide ice from the interior of Banks Island coalesced with an ice stream in Amundsen Gulf, depositing the interlobate Sachs Moraine that contains shells as young as ˜24 cal ka BP (Late Wisconsinan). During deglaciation, meltwater emanating from these separating ice lobes deposited outwash that extended to deglacial marine limit (11 m asl) along the west coast of Banks Island. Our new stratigraphic synthesis fundamentally revises and simplifies the record of past Quaternary environments preserved on southwest Banks Island, which serves as a key terrestrial archive for palaeoenvironmental change.

Evans, David J. A.; England, John H.; La Farge, Catherine; Coulthard, Roy D.; Lakeman, Thomas R.; Vaughan, Jessica M.

2014-05-01

173

Sequential palynostratigraphy of the Queen City and Weches formations (Middle Eocene Claiborne Group), southeast central Texas  

SciTech Connect

Palynomorph sequences of several orders of magnitude were found in the Queen City and Weches formations respectively at Six Mile and Burleson bluffs on the Brazos River, Milam and Burleson counties, Texas. The long term development of the subtropical to tropical Claibornian palynoflora included Engelhardtia spp., Friedrichipollis claibornensis, Nudopollis terminalis, Pollenites laesius and Symplocoipollenites spp. Shorter term fluctuations in sea level were reflected by common herbaceous pollen in the Queen City, and common mangrove pollen in the Weches. Paleoenvironments were marginally to fully marine; dinocysts occurred throughout. The Wetzeliella group of dinocysts were present only in the Queen City at Six Mile Bluff. Late Paleocene to Early Eocene pollen, and Early Middle Eocene pollen with last effective occurrences near the Queen City and Weches boundary included Aesculiidites circumstriatus, Annona foveoreticulata and a new species of Platycarya. Five short term warmer-cooler couplet events were represented by successive abundance peaks of Juglandaceae followed by Ulmus; Alnus supports the three upper Ulmus peaks. One deep water event was recorded by an abundance of fresh water Pediastrum at the Queen City and Weches boundary. That boundary event was bracketed by two of the Alnus and Ulmus peaks.

Elsik, W.C. (MycoStrat Connection, Houston, TX (United States))

1993-02-01

174

Alteration, mass conservation, and magmatic compositions of lavas of the Columbia River flood basalt province: Insights from the Sentinel Bluffs Member, Grande Ronde Basalt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding magmatic processes involved in flood basalt volcanism, and the ability to correlate flows within the voluminous, widespread lava fields requires accurate characterization of their magmatic geochemistry. Although evidence of alteration is widespread, modifications to lava chemistry by secondary processes are poorly understood. This results in uncertainty in the interpretation of geochemical analyses of Columbia River Basalt Group lava flows, particularly those of the Grande Ronde Basalt (GRB), in which chemical differences between the lavas are subtle. This problem is addressed here using major and trace element analyses (XRF) of samples of the Sentinel Bluffs Member (SB) of the GRB collected from multiple stratigraphic sections within the Columbia Plateau, Columbia River Gorge and Coast Ranges. Sixteen chemical groups, comprising 1-3 flows each, are recognized among multiple SB lava compositions. Flows assigned to three or four successive chemical groups are, in turn, assigned to more broadly defined chemical series based on shared characteristics such as immobile element ratios. Magmatic and alteration trends among SB compositions are clearly distinguished in Al-Ti variations. Magmatic trends are defined by inverse correlation of Al2O3 and TiO2. Alteration trends, extending from the magmatic array to higher abundances, are characterized by constant Al2O3/TiO2. Paired enrichments in Al and Ti, as well as other immobile elements, result from concentration in the residuum of altered rock that has lost mass due to soluble cation removal. Such enrichments are inversely proportional to mass loss. A mass conservation index (MCI), derived from Al-Ti systematics, quantifies mass retention and has multiple applications. MCI normalization eliminates residual concentration accompanying mass loss such that MCI-normalized immobile element abundances in altered rock agree with those in high-MCI rock. Compositions filtered to high-MCI values more closely reflect magmatic abundances of highly mobile elements, such as K and Ba, but some mobility not accounted by MCI normalization is evident. MCI-normalized abundances indicate which mobile elements have been enriched or depleted during alteration, and can characterize the composition of material removed. The slope of correlated MCI-normalized abundances and MCI corresponds to the weight fraction of total mass loss. That such correlations are observed indicates a consistent composition of material removed, which, in turn, suggests that alteration selectively affects particular phases. In SB lavas, depletions of Fe, Si, and Mg account for most mass loss; depletions in Ca are minor. The observed depletions indicate removal primarily of pyroxene and Fe-oxide. The MCI-based methodology provides a framework for quantifying effects of alteration on lava chemistry and clarifying magma compositions that provide a foundation for petrogenetic analysis. It is likely applicable to other lavas in this flood basalt province, as well as other volcanic rocks influenced by secondary processes.

Sawlan, M. G.

2013-12-01

175

High-resolution, paired geochemical-paleomagnetic stratigraphy of the Sentinel Bluffs Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sentinel Bluffs Member (SB) of the Grande Ronde Basalt (GRB) is the youngest stratigraphic unit of the GRB, and is distinguished from other lava flows within the GRB's upper normal polarity magnetozone (N2) by its relatively high MgO content. We collected co-located samples in SB lava flows for major and trace element (XRF) geochemical and paleomagnetic analyses from 7 stratigraphic sections in the central and eastern Columbia River Gorge, on the southwestern Columbia Plateau, at Sentinel Gap on the western Plateau, and at Patrick Grade in the northern Blue Mountains of eastern WA. For the Sentinel Gap section we have adopted the paleomagnetic data from Coe et al. [1978, Rockwell Hanford report RHO-BWI-ST-2], except for our sampling of the Levering flow (not previously sampled) and resampling of their SB flow "H". Paleomagnetic directions for SB flows define 7 stratigraphically controlled groups (I-VII) varying primarily in inclination. Groups I, III, and V have moderate inclinations (means of 55°-57°), groups II and IV have steeper inclinations (67°-69°), and groups VI and VII have the steepest inclinations (72°-78°). SB lava flows exhibit relatively large chemical variations, spanning nearly 1 wt% MgO. Within this span, we recognize 11 discrete chemical groups (1-11, numbered in stratigraphic order) mainly on the basis of TiO2-MgO variations. Early SB eruptions include low- and high-Cr subgroups, and chemical groups 1 and 2 (paleomagnetic groups I-III) are subdivided on the basis of a ~2x difference in Cr abundances (e.g., 16-20 ppm Cr in groups 1a and 2a, 32-38 ppm Cr in groups 1b and 2b). Low-Cr flows are observed only in the lower parts of the SB stratigraphy. Three group 1 (I-II) lava flows that are the lowest SB flows in three sections have similar major element abundances, but differ from each other either in trace element abundances and/or paleomagnetic direction. We infer that the earliest SB flows have moderate inclinations (56°) and include both low-Cr and hi-Cr flows. Systematic decreases in TiO2 and increases in MgO are observed within groups 1-5 (I-III) and 9-11 (VI-VII) with decreasing age. Having similar MgO values, the younger flows of groups 9-11 have distinctly lower TiO2 relative to groups 1-5. Chemical groups 6-8 (IV-V) have relatively high MgO (~4.9-5.2 wt%), intermediate TiO2, and somewhat higher Cr (40-46 ppm) relative to lava flows within groups 1-5 and 9-11 having similar MgO values. With one exception, observed breaks between geochemical and paleomagnetic groups are not contemporaneous as shifts in paleomagnetic direction apparently occurred during eruption of flows within a single chemical group. A total of 22 SB flows are defined by geochemistry and physical flow boundaries. Accounting for differences in paleomagnetic directions within the chemical groups, as many as 29 flows are represented. We attribute the high resolution of our geochemical data to rigorous sampling and lab preparation protocols that minimized alteration products in the material analyzed. Our combined geochemical and paleomagnetic data enables correlation of individual flows or small flow packages (i.e. 2-4 flows) from locations separated by as much as 200 km. These results implicate a high degree of chemical homogeneity within individual SB flows.

Sawlan, M. G.; Hagstrum, J. T.

2012-12-01

176

CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals  

SciTech Connect

Injection of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds is a plausible method of reducing atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and it can have the additional benefit of enhancing methane recovery from coal. Most previous studies have evaluated the merits of CO{sub 2} disposal in high-rank coals. The objective of this research was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery from, low-rank coals in the Texas Gulf Coast area. Our research included an extensive coal characterization program, including acquisition and analysis of coal core samples and well transient test data. We conducted deterministic and probabilistic reservoir simulation and economic studies to evaluate the effects of injectant fluid composition (pure CO{sub 2} and flue gas), well spacing, injection rate, and dewatering on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery in low-rank coals of the Calvert Bluff formation of the Texas Wilcox Group. Shallow and deep Calvert Bluff coals occur in two, distinct, coalbed gas petroleum systems that are separated by a transition zone. Calvert Bluff coals < 3,500 ft deep are part of a biogenic coalbed gas system. They have low gas content and are part of a freshwater aquifer. In contrast, Wilcox coals deeper than 3,500 ft are part of a thermogenic coalbed gas system. They have high gas content and are part of a saline aquifer. CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Calvert Bluff low-rank coals of East-Central Texas must be located in the deeper, unmineable coals, because shallow Wilcox coals are part of a protected freshwater aquifer. Probabilistic simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection into 20 feet of Calvert Bluff coal in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicates that these coals can store 1.27 to 2.25 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with an ECBM recovery of 0.48 to 0.85 Bcf. Simulation results of flue gas injection (87% N{sub 2}-13% CO{sub 2}) indicate that these same coals can store 0.34 to 0.59 Bcf of CO{sub 2} with an ECBM recovery of 0.68 to 1.20 Bcf. Economic modeling of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery indicates predominantly negative economic indicators for the reservoir depths (4,000 to 6,200 ft) and well spacings investigated, using natural gas prices ranging from $2 to $12 per Mscf and CO{sub 2} credits based on carbon market prices ranging from $0.05 to $1.58 per Mscf CO{sub 2} ($1.00 to $30.00 per ton CO{sub 2}). Injection of flue gas (87% N{sub 2} - 13% CO{sub 2}) results in better economic performance than injection of 100% CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} sequestration potential and methane resources in low-rank coals of the Lower Calvert Bluff formation in East-Central Texas are significant. The potential CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of the coals ranges between 27.2 and 49.2 Tcf (1.57 and 2.69 billion tons), with a mean value of 38 Tcf (2.2 billion tons), assuming a 72.4% injection efficiency. Estimates of recoverable methane resources range between 6.3 and 13.6 Tcf, with a mean of 9.8 Tcf, assuming a 71.3% recovery factor. Moderate increases in gas prices and/or carbon credits could generate attractive economic conditions that, combined with the close proximity of many CO{sub 2} point sources near unmineable coalbeds, could enable commercial CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Texas low-rank coals. Additional studies are needed to characterize Wilcox regional methane coalbed gas systems and their boundaries, and to assess potential of other low-rank coal beds. Results from this study may be transferable to other low-rank coal formations and regions.

Duane McVay; Walter Ayers, Jr.; Jerry Jensen; Jorge Garduno; Gonzola Hernandez; Rasheed Bello; Rahila Ramazanova

2006-08-31

177

Lithofacies of Spencer Formation, western Tualatin Valley, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

The Spencer Formation crops out in a narrow band that trends north-northwest on the western edge of the Willamette and Tualatin Valleys, Oregon. It apparently conformably overlies mud rocks of either the Yamhill or the Nestucca Formation and is conformably overlain by the Pittsburgh Bluff Formation. The Spencer Formation consists of two members (informal): a lower highly micaceous sandstone (800-1000 ft) and an upper member that is micaceous siltstone and mudstone (1000-1300 ft). The lower member includes an upper part that is light-gray to creamy-gray, silty to muddy, pebbly lithic arkose to feldspathic litharenite, with minor arkose. Sorting is poor and beds may be laminated to ripple cross-laminated or massive and bioturbated with abundant mollusk shells, carbonized wood, and burrows. The lower part of the lower member is medium-gray to greenish-gray, silty, pumiceous lithic arkose to feldspathic litharenite. The texture tends to be more uniform and better sorted than that of the upper part of the member. Bedding is commonly massive due to bioturbation. The upper member is medium to dark-gray mudstone with thin pebble-conglomerate lenses. It intertongues with the lower member. Bioturbation, burrows, and carbonized wood are common. The trend in depositional environments appears to be from outer to mid-neritic (lower part, lower member) to shallow neritic, nearshore, and lagoonal (upper part, lower member, and upper member). The provenance of the Spencer Formation includes both proximal volcanics and distant plutonic and high-grade metamorphics.

Van Atta, R.O.

1986-04-01

178

Vortices induced in a stagnation region by wakes - Their incipient formation and effects on heat transfer from cylinders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Horseshoe-like vortices, induced by wakes in the stagnation region of bluff bodies, are proposed as an efficient mechanism for augmentation of convective heat transfer. The vortex 'flow module' induced by single or multiple wakes, which had not been observed previously, was first documented and the resulting flow field was studied using various visualization techniques and hot-wire anemometry. In an attempt to understand the driving force behind this flow module, the conditions at which incipient formation of the vortices occurs were investigated. Existence of such a threshold is essential and was hitherto an open question in analytical studies of stability of flow in stagnation region. Finally, effects of the flow module on heat transfer from a cylinder were measured.

Nagib, H. M.; Hodson, P. R.

1977-01-01

179

Galaxy Formation  

E-print Network

I summarize current knowledge of galaxy formation with emphasis on the initial conditions provided by the Lambda CDM cosmology, integral constraints from cosmological quantities, and the demographics of high-redshift protogalaxies. Tables are provided summarizing the number density, star formation rate and stellar mass per object, cosmic star formation rate and stellar mass densities, clustering length and typical dark matter halo masses for Lyman break galaxies, Lyman alpha emitting galaxies, Distant red galaxies, Sub-millimeter galaxies, and Damped Lyman alpha absorption systems. I also discuss five key unsolved problems in galaxy formation and prognosticate advances that the near future will bring.

Eric Gawiser

2005-12-15

180

The lithology, environment of deposition, and reservoir evaluation of sandstones in the Upper Queen Formation (Guadalupian, Permian) at Concho Bluff North and Jennifer Fields, Upton and Ector Counties, Texas  

E-print Network

evaporative pumping (Hsu et al. , 1969) from highly saline groundwater. 5) Massive beds, which are found in beds up to 6. 0 ft (1. 8 m) thick. These beds contain no discernible structures, but may contain anhydrite nodules and/or halite minerals (Fig. 11... laminae (Fig. 12). Anhydrite nodules and halite can be found regularly throughout these beds. The growth of displacive saline minerals produce the highly disturbed appearance of the core sample (Hardie et al. , 1978; Thompson, 1968). The process...

Harper, James Broox

1990-01-01

181

Soil Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans use soil for their daily needs but do not sufficiently take account of its slow formation and fast loss. Discover the amazing geology of soil formation and the basic rock and soil types.Although soil seems the end product from weathering rocks, it is merely a stage in the gigantic cycle of mineral recycling by the movement of tectonic plates.

182

Regolith Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this three-part activity, learners use food to determine the effects of wind, sandblasting and water on regolith (dust) formation and deposition on Earth. Then, learners simulate regolith formation on the Moon by meteorite bombardment, an activity best completed outdoors.

NASA

1997-01-01

183

Plasmapause formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of plasmapause formation is examined. Particular attention is given to the role of magnetospheric fields in the inner magnetosphere, the noon-midnight and dawn-dusk asymmetries, plasma density distribution in the plasmasphere, plasmapause positions in the nightside sector and the daytime LT sector, the LT distribution of detached plasma elements, the growth rate of interchange instability, the formation of new density knees at each new enhancement in magnetospheric convection, and diagmagnetic and finite-temperature effects. The ideal MHD theory for the formation of the plasmapause is considered.

Lemaire, J.

184

Galaxy formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implications of the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background on large and small angular scales for galaxy formation are reviewed. In primeval adiabatic fluctuations, a universe dominated by cold, weakly interacting nonbaryonic matter, e.g., the massive photino is postulated. A possible signature of photino annihilation in our galactic halo involves production of cosmic ray antiprotons. If the density is near its closure value, it is necessary to invoke a biasing mechanism for suppressing galaxy formation throughout most of the universe in order to reconcile the dark matter density with the lower astronomical determinations of the mean cosmological density. A mechanism utilizing the onset of primordial massive star formation to strip gaseous protogalaxies is described. Only the densest, early collapsing systems form luminous galaxies.

Silk, J.

1984-01-01

185

Planet Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the Sun's planetary system is a long-standing problem but one whose solution may be in sight. Recent progress has been rapid and much has changed since the first edition of this book. This article will describe a reasonably coherent story for the formation of the planets, based on what people know today, with the obvious caveat that future discoveries are bound to change some of the details. This article outlines the various aspects of planet formation according to the current paradigm, with a particular emphasis on the origin of the Sun's planetary system.

Chambers, J. E.

186

Blind man's bluff and the Turing test  

Microsoft Academic Search

It seems plausible that under the conditions of the Turing test, congenitally blind people could nevertheless, with sufficient preparation, successfully represent themselves to remotely located interrogators as sighted. Having never experienced normal visual sensations, the successful blind player can prevail in this test only by playing a 'lying game'—imitating the phenomenological claims of sighted people, in the absence of the

Andrew Clifton

2004-01-01

187

Identifying Fossils: Exploring the Mississippi River Bluffs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a geology lab where students learn about fossils found in sedimentary rocks and show their understanding by writing a literary nonfiction paper from the perspective of one of those fossils.

188

Water-Quality Data, 1999-2005, and Ground-Water Level Data, 2004-2005, for McBaine Bottoms, Including the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area, Columbia, Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Columbia, Missouri, and the Missouri Department of Conservation, collected ground-water quality data from June 1999 through August 2005, surface-water quality data from August 1999 through August 2003, and water-level data from February 2004 through August 2005 in McBaine Bottoms, southwest of Columbia. McBaine Bottoms, adjacent to the Missouri River, is the location of the municipal-supply well field for the city of Columbia, the city of Columbia wastewater-treatment wetlands, and the Missouri Department of Conservation Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area. This report presents water-quality data, which include water-quality analyses of samples collected from 36 water-quality sampling sites (31 were wells and 5 were surface-water sites), and ground-water level data, which include water-level measurements from more than 80 wells. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties, inorganic chemical constituents, nutrients, and dissolved iron. Selected samples were analyzed for trace elements, wastewater organic compounds, and pesticides. In samples from monitoring wells, chloride concentrations ranged from 2.41 to 259 mg/L (milligrams per liter), sodium concentrations ranged from 1.08 to 175 mg/L, and sulfate concentrations ranged from less than 0.2 to 271 mg/L (all concentrations were dissolved). Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from less than 0.05 to 0.46 mg/L. Total phosphorous concentrations ranged from less than 0.04 to 1.68 mg/L, dissolved phosphorous concentrations ranged from less than 0.04 to 1.50 mg/L, and dissolved orthophosphorous concentrations ranged from less than 0.01 to 1.83 mg/L. Dissolved iron concentrations ranged from less than 6 to 42,900 g/L (micrograms per liter). Dissolved arsenic concentrations in samples from two monitoring wells ranged from 11 to 37 g/L. In samples from surface-water sampling sites, chloride concentrations ranged from 8.67 to 289 mg/L, sodium concentrations ranged from 6.18 to 219 mg/L, and sulfate concentrations ranged from 33.4 to 119 mg/L. All of the minimum concentrations were detected in samples from Perche Creek. Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from less than 0.05 to 1.53 mg/L. Total phosphorous concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 3.06 mg/L, dissolved phosphorous concentrations ranged from less than 0.05 to 2.88 mg/L, and dissolved orthophosphorous concentrations ranged from less than 0.01 to 2.86 mg/L. Most of the maximum concentrations were detected in samples from the city outflow. More than 35 wastewater organic compounds and pesticides were detected in samples from the city outflow. However, most concentrations were estimated or their presence verified, but not quantified. Water levels in monitoring wells ranged from 548.54 to 576.55 ft (feet) above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29). The difference in water levels from February 2004 to August 2005 ranged from 0.13 ft to 10.97 ft.

Smith, Brenda J.; Richards, Joseph M.

2006-01-01

189

ANTIBODY FORMATION  

PubMed Central

Diphtheria toxoid-antitoxin precipitates formed in antitoxin excess can prepare guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits for a secondary type of antitoxin response. Priming may occur without the development of detectable serum antibody. In rats, toxoid-antitoxin precipitates are more efficient than "free" toxoid in priming, whereas in guinea pigs, the magnitude of the anamnestic response varies with the precipitate employed. The possibility that priming is due to "free" antigen released from the specific precipitate rather than the precipitate itself is discussed. The anamnestic antitoxin response can be inhibited by passive antitoxin, but less efficiently than primary antitoxin formation. Partial suppression of the secondary antitoxin response was accomplished by injection of excess horse antitoxin as long as 4 days after reimmunization with toxoid. The importance of these findings for the understanding of passive-active immunization in the human is discussed. PMID:13779028

Uhr, Jonathan W.; Baumann, Joyce B.

1961-01-01

190

Pattern Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

Hoyle, Rebecca

2006-03-01

191

Modeling Internet Topology Kenneth L. Calvert, Georgia Tech  

E-print Network

of interconnected routing domains. Each routing domain is a group of nodes (routers, switches and hosts), under or analysis using an abstraction or model of the actual network structure. The reason for this is clear. The topological structure of a network is typi­ cally modeled using a graph, with nodes represent­ ing switches

Zegura, Ellen W.

192

76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...niobium (~1 percent). The elimination of tin has resulted in superior corrosion resistance and reduced irradiation-induced...relative to both standard zircaloy (1.7 percent tin) and low-tin zircaloy (1.2 percent tin). The...

2011-01-25

193

77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses...Personnel Fatigue at Nuclear Power Plants,'' with clarifications...bunking areas will be developed prior to sequestering...for the use of whatever plant staff and resources...

2012-08-07

194

Treatment of sandstone formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of treating a subterranean sandstone formation with an aqueous acid solution containing hydrofluoric acid is described. The reaction rate of the acid with the formation is retarded and substantial penetration of the formation with active acid results. When the hydrofluoric acid solution contacts the sandstone formation, siliceous minerals and clay in the formation are dissolved, thereby increasing the

J. A. Knox; R. M. Lasater

1974-01-01

195

The Format War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of format changes in libraries focuses on managing change and phasing out older formats. Standardization is addressed, and five considerations regarding format shifts are examined: aesthetics, audience, compatibility, costs, and copyright. (MES)

Kreamer, Jean

1992-01-01

196

Low-frequency unsteadiness in the vortex formation region of a circular cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of low-frequency fluctuations in the wake of bluff bodies have been observed in several investigations. Even though the flow past a circular cylinder at Re = 3900 (Re = UrefD/?) has been the object of several experimental and numerical investigations, there is a large scattering in the average statistics in the near wake. In the present work, the flow dynamics of the near wake region behind a circular cylinder has been investigated by means of direct numerical simulations and statistics have been computed for more than 858 shedding cycles. The analysis of instantaneous velocity signals of several probes located in the vortex formation region, point out the existence of a low-frequency fluctuation at the non-dimensional frequency of fm = 0.0064. This large-scale almost periodic motion seems to be related with the modulation of the recirculation bubble which causes its shrinking and enlargement over the time. Two different configurations have been identified: (i) a high-energy mode with larger fluctuations in the shear-layer and in the vortex formation region (Mode H) and (ii) a low-energy mode with weaker fluctuations in the shear layer (Mode L). The influence of such a low-frequency in the wake topology has been studied not only by means of the phase-average flow field for each mode, but also by the analysis of the time-average first- and second-order statistics of each wake mode. The results are compared with the long-term averaged solution and with results in the existing literature.

Lehmkuhl, O.; Rodríguez, I.; Borrell, R.; Oliva, A.

2013-08-01

197

Pollen analysis of a late pliocene and early pleistocene section from the Gubik Formation of Arctic Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 14-m-thick section of marine and nonmarine sediments of the Gubik Formation of northern Alaska, exposed in bluffs near Ocean Point on the Colville River, has been studied by means of pollen analysis. Pollen from the marine sediments, of probable late Pliocene age, records a boreal forest of spruce and birch with minor amounts of alder in the adjacent terrestrial vegetation. Pine and perhaps true fir were probably at or near their northern limit here, but hemlocks and hardwoods were absent. The suggested environment for the Arctic Slope during the time represented by the marine sediments is similar to that of present-day Anchorage. Pollen floras from the overlying fluvial strata, of early or middle Pleistocene age, record predominantly herbaceous taxa indicating tundra conditions probably more severe than those of the present day. These deposits were most likely contemporaneous with glacial conditions in the Brooks Range to the south. Pollen of woody taxa (spruce, alder, birch, heaths) is rare through most of the section, although birch and alder percentages similar to those found in modern river sediments indicate an interstadial or interglacial warming in midsection. Inland climates during glacial episodes may have been similar to those of the present Arctic coast. ?? 1985.

Nelson, R.E.; Carter, L.D.

1985-01-01

198

Star Formation Processes versus Planet Formation Processes  

E-print Network

The processes of star formation are fundamentally different from those of planet formation. Since the mass of a very-low-mass object alone doesn't allow us to uniquely determine its basic nature, we have to look at its other characteristics, such as its motion, its age, its atmospheric composition, its internal structure and composition, etc., in order to ascertain its formation mechanism.

