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Characterization of small-scale fisheries in the Camamu-Almada basin, southeast state of Bahia, Brazil.  


In the Camamu-Almada basin, marine fishery is exclusively small-scale, with several structural deficiencies such as boats with low or absent navigational technology, lack of credit and low income. Local fishers complain that shrimp and lobster trawling fishing is the main factor responsible for low stock abundance, but they still persist in these activities as these two species command the highest market prices. So they feel that the target species are already over-fished. We suggest that proper management action, alternative ways of income generation and the payment of job insurance would help to mitigate the problem. PMID:19197488

Souza, T C M; Petrere-Jr, M



Accumulation of trace metals in two commercially important shrimp species from camamu bay, northeastern Brazil.  


Camamu Bay is the second largest estuary in Bahia state, northeastern Brazil, being recognized by its high diversity and economical relevance for fisheries and tourism. To evaluate the impacts of environmental disturbances in Camamu Bay, trace metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Pb) were quantified in two widespread and commercially exploited shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Xiphopenaeus kroyeri). High concentrations of all metals but Pb were observed in both species by ICPOES. The concentration values for Cr, Co, and Mn were invariably higher than the accepted limits for human consumption in Brazil. Inter and intraspecific variation in metal levels might be related to biological particularities and body size. The accentuated contamination by trace metals in both species validated them as efficient bioindicators of environmental quality. Thus, effective planning, monitoring and regulatory policies should be adopted to inspect and remediate the metal contamination in natural resources from Camamu Bay. PMID:23856807

Migues, Vitor Hugo; de Almeida Bezerra, Marcos; de Francisco, Ana Karina; Guerrazzi, Maria Cecília; de Mello Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes



A successful application of the petroleum system concept in the Camamu basin, offshore Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The characterization of a major petroleum system in the Camamu basin, NE Brazil, was undertaken using a multidisciplinary approach involving geochemical, geological, geophysical and microbiostratigraphic research. This approach has greatly enhanced the level of understanding of the petroleum system concept in the area, allowing the identification of a new exploration target. The hydrocarbons sourced by the lowermost Cretaceous lacustrine fresh to brackish water black shales, started migration during the Early Cretaceous times, continuing up to now in some parts of the basin. The hydrocarbons were accumulated in Lower Cretaceous, Rio de Contas Formation lacustrine sandstone reservoirs, structured during the rifting process, and sealed by deep water lacustrine shales, or trapped in the Dom Joao Stage (Jurassic), Sergi Formation, against the footwall of major regional faults. The geochemical parameters indicate that the Camamu basin is basically oil prone. Mapping the geographic extent of the petroleum system emphasizes the association of the oil fields with the proposed pod of active source rocks. The integration of these data with a 2D-geochemical modelling allowed the prediction and characterization, in time and space, of the petroleum pathways from source to trap in the area. Two major petroleum systems were selected, as the most attractive, in the Camamu Basin: the pre-rift Morro do Barro-Sergi (!) and synrift Morro do Barro-Rio de Contas (!). This approach allowed the identification of a new exploration target, in the latter one, which, after drilling, resulted in a 157 M bbl discovery, and brought a new insight for the hydrocarbon exploration in the basin.

Mello, M.R.; Goncalves, F.T.T. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Netto, A.S.T. [Petrobras, Bahia (Brazil)



Sedimentology and palaeontology of the Upper Jurassic Puesto Almada Member (Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Fossati sub-basin), Patagonia Argentina: Palaeoenvironmental and climatic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six facies associations are described for the Puesto Almada Member at the Cerro Bandera locality (Fossati sub-basin). They correspond to lacustrine, palustrine, and pedogenic deposits (limestones); and subordinated alluvial fan, fluvial, aeolian, and pyroclastic deposits. The lacustrine–palustrine depositional setting consisted of carbonate alkaline shallow lakes surrounded by flooded areas in a low-lying topography. The facies associations constitute four shallowing upward successions defined by local exposure surfaces: 1) a Lacustrine–Palustrine-pedogenic facies association with a 'conchostracan'–ostracod association; 2) a Palustrine facies association representing a wetland subenvironment, and yielding 'conchostracans', body remains of insects, fish scales, ichnofossils, and palynomorphs (cheirolepidiacean species and ferns growing around water bodies, and other gymnosperms in more elevated areas); 3) an Alluvial fan facies association indicating the source of sediment supply; and 4) a Lacustrine facies association representing a second wetland episode, and yielding 'conchostracans', insect ichnofossils, and a palynoflora mainly consisting of planktonic green algae associated with hygrophile elements. The invertebrate fossil assemblage found contains the first record of fossil insect bodies (Insecta-Hemiptera and Coleoptera) for the Cañadón Asfalto Formation. The succession reflects a mainly climatic control over sedimentation. The sedimentary features of the Puesto Almada Member are in accordance with an arid climatic scenario across the Upper Jurassic, and they reflect a strong seasonality with periods of higher humidity represented by wetlands and lacustrine sediments.

Cabaleri, Nora G.; Benavente, Cecilia A.; Monferran, Mateo D.; Narváez, Paula L.; Volkheimer, Wolfgang; Gallego, Oscar F.; Do Campo, Margarita D.




EPA Science Inventory

The 7-d test measuring survival, growth, and fecundity of Americamysis bahia formerly Mysidopsis bahia) was developed for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and associated receiving waters for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits. Currently, this test...


78 FR 28167 - Special Local Regulation, Cruce a Nado Internacional de la Bahia de Ponce Puerto Rico, Bahia de...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Local Regulation, Cruce a Nado Internacional de la Bahia de Ponce Puerto Rico, Bahia de Ponce; Ponce, PR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...establish a special local regulation on the waters of Bahia de Ponce in Ponce, Puerto Rico during the...



Inequality and School reform in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author's research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates that inequality also blocks effective community and parental involvement in school management, as schools tend to distance themselves from neighbourhoods portrayed as poor and black, and thus "dangerous".

Reiter, Bernd



Cheralite Quartzites in Itiuba Mountains-Bahia, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quartzitic pebbles of anomalous radioactivity were found by the geologists of the 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear' of Brazil (CNEN) in November 1964 in the Vicinity of Santa Rosa, municipality of Jaguarari, Bahia. A radioactive anomaly of large exte...

E. Gorsky V. A. Gorsky



Effect of 'Beauveria bassiana' and Its Toxins on 'Mysidopsis bahia' (Mysidacea).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Beauveria bassiana spores and metabolites were evaluated for toxicity and pathogenicity to Mysidopsis bahia. Static acute 96-hr tests were conducted with < or - 24-h-old M. bahia using either conidiospores, the mycotoxin, beauvericin, or a nonpolar extrac...

F. J. Genthner G. M. Cripe D. J. Crosby



78 FR 28164 - Special Local Regulation; Aguada Offshore Grand Prix, Bahia de Aguadilla; Aguada, PR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulation; Aguada Offshore Grand Prix, Bahia de Aguadilla; Aguada, PR AGENCY: Coast...special local regulation on the waters of Bahia de Aguadilla in Aguada, Puerto Rico during...The races will be held on the waters of Bahia de Aguadilla in Aguada, Puerto...



78 FR 26246 - Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR AGENCY: Coast...special local regulation on the waters of Bahia de Boqueron in Boqueron, PR during the...The races will be held on the waters of Bahia de Boqueron in Boqueron, PR....



An evaluation of the seven-day toxicity test with Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia)  

SciTech Connect

The 7-d test measuring survival, growth, and fecundity of Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia) was developed for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and associated receiving waters for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits. Currently, this test and its derivatives are also used in toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), risk assessment, and other applications. To evaluate the relative sensitivity of three measurement endpoints (survival, growth, and fecundity), the authors analyzed results from 115 tests with effluents, organic or inorganic chemicals, and receiving waters suspected of being toxic. Controls for 78 of these achieved acceptable survival and growth. Fifty of these 78 tests also achieved acceptable control fecundity. In the 47 tests with significant effects, survival was the most sensitive response in 57%, fecundity in 30%, and growth in 30%. There was little duplication in responses. Improving pretest holding conditions by decreasing the maximum density from {approximately}20 to 10 animals/L and increasing the temperature from {approximately}26 C to a range of 26 to 27 C improved the growth and fecundity in controls. Although the percentage of tests achieving acceptable control survival and growth decreased from 93 to 86%, the percentage achieving acceptable fecundity in controls increased from 60 to 97%. Seasonal differences in fecundity were detected among control groups. Although variable, fecundity is often the most sensitive measure of response. The 7-d mysid test estimates the chronic toxicity of effluents most effectively when all three endpoints are used.

Lussier, S.M.; Kuhn, A.; Comeleo, R.



Ultraviolet Index measurements in Southern Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents results of the Joint Project for Solar UV Index Measurements in Southern Bahia State (PIU Project), and represents the first effort to measure UV radiation in this tourist region. The project goal is twofold: it has a scientific component in which the distribution of UV Index will be mapped out, and it also intends to disseminate the data as a mean of divulgation of the UV Index levels to the population. This constitutes a meaningful effort to reduce health risks from excessive solar radiation exposure in a country that reports more than 120,000 new skin cancer cases each year. This project is within the framework of a larger initiative to studying UV index distribution in Brazilian regions. PIU project has had two phases: 1) seasonal measurements were performed during the summer and winter seasons of 2006 and 2007 on a sandy beach in Ilhéus (15,0° S 39,0° W sea level), as well as on an asphalt surface in the urban perimeter of Itabuna (14,8° S 39,3° W 54 m ASL) and 2) since October 2007, measurements have been continuously conducted on a concrete surface, about 20 km from the beach, in a urban area of Ilhéus. During the summer season, UV Index reaches extreme values (>11), and in winter, results range between high (6

de Paula Corrêa, Marcelo; Morégula, Andréa; Fausto, Agnes; Okuno, Emico; Mol, Anderson; Santos, Joa~O. C.



Metamorphism, Metasomatism and Mineralization at Lagoa Real, Bahia, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uranium deposits cumulatively in the 100,000 ton U sub 3 O sub 8 range occur within ductile shear zones transecting Archean basement gneisses of the Sao Francisco Craton, at the Lagoa Real region of south-central Bahia, Brasil. The gneisses, dated at 2.6-...

L. M. Lobato



Amerciamysis bahia Stochastic Matrix Population Model for Laboratory Populations  

EPA Science Inventory

The population model described here is a stochastic, density-independent matrix model for integrating the effects of toxicants on survival and reproduction of the marine invertebrate, Americamysis bahia. The model was constructed using Microsoft® Excel 2003. The focus of the mode...


U.S. EPA Culturing and Toxicity Test Methods for Marine and Estuary Effluents-Mysidopsis Bahia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A video based training package including: culturing mysidopsis bahia U.S. EPA saltwater (East Coast) methods for culturing the organism, mysidopsis bahia (mysid or opossum shrimp) for use in saltwater whole effluent toxicity testing under the National Pol...



Social inequality and alcohol consumption-abuse in Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background This paper reports findings on Alcohol Consumption-Abuse (ACAb) in Bahia, Brazil, a research setting characterized by racial\\/ethnic and socioeconomic diversity. Methods A household survey was conducted with a sample of 2,302 adults. ACAb was defined as daily intake of more than two units of beverage, with drunkenness, or weekly binge drinking plus episodes of drunkenness, or any use of

Naomar Almeida-Filho; Ines Lessa; Lucélia Magalhães; Maria Jenny Araújo; Estela Aquino; Sherman A. James; Ichiro Kawachi



Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil.  


A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is usually provided with 1-3 notches, and teeth (1-2), if present, are small; and the posterolateral margin is smooth or slightly granulated. PMID:19419041

de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro




EPA Science Inventory

When considering both survival capacity of Mysidopsis bahia (Mi bahia) through a complete life cycle and time required for juvenile mysids to become reproductively mature, salinity-temperature conditions of 20 parts per thopis and by wgt. dissolved salts and 25 C appear optimal f...


33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico. 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable...District § 165.771 Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico. (a) Location. The following area is...



Avaliacao geoquimica das bacias marginais ao sul da Bahia, Brasil. (Geochemical evaluation of marginal basins in the south of Bahia state, Brazil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geochemical analyses were performed on more than 700 rock samples and 4 oil samples, from Mucuri, Cumuruxatiba and Jequitinhonha basins, offshore Bahia state, Brazil. The methods employed in this study includes the evaluation of organic carbon contents, R...

P. C. Gaglianone L. A. F. Trindade M. M. Nascimento



Clinical tomographic correlations of 220 patients with neurocisticercosis, Bahia, Brazil.  


Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common parasitic disease in our region, presenting diversity of neurological symptoms and signs. The present study has as primary objective an evaluation of the NCC's clinical and epidemiological profile within Bahia State, by means of a prospective study of 220 patients diagnosed from March 1988 to March 1999, with a follow-up of six months. Exams, such as Computed Cranial Tomography Scan (CT), Cerebral Spine Fluid (CSF) and Electroencephalogram (EEG), were accomplished in three distinct moments of these patients' evolution: at starting or diagnostic point (zero time), at after-intervention period (one month after treatment), and at control period (six months after treatment). PMID:17625739

Andrade-Filho, Antônio de Souza; Figuerôa, Luiz Frederico da Silva; Andrade-Souza, Victor Mascarenhas



New geologic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies on the controversial Igarapé Bahia Cu–Au deposit, Carajás Province, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Igarapé Bahia Cu–Au deposit in the Carajás Province, Brazil, is hosted by steeply dipping metavolcano-sedimentary rocks\\u000a of the Igarapé Bahia Group. This group consists of a low greenschist grade unit of the Archean (?2,750 Ma) Itacaiúnas Supergroup,\\u000a in which other important Cu–Au and iron ore deposits of the Carajás region are also hosted. The orebody at Igarapé Bahia is\\u000a a

Ana M. Dreher; Roberto P. Xavier; Bruce E. Taylor; Sérgio L. Martini




EPA Science Inventory

An age-classified projection matrix model has been developed to extrapolate the chronic (28-35d) demographic responses of Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia) to population-level response. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this model for predicting t...