Shiv S. Kumar

2002-08-20

199

Geologic columns for the ICDP-USGS Eyreville A and C cores, Chesapeake Bay impact structure: Postimpact sediments, 444 to 0 m depth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 443.9-m-thick, virtually undisturbed section of postimpact deposits in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure was recovered in the Eyreville A and C cores, Northampton County, Virginia, within the "moat" of the structure's central crater. Recovered sediments are mainly fine-grained marine siliciclastics, with the exception of Pleistocene sand, clay, and gravel. The lowest postimpact unit is the upper Eocene Chickahominy Formation (443.9-350.1 m). At 93.8 m, this is the maximum thickness yet recovered for deposits that represent the return to "normal marine" sedimentation. The Drummonds Corner beds (informal) and the Old Church Formation are thin Oligocene units present between 350.1 and 344.7 m. Above the Oligocene, there is a more typical Virginia coastal plain succession. The Calvert Formation (344.7-225.4 m) includes a thin lower Miocene part overlain by a much thicker middle Miocene part. From 225.4 to 206.0 m, sediments of the middle Miocene Choptank Formation, rarely reported in the Virginia coastal plain, are present. The thick upper Miocene St. Marys and Eastover Formations (206.0-57.8 m) appear to represent a more complete succession than in the type localities. Correlation with the nearby Kiptopeke core indicates that two Pliocene units are present: Yorktown (57.8-32.2 m) and Chowan River Formations (32.2-18.3 m). Sediments at the top of the section represent an upper Pleistocene channel-fill and are assigned to the Butlers Bluff and Occohannock Members of the Nassawadox Formation (18.3-0.6 m). ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

Edwards, L.E.; Powars, D.S.; Browning, J.V.; McLaughlin, P.P., Jr.; Miller, K.G.; Self-Trail J.M.; Kulpecz, A.A.; Elbra, T.

2009-01-01

200

Paleosols and paleoenvironments of the middle Miocene, Maboko Formation, Kenya.  

PubMed

The middle Miocene (15 Ma) Maboko Formation of Maboko Island and Majiwa Bluffs, southwestern Kenya, has yielded abundant fossils of the earliest known cercopithecoid monkey (Victoriapithecus macinnesi), and of a kenyapithecine hominoid (Kenyapithecus africanus), as well as rare proconsuline (Simiolus leakeyorum, cf. Limnopithecus evansi) and oreopithecine apes (Mabokopithecus clarki, M. pickfordi), and galagids (Komba winamensis). Specific habitat preferences can be interpreted from large collections of primate fossils in different kinds of paleosols (pedotypes). Fossiliferous drab-colored paleosols with iron-manganese nodules (Yom pedotype) are like modern soils of seasonally waterlogged depressions (dambo). Their crumb structure and abundant fine root-traces, as well as scattered large calcareous rhizoconcretions indicate former vegetation of seasonally wet, wooded grassland. Other fossiliferous paleosols are evidence of nyika bushland (Ratong), and early-successional riparian woodland (Dhero). No fossils were found in Mogo paleosols interpreted as saline scrub soils. Very shallow calcic horizons (in Yom, Ratong, and Mogo paleosols) and Na-montmorillonite (in Mogo) are evidence of dry paleoclimate (300-500 mm MAP=mean annual precipitation). This is the driest paleoclimate and most open vegetation yet inferred as a habitat for any Kenyan Miocene apes or monkeys. Victoriapithecus was abundant in dambo wooded grassland (Yom) and riparian woodland (Dhero), a distribution like that of modern vervet monkeys. Kenyapithecus ranged through all these paleosols, but was the most common primate in nyika bushland paleosols (Ratong), comparable to baboons and macaques today. Mabokopithecus was virtually restricted to riparian woodland paleosols (Dhero), and Simiolus had a similar, but marginally wider, distribution. Habitat preferences of Mabokopithecus and Simiolus were like those of modern colobus monkeys and mangabeys. A single specimen of Komba was found in dambo wooded grassland paleosol (Yom), a habitat more like that of the living Senegal bushbaby than of rainforest galagids. A shift to non-forest habitats may explain the terrestrial adaptations of Victoriapithecus, basal to the cercopithecid radiation, and of Kenyapithecus, basal to the hominoid radiation. Both taxa are distinct from earlier Miocene arboreal proconsulines, oreopithecines and galagids. PMID:12069506

Retallack, Gregory J; Wynn, Jonathan G; Benefit, Brenda R; Mccrossin, Monte L

2002-06-01

201

Water Formatics Engineered formation of nanobubbles networks  

E-print Network

Water Formatics Engineered formation of nanobubbles networks in water and aqueous solutions We present the idea that the anomalous effects of rf-treatments of water and aqueous solution resulted from-bubble exchange interactions. These exchange interactions are mediated by the ordering of the water molecules

Jacob, Eshel Ben

202

Differentiated Teacher Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calvert County School District, Maryland, has developed a differentiated teacher evaluation system that promotes collaboration among supervisors and administrators in rating teacher performance. Methods involve informal observation, rating observation, and nonrating observation. Implementation is accompanied by extensive formative evaluation by…

Glatthorn, Allan A.; Holler, Richard L.

1987-01-01

203

The Format Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports results of a survey of public libraries that investigated trends in audiovisual materials. Highlights include format issues; audiobooks; media budgets for various formats; video collections; DVDs; circulation; collection sizes; music CDs; and future possibilities. (LRW)

Oder, Norman

2002-01-01

204

Star Formation in Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

1987-01-01

205

Scenarios for galaxy formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gravitational instability theory and its application to the origin of large scale structure are reviewed. The modeling of galaxy formation is described, from forwards and backwards perspectives. The emphasis is on the interactions between stellar and galactic formation.

Silk, Joseph

1997-01-01

206

The formation of galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current models of galaxy formation are examined in a review of recent observational and theoretical studies. Observational data on elliptical galaxies, disk galaxies, luminosity functions, clustering, and angular fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background are summarized. Theoretical aspects discussed include the origin and early evolution of small fluctuations, matter and radiation fluctuations, the formation of large-scale structure, dissipationless galaxy formation, galaxy mergers, dissipational galaxy formation, and the implications of particle physics (GUTs, massive neutrinos, and gravitinos) for cosmology.

Efstathiou, G.; Silk, J.

1983-01-01

207

Autonomous formation flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an approach to close-formation flight of autonomous aircraft. A standard LQ-based structure was synthesized for each vehicle and for formation position error control using linearized equations of motion and a lifting line model of the aircraft wake. We also consider the definition of a formation management structure, capable of dealing with a variety of generic transmission and

F. Giulietti; L. Pollini; M. Innocenti

2000-01-01

208

Globular Cluster Formation  

E-print Network

The discovery of young globular clusters in merging galaxies and other environments provides an opportunity to study directly the process of globular cluster formation. Empirically it appears that globular cluster formation occurs preferentially in regions in which star formation occurs at a high rate and efficiency. Further, the interstellar medium in such regions is likely to be at a higher pressure than less active star-forming environments. An additional observational clue to the globular cluster formation process is that young globular clusters have little or no mass-radius relationship. In this paper I argue that high pressure and high star-formation efficiency are responsible for current globular cluster formation. I suggest that the precursors to globular clusters are molecular clouds and that the mass-radius relationship exhibited by such clouds is wiped out by a variable star formation efficiency.

Keith M. Ashman

2002-10-27

209

Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Potentially economic mineral resources are present in the subsurface in the map area. Exploration drill-hole data indicate that anomalously high concentrations of base-metal sulfides locally occur within the Cambrian Bonneterre Formation. The geologic setting of these anomalous concentrations is similar to that found in the Viburnum Trend, part of the largest lead-mining district in the world. The southernmost part of the Viburnum Trend extends into the northern part of the map area and is exploited by the Sweetwater Mine. Undeveloped and potentially economic occurrences of base metals are known also beneath Blair Creek, a tributary to the Current River in the north-central part of the map area.

Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.

2015-01-01

210

Stratigraphy and depositional environments of the upper Pleistocene Chemehuevi Formation along the lower Colorado River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chemehuevi Formation forms a conspicuous, widespread, and correlative set of nonmarine sediments lining the valleys of the Colorado River and several of its larger tributaries in the Basin and Range geologic province. These sediments have been examined by geologists since J. S. Newberry visited the region in 1857 and are widely cited in the geologic literature; however their origin remains unresolved and their stratigraphic context has been confused by inconsistent nomenclature and by conflicting interpretations of their origin. This is one of the most prominent stratigraphic units along the river below the Grand Canyon, and the formation records an important event or set of events in the history of the Colorado River. Here we summarize what is known about these deposits throughout their range, present new stratigraphic, sedimentologic, topographic, and tephrochronologic data, and formally define them as a lithostratigraphic unit. The Chemehuevi Formation consists primarily of a bluff-forming mud facies, consisting of gypsum-bearing, horizontally bedded sand, silt, and clay, and a slope-forming sand facies containing poorly bedded, well sorted, quartz rich sand and scattered gravel. The sedimentary characteristics and fossil assemblages of the two facies types suggest that they were deposited in flood plain and channel environments, respectively. In addition to these two primary facies, we identify three other mappable facies in the formation: a thick-bedded rhythmite facies, now drowned by Lake Mead; a valley-margin facies containing abundant locally derived sediment; and several tributary facies consisting of mixed fluvial and lacustrine deposits in the lower parts of major tributary valleys. Observations from the subsurface and at outcrops near the elevation of the modern flood plain suggest that the formation also contains a regional basal gravel member. Surveys of numerous outcrops using high-precision GPS demonstrate that although the sand facies commonly overlies the mud facies where the two are found together, contacts between the two occur over a range in elevation, and as a consequence, the sand and mud facies are similarly distributed both horizontally and vertically throughout the valley. Collectively, the outcrops of the formation lie below a smooth elevation envelope that slopes 50 percent more steeply than the historic (pre-Hoover Dam) valley, from nearly 150 m above the historic flood plain near the mouth of the Grand Canyon to less than 30 m above the flood plain at the head of the flood plain near Yuma, Arizona. The steepness of the valley at the peak of aggradation probably represents a depositional slope. Layers of fine grained volcanic tephra have been found below and within the Chemehuevi Formation at five widely separated sites, one of which is now submerged beneath Lake Mead. Major element geochemistry of glass shards from the four accessible tephra sites were analyzed. Three of the sampled tephra layers are interbedded within the Chemehuevi Formation, and a fourth tephra conformably underlies the formation. The three interbedded tephra layers are similar enough to one another that they are probably from the same eruptive unit, hereafter referred to as the Monkey Rock tephra bed. The other sample, which locally underlies the formation, is similar enough to the Monkey Rock tephra bed to suggest it is from the same volcanic source area; however, it may not be from the same eruption, and thus may not be the same age. On the basis of the stratigraphic contexts of chemically similar tephra layers found elsewhere in the Basin and Range, we suspect that the source area is the Mammoth Mountain dome complex in Long Valley, east-central California. Two samples of proximal Mammoth Mountain pumice were analyzed and produced geochemical signatures similar to all four of the Chemehuevi Formation tephra, supporting Mammoth Mountain as a possible source area. The Mammoth Mountain volcanic center produced eruptions between about 111±2 and 57±2 ka and was most active in the later part of this time

Malmon, Daniel V.; Howard, Keith A.; House, P. Kyle; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Pearthree, Philip A.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Wan, Elmira; Wahl, David B.

2011-01-01

211

Tropical cyclone formation  

SciTech Connect

The physics of tropical cyclone formation is not well understood, and more is known about the mature hurricane than the formative mechanisms that produce it. It is believed part of the reason for this can be traced to insufficient upper-level atmospheric data. Recent observations suggest that tropical cyclones are initiated by asymmetric interactions associated with migratory upper-level potential vorticity disturbances and low-level disturbances. Favored theories of cyclones formation, however, focus on internal processes associated with cumulus convection and/or air-sea interaction. This work focuses on external mechanisms of cyclone formation and, using both a two- and three-dimensional moist geostrophic momentum model, investigates the role of upper-level potential vorticity disturbances on the formation process. A conceptual model of tropical cyclone formation is proposed, and implications of the theory are discussed. 71 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Montgomery, M.T.; Farrell, B.F. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-01-15

212

Flash Open File Format  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Macromedia has released the file format specification for its Flash (discussed in the April 11, 1997 Scout Report) multimedia web tool. Flash allows web developers to create vector based graphics and animation. By making the format (.swf) available, Macromedia hopes to establish it as a standard for vector graphics and animation. The company claims it will "submit the format specification to a recognized Internet standards organization." In addition to providing the file format specification, the site provides Flash related news releases, a Flash FAQ, and a vector graphics white paper.

213

GLOBAL STAR FORMATION REVISITED  

SciTech Connect

A general treatment of disk star formation is developed from a dissipative multiphase model, with the dominant dissipation due to cloud collisions. The Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law emerges naturally for star-forming disks and starbursts. We predict that there should be an inverse correlation between Tully-Fisher law and SK law residuals. The model is extended to include a multiphase treatment of supernova feedback that leads to a turbulent pressure-regulated generalization of the star formation law and is applicable to gas-rich starbursts. Enhanced pressure, as expected in merger-induced star formation, enhances star formation efficiency. An upper limit is derived for the disk star formation rate in starbursts that depends on the ratio of global ISM to cloud pressures. We extend these considerations to the case where the interstellar gas pressure in the inner galaxy is dominated by outflows from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN). During massive spheroid formation, AGN-driven winds trigger star formation, resulting in enhanced supernova feedback and outflows. The outflows are comparable to the AGN-boosted star formation rate and saturate in the super-Eddington limit. Downsizing of both SMBH and spheroids is a consequence of AGN-driven positive feedback. Bondi accretion feeds the central black hole with a specific accretion rate that is proportional to the black hole mass. AGN-enhanced star formation is mediated by turbulent pressure and relates spheroid star formation rate to black hole accretion rate. The relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion has a coefficient (Salpeter time to gas consumption time ratio) that provides an arrow of time. Highly efficient, AGN-boosted star formation can occur at high redshift.

Silk, Joseph [Physics Department, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Norman, Colin [Physics Department, Johns Hopkins University, 2400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)], E-mail: silk@astro.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: norman@stsci.edu

2009-07-20

214

School Formative Feedback Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data-driven instructional improvement relies on developing coherent systems that allow school staff to generate, interpret, and act upon quality formative information on students and school programs. This article offers a formative feedback system model that captures how school leaders and teachers structure artifacts and practices to create…

Halverson, Richard

2010-01-01

215

Star formation Simon Goodwin  

E-print Network

Star formation Simon Goodwin Dept Physics & Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH, UK. s.goodwin@sheffield.ac.uk 1 Abstract Stars are one of the most important consituents of the Universe, and understanding their formation is crucial to many areas of astrophysics. Stars form from dense

Crowther, Paul

216

Formative Assessment Probes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

2008-01-01

217

The plasmapause formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of plasmapause formation is examined. Particular attention is given to the role of magnetospheric fields in the inner magnetosphere, the noon-midnight and dawn-dusk asymmetries, plasma density distribution in the plasmasphere, plasmapause positions in the nightside sector and the daytime LT sector, the LT distribution of detached plasma elements, the growth rate of interchange instability, the formation of new density knees at each new enhancement in magnetospheric convection, and diamagnetic and finite-temperature effects. The ideal MHD theory for the formation of the plasmapause is considered.

Lemaire, J.

218

Amyloid formation: Interface influence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aggregation of proteins into fibrils plays a crucial role in neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease. Further insight into fibril formation has now been gained that reveals the effect of hydrophobic surfaces, including air.

Hamley, Ian W.

2010-09-01

219

Formation of Hurricanes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a picture inquiry based lesson for students to explore the formation of hurricanes. Groups of three students will observe and explain trends found in a picture and share ideas with their peers.

Amber Morgan

2012-08-10

220

Understanding Earth: Coal Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplementary material from Understanding Earth (4th ed.), this short animation guides viewers through the formation of coal and its pathway through different grades. The animation is annotated with labels.

W.H. Freeman & amp; Co. Publishing

221

Rethinking globular clusters formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is aimed at emphasizing some of the main hints, constraints and difficulties we currently have in trying to understand how globular clusters formed, along with their multiple stellar generations, an issue that must be regarded as intimately connected to the formation process itself. Thus, the topics that are addressed include i) the required mass of the progenitor, ii) how to form new stars in an environment already crowded by a previous stellar generation, iii) how photometry and spectroscopy appear to suggest different formation processes for second generation stars, iv) whether dilution with pristine material may (or may not) be necessary for the formation of second generations, v) why the few clusters with multiple iron abundances are after all not so different from those that are homogeneous, and finally vi) why special environmental conditions may not be necessary for the formation of globular clusters with multiple stellar generations.

Renzini, Alvio

222

Teaching Letter Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe a remedial technique for teaching letter formation to students with handwriting difficulties. The approach blends traditional procedures (modeling, physical prompts, tracing, self correction, etc.) with cognitive behavior modification principles. (CL)

Graham, Steve; Madan, Avi J.

1981-01-01

223

Plant Formate Dehydrogenase  

SciTech Connect

The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

John Markwell

2005-01-10

224

Autonomous Formation Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

2004-01-01

225

Formation of the Carolina Bays: ET Impact vs. Wind-and-Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carolina Bays are a group of lakes, wetlands, and depressions, stretching from Florida to New Jersey along the Atlantic Ocean, and ranging up to 11 km in length and about 15 m in depth. Their distinctive elliptical shapes and common orientation towards the Great Lakes region have generated many hypotheses about their method of formation, including extraterrestrial impact (Melton and Schriever, 1933; Prouty, 1934). Another suggests that springs or groundwater dissolution of soluble minerals caused subsidence, which formed water-filled depressions that became the Bays (Johnson, D.W., 1944). One of the prevailing views is that Carolina Bays represent irregular lakes that were gradually reshaped into ellipses by circulating lake currents, generated by strong ice-age winds blowing perpendicular to the current long axes of the Bays (Kaczorowski, 1977). We report results from a suite of cores taken from within a Bay, which we have named "Howard Bay," located about 2 km north of the town of Duart in Bladen County, North Carolina. Located on the high western bluff of the Cape Fear River, the Bay is 2.7 km long, 1.6 km wide, and filled with about 9 meters of sediment with an encircling rim that is ~1-meter high. Analyses of seven cores along the long axis of Howard Bay reveal an assemblage of abundant magnetic grains, microspherules, carbon spherules, glass-like carbon, and iridium, typical of the YDB impact layer (12.9 ka) at many other sites across North America. The impact layer conforms to the basal contours of the basin, suggesting that the markers were deposited immediately or soon after the Bay formed. Further analyses of samples in complete core sequences reveal that, unlike typical, peat-rich Carolina Bays, Howard Bay essentially lacks peat, diatoms, pollen, or other organic materials, suggesting that this Bay never stored water for any sustained length of time. Furthermore, several trenches confirm that the deepest part of the Bay is filled with >6 m of cross-bedded eolian sand with no evidence of lacustrine sedimentation. This evidence calls into question prevailing hypotheses (a) that all Bays were lakes and ponds in the past and that their shapes were formed by wave action, or (b) that groundwater movement led to subsidence that formed the Bay. The presence of impact markers, including high concentrations of iridium, in a layer just above the basal sediments of this Bay that is filled with eolian sand supports the extraterrestrial impact hypothesis for Bay formation.

Kobres, R.; Howard, G. A.; West, A.; Firestone, R. B.; Kennett, J. P.; Kimbel, D.; Newell, W.

2007-05-01

226

Formation control for cooperative surveillance  

E-print Network

Constructing and maintaining a formation is critical in applications of cooperative control of multi-agent systems. In this research we address the formation control problem of generating a formation for a group of nonholonomic mobile agents...

Woo, Sang-Bum

2009-05-15

227

Isolating Triggered Star Formation  

E-print Network

Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to ``field'' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than ``field'' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N=2 halos) and a control sample of isolated galaxies (N=1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M_Bj isolated 50 (30) kpc/h pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of >~ 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context. (Abridged.)

Elizabeth J. Barton; Jacob A. Arnold; Andrew R. Zentner; James S. Bullock; Risa H. Wechsler

2007-08-21

228

Format-Preserving Encryption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Format-preserving encryption (FPE) encrypts a plaintext of some specified format into a ciphertext of identical format—for example, encrypting a valid credit-card number into a valid credit-card number. The problem has been known for some time, but it has lacked a fully general and rigorous treatment. We provide one, starting off by formally defining FPE and security goals for it. We investigate the natural approach for achieving FPE on complex domains, the “rank-then-encipher” approach, and explore what it can and cannot do. We describe two flavors of unbalanced Feistel networks that can be used for achieving FPE, and we prove new security results for each. We revisit the cycle-walking approach for enciphering on a non-sparse subset of an encipherable domain, showing that the timing information that may be divulged by cycle walking is not a damaging thing to leak.

Bellare, Mihir; Ristenpart, Thomas; Rogaway, Phillip; Stegers, Till

229

Wotsit's File Format Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wotsit's File Format Collection, provided by Paul Oliver, features a very large number of file formats. These include JPEG image files, wave sound files, Rich Text files, and common database and word-processing files such as Paradox and Wordperfect. Documents collected or linked at the site are primarily either original specifications from the creator or an improved version of the original. All of the specifications are very technical and are directed towards programmers. Users can subscribe to a mailing list for notification of site updates.

230

Formation of Galactic Disks  

E-print Network

We review progress in understanding the formation of galactic disks in the standard cosmogonic scenario involving gravitational clustering of baryons and dark matter and dissipative collapse of the baryons. This scenario accounts remarkably well for the observed properties of galactic disks if they have retained most of the specific angular momentum they acquired by tidal torques. Early simulations, which included cooling of the gas but not star formation and the associated feedback, indicated instead that most of the angular momentum of the baryons would be transferred to the dark matter. Recent simulations indicate that this angular-momentum problem can be solved partially, and in some cases entirely, by feedback and other effects.

S. Michael Fall

2002-03-27

231

Formation of galaxies  

SciTech Connect

The present theories of galaxy formation are reviewed. The relation between peculiar velocities and the correlation function of galaxies points to the possibility that galaxies do not form uniformly everywhere. Scale invariant properties of the cluster-cluster correlations are discussed. Comparing the correlation functions in a dimensionless way, galaxies appear to be stronger clustered, in contrast with the comparison of the dimensional amplitudes of the correlation functions. Theoretical implications of several observations as Lyman-..cap alpha.. clouds, correlations of faint galaxies are discussed. None of the present theories of galaxy formation can account for all facts in a natural way. 29 references.

Szalay, A.S.

1984-12-01

232

Isolating Triggered Star Formation  

SciTech Connect

Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context.

Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

2007-09-12

233

Glueball formation in chromostatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confinement and bag formation is demonstrated for SU(2) static gluons in a semi-classical model in which the leading logarithm improvement to the classical lagrangian is employed. The gluons are represented by static sources in the adjoint representation, and the fields are expanded in the algebra generated by the gluon charges. Restriction is made to the singlet representation by use of

Kimball A. Milton; Walter Wilcox

1983-01-01

234

Wound-Periderm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivores, and particularly chewing insects, cause substantial damage to the plant. In addition to lost tissue, there are great concerns of pathogen invasion and water loss at the site of the attack. One of the plant’s defense strategies is the formation of wound periderm at the boundaries of the invaded or damaged region to isolate it from non-wounded healthy tissue.

Idit Ginzberg

235

Oil Formation and Trapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the successive stages in the formation of an oil reserve. In View 1, organic material settles, is buried, and is transformed by heat and pressure into oil. In View 2 an oil trap is formed: the area folds into an anticline, and oil migrates and accumulates in the anticline crest.

Stephen Marshak

236

FORMATION OF PHOTOCHEMICAL AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective was to develop a better understanding of smog aerosol formation with particular reference to haze in the Southern California area. This study combined laboratory work with ambient air studies. Counting of particles by light scattering was the principle physical tech...

237

Hair follicle Formation of  

E-print Network

Hair follicle Formation of new follicles Bud Healed skin Hair bulge Open wound Epidermis a b Dermis 1950s and help to explain the controversy. What is the origin of the cells that make up these new hair follicles? Are they derived from existing hair follicles located at the wound edge

Chuong, Cheng-Ming

238

Promoting habit formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habits are automatic behavioural responses to environmental cues, thought to develop through repetition of behaviour in consistent contexts. When habit is strong, deliberate intentions have been shown to have a reduced influence on behaviour. The habit concept may provide a mechanism for establishing new behaviours, and so healthy habit formation is a desired outcome for many interventions. Habits also however

Phillippa Lally; Benjamin Gardner

2011-01-01

239

Queen's Garden Formations  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Views along the Queen's Garden Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sands...

240

Technobabble: File Formats.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the confusion of over 20 different kinds of graphics programs. Briefly distinguishes between some of the more popular graphics formats (Photoshop, TIFF, JPEG, GIF, PICT, and EPS), and describes the benefits and disadvantages of each in the context of journalism education. (SC)

Wilson, Bradley

1999-01-01

241

Bacterial formate hydrogenlyase complex  

PubMed Central

Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli can carry out a mixed-acid fermentation that ultimately produces molecular hydrogen. The enzyme directly responsible for hydrogen production is the membrane-bound formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which links formate oxidation to proton reduction and has evolutionary links to Complex I, the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. Although the genetics, maturation, and some biochemistry of FHL are understood, the protein complex has never been isolated in an intact form to allow biochemical analysis. In this work, genetic tools are reported that allow the facile isolation of FHL in a single chromatographic step. The core complex is shown to comprise HycE (a [NiFe] hydrogenase component termed Hyd-3), FdhF (the molybdenum-dependent formate dehydrogenase-H), and three iron-sulfur proteins: HycB, HycF, and HycG. A proportion of this core complex remains associated with HycC and HycD, which are polytopic integral membrane proteins believed to anchor the core complex to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. As isolated, the FHL complex retains formate hydrogenlyase activity in vitro. Protein film electrochemistry experiments on Hyd-3 demonstrate that it has a unique ability among [NiFe] hydrogenases to catalyze production of H2 even at high partial pressures of H2. Understanding and harnessing the activity of the FHL complex is critical to advancing future biohydrogen research efforts. PMID:25157147

McDowall, Jennifer S.; Murphy, Bonnie J.; Haumann, Michael; Palmer, Tracy; Armstrong, Fraser A.; Sargent, Frank

2014-01-01

242

Formation of planetesimals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formation of planetesimals is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) nebular structure; (2) aerodynamics of the solid bodies in the nebula; (3) problems with gravitational instability; (4) particle growth by coagulation; properties of fractal aggregates; and (5) coagulation and settling of fractal aggregates.

Weidenschilling, Stuart J.

1991-01-01

243

Bacterial formate hydrogenlyase complex.  

PubMed

Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli can carry out a mixed-acid fermentation that ultimately produces molecular hydrogen. The enzyme directly responsible for hydrogen production is the membrane-bound formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which links formate oxidation to proton reduction and has evolutionary links to Complex I, the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. Although the genetics, maturation, and some biochemistry of FHL are understood, the protein complex has never been isolated in an intact form to allow biochemical analysis. In this work, genetic tools are reported that allow the facile isolation of FHL in a single chromatographic step. The core complex is shown to comprise HycE (a [NiFe] hydrogenase component termed Hyd-3), FdhF (the molybdenum-dependent formate dehydrogenase-H), and three iron-sulfur proteins: HycB, HycF, and HycG. A proportion of this core complex remains associated with HycC and HycD, which are polytopic integral membrane proteins believed to anchor the core complex to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. As isolated, the FHL complex retains formate hydrogenlyase activity in vitro. Protein film electrochemistry experiments on Hyd-3 demonstrate that it has a unique ability among [NiFe] hydrogenases to catalyze production of H2 even at high partial pressures of H2. Understanding and harnessing the activity of the FHL complex is critical to advancing future biohydrogen research efforts. PMID:25157147

McDowall, Jennifer S; Murphy, Bonnie J; Haumann, Michael; Palmer, Tracy; Armstrong, Fraser A; Sargent, Frank

2014-09-23

244

Formation-flying interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many advantages to space-based interferometry, but monolithic, single-spacecraft platforms set limits on the collecting area and baseline length. These constraints can be overcome by distributing the optical elements of the interferometer over a system of multiple spacecraft flying in precise formation, opening up new realms of angular resolution and sensitivity. While the principles of interferometry are the same

Oliver P. Lay; Gary H. Blackwood

2003-01-01

245

Bluff Body Flow Simulation Using a Vortex Element Method  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ground vehicles, especially those involved in long-haul freight transportation, consume a significant part of our nation's energy supply. it is therefore of utmost importance to improve their efficiency, both to reduce emissions and to decrease reliance on imported oil. At highway speeds, more than half of the power consumed by a typical semi truck goes into overcoming aerodynamic drag, a fraction which increases with speed and crosswind. Thanks to better tools and increased awareness, recent years have seen substantial aerodynamic improvements by the truck industry, such as tractor/trailer height matching, radiator area reduction, and swept fairings. However, there remains substantial room for improvement as understanding of turbulent fluid dynamics grows. The group's research effort focused on vortex particle methods, a novel approach for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Where common CFD methods solve or model the Navier-Stokes equations on a grid which stretches from the truck surface outward, vortex particle methods solve the vorticity equation on a Lagrangian basis of smooth particles and do not require a grid. They worked to advance the state of the art in vortex particle methods, improving their ability to handle the complicated, high Reynolds number flow around heavy vehicles. Specific challenges that they have addressed include finding strategies to accurate capture vorticity generation and resultant forces at the truck wall, handling the aerodynamics of spinning bodies such as tires, application of the method to the GTS model, computation time reduction through improved integration methods, a closest point transform for particle method in complex geometrics, and work on large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence modeling.

Anthony Leonard; Phillippe Chatelain; Michael Rebel

2004-09-30

246

Some observations regarding steady laminar flows past bluff bodies.  

PubMed

Steady laminar flows past simple objects, such as a cylinder or a sphere, have been studied for well over a century. Theoretical, experimental and numerical methods have all contributed fundamentally towards our understanding of the resulting flows. This article focuses on developments during the past few decades, when mostly numerical and asymptotical advances have provided insights also for steady, although unstable, high-Reynolds-numbers flow regimes. PMID:24936017

Fornberg, Bengt; Elcrat, Alan R

2014-07-28

247

Geology of the Little Bluff Creek Area, Mason County, Texas  

E-print Network

in central Texas waa conducted by Ferdinand Roeaer {1846); hia findings weze the first published descriytions of the older Paleozoic, Caz'boniferous, and Cretaceous x'ocks end fossils in thc rc ion. In 1861 3, F. Shumard confirxxed necx'ly all of t! c...) visited the area in 133$ tc study t le Ca xbricn oo t. on cnd to colic 'Ti . isa 15 from the TCYAts Potsdam ~cup, !t. . a'so concluded t'. ~t thc Potsdam group in Te"~s wns of Labe ". umbrian cge. Several years 1 ter 3. T. Hill {1397) ' n c re. icw...

Mangum, Charles Roland

1960-01-01

248

Simulations of Bluff Body Flow Interaction for Noise Source Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current study is a continuation of our effort to characterize the details of flow interaction between two cylinders in a tandem configuration. This configuration is viewed to possess many of the pertinent flow features of the highly interactive unsteady flow field associated with the main landing gear of large civil transports. The present effort extends our previous two-dimensional, unsteady, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computations to three dimensions using a quasilaminar, zonal approach, in conjunction with a two-equation turbulence model. Two distinct separation length-to-diameter ratios of L/D = 3.7 and 1.435, representing intermediate and short separation distances between the two cylinders, are simulated. The Mach 0.166 simulations are performed at a Reynolds number of Re = 1.66 105 to match the companion experiments at NASA Langley Research Center. Extensive comparisons with the measured steady and unsteady surface pressure and off-surface particle image velocimetry data show encouraging agreement. Both prominent and some of the more subtle trends in the mean and fluctuating flow fields are correctly predicted. Both computations and the measured data reveal a more robust and energetic shedding process at L/D = 3.7 in comparison with the weaker shedding in the shorter separation case of L/D = 1.435. The vortex shedding frequency based on the computed surface pressure spectra is in reasonable agreement with the measured Strouhal frequency.

Khorrami, Medi R.; Lockard David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Neuhart, Dan H.; McGinley, Catherine B.

2006-01-01

249

Atmospheric flow over two-dimensional bluff surface obstructions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenon of atmospheric flow over a two-dimensional surface obstruction, such as a building (modeled as a rectangular block, a fence or a forward-facing step), is analyzed by three methods: (1) an inviscid free streamline approach, (2) a turbulent boundary layer approach using an eddy viscosity turbulence model and a horizontal pressure gradient determined by the inviscid model, and (3) an approach using the full Navier-Stokes equations with three turbulence models; i.e., an eddy viscosity model, a turbulence kinetic-energy model and a two-equation model with an additional transport equation for the turbulence length scale. A comparison of the performance of the different turbulence models is given, indicating that only the two-equation model adequately accounts for the convective character of turbulence. Turbulence flow property predictions obtained from the turbulence kinetic-energy model with prescribed length scale are only insignificantly better than those obtained from the eddy viscosity model. A parametric study includes the effects of the variation of the characteristics parameters of the assumed logarithmic approach velocity profile. For the case of the forward-facing step, it is shown that in the downstream flow region an increase of the surface roughness gives rise to higher turbulence levels in the shear layer originating from the step corner.

Bitte, J.; Frost, W.

1976-01-01

250

Dynamical control for capturing vortices near bluff bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the vortex dynamics near a translating and rotating circular cylinder in a two-dimensional uniform viscous flow. In analogy with the point-vortex and Eulerian dynamics, there is an interesting scattering effect of vortices approaching the cylinder from far upstream. The vortex-boundary-layer interaction plays an important role in the scattering processes. We implement a modified Ott, Grebogi, and Yorke chaos control scheme, based on a low-dimensional Hamiltonian model of the flow, to capture and stabilize a concentrated vortex around the cylinder. This point-vortex-based control model can successfully be applied in a viscous flow when control is actuated by uniformly rotating the cylinder and actively changing the background flow velocity far from the body. We demonstrate that such a control mechanism can simultaneously control the vortex dynamics, and also suppress the vortex shedding. An analysis of the vortex-boundary-layer interaction is presented to explain the absence of vortex shedding during control simulations.

Péntek, Áron; Kadtke, James B.; Pedrizzetti, Gianni

1998-08-01

251

Bluff Body Flow Simulation Using a Vortex Element Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy ground vehicles, especially those involved in long-haul freight transportation, consume a significant part of our nation's energy supply. it is therefore of utmost importance to improve their efficiency, both to reduce emissions and to decrease reliance on imported oil. At highway speeds, more than half of the power consumed by a typical semi truck goes into overcoming aerodynamic drag,

Anthony Leonard; Phillippe Chatelain; Michael Rebel

2004-01-01

252

Medusae Fossae Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 10 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 7o S, 172o W (188o E) and shows a remarkable martian geologic deposit known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation, seen here as the raised plateau in the upper two-thirds of the image, is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region the deposit has been heavily eroded by the wind to produce a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These parallel ridges point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to sculpt the dry landscape of Mars. The Medusae Fossae Formation has been completely stripped from the surface in the lower third of the image, revealing a harder layer below that is more resistant to wind erosion. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Several ancient craters that were once completely buried by this deposit are being exposed, or exhumed, as the overlying Medusae Formation is removed. Very few impact craters are visible on this Formation, indicating that the surface seen today is relatively young, and that the processes of erosion are likely to be actively occurring. The Story Medusa of Greek mythology fame, the name-giver to this region, had snaky locks of hair that could turn a person to stone. Wild and unruly, this monster of the underworld could certainly wreak havoc on the world of the human imagination. As scary as she was, Medusa would have no advantage over the fierce, masterful winds blowing across Mars, which once carved the streaky, terrain at the top of this image. Wild and whipping, these winds have slowly eroded away the 'topsoil,' revealing ancient craters and other surface features they once covered. The loosely cemented particles of this 'topsoil' are likely made up of dust or volcanic ash, and are thus more susceptible to windblown erosion. The Martian winds have actually been strong and relentless enough over time to strip the land in the bottom of this image of the material that once covered it, leaving it hard and bare to the eye.

2002-01-01

253

Cosmological structure formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the current forefront problem of physical cosmology, the formation of structures (galaxies, clusters, great walls, etc.) in the universe is presented. Solutions require two key ingredients: (1) matter; and (2) seeds. Regarding the matter, it now seems clear that both baryonic and non-baryonic matter are required. Whether the non-baryonic matter is hot or cold depends on the choice of seeds. Regarding the seeds, both density fluctuations and topological defects are discussed. The combination of isotropy of the microwave background and the recent observations indicating more power on large scales have severly constrained, if not eliminated, Gaussian fluctuations with equal power on all scales, regardless of the eventual resolution of both the matter and seed questions. It is important to note that all current structure formation ideas require new physics beyond SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1).

Schramm, David N.

1991-01-01

254

Format( )MEDIC( )Input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is a description of a computer program called Format( )MEDIC( )Input. The purpose of this program is to allow the user to quickly reformat wind velocity data in the Model Evaluation Database (MEDb) into a reasonable 'first cut' set of MEDIC input files (MEDIC.nml, StnLoc.Met, and Observ.Met). The user is cautioned that these resulting input files must be reviewed for correctness and completeness. This program will not format MEDb data into a Problem Station Library or Problem Metdata File. A description of how the program reformats the data is provided, along with a description of the required and optional user input and a description of the resulting output files. A description of the MEDb is not provided here but can be found in the RAS Division Model Evaluation Database Description document.

Foster, K.

1994-09-01

255

Formation of interpolymer complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpolymer complex formations of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) or poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) with oligocations as well as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), and poly-(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone of various chain lengths were studied. For the case of complexation between PMAA and oligocations, the standard free energy change for the complexation ?G° was found to be linearly dependent on the number of interacting sites, n. The stability

Eishun Tsuchida; Yoshihito Osada; Hiroyuki Ohno

1980-01-01

256

Hail Formation in Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hail poses a substantial threat to life and property in the state of Florida. These losses could be minimized through better understanding of the relationships between atmospheric variables that impact hail formation in Florida. Improving hail forecasting in Florida requires analyzing a number of meteorological parameters and synoptic data related to hail formation. NOAA archive data was retrieved to create a database that was used to categorize text files of hail days. The text files were entered into the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory website to create National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis maps of atmospheric variables for Florida hail days as well as days leading to the hail event. These data were then analyzed to determine the relationship between variables that affect hail formation, in general, across different regions and seasons in Florida using Statistical Product and Service Solutions. The reasoning for the differing factors affecting hail formation between regions, seasons and hail sizes were discussed, as well as forecasting suggestions relating to region and month in Florida. The study found that the majority of all hail that occurs in Florida is during the wet season. A low Lifted Index, high Precipitable Water and lower than average Sea Level Pressure, in most cases, is present during hail days in Florida. Furthermore, results show that Vector Wind magnitude increases as hail size increases. Additionally, several atmospheric variables useful to studying hail events, such as Lifted Index, Precipitable Water, Sea Level Pressure, Vector Wind and Temperature have significant correlations with each other depending on the region and season being observed. Strong correlations between low Lifted Index, high Precipitable Water values and the occurrence of hail events are discussed, as well as the relationship between temperature anomalies at various pressure levels and the occurrence of hail events.

Stanley, Matthew

257

Text formatting by demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In text formatters such as troff, Scribe, and TEX, users write macro procedures to specify the desired visual appearance. In What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get text formatters, such as MacWrite and Microsoft Word, the formatting is specified by directly manipulating the text. However, some important functionality is lost in these systems since they are not programmable, For example, if the user wants to change

Brad A. Myers

1991-01-01

258

Formation of Transient Lamellipodia  

PubMed Central

Cell motility driven by actin polymerization is pivotal to the development and survival of organisms and individual cells. Motile cells plated on flat substrates form membrane protrusions called lamellipodia. The protrusions repeatedly appear and retract in all directions. If a lamellipodium is stabilized and lasts for some time, it can take over the lead and determine the direction of cell motion. Protrusions traveling along the cell perimeter have also been observed. Their initiation is in some situations the effect of the dynamics of the pathway linking plasma membrane receptors to actin filament nucleation, e.g. in chemotaxis. However, lamellipodia are also formed in many cells incessantly during motion with a constant state of the signaling pathways upstream from nucleation promoting factors (NPFs), or spontaneously in resting cells. These observations strongly suggest protrusion formation can also be a consequence of the dynamics downstream from NPFs, with signaling setting the dynamic regime but not initiating the formation of individual protrusions. A quantitative mechanism for this kind of lamellipodium dynamics has not been suggested yet. Here, we present a model exhibiting excitable actin network dynamics. Individual lamellipodia form due to random supercritical filament nucleation events amplified by autocatalytic branching. They last for about 30 seconds to many minutes and are terminated by filament bundling, severing and capping. We show the relevance of the model mechanism for experimentally observed protrusion dynamics by reproducing in very good approximation the repetitive protrusion formation measured by Burnette et al. with respect to the velocities of leading edge protrusion and retrograde flow, oscillation amplitudes, periods and shape, as well as the phase relation between protrusion and retrograde flow. Our modeling results agree with the mechanism of actin bundle formation during lamellipodium retraction suggested by Burnette et al. and Koestler et al. PMID:24505300

Zimmermann, Juliane; Falcke, Martin

2014-01-01

259

Cave Formation: Biogeochemical Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explores the role of biogeochemical cycles in the formation of caves. It discusses a radical new theory that identifies sulfuric acid as a cave-forming agent. The video, adapted from a NOVA broadcast, identifies the source of the sulfuric acid, which, unlike carbonic acid, the typical cave-forming agent, does not readily form in nature. The segment is 5 minutes and forty seconds in length.

260

Drumlin Formation Library Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will individually produce a written introduction for a paper about the presence of drumlins on Mars - this introduction describes different models for drumlin formation on earth. To prepare for this assignment, students work in groups to do library research to find and read articles. The groups summarize their findings for each other. Each student then writes an introduction incorporating material from all the groups. Designed for a geomorphology course Uses geomorphology to solve problems in other fields

Alison M Anders

261

Terrestrial planet formation  

PubMed Central

Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (?106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

Righter, K.; O’Brien, D. P.

2011-01-01

262

CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objective for this reporting period was to perform pressure transient testing to determine permeability of deep Wilcox coal to use as additional, necessary data for modeling performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. To perform permeability testing of the Wilcox coal, we worked with Anadarko Petroleum Corporation in selecting the well and intervals to test and in designing the pressure transient test. Anadarko agreed to allow us to perform permeability tests in coal beds in an existing shut-in well (Well APCT2). This well is located in the region of the Sam K. Seymour power station, a site that we earlier identified as a major point source of CO{sub 2} emissions. A service company, Pinnacle Technologies Inc. (Pinnacle) was contracted to conduct the tests in the field. Intervals tested were 2 coal beds with thicknesses of 3 and 7 feet, respectively, at approximately 4,100 ft depth in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in east-central Texas. Analyses of pressure transient test data indicate that average values for coalbed methane reservoir permeability in the tested coals are between 1.9 and 4.2 mD. These values are in the lower end of the range of permeability used in the preliminary simulation modeling. These new coal fracture permeability data from the APCT2 well, along with the acquired gas compositional analyses and sorption capacities of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}, complete the reservoir description phase of the project. During this quarter we also continued work on reservoir and economic modeling to evaluate performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery.

Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

2005-05-01

263

Swarm formations using the general formation potential function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for synthesizing classes of potential functions, which corresponds to commonly used formations, from a general formation potential function by altering the values of a fixed set of parameters. These potential functions may then be used for formation control in swarms of agents. The properties of the potential functions are also examined in this paper. In

Shuzhi Sam Ge; Chency-Heng Fua; Wei-ming Liew

2004-01-01

264

Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

1985-01-01

265

Method for measuring pollutant formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagnostic methods for determining an instantaneous rate of pollutant formation in a combustion system are based on measurement of chemiluminescence intensity generated simultaneously with the formation of the pollutant. The chemiluminescent signal is generated by an analog reaction which occurs in parallel with a key step in the formation of a specific pollutant of interest. The connection between the analog reaction and the pollution reaction is such that the chemiluminescent signal indicates the local, instantaneous formation rate of the pollutant of interest.

Annen, Kurt (Inventor); Stickler, David B. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

266

Cluster Formation and the ISM  

E-print Network

We review the physics of star formation, and its links with the state of the ISM in galaxies. Current obervations indicate that the preferred mode of star formation is clustered. Given that OB associations provide the dominant energy input into the ISM, deep links exist between the ISM and star formation. We present a multi-scale discussion of star formation, and attempt to create an integrated vision of these processes.

Ralph E. Pudritz; Jason D. Fiege

1999-05-12

267

Ultrarelativistic black hole formation.  

PubMed

We study the head-on collision of fluid particles well within the kinetic energy dominated regime (? = 8 to 12) by numerically solving the Einstein-hydrodynamic equations. We find that the threshold for black hole formation is lower (by a factor of a few) than simple hoop conjecture estimates, and, moreover, near this threshold two distinct apparent horizons first form postcollision and then merge. We argue that this can be understood in terms of a gravitational focusing effect. The gravitational radiation reaches luminosities of 0.014 c(5)/G, carrying 16 ± 2% of the total energy. PMID:23521246

East, William E; Pretorius, Frans

2013-03-01

268

Adiabatic Halo Formation  

SciTech Connect

In a high intensity circular accelerator the synchrotron dynamics introduces a slow modulation in the betatronic tune due to the space-charge tune depression. When the transverse motion is non-linear due to the presence of multipolar effects, resonance islands move in the phase space and change their amplitude. This effect introduces the trapping and detrapping phenomenon and a slow diffusion in the phase space. We apply the neo-adiabatic theory to describe this diffusion mechanism that can contribute to halo formation.

Bazzani, A.; Turchetti, G.; Benedetti, C.; Rambaldi, S.; Servizi, G. [Physics Department University of Bologna, INFN Bologna, via Irnerio 46 40126 Bologna Italy (Italy)

2005-06-08

269

The formation of life  

E-print Network

The formation of life is an automatic stage in the consolidation of rocky or "terrestrial" planets. The organic (=carbonaceous) matter, light elements, gases, and water must "float" toward the surface and the heavier metals must sink toward the center. Random processes in the molecular soup that fills microfractures in unmelted crust eventually produce self-replicating microtubules. In an appendix I suggest that some primordial crust remains because there is not enough consolidation energy to melt the whole planet. Energy is lost when iron planetesimals first partially melt and then coalesce to form the molten iron planetary core. Stony planetesimals accrete onto the surface of an already consolidated core.

Robert L. Kurucz

2000-11-10

270

Modeling river delta formation  

PubMed Central

A model to simulate the time evolution of river delta formation process is presented. It is based on the continuity equation for water and sediment flow and a phenomenological sedimentation/erosion law. Different delta types are reproduced by using different parameters and erosion rules. The structures of the calculated patterns are analyzed in space and time and compared with real data patterns. Furthermore, our model is capable of simulating the rich dynamics related to the switching of the mouth of the river delta. The simulation results are then compared with geological records for the Mississippi River. PMID:17940031

Seybold, Hansjörg; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

2007-01-01

271

Formative Assessment: Simply, No Additives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the types of assessment the closest to daily reading instruction is formative assessment. In contrast to summative assessment, which occurs after instruction, formative assessment involves forming judgments frequently in the flow of instruction. Key features of formative assessment include identifying gaps between where students are and…

Roskos, Kathleen; Neuman, Susan B.

2012-01-01

272

Star Cluster Formation and Star Formation: The Role of Environment and Star Formation Efficiencies  

E-print Network

Analyzing global starburst properties in various kinds of starburst and post-starburst galaxies and relating them to the properties of the star cluster populations they form, I explore the conditions for the formation of massive, compact, long-lived star clusters. The aim is to find out whether the relative amount of star formation that goes into star cluster formation as opposed to field star formation, and into the formation of massive long-lived clusters in particular, is universal or scales with star formation rate, burst strength, star formation efficiency, galaxy or gas mass, and whether or not there are special conditions or some threshold for the formation of star clusters that merit to be called globular clusters a few gigayears later.

Uta Fritze

2008-01-15

273

Bubble formation in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two KC-135 flight campaigns have been conducted to date which are specifically dedicated to study bubble formation in microgravity. The first flight was conducted during March 14-18, 1994, and the other during June 20-24, 1994. The results from the June 1994 flight have not been analyzed yet, while the results from the March flight have been partially analyzed. In the first flight three different experiments were performed, one with the specific aim at determining whether or not cavitation can take place during any of the fluid handling procedures adopted in the shuttle bioprocessing experiments. The other experiments were concerned with duplicating some of the procedures that resulted in bubble formation, namely the NCS filling procedure and the needle scratch of a solid surface. The results from this set of experiments suggest that cavitation did not take place during any of the fluid handling procedures. The results clearly indicate that almost all were generated as a result of the breakup of the gas/liquid interface. This was convincingly demonstrated in the scratch tests as well as in the liquid fill tests.

Antar, Basil N.

1994-01-01

274

The Planet Formation Imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the most fascinating and hotly-debated areas in contemporary astrophysics are the means by which planetary systems are assembled from the large rotating disks of gas and dust which attend a stellar birth. Although important work is being done both in theory and observation, a full understanding of the physics of planet formation can only be achieved by opening observational windows able to directly witness the process in action. The key requirement is then to probe planet-forming systems at the natural spatial scales over which material is being assembled. By definition, this is the so-called Hill Sphere which delineates the region of influence of a gravitating body within its surrounding environment. The Planet Formation Imager project has crystallized around this challenging goal: to deliver resolved images of Hill-Sphere-sized structures within candidate planet-hosting disks in the nearest star-forming regions. In this contribution we outline the primary science case of PFI and discuss how PFI could significantly advance our understanding of the architecture and potential habitability of planetary systems. We present radiation-hydrodynamics simulations from which we derive preliminary specifications that guide the design of the facility. Finally, we give an overview about the interferometric and non-interferometric technologies that we are investigating in order to meet the specifications.

Kraus, S.; Buscher, D. F.; Monnier, J. D.; PFI Science, the; Technical Working Group

2014-04-01

275

Egg Formation in Lepidoptera  

PubMed Central

Reproductive biology in the Twentieth Century produced comprehensive descriptions of the mechanisms of egg formation in most of the major orders of insects. While many general principles of ovarian development and physiology emerged, every order turned out to have a set of its own special motifs. Discovery of the lepidopteran motifs is summarized in this essay. The emphasis is on developmental mechanisms, beginning with the early growth and differentiation of female germ cells and ending, after many turns in morphogenesis, physiology and biosynthesis, with eggs that are filled with yolk and encased in chorions. Examples of uniquely lepidopteran traits include the cellular composition of ovarian follicles, the number of tubular ovarioles in which they mature, the functions of cell-to-cell junctional complexes in their maturation, their use of glycosaminoglycans to maintain intercellular patency during vitellogenesis, the role of proton and calcium pumps in their ion physiology, a separate postvitellogenic period of water and inorganic ion uptake, and the fine structure and protein composition of their chorions. Discovery of this combination of idiosyncracies was based on advances in the general concepts and techniques of cell and molecular biology and on insights borrowed from studies on other insects. The lepidopteran ovary in turn has contributed much to the understanding of egg formation in insects generally. PMID:20050770

Telfer, William H.

2009-01-01

276

Urbanization and Slum Formation  

PubMed Central

The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution. PMID:17387618

Phua, Kai Hong

2007-01-01

277

Deep Water Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some simple arguments on plumes of dense water and filling boxes were given. What determines the time for a large-scale environment to be modified by the injection of dense water at its edge is the mass flux, not the buoyancy flux. However, it is the denser buoyancy flux, when there are several competing plumes (e.g., the Mediterranean outflow versus the Denmark Strait outflow) that determines which plume will provide the bottom water for that ocean basin. It was noted that the obvious laboratory experiment (rotate a pie-shaped annulus, and heat/cool it on the surface) had never been performed. Thus, to some extent our belief that deep convection is somehow automatic at high latitudes to close off some ill-defined meridional circulation has never been tested. A summary of deep convection was given. The two fundamental formation mechanisms were shown. Of the two, it is open-ocean convection which forms the water which supplies the Denmark Strait overflow -- in all likelihood, as formation in the Greenland Sea remains stubbornly unobserved. But it is the slope convection which finally creates North Atlantic deep water, following the Denmark Strait overspill.

Killworth, P. D.