Microsoft Academic Search

Flora of the Inselbergs of the Milagres region, state of Bahia, Brazil: I. Vegetational aspects and checklist of two Inselbergs). This work is a contribution to the vascular flora of inselbergs. The study area is situated in the municipality of Itatim (region of Mila- gres) in the semi-arid region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Two inselbergs 20km apart from

Flávio França; Efigênia de Melo; Cosme Correia dos Santos


Genetic variability in Melipona scutellaris from Recôncavo, Bahia, Brazil.  


Bees play a key role in pollination and thereby help maintain plant diversity. The stingless bee Melipona scutellaris is an important pollinator in northeastern Brazil because it is endemic to this region. Both deforestation and timber harvesting have reduced the nesting sites for this species, thus reducing its population and range. Genetic studies may help reverse this process by providing important tools for their proper management with a view to conservation of this species. Microsatellite markers have proven to be ideal for mapping genes and population genetic studies. Our aim was to study, using microsatellite markers, the interpopulation genetic variability of M. scutellaris in different parts of the Recôncavo region in Bahia State, Brazil. In all, 95 adult workers from 11 localities in Recôncavo Baiano (Amargosa, Cabaceiras do Paraguaçu, Conceição da Feira, Conceição do Almeida, Domingos Macedo Costa, Governador Mangabeira, Jaguaripe, Jiquiriça, Maragojipe, São Felipe, and Vera Cruz) were analyzed using 10 pairs of microsatellite primers developed for different Meliponini species. The total number of alleles, allele richness, and genetic diversity ranged from 2 to 7 per locus (average = 4.4), 1.00 to 4.88, and 0.0 to 0.850, respectively. The expected and observed heterozygosities varied from 0.0 to 0.76 and 0.0 to 0.84, respectively. No locus showed deviation from the expected frequencies in the chi-square test or linkage disequilibrium. The fixation index, analysis of molecular variance, and unweighted pair-group method using the arithmetic average revealed the effects of human activities on the populations of M. scutellaris, as little genetic structure was detected. PMID:24065683

Viana, J L; Francisco, A K; Carvalho, C A L; Waldschmidt, A M



Photoenhanced toxicity of weathered oil to Mysidopsis bahia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The toxicity of a water-accommodated fraction (WAF) prepared from weathered oil was assessed in a 7-day static renewal test with Mysidopsis bahia. Weathered oil was collected from the 5 x monitoring well at the Guadalupe oil field. Solar ultraviolet and visible light intensities were measured in various habitats in the vicinity of the weathered oil sample collection site, and the resultant measurements were used to produce laboratory light treatments that were representative of the on-site quality and intensity of natural solar radiation. Each of five WAF dilutions and a control without WAF was tested under three different simulated solar radiation intensities. During the test, survival and growth of the mysids, irradiance, and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in the test treatments were measured. Significant increases (P ??? 0.05) in mortality occurred among mysids exposed to 0.57 and 1.30 mg TPH/l and the effects were potentiated as irradiance increased. Seven-day LC50 (0.92-0.42 mg TPH/l) and LC20 (0.58-0.15 mg TPH/l) values decreased as the simulated solar irradiance increased. Calculated EC20 and EC50 values for mysid growth indicate that surviving mysids exposed to 0.1-1.0 mg TPH/l would incur significant reductions (P ??? 0.05) in productivity (biomass). Results of the present study indicate that effects elicited through the interaction of WAF of weathered oil and solar radiation will substantially increase the toxicity of weathered oil. Further, the photomediated effects of petroleum compounds measured as TPH on mysid survival and growth demonstrate a need to consider the interactions of ultraviolet light and contaminant to avoid under estimating toxicity that might occur in the environment. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Cleveland, L.; Little, E. E.; Calfee, R. D.; Barron, M. G.




EPA Science Inventory

Acute toxicity tests were conducted during August-September 1983 with eight laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (also called muds) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, Florida. Two of t...


Uraniferous Albitites from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province, State of Bahia, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Uranium Province of Lagoa Real is located in the region of Caetite, throughout the south-central portion of the state of Bahia. The basic chronostratigraphic units are the metamorphic rocks - granitic rocks and gneisses of the Archean basement - and c...

W. Brito C. Raposo E. C. Matos



Aspectos qualitativos das águas da bacia hidrográfica do rio de Contas no município de Jussiape - Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is resulted of the qualitative classifications of the spring water of the municipal district of Jussiape, basin of the river of Bills, in the State of Bahia. The surface water of this basin drain in the sense NNW-SSE, middling distributed, the inundation is smaller in relation to the distribution of the drainage and of the smaller tributaries of

Sérgio Luiz; T. Nunes; M. J. M. Cruz; S. A. Nascimento



Thermoluminescence Study of Quartzite in a Gold and Uranium Mineralized Zone (Canavieiras, Jacobina-Bahia).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The quartzite of Canavieiras gold mine (Jacobina-Bahia, Brazil) shows in its natural glow curve, a high temperature. The study of the reproductibility of this peak resulted in the standartization of measurement for grain sizes between 80 and 100 mesh. ''I...

J. Ferreira




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Este trabalho discute a música feita pelas classes menos abastadas da Bahia do século XIX, contextualizando as práticas musicais, através da análise comparativa de informações advindas de fontes bibliográficas diversas: literatura de viajantes, abordagens histórico-analíticas do contexto urbano, análises sociais, histórias da música, notícias de jornais, coleções de cantigas, modinhas e lundus, crônicas de época ou de reconstrução de

Luciano Carôso; Pablo Sotuyo Blanco


Abundance of the brown sea cucumber Isostichopus fuscus at the National Park Bahia de Loreto, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Protected Area Parque Nacional Bahia de Loreto, including five adjacent islands, was created in 1996. The park presents rocky and sandy shores, mangrove areas and small patches of reef corals, which have been used for fishing and ecotourism activities. The fishery of the brown sea cucumber Isostichopus fuscus is one of the most peculiar in the Gulf of

H. Reyes-Bonilla; M. D. Herrero-Pérezrul; S. González-Romero; A. González-Peralta; Y. Ramírez-Hernández


Habitat and nest site characteristics of Olrog's Gull Larus atlanticus breeding at Bahia San Blas, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Olrog's Gull Larus atlanticus is a vulnerable species endemic to the Argentine Atlantic coast. We present information on new breeding colonies, update information on known colonies, and describe habitat and nest site characteristics of Olrog's Gulls breeding at Bahia San Blas, southern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Information was obtained during the 1998 breeding season. We recorded four colonies on



Reconnaissance for radioactive rocks in the Paulo Afonso Region, Bahia, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground and air traverses were made to the northwest, north and northeast of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil, covering Precambrian crystalline rocks and sedimentary rocks of the Jatoba series of Jurassic or Cretaceous age. No important radioactivity anomalies were found; samples from the two strongest anomalies had an equivalent uranium-oxide content of 0.002 percent and 0.006 percent.

Haynes, Donald D.; Mau, Henry



Communications Technology and the Crisis in Education. A Report on the Bahia Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A summary of the workshop convened in May 1971 in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil by the Council on Higher Education in the American Republics to assess current applications of communications technology for the improvement of educational systems in Latin America is given in this document. Against a background which includes: 1) technological asymmetry in…

Council on Higher Education in the American Republics, New York, NY.


Conservation status of ten endemic trees from the Atlantic Forest in the south of Bahia - Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic Forest in southern Bahia, rich in tree species and with high levels of endemism, has been suffering a strong impact from intense habitat reductions caused by deforestation. The conservation status for ten tree species was assessed in the landscape comprised of \\

Regina Helena; Rosa Sambuichi; Raquel Maria de Oliveira; Eduardo Mariano Neto; Rafael Lima de Oliveira; Morena Colares Pelição


Late Pleistocene (Last Interglacial) terrace deposits, Bahia Coyote, Baja California Sur, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Pleistocene age terrace deposits are exposed in the narrow cliffed coastal plain of Bahia Coyote, Baja California Sur, resting unconformably on the lagoonal-shallow water volcaniclastics of the early Miocene Cerro Colorado Member of the El Cien Formation. The terrace is dissected by widely spaced arroyos and partically covered by alluvial fans in the inner and central areas. The marine

Teresa DeDiego-Forbis; Robert Douglas; Donn Gorsline; Enrique Nava-Sanchez; Larry Mack; Jay Banner




EPA Science Inventory

Chronic effects of triethylene glycol (TEG), a chemical frequently used as a carrier-solvent in toxicity tests, were investigated in a 23-day life-cycle toxicity test with a mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) and in a 28-day early life-stage toxicity test with the tidewater silverside (Men...



EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to assess effects of four diets on reproduction by the mysid Mysidopsis bahia in routine culture conditions. wo experiments were performed: the first lasted under semistatic conditions and the second lasted 60 d under flow-through conditions. he objective wa...



EPA Science Inventory

Effects of toxic chemicals on estuarine and marine crustaceans are often evaluated using the mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. n a literature survey of results of acute toxicity tests with estuarine crustaceans, Mysidae and Penaeidae were generally the two most sensitive families. owever,...


The GDP of the agribusiness in Brazil and in Bahia state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyses the trajectory of the gross domestic product in Brazil and in Bahia, between 1990 and 2005, and also to describe the segments and sub-complex of the agribusiness, as well as its relations and economic flows. Using Input-Output modeling it was possible to estimate values and participations. The main results show that, on

Joaquim José Martins Guilhoto; Marina Assumpção; Débora Modolo; Denise Imori




EPA Science Inventory

Acute and whole life-cycle toxicity tests were conducted with the estuarine mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, exposed to cyanide and selected heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96h LC50) ranged from 3.5 micrograms/1 for mercury to 3130 micrograms/1 for lead, and were ranked in or...



EPA Science Inventory

Mysids, small shrimp-like crustacea, are used as practical bioassay animals for investigating the effects of cadmium in seawater. In laboratory tests, the mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) was more sensitive to cadmium than other crustaceans tested. LC50 values were 15.5 micrograms/l with...


Hydrography of Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California: Results of more than twenty five years of investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first study of Bahia Todos Santos (BTS) was reported by Walton in 1955. We conducted oceanographic studies in BTS since 1979. The BTS has a connection with a coastal lagoon named Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), two islands at the western portion and the Port of Ensenada. The general hydrographic characteristics are: In winter the water became homogeneous, less

H. Bustos-Serrano; S. R. Canino-Herrera; R. Morales-Chavez; G. M. Martinez-Garcia



Increased Reproduction by Mysids ('Mysidopsis bahia') Fed with Enriched 'Artemia' spp. Nauplii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to assess effects of four diets on reproduction by the mysid Mysidopsis bahia in routine culture conditions. Two experiments were performed: the first lasted 25 d under semistatic conditions and the second lasted 60 d under flow-thro...

A. H. Kuhn D. A. Bengtson K. L. Simpson




EPA Science Inventory

Occurrence of Mysidopsis bahia (Mysidacea: Mysidae) is reported on the Atlantic Coast of Florida December 6, 1984. The sighting of 22 specimens (15 females, 4 males and 2 juveniles of undetermined sex) occurred at the Link Port Channel, Ft. Pierce, Florida. Dr. Thomas E. Bowman a...


[Occurrence of Platynosomum illiciens in enclosured wild cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil].  


This paper reports the occurrence of eggs of Platynosomum illiciens, found in the feces of three species of wild cats Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Leopardus tigrinus from material collected at the enclosures of the Park Zoobotânico Getúlio Vargas in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. It is the first record of this parasite in P. onca and L. tigrinus. PMID:19265585

Castro, Letícia S de; Albuquerque, George R


Late Pleistocene (Last Interglacial) terrace deposits, Bahia Coyote, Baja California Sur, M! exico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Pleistocene age terrace deposits are exposed in the narrow cliffed coastal plain of Bahia Coyote, Baja California Sur, resting unconformably on the lagoonal-shallow water volcaniclastics of the early Miocene Cerro Colorado Member of the El Cien Formation. The terrace is dissected by widely spaced arroyos and partically covered by alluvial fans in the inner and central areas. The marine

Teresa DeDiego; Robert Douglas; Donn Gorsline; Enrique Nava-Sanchez


Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Pas n 1, the major allergen of Bahia grass Paspalum notatum pollen.  


Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is a clinically important subtropical grass with a prolonged pollination season from spring to autumn. We aimed to clone and characterise the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1. Grass pollen-allergic patients presenting to a tertiary hospital allergy clinic were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract by skin prick testing, ImmunoCAP, ELISA and immunoblotting. Using primers deduced from the N-terminal peptide sequence of a group 1 allergen of Bahia grass pollen extract separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the complete Pas n 1 cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and cloned. Biological relevance of recombinant Pas n 1 expressed in Escherichia coli was assessed by serum IgE reactivity and basophil activation. Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) consecutive patients presenting with grass pollen allergy were skin prick test positive to Bahia grass pollen. The Pas n 1 cDNA has sequence homology with the beta-expansin 1 glycoprotein family and is more closely related to the maize pollen group 1 allergen (85% identity) than to ryegrass Lol p 1 or Timothy grass Phl p 1 (64 and 66% identity, respectively). rPas n 1 reacted with serum IgE in 47 of 55 (85%) Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients, activated basophils and inhibited serum IgE reactivity with the 29 kDa band of Bahia grass pollen extract. In conclusion the cDNA for the major group 1 allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1, was identified and cloned. rPas n 1 is immunologically active and is a valuable reagent for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:18817975

Davies, Janet M; Mittag, Diana; Dang, Thanh D; Symons, Karen; Voskamp, Astrid; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E



Comparative sensitivity of a tropical mysid Metamysidopsis insularis and the temperate species Americamysis bahia to six toxicants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of the tropical mysid, Metamysidopsis insularis relative to that of the sub-tropical North American mysid, Americamysis bahia was determined by comparing their acute toxicity to six toxicants. The 96 h LC50 values for M. insularis ranged from 0.03 mg L (cadmium (Cd) chloride) to 466 mg L (potassium chloride (KCL) whereas those for A. bahia ranged from 0.1 mg L for Cd chloride to 501 mg L

Keisha Garcia; John B. R. Agard; Azad Mohammed



A new species of Chilicola from Bahia, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Colletidae), with a key to the species of the megalostigma group.  