1984-01-01

278

LISA satellite formation control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The joint ESA-NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission consists of a triangular formation of three satellites aiming at detecting gravitational waves. In linear approximation the LISA satellites describe a circle around a reference point, maintaining a fixed position with respect to each other. The reference point, the center of the triangle, orbits the Sun in a circular orbit, trailing the Earth at twenty degrees. In reality the distance between the satellites will vary by about one to two percent and the angle between the arms of the antenna will vary by about 0.5° over the course of one year for the nominal LISA satellite configuration. For measurement accuracy it is desirable that the pointing offset of the telescopes be kept small. This makes it necessary to actuate the telescopes or to control the formation. It was assumed that the LISA satellites are equipped with six ?N engines that would allow to keep the two cubical proof masses within each satellite in almost perfect free fall. It was found that control forces up to about 700 ?N are required for maintaining the absolute triangular LISA formation, leading to unacceptable excursions of the proof masses from free fall. However, these forces compensate predominantly very low frequency variations of the arm lengths and angles of the triangle, which are then to be compensated by the telescope actuators. The variations are outside the aimed LISA measurement bandwidth (10 -4-0.1 Hz). In addition, the effect of thruster noise, orbit determination errors and orbit injection errors was examined. The effect of these error sources on the arm lengths and orientation angles between the LISA satellites was assessed both in open loop and in closed loop, where the closed loop was based on a proportional-derivative (PD) controller. It was found that orbit determination errors of the order of a few km in position and a few mm/s in velocity lead to negligible closed loop control forces. In addition, orbit injection errors of the order of 10 km in position and 1 cm/s in velocity could be eliminated after a few days when thrusting at levels of 200-500 ?N. Even for a high estimated level of thruster noise below 10 -4 Hz (equivalent to about 2 ?N random thrusts once an hour), the closed loop controller effectively reduced the effect on the angles of the triangle to below 30 nrad.

Bik, J. J. C. M.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; Jennrich, O.

279

Chorionic Villi Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This FlashTM animation depicts morphogenesis of chorionic villi. It begins by displaying a cross section through the three layers of the chorion, with a maternal sinusoid expanding through the syncyciotrophoblast. Clicking causes the lesson to progress through a stepwise display of the formation of stem, terminal, primary, secondary and tertiary villi, with the intervillous space and outer trophoblastic shell. The lesson ends with an explanation of how the chorionic villi of the placenta mediate diffusion between the fetal and maternal circulatory systems. A back button allows users to jump to previous scenes, a rate button allows them to toggle between fast and slow modes, and a text button allows them to toggle explanatory text on and off.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2010-11-29

280

Pine Island Iceberg Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation is a sequence showing the formation of the Pine Island iceberg and the glacial seaward flow upstream from the crack. It is a series of MISR images from the Terra satellite on top of the continental Radarsat view of Antarctica. The Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event.

Lori Perkins

2002-01-10

281

Glass formation in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of containerless glass-forming experiments conducted aboard the Space Shuttle in 1985, using a single-axis acoustic levitator furnace apparatus. An attempt was made to obtain quantitative evidence for the suppression of heterogeneous nucleation/crystallization in containerless melts under microgravity conditions, as well as to study melt homogenization in the absence of gravity-driven convection and assess the feasibility of laser fusion target glass microsphere preparation with a microgravity apparatus of the present type. A ternary calcia-gallia-silica glass thus obtained indicated a 2-3-fold increase in glass-formation tendency for this material composition in microgravity, by comparison with 1g.

Ray, C. S.; Day, D. E.

1987-01-01

282

Dityrosine formation in calmodulin  

SciTech Connect

Ultraviolet (280-nm) irradiation of bovine brain calmodulin results in calcium-dependent changes in its fluorescence emission spectrum. These consist of a decline in the intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence of the protein and the appearance of a new emission maximum at 400 nm. Chromatography of irradiated calmodulin, using Ultrogel AcA 54 and phenyl-agarose columns, yields several distinctive fractions. One of these, representing 2.8% of the total recovered protein and 53% of the total fluorescence emission at 400 nm, was selected for detailed characterization. Analyses performed on acid hydrolysates reveal the presence of dityrosine, a derivative of tyrosine known for its fluorescence near 400 nm, at the level of 0.59-0.89 mol per 16,700 g of protein. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis experiments demonstrate two components of apparent molecular weights 14,000 (80%) and 16,000 (20%). Observations on the effects of UV irradiation on the thrombic fragments of calmodulin and on related calcium binding proteins (rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C, bovine cardiac troponin C, and parvalbumin) support the interpretation that dityrosine formation in calmodulin results from the intramolecular cross-linking of Tyr-99 and Tyr-138. The dityrosine-containing photoproduct of calmodulin is unable to stimulate the p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity of calcineurin under standard assay conditions. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase binds the derivative about 280-fold less effectively than it binds native calmodulin. Of several metal ions tested, only Cd/sup 2 +/ approaches Ca/sup 2 +/ in its ability to promote the appearance of the 400-nm emission band during UV irradiation of calmodulin. Mn/sup 2 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ appear to inhibit dityrosine formation.

Malencik, D.A.; Anderson, S.R.

1987-02-10

283

Cellular pattern formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis studies the formation and evolution of cellular patterns in foams and living organisms using the extended large-Q Potts model. Specific problems include grain growth, foam drainage, foam rheology, and patterning and cell sorting in the mound phase of the slime mode Dictyostelium discoideum. In a wide range of cellular materials, surface-energy-driven diffusion leads to boundary motion which causes some grains to expend and others to shrink. Two-dimensional large-Q Potts model simulation of the evolution of a disordered cluster developed from a hexagonal grain array with a defect shows that abnormal grain growth can occur without strong anisotropy of surface energy. The grains at the boundary of the disordered cluster reach a special scaling state with no scale change. In three-dimensional liquid foams, drainage occurs due to gravity. Large-Q Potts model simulations, extended to include gravity in three dimensions, agree with both experimental and analytical results for various kinds of foam drainage, and also predict new phenomena. Foams exhibit a unique rheological transition from solid-like to fluid-like. Simulations using the large-Q Potts model, extended to apply shear to a two-dimensional foam, show three different types of hysteresis in foam's stress-strain relationship, which correspond to the elastic, viscoelastic and viscous fluid properties. This wide-ranging mechanical response depends on the structure and dynamics of local topological rearrangement of foam cells. Biological tissues resemble foams and the large-Q Potts model can also simulate sorting in biological cell aggregates. In Dictyostelium mound, two types of cells are initially randomly distributed. In time, one cell type sorts to form a tip. Simulations show that both differential adhesion and chemotaxis are required for sorted tip formation. With only differential adhesion, no tip forms. With only chemotaxis, a tip forms containing both cell types. Thus simulations can provide a method to determine the processes necessary for biological patterning.

Jiang, Yi

284

Gas formation. Formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane.  

PubMed

Methane is an important greenhouse gas and energy resource generated dominantly by methanogens at low temperatures and through the breakdown of organic molecules at high temperatures. However, methane-formation temperatures in nature are often poorly constrained. We measured formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane using a "clumped isotope" technique. Thermogenic gases yield formation temperatures between 157° and 221°C, within the nominal gas window, and biogenic gases yield formation temperatures consistent with their comparatively lower-temperature formational environments (<50°C). In systems where gases have migrated and other proxies for gas-generation temperature yield ambiguous results, methane clumped-isotope temperatures distinguish among and allow for independent tests of possible gas-formation models. PMID:24970083

Stolper, D A; Lawson, M; Davis, C L; Ferreira, A A; Santos Neto, E V; Ellis, G S; Lewan, M D; Martini, A M; Tang, Y; Schoell, M; Sessions, A L; Eiler, J M

2014-06-27

285

Clarke County geology and mineral resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strata exposed in Clarke County are of Tertiary and Quaternary Age. Exposed units in ascending order are Hatchetigbee Formation of the Wilcox Group - Eocene Age; Tallahatta Formation, Winona Formation, Zilpha Formation, Kosciusko Formation, Cook Mountain Formation, and Cockfield Formation of the Claiborne Group - Eocene Age; Moodys Branch Formation and Yazoo Formation of the Jackson Group-Eocene age; Red Bluff

W. A. Gilliland; D. W. Harrelson

1980-01-01

286

“Translating” between survey answer formats?  

PubMed Central

Survey research remains the most popular source of market knowledge, yet researchers have not yet established one consistent technique for measuring responses. Some market research companies offer respondents two answer options; others five or seven. Some answer formats use middle points on the answer scales, others do not. Some formats verbalize all answer options, some only the endpoints. The wide variety of answer formats that market research companies and academic researchers use makes comparing results across studies virtually impossible. This study offers guidance for market researchers by presenting empirical translations for the answer formats they most commonly use, thus enabling easier comparisons of results. PMID:24926110

Dolnicar, Sara; Grün, Bettina

2013-01-01

287

Beach-cusp formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field experiments on beach-cusp formation were undertaken to document how the cuspate form develops and to test the edge-wave hypothesis on the uniform spacing of cusps. These involved observations of cusps forming from an initially plane foreshore. The cuspate form was observed to be a product of swash modification of an intertidal beach ridge as follows. A ridge, cut by a series of channels quasi-equally spaced along its length, was deposited onto the lower foreshore. The ridge migrated shoreward with flood tide, while the longshore positions of the channels remained fixed. On ebb tide, changes in swash circulation over the ridge allowed the upwash to flow shoreward through the channels and the channel mouths were eroded progressively wider until adjacent mouths met, effecting a cuspate shape. Measured spacings of cusps, ranging in size from less than 1 m to more than 12 m, agree well with computed spacings due to either zero-mode subharmonic or zero-mode synchronous edge waves. Edge-wave-induced longshore variations in run up will cause water ponded behind a ridge to converge at points of low swash and flow seaward as relatively narrow currents eroding channels spaced at one edge-wave wavelength for synchronous edge waves or one half wavelength for subharmonic edge waves. The channels are subsequently modified into cusp troughs as described above.

Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

1979-01-01

288

Acromioclavicular joint cyst formation.  

PubMed

Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) cysts are an uncommon and unusual sequela associated with shoulder pathophysiology. The majority of literature on ACJ cysts consists of individual case reports with no definitive literature review currently available. In addition to a comprehensive literature review, four clinical cases are presented in this report. First described by Craig (1984), a total of 41 cases have been previously reported in the literature. Of these cases, five occurred with the rotator cuff musculature intact. The remaining 36 cases of ACJ cysts occurred in patients with a complete tear/avulsion of the rotator cuff. Previous attempts at compiling a complete record of all reported cases have combined several distinct conditions into a single category. This article presents two distinct etiologies for the pathogenesis of ACJ cyst formation. In the presence of an intact rotator cuff, a Type 1 cyst can form superficially and be limited to the ACJ. Following a massive or traumatic tear of the rotator cuff, mechanical instability of the humeral head can cause a deterioration of the inferior acromioclavicular capsule (cuff tear arthropathy) and an overproduction of synovial fluid. Overtime, a "geyser" of fluid can form between the glenohumeral and the ACJ, forming a Type 2 cyst. This differentiation and categorization is essential for appropriate classification and treatment. PMID:20069645

Hiller, Andrew D; Miller, Joshua D; Zeller, John L

2010-03-01

289

Bubble formation in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive experimental program was initiated for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms leading to bubble generation during fluid handling procedures in a microgravity environment. Several key fluid handling procedures typical for PCG experiments were identified for analysis in that program. Experiments were designed to specifically understand how such procedures can lead to bubble formation. The experiments were then conducted aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft which is capable of simulating a low gravity environment by executing a parabolic flight attitude. However, such a flight attitude can only provide a low gravity environment of approximately 10-2go for a maximum period of 30 seconds. Thus all of the tests conducted for these experiments were designed to last no longer than 20 seconds. Several experiments were designed to simulate some of the more relevant fluid handling procedures during protein crystal growth experiments. These include submerged liquid jet cavitation, filling of a cubical vessel, submerged surface scratch, attached drop growth, liquid jet impingement, and geysering experiments. To date, four separate KC-135 flight campaigns were undertaken specifically for performing these experiments. However, different experiments were performed on different flights.

Antar, Basil N.

1996-01-01

290

Nuclear ``pasta'' formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of complex nonuniform phases of nuclear matter, known as nuclear pasta, is studied with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations containing 51200 nucleons. A phenomenological nuclear interaction is used that reproduces the saturation binding energy and density of nuclear matter. Systems are prepared at an initial density of 0.10fm-3 and then the density is decreased by expanding the simulation volume at different rates to densities of 0.01fm-3 or less. An originally uniform system of nuclear matter is observed to form spherical bubbles (“swiss cheese”), hollow tubes, flat plates (“lasagna”), thin rods (“spaghetti”) and, finally, nearly spherical nuclei with decreasing density. We explicitly observe nucleation mechanisms, with decreasing density, for these different pasta phase transitions. Topological quantities known as Minkowski functionals are obtained to characterize the pasta shapes. Different pasta shapes are observed depending on the expansion rate. This indicates nonequilibrium effects. We use this to determine the best ways to obtain lower energy states of the pasta system from MD simulations and to place constraints on the equilibration time of the system.

Schneider, A. S.; Horowitz, C. J.; Hughto, J.; Berry, D. K.

2013-12-01

291

Formation of "bound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During degradation of organic pollutants in soil, metabolites, microbial biomass, CO2and "bound" residues ("non-extractable" residues in soil organic matter) are formed. Enhanced transformation of these contaminants into "bound" residues has been proposed as an alternative remediation method for polluted soils. However, this kind of residues may pose a potential risk for the environment due to their chemical structure and possible remobilization under different conditions. Therefore particular attention is given actually to "bound" residues. Part of these non-extractable residues may be "biogenic," because microorganisms use the carbon from the pollutant to form their biomass components (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars), which subsequently may be incorporated into soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CO2 originating from mineralization of xenobiotics, can be re-assimilated by microorganisms and also incorporated into "biogenic residue". The hazard posed by "bound" residues may be overestimated because they are "biogenic" (contain microbial fatty acids and amino acids). The knowledge about the pathways of "biogenic residue" formation is necessary for a proper assessment of the fate of tested pollutants and their turnover in the soil environment. Moreover, these data are needed to establish the realistic degradation rates of the contaminants in soil. The main objectives of this study are: to quantify the extent of "biogenic residue" (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars) formation during the degradation of a model pollutant (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid = 2,4-D) and during CO2 assimilation by microorganisms and to evaluate which components are mainly incorporated into "bound" residues. To investigate the extent of "biogenic residue" formation in soil during the degradation of 2,4-D, experiments with either 14C-U-ring and 13C6-2,4-D or carboxyl-14C 2,4-D were performed. The incubation experiments were performed according to OECD test guideline 307, in the dark, at constant temp 20Ë? C (+/-2Ë? C) and with intermittent aeration. During incubation, the mineralization was quantified and soil samples were analyzed for the presence of both "biogenic residues" and remaining 2,4-D. Mineralization of 2,4-D in both experiments was very high. However, the 14CO2 evolution was higher from carboxyl-14C 2,4-D than from 14C-ring 2,4-D. After 7 days of incubation, 30% of initial amount of 14C in soil contaminated with 14C-ring 2,4-D was mineralized, whereas 40% of total radioactivity was evolved as CO2after 4 days from soil incubated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D. The amount of extractable 2,4-D residues was very low in both experiments (14C-ring 2,4-D: 2% and 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D: 1%). The soil incubated with 14C-ring 2,4-D contained 60% of "non-extractable" residues of 2,4-D after 7 days, while the amount of these residues in soil contaminated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D reached 50% of the initial radioactivity in the tested system 4 days after application. More "biogenic residues" were formed in soil spiked with 14C-U-ring 2,4-D (10%) than in soil with carboxyl 14C 2,4-D (7%). Both 2,4-D and CO2-derived C were incorporated mainly into microbial amino acids (9.5% at day 7 and 7.0% at day 4, respectively). After 7 days of incubation, 0.5% of initial applied radioactivity in system was found in microbial lipids in the soil contaminated with 14C-ring 2,4-D. Only 0.1% of the total radioactivity was incorporated into lipids in soil treated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D on day 4 after application. Thin Layer Chromatography identified the microbial lipids containing the radioactivity as phosphatidylethanolamine, a phospholipid typical for microorganisms. The amount of microbial lipids (which corresponds to phospholipids) in both cases decreased with time; this can be explained by the death of the microbial biomass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the formation of &qu

Nowak, K.; Kästner, M.; Miltner, A.

2009-04-01

292

Bead lightning formation  

SciTech Connect

Formation of beaded structures in triggered lightning discharges is considered in the framework of both magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and hydrodynamic instabilities. It is shown that the space periodicity of the structures can be explained in terms of the kink and sausage type instabilities in a cylindrical discharge with anomalous viscosity. In particular, the fast growth rate of the hydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which is driven by the backflow of air into the channel of the decaying return stroke, dominates the initial evolution of perturbations during the decay of the return current. This instability is responsible for a significant enhancement of the anomalous viscosity above the classical level. Eventually, the damping introduced at the current channel edge by the high level of anomalous viscous stresses defines the final length scale of bead lightning. Later, during the continuing current stage of the lightning flash, the MHD pinch instability persists, although with a much smaller growth rate that can be enhanced in a M-component event. The combined effect of these instabilities may explain various aspects of bead lightning.

Ludwig, G.O.; Saba, M.M.F. [Associated Plasma Laboratory, National Space Research Institute, 12227-010, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Division of Space Geophysics, National Space Research Institute, 12227-010, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

2005-09-15

293

Large Format Radiographic Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Radiographic imaging continues to be a key diagnostic in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiographic recording systems have taken on many form, from high repetition-rate, gated systems to film recording and storage phosphors. Some systems are designed for synchronization to an accelerator while others may be single shot or may record a frame sequence in a dynamic radiography experiment. While film recording remains a reliable standby in the radiographic community, there is growing interest in investigating electronic recording for many applications. The advantages of real time access to remote data acquisition are highly attractive. Cooled CCD camera systems are capable of providing greater sensitivity with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This paper begins with a review of performance characteristics of the Bechtel Nevada large format imaging system, a gated system capable of viewing scintillators up to 300 mm in diameter. We then examine configuration alternatives in lens coupled and fiber optically coupled electro-optical recording systems. Areas of investigation include tradeoffs between fiber optic and lens coupling, methods of image magnification, and spectral matching from scintillator to CCD camera. Key performance features discussed include field of view, resolution, sensitivity, dynamic range, and system noise characteristics.

J. S. Rohrer; Lacey Stewart; M. D. Wilke; N. S. King; S. A Baker; Wilfred Lewis

1999-08-01

294

Formative Assessment Probes: Is It a Rock? Continuous Formative Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lesson plan is provided for a formative assessment probe entitled "Is It a Rock?" This probe is designed for teaching elementary school students about rocks through the use of a formative assessment classroom technique (FACT) known as the group Frayer Model. FACT activates students' thinking about a concept and can be used to…

Keeley, Page

2013-01-01

295

The Formation of Galactic Bulges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Introduction: What are galactic bulges?; Part II. The Epoch of Bulge Formation: Origin of bulges; Deep sub-mm surveys: High-z ULIRGs and the formation of spheroids; Ages and metallicities for stars in the galactic bulge; Integrated stellar populations of bulges: First results; HST-NICMOS observations of galactic bulges: Ages and dust; Inside-out bulge formation and the origin of the Hubble sequence; Part III. The Timescales of Bulge Formation: Constraints on the bulge formation timescale from stellar populations; Bulge building with mergers and winds; Role of winds, starbursts, and activity in bulge formation; Dynamical timescales of bulge formation; Part IV. Physical Processes in Bulge Formation: the role of bars for secular bulge formation; Bars and boxy/peanut-shaped bulges: an observational point of view; Boxy- and peanut-shaped bulges; A new class of bulges; The role of secondary bars in bulge formation; Radial transport of molecular gas to the nuclei of spiral galaxies; Dynamical evolution of bulge shapes; Two-component stellar systems: Phase-space constraints; Central NGC 2146 - a firehose-type bending instability?; Bulge formation: the role of the multi-phase ISM; Global evolution of a self-gravitating multi-phase ISM in the central kpc region of galaxies; Part V. Bulge Phenomenology: Bulge-disk decomposition of spiral galaxies in the near-infrared; The triaxial bulge of NGC 1371; The bulge-disk orthogonal decoupling in galaxies: NGC 4698 and NGC 4672; The kinematics and the origin of the ionized gas in NGC 4036; Optically thin thermal plasma in the galactic bulge; X-ray properties of bulges; The host galaxies of radio-loud AGN; The centers of radio-loud early-type galaxies with HST; Central UV spikes in two galactic spheroids; Conference summary: where do we stand?

Carollo, C. Marcella; Ferguson, Henry C.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

2000-03-01

296

Triglycerides and gallstone formation.  

PubMed

Changes in bile acid (BA) metabolism and gallbladder function are critical factors in the pathogenesis of gallstones. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) - often overweight and insulin resistant - are at risk for gallstone disease. The question arises whether HTG itself contributes to gallstone formation or whether gallstone disease only associates with this disorder. Triglycerides are formed in response to fluxes of non-esterified fatty acids and glucose. Hypertriglyceridemia results from either overproduction of triglycerides by the liver, impaired lipolysis or a combination of both. Hyperinsulinemia, as observed in the insulin resistant state, stimulates very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride synthesis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver X receptors (LXRs), farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) are the nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of lipogenesis. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is involved in the production of VLDL and its activation is also under control of transcription factors as FXR and Forkhead box-O1 (FoxO1). Triglyceride and BA metabolism are linked. There is an inverse relationship between bile acid fluxes and pool size and VLDL production and SHP (small heterodimer partner) and FXR are the link between BAs and TG metabolism. BAs are also ligands for FXR and G-protein-coupled receptors, such as TGR5. FXR activation by BAs suppresses the expression of MTP, transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c and other lipogenic genes. LXRs stimulate lipogenesis whereas FXRs inhibit the metabolic process. Synthesis of BAs from cholesterol occurs either via the classical pathway (7?-hydroxylation of cholesterol; CYP7A1) or via the alternate pathway (CYP39A1 or CYP7B1). BAs induce FXR, which inhibits CYP7A1 transcription by activation of SHP and inhibition of HNF4? transactivation. Bile composition (supersaturation with cholesterol), gallbladder dysmotility, inflammation, hypersecretion of mucin gel in the gallbladder and slow large intestinal motility and increased intestinal cholesterol absorption may contribute to the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. In HTG patients supersaturated bile may be related to the presence of obesity rather than to HTG itself. Contraction and relaxation of the gallbladder are regulated by neuronal, hormonal and paracrine factors. Postprandial gallbladder emptying is regulated by cholecystokinin (CCK). Poor postprandial gallbladder contraction may be due to the magnitude of the CCK response and to the amount of CCK receptors in the gallbladder smooth muscle cells. In the fasting state gallbladder motility is associated with the intestinal migrating motor complex (MMC) activity and with elevated plasma motilin levels. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF19), produced on arrival of bile acids in the ileum, is also important for gallbladder motility. Gallbladder motility is impaired in HTG patients compared to BMI matched controls. There is evidence that the gallbladder in HTG is less sensitive to CCK and that this sensitivity improves after reversal of high serum TG levels by use of TG lowering agents. In hypertriglyceridemia TG lowering therapy (fibrates or fish-oil) is essential to prevent cardiovascular disease and pancreatitis. Fibrates, however, also increase the risk for cholelithiasis by increasing biliary cholesterol saturation and by reduction of bile acid synthesis. On the other hand fish-oil decreases biliary cholesterol saturation. Fish-oil may increase bile acid synthesis by activation of 7alpha-hydroxylase and may inhibit VLDL production and secretion through activation of nuclear factors and increased apoB degradation. In HTG patients, gallbladder motility improves during bezafibrate as well as during fish-oil therapy. The question remains whether improvement of gallbladder motility and increased lithogenicity of bile by bezafibrate therapy counteract each other or still result in gallstone formation in HTG patients. PMID:20699090

Smelt, A H M

2010-11-11

297

The Principal as Formative Coach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formative coaching, an approach that uses student work as the foundation for mentoring and professional development, can help principals become more effective instructional leaders. In formative coaching, teaches and coaches analyze student work to determine next steps for instruction. This article shows how a principal can use the steps of the…

Nidus, Gabrielle; Sadder, Maya

2011-01-01

298

SAS FORMATS: USES AND ABUSES  

EPA Science Inventory

SAS formats are a very powerful tool. They allow you to display the data in a more readable manner without modifying it. Formats can also be used to group data into categories for use in various procedures like PROC FREQ, PROC TTEST, and PROC MEANS (as a class variable). As w...

299

SAS FORMATS: USES AND ABUSES  

EPA Science Inventory

SAS formats are a very powerful tool. They allow you to display the data in a more readable manner without modifying it. Formats can also be used to group data into categories for use in various procedures like PROC FREQ, PROC TTEST, and PROC MEANS (as a class variable). As ...

300

Accretion processes in star formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume reviews our current knowledge of the processes governing the formation of stars, from the collapse and fragmentation of cold molecular gas clouds through the formation and evolution of disks which can form planets. It provides an especially timely reference for understanding recent discoveries of extrasolar planets and new direct evidence for protoplanetary disks around young stars. Each topic

Lee Hartmann

1998-01-01

301

New Frontiers in Formative Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Formative assessment is a powerful learning tool that is too seldom, too haphazardly, and too ineffectively used in the United States," Pendred E. Noyce writes in the introduction to this volume. "The purpose of this book is to delve into why this is so and how it can be changed." Formative assessment involves constantly monitoring student…

Noyce, Pendred E., Ed.; Hickey, Daniel T., Ed.

2011-01-01

302

Science Sampler: Formative assessment guideposts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A formative assessment can provide a snapshot of what a student knows and is able to do. Use this approach to close the gap between what is known and what needs to be known through informative feedback. Explore the use of formative assessments with navigational help from these six guideposts.

Carlos Ayala

2005-01-01

303

Sibling similarity in family formation.  