The bee genus Chilicola Spinola (Xeromelissinae) is recorded from the State of Bahia, Brazil for the first time, based on a new species of the megalostigma group of the subgenus Hylaeosoma Ashmead. Chilicola (Hylaeosoma) kevanisp. n. is described and figured from males collected in Wesceslau Guimarães, Bahia. The species can be distinguished on the basis of coloration, size, integumental sculpturing, and structure of the hidden metasomal sterna and genitalia. A revised key to the species of the megalostigma group is provided. PMID:22287912

de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas; Mahlmann, Thiago; Engel, Michael S



Acute and chronic effects of heavy metals and cyanide on Mysidopsis bahia (crustacea:mysidacea)  

SciTech Connect

Acute and whole life-cycle toxicity tests were conducted with the estuarine mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, exposed to cyanide and selected heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96h LC50) ranged from 3.5 micrograms/1 for mercury to 3130 micrograms/1 for lead, and were ranked in order of toxicity: (greatest)Hg, Cd, Cu, Cn, Ag, Sn, Ni, As, Cr, and Pb(least). The chronic toxicity values ranged from 1.2 micrograms/1 for mercury to 893 micrograms/1 for arsenic. Chronic values were calculated from either survival, time to first reproduction, or number of young produced. When acute toxicity data for the same chemical are compared, M. bahia is consistently among the more sensitive marine species. Lack of comparable data precludes a similar observation with chronic tests. Examination of the relative sensitivity of the chronic responses indicates that only for cadmium was survival more sensitive than reproduction.

Lussier, S.M.; Gentile, J.H.; Walker, J.




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A caracterização da pesca de linha e da distribuição batimétrica e sazonal do esforço de pesca das frotas linheiras estabelecidas no estado da Bahia e em operação na costa central, entre Salvador e o norte do Banco de Abrolhos (13-18ºS), foi estudada com base na amostragem de desembarques monitorados pelo Programa REVIZEE em Salvador, Valença, Ilhéus e Porto Seguro



Soil Carbon Sequestration in Cacao Agroforestry Systems: A Case Study from Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry systems (AFS) based on cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) may play an important role in capturing carbon (C) aboveground and storing it belowground (soil) through continuous deposition\\u000a of plant residues. Cacao AFS in Bahia, Brazil, are comprised of cacao planted either with woody species such as Erythrina spp. and Gliricidia spp. or under tree canopies in natural forest, the latter

E. F. Gama-Rodrigues; A. C. Gama-Rodrigues; P. K. Ramachandran Nair


[Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) at Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México].  


Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahia de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness) and higher diversity (Shannon's index). PMID:18457125

García Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez Ruiz, Migdalia



Social inequality and depressive disorders in Bahia, Brazil: interactions of gender, ethnicity, and social class  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study of the association between gender, race\\/ethnicity, and social class and prevalence of depressive disorders in an urban sample (N=2302) in Bahia, Brazil. Individual mental health status was assessed by the PSAD\\/QMPA scale. Family SES and head of household's schooling and occupation were taken as components for a 4-level social class scale. Race\\/ethnicity (white, moreno, mulatto, black)

Naomar Almeida-Filho; Ines Lessa; Lucélia Magalhães; Maria Jenny Araújo; Estela Aquino; Sherman A. James; Ichiro Kawachi



The role of calcium and sodium in toxicity of an effluent to mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia)  

SciTech Connect

The source of acute toxicity of an aged gold mill effluent to juvenile mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia [Americamysis bahia]) was identified. Effluent osmolality was equivalent to that of 12 ppt seawater. At five effluent concentrations ranging from 4 to 100% (v/v), using 12 ppt seawater for dilution, the onset of responses was most rapid at 37% effluent. Simulated effluent was created by adding Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} to distilled water at concentrations equal to those measured in the effluent. The unusual finding of a more rapid onset of responses at 37% than at 100% effluent was duplicated with simulated effluent, demonstrating that responses of M. bahia to effluent were attributable to one or more of the six ions that were included in simulated effluent. Proportionally, excess Ca{sup 2+} and Na{sup +} concentrations in effluent and in simulated effluent, along with the results of the previous experiments, demonstrated that excess Ca{sup 2+} was the sole source of effluent toxicity and that Na{sup +} deficiency, relative to the proportion in seawater, reduced Ca{sup 2+} toxicity.

Kline, E.R.; Stekoll, M.S.



Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: A pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.  


In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; M Ferrer, Tiago; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano



Perkinsus sp. infecting oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828) on the coast of Bahia, Brazil.  


This study investigated the occurrence of the protozoan Perkinsus in the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the coast of Bahia State, Brazil. The oysters (n = 900) were collected in February-March and July-August 2010. The Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM) analysis of gills and rectum revealed hypnospores of Perkinsus sp. with a high mean prevalence (63%). The infection intensity varied from very light to advanced. The polymerase chain reaction confirmed Perkinsus in 87.2% of the RFTM-positive oysters. Histological analysis showed trophozoites and schizonts phagocytized by hemocytes, mainly in the intestine and the stomach epithelium. PMID:23201453

Brandão, Rosana Pinho; Boehs, Guisla; Sabry, Rachel Costa; Ceuta, Liliane Oliveira; Luz, Mariane Dos Santos Aguiar; Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; da Silva, Patrícia Mirella



Evolucao tectono-termal da regiao nordeste de Minas Gerais e sul da Bahia. (Tectonic-thermal evolution from the northeast region of Minas Gerais and South of Bahia).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The northeast region of Minas Gerais and South Bahia are centered to the east of 42(sup 0) 00(sup ')WGr, between parallels 15(sup 0) and 18(sup 0). Its tectonic-thermal evolution is presented here with the support of stratigraphy/lithology, structural ana...

N. Litwinski



Spigelia genuflexa (Loganiaceae), a new geocarpic species from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Spigelia L. (Loganiaceae), Spigelia genuflexa Popovkin & Struwe, sp. n., from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil, is described, being the first reported geocarpic species in the family. During fruit maturation, the basal infructescences bend down towards the ground, depositing the fruit on the surface (and burying it in soft kinds of ground cover, e.g., moss), whereas the upper ones do so slightly but noticeably. The species is a short-lived annual apparently restricted to sandy-soil habitat of the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, with variable and heterogeneous microenvironment and is known from only two restricted localities. A short review of amphi- and geocarpic species is provided. A discussion of comparative morphology within Spigelia with regards to dwarfism, indumentum, and annual habit is included. A phylogenetic parsimony and Bayesian analysis of ITS sequences from 15 Spigelia species plus 17 outgroups in Loganiaceae confirms its independent taxonomic status: on the basis of sequence similarity and phylogenetic topology it is phylogenetically distinct from all Spigelia species sequenced so far.

Popovkin, Alex V.; Mathews, Katherine G.; Santos, Jose Carlos Mendes; Molina, M. Carmen; Struwe, Lena




EPA Science Inventory

This study documents the successful use of a mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, for life-cycle toxicity tests. These tests were conducted to determine acute and chronic toxicities of metal (cadmium) and pesticide (Kepone). Delay in the formation of mysid brood pouches and release of young ...


Resistance Patterns to Salinity and Temperature in an Estuarine Mysid ('Mysidopsis bahia') in Relation to Its Life Cycle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Survival of the estuarine mysid Mysidopsis bahia was monitored in the laboratory from juvenile through maturation to an adult under various combinations of salinity and temperature (19-31 C). Salinity had a greater influence on mysid survival than did tem...

C. L. McKenney




EPA Science Inventory

Survival of the estuarine mysid Mysidopsis bahia was monitored from initial release as juvenile through maturation to an adult under various combinations of salinity (3-31 0/100) and temperature (19-31 degrees C). ultiple linear regression analysis and response surface methodolog...



EPA Science Inventory

Two 28-day, life-cycle tests were conducted to evaluate effects of constant and fluctuating salinities on chronic toxicity of cadmium to Mysidopsis bahia at 27 degrees C. alinities of 10 to 32o/oo and cadmium concentrations of 1 to 9 ug/l were examined. stimated median tolerance ...



EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity tests were conducted with two laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (muds) and six commonly used drilling fluid additives to determine their toxicity, alone and combined, to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). In 25 tests, the acute toxicity of combinations of one, two, or ...



EPA Science Inventory

Static acute 96 h tests were conducted with Mysidopsis bahia using either carbophenothion, cypermethrin, malathion, or 4-(tert-octyl)phenol. The mysids were < 24 h old at test initiation. For each chemical, two replicate tests were conducted simultaneously with each of thr...


The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended.…

Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus



The declining cocoa economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation attitudes of cocoa planters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the south-eastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Large land-owners were found to be responsible for most of the forest clearing that occurred in the past: cocoa prices compensated investment in the expansion of the

Keith Alger; Marcellus Caldas



The roots of black resistance: race, gender and the struggle for urban land rights in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, during the past ten years, the city has transformed its historical centre into cultural sites for leisure tourism. This process has included projects of ‘slum clearance’, negatively impacting black communities who have historically occupied these areas. In this essay, I present an ethnographic account of Gamboa de Baixo, a black coastal community in the centre of




EPA Science Inventory

Survival, growth, and various measures of reproductive performance were examined for an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, throughout its life cycle during exposure to the organophosphate insecticide, fenthion. Both individual fecundity of females and total population production ...


Partial neutralization of rain by seaspray: the case of Recôncavo, Bahia-Brazil.  


In the Recôncavo of Bahia (located between 12 degrees 33' and 13 degrees 10'S and 38 degrees 00'and 39 degrees 00'W), there are significant discharges of SO(2) and NO(x) due to local, industrial and urban activities. The incoming air masses from the Atlantic Ocean are enriched with seaspray, which neutralizes part of the rain acidity. The extent of seaspray neutralization of rain acidity was quantified in four sites of the region, each with different loads of seaspray. Rain samples were obtained daily at the same time, integrating the precipitation of the previous 24h, using wet-only collectors and analyzed for pH by potentiometry and for sodium by flame photometry. The amount of rain acidity in Recôncavo neutralized by seaspray ranged from <1% up to 88% and depended on the site. On average, neutralization ranged from 5% to 18%. PMID:16982133

Campos, Vânia P; Costa, Angela Cristina A; Tavares, Tania M



A new extinct primate among the Pleistocene megafauna of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed Central

A nearly complete skeleton of a robust-bodied New World monkey that resembles living spider monkeys was recovered from undisturbed Pleistocene deposits in the Brazilian state of Bahia. The skeleton displays the highly specialized postcranial pattern typical of spider and woolly spider monkeys and shares cranial similarities to the spider monkey exclusively. It is generically distinct on the basis of its robustness (>20 kg) and on the shape of its braincase. This new genus indicates that New World monkeys nearly twice the size of those living today were part of the mammalian biomass of southern Amazonia in the late Pleistocene. The discovery of this specimen expands the known adaptive diversity of New World monkeys and demonstrates that they underwent body size expansion in the terminal Pleistocene, as did many other types of mammals. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5

Cartelle, C; Hartwig, W C



[Sexual and reproductive health and nursing: a bit of history in Bahia].  


The study aimed to analyze the introduction of sexual and reproductive health concepts in the curriculums of nursing course of the Federal University of Bahia, from 1972 to 2006. It was carried out through qualitative approach, documentary research and semi-structured interview with professors who work exclusively for the institution. The results showed that, initially, the academic disciplines were exclusively related to biological aspects of women's health, focusing only on the maternal condition. The concepts of sexual and reproductive health in the female perspective were introduced later, in response to political demands for the creation of labor force in the field of healthcare with commitment to women's social condition. It was concluded that the curriculums evolved with the introduction of such concepts, especially from the decade of 1990's on. PMID:24008702

Silva, Joise Magarão Queiroz; Marques, Patrícia Figueiredo; Paiva, Mirian Santos



[Labor and health conditions of private school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil].  


The scientific literature on teachers' health is scarce, recent, and focuses predominantly on stress and burnout. This study describes the labor conditions of private school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. Information on 250 teachers from the ten largest schools in the municipality was collected through a self-applied questionnaire. The most relevant characteristics of teachers' work, evaluated by the Job Content Questionnaire were: speed of work, creativity at work, and relations with colleagues. The most frequent complaints related to posture, mental strain, and voice problems. Prevalence of minor psychological disorders according to the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 was 41.5%, strongly associated with long periods of intense concentration on the same job and excessive work. Results suggest an association between the prevalence of minor psychological disorders and certain characteristics of teaching work, emphasizing teachers' exposure to stress. PMID:15029320

Delcor, Núria Serre; Araújo, Tania M; Reis, Eduardo J F B; Porto, Lauro A; Carvalho, Fernando M; Oliveira e Silva, Manuela; Barbalho, Leonardo; de Andrade, Jonathan Moura



Geographic information systems and the environmental risk of schistosomiasis in Bahia, Brazil.  


A geographic information system was constructed using maps of regional environmental features, Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in 30 representative municipalities, and snail distribution in Bahia, Brazil to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of infection and to identify environmental factors that influence the distribution of schistosomiasis. Results indicate that population density and the duration of annual dry period are the most important determinants of prevalence of schistosomiasis in the areas selected for study. Maximum rainfall, total precipitation during three consecutive months, annual maximum or minimum temperatures, and diurnal temperature difference were not shown to be significant factors influencing S. mansoni prevalence in local populations or distribution of snail hosts. Prevalence of the disease was highest in the coastal areas of the state. Higher prevalence tended to occur in areas with latossolo soil type and transitional vegetation. PMID:10348229

Bavia, M E; Hale, L F; Malone, J B; Braud, D H; Shane, S M



[Lead poisoning: Zinc protoporphyrin in blood of children from Santo Amaro da Purificação, Bahia, Brazil].  


A cross-sectional epidemiological study has investigated lead poisoning among all the 101 children aged 1 to 5 years, living at less then 500 m from a lead smelter which has been operating since 1960 in Santo Amaro da Purificação, State of Bahia, Brazil. Lead poisoning was evaluated by determining the concentrations of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in whole blood. Results were compared with those obtained from 98 children of the same age range, in a nursery from Salvador, capital of the State of Bahia. In Santo Amaro, ZPP geometric mean was 65.5 mg/dl (geometric S.D. = 1.7), much higher, therefore, than the normal threshold of 30 microg/dl recommended by the CDC-USA. A child was excluded from statistical analyses because of very high ZPP level: 789 mg/dl. In Salvador, ZPP geometric mean was 31.0 mg/dl (geometric SD = 1.6). "Extremely elevated" ZPP levels (above 156 mg/dl) were observed in 8% of the children from Santo Amaro and in none (0%) of the children from Salvador, this statistical difference being highly significant. Anaemia was present among 35.0% of the children from Santo Amaro and among 25.5% of those from Salvador. One year-old children showed the highest levels of ZPP and anaemia. No marked statistical association was found between ZPP levels and anaemia. Lead contamination of this children population remained in a permanently high level during, at least, the period from 1980 to 1992. In December, 1993 the lead smelter has definitively ceased its industrial activities in Santo Amaro da Purificação. PMID:14688915

Carvalho, F M; Neto, A M; Peres, M F; Gonçalves, H R; Guimarães, G C; Amorim, C J; Silva, J A; Tavares, T M


Low Frequency of the ?F508 Mutation of the CFTR Gene in a Highly Admixed Population in Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease in the European (Caucasian) population, with an incidence of 1:2,000 to 1:8,000. The ?F508 mutation (66%) is predominant among more than 1,300 different mutations of the CFTR gene. The population of the state of Bahia, in northeastern Brazil, is highly admixed (mainly African and Portuguese descendants), and so far, no

Fabiana Maia Moura. Costa; Maria Angélica. Santana; Antônio Carlos Moreira. Lemos; Bernardo Galvao-Castro




Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of Tarpon atlanticus (Valenciennes, 1846) is recorded for the first time inside the Todos os Santos Bay (State of Bahia, Brazil). Five specimens were analized, measuring between 210,95 and 226,00mm in total length, collected near the mouth of Dorneles River (Araripe de Baixo Beach), Saubara Municipality (13ºS - 39ºW). Morphometric and meristic data, as well as a diagnosis,

Paulo Roberto Duarte Lopes; Marconi Porto Sena


Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infection in neurological patients in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

HTLV-I infection represents a major health concern in endemic areas throughout the world, such as Salvador, the main city of Bahia State, with socio-demographic characteristics similar to sub-Saharan African cities, located in the Northeast of Brazil. In order to provide an estimate of the frequency distribution, and range of neurological manifestations potentially related to HTLV-I infection in this city, we

Irênio Gomes; Ailton Melo; Fernando A Proietti; Otavio Moreno-Carvalho; Luiz Antonio M Loures; Marie Christine Dazza; Gerard Said; Bernard Larouzé; Bernardo Galvão-Castro



Areas of natural occurrence of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the state of Bahia, Brazil.  


The bee Melipona scutellaris is considered the reared meliponine species with the largest distribution in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, with records from the state of Rio Grande do Norte down to the state of Bahia. Considering the importance of this species in the generation of income for family agriculture and in the preservation of areas with natural vegetation, this study aimed at providing knowledge on the distribution of natural colonies of M. scutellaris in the state of Bahia. Literature information, interviews with stinglessbee beekeepers, and expeditions were conducted to confirm the natural occurrence of the species. A total of 102 municipalities showed records for M. scutellaris, whose occurrence was observed in areas ranging from sea level up to 1,200-meter height. The occurrence of this species in the state of Bahia is considered to be restricted to municipalities on the coastal area and the Chapada Diamantina with its rainforests. Geographic coordinates, elevation, climate and vegetation data were obtained, which allowed a map to be prepared for the area of occurrence in order to support conservation and management policies for the species. PMID:22886160

Alves, Rogério M O; Carvalho, Carlos A L; Souza, Bruno A; Santos, Wyratan S



[Species of Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) from Southern Bahia State, Brazil, with description of a new species of Paracloeodes day].  


Based on collections in five municipalities from southern Bahia, a new species, Paracloeodes quadridentatus sp. n., is described from Brazil. It can be distinguished, among other characteristics, by the presence of three, often four, well developed denticles on the tarsal claws, a characteristic that has never been found in other species of the genus. Besides the description of the new species, the following 14 taxa of Baetidae are recorded for the first time from the State of Bahia: Americabaetis alphus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Americabaetis labiosus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Aturbina georgei Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Baetodes sp., Callibaetis sp., Camelobaetidius francischettii Salles Andrade & Da-Silva, Camelobaetidius lassance Salles & Serrão, Camelobaetidius sp. 1, Camelobaetidius sp. 2, Cloeodes cf. opacus Nieto & Richard, Cryptonympha dasilvai Salles & Francischetti, Spiritiops silvudus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Waltzoyphius fasciatus McCafferty & Lugo-Ortiz e Zelusia principalis Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty. As this is the first survey of Baetidae from Bahia, and it was restricted to the southern part of the state, sampling efforts in other areas are extremely required and should increase considerably the number of species, or even genera, reported from the state. PMID:21120380

Lima, Lucas R C; Salles, Frederico F; Pinheiro, Ulisses S; Quinto, Edilane


The origin of Bahia seamounts (Brazil Basin, South Atlantic) in connection to new data on their age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micropalentological studies of limestones and isotopic-geochronological determinations of the age of zircons found in vulcanites dredged from the region of the northern chain of the group of Bahia seamounts in the 28th cruise of the R/V Akademik Vavilov were undertaken. The recognized age difference of the northern chain of the Bahia seamounts of northwestern strike from 75 to 84 Ma from the southeast to the northwest indicates the fact that this chain was formed as a result of hot spot activity. The age of vulcanites is in good correlation with the Maastricht and Coniacian-Santonian age of limestones occurring on the slopes of the seamounts. The similarity of the seamounts age and the age of the oceanic bottom indicates the fact that the hot spot was localized near the spreading axial zone of the MAR. Along the strike of the chain, the centers of volcanic activity are correlated to the zones of transform faults, which are important in the hot spot activation. The formed chain is a weak zone in the lithosphere and the focus of younger stages of volcanic activity; there were at least two of stages within the northern chain of the Bahia seamounts, and these occurred about 75 and 59 Ma ago.

Skolotnev, S. G.; Bylinskaya, M. E.; Golovina, L. A.; Ipat'eva, I. S.



Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.  


An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings. PMID:21789421

Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria



Application of PCR in Serum Samples for Diagnosis of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the Southern Bahia-Brazil  

PubMed Central

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) cannot always be diagnosed by conventional means such as direct examination of histopathology or clinical samples, and serological methods, used as an alternative, still have many cases of cross-reactivity. In this scenario, molecular techniques seem to arise as a rapid approach, specific and direct that could be used in the diagnosis of this mycosis. In this study we analyzed 76 serum samples from patients in southern Bahia suspected of having paracoccidioidomycosis using a conventional PCR with primers for the ITS1 ribosomal DNA of P. brasiliensis. Of these 76 patients, 5 were positive for PCM by double immunodiffusion and/or direct examination and histopathology. To test specificity of PCR, we used human DNA and three isolates of P. lutzii (1578, 01 and ED01). Additionally, we analyzed by serial dilutions of DNA the limit of detection of the assay. The test of PCR proved specific, as only a 144 bp fragment of the three isolates of P. lutzii and no human DNA was amplified. Detection limit was 1.1 pg/µL of DNA. Despite the high detection limit and specificity of PCR none of the 76 serum samples were found positive by PCR, but a biopsy specimen obtained from one of the patients with PCM was positive. These results, albeit limited, show that PCR is not effective in detecting DNA of P. brasiliensis or P. lutzii in serum, but could perhaps be used with other types of clinical samples, especially in those instances in which conventional methods fail.

Dias, Lucas; de Carvalho, Leila Falcao; Romano, Carla C.



[Health community agent: subject of the buccal health practice in Alagoinhas, Bahia state].  


This study about the work of micro politics was carried out by the Buccal Health Team (ESB) in the Family Health Program (PSF) of Alagoinhas, Bahia State, and has as central theoretical purpose the specific and singular forms in the practice of daily work, using the technologies (hard, light-hard and light). The methodological trajectory is based on the historical-social current in view of a dialectic approach of qualitative nature. The techniques of data collection used were: semi structured interview, observation of the work process and documental analysis. The analysis of the data was oriented by the hermeneutics-dialectics, allowing to compare the different levels of analysis, articulating the theoretical with the empirical evidence. The results reveal that the Family Health Teams are multidisciplinary, but have still not developed an interdisciplinary work, hence occurring juxtaposition of skills. Each unit plans their work process according to the singularities of the social subjects, implementing different characteristics in how to welcome, inform, attend and refer. An effort in changing the work process can be perceived in the perspective of amplified clinic with the health community agent standing out as a social/collective subject. PMID:20464204

Rodrigues, Ana Aurea Alécio de Oliveira; Santos, Adriano Maia Dos; Assis, Marluce Maria Araújo



Prevalence of serological markers and risk factors for bloodborne pathogens in Salvador, Bahia state, Brazil.  


This study aimed to determine the prevalence of serological markers for HIV-1/2, HBV, HCV, Treponema cruzi and T. pallidum infections. The association of these infections with risk factors in a population from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil was also analysed. Of the 780 enrolled individuals, 545 (70%) were female and 235 (30%) were male. Seroprevalence of 0·8% (6/702), 1·3% (9/678), 1·5% (10/684), 3·5% (23/663) and 11·5% (77/668) for HIV-1/2, HBV, HCV, T. cruzi and T. pallidum infections, respectively, was observed. The seroprevalence of T. pallidum was higher in males 20% (43/210) than in females 7% (34/458) (P < 0·01). An association between age and seroprevalence for T. cruzi (P = 0·02) and T. pallidum (P < 0·01) was observed. HBsAg was associated with having tattoos (3/37 vs. 6/623, P = 0·01) and not having a steady sexual partner (5/141 vs. 4/473, P = 0·04), while anti-HIV-1/2 was associated with having tattoos (2/39 vs. 4/647, P = 0·04); however, larger studies are needed to categorically state the relationship of these risk factors with infectious agents. The prevalence of serological markers for HIV-1/2, HBV, HCV and T. cruzi was consistent with other studies. PMID:22417705

Matos, S B; Jesus, A L S R; Pedroza, K C M C; Sodre, H R S; Ferreira, T L H; Lima, F W M



The occurrence of microdiamonds in Mesoproterozoic Chapada Diamantina intrusive rocks--Bahia/Brazil.  


The origin of diamonds from Serra do Espinhaço in Diamantina region (State of Minas Gerais) and in Chapada Diamantina, Lençóis region (State of Bahia) remains uncertain, even taking into account the ample research carried out during the last decades. The lack of typical satellite minerals in both districts makes a kimberlitic source for these diamonds uncertain. In mid 18th century the occurrence of a metamorphosed igneous rock composed of martite, sericite and tourmaline was described in Diamantina region and named hematitic phyllite, considered by some researchers as a possible diamond source. Similar rocks were found in Lençóis and examined petrographically and their heavy mineral concentration was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Petrographic analyses indicated an igneous origin for these rocks and SEM analyses showed the discovery of microdiamonds. Geochronological studies using the Ar/Ar technique in muscovites yielded minimum ages of 1515+/-3 Ma, which may correlate with 1710+/-12 Ma from U-Pb method in igneous zircons from the hematitic phyllites. Both rock types also have the same mineral and chemical composition which leads to the conclusion that the intrusive rocks were protolith of the hematitic phyllites. This first discovery of microdiamonds in intrusive rocks opens the possibility of new investigation models for diamond mineralization in Brazilian Proterozoic terrains. PMID:17625685

Battilani, Gislaine A; Gomes, Newton S; Guerra, Wilson J



[Use of health services by quilombo communities in southwest Bahia State, Brazil].  


Use of health services is increasing in Brazil as a whole, but geographic and social inequalities persist, especially among minority groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of health services by members of quilombos (slavedescendant African-Brazilian communities) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. This cross-sectional health survey in 2011 focused on 797 adults (> 18 years old) belonging to quilombos. The magnitude of the associations between explanatory variables and use of services was estimated by the prevalence ratio obtained from Poisson regression with 95% confidence interval. Of the total sample, 455 (57.1%) reported having used health services in the 12 months prior to the interview. Higher rates of health services utilization were associated with female gender, non-single conjugal status, fair, poor, or very poor self-rated health, enrolment in the Family Health Program, and referral to a health facility for regular or on-going care. The results showed underutilization of health services by members of quilombos, thus demonstrating the need to improve health services provision for this population group. PMID:24068228

Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Reis, Edna Afonso; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal



Comparative toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia and Palaemonetes pugio.  


Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used on agricultural crops, as well as for nurseries, golf courses, urban structural and landscaping sites, residential home and garden pest control, and mosquito abatement. Evaluation of sensitive marine and estuarine species is essential for the development of toxicity testing and risk-assessment protocols. Two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia (mysids) and Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp), were tested with the commonly used pyrethroid compounds, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin. Sensitivities of adult and larval grass shrimp and 7-day-old mysids were compared using standard 96-h LC(50) bioassay protocols. Adult and larval grass shrimp were more sensitive than the mysids to all the pyrethroids tested. Larval grass shrimp were approximately 18-fold more sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin than the mysids. Larval grass shrimp were similar in sensitivity to adult grass shrimp for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin, but larvae were approximately twice as sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin as adult shrimp. Acute toxicity to estuarine crustaceans occurred at low nanogram per liter concentrations of some pyrethroids, illustrating the need for careful regulation of the use of pyrethroid compounds in the coastal zone. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013. PMID:23364944

E Delorenzo, Marie; Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Fulton, Michael H



New data on the structure of the Bahia seamounts (Western Portion of the Brazil Basin, South Atlantic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 28th trip of the R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov undertaken in 2009, exploration was carried out using a Parasound acoustic profilograph that permitted examining the upper portion of the sedimentary cover and getting transverse bathymetric profiles through a number of seamounts within the northern range of the Bahia group of seamounts, which were also sampled by dredging. The studies performed indicated that this linear structure consists of paleovolcanoes and formed under impulse conditions of volcanic activity. A number of seamount types have been distinguished, the morphostructural settings and the positions of which reflect the intensity of volcanic impulses and the association with deep permeable zones. The strongest impulse led to the formation of a northwest striking arched uplift, on which there are several central type paleovolcanoes of different heights. The largest of these paleovolcanoes, including the Stocks and Groll Seamounts, have flattened tops formed as a result of marine abrasion. Isolated seamounts have formed during shorter and lower power impulses of volcanic activity. The northern range of the Bahia seamounts, which have a major northwesterly strike, is an ensemble of structures with northwesterly, nearly east-west, and nearly north-south strikes, which indicates the presence of relevant deep permeable zones for the mantle matter; that mantle matter is the source of the melts, eruptions of which led to the formation of the volcanic edifices. The prevailing zone of weakness has a northwesterly strike. Volcanic activity in the Bahia group of seamounts ended in the Paleocene, but tectonic movements continued there up until the Holocene. Neotectonic structures are represented by horsts, diapirlike piercement structures, and folded zones. The paleovolcanoes are areas where slope processes of transport of sedimentary material occurred.

Skolotnev, S. G.; Peive, A. A.; Eskin, A. E.



Spatial distribution of triatomines (Reduviidae: Triatominae) in urban areas of the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  


Environmental changes have a strong influence on the emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases. The city of Salvador, Brazil--currently the focus of a housing boom linked to massive deforestation--is an example in point as the destruction of the remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest around the city has led to an increased risk for Chagas disease. Human domiciles have been invaded by the triatomine vectors of Trypansoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan causing Chagas disease, a problem of particular concern in urban/suburban areas of the city such as the Patamares sector in the north-east, where numbers of both the vector and human cases of the disease have increased lately. To control and prevent further deterioration of the situation, the control programme for Chagas disease, developed by the Bahia Center for Zoonosis Control, has divided the area into a grid of designated surveillance units (ZIs) that are subjected to vector examination. In six out of 98 of these ZIs, 988 triatomes were collected and georeferenced during the 3-year period between 2006 and 2009. The hottest months, that are also generally the driest, showed the highest numbers of triatomines with Triatoma tibiamaculata being the predominant species (98.3%) with Panstrongylus geniculatus present only occasionally (0.6%). Fifty-four percent of all triatomines captured were found inside the homes, and 48.6% out of 479 individuals in the affected ZIs selected for analysis tested positive for T. cruzi infection. The study presented here is a pioneering initiative to map the spatial distribution of triatomines based on geographical information systems with the additional aim of contributing to an expanded knowledge-base about T. cruzi and its vectors in urban areas and raise public health awareness of the risks involved. PMID:21590670

Santana, Karine de Souza O; Bavia, Maria Emília; Lima, Artur Dias; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina S; Soares, Enio Silva; Silva, Marta Mariana Nascimento; Mendonça, Jorge; Martin, Moara de Santana



A closer look at the "Protopithecus" fossil assemblages: new genus and species from Bahia, Brazil.  


The recently extinct large-bodied New World monkey Protopithecus brasiliensis Lund 1836 was named based on a distal humerus and proximal femur found in the Lagoa Santa cave system in the southeastern Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. These bones are from an animal about twice the size of the largest extant platyrrhines. One hundred and seventy-five years later, a nearly complete skeleton was discovered in the Toca da Boa Vista caves in the neighboring state of Bahia and was allocated to the same taxon as it was the first platyrrhine fossil of comparable size found since the originals. Our detailed study of the equivalent elements, however, reveals important morphological differences that do not correspond to intraspecific variation as we know it in related platyrrhine taxa. The presence of both an expanded brachioradialis flange on the humerus and gluteal tuberosity on the femur of the Bahian skeleton distinguishes it from the Lagoa Santa fossil as well as from all other platyrrhines. Further cranial and postcranial evidence suggests a closer relationship of the former with the alouattine Alouatta, while the limited Lund material fits more comfortably with the ateline clade. Therefore, we propose to limit P. brasiliensis Lund to the distal humerus and proximal femur from Lagoa Santa and erect a new genus and species for the skeleton from Toca da Boa Vista. Cartelles coimbrafilhoi was a large-bodied frugivore with a relatively small brain and diverse locomotor repertoire including both suspension and climbing that expands the range of platyrrhine biodiversity beyond the dimensions of the living neotropical primates. PMID:23972780

Halenar, Lauren B; Rosenberger, Alfred L



Archeomagnetism in Brazil: New archeointensity data from the Bahia region over the past five centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a clear need of new archeomagnetic data from the southern hemisphere to better constrain the global geomagnetic field models over the past few millennia. In particular, less than 5% of all available absolute archeointensity data have been obtained from this hemisphere. We will present the first archeointensity data obtained for Brazil from the analysis of several groups of architectural brick fragments dated mainly from the so-called colonial period (with ages ranging between ~1550 AD and ~1850 AD). The fragments collected were produced in or close to the city of Salvador, Bahia State (13°S, 38.5°W) and their dating is ascertained with archives and archeological evidences, yielding precise age controls with, in most cases, uncertainties of less than 10 years. Intensity experiments were performed using the Thellier and Thellier (1959) method as modified by Coe (1967). The stability of the magnetic mineralogy was monitored using partial thermoremanent magnetization (pTRM) checks and pTRM tail tests (Riisager and Riisager, 2001) were used to detect possible biases due to the presence of multidomain grains. High-temperature intensity measurements were also carried out using the Triaxe magnetometer (Le Goff and Gallet, 2004). For both experimental procedures, effects related to the anisotropy of the TRM and to the dependence of TRM acquisition on the cooling rate were taken into account. A good agreement is observed when comparing the mean intensity values obtained using the two methods. We will further compare our new archeointensity results with the intensities expected in Brazil from global geomagnetic field models over the past 500 years.

Hartmann, G. A.; Genevey, A.; Trindade, R. I.; Gallet, Y.; Etchevarne, C.; Afonso, M.



New geological model of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites from Bahia (Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New evidence supported by petrography (including mineral chemistry), lithogeochemistry, U-Pb geochronology by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and physicochemical study of fluid and melt inclusions by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry, point to an orogenic setting of Lagoa Real (Bahia-Brazil) involving uraniferous mineralization. Unlike the previous models in which uraniferous albitites represent Na-metasomatised 1.75 Ga anorogenic granitic rocks, it is understood here that they correspond to metamorphosed sodium-rich and quartz-free 1.9 Ga late-orogenic syenitic rocks (Na-metasyenites). These syenitic rocks are rich not only in albite, but also in U-rich titanite (source of uranium). The interpretation of geochemical data points to a petrogenetic connection between alkali-diorite (local amphibolite protolith) and sodic syenite by fractional crystallization through a transalkaline series. This magmatic differentiation occurred either before or during shear processes, which in turn led to albitite and amphibolite formation. The metamorphic reactions, which include intense recrystallization of magmatic minerals, led uraninite to precipitate at 1.87 Ga under Oxidation/Reduction control. A second population of uraninites was also generated by the reactivation of shear zones during the 0.6 Ga Brasiliano Orogeny. The geotectonic implications include the importance of the Orosirian event in the Paramirim Block during paleoproterozoic S?o Francisco Craton edification and the influence of the Brasiliano event in the Paramirim Block during the West-Gondwana assembly processes. The regional microcline-gneiss, whose protolith is a 2.0 Ga syn-collisional potassic granite, represents the albitite host rock. The microcilne-gneiss has no petrogenetic association to the syenite (albitite protolith) in magmatic evolutionary terms.

Chaves, Alexandre de Oliveira



Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 ?m, 250-53 ?m, and <53 ?m)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.



New geological model of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites from Bahia (Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New evidence supported by petrography (including mineral chemistry), lithogeochemistry, U-Pb geochronology by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and physicochemical study of fluid and melt inclusions by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry, point to an orogenic setting of Lagoa Real (Bahia-Brazil) involving uraniferous mineralization. Unlike the previous models in which uraniferous albitites represent Na-metasomatised 1.75 Ga anorogenic granitic rocks, it is understood here that they correspond to metamorphosed sodium-rich and quartz-free 1.9 Ga late-orogenic syenitic rocks (Na-metasyenites). These syenitic rocks are rich not only in albite, but also in U-rich titanite (source of uranium). The interpretation of geochemical data points to a petrogenetic connection between alkali-diorite (local amphibolite protolith) and sodic syenite by fractional crystallization through a transalkaline series. This magmatic differentiation occurred either before or during shear processes, which in turn led to albitite and amphibolite formation. The metamorphic reactions, which include intense recrystallization of magmatic minerals, led uraninite to precipitate at 1.87 Ga under Oxidation/Reduction control. A second population of uraninites was also generated by the reactivation of shear zones during the 0.6 Ga Brasiliano Orogeny. The geotectonic implications include the importance of the Orosirian event in the Paramirim Block during paleoproterozoic S?o Francisco Craton edification and the influence of the Brasiliano event in the Paramirim Block during the West-Gondwana assembly processes. The regional microcline-gneiss, whose protolith is a 2.0 Ga syn-collisional potassic granite, represents the albitite host rock. The microcilne-gneiss has no petrogenetic association to the syenite (albitite protolith) in magmatic evolutionary terms.

de Oliveira Chaves, Alexandre



Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78?years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State.



Grounding of the Bahia Paraiso at Arthur Harbor, Antarctica. 1. Distribution and fate of oil spill related hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

In January to March 1989 water, organisms, and sediments within a 2-mile radius of Arthur Harbor were contaminated with an estimated 600,000 L of petroleum spilled by the Bahia Paraiso. All components of the ecosystem were contaminated to varying degrees during the spill, including birds, limpets, macroalgae, clams, bottom-feeding fish, and sediments. The high-energy environment, the relatively small volume of material released, and the volatility of the released product all contributed to limiting toxic effects in time and space. The most effective removal processes were evaporation, dilution, winds, and currents. Sedimentation, biological uptake, microbial oxidation, and photooxidation accounted for removal of only a minor portion of the spill. One year after the spill several areas still exhibited contamination. Subtidal sediments and the more distant intertidal locations were devoid of detectable PAH contaminants whereas sediments near the docking facility at Palmer Station continued to reflect localized nonspill-related activities in the area. Arthur Harbor and adjacent areas continue to be chronically exposed to low-level petroleum contamination emanating from the Bahia Paraiso.

Kennicutt, M.C. II; Sweet, S.T. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA)); Fraser, W.R.; Culver, M. (Pt. Reyes Bird Observatory, Stinson Beach, CA (USA)); Stockton, W.L. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA))



The Use of Insects in Folk Medicine in the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil, with Notes on Insects Reported Elsewhere in Brazilian Folk Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least 42 insects have been reported as used in folk medicine in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. These resources are distributed in nine orders, with Hymenopterans the most prevalent with 22 specimens. Medicinal insects, which are used live, cooked, ground, in infusions, in plasters, or as ointments, provide honey, nests, eggs, cocoons, sting, wax, and parts of their

Eraldo Medeiros Costa-Neto



Effects of petroleum and its derivatives in benthic communities at Ba??a de Todos os Santos\\/Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic community structure and diversity have been investigated to assess stress conditions of Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, as a possible result of the extraction, transportation and refining of petroleum, activities carried out in this area for more than 40 years. Samples were collected over two years, at four stations under the direct influence of stress-causing activities and at

M. C Peso-Aguiar; D. H Smith; R. C. F Assis; L. M Santa-Isabel; S Peixinho; E. P Gouveia; T. C. A Almeida; W. S Andrade; C. R. G Carqueija; F Kelmo; G Carrozzo; C. V Rodrigues; G. C Carvalho; A. C. S Jesus



Effects of petroleum and its derivatives in benthic communities at Baía de Todos os Santos\\/Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic community structure and diversity have been investigated to assess stress conditions of Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, as a possible result of the extraction, transportation and refining of petroleum, activities carried out in this area for more than 40 years. Samples were collected over two years, at four stations under the direct influence of stress-causing activities and at

M. C. Peso-Aguiar; D. H. Smith; R. C. F. Assis; L. M. Santa-Isabel; S. Peixinho; E. P. Gouveia; T. C. A. Almeida; W. S. Andrade; C. R. G. Carqueija; F. Kelmo; G. Carrozzo; C. V. Rodrigues; G. C. Carvalho; A. C. S. Jesus



33 CFR 100.35T07-0297 - Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...remaining within the race area. (2) Buffer Zone. All waters of the Bahia de Boqueron...those persons and vessels enforcing the buffer zone are prohibited from entering, transiting...anchoring in, or remaining within the buffer zone, with the exception of...



Lead poisoning among children of Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil in 1980, 1985, and 1992.  