PubMed

Sibling studies have been widely used to analyze the impact of family background on socioeconomic and, to a lesser extent, demographic outcomes. We contribute to this literature with a novel research design that combines sibling comparisons and sequence analysis to analyze longitudinal family-formation trajectories of siblings and unrelated persons. This allows us to scrutinize in a more rigorous way whether sibling similarity exists in family-formation trajectories and whether siblings' shared background characteristics, such as parental education and early childhood family structure, can account for similarity in family formation. We use Finnish register data from 1987 through 2007 to construct longitudinal family-formation trajectories in young adulthood for siblings and unrelated dyads (N = 14,257 dyads). Findings show that family formation is moderately but significantly more similar for siblings than for unrelated dyads, also after controlling for crucial parental background characteristics. Shared parental background characteristics add surprisingly little to account for sibling similarity in family formation. Instead, gender and the respondents' own education are more decisive forces in the stratification of family formation. Yet, family internal dynamics seem to reinforce this stratification such that siblings have a higher probability to experience similar family-formation patterns. In particular, patterns that correspond with economic disadvantage are concentrated within families. This is in line with a growing body of research highlighting the importance of family structure in the reproduction of social inequality. PMID:25367282

Raab, Marcel; Fasang, Anette Eva; Karhula, Aleksi; Erola, Jani

2014-12-01

304

Formation of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall evolution of the solar system is discussed in terms of what is called the Kyoto model. Starting from the formation of the solar nebula, a multistep process is followed in detail, including growth and sedimentation of dust grains in the nebula, formation of planetesimals due to fragmentation of a dust layer, radial migration and accumulation of planetesimals to

C. Hayashi; K. Nakazawa; Y. Nakagawa

1985-01-01

305

The Apennine Bench Formation revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apennine Bench Formation consists of pre-mare light plains materials that crop out south of the crater Archimedes, inside the Imbrium basin. This material was ascribed to either impact or volcanic origins. The characteristics of Apollo 15 KREEP basalts and the Apennine Bench Formation are reviewed to determine whether their characteristics are compatible with a volcanic origin.

Spudis, P. D.; Hawke, B. R.

1985-01-01

306

Kinetic constraints on core formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to recent models of core formation, a metallic liquid equilibrated in an early magma ocean and subsequently descended through the crystalline lower mantle to form the protocore. In this study we are investigating the extent to which the metal would further equilibrate with crystalline material of the lower mantle given reasonable time scales of core formation. For this purpose,

C. Holzapfel; D. C. Rubie; D. J. Frost

2003-01-01

307

Brane Decay and Defect Formation  

SciTech Connect

Topological defects are generically expected to form in models of brane inflation. Brane-anti-brane annihilation provides a way to gracefully end inflation, and the dynamics of the tachyon field results in defect formation. The formation of defects has been studied mainly from the brane world-volume point of view, but the defects are themselves lower-dimensional branes, and as a result they couple to bulk fields. To investigate the impact of bulk fields on brane defect formation, we construct a toy model that captures the essential features of the tachyon condensation with bulk fields. In this toy model, we study the structure of defects and simulate their formation and evolution on a lattice. We find that while bulk fields do not have a significant effect on defect formation, they drastically influence the subsequent evolution of the defects, as they re-introduce long-range interactions between them.

Stoica, Horace [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2007-11-20

308

Defect formation with bulk fields  

SciTech Connect

It has recently been realized that brane-antibrane annihilation (a possible explanation for ending inflation) may result in defect formation, due to the dynamics of the tachyon field. Studies of this possibility have generally ignored the interaction of the brane fields with fields in the bulk; recently it has been argued [G. Dvali and A. Vilenkin, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 03 (2004) 010.] that interactions with bulk fields suppress or even eliminate defect formation. To investigate the impact of bulk fields on brane defect formation, we construct a toy model that captures the essential features of the tachyon condensation with bulk fields. We study the structure of defects in this toy model, and simulate their formation and evolution on the lattice. We find that, while the energetics and interactions of defects are influenced by the size of the extra dimension and the bulk-brane coupling, the bulk-brane coupling does not prevent the formation of a defect network.

Moore, Guy D.; Stoica, Horace [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

2006-09-15

309

Formation of interstellar anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of interstellar anions: M.L. Senent. The recent detection of negative charged species in the ISM1 has instigated enthusiasm for anions in the astrophysical community2. Many of these species are new and entail characterization. How they are formed in astrophysical sources is a question of major relevance. The anion presence in ISM was first predicted theoretically on the basis of electron affinities and on the negative linear chain molecular stabilities. Although very early, they were considered in astrochemical models3-4, their discovery is so recent because their abundances seem to be relatively low. These have to be understood in terms of molecular stabilities, reaction probabilities and radiative and collisional excitations. Then, we present our theoretical work on even carbon chains type Cn and CnH (n=2,4,6) focused to the understanding of anion abundances. We use highly correlated ab initio methods. We performed spectroscopic studies of various isomers that can play important roles as intermediates5-8. In previous papers9-10, we compared C2H and C2H- collisional rates responsible for observed line intensities. Actually, we study hydrogen attachment (Cn +H ? CnH and Cn- +H ? CnH-) and associative detachment processes (Cn- +H ? CnH +e-) for 2, 4 and 6 carbon atom chains11. [1] M.C.McCarthy, C.A.Gottlieb, H.Gupta, P.Thaddeus, Astrophys.J, 652, L141 (2006) [2] V.M.Bierbaum, J.Cernicharo, R.Bachiller, eds., 2011, pp 383-389. [3] A. Dalgarno, R.A. Mc Cray, Astrophys.J,, 181, 95 (1973) [4] E. Herbst E., Nature, 289, 656 (1981); [5] H.Massó, M.L.Senent, P.Rosmus, M.Hochlaf, J.Chem.Phys., 124, 234304 (2006) [6] M.L.Senent, M.Hochlaf, Astrophys. J. , 708, 1452(2010) [7] H.Massó, M.L.Senent, J.Phys.Chem.A, 113, 12404 (2009) [8] D. Hammoutene, M.Hochlaf, M.L.Senent, submitted. [9] A. Spielfiedel, N. Feautrier, F. Najar, D. ben Abdallah, F. Dayou, M.L. Senent, F. Lique, Mon.Not.R.Astron.Soc., 421, 1891 (2012) [10] F.Dumouchel, A, Spielfieldel , M.L.Senent, N.Feautrier, Chem. Phys. Lett., 533, 6 (2012) [11] M.L.Senent, M.Hochlaf, submitted

Senent, Maria Luisa

2012-05-01

310

Star Formation Through Cosmic Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will review the literature on the star formation history of the Universe, from the first stars up to the current day. The first (population III) stars appear to be responsible for the re-ionization of the Universe, and for seeding the inter-galactic medium with heavy elements, facilitating the formation of subsequent generations. There are now many lines of evidence from sub-mm galaxies, deep surveys, and from steep-spectrum radio sources to suggest that the collapse of massive galaxies and the formation of central massive black holes occurred surprisingly early in time. These objects enjoyed galaxy-wide starbursts, were very rapidly enriched in heavy elements, and rapidly became very dusty. Relativistic jets from the active nuclei seem to have provided an important means of terminate the initial burst of star formation in these massive galaxies, though possibly accompanied by large amounts of not so quiescent shock-induced star formation. Subsequently, the massive galaxies have evolved passively (or nearly so, modulo a merger or two) to form the ellipticals and cD galaxies well distinguished by their color (`red and dead') in the SDSS data. In less dense environments, star formation proceeded more slowly through disk galaxies. With time only smaller and smaller fragments having high rates of specific star formation, until today only the dwarf irregular galaxies have high gas to star ratios. This process is frequently referred to as `down-sizing'.

Dopita, Michael A.

2007-05-01

311

Dissipative processes in galaxy formation.  

PubMed Central

A galaxy commences its life in a diffuse gas cloud that evolves into a predominantly stellar aggregation. Considerable dissipation of gravitational binding energy occurs during this transition. I review here the dissipative processes that determine the critical scales of luminous galaxies and the generation of their morphology. The universal scaling relations for spirals and ellipticals are shown to be sensitive to the history of star formation. Semiphenomenological expressions are given for star-formation rates in protogalaxies and in starbursts. Implications are described for elliptical galaxy formation and for the evolution of disk galaxies. PMID:11607396

Silk, J

1993-01-01

312

Estuarine stream piracy: Calvert County, U.S. Atlantic coastal plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topography of Maryland's western shore of the Chesapeake Bay shows that five streams now flowing eastward into the bay comprise the pirated (and inverted) headwaters of streams previously flowing westward from a vanished Pliocene upland now occupied by the central Chesapeake. Estuarine shoreline erosion during Pleistocene interglaciations removed the upland, exposing the upper reaches of west-flowing stream valleys. Headward (westward) erosion by east-flowing streams then occurred along existing valleys, facilitated by steep eastward gradients and easily eroded valley-floor sediments. Stream inversion may be more common than previously recognized, since any eroding shoreline causes consumption of seaward-draining watershed and steepening of gradients, thus setting the stage for eventual stream inversion.

Vogt, Peter R.

1991-07-01

313

Referencias Bibliogr'aficas Amaya, Kenji; Bruderlin, Armin & Calvert, Tom. 1996. Emotion from Motion. In  

E-print Network

Superf'icies. Tech. rept. IMPA. Notas de Aula do Curso de Ver~ao. Denavit, J. & Hartenberg, R. S. 1955, W. Bradford. 1996. Of Mice and Monkeys: A Specialized Input Device for Virtual Body Animation. In

314

Calibration For Augmented Reality Experimental Testbeds Valerie A. Summers*& Kellogg S. Booth Tom Calvert  

E-print Network

Calibration For Augmented Reality Experimental Testbeds Valerie A. Summers*& Kellogg S. Booth Tom.3.7[ComputerGraphics]: Three-Dimensional GraphicsandRealism-virtual reality Keywords: augmentedreality "augment" theuser's view of thereal 3D world with computer-generatedvirtual objects. Thesevirtual

315

Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2010-03-09

316

Formation of the First Star Clusters  

E-print Network

Formation of the First Star Clusters Ralf Klessen Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg-Hsu Wang ... many collaborators abroad! #12;First star formation agenda #12;Star cluster formation First of molecular clouds Star cluster formation First star formation Magnetic fields in the primordial universe

Klessen,Ralf

317

Tooth formation - delayed or absent  

MedlinePLUS

Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or tooth absence. Delayed or absent tooth formation can result from many different conditions, including: Apert syndrome Cleidocranial ...

318

Marmoryen Formation (marble) STORETVEIT GROUP  

E-print Network

) STORETVEIT GROUP Minor Bergen Arc Paradis Formation (green polymict congl.) Deformed saussurite gabbro, gabbro-pegmatite, basic/acidic dykes NORDÃ?SVATN COMPLEX Fine-grained amphibolite, mylonitic in most

Fossen, Haakon

319

Use-driven concept formation  

E-print Network

When faced with a complex task, humans often identify domain-specific concepts that make the task more tractable. In this thesis, I investigate the formation of domain-specific concepts of this sort. I propose a set of ...

Roberts, Jennifer M. (Jennifer Marie)

2010-01-01

320

Sandstone Formations in Capitol Reef  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Capitol Reef is primarily made up of sandstone formations within the Waterpocket Fold, monocline that extends nearly 100 miles. A monocline is a step-like fold in rock strata that can resemble an enormous wrinkle in the earth....

321

Formation of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter from an online astronomy course briefly describes the formation of the solar system from an accretionary disk. Links to additional resources, a homework assignment, and a quiz are included.

Joshua Barnes

322

Progress in Giant Planet Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two very different mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of the gas and ice giant planets. The conventional explanation for the formation of gas giant planets, core accretion, presumes that a gaseous envelope collapses upon a roughly 10 Earth-mass, solid core that was formed by the collisional accumulation of planetary embryos orbiting in a gaseous disk. The more radical explanation, disk instability, hypothesizes that the gaseous portion of protoplanetary disks undergoes a gravitational instability, leading to the formation of self-gravitating clumps, within which dust grains coagulate and settle to form cores. Core accretion appears to require several million years or more to form a gas giant planet, implying that only long-lived disks would form gas giants. Disk instability, on the other hand, is so rapid (thousands of years), that gas giants could form in even the shortest-lived disks. Core accretion has severe difficulty in explaining the formation of the ice giant planets, unless two extra protoplanets are formed in the gas giant planet region and thereafter migrate outward. Recently, an alternative mechanism for ice giant planet formation has been proposed, based on observations of protoplanetary disks in the Orion nebula cluster: disk instability leading to the formation of four gas giant protoplanets with cores, followed by photoevaporation of the disk and gaseous envelopes of the protoplanets outside about 10 AU by a nearby OB star, producing ice giants. In this scenario, Jupiter survives unscathed, while Saturn is a transitional planet. These two basic mechanisms have very different predictions for gas and ice giant extrasolar planets, both in terms of their frequency and epoch of formation, suggesting a number of astronomical tests which could determine the dominant mechanism for giant planet formation.

Boss, A. P.

323

Cosmic strings and galaxy formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cosmogonical model proposed by Zel'dovich and Vilenkin (1981), in which superconducting cosmic strings act as seeds for the origin of structure in the universe, is discussed, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. Consideration is given to the formation of cosmic strings, the microscopic structure of strings, gravitational effects, cosmic string evolution, and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Simulation results are presented in graphs, and several outstanding issues are listed and briefly characterized.

Bertschinger, Edmund

1989-01-01

324

Carbothermic formation of boron nitride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of boron nitride by reaction of boric oxide with carbon and nitrogen was studied. It was found from the results of experiments conducted by holding B2O3-activated C mixtures under a flowing nitrogen atmosphere that formation of boron nitride was complete in 120 min at 1500 °C. After cleaning the reaction product from the ash of the activated carbon and from

A. Aydo?du; N. Sevinç

2003-01-01

325

The Epoch of Galaxy Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation in hierarchical clustering\\u000atheories to interpret recent data on galaxy formation and evolution, focussing\\u000aprimarily on the recently discovered population of Lyman-break galaxies at\\u000a$z\\\\simeq 3$. For a variety of cold dark matter (CDM) cosmologies we construct\\u000amock galaxy catalogues subject to identical selection criteria to those applied\\u000ato the real data.

C. M. Baugh; S. Cole; C. S. Frenk; C. G. Lacey

1997-01-01

326

Significant melting of ice-wedges and formation of thermocirques on hill-slopes of thermokarst lakes in Central Yakutia (Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Earth, permafrost containing a high ice volume (referred as ice-rich) are sensible to climate change, they have been regionally degraded (thermokarst) during the early Holocene climatic optimum forming numerous thermokarst lakes in Central Yakutia (eastern Siberia). Recent temperature increases in the Arctic and Subarctic have been significantly greater than global averages. The frequency and magnitude of terrain disturbances associated with thawing permafrost are increasing in these regions and are thought to intensify in the future. Therefore, understand how is the current development of thermokarst is a critical question. Here, we describe the significant melting of ice-wedges on slopes of thermokarst lakes that leads to formation of amphitheatrical hollows referred as thermocirques. The evolution of thermocirques in Central Yakutia has been little studied and analyzing their formation could help to understand the recent thermokarst in relation to climate change in Central Yakutia. We studied the thermocirques at two scales: (i) field surveys of different thermocirques in July 2009-2010 and October 2012 to examine the processes and origin of melting of ice-wedges and; (ii) photo-interpretation of time series of satellite images (KH-9 Hexagon images of 6-9 m/pixel and GeoEye images of 50 cm/pixel) to study the temporal evolution of thermocirques. The melting of ground-ice on the scarp of thermocirque triggers falls and small mud-flows that induce the retreat of the scarp parallel to itself. Based on field studies and on GeoEye image comparison, we show that their rate of retrogressive growth is 1-2 m/year. On the hill-slopes of lakes, the thermokarst could be initiated by different processes that lead to the uncover and then melting of ice-wedges: thermal erosion by the waves of the ice-rich bluff; active-layer detachment (a form of slope failure linked to detachment of the seasonally thawed upper ground); flowing of water on the slope (precipitation) or; increase of near-surface temperature (insolation, summer temperature). We suggest that the preferential occurrence of thermocirques on south-facing slopes of lakes could emphasize the role of insolation as a factor controlling the preferential melting of ice-wedges. The air temperatures are shown to have increased in Central Yakutia over years and deciphering if ongoing climate warming could lead to an increased development of thermocirques along lake slopes in Central Yakutia is a question that we will address in future study.

Séjourné, Antoine; Costard, François; Gargani, Julien; Fedorov, Alexander; Skorve, Johnny

2013-04-01

327

47 CFR 64.2329 - Format.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...telephone exchange service to a requesting directory publisher in the format the publisher...subscriber list information in the format the directory publisher specifies, the carrier shall...the publisher's request, inform the directory publisher that the requested format...

2011-10-01

328

47 CFR 64.2329 - Format.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...telephone exchange service to a requesting directory publisher in the format the publisher...subscriber list information in the format the directory publisher specifies, the carrier shall...the publisher's request, inform the directory publisher that the requested format...

2012-10-01

329

47 CFR 64.2329 - Format.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...telephone exchange service to a requesting directory publisher in the format the publisher...subscriber list information in the format the directory publisher specifies, the carrier shall...the publisher's request, inform the directory publisher that the requested format...

2013-10-01

330

47 CFR 64.2329 - Format.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...telephone exchange service to a requesting directory publisher in the format the publisher...subscriber list information in the format the directory publisher specifies, the carrier shall...the publisher's request, inform the directory publisher that the requested format...

2014-10-01

331

47 CFR 64.2329 - Format.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...telephone exchange service to a requesting directory publisher in the format the publisher...subscriber list information in the format the directory publisher specifies, the carrier shall...the publisher's request, inform the directory publisher that the requested format...

2010-10-01

332

Gypsum Layer in Spearfish Formation, SD  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Spearfish Formation near Spearfish, SD. The Spearfish Formation is a red, silty shale with interbedded red sandstone and siltstone. The formation contains massive gypsum deposits, which is the white layer in the photograph....

333

Formative Evaluation in the Performance Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the traditional formative evaluation model used by instructional designers; summarizes Kirkpatrick's model of evaluation; proposes the integration of part of Kirkpatrick's model with traditional formative evaluation; and discusses performance-context formative evaluation. (three references) (LRW)

Dick, Walter; King, Debby

1994-01-01

334

The Dynamics of Latifundia Formation  

PubMed Central

Land tenure inequity is a major social problem in developing nations worldwide. In societies, where land is a commodity, inequities in land tenure are associated with gaps in income distribution, poverty and biodiversity loss. A common pattern of land tenure inequities through the history of civilization has been the formation of latifundia [Zhu?ngyuán in chinese], i.e., a pattern where land ownership is concentrated by a small fraction of the whole population. Here, we use simple Markov chain models to study the dynamics of latifundia formation in a heterogeneous landscape where land can transition between forest, agriculture and recovering land. We systematically study the likelihood of latifundia formation under the assumption of pre-capitalist trade, where trade is based on the average utility of land parcels belonging to each individual landowner during a discrete time step. By restricting land trade to that under recovery, we found the likelihood of latifundia formation to increase with the size of the system, i.e., the amount of land and individuals in the society. We found that an increase of the transition rate for land use changes, i.e., how quickly land use changes, promotes more equitable patterns of land ownership. Disease introduction in the system, which reduced land profitability for infected individual landowners, promoted the formation of latifundia, with an increased likelihood for latifundia formation when there were heterogeneities in the susceptibility to infection. Finally, our model suggests that land ownership reforms need to guarantee an equitative distribution of land among individuals in a society to avoid the formation of latifundia. PMID:24376597

Chaves, Luis Fernando

2013-01-01

335

Ring Formation in Magnetically Subcritical Clouds and Multiple Star Formation  

E-print Network

We study numerically the ambipolar diffusion-driven evolution of non-rotating, magnetically subcritical, disk-like molecular clouds, assuming axisymmetry. Previous similar studies have concentrated on the formation of single magnetically supercritical cores at the cloud center, which collapse to form isolated stars. We show that, for a cloud with many Jeans masses and a relatively flat mass distribution near the center, a magnetically supercritical ring is produced instead. The supercritical ring contains a mass well above the Jeans limit. It is expected to break up, through both gravitational and possibly magnetic interchange instabilities, into a number of supercritical dense cores, whose dynamic collapse may give rise to a burst of star formation. Non-axisymmetric calculations are needed to follow in detail the expected ring fragmentation into multiple cores and the subsequent core evolution. Implications of our results on multiple star formation in general and the northwestern cluster of protostars in the Serpens molecular cloud core in particular are discussed.

Zhi-Yun Li

2001-05-02

336

STAR FORMATION IN ATOMIC GAS  

SciTech Connect

Observations of nearby galaxies have firmly established, over a broad range of galactic environments and metallicities, that star formation occurs exclusively in the molecular phase of the interstellar medium (ISM). Theoretical models show that this association results from the correlation between chemical phase, shielding, and temperature. Interstellar gas converts from atomic to molecular only in regions that are well shielded from interstellar ultraviolet (UV) photons, and since UV photons are also the dominant source of interstellar heating, only in these shielded regions does the gas become cold enough to be subject to Jeans instability. However, while the equilibrium temperature and chemical state of interstellar gas are well correlated, the timescale required to reach chemical equilibrium is much longer than that required to reach thermal equilibrium, and both timescales are metallicity-dependent. Here I show that the difference in timescales implies that, at metallicities below a few percent of the solar value, well shielded gas will reach low temperatures and proceed to star formation before the bulk of it is able to convert from atomic to molecular. As a result, at extremely low metallicities, star formation will occur in a cold atomic phase of the ISM rather than a molecular phase. I calculate the observable consequences of this result for star formation in low-metallicity galaxies, and I discuss how some current numerical models for H{sub 2}-regulated star formation may need to be modified.

Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2012-11-01

337

Review of nutrition labeling formats.  

PubMed

This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format. PMID:2071796

Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

1991-07-01

338

Biofilm Formation by Candida dubliniensis  

PubMed Central

Candida dubliniensis is an opportunistic yeast closely related to Candida albicans that has been recently implicated in oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Most manifestations of candidiasis are associated with biofilm formation, with cells in biofilms displaying properties dramatically different from free-living cells grown under normal laboratory conditions. Here, we report on the development of in vitro models of C. dubliniensis biofilms on the surfaces of biomaterials (polystyrene and acrylic) and on the characteristics associated with biofilm formation by this newly described species. Time course analysis using a formazan salt reduction assay to monitor metabolic activities of cells within the biofilm, together with microscopy studies, revealed that biofilm formation by C. dubliniensis occurred after initial focal adherence, followed by growth, proliferation, and maturation over 24 to 48 h. Serum and saliva preconditioning films enhanced the initial attachment of C. dubliniensis and subsequent biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy were used to further characterize C. dubliniensis biofilms. Mature C. dubliniensis biofilms consisted of a dense network of yeasts cells and hyphal elements embedded within exopolymeric material. C. dubliniensis biofilms displayed spatial heterogeneity and an architecture showing microcolonies with ramifying water channels. Antifungal susceptibility testing demonstrated the increased resistance of sessile C. dubliniensis cells, including the type strain and eight different clinical isolates, against fluconazole and amphotericin B compared to their planktonic counterparts. C. dubliniensis biofilm formation may allow this species to maintain its ecological niche as a commensal and during infection with important clinical repercussions. PMID:11526156

Ramage, Gordon; Vande Walle, Kacy; Wickes, Brian L.; López-Ribot, José L.

2001-01-01

339

Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic significance of freshwater bivalves in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Western Interior, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater unionid bivalves are spatially and temporally distributed throughout the Morrison depositional basin, and locally dominate the biomass of many aquatic depositional environments. Two bivalve assemblages are identified. Within-channel assemblages are death assemblages that have been transported and may represent mixed assemblages from multiple communities. These assemblages are predominately disarticulated, in current stable orientations, and composed of higher stream velocity ecophenotypes (medium size, lanceolate form, and very thick shells). The floodplain-pond assemblages are disturbed neighborhood assemblages in the mudstones inhabited during life. The bivalves are predominately articulated, variable in size, and composed of low stream velocity ecophenotypes (large maximum sizes, ovate shell shapes, and thinner shells). The glochidial parasitic larval stage of unionid bivalves provides an effective means of dispersing species throughout drainage basins. These larvae attach to fish and are carried through the fluvial drainage where the larvae detach and establish new bivalve communities. Preliminary paleobiogeographic analyses are drawn at the genus level because of the need to reevaluate bivalve species of the Morrison. Unio spp. and Vetulonaia spp. are widespread throughout the Morrison depositional basin, but Hadrodon spp. are restricted to the eastern portion of the Colorado Plateau during Salt Wash Member deposition, suggesting that Salt Wash drainage was isolated from other contemporaneous regions of the basin. Bivalves from five localities in the Morrison Formation were thin-sectioned for growth band analysis. Growth bands of modern unionid bivalves are produced when the valves are forced to close. Closure can produce annual growth bands in response to seasonal variation, such as temperature-induced hibernation, or precipitation-induced aestivation or turbidity. Pseudoannual growth bands form from non-cyclical events such as predation attacks or isolated storm turbidity. Vetulonaia sp. from the Tidwell Member, Green River, Utah, and from Tidwell-equivalent beds at Como Bluff, Wyoming, exhibits continuous growth with no annual banding, suggesting that seasonality of climate and discharge did not vary appreciable during the year. Hadrodon sp. from the Salt Wash Member in Colorado National Monument, Colorado, exhibits annual banding with subequal light and dark bands indicating seasonal cyclicity. Vetulonaia sp. from the Cleveland-Lloyd locality, Utah, exhibits complex banding that indicates a combination of annual and pseudoannual bands. This suggests seasonal cyclicity and intermittent periods of environmental stress (predation, storm-produced turbidity and/or volcanic ash falls). Specimens of Vetulonaia sp. from Dinosaur National Monument, Utah, are replaced by chert with faint ghosts of bands that are too poorly preserved for environmental interpretations. Preliminary growth band studies suggest a change from a uniform optimum habitat in the Tidwell Member to strongly developed annual growth banding in the Salt Wash Member, suggesting cyclic annual precipitation, and finally to irregular banding produced by a complex interaction of weakly developed annual growth bands and pseudoannual bands in the Brushy Basin Member.

Good, Steven C.

2004-05-01

340

Deposit formation in hydrocarbon fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hydrocarbon fuels RP-1, commercial-grade propane, JP-7 and chemically pure propane were subjected to tests in a high pressure fuel coking apparatus in order to evaluate their thermal decomposition limits and carbon deposition rates in heated copper tubes. A fuel thermal stability parametric evaluation was conducted at 136-340 atmospheres, bulk fuel velocities of 6-30 m/sec, and tube wall temperatures of 422-811 K, and the effect of inside wall material on deposit formation was evaluated in tests using nickel-plated tubes. Results show RP-1 deposit formation at wall temperatures between 600 and 800 K, with peak deposit formation near 700 K. Substitution of deoxygenated JP-7 for RP-1 showed no improvement, and the carbon deposition rates for propane fuels were found to be higher than those of either of the kerosene fuels. Nickel plating of the tube walls significantly reduced RP-1 carbon deposition rates.