A cross-sectional epidemiologic survey conducted at the beginning of 1992 evaluated the status of lead intoxication among children from 1 to 5 years of age living within 500 meters of a primary lead smelter in the Brazilian city of Santo Amaro, Bahia. A total of 103 children in this age group were initially enrolled in the study; however, 2 were later excluded because they could not be located, and 1 was excluded from the statistical analyses for reasons noted below. The results were compared with those from similar surveys made in 1980 and 1985 in the same area with children of the same age. A blood sample was obtained from each child, the child's hematocrit and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level were determined, and an interview questionnaire was used to collect information of clinical or epidemiologic interest from the child's mother or guardian. The geometric average ZPP was 65.5 micrograms/100 mL (geometric standard deviation = 1.7), a level far exceeding the upper limit of normality established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of 30 micrograms/100 mL. One child was excluded from the statistical analyses because it exhibited an extremely high ZPP level (789 micrograms/100 mL). Higher average ZPP levels were found for girls, children with darker-skinned racial backgrounds, children from homes where smelter slag was commonly used around the house, children presenting pica, and children of smelter workers. Of the symptoms of lead poisoning investigated, only nervousness and easy irritability exhibited high frequencies among the children studied. However, the prevalence of above-normal ZPP levels suggestive of lead poisoning was 92.2% in 1980, 98.4% in 1985, and 97.0% in 1992. Hence, the apparent prevalence of lead poisoning continued very high in 1992, indicating that the control measures adopted were ineffective or that other unidentified and uncontrolled risk factors were playing an important role. Overall, however, the proportion of children with very high ZPP levels fell sharply, and that of children with moderately high levels also declined notably, indicating that the severity of the problem had been reduced even though new cases of intoxication continued to occur. The Santo Amaro smelter closed its doors in December 1993. PMID:8919726

Silvany-Neto, A M; Carvalho, F M; Tavares, T M; Guimarães, G C; Amorim, C J; Peres, M F; Lopes, R S; Rocha, C M; Raña, M C



Highlights from the IV International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation (ISTA), October 20-21, 2011, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  


To discuss and share knowledge about advances in the care of patients with thrombotic disorders, the Fourth International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation was held in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, from October 20-21, 2011. This scientific program was developed by clinicians for clinicians and was promoted by three major clinical research institutes: the Brazilian Clinical Research Institute, the Duke Clinical Research Institute of the Duke University School of Medicine, and Hospital do Coração Research Institute. Comprising 2 days of academic presentations and open discussion, the symposium had as its primary goal to educate, motivate, and inspire internists, cardiologists, hematologists, and other physicians by convening national and international visionaries, thought-leaders, and dedicated clinician-scientists. This paper summarizes the symposium proceedings. PMID:22427055

Lopes, Renato D; Becker, Richard C; Newby, L Kristin; Peterson, Eric D; Hylek, Elaine M; Granger, Christopher B; Crowther, Mark; Wang, Tracy; Carvalho, Antonio C; Berwanger, Otavio; Giraldez, Roberto R; Feitosa, Gilson Soares; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto; Darze, Eduardo; Kalil, Renato A K; Andrande, Marianna; Boas, Fabio Villas; Andrade, Jadelson; Rocha, Ana Thereza; Harrington, Robert A; Lopes, Antonio C; Garcia, David A



Magnetic anomalies in Bahia Esperanza: A window of magmatic arc intrusions and glacier erosion over the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bahia Esperanza, constituting the NE tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, is made up of Paleozoic clastic sedimentary rocks overlain by a Jurassic volcano-sedimentary series and intruded by Cretaceous gabbros and diorites. The area is located along the southern part of the Pacific Margin magnetic anomaly belt.Field magnetic researches during February 2010 contribute to determining the deep geometry of the intermediate and basic intrusive rocks. Moreover, the new field data help constrain the regional Pacific Margin Anomaly, characterized up to now only by aeromagnetic and marine data. Field magnetic susceptibility measurements of intrusive intermediate and basic rocks, responsible for magnetic anomalies, ranges from 0.5 × 10? 3 SI in diorites to values between 0.75 × 10? 3 SI and 1.3 × 10? 3 SI in gabbros. In addition, a significant remanent magnetism should also have contributed to the anomalies. The regional magnetic anomaly is characterized by a westward increase from 100 nT up to 750 nT, associated with large intrusive diorite bodies. They probably underlie most of the western slopes of Mount Flora. Gabbros in the Nobby Nunatak determine local residual rough anomalies that extend northwards and westwards, pointing to the irregular geometry of the top of the basic rocks bodies below the Pirámide Peak Glacier. However, the southern and eastern boundaries with the Buenos Aires Glacier are sharp related to deep glacier incision. As a result of the glacier dynamics, magnetic anomalies are also detected north of the Nobby Nunatak due to the extension of the anomalous body and the presence of gabbro blocks in the moraines.The Bahia Esperanza region is a key area where onshore field geological and magnetic research allows us to constrain the shape of the crustal igneous intrusions and the basement glacier geometry, providing accurate data that complete regional aeromagnetic research.

Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Ruiz-Constán, Ana; Pedrera, Antonio; Ghidella, Marta; Montes, Manuel; Nozal, Francisco; Rodríguez-Fernandez, Luis Roberto



Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.



Hydrography of Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California: Results of more than twenty five years of investigations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first study of Bahia Todos Santos (BTS) was reported by Walton in 1955. We conducted oceanographic studies in BTS since 1979. The BTS has a connection with a coastal lagoon named Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), two islands at the western portion and the Port of Ensenada. The general hydrographic characteristics are: In winter the water became homogeneous, less saline (<33.4) and with low stability. During spring and summer a hydrographic structure of three layers is noticed. The deepest layer is composed of the southern California water mass with a relatively high salinity (>33.6) low temperature (13°C), low oxygen (~3mL L-1) and rich in nutrient concentration. The isothermal top layer has relatively high temperature (>17°C) and oxygen concentration (>6mL L-1). The intermediate transition layer (seasonal thermocline) has minimum salinity, maximum oxygen and high stability. During fall there is distribution of heat from the surface layer to the entire water column. The thermic waves propagate with decrease amplitude in ~3 months, from surface to bottom water. The California Current flow generally southward off the western United States and northern Mexico and is one of the major coastal upwelling of the word oceans. The upwelling events in BTS appear regularly at the SW portion and were typically characterized by an increase in pCO2, decrease of O2, increase of nutrients and a lower temperature. Upwelling activity increases surface nutrient availability causing rise in the primary productivity and hence increased zooplankton biomass. The annual upwelling event which had a maximum strength on May, the seasonal warming and cooling, and the water advection were the dominant modifying processes for the variability of seawater characteristics. Higher salinities are located close to the coastline and lower off the bay. The levels of oxygen, alkalinity, pH and chlorophyll indicate that the maximum concentration of phytoplankton is located at the center of the bay. The nitrification support the primary productivity and the NO3 levels were below detection limits; the N/P ratio in 2005 was from 10 to 25; and for 2006 was below 5. There is a net enrichment of anthropogenic nutrients at BTS. The heavy metals and pesticides studies started since the early 80's with problems still to solve for Tl, Cd. There is a net Pb enrichment and higher Cr concentrations at the NE of the bay. The EPB is a wetland ~7 Km. long located at the SE part of the BTS. The EPB is a net source of DIP (deltaDIP = +0.13 mmol m-2 day-1), that brings agricultural runoff to the BTS. It is typically a hypersaline system during summer and a net heterotrophic (p-r = -14 mmol m-2 day-1), and a net denitrifying (nfix-denit = -2.1 mmol m-2 day-1) system. Some anomalies were in 2005 the presence of a huge red tide observed inside BTS (about 50% of the bay) that last for more than six months, this HAB's has killed many fishes (anoxia) and marine mammals. The hydrographic conditions during the red tide were, temperature anomalies higher than 2°C above normal; high nutrient concentration above the normal. In 2006 the values were normal again. The Port of Ensenada, increased in size and activities (tourism, transportation, coastguards for national security, cement industry, research) these developments generate some management problems, like the beach and coastline modification. The aground of the APL Panama, activates the management agencies to prevent and control pollution.

Bustos-Serrano, H.; Canino-Herrera, S. R.; Morales-Chavez, R.; Martinez-Garcia, G. M.



The lipid composition, fluidity, and Mg 2+ ATPase activity of rice ( Oryza sativa L. cv. Bahia) shoot plasma membranes: effects of ABA and GA 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six-day-old rice plants (Oryza sativa L., cv Bahia) were grown for 5 days more in nutrient solution culture containing 10?5 M abscisic acid (ABA) or gibberellic acid (GA3) (treated plants). Plasma membrane (PM) vesicles were isolated from the shoots of treated or control plants, and ATPase hydrolytic\\u000a and proton-pumping activity, fluidity, and free sterol and phospholipid composition were determined. Both

C. Martínez-Cortina; R. Ros; D. T. Cooke; C. S. James; A. Sanz



Hercynite–quartz-bearing granulites from Brejões Dome area, Jequié Block, Bahia, Brazil: Influence of charnockite intrusion on granulite facies metamorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we describe and discuss the geology of aluminous–magnesian granulites and associated garnet-bearing charnockitic granulite from the Brejões Dome area, located in the Jequié Block, part of the São Francisco Craton in Bahia, Brazil. Investigation of metamorphic mineral assemblages allows the evaluation of P–T conditions for the formation of these rocks, and therefore to obtain constraints for

Johildo Barbosa; Christian Nicollet; Carlson Leite; Jean-Robert Kienast; Reinhardt A. Fuck; Eron Pires Macedo



Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, Americamysis bahia, Chironomus riparius and Gammarus pulex and implications of new EU requirenments for the aquatic effect assessment of insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threshold concentrations for treatment related effects of 31 insecticides, as derived from aquatic micro-\\/mesocosm tests, were used to calibrate the predictive value of the European Tier-1 acute effect assessment on basis of laboratory toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, Chironomus spp., Americamysis bahia and Gammarus pulex. The acute Tier-1 effect assessment on basis of Daphnia (EC(50)\\/100) overall was protective for organophosphates,

T. C. M. Brock; Wijngaarden van R. P. A



Sylvatic vectors invading houses and the risk of emergence of cases of Chagas disease in Salvador, State of Bahia, Northeast Brazil.  


During the last twenty years, several adults of Triatoma tibiamaculata infected with Trypanosoma cruzi have been spontaneously caught by inhabitants, inside their houses in the new habitational district of Pitua¿u of Salvador, Bahia. In this communication the authors call attention to the necessity of studies about the possibility of occurrence of new human cases of Chagas disease, to clarify the obscure origin of some positive blood donors in Salvador. PMID:10998208

Dias-Lima, A G; Sherlock, I A


Comparison of two hyperspectral imaging and two laser-induced fluorescence instruments for the detection of zinc stress and chlorophyll concentration in bahia grass ( Paspalum notatum Flugge.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum Flugge.) plants were grown in silica sand and irrigated daily with one of five levels of Zn (0, 0.5, 25, 50, or 100 mg l?1) to determine the effects of the heavy metal on the growth and development of plant canopies. Healthy and stressed plants were measured with two hyperspectral imagers, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS), and

Andrew C Schuerger; Gene A Capelle; John A Di Benedetto; Chengye Mao; Chi N Thai; Mark D Evans; Jeff T Richards; Tim A Blank; Elizabeth C Stryjewski



[Control of schistosomiasis infection in the localities of Cachoeira-Bahia, basin of the Paraguaçu, 1982-1992].  


This study evaluates the effectiveness of the Schistosomiasis Control Program, PCE, in Cachoeira, state of Bahia-Brazil, in Paraguaçu Basin Area. Data comes from PCE-111 cards of SUCAM/FNS, which are routinely registered in the 111 villages identified during the study follow up, 1982-1992. The S. mansoni infection was diagnosed through Katz-Kato technique for stool exams. Temporal trends of the prevalence of infection were analyzed for each village. Four trend patterns were identified, and the most common was those of recurrence of infection prevalence (67.6%). Control of the endemics was achieved in 22.5% of the villages, while expansion trends were found in only 9.9% of them. In general, there was found a decrease in the prevalence, particularly, from 1982 to 1985, followed by an increase that do not reach the initial levels. It was observed a relative reduction on the number of villages that shows prevalence below or equal to 5%, that indicates control of the infection. It was not possible to evaluate trends of infection intensity neither the occurrence of severe shistossomiasis disease or related deaths, that may allow a more complete evaluation of this program. PMID:8713610

Santana, V S; Teixeira, M da G; Santos, C C


Prevalence and risk factors associated with anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sheep from Bahia state, Brazil.  


In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and identify risk factors associated with this infection in sheep from the southern region of Bahia state. Between February and December 2010, 795 sheep from 31 farms located in nine municipalities were tested. We found seroprevalence of 30.2% (240/795), with titers of 64 (38.3%), 256 (34.2%), 1,024 (18.3%), and 4,096 (9.2%) by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT). Seropositive sheep were detected in all farms sampled. Univariate statistical analysis detected association between T. gondii seropositivity and the variables age, use of fresh food mainly, water source, stocking rate, production system, presence and number of cats on the farm, and transit of cats (p < 0.05). In the logistic regression model, transit of cats (p = 0.001), production system (p = 0.007), and age (p = 0.027) were identified as risk factors associated with T. gondii infection. PMID:23856729

Guimarães, Luciana Afonso; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Rocha, Daniele de Santana; Albuquerque, George Rêgo


Investigating prediction performance of an artificial neural network and a numerical model of the tidal signal at Puerto Belgrano, Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study we compare performances of the prediction of hourly tidal level variations at Puerto Belgrano, a coastal site in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina), by means of the MOHID model, which is a numerical model designed for coastal and estuarine shallow water applications, and of an artificial neural network (ANN). It was shown that the ANN model is able to predict the hourly tidal levels over long term duration with at least seven days of observations and with a better performance in respect to the numerical model. Our findings can be useful to implement ANN-based tools for future studies of the hydrodynamics of Bahía Blanca estuary.

Pierini, Jorge O.; Lovallo, Michele; Telesca, Luciano; Gómez, Eduardo A.



[Survey of sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with Xylella fastidiosa transmission in citrus groves of the North Coast of Bahia State].  


The causal agent of citrus variegated clorosis, Xylella fastidiosa, is transmitted by leafhoppers of the subfamily Cicadellinae, whose species vary regionally. The goal of this study was to identify potential vectors of this pathogen in citrus groves of Bahia North Coast, Brazil. The survey was done from March/2002 to February/2003 in three seven- to nine-year-old sweet orange (Citrus sinensis, Pêra variety) groves located in Rio Real, BA. Fifteen yellow sticky cards (8.5x11.5 cm) were installed 40 m apart in each grove, hanged at 1.5 m high on the upper north side of citrus canopies, and replaced fortnightly. A sweep net was periodically used to sample leafhoppers on herbaceous weeds inside the groves, by selecting five points at random and performing 30 sweeps in each point. A total of 1,360 specimens of 49 Auchenorrhyncha species were collected in this study, mostly in the family Cicadellidae (90.2%). The subfamily Cicadellinae, which includes the sharpshooter vectors of X. fastidiosa, showed the largest number of species (14) and specimens (84.8%). Acrogonia flagellata Young, A. citrina Marucci & Cavichioli, Homalodisca spottii Takiya, Cavichioli & McKamey and an unidentified Cicadellini (species 1) were the dominant species trapped on citrus canopies, while Hortensia similis (Walker) and Erythrogonia dubia (Medler) were dominant in the weedy vegetation. Among the Cicadellinae species already known as vectors of X. fastidiosa in citrus, only A. citrina, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg) e Ferrariana trivittata (Signoret) were found. The two latter species were accidentally trapped by sweep net in the weedy vegetation. PMID:20098930

De Miranda, Marcelo P; Lopes, João R S; Do Nascimento, Antonio S; Dos Santos, José L; Cavichioli, Rodney R


Diversity in bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and social wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) community in "campos rupestres", Bahia, Brazil.  


Hymenoptera such as bees and social wasps are regular floral visitors in "campos rupestres" vegetation. A community of bees and social wasps was studied during floral visitation in an area of "campos rupestres", at Chapada Diamantina, BA, Brazil, from September 2001 to April 2002. The community was described in relation to diversity, evenness, and dominance rank, considering the individuals abundance (H' = 2.14/ J' = 0.55) and biomass (H' = 2.34/ J' = 0.60). Thirty nine bee (588 individuals/ 15.742 g) and 11 social wasp species (52 individuals/ 2.156 g) were collected, being the first report of social wasps for the Brazilian "campos rupestres". The main species regarding number of individuals were Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), Apis mellifera L., Frieseomelitta francoi (Moure), and Bombus brevivillus Franklin. About 48% of the species were represented by a single individual. There was an inversion in the dominance rank when the species biomass was considered. B. brevivillus, A. mellifera, T spinipes, and other species represented by 15 individuals or less, such as the social wasps Synoeca cyanea (Olivier), Polistes canadensis (L.) and Myschocyttarus drewseni (Saussure), and the bees Eufriesea nigrohirta (Friese), Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Megachile (Pseudocentron) sp.l were the predominant species. The use of biomass in diversity analysis permitted to detect differences in the relative contribution of species in hierarchy dominance. The comparison between bee faunas from different areas indicates a large similarity of the sampled fauna in Palmeiras (Bahia State) with neighboring ecosystems, although with low values of similarity. PMID:17348126

da Silva-Pereira, Vivane; Santos, Gilberto M M


Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and HCV genotypes among hemophiliacs in the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil: analysis of serological and virological parameters.  


The objective of the present study was to analyze HCV serological and virological parameters from hemophiliacs in the State of Bahia. Anti-HCV was investigated by ELISA in a cohort of 268 hemophiliacs A/B who were followed-up in a reference unit for hemotherapy in the State of Bahia. HCV viremia and genotypes were also determined from a subset of 66 anti-HCV seropositive hemophiliacs. Seroprevalence among hemophiliacs was 42.2% (95% CI 36.5-48.1) and was significantly higher (p<0.05) according to age > or =10 years, presence of factor VIII/IX inhibitory antibodies and other infection markers. None of the hemophiliacs less than 5 years of age were anti-HCV seropositive. Viremia was detectable in 77.3% (51/66). HCV genotype 1 (74%) was the most prevalent followed by genotype 3 (22%) and genotype 2 (4%). Our results indicate that HCV prevalence is still high among hemophiliacs, although HCV transmission was not observed in young hemophiliacs. PMID:16410926

Silva, Luciano Kalabric; Silva, Maria Betânia Souza da; Lopes, Gisele Barreto; Rodart, Itatiana Ferreira; Costa, Fernando Quadros; Santana, Nelma P; Paraná, Raymundo; Santana, Aurelino; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos




EPA Science Inventory

A broad range of salinity-temperature conditions (salinities from 3 to 31 o/oo and temperatures from 19 to 31 degrees C) significantly influenced growth rates and subsequent biomass of the estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, reared in the laboratory from the first free juvenile st...


Sensoriamento Remoto NA Estimativa DA Area Plantada COM Feijao, Milho E Mamona No Municipio de Irece (Remote Sensing Techniques in the Estimation of the Area Cultivated with Beans, Corn, and Castor Beans in the Irece County (Bahia State)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to obtain an estimation of the areas cultivated with beans, corn, and castor beans in the Irece county (Bahia State) using statistical and remote sensing techniques. Using a topographic chart at a scale of 1:100,000 the county area was d...

B. F. T. Rudorff T. Krug




Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims on verifying the prevalence of risk factors to the health, nutricional habits, and leisure associate habits of users of a Family Health Unit (UHF) of municipality of Jequié, Bahia (Brazil). The sample was randomly chosen and composed of a single member of each of 101 families (10%) in the UHF. Data were collected at domiciles and information

Raildo da Silva Coqueiro; Adriana Alves Nery; Zoraide Vieira Cruz; Sudoeste da Bahia Jequié-BA


‘Uteis a si e a sociedade’1 or a brief guide to creolisation in nineteenth-century Brazil: black women, mobility, marriage and markets in Salvador da Bahia (1830–1888)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the process of creolisation will be considered through analysis of the wills and testaments of African, black and mixed-race women in nineteenth-century Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. As primary sources these will and testaments provide evidence concerning material, social and cultural markers of creolisation. These markers are read as statements about belonging on the part of formerly enslaved

Jane-Marie Collins



[Preliminary results of a project about the ecology of Phlebotomus vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia].  


Preliminary data of a project about the ecology of the Phlebotominae (sandflies) in a tegumentary leishmaniasis area of coconut plantation in the south of the State of Bahia, Brazil are presented. There are 60 dwellings far of one another, where existed 31 dogs and 229 inhabitants. Among them 41.5% were Montenegro positive; 37.5% from these had scars of healed ulcers and 8.8% had active ulcers. 53% of the house had dogs from which 22% were seropositive; from the 7 dogs with ulcers only 3 were seropositive. 14% of the inspected house harboured sandflies inside them. During two years of observations 72 sentinels hamsters were maintened at houses of patients with leishmaniasis ulcers, but they did not get the infection. During two years of observation, monthly collectings of sandflies were made inside house, chicken pen, curral, tree trunks and open field around a house with a patient with leishmaniasis. The following results were already obtained about the vectors: 5,614 specimens were identified as belonging to fourteen different species of sandflies. Among them Lutzomyia whitmani (92%) and Lutzomyia intermedia (4.8%) were the most abundant species. They are very anthropophilic and can be found inside houses and at peridomestic sites. Probably they are the principal vectors of the disease at domestic places. The other twelve species were less frequent and more found at sylvatic places in inspite they also bite the man. Generally the biting activity of most of the species of the area begins at 5 p.m. in the dusk and reaches its peak at 0 hour a.m., when begins declining until disapear at 7 a.m. L. whitmani was similarly collected with the same density in all lunar phases while L. intermedia was more abundant during the new moon phase. Most of the hundreds sandflies collected during the second year of observations, remains preserved in liquid nitrogen, watching for the adjustment of PCR molecular techniques to be processed for determination of the vector natural infection rates with leishmanias. Final results on all the project will be published as soon as the examination of such material has been processed. PMID:8713612

Sherlock, I A; Maia, H; Dias-Lima, A G


Simulium (Psilopelmia) virescens, a new black-fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the southwestern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil.  


The last-instar larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium virescens sp. nov. are described and illustrated. This species has a peculiar larva, which has an elongated head capsule and light-green colour. The first thoracic segment has tubercle on its dorsal region and the third thoracic segment has one pair of tubercles; the first to the fourth abdominal segments have one pair of tubercles on each segment. Until now this new species had only been collected at the type locality, which is on the middle stretch of the Correntina River in the southwestern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Females were voraciously biting humans during the field work. This new species represents the second species of Simulium (Psilopelmia) in Brazil and the first registered outside of the Brazilian Amazon Region. PMID:22310543

Hamada, Neusa; Silva, Nayra Gomes da; Pereira, Eleny da Silva



Constitution of ethnozoological semantic domains: meaning and inclusiveness of the lexeme "insect" for the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil.  


This article deals with the sociocultural construction of the 'insect' and 'animal' domains by the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca (municipality of Santa Terezinha, Bahia State, Brazil). The fieldwork was performed from September 2006 to July 2007. The data was obtained by means of open-ended interviews of 74 individuals of both genders whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the interviewees were unable to say in an accurate and secure way a specific definition for each domain. Depending on how a given animal is culturally interpreted, it could belong to the semantic domain 'animal' or 'insect', being representative of one or another group. However, in practice, such a distinction between these two semantic domains appears as something tenuous and ambiguous. Researchers who carry out biodiversity inventories should pay attention to the ethnocategory 'insect' during their studies, especially if these involve the participation of traditional community representatives. PMID:21670881

Santos-Fita, Dídac; Costa-Neto, Eraldo M; Schiavetti, Alexandre



["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].  


This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body. PMID:24068222

Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein



Temporal evolution of the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary hospital in Bahia, Brazil: a nine-year evaluation study.  


Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become an increasing problem in Brazilian hospitals within the last years. In Bahia, there is scarce information on the epidemiological characteristics of MRSA infections and their determinants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the temporal evolution of MRSA infections in a private, tertiary hospital, in Salvador, the capital of the state of Bahia. We reviewed the microbiological records of bacterial isolates from the Hospital Espanhol, a 300 bed, general hospital, in Salvador. We analyzed the frequency of positive cultures for S. aureus during the last nine years, the prevalence of MRSA, and the spatial distribution of the isolates in the hospital. We also evaluated the temporal evolution of MRSA during the study period. Seven-hundred-ten cultures were positive for S. aureus from 1996 through 2004. The prevalence of MRSA was 28%. The intensive care unit (59%), the hemodyalisis unit (43%), and the infectious diseases unit (34%) presented with significantly higher prevalence of MRSA, when compared to the remaining clinics of the hospital. We detected a significant increase of MRSA isolation among patients with nosocomial infections, over time (P<0.0001). MRSA isolates were highly resistant to alternative drugs (clyndamicin, erythromycin, co-trimexazole, levofloxacin), reinforcing the likelihood of nosocomial acquisition of the pathogen. The overall prevalence of MRSA in the hospital has remained relatively stable within the last nine years, but there was a significant trend forincreasing nosocomial acquisition of MRSA over time, which is even higher for patients attended in intensive care units, HDU, or IDU. PMID:17293902

Brites, Carlos; Silva, Nanci; Sampaio-Sá, Márcia



Paleomagnetism of Middle Proterozoic (1.01 to 1.08 Ga) mafic dykes in southeastern Bahia State-Sa~o Francisco Craton, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleomagnetic results from profuse Middle-Late Proterozoic mafic dyke swarms in southeastern Bahia State (Sa~o Francisco Craton) yield either an easterly direction with high upward inclination or a westerly direction with high downward inclination isolated during AF and/or thermal treatments. Thermal demagnetization behavior and thermochronologic and petrologic considerations indicate that these remanent components originated as primary TRM's. Four groups of directions were distinguished from dykes in spatially distinct areas: Ilheus normal polarity (D = 60.0° I = -68.8° ?95 = 2.6° N = 17) , Olivença normal polarity (D = 82.4° I = -71.0° ?95 = 5.1; N = 31), Itajú do Colônia (D = 99.0; I = -71.9 ; ?95 = 5.9° N = 23) and Olivença reversed polarity (D = 298.8° I = 60.7° ?95 = 6.4° N = 18), which yield paleomagnetic poles located at 100.4°E 30.3°N (IN), 107.0°E 16.1°N (ON), 111.0°E 7.7°N (IC) and 280.2°E 17.0°N (OR), respectively. These poles define an APW path for the Sa~o Francisco Craton between the time interval 1.01-1.08 Ga which is characterized by at least two polarity intervals.

D'Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.; Pacca, Igor G.; Renne, Paul R.; Onstott, Tullis C.; Teixeira, Wilson



[Representations and experiences of obstetrician/gynecologists with legal and illegal abortion in two maternity-hospitals in Salvador da Bahia].  