Roback, R.; Szetela, E. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.

1982-01-01

341

Biofilm formation by Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated disease worldwide. Recurring infections and increasing antibiotic resistance have complicated treatment of CDI. While C. difficile spores are important for transmission and persistence of CDI, other factors such as gut colonization and formation of bacterial communities in the gut may also contribute to pathogenesis and persistence, but have not been well investigated. Recently, we reported that important clinical C. difficile strains are able to form composite biofilms in vitro. C. difficile biofilm formation is a complex process, modulated by several different factors, including cell surface components and regulators. We also reported that bacteria within biofilms are more resistant to high concentrations of vancomycin, the antibiotic of choice for treatment of CDI. Here we summarize our recent findings and discuss the implications of biofilm formation by this anaerobic gut pathogen in disease pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:23892245

Dapa, Tanja; Unnikrishnan, Meera

2013-01-01

342

Formation of Coronal Shock Waves  

E-print Network

Numerical simulations of magnetosonic wave formation driven by an expanding cylindrical piston are performed to get better physical insight into the initiation and evolution of large-scale coronal waves. Several very basic initial configurations are employed to analyze intrinsic characteristics of the MHD wave formation that do not depend on specific properties of the environment. It turns out that these simple initial configurations result in piston/wave morphologies and kinematics that reproduce common characteristics of coronal waves. In the initial stage the wave and the expanding source-region cannot be clearly resolved. During the acceleration stage of the source-region inflation, the wave is driven by the piston expansion, so its amplitude and phase-speed increase, whereas the wavefront profile steepens. At a given point, a discontinuity forms in the wavefront profile. The time/distance required for the shock formation is shorter for a more impulsive source-region expansion. After the piston stops, the...

Luli?, S; Žic, T; Kienreich, I W; Muhr, N; Temmer, M; Veronig, A M

2013-01-01

343

Formation of the first stars.  

PubMed

Understanding the formation of the first stars is one of the frontier topics in modern astrophysics and cosmology. Their emergence signalled the end of the cosmic dark ages, a few hundred million years after the Big Bang, leading to a fundamental transformation of the early Universe through the production of ionizing photons and the initial enrichment with heavy chemical elements. We here review the state of our knowledge, separating the well understood elements of our emerging picture from those where more work is required. Primordial star formation is unique in that its initial conditions can be directly inferred from the ? cold dark matter (?CDM) model of cosmological structure formation. Combined with gas cooling that is mediated via molecular hydrogen, one can robustly identify the regions of primordial star formation, the so-called minihalos, having total masses of ~10(6) M? and collapsing at redshifts z ? 20-30. Within this framework, a number of studies have defined a preliminary standard model, with the main result that the first stars were predominantly massive. This model has recently been modified to include a ubiquitous mode of fragmentation in the protostellar disks, such that the typical outcome of primordial star formation may be the formation of a binary or small multiple stellar system. We will also discuss extensions to this standard picture due to the presence of dynamically significant magnetic fields, of heating from self-annihalating WIMP dark matter, or cosmic rays. We conclude by discussing possible strategies to empirically test our theoretical models. Foremost among them are predictions for the upcoming James Webb space telescope (JWST), to be launched ~2018, and for 'stellar archaeology', which probes the abundance pattern in the oldest, most-metal poor stars in our cosmic neighborhood, thereby constraining the nucleosynthesis inside the first supernovae. PMID:24168986

Bromm, Volker

2013-11-01

344

Formation of the first stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the formation of the first stars is one of the frontier topics in modern astrophysics and cosmology. Their emergence signalled the end of the cosmic dark ages, a few hundred million years after the Big Bang, leading to a fundamental transformation of the early Universe through the production of ionizing photons and the initial enrichment with heavy chemical elements. We here review the state of our knowledge, separating the well understood elements of our emerging picture from those where more work is required. Primordial star formation is unique in that its initial conditions can be directly inferred from the ? cold dark matter (?CDM) model of cosmological structure formation. Combined with gas cooling that is mediated via molecular hydrogen, one can robustly identify the regions of primordial star formation, the so-called minihalos, having total masses of ˜106 M? and collapsing at redshifts z ? 20-30. Within this framework, a number of studies have defined a preliminary standard model, with the main result that the first stars were predominantly massive. This model has recently been modified to include a ubiquitous mode of fragmentation in the protostellar disks, such that the typical outcome of primordial star formation may be the formation of a binary or small multiple stellar system. We will also discuss extensions to this standard picture due to the presence of dynamically significant magnetic fields, of heating from self-annihalating WIMP dark matter, or cosmic rays. We conclude by discussing possible strategies to empirically test our theoretical models. Foremost among them are predictions for the upcoming James Webb space telescope (JWST), to be launched ˜2018, and for ‘stellar archaeology’, which probes the abundance pattern in the oldest, most-metal poor stars in our cosmic neighborhood, thereby constraining the nucleosynthesis inside the first supernovae.

Bromm, Volker

2013-11-01

345

Cosmic Star-Formation History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, an avalanche of new data from multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopic surveys has revolutionized our view of galaxy formation and evolution. Here we review the range of complementary techniques and theoretical tools that allow astronomers to map the cosmic history of star formation, heavy element production, and reionization of the Universe from the cosmic “dark ages” to the present epoch. A consistent picture is emerging, whereby the star-formation rate density peaked approximately 3.5 Gyr after the Big Bang, at z?1.9, and declined exponentially at later times, with an e-folding timescale of 3.9 Gyr. Half of the stellar mass observed today was formed before a redshift z = 1.3. About 25% formed before the peak of the cosmic star-formation rate density, and another 25% formed after z = 0.7. Less than ˜1% of today's stars formed during the epoch of reionization. Under the assumption of a universal initial mass function, the global stellar mass density inferred at any epoch matches reasonably well the time integral of all the preceding star-formation activity. The comoving rates of star formation and central black hole accretion follow a similar rise and fall, offering evidence for coevolution of black holes and their host galaxies. The rise of the mean metallicity of the Universe to about 0.001 solar by z = 6, one Gyr after the Big Bang, appears to have been accompanied by the production of fewer than ten hydrogen Lyman-continuum photons per baryon, a rather tight budget for cosmological reionization.

Madau, Piero; Dickinson, Mark

2014-08-01

346

Requirements for Hirano Body Formation  

PubMed Central

Hirano bodies are paracrystalline F-actin-rich structures associated with diverse conditions, including neurodegeneration and aging. Generation of model Hirano bodies using altered forms of Dictyostelium 34-kDa actin-bundling protein allows studies of their physiological function and mechanism of formation. We describe a novel 34-kDa protein mutant, E60K, with a point mutation within the inhibitory domain of the 34-kDa protein. Expression of E60K in Dictyostelium induces the formation of model Hirano bodies. The E60K protein has activated actin binding and is calcium regulated, unlike other forms of the 34-kDa protein that induce Hirano bodies and that have activated actin binding but lack calcium regulation. Actin filaments in the presence of E60K in vitro show enhanced resistance to disassembly induced by latrunculin B. Actin filaments in model Hirano bodies are also protected from latrunculin-induced depolymerization. We used nocodazole and blebbistatin to probe the role of the microtubules and myosin II, respectively, in the formation of model Hirano bodies. In the presence of these inhibitors, model Hirano bodies can form but are smaller than controls at early times of formation. The ultrastructure of model Hirano bodies did not reveal any major difference in structure and organization in the presence of inhibitors. In summary, these results support the conclusion that formation of model Hirano bodies is promoted by gain-of-function actin filament bundling, which enhances actin filament stabilization. Microtubules and myosin II contribute to but are not required for formation of model Hirano bodies. PMID:24632241

Griffin, Paul; Piggott, Cleveland; Maselli, Andrew; Fechheimer, Marcus

2014-01-01

347

Modeling Formation of Globular Clusters: Beacons of Galactic Star Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation are able to predict accurately the rates and locations of the assembly of giant molecular clouds in early galaxies. These clouds could host star clusters with the masses and sizes of real globular clusters. I describe current state-of-the-art simulations aimed at understanding the origin of the cluster mass function and metallicity distribution. Metallicity bimodality

Oleg Y. Gnedin

2011-01-01

348

Hydrodynamic Simulations of Galaxy Formation  

E-print Network

We have developed an accurate, one-dimensional, spherically symmetric, Lagrangian hydrodynamics/gravity code, designed to study the effects of radiative cooling and photo-ionization on the formation of protogalaxies. We examine the ability of collapsing perturbations to cool within the age of the universe. In contrast to some studies based on order-of-magnitude estimates, we find that cooling arguments alone cannot explain the sharp upper cutoff observed in the galaxy luminosity function. We also look at the effect of a photoionizing background on the formation of low-mass galaxies.

A. A. Thoul

1994-12-09

349

Pattern formation in the geosciences  

PubMed Central

Pattern formation is a natural property of nonlinear and non-equilibrium dynamical systems. Geophysical examples of such systems span practically all observable length scales, from rhythmic banding of chemical species within a single mineral crystal, to the morphology of cusps and spits along hundreds of kilometres of coastlines. This article briefly introduces the general principles of pattern formation and argues how they can be applied to open problems in the Earth sciences. Particular examples are then discussed, which summarize the contents of the rest of this Theme Issue. PMID:24191107

Goehring, Lucas

2013-01-01

350

South Mississippi's Hosston, Sligo formations  

SciTech Connect

The Hosston and Sligo formations, of Early Cretaceous age, lie above the Cotton Valley group and below the Pine Island formation. The beds dip southwesterly and become thicker within the Mississippi Interior Salt basin, where virtually all of the Hosston/Sligo oil and gas production occurs. The 3500 ft of alternating sands and shales found at 10,000-17,000 ft depths have the attributes of fluvial deltaic sediments. The Newsom, Bowie Creek, and Seminary fields are representative of recent gas discoveries in the Hosston/Sligo.

Not Available

1981-08-24

351

Star formation and extinct radioactivities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment is made of the evidence for the existence of now-extinct radioactivities in primitive solar system material, giving attention to implications for the early stages of sun and solar system formation. The characteristics of possible disturbances in dense molecular clouds which can initiate the formation of cloud cores is discussed, with emphasis on these disturbances able to generate fresh radioactivities. A one-solar mass red giant star on the asymptotic giant branch appears to have been the best candidate to account for the short-lived extinct radioactivities in the early solar system.

Cameron, A. G. W.

1984-01-01

352

Optimal Reconfiguration of Tetrahedral Formations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of minimum-fuel formation reconfiguration for the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission is studied. This reconfiguration trajectory optimization problem can be posed as a nonlinear optimal control problem. In this research, this optimal control problem is solved using a spectral collocation method called the Gauss pseudospectral method. The objective of this research is to provide highly accurate minimum-fuel solutions to the MMS formation reconfiguration problem and to gain insight into the underlying structure of fuel-optimal trajectories.

Huntington, Geoffrey; Rao, Anil V.; Hughes, Steven P.

2004-01-01

353

SAS FORMATS: USES AND ABUSES  

EPA Science Inventory

SAS formats are a very powerful tool. They allow you to display the data in a more readable manner without modifying the data. They can also be used to group data into categories for use in various procedures like PROC FREQ, PROC TTEST, and PROC MEANS (as a class variable). ...

354

Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

2009-01-01

355

Peptide formation mediated by cyanate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted to find out whether peptide formation can be enhanced by cyanate added to hydroxyapatite or orthophosphates. The results show that diglycine is formed when glycine is heated in the presence of apatite or orthophosphates. The addition of inorganic cyanate increases the yields of diglycine but its action as a condensing agent extends only to some of the orthophosphates studied.

Flores, J. J.; Leckie, J. O.

1973-01-01

356

The Physics of Star Formation  

E-print Network

Our current understanding of the physical processes of star formation is reviewed, with emphasis on processes occurring in molecular clouds like those observed nearby. The dense cores of these clouds are predicted to undergo gravitational collapse characterized by the runaway growth of a central density peak that evolves toward a singularity. As long as collapse can occur, rotation and magnetic fields do not change this qualitative behavior. The result is that a very small embryonic star or protostar forms and grows by accretion at a rate that is initially high but declines with time as the surrounding envelope is depleted. Rotation causes some of the remaining matter to form a disk around the protostar, but accretion from protostellar disks is not well understood and may be variable. Most, and possibly all, stars form in binary or multiple systems in which gravitational interactions can play a role in redistributing angular momentum and driving episodes of disk accretion. Variable accretion may account for some peculiarities of young stars such as flareups and jet production, and protostellar interactions in forming systems of stars will also have important implications for planet formation. The most massive stars form in the densest environments by processes that are not yet well understood but may include violent interactions and mergers. The formation of the most massive stars may have similarities to the formation and growth of massive black holes in very dense environments.

Richard B. Larson

2003-08-17

357

Summary: Modes of Star Formation  

E-print Network

This contribution summarizes briefly the main topics covered at this wide-ranging conference. Much of the evidence presented indicates that star formation occurs in discrete episodes or bursts that produce stellar groupings of all sizes, the fossil remnants of which make up the present stellar populations of galaxies.

Richard B. Larson

2001-01-03

358

Curriculum Vitae Format PERSONAL DATA  

E-print Network

Curriculum Vitae Format Part I PERSONAL DATA Name Office address, phone #, fax #, email Home) Proposal Review Activities External to School of Nursing Internal to School of Nursing Major resources, # of registered students for the past ten years). For clinical teaching, state the course title and size

Niebur, Ernst

359

Formative Assessment: A Cybernetic Viewpoint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers alternative assessment, feedback and cybernetics. For more than 30 years, debates about the bi-polarity of formative and summative assessment have served as surrogates for discussions about the workings of the mind, the social implications of assessment and, as important, the role of instruction in the advancement of learning.…

Roos, Bertil; Hamilton, David

2005-01-01

360

A standard audit trail format  

SciTech Connect

The central role of audit trails, or (more properly) logs, in security monitoring needs little description, for it is too well known for any to doubt it. Auditing, or the analysis of logs, is a central part of security not only in computer system security but also in analyzing financial and other non-technical systems. As part of this process, it is often necessary to reconcile logs from different sources. This speaks of a need for a standard logging format. A standard log format robust enough to meet the needs of heterogeneity, transportability across various network protocols, and flexibility sufficient to meet a variety of needs in very different environments must satisfy two basic properties: extensibility and portability. This report presents the author`s proposed format for a standard log record. In section 3, he shows how and where the translation should be done, and in section 4 he demonstrates how log records from several disparate systems would be put into this format. Section 5 concludes with some observations and suggestions for future work.

Bishop, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

1995-02-01

361

Stereotype Formation: Biased by Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose that biases in attitude and stereotype formation might arise as a result of learned differences in the extent to which social groups have previously been predictive of behavioral or physical properties. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that differences in the experienced predictiveness of groups with respect to evaluatively neutral information influence the extent to which participants later form

Mike E. Le Pelley; Stian J. Reimers; Guglielmo Calvini; Russell Spears; Tom Beesley; Robin A. Murphy

2010-01-01

362

Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction  

E-print Network

Chapter 4 Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction We now begin to trace the journey towards a star. How long does this take? The answer is surprisingly short: a good many clouds already contain new stars and these stars tend to be young. The typical cloud cannot spend long, if any time at all

Estalella, Robert

363

Earth and Terrestrial Planet Formation  

E-print Network

The growth and composition of Earth is a direct consequence of planet formation throughout the Solar System. We discuss the known history of the Solar System, the proposed stages of growth and how the early stages of planet formation may be dominated by pebble growth processes. Pebbles are small bodies whose strong interactions with the nebula gas lead to remarkable new accretion mechanisms for the formation of planetesimals and the growth of planetary embryos. Many of the popular models for the later stages of planet formation are presented. The classical models with the giant planets on fixed orbits are not consistent with the known history of the Solar System, fail to create a high Earth/Mars mass ratio, and, in many cases, are also internally inconsistent. The successful Grand Tack model creates a small Mars, a wet Earth, a realistic asteroid belt and the mass-orbit structure of the terrestrial planets. In the Grand Tack scenario, growth curves for Earth most closely match a Weibull model. The feeding zon...

Jacobson, Seth A

2015-01-01

364

Computer simulation of bubble formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of liquid metals (Li, Pb, Na) containing nanoscale cavities were studied by atomistic Molecular Dynamics (MD). Two atomistic models of cavity simulation were developed that cover a wide area in the phase diagram with negative pressure. In the first model, the thermodynamics of cavity formation, stability and the dynamics of cavity evolution in bulk liquid metals have been studied.

Z. Insepov; T. Bazhirov; G. Norman; V. Stegailov

2007-01-01

365

Formation of Clastic Sedimentary Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation traces the formation of sedimentary rock. It starts at a beach environment where sea water minerals cement sand grains together. The animation concludes with a real microscopic image of sandstone showing both mineral grains and cement. The animation can be paused and rewound to stress important points.

2010-01-01

366

Biofilm formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Summary Biofilm?grown bacteria are refractory to antimicrobial agents and show an increased capacity to evade the host immune system. In recent years, studies have begun on biofilm formation by Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, using a variety of in vitro model systems. The bacterial cells in these biofilms are held together by an extracellular matrix composed of DNA, proteins and, possibly, polysaccharide(s). Although neither the precise nature of these proteins nor the composition of the putative polysaccharide(s) is clear, it is known that choline?binding proteins are required for successful biofilm formation. Further, many genes appear to be involved, although the role of each appears to vary when biofilms are produced in batch or continuous culture. Prophylactic and therapeutic measures need to be developed to fight S.?pneumoniae biofilm formation. However, much care needs to be taken when choosing strains for such studies because different S.?pneumoniae isolates can show remarkable genomic differences. Multispecies and in vivo biofilm models must also be developed to provide a more complete understanding of biofilm formation and maintenance. PMID:21906265

Domenech, Mirian; García, Ernesto; Moscoso, Miriam

2012-01-01

367

Formative Assessment in Primary Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action learning study in a year three classroom explored the implementation of five formative assessment principles to assist students' understandings of the scientific topic of liquids and solids. These principles were employed to give students a greater opportunity to express their understanding of the concepts. The study found that…

Loughland, Tony; Kilpatrick, Laetitia

2015-01-01

368

Chevrons formation in laminar erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When eroded by laminar free-surface flows, granular substrates may generate a rich variety of natural patterns. Among them are dunes, similar to the ones observed by Charru and Hinch in a Couette cell (Charru F, Hinch EJ ; Ripple formation on a particle bed sheared by a viscous liquid. Part 1. Steady flow ; JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 550: 111-121 MAR 10 2006). Chevron-shaped instabilities as those found on the sea-shore, can also be observed, sometimes in competition against dunes formation. These were first pointed out by Daerr et al. when pulling a plate covered with granular material out of a bath of water (Daerr A, Lee P, Lanuza J, et al. ; Erosion patterns in a sediment layer ; PHYSICAL REVIEW E 67 (6): Art. No. 065201 Part 2 JUN 2003). Both instabilities can grow in laminar open-channel flows, an experimental set-up which is more easily controlled. The mechanisms leading to the formation of these patterns are investigated and compared. Whereas dunes formation requires vertical inertia effects, we show that chevrons may result from the non-linear evolution of bars instability, which may grow even in purely viscous flows.

Devauchelle, Olivier; Josserand, Christophe; Lagree, Pierre-Yves; Zaleski, Stephane; Nguyen, Khanh-Dang; Malverti, Luce; Lajeunesse, Eric

2007-11-01

369

The Story of Galaxy Formation  

E-print Network

" Spring #$$% Compton Lectures Edwin Hubble · In the &*#$+s" Hubble was busy studying ,spiral nebulaeThe Story of Galaxy Formation in Our Universe Dr! Risa H! Wechsler Hubble Fellow" Enrico Fermi:((kicp!uchicago!edu()risa(compton( Risa H! Wechsler" Spring #$$% Compton Lectures Hubble Space Telescope #12;Risa H! Wechsler" Spring

Wechsler, Risa H.

370

Reverse hydrotropy by complex formation.  

PubMed

Self-aggregation of three di-N-alkylated diaza-18-crown-6 ethers (ACEs) was studied in non-polar solvents. The three ACEs differed by the length of the alkyl chain: n-decyl (ACE-10), n-hexadecyl (ACE-16) and n-tetracosane (ACE-24). From the previously reported interfacial tension isotherms, the formation of reverse micelles was expected above ACE concentrations of ?10(-3) M. However, the water content analysis in conjunction with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) and (1)H NMR Diffusion Ordered Spectroscopy (DOSY) do not provide any clear proof of the existence of aggregates. Only the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) of concentrated toluene ACE solutions reveals the existence of small reverse micelles (probably ACE dimers forming small cages hosting 1-2 water molecules). On the other hand, spectrophotometric and fluorescence dye dissolution studies using eosin Y, tropaeolin OO and methyl orange suggest that ACEs can dissolve these dyes without requiring the formation of aggregates. This discrepancy was interpreted assuming the dye-ACE complexation as the driving force for dye solubilisation, providing a possible mechanism of reverse hydrotropy ("lipotropy") in non-polar solvents. This example shows that special care should be taken when dye solubilisation is used to probe self-aggregation of an amphiphile in non-polar solvents. The amphiphile-dye complex formation might be responsible for false positive results and the aggregate formation should always be confirmed with other methods. PMID:25415596

Wojciechowski, Kamil; Gutberlet, Thomas; Raghuwanshi, Vikram Singh; Terry, Ann

2015-01-14

371

A Bluetooth scatternet formation algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Bluetooth ad hoc network can be formed by interconnecting piconets into scatternets. The constraints and properties of Bluetooth scatternets present special challenges in forming an ad hoc network efficiently. We present and analyse a new randomized distributed algorithm for Bluetooth scatternet formation. We prove that our algorithm achieves O(log n) time complexity and O(n) message complexity. We show that:

Ching Law; Kai-Yeung Siu

2001-01-01

372

Method of fracturing a geological formation  

DOEpatents

An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

Johnson, James O. (2679-B Walnut, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1990-01-01

373

Peripheral Leptin Regulates Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Substantial evidence does not support the prevailing view that leptin, acting through a hypothalamic relay, decreases bone accrual by inhibiting bone formation. To clarify the mechanisms underlying regulation of bone architecture by leptin, we evaluated bone growth and turnover in wild type (WT) mice, leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and ob/ob mice treated with leptin. We also performed hypothalamic leptin gene therapy to determine the effect of elevated hypothalamic leptin levels on osteoblasts. Finally, to determine the effects of loss of peripheral leptin signaling on bone formation and energy metabolism, we used bone marrow (BM) from WT or db/db donor mice to reconstitute the hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell compartments in lethally irradiated WT recipient mice. Decreases in bone growth, osteoblast-lined bone perimeter and bone formation rate were observed in ob/ob mice and greatly increased in ob/ob mice following subcutaneous administration of leptin. Similarly, hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast-lined bone perimeter in ob/ob mice. In spite of normal osteoclast-lined bone perimeter, db/db mice exhibited a mild but generalized osteopetrotic-like (calcified cartilage encased by bone) skeletal phenotype and greatly reduced serum markers of bone turnover. Tracking studies and histology revealed quantitative replacement of BM cells following BM transplantation. WT mice engrafted with db/db BM did not differ in energy homeostasis from untreated WT mice or WT mice engrafted with WT BM. Bone formation in WT mice engrafted with WT BM did not differ from WT mice, whereas bone formation in WT mice engrafted with db/db cells did not differ from the low rates observed in untreated db/db mice. In summary, our results indicate that leptin, acting primarily through peripheral pathways, increases osteoblast number and activity. PMID:22887758

Turner, Russell T.; Kalra, Satya P.; Wong, Carmen P.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Boghossian, Stephane; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

2012-01-01

374

The Black Hole Formation Probability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. Using the observed BH mass distribution from Galactic X-ray binaries, we investigate the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass. Although the shape of the black hole formation probability function is poorly constrained by current measurements, we believe that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. We also consider some of the implications of this probability distribution, from its impact on the chemical enrichment from massive stars, to its connection with the structure of the core at the time of collapse, to the birth kicks that black holes receive. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be a useful input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

Clausen, Drew R.; Piro, Anthony; Ott, Christian D.

2015-01-01

375

Treating tar sands formations with dolomite  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

2010-06-08

376

Modeling Formation of Globular Clusters: Beacons of Galactic Star Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation are able to predict\\u000aaccurately the rates and locations of the assembly of giant molecular clouds in\\u000aearly galaxies. These clouds could host star clusters with the masses and sizes\\u000aof real globular clusters. I describe current state-of-the-art simulations\\u000aaimed at understanding the origin of the cluster mass function and metallicity\\u000adistribution. Metallicity bimodality

Oleg Y. Gnedin

2010-01-01

377

Cusp formation in positron scattering at the positronium formation threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent to which channel coupling plays a role in positron scattering cross sections has long been debated, and recent work has suggested that a step-like feature in the elastic cross section is due to the rapid rise of the positronium formation cross section from threshold [1]. The low energy, high resolution beamline at the Australin Positron Beamline Facility provides a useful tool with which to study such effects. It provides a means to measure the grand total, positronium formation and elastic scattering cross sections in the region of interest, as well as having the capacity to make measurements of other inelastic scattering processes [2]. This talk will present measurements of positron scattering from noble gas atoms in the region of the positronium formation threshold showing cusp-like features in the elastic scattering channel for each target measured. Comparison with recent work on this phenomenon will be made and discrepancies in the two measurements discussed. [4pt] [1] Coleman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, (2009) 173201 [0pt] [2] Sullivan et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. 79 (2008) 113105

Sullivan, James; Jones, Adric; Caradonna, Peter; Makochekanwa, Casten; Slaughter, Dan; Buckman, Stephen

2010-03-01

378

Formation of quasiparallel Alfven solitons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of quasi-parallel Alfven solitons is investigated through the inverse scattering transformation (IST) for the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation. The DNLS has a rich complement of soliton solutions consisting of a two-parameter soliton family and a one-parameter bright/dark soliton family. In this paper, the physical roles and origins of these soliton families are inferred through an analytic study of the scattering data generated by the IST for a set of initial profiles. The DNLS equation has as limiting forms the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS), Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-de-Vries (MKdV) equations. Each of these limits is briefly reviewed in the physical context of quasi-parallel Alfven waves. The existence of these limiting forms serves as a natural framework for discussing the formation of Alfven solitons.

Hamilton, R. L.; Kennel, C. F.; Mjolhus, E.

1992-01-01

379

Concepts in CMB Anisotropy Formation  

E-print Network

These lecture notes form a primer on the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy formation. With emphasis on conceptual aspects rather than technical issues, we examine the physical foundations of anisotropy evolution in relativistic kinetic and perturbation theory as well as the manifestation of these principles in primary and secondary anisotropies. We discuss gauge choice and gauge invariance and their use in understanding the CMB. Acoustic, gravitational redshift and ionization effects have robust signatures in the CMB spectrum and may allow determination of classical cosmological parameters as well as reveal general distinctions between models for structure formation. We develop the tight and weak coupling approximations as analytic tools to help understand these effects and the robustness of their signatures.

Wayne Hu

1995-11-27

380

The dynamics of city formation.  

PubMed

This paper examines city formation in a country whose urban population is growing steadily over time, with new cities required to accommodate this growth. In contrast to most of the literature there is immobility of housing and urban infrastructure, and investment in these assets is taken on the basis of forward-looking behavior. In the presence of these fixed assets cities form sequentially, without the population swings in existing cities that arise in current models, but with swings in house rents. Equilibrium city size, absent government, may be larger or smaller than is efficient, depending on how urban externalities vary with population. Efficient formation of cities with internalization of externalities involves local government intervention and borrowing to finance development. The paper explores the institutions required for successful local government intervention. PMID:25089087

Henderson, J Vernon; Venables, Anthony J

2009-04-01

381

Laser beam pulse formatting method  

DOEpatents

A method for formatting a laser beam pulse using one or more delay loops is disclosed. The delay loops have a partially reflective beam splitter and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors arranged such that the laser beam pulse enters into the delay loop through the beam splitter and circulates therein along a delay loop length defined by the mirrors. As the laser beam pulse circulates within the delay loop a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse strikes the beam splitter. The laser beam pulse is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses. The delay loops are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses using additive waveform synthesis. 8 figs.

Daly, T.P.; Moses, E.I.; Patterson, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.

1994-08-09

382

Laser beam pulse formatting method  

DOEpatents

A method for formatting a laser beam pulse (20) using one or more delay loops (10). The delay loops (10) have a partially reflective beam splitter (12) and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors (14) arranged such that the laser beam pulse (20) enters into the delay loop (10) through the beam splitter (12) and circulates therein along a delay loop length (24) defined by the mirrors (14). As the laser beam pulse (20) circulates within the delay loop (10) a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse (20) strikes the beam splitter (12). The laser beam pulse (20) is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56). The delay loops (10) are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56) using additive waveform synthesis.

Daly, Thomas P. (Livermore, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Livermore, CA); Patterson, Ralph W. (Livermore, CA); Sawicki, Richard H. (Danville, CA)

1994-01-01

383

Shock formation in Lovelock theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We argue that Lovelock theories of gravity suffer from shock formation, unlike general relativity. We consider the propagation of (i) a discontinuity in curvature, and (ii) weak, high frequency, gravitational waves. Such disturbances propagate along characteristic hypersurfaces of a "background" spacetime and their amplitude is governed by a transport equation. In general relativity, the transport equation is linear. In Lovelock theories, it is nonlinear and its solutions can blow up, corresponding to the formation of a shock. We show that this effect is absent in some simple cases, e.g. a flat background spacetime, and demonstrate its presence for a plane wave background. We comment on weak cosmic censorship, the evolution of shocks, and the nonlinear stability of Minkowski spacetime, in Lovelock theories.

Reall, Harvey S.; Tanahashi, Norihiro; Way, Benson

2015-02-01

384

Engineering biofilm formation and dispersal  

PubMed Central

Anywhere water is in the liquid state, bacteria will exist as biofilms, which are complex communities of cells cemented together. Although frequently associated with disease and biofouling, biofilms are also important for engineering applications, such as bioremediation, biocatalysis and microbial fuel cells. Here we review approaches to alter genetic circuits and cell signaling toward controlling biofilm formation, and emphasize utilizing these tools for engineering applications. Based on a better understanding of the genetic basis of biofilm formation, we find that biofilms may be controlled by manipulating extracellular signals and that they may be dispersed using conserved intracellular signals and regulators. Biofilms could also be formed at specific locations where they might be engineered to make chemicals or treat human disease. PMID:21131080

Wood, Thomas K.; Hong, Seok Hoon; Ma, Qun

2011-01-01

385

Magnetic Diffusion in Star Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic diffusion plays a vital role in star formation. We trace its influence from interstellar cloud scales down to star-disk scales. On both scales, we find that magnetic diffusion can be significantly enhanced by the buildup of strong gradients in magnetic field structure. Large scale nonlinear flows can create compressed cloud layers within which ambipolar diffusion occurs rapidly. However, in the flux-freezing limit that may be applicable to photoionized molecular cloud envelopes, supersonic motions can persist for long times if driven by an externally generated magnetic field that corresponds to a subcritical mass-to-flux ratio. In the case of protostellar accretion, rapid magnetic diffusion (through Ohmic dissipation with additional support from ambipolar diffusion) near the protostar causes dramatic magnetic flux loss. By doing so, it also allows the formation of a centrifugal disk, thereby avoiding the magnetic braking catastrophe.

Basu, Shantanu; Dapp, Wolf B.

2011-04-01

386

Rapid gas hydrate formation process  

DOEpatents

The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

2013-01-15

387

Divorce law and family formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have investigated whether unilateral divorce laws raised divorce rates, with mixed results. This paper asks\\u000a whether unilateral, and no-fault, divorce laws influenced family formation. Besides their interest to policy makers, such\\u000a effects may help theorists understand the mechanisms through which laws affect behavior. The results suggest that no-fault\\u000a laws slightly reduced fertility, and unilateral divorce modestly increased divorce

Scott Drewianka

2008-01-01

388

The Black Hole Formation Probability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P BH(M ZAMS). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P BH(M ZAMS) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P BH(M ZAMS) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P BH(M ZAMS) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.

2015-02-01

389

Equilibrium cluster formation and gelation  

E-print Network

We study the formation and growth of equilibrium clusters in a suspension of weakly-charged colloidal particles and small non-adsorbing polymers. The effective potential is characterised by a short-range attraction and a long-range repulsion. The size, shape and local structure of the clusters are studied using three-dimensional particle microscopy. We observe a rapid growth in the mean cluster size and the average number of nearest neighbours approaching the gel boundary.

Rodrigo Sanchez; Paul Bartlett

2005-06-22

390

Union formation in fragile families  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we use data from a new longitudinal survey—the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study—to examine union\\u000a formation among unmarried parents who have just had a child together. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate\\u000a the effects of economic, cultural\\/interpersonal, and other factors on whether (relative to having no romantic relationship)\\u000a parents are romantically involved and living apart,

Marcia Carlson; Sara Mclanahan; Paula England

2004-01-01

391

Kinetic models of opinion formation  

E-print Network

We introduce and discuss certain kinetic models of (continuous) opinion formation involving both exchange of opinion between individual agents and diffusion of information. We show conditions which ensure that the kinetic model reaches non trivial stationary states in case of lack of diffusion in correspondence of some opinion point. Analytical results are then obtained by considering a suitable asymptotic limit of the model yielding a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution of opinion among individuals.

G. Toscani

2006-05-17

392

Formation processes of framboidal pyrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrite framboid formation may be the result of four consecutive processes: (1) nucleation and growth of initial iron monosulfide microcrystals; (2) reaction of the microcrystals to greigite (Fe3S4; (3) aggregation of uniformly sized greigite microcrystals, i.e., framboid growth; and (4) replacement of greigite framboids by pyrite. The uniform morphology, uniform size range, and ordering of the microcrystals in individual framboids,

R. T. Wilkin; H. L. Barnes

1997-01-01

393

Hydrodynamics of catheter biofilm formation  

E-print Network

A hydrodynamic model is proposed to describe one of the most critical problems in intensive medical care units: the formation of biofilms inside central venous catheters. The incorporation of approximate solutions for the flow-limited diffusion equation leads to the conclusion that biofilms grow on the internal catheter wall due to the counter-stream diffusion of blood through a very thin layer close to the wall. This biological deposition is the first necessary step for the subsequent bacteria colonization.

Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Rodriguez-Perez, Daniel; Martinez-Escobar, Sergio; Fernandez-Barbero, Antonio

2009-01-01

394

Supershells and propagating star formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stellar winds and repeated supernovae from an OB association will create a cavity of coronal gas in the interstellar medium, with radius greater than 100 pc, surrounded by a dense, expanding shell of cool interstellar gas. If the association has a typical initial mass function, its supernovae explosions will inject energy into the supershell at a nearly constant rate for about 50 Myr. The supershell loses its interior pressure and enters the snowplow phase when radiative cooling becomes important or when the shell bursts through the gas disk of a galaxy, typically after a few times 10 Myr and with a radius of 100-300 pc. At approximately the same time, the supershell becomes gravitationally unstable, forming giant molecular clouds which are sites for new star formation. There is widespread evidence for supershells in the Galaxy and other spiral and irregular galaxies from 21-cm emission-line surveys, optical emission-line surveys, and studies of supernova remnants. The gravitational instability of the supershells provides a physical mechanism for induced star formation and may account for bursts of star formation, especially in irregular galaxies.

Mccray, Richard; Kafatos, Minas

1987-01-01

395

The Formation of Star Clusters  

E-print Network

The ability of HST to resolve objects ten times smaller than possible from the ground has rejuvenated the study of young star clusters. A recurrent morphological theme found in nearby resolved sytems is the observation of young (typically 1 - 10 Myr), massive (10**3 - 10**4 M_sun), compact (rho ~ 10**5 M_sun/pc**3) clusters which have evacuated the gas and dust from a spherical region around themselves. New stars are being triggered into formation along the edges of the envelopes, with pillars (similar to the Eagle Nebula) of molecular gas streaming away from the the regions of star formation. The prototype for these objects is 30 Doradus. Another major theme has been the discovery of large numbers of young (typically 1 - 500 Myr), massive (10**3 - 10**7 M_sun), compact star clusters in merging, starbursting, and even some barred and spiral galaxies. The brightest of these clusters have all the attributes expected of protoglobular clusters, hence allowing us to study the formation of globular clusters in the local universe rather than trying to ascertain how they formed ~14 Gyr ago. The prototype is the Antennae Galaxy.

Bradley C. Whitmore

2000-12-29

396

Supernova Feedback in Galaxy Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hierarchical model of galaxy formation is known to suffer from the ``over-cooling'' problem: the high efficiency of radiative cooling results in too much baryonic matter in a condensed phase (namely, cold gas or stars) when compared to observations. A solution proposed by many authors (see Springel & Hernquist 2003; Fujita et al. 2004; Rasera & Teyssier 2005) is feedback due to supernova (SN) driven winds or active galactic nuclei. Modeling SN feedback by direct injection of thermal energy usually turns out to be inefficient in galaxy-scale simulations, due to the quasi-instantaneous radiation of the SN energy. To avoid this effect, we have developed a new method to incorporate SN feedback in cosmological simulations: using temporary test particles, we reproduce explicitly a local Sedov blast wave solution in the gas distribution. We have performed several self-consistent runs of isolated Navarro, Frenk, & White (1996, hereafter NFW) halos with radiative cooling, star formation, SN feedback and metal enrichment using the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES (Teyssier 2002). We have explored the influence of SN feedback on the formation and the evolution of galaxies with different masses. We have studied the efficiency of the resulting galactic winds, as a function of the mass of the parent halo.

Dubois, Y.; Teyssier, R.

2008-06-01

397

Theory of Planetary System Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations and theoretical considerations support the idea that the Solar System formed by the collapse of tenuous interstellar matter to a disk of gas and dust (the primitive solar nebula), from which the Sun and other components separated under the action of dissipative forces and by the coagulation of solid material. Thus, planets are understood to be contemporaneous byproducts of star formation. Because the circumstellar disks of new stars are easier to observe than mature planetary systems, the possibility arises that the nature and variety of planets might be studied from observations of the conditions of their birth. A useful theory of planetary system formation would therefore relate the properties of circumstellar disks both to the initial conditions of star formation and to the consequent properties of planets to those of the disk. Although the broad outlines of such a theory are in place, many aspects are either untested, controversial, or otherwise unresolved; even the degree to which such a comprehensive theory is possible remains unknown.

Cassen, Patrick

1996-01-01

398

Star formation in HI debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to use GALEX observations to search for evidence of star formation in the intergalatic HI clouds of nearby galaxy systems. The method, identifying starburst sources (the so called intergalactic HII regions) coincident with HI clouds, has been recently used to demonstrate significant star formation outside of galaxies in Stephan's quintet. Mendes de Oliveira et al. 2004, (see also http://www.gemini.edu/project/announcements/press/2004-7.html) found several candidates of such star-forming regions using multi-slit spectroscopy which were confirmed by the GALEX pre-release observations of this spectacular interacting group. For this proposal we chose eight nearby systems (z < 3200 km/s), most of which are interacting or merging, which contain intergalactic HI clouds. They were selected from the HI Rogues Gallery of HI maps of galaxies and groups (http://www.nrao.edu/astrores/HIrogues/). Our main goal is to measure or set limits on the UV flux for the intergalactic HII regions that may be present in intergalactic HI clouds, in order to determine their ages and masses. Finding widespread, young, star-forming regions in the eight HI intergalactic clouds, indicating `in situ' formation of these objects, will be strong evidence that this is an efficient mechanism for producing and mixing metals in the intergalactic medium. This may have been even more important in the early universe, when galaxy-galaxy interactions were more frequent and tidal debris more common.

Oliveira, Claudia

399

Rock Cycle: Environments of Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the second of four Science Objects in the Rocks SciPack. It provides an in-depth exploration of the conditions and environment required during the formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Igneous rock forms from the cooling and crystallization of magma. Sometimes the magma reaches Earth's surface and cools quickly; sometimes it does not reach the surface and thus cools slowly. Rocks at Earth's surface are subjected to processes of weathering and erosion, producing sediments as they are broken down. Sedimentary rock is formed when sediments are buried and solidified through various processes. Sedimentary rock buried deep enough may be transformed into metamorphic rock or melted down to magma. Rock formed deep within the crust (either igneous or metamorphic) may be forced up again to become land surface and even mountains by the forces that drive the motion of Earth's plates. Subsequently, this new rock too will erode. Learning Outcomes:? Realize that different rocks have specific origins, and that they are the product of any number of processes.? Identify the processes through which igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock form.? Explain the role of intermediary materials such as sediment and magma in the formation of different kinds of rock.? Provide an overarching description of the steps in the rock cycle, the formation of sedimentary rock, the re-forming of rock by heat and pressure, and the process by which re-formed rock can return to the surface.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

400

Galaxies within hierarchical structure formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the structure of the Universe can typically be studied only by observing the light from luminous galaxies, the distribution of the galaxies themselves is ultimately a product of the formation of the dark matter halos that host them. This thesis explores the relationship between galaxies and the hierarchical growth of the cosmic web. Employing analytic and numerical techniques, we investigate the effects of the structure formation on observations of galaxies and use galaxy observations to constrain the underlying theoretical models. On large scales, the Lagrangian-based excursion-set formalism calculates the statistics of halos in a given survey volume, with any Eulerian evolution away from the Hubble flow described by the spherical collapse model. However, we also rely on high-resolution N-body simulations of dark matter to treat the nonlinear behavior on small-scales. We consider how the clustering of massive halos and the rapid evolution of their abundance with redshift informs the interpretation of high-redshift galaxy surveys with the Hubble Space Telescope. We further calculate the density and dynamics of the Shapley Supercluster from X-ray observations of galaxy clusters, primarily from the ROSAT satellite, and place constraints on reionization and the formation of first stars using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data from relics of the early Universe orbiting the Milky Way.

Munoz, Joseph Antonio

2010-12-01

401

Absorption and elimination of formate following oral administration of calcium formate in female human subjects  

E-print Network

Published abstract: Calcium formate is a water-soluble salt of an essential mineral nutrient with potential for use as a dietary calcium supplement. Formate ion is a product of endogenous and xenobiotic metabolism, but sustained high plasma formate...

Hanzlik, Robert P.; Fowler, S. C.; Eells, Janis T.

2005-02-01

402

Basin scale evolution of formation waters: a diagenetic and formation water study of the Triassic Chaunoy Formation, Paris Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation waters and their movements within basins are commonly attributed with responsibility for patterns of cementation and porosity-loss within reservoirs and aquifers. It is thus important to understand when and how waters move in the subsurface. We have studied the evolution and movement of formation water in the Triassic Chaunoy Formation of the Paris Basin, NW Europe to define the

R. H Worden; M. L Coleman; J-M Matray

1999-01-01

403

Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations  

E-print Network

Formation damage has long been recognized as a potential source of reduced productivity and injectivity in both horizontal and vertical wells. From the moment that the pay zone is being drilled until the well is put on production, a formation...

Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

2003-01-01

404

Gas-Phase Infrared; JCAMP Format  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 35 NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared; JCAMP Format (PC database for purchase)   This data collection contains 5,228 infrared spectra in the JCAMP-DX (Joint Committee for Atomic and Molecular Physical Data "Data Exchange") format.

405

SAR polar format implementation with MATLAB.  

SciTech Connect

Traditional polar format image formation for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) requires a large amount of processing power and memory in order to accomplish in real-time. These requirements can thus eliminate the possible usage of interpreted language environments such as MATLAB. However, with trapezoidal aperture phase history collection and changes to the traditional polar format algorithm, certain optimizations make MATLAB a possible tool for image formation. Thus, this document's purpose is two-fold. The first outlines a change to the existing Polar Format MATLAB implementation utilizing the Chirp Z-Transform that improves performance and memory usage achieving near realtime results for smaller apertures. The second is the addition of two new possible image formation options that perform a more traditional interpolation style image formation. These options allow the continued exploration of possible interpolation methods for image formation and some preliminary results comparing image quality are given.

Martin, Grant D.; Doerry, Armin Walter

2005-11-01

406

NCI Best Case Summary Format-OCCAM  

Cancer.gov

The following is a sample Case Report Format used to submit BCS Case Summaries Please adhere to the suggestions below. You may alter the format but include as much of the indicated content as possible.

407

External Resource: The Formation of the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Windows to The Universe webpage explores the formation of the Moon. Topics: Moon surface, planetismals, Period of Late Heavy Bombardment, Moon core and mantle, lunar Maria, collisional ejection theory, capture theory, co-formation theory.

1900-01-01

408

Dynamics and control of electromagnetic satellite formations  

E-print Network

Satellite formation flying is an enabling technology for many space missions, especially for space-based telescopes. Usually there is a tight formation-keeping requirement that may need constant expenditure of fuel or at ...

Ahsun, Umair, 1972-

2007-01-01

409

XML Format for SESAME and LEOS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to describe the XML format used by LLNL and LANL to represent the equation-of-state and related material information in the LEOS and SESAME data libraries. The primary purpose of this document is to describe a specific XML format for representing EOS data that is tailored to the nature of the underlying data and is amenable to conversion to both legacy SESAME and LEOS binary formats. The secondary purpose is to describe an XML format that lends itself to a 'natural' representation in a binary file format of the SESAME, pdb or hdf5 form so that this format and related tools can be used for the rapid and efficient development and implementation of prototype data structures. This document describes the XML format only. A working knowledge of LEOS and SESAME formats is assumed.

Durrenberger, J K; Neely, J R; Sterne, P A

2009-04-29

410

Formation of the terrestrial planets from planetesimals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formation of the terrestrial planets from planetesimals is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) formation of the original planetesimals; (2) growth of planetesimals into planetary embryos; and (3) growth of runaway planetary embryos into terrestrial planets.

Wetherill, George W.

1991-01-01

411

FORMATIONS EN ODONTOLOGIE POUR LES CHIRURGIENS DENTISTES  

E-print Network

FORMATIONS EN ODONTOLOGIE POUR LES CHIRURGIENS DENTISTES OBJECTIFS DES FORMATIONS Les journées de, néphrologie, cancérologie,...) et chirurgiens dentistes (28 mars 2013) la prise en charge de nos patients pour

Brest, Université de

412

Negative ion formation processes: A general review  

SciTech Connect

The principal negative ion formation processes will be briefly reviewed. Primary emphasis will be placed on the more efficient and universal processes of charge transfer and secondary ion formation through non-thermodynamic surface ionization. 86 refs., 20 figs.

Alton, G.D.

1990-01-01

413

Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

Vinegar, Harold J

2013-06-11

414

Statistical physics and opinion formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many complex systems can be described by networks in which the nodes are the elements of the system and the links characterize the interactions between the elements. There have been concerted efforts to understand the topological properties of model and real-life complex networks. We solve analytically the structure of shells in a randomly connected complex network. Further, we study an opinion formation model based on complex networks and show that the process of opinion formation can be mapped to a real-life physics process---invasion percolation. We define shell ? in a network as the set of nodes at distance ? with respect to a given node and define r? as the fraction of nodes outside shell ?. We derive analytically the degree distribution and average degree of the nodes residing outside shell ? as a function of r?. Further, we find that r? follows an iterative functional form r ? = ?(r?-1), where ? is expressed in terms of the generating function of the original degree distribution of the network. For real world networks the theoretical prediction of r? deviates from the empirical r?. We introduce a network correlation function c(r?) ? r ?/?(r?-1) to characterize the correlations in the networks. We find that the networks fall into two distinct classes: (i) a class of poorly-connected networks with c(r?) > 1; (ii) a class of well-connected networks with c(r ?) < 1. We also apply the concept of a percolation phase transition to the modeling of opinion formation in complex networks. We propose a "non-consensus" opinion model that allows for stable coexistence of two opinions. We find that the model displays phase transition behavior characterized by a large spanning cluster of nodes holding the same opinion appearing when the concentration of nodes holding the same opinion rises above a certain threshold. Our simulations support the hypothesis that the non-consensus opinion model appears to belong to the same universality class as invasion percolation.

Shao, Jia

415

Sequential star formation in Cassiopeia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive stars (M ? 9 M_{?}) are usually formed in OB associations, consisting of one or more not very massive open clusters and a halo of scattered young stars. The study of these open clusters can provide clues about how stellar formation proceeds from the parent molecular clouds. We present first results on a project to understand sequential star formation mechanisms in OB associations. We have chosen associations Cas OB4, Cas OB5 and Cas OB7, close to the Cassiopeia constellation, at l = 110°-125°. Previous determinations of their distance provided very similar values for them all, and placed them on the Perseus Arm. This study aims at improved distance and age determinations using new spectroscopic observations and existing photometry. The goal is to investigate whether the clusters in Cas OB4, Cas OB5 and Cas OB7 are separate entities or can be enclosed in a global common OB association. If associated,we will check for evidence of induced star formation. We preselected about 100 stars from 12 clusters, based on photometric criteria. Long-slit spectra were taken with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph at the Isaac Newton Telescope (2.5 m), located in La Palma's Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos. We used the R632V grating, to achieve a spectral coverage between 3500 Å and 5500 Å and spectral resolution of 0.90 Å px^{-1}. The observed spectra have been used to determine the spectral type and luminosity class of the sample stars. The spectral classification yields the stellar properties (from calibrations), and will enable the reconstruction of the HR-diagram. We present in this poster newly discovered B-type stars in two selected clusters.

Velasco, S.; García, M.; Negueruela, I.

2013-05-01

416

Electrochemical formation of field emitters  

DOEpatents

Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area.

Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01

417

Petrophysical evaluation of subterranean formations  

DOEpatents

Methods and systems are provided for evaluating petrophysical properties of subterranean formations and comprehensively evaluating hydrate presence through a combination of computer-implemented log modeling and analysis. Certain embodiments include the steps of running a number of logging tools in a wellbore to obtain a variety of wellbore data and logs, and evaluating and modeling the log data to ascertain various petrophysical properties. Examples of suitable logging techniques that may be used in combination with the present invention include, but are not limited to, sonic logs, electrical resistivity logs, gamma ray logs, neutron porosity logs, density logs, NRM logs, or any combination or subset thereof.

Klein, James D; Schoderbek, David A; Mailloux, Jason M

2013-05-28

418

Percolation-induced frost formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the observation of an unconventional mechanism for frost formation. On a smooth hydrophobic surface cooled much below the water freezing temperature (-9 °C), we find that, instead of the classical freezing of individual supercooled condensed droplets, frost can occur through a multi-step 2-dimensional percolation-driven mechanism. This in-plane propagation process provides a model to investigate more complex bulk phase transformations such as those occurring in atmospheric supercooled clouds. It can also lead to a new method to control and design in-plane solidification at a nanoscale level.

Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A.; González-Viñas, W.; Beysens, D.

2013-01-01

419

Dust formation by failed supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider dust formation during the ejection of the hydrogen envelope of a red supergiant during a failed supernova (SN) creating a black hole. While the dense, slow moving ejecta are very efficient at forming dust, only the very last phases of the predicted visual transient will be obscured. The net grain production consists of Md ˜ 10- 2 M? of very large grains (10-1000 ?m). This means that failed SNe could be the source of the very large extrasolar dust grains possibly identified by Ulysses, Galileo and radar studies of meteoroid re-entry trails rather than their coming from an ejection process associated with protoplanetary or other discs.

Kochanek, C. S.