The objective of this qualitative study, carried out in two maternity-hospitals in Salvador da Bahia, was to investigate the experience and representations of health professionals, and particularly obstetricians-gynecologists, regarding legal abortion in comparison with their representations and experience with illegal abortion. A questionnaire was distributed and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals (13 obstetricians-gynecologists) in a hospital providing legal abortion (P) and with 20 health professionals (9 obstetricians-gynecologists) in another hospital that does not provide this service (F). The factors that influence the representations and experience of abortion of most obstetricians-gynecologists and explain the high rate of conscientious objection at Hospital P were: 1- the criminalization of abortion and the fear of being denounced; 2- the stigmatization of abortion by certain religious groups and by the physicians themselves; 3- training in obstetrics and the lack of good training in the epidemiology of maternal morbidity-mortality and abortion; 4- representations on gender relations. The main factors associated with liberal attitudes were: age - under 30 and over 45 years of age - experience with high maternal mortality rates due to abortion and experience with legal abortion. PMID:22872336

De Zordo, Silvia



Predicting the toxicity of major ions in seawater to mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside minnow (Menidia beryllina)  

SciTech Connect

Although marine organisms are naturally adapted to salinities well above those of freshwater, elevated concentrations of specific ions have been shown to cause adverse effects on some saltwater species. Because some ions are also physiologically essential, a deficiency of these ions can also cause significant effects. To provide a predictive tool to assess toxicity associated with major ions, mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside minnows (Menidia beryllina) were exposed to saline solutions containing calcium, magnesium, potassium, strontium, bicarbonate, borate, bromide, and sulfate at concentrations above and below what would be found in seawater. Solution salinity was maintained at approximately 31% by increasing or decreasing sodium and chloride concentrations. Logistic regression models were developed with both the ion molar concentrations and ion activity. Toxicity to all three species was observed when either a deficiency or an excess of potassium and calcium occurred. Significant mortality occurred in all species when exposed to excess concentrations of magnesium, bicarbonate, and borate. The response to the remaining ions varied with species. Sheepshead minnows were the most tolerant of both deficient and elevated levels of the different ions. Mysid shrimp and inland silverside minnows demonstrated similar sensitivities to several ions, but silverside minnow response was more variable. As a result, the logistic models that predict inland silverside minnow survival generally were less robust than for the other two species.

Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Caudle, D.D.; Tietge, J.E.; Evans, J.M.



Evaluation of the salt accumulation process during inundation in water resource of Contas river basin (Bahia-Brazil) applying principal component analysis.  


The high salinization in some reservoirs of the Contas river basin (Bahia-Brazil) has been erroneously attributed only to concentration by evaporation. However, recent studies of this basin have shown that in period of intense rainfalls, occur an increase of the saline concentration in the flowing rivers of the reservoirs. The application of statistical methods (cluster and principal components analysis) have shown that this fact can be attributed to the discharge of saline waters from the small reservoirs of every drained area, provoked by inundation, is also an important factor in the salinization process. Thus the study of the geochemical variables: Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) and CO(3)(2-), showed one group formed by Na(+) and Cl(-), attributed to the discharge of saline water provoked by inundation from a small reservoir, and a second group constituted by Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+) and SO(4)(2-), due to an increase provoked by the evaporation in the salinization process. PMID:15016535

dos Santos, José Soares; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; Bruns, Roy Eduard; Gennari, Roselí Fernandes



[Non-industrial labor, internal conditions and repetitive strain injury: a case study in a shellfish-rearing community on Maré Island, State of Bahia, Brazil].  


Non-industrial labor is still widespread in Brazil. An appropriate approach ought to consider different social specificities from those of salaried-work relations. The scope was to examine non-industrial work practices, specifically those of extractive shellfishing, and their relation to health conditions in a small-scale fishing community. It focused on the cadences and time contingencies, as well as other working conditions, related to the development of ailments such as repetitive strain injury -RSI. A qualitative-ethnographic study was conducted between 2005 and 2007 in a community of 800 inhabitants, located on Maré Island in the state of Bahia. In a population consisting of fishing households, thirty families were interviewed, observed at work and - in cases of suspected RSI -referred to a specialized health service. The seriousness of the working conditions became evident, especially with respect to RSI. By way of illustration, an average frequency of 10,200 repetitive movements per hour were verified in extractive shellfishing, while the official Brazilian norm (NR17) for a keyboarder establishes a maximum of 8,000 movements per hour. This suggests that women shellfishers ought to be included in repetitive strain injury risk groups. PMID:21860937

Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares de; Cardim, Adryanna



Severe Impact and Subsequent Recovery of a Coral Assemblage following the 1997-8 El Ni?o Event: A 17-Year Study from Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The coral reefs of northern Bahia evolved in isolation from other Atlantic systems and under conditions of high environmental stress, particularly high turbidity. We have monitored the scleractinian assemblage of four shallow bank reefs (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) annually for 17 years since 1995, collecting quantitative data on diversity and density of coral colonies. As the sampling period included the 1997–8 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for the first time these results allow a quantitative assessment of the long-term impact of this major environmental stressor on such a coral assemblage. After El Niño, most species showed significantly reduced densities of colonies, this decline occurring for the subsequent two years without evidence of any new settlement until 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the species Porites astreoides went unrecorded. Recovery was slow, and multivariate analysis revealed that assemblages had not returned to the pre-El Niño state until 2011. It therefore took 13 years for full recovery of the coral assemblage to occur, which has consequences for reef systems if such El-Niño events become more frequent in the future.

Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J.



Potential pollinators of Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), in restinga, Bahia, Brazil.  


Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) are tropical plant species found in restinga (herbaceous-shrubby, sandy costal ecosystems). They have flowers with poricidal anthers and are pollinated by bees. The study sought to analyse potential pollinators of both plants during visits to their flowers in a restinga area in Bahia. The flowering displayed by both species was considered continuous and long duration, constantly providing pollen to floral visitors. C. ovalifolia was visited by 17 species of bees and C. ramosa by 16 species, predominantly from the Apidae family (with a similarity index of 74%). The behavior displayed by these visiting bees was of vibrating anthers. The small-sized Euglossa sp. Latreille, 1802 and Florilegus similis Urban, 1970 bees played less of a role as pollinators, since they rarely touched the flower stigma during harvests and were thus considered opportunist visitors or casual pollinators. Centris decolorata Lepetier, 1841 (= C. leprieuri) and Xylocopa subcyanea Perez, 1901 are large bees and were considered efficient pollinators of C. ovalifolia and C. ramosa because of the higher frequency and constancy of their visits, and their favourable behaviour and size for pollen transfer between flowers, which guarantees the survival of these native restinga plant species. PMID:21755150

Oliveira-Rebouças, P; Gimenes, M



Long-term Change in Eelgrass Distribution at Bahi??a San Quinti??n, Baja California, Mexico, using Satellite Imagery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seagrasses are critically important components of many marine coastal and estuarine ecosystems, but are declining worldwide. Spatial change in distribution of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., was assessed at Bahi??a San Quinti??n, Baja California, Mexico, using a map to map comparison of data interpreted from a 1987 Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre multispectral satellite image and a 2000 Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapping image. Eelgrass comprised 49% and 43% of the areal extent of the bay in 1987 and 2000, respectively. Spatial extent of eelgrass was 13% less (-321 ha) in 2000 than in 1987 with most losses occurring in subtidal areas. Over the 13-yr study period, there was a 34% loss of submerged eelgrass (-457 ha) and a 13% (+136 ha) gain of intertidal eelgrass. Within the two types of intertidal eelgrass, the patchy cover class (<85% cover) expanded (+250 ha) and continuous cover class (???85% cover) declined (-114 ha). Most eelgrass losses were likely the result of sediment loading and turbidity caused by a single flooding event in winter of 1992-1993. Recent large-scale agricultural development of adjacent uplands may have exacerbated the effects of the flood. Oyster farming was not associated with any detectable losses in eelgrass spatial extent, despite the increase in number of oyster racks from 57 to 484 over the study period.

Ward, D. H.; Morton, A.; Tibbitts, T. L.; Douglas, D. C.; Carrera-Gonzalez, E.



Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.

Moreira Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Sacramento Cunha Machado, Marcia; Borges da Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando; Fernandes Weyll Pimentel, Rodrigo; Teixeira Ferreira, Tatiana; Silva Leoni, Fernanda Maria; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios



Severe impact and subsequent recovery of a coral assemblage following the 1997-8 El Niño event: a 17-year study from Bahia, Brazil.  


The coral reefs of northern Bahia evolved in isolation from other Atlantic systems and under conditions of high environmental stress, particularly high turbidity. We have monitored the scleractinian assemblage of four shallow bank reefs (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) annually for 17 years since 1995, collecting quantitative data on diversity and density of coral colonies. As the sampling period included the 1997-8 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for the first time these results allow a quantitative assessment of the long-term impact of this major environmental stressor on such a coral assemblage. After El Niño, most species showed significantly reduced densities of colonies, this decline occurring for the subsequent two years without evidence of any new settlement until 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the species Porites astreoides went unrecorded. Recovery was slow, and multivariate analysis revealed that assemblages had not returned to the pre-El Niño state until 2011. It therefore took 13 years for full recovery of the coral assemblage to occur, which has consequences for reef systems if such El-Niño events become more frequent in the future. PMID:23741459

Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J



Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van B?n?den, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen’s reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40’59”S and 38°56’38”W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary - the region’s main river - at 5.5?m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size. Behaviours described were compatible with the observations made in situ and with data found in the scientific literature, confirming the importance of traditional knowledge in complementing scientific data. One behaviour mentioned by the fishermen that had no equivalence in the scientific literature was confirmed in situ and, therefore, constitutes the first record for this species.



Capture and commercialization of blue land crabs ("guaiamum") Cardisoma guanhumi (Lattreille, 1825) along the coast of Bahia State, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach  

PubMed Central

Background Blue Land Crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) is one of the most important crustacean species captured and commercialized in Brazil. Although this species is not considered to be threatened with extinction, populations of C. guanhumi are known to be rapidly diminishing due to heavy harvesting pressures and degradation of their natural habitats, highlighting the necessity of developing and implanting management and protection strategies for their populations. There have been no ethnozoological publications that have focused specifically on C. guanhumi, in spite of importance of this type of information for developing efficient management plans of resource utilization. So, the present work describes the ethnoecological aspects of the capture and commercialization of C. guanhumi by a fishing community in northeastern Brazil. Methods Field work was carried out in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia in Brazil, between the months of January and March/2011 through the use of open semi-structured interviews with all of the crustacean harvesters in city who acknowledged their work in capturing this species, totaling 12 interviewees. The informants were identified through the use of the "snowball" sampling technique. In addition to the interviews themselves, the "guided tour" technique and direct observations was employed. Results According all the interviewees, the C. guanhumi is popularly called "guaiamum" and is collected in "apicum" zones. They recognize sexual dimorphism in the species based on three morphological characteristics and the harvesters also pointed two stages in the reproductive cycle during the year and another phase mentioned by the interviewees was ecdysis. All of the interviewed affirmed that the size and the quantities C. guanhumi stocks in Mucuri have been diminishing. All of the interviewees agreed that the species and other mangrove resources constituted their principal source of income. The harvesters dedicated three to five days a week to collect Blue Land Crabs and the principal technique utilized for capturing is a trap called a "ratoeira" (rat-trap). Conclusions The results of the present work demonstrated that the community retains a vast and important volume of knowledge about C. guanhumi that could subsidize both scientific studies and the elaboration of viable management and conservation strategies for this species.



C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 ?m, 1000-2000 ?m, 250-1000 ?m, 53-250 ?m, and <53 ?m). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 ?m) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 ?m size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS.

Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.



Tectonic fabric revealed by AARM of the proterozoic mafic dike swarm in the Salvador city (Bahia State): São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fabric and rock magnetism studies were performed on 25 unmetamorphosed mafic dikes of the Meso-Late Proterozoic (˜1.02 Ga) dike swarm from Salvador (Bahia State, NE Brazil). This area lies in the north-eastern part of the São Francisco Craton, which was dominantly formed/reworked during the Transamazonian orogeny (2.14-1.94 Ga). The dikes crop out along the beaches and in quarries around Salvador city, and cut across both amphibolite dikes and granulites. Their widths range from a few centimeters up to 30 m with an average of ˜4 m, and show two main trends N140-190 and N100-120 with vertical dips. Magnetic fabrics were determined using both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). The magnetic mineralogy was investigated by many experiments including remanent magnetization measurements at variable low temperatures (10-300 K), Mössbauer spectroscopy, high temperature magnetization curves (25-700 °C) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rock magnetism study suggests pseudo-single-domain magnetite grains carrying the bulk magnetic susceptibility and AARM fabrics. The magnetite grains found in these dikes are large and we discard the presence of single-domain grains. Its composition is close to stoichiometric with low Ti substitution, and its Verwey transition occurs around 120 K. The main AMS fabric recognized in the swarm is so-called normal, in which the Kmax- Kint plane is parallel to the dike plane and the magnetic foliation pole ( Kmin) is perpendicular to it. This fabric is interpreted as due to magma flow, and analysis of the Kmax inclination permitted to infer that approximately 80% of the dikes were fed by horizontal or sub-horizontal flows ( Kmax < 30°). This interpretation is supported by structural field evidence found in five dikes. In addition, based on the plunge of Kmax, two mantle sources could be inferred; one of them which fed about 80% of the swarm would be located in the southern part of the region, and the other underlied the Valéria quarry. However, for all dikes the AARM tensors are not coaxial with AMS fabrics and show a magnetic lineation (AARM max) oriented to N30-60E, suggesting that magnetite grains were rotated clockwise from dike plane. The orientation of AARM lineation is similar to the orientation of a system of faults in which the Salvador normal fault is the most important. These faults were formed during Cretaceous rifting in the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá assemblage that corresponds to an aborted intra-continental rift formed during the opening of the South Atlantic. Therefore, the AARM fabric found for the Salvador dikes is probably tectonic in origin and suggests that the dike swarm was affected by the important tectonic event responsible for the break-up of the Gondwanaland.

Raposo, M. Irene B.; Berquó, Thelma S.



Gas geochemistry of a shallow submarine hydrothermal vent associated with the El Requeso??n fault zone, Bahi??a Concepcio??n, Baja California Sur, Me??xico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated hydrothermal gas venting associated with a coastal fault zone along the western margin of Bahi??a Concepcio??n, B.C.S., Me??xico