2014-11-01

420

The formation of terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous numerical simulations of the process of formation of the terrestrial planets led to results which typically have two problems: (i) the final orbits of the planets are too eccentric and inclined relative to the real orbits of the terrestrial planet system and (ii) the planets form too slowly with respect to the time indicated by the Hf-W chronometer for the Earth-Moon system. It is usually thought that these problems are due to the fact that the simulations do not account for a population of small planetesimals carrying cumulatively a mass comparable to the mass of the planetary embryos. We have done new simulations, starting with a system of 25 Mars-mass embryos initially distributed from 0.5 to 4 AU, embedded in a disk of 2.5 Earth masses of planetesimals, modeled with 1,000 individual equal-mass particles. We have performed 8 simulations. 4 simulations assumed Jupiter and Saturn initially on their current orbits, while the remaining 4 simulations assumed that the two giant planets had circular orbits, consistent with the `Nice model' on the origin of the late heavy bombardment (Gomes et al., 2005) and on the giant planets' orbital architecture (Tsiganis et al., 2005). The simulations starting with Jupiter on an eccentric orbit lead to the formation of a system of terrestrial planets whose angular momentum deficit is 7 times smaller than that obtained in previous simulations (Chambers, 2001), whereas the formation timescale is three times shorter. This confirms that the dynamical friction exerted by planetesimals onto the forming planets is an essential ingredient in terrestrial planet formation. Interestingly, the final terrestrial planets achieved in these simulations are dynamically colder than the real terrestrial planets. The simulations starting with Jupiter on a circular orbit still produce planets which are slightly too dynamically excited (by about 50%) and which form too slowly (by a factor of 2). These problems are expected to disappear in future simulations modeling the planetesimal disk with a larger number of particles, or accounting for the regeneration of planetesimals during giant collisions among embryos. A main difference between the planets formed in the eccentric Jupiter case with respect to the circular Jupiter case is that the former do not acquire a significant amount of mass from beyond 2.5 AU. These planets are therefore expected to be more deficient in water, possibly too dry with respect to the Earth.

Morbidelli, A.; O'Brien, D.

421

Zonal flow as pattern formation  

SciTech Connect

Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. We show that for statistically averaged equations of the stochastically forced generalized Hasegawa-Mima model, steady-state zonal flows, and inhomogeneous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the wavelength of the zonal flows is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.

Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2013-10-15

422

Transcriptional control of adipocyte formation  

PubMed Central

A detailed understanding of the processes governing adipose tissue formation will be instrumental in combating the obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in the last two decades in defining transcriptional events controlling the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. A complex network of transcription factors and cell-cycle regulators, in concert with specific transcriptional coactivators and corepressors, respond to extracellular stimuli to activate or repress adipocyte differentiation. This review summarizes advances in this field, which constitute a framework for potential antiobesity strategies. PMID:17011499

Farmer, Stephen R.

2007-01-01

423

Stone City foraminifera in eastern Burleson County, Texas  

E-print Network

STONE CITY FORAMINIFERA IN EASTERN BURLESON COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis Jack Noreno Bslderas, Jr. August, 1953 Approved as %p style and cont nt by / rman o mm ee e o t e ep r en o eo ogy STONE CITY FORAMINIFERA IN EA STERN BUR LESON COUNTY... of the Stone City formation . . . . . . . ~ ~ Stone City cuesta along Farm Road 1362 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 16 16 5 e Headward erosion in unconsolidated Stone City beds Stone City Bluff, Burleson County, Texas 18 20 6. Stone City Bluff...

Balderas, Jack Moreno

1953-01-01

424

Bidirectional translator between DXF and IGES formats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software was conceived that provided two-way CAD data exchange between AuotCAD's DXF format and the IGES format. Obstacles were found with a newly emerging DXF format, and enhancements were added to accommodate multiple DXF forms. Successful code was written using the C programming language, thus providing portability to other hardware. Future enhancements to the code were identified. 4 refs.

1990-01-01

425

The formation of protoplasts from Beauveria bassiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beauveria bassiana protoplast formation from blastospores, conidia and mycelia was studied. The method of protoplast formation involves preincubation of the fungal cells with dithiothreitol and subsequent treatment with an enzyme mixture consisting of: cellulase, chitinase, ß-glucuronidase and lysozyme. Using this procedure protoplasts were formed from blastospores and mycelia but not conidia. Formation of protoplasts from 24 hour old mycelia was

Tom A. Pfeifer; George G. Khachatourians

1987-01-01

426

Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays  

E-print Network

Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays Daniel W. Kwon and David W. Miller February 2005 SSL # 2-05 #12;#12;Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays By DANIEL W. KWON S;#12;Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays by DANIEL W. KWON Submitted to the Department of Aeronautics

427

Control of star formation by supersonic turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the formation of stars in galaxies is central to much of modern astrophysics. However, a quantitative prediction of the star formation rate and the initial distribution of stellar masses remains elusive. For several decades it has been thought that the star formation process is primarily controlled by the interplay between gravity and magnetostatic support, modulated by neutral-ion drift (known

Mordecai-Mark Mac Low; Ralf S. Klessen

2004-01-01

428

Formative Constructs Implemented via Common Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently there has been a renewed interest in formative measurement and its role in properly specified models. Formative measurement models are difficult to identify, and hence to estimate and test. Existing solutions to the identification problem are shown to not adequately represent the formative constructs of interest. We propose a new two-step…

Treiblmaier, Horst; Bentler, Peter M.; Mair, Patrick

2011-01-01

429

Successful Student Writing through Formative Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use formative assessment to dramatically improve your students' writing. In "Successful Student Writing Through Formative Assessment", educator and international speaker Harry G. Tuttle shows you how to guide middle and high school students through the prewriting, writing, and revision processes using formative assessment techniques that work.…

Tuttle, Harry Grover

2010-01-01

430

String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found that 8% of all the…

Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

2010-01-01

431

Different strategies for midline formation in bilaterians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary emergence of the bilateral body plan and the central nervous system required the establishment of a midline organizer. The formation of a solitary, elongated but narrow organizing region for the dorsoventral (or mediolateral) axis requires rather complex molecular interactions. Different modes of midline formation evolved in vertebrates, insects and planarians, indicating that midline formation had a crucial role

Hans Meinhardt

2004-01-01

432

Formative Assessment: Policy, Perspectives and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proponents of formative assessment (FA) assert that students develop a deeper understanding of their learning when the essential components of formative feedback and cultural responsiveness are effectively incorporated as central features of the formative assessment process. Even with growing international agreement among the research community…

Clark, Ian

2011-01-01

433

Formation control of weak autonomous robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of autonomous mobile robots to an arbitrary geometric pattern in a distributed fashion is a fundamental problem in formation control. This paper presents a new fully distributed, memoryless (oblivious) algorithm to the formation control problem via distributed optimization techniques. The optimization minimizes an appropriately defined difference function between the current robot distribution and target geometric pattern. The optimization processes

Huan Zhang; Pubudu N. Pathirana

2011-01-01

434

A new PICL trace file format  

SciTech Connect

A trace file format is described that will be used in future releases of the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL) and ParaGraph. The new format provides improved support for tracing and profiling PICL communication primitives and user-defined events. The new format is also easily extended and may be useful in other instrumentation packages and performance visualization tools.

Worley, P.H.

1992-10-01

435

Improving Foreign Language Speaking through Formative Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Want a quick way to get your students happily conversing more in the target language? This practical book shows you how to use formative assessments to gain immediate and lasting improvement in your students' fluency. You'll learn how to: (1) Imbed the 3-minute formative assessment into every lesson with ease; (2) Engage students in peer formative

Tuttle, Harry Grover; Tuttle, Alan Robert

2012-01-01

436

Kinetics of Film Formation by Interfacial Polycondensation  

E-print Network

Kinetics of Film Formation by Interfacial Polycondensation Viatcheslav Freger* Zuckerberg Institute An approximate analytical model of film formation by interfacial polycondensation is presented. The analysis (insipient film formation, slowdown, and diffusion-limited growth) sets a different pattern of local polymer

Freger, Viatcheslav "Slava"

437

Protoporphyrin formation in Rhizobium japonicum.  

PubMed Central

The obligately aerobic soybean root nodule bacterium Rhizobium japonicum produces large amounts of heme (iron protoporphyrin) only under low oxygen tensions, such as exist in the symbiotic root nodule. Aerobically incubated suspensions of both laboratory-cultured and symbiotic bacteria (bacteroids) metabolize delta-aminolevulinic acid to uroporphyrin, coproporphyrin, and protoporphyrin. Under anaerobic conditions, suspensions of laboratory-cultured bacteria form greatly reduced amounts of protoporphyrin from delta-aminolevulinic acid, whereas protoporphyrin formation by bacteroid suspensions is unaffected by anaerobiosis, suggesting that bacteroids form protoporphyrin under anaerobic conditions more readily than do free-living bacteria. Oxygen is the major terminal electron acceptor for coproporphyrinogen oxidation in cell-free extracts of both bacteroids and free-living bacteria. In the absence of oxygen, ATP, NADP, Mg2+, and L-methionine are required for protoporphyrin formation in vitro. In the presence of these supplements, coproporphyrinogenase activity under anaerobic conditions is 5 to 10% of that observed under aerobic conditions. Two mechanisms for coproporphyrinogen oxidation exist in R. japonicum: an oxygen-dependent process and an anaerobic oxidation in which electrons are transferred to NADP. The significance of these findings with regard to heme biosynthesis in the microaerophilic soybean root nodule is discussed. PMID:6841317

Keithly, J H; Nadler, K D

1983-01-01

438

Autonomous Formation Flight: Project Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objectives: a) Map the vortex effects; b) Formation Auto-Pilot Requirements. Two NASA F/A-18 aircraft in formation: a) NASA 845 Systems Research Aircraft; b) NASA 847 Support Aircraft. Flight Conditions: M = 0.56, 25000 feet (Subsonic condition); b) M = 0.86, 36000 feet (Transonic condition). Nose-To-Tail (N2T) Distances: 20, 55, 110 and 190 feet. Lessons learned: a) Controllable flight in vortex is possible with pilot feedback (displays); b) Position hold at best C(sub D), is attainable; c) Best drag location is close to max rolling moment; e) Drag reductions demonstrated up to 22% (WFE up to 20%); f) Induced drag results compare favorably with simple prediction model; g) "Sweet Spot" (lateral & vertical area > 25%) is larger than predicted; h) Larger wing overlaps result in sign reversals in roll, yaw; i) As predicted, favorable effects degrade gradually with increased nose-to-tail distances after peaking at 3 span lengths aft; and j) Demonstrated - over 100 N mi (>15%) range improvement and 650 lbs (14%) fuel savings on actual simulated F/A-18 cruise mission.

Cole, Jennifer; Cobleigh, Brent; Vachon, Jake; Ray, Ronald J.; Ennix, Kimberly; Walsh, Kevin

2008-01-01

439

Globular Cluster Formation in Mergers  

E-print Network

Mergers of gas-rich galaxies lead to gravitationally driven increases in gas pressure that can trigger intense bursts of star and cluster formation. Although star formation itself is clustered, most newborn stellar aggregates are unbound associations and disperse. Gravitationally bound star clusters that survive for at least 10-20 internal crossing times (~20-40 Myr) are relatively rare and seem to contain globular clusters formed in present-day mergers exceed omega Cen by an order of magnitude in mass, yet appear to have normal stellar initial mass functions. In the local universe, recent remnants of major gas-rich disk mergers appear as protoelliptical galaxies with subpopulations of typically 100-1000 young metal-rich globular clusters in their halos. The evidence is now strong that these "second-generation" globular clusters formed from giant molecular clouds in the merging disks, squeezed into collapse by large-scale shocks and high gas pressure rather than by high-velocity cloud-cloud collisions. Similarly, first- generation metal-poor globular clusters may have formed during cosmological reionization from low-metallicity giant molecular clouds squeezed by the universal reionization pressure.

Francois Schweizer

2006-06-01

440

Coring in deep hardrock formations  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy is involved in a variety of scientific and engineering feasibility studies requiring extensive drilling in hard crystalline rock. In many cases well depths extend from 6000 to 20,000 feet in high-temperature, granitic formations. Examples of such projects are the Hot Dry Rock well system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico and the planned exploratory magma well near Mammoth Lakes, California. In addition to these programs, there is also continuing interest in supporting programs to reduce drilling costs associated with the production of geothermal energy from underground sources such as the Geysers area near San Francisco, California. The overall progression in these efforts is to drill deeper holes in higher temperature, harder formations. In conjunction with this trend is a desire to improve the capability to recover geological information. Spot coring and continuous coring are important elements in this effort. It is the purpose of this report to examine the current methods used to obtain core from deep wells and to suggest projects which will improve existing capabilities. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Drumheller, D.S.

1988-08-01

441

Beaver assisted river valley formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Westbrook, C.J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

2011-01-01

442

Bar Formation from Galaxy Flybys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, both simulations and observations have revealed that flybys—fast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halos—are surprisingly common, nearing/comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three coplanar flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar with bars forming in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities >~ 0.5, sizes on the order of the host disk's scale length, and persist to the end of our simulations, ~5 Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be more closely tied with interactions than previously thought.

Lang, Meagan; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sinha, Manodeep

2014-08-01

443

Montezuma Formation of Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

The Montezuma Formation of the Nicoya Peninsula is one of the better known Neogene stratigraphic units of the Pacific side of Costa Rica. Past workers have reported its age to be Miocene-Pliocene or Miocene-Quaternary, and its environment of deposition to be inner shelf. The planktonic foraminiferal record of the unit in the type locality, however, places it firmly in the Lower Pliocene (Globorotalia margaritae zones). Furthermore, benthic such as Bolivina interjuncta var. bicostata, Epistominella exigua, and E. pacifica indicate that the sedimentation occurred at depths no shallower than the outermost shelf. No drastic faunal turnovers are observed within the formation; a cluster analysis of various Neogene samples from the Nicoya Peninsula and other Pacific areas of Costa Rica demonstrate an overall uniformity of the Montezuma fauna. The frequency trends of certain species, particularly of Epistominella exigua, however, suggest a transgression, the assemblage in the upper part of the section definitely representing upper bathyal depths. Judging by the present elevation of Montezuma outcrops, this part of Costa Rica has been uplifted at least 300 meters in the past 5 m.y.

McKee, W.H.; Sen Gupta, B.K.

1985-01-01

444

Virialization Heating in Galaxy Formation  

SciTech Connect

In a hierarchical picture of galaxy formation virialization continually transforms gravitational potential energy into kinetic energies in the baryonic and dark matter. For the gaseous component the kinetic, turbulent energy is transformed eventually into internal thermal energy through shocks and viscous dissipation. Traditionally this virialization and shock heating has been assumed to occur instantaneously allowing an estimate of the gas temperature to be derived from the virial temperature defined from the embedding dark matter halo velocity dispersion. As the mass grows the virial temperature of a halo grows. Mass accretion hence can be translated into a heating term. We derive this heating rate from the extended Press Schechter formalism and demonstrate its usefulness in semi-analytical models of galaxy formation. Our method is preferable to the traditional approaches in which heating from mass accretion is only modeled implicitly through an instantaneous change in virial temperature. Our formalism can trivially be applied in all current semi-analytical models as the heating term can be computed directly from the underlying merger trees. Our analytic results for the first cooling halos and the transition from cold to hot accretion are in agreement with numerical simulations.

Wang, P. (KIPAC, Menlo Park); Abel, T. (Santa Barbara, KITP)

2007-01-17

445

The Formation of Globular Cluster Systems  

E-print Network

I briefly review models for the formation of globular cluster systems, and summarize the observational properties (i.e., formation efficiencies, metallicity distributions, kinematics and ages) of the globular cluster systems of M87 and M49: two thoroughly studied elliptical galaxies. Many of the properties of the metal-poor clusters in these and other galaxies appear to be consistent with their formation in low-mass, proto-galactic fragments, as proposed by several different formation models. A number of outstanding questions concerning the formation of the metal-rich clusters in these galaxies are highlighted.

Patrick Cote

2002-10-26

446

A formulation of stability for spacecraft formations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A formulation of stability for a set of spacecraft in formation flight is presented. First, a formation is defined in a precise mathematical form in terms of control interactions. Then, stability is formulated based on input-to-output stability with respect to a partitioning of the formation dynamics. This formulation of stability is shown to be useful in characterizing disturbance propagation in the formation as a function of the partition interconnection topology, and also in analyzing the robustness of sensing, communication, and control topologies. Stability results are presented for hierarchical, cyclic, and disturbance attenuating formations.

Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Scharf, Daniel P.; Ploen, Scott R.

2005-01-01

447

Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

2010-01-12

448

Data Formats for SAR Archival and Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has historically been archived and distributed in the Committee on Earth Observation Satellite (CEOS) format. CEOS has some limitations, so future SAR missions are considering using the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) format that is more compatible with other sensors supporting the Earth Observing System (EOS). With the adoption of HDF for SAR archival, the distribution formats of SAR data products are also under consideration. As SAR becomes more important in EOS, data formats compatible with geographic information systems (GIS) are needed and the GeoTIFF image format for the distribution of SAR data is the preferred choice. By moving into a more common data format, SAR data products may appeal to a larger audience. This paper summarizes the collaboration of the Alaska Satellite Facility, the National Snow and Ice Data Center, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to support the growing use of SAR for terrestrial ecology, resource management, and many other applications.

Cunningham, K.

2010-12-01

449

Iberulites and meteorological formation conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been established that iberulites are heterogeneous, complex components of the atmosphere, coexisting with other particulate matter that establishes genetic relations with them in the context of the troposphere in the vicinity of the Sahara Desert. Unlike the other particulate matter, the appearance of iberulites is a discrete phenomenon. The main period for iberulite collection is in the summer, characterised in the southern Iberian Peninsula by high temperatures and considerable decrease in precipitation. Iberulites have been obtained in this season under two main meteorological conditions: fair weather and wet deposition ("red rain" conditions). Both conditions can have in common the occasional presence of masses of air loaded with aerosols from the Sahara. Fair weather conditions are more favourable for iberulites formation. They occur in the central, hottest times of the summer. In this context iberulites have been collected under two conditions: clear days only interrupted by daytime cumulus clouds and hazy days with reduced visibility. In both cases a mixture of iberulites and aerosols was obtained. Wet deposition conditions are mainly found during the overlapping periods between spring-summer and summer-autumn (May-June and September-October), when there is a higher risk of precipitation than in summer. "Red rains" (or muddy rains) occur when these precipitations are superposed on Sahara dust plumes and they often contain iberulites among their components. The proportion of water to solid load in these precipitations is very variable, but the character of red rain can be lost with a very high proportion of water and iberulite formation can even pass unnoticed as they disintegrate. In this case, only impacts of very varied sizes and shapes water droplets loaded with aerosols would be visible, with no apparent sign of iberulites. If the proportion is more balanced, we observe impacts of droplets that vary considerably in size and solid charge, together with well-formed iberulites. In this case, all types of gradations of droplet-iberulites are visible, as well as all the final stages of iberulite evolution. Outside the periods mentioned above, the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the southern Iberian region is stronger, with the westerly and north-westerly winds providing less aerosols and more rain, cleaning the atmosphere and thus preventing the formation of iberulites.

Díaz-Hernández, Jose Luis

2010-05-01

450

Formation of Coronal Shock Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetosonic wave formation driven by an expanding cylindrical piston is numerically simulated to obtain better physical insight into the initiation and evolution of large-scale coronal waves caused by coronal eruptions. Several very basic initial configurations are employed to analyze intrinsic characteristics of MHD wave formation that do not depend on specific properties of the environment. It turns out that these simple initial configurations result in piston/wave morphologies and kinematics that reproduce common characteristics of coronal waves. In the initial stage, the wave and the expanding source region cannot be clearly resolved; i.e. a certain time is needed before the wave detaches from the piston. Thereafter, it continues to travel as what is called a "simple wave." During the acceleration stage of the source region inflation, the wave is driven by the piston expansion, so its amplitude and phase-speed increase, whereas the wavefront profile steepens. At a given point, a discontinuity forms in the wavefront profile; i.e. the leading edge of the wave becomes shocked. The time/distance required for the shock formation is shorter for a more impulsive source-region expansion. After the piston stops, the wave amplitude and phase speed start to decrease. During the expansion, most of the source region becomes strongly rarefied, which reproduces the coronal dimming left behind the eruption. However, the density increases at the source-region boundary, and stays enhanced even after the expansion stops, which might explain stationary brightenings that are sometimes observed at the edges of the erupted coronal structure. Also, in the rear of the wave a weak density depletion develops, trailing the wave, which is sometimes observed as weak transient coronal dimming. Finally, we find a well-defined relationship between the impulsiveness of the source-region expansion and the wave amplitude and phase speed. The results for the cylindrical piston are also compared with the outcome for a planar wave that is formed by a one-dimensional piston, to find out how different geometries affect the evolution of the wave.

Luli?, S.; Vršnak, B.; Žic, T.; Kienreich, I. W.; Muhr, N.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.

2013-09-01

451

A physiological study of formate dehydrogenase, formate oxidase and hydrogenlyase from Escherichia coli K-12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli was grown under various culture conditions. Variations in the levels of formate dehydrogenase which reacts with methylene\\u000a blue (MB) or phenazine methosulfate (PMS) (N enzyme), formate dehydrogenase which reacts with benzyl viologen (BV) (H enzyme),\\u000a formate oxidase and hydrogenlyase were analyzed. It was observed that formate dehydrogenase N and formate oxidase were induced\\u000a by nitrate and repressed by

J. Ruiz-Herrera; A. Alvarez

1972-01-01

452

Adaptive Optics in Star Formation  

E-print Network

Over the past ten years, the concept of adaptive optics has evolved from early experimental stages to a standard observing tool now available at almost all major optical and near-infrared telescope facilities. Adaptive optics will also be essential in exploiting the full potential of the large optical/infrared interferometers currently under construction. Both observations with high-angular resolution and at high contrast, and with a high point source sensitivity are facilitated by adaptive optics. Among the areas which benefit most from the use of adaptive optics are studies of the circumstellar environment (envelopes, disks, outflows), substellar companions and multiple systems, and dense young stellar populations. This contribution highlights some of the recent advances in star formation studies facilitated by adaptive optics, and gives a brief tutorial on optimized observing and data reduction strategies.

Wolfgang Brandner

2003-09-29

453

Electrochemical formation of field emitters  

DOEpatents

Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays is disclosed. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area. 12 figs.

Bernhardt, A.F.

1999-03-16

454

Statoconia formation in molluscan statocysts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gravity sensors of all molluscs phylogenetically below the cephalopods are spherical organs called statocysts. The wall of the sphere contains mechanosensory cells whose sensory cilia project into the lumen of the cyst. The lumen is filled with fluid and dense "stones", the statoconia or statoliths, which sink under the influence of gravity to load, and stimulate, those receptor cells which are at the bottom. The statoconia of Aplysia californica are shown to be calcified about a lamellar arrangement of membranes. Similar lamellar membrane arrangements are seen within the receptor cells, and their possible role in the formation of the statoconia is discussed. SEM of unfixed statoconia reveals plate-like crystallization on their surface. Elemental analysis shows a relatively high Sr content, which is of interest, since others have recently reported that Sr is required in the culture medium of several laboratory reared molluscs in order for the statoconia to develop.

Wiederhold, M. L.; Sheridan, C. E.; Smith, N. K.

1986-01-01

455

Experimental studies of spheromak formation  

SciTech Connect

Studies in the PS-1 spheromak configuration can be effectively formed by a combined z- and theta-pinch technique on both a fast (tau/sub formation/approx. =tau/sub Alfve/n) and a much slower timescale. The gross tilt and shift instability of the toroid can be suppressed by a combination of conduction walls, shaping the separatrix by externally applied fields, and the use of ''figure-eight'' coils. Optimum stabilty is obtained for almost spherical toroids. Maximum field-reversal times for stable, well-confined toroids are > or =40 /..mu..sec, consistent with resistive decay. Temperatures during the stable decay are 5--10 eV; impurity radiation is an important energy-loss mechanism.

Bruhns, H.; Chin-Fatt, C.; Chong, Y.P.; DeSilva, A.W.; Goldenbaum, G.C.; Griem, H.R.; Hart, G.W.; Hess, R.A.; Irby, J.H.; Shaw, R.S.

1983-06-01

456

Sandpile formation by revolving rivers  

E-print Network

Experimental observation of a new mechanism of sandpile formation is reported. As a steady stream of dry sand is poured onto a horizontal surface, a pile forms which has a thin river of sand on one side flowing from the apex of the pile to the edge of its base. The river rotates about the pile, depositing a new layer of sand with each revolution, thereby growing the pile. For small piles the river is steady and the pile formed is smooth. For larger piles, the river becomes intermittent and the surface of the pile becomes undulating. The frequency of revolution of the river is measured as the pile grows and the results are explained with a simple scaling argument. The essential features of the system that produce the phenomena are discussed.

E. Altshuler; O. Ramos; A. J. Batista-Leyva; A. Rivera; K. E. Bassler

2002-06-25

457

Formation of zirconium metallic glass.  

PubMed

Bulk metallic glasses are commonly produced by the rapid cooling of liquid alloys. They have emerged over the past decade as a novel class of materials, with attractive properties and technological promise. The bulk metallic glasses so far produced contain three or more component elements. These complex compositions are necessary to frustrate the crystallization of the liquid melt on cooling, but can also lead to phase separation, which is detrimental to the thermal and mechanical properties of metallic glasses. Here we report, using X-ray diffraction measurements, the formation of a bulk metallic glass from elemental zirconium at high static pressures and low temperatures (relative to its melting temperature at atmospheric pressure). Amorphous zirconium can be recovered at ambient conditions and demonstrates a superior thermal stability compared to amorphous alloys, which could lead to new high-temperature applications of amorphous metals. PMID:15254533

Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yusheng

2004-07-15

458

Combuster. [low nitrogen oxide formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combuster is provided for utilizing a combustible mixture containing fuel and air, to heat a load fluid such as water or air, in a manner that minimizes the formation of nitrogen oxide. The combustible mixture passes through a small diameter tube where the mixture is heated to its combustion temperature, while the load fluid flows past the outside of the tube to receive heat. The tube is of a diameter small enough that the combustible mixture cannot form a flame, and yet is not subject to wall quench, so that combustion occurs, but at a temperature less than under free flame conditions. Most of the heat required for heating the combustible mixture to its combustion temperature, is obtained from heat flow through the walls of the pipe to the mixture.

Mckay, R. A. (inventor)

1978-01-01

459

Polar Cap Formation on Ganymede  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since thermal migration is not an effective mechanism for water transport in the polar regions at the Galilean satellites, some other process must be responsible for the formation of Ganymede's polar caps. It is proposed that Ganymede's polar caps are the optical manifestation of a process that began with the distribution of an ice sheet over the surface of Ganymede. The combined processes of impact gardening and thermal migration led, in regions at latitudes less than 40 to 45 deg., to the burial of some fraction of this ice, the migration of some to the polar caps margins, and a depletion of free ice in the optical surface. At higher latitudes, no process was effective in removing ice from the optical surface, so the remanants of the sheet are visible today.

Pilcher, C. B.; Shaya, E. J.

1985-01-01

460

Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

2007-04-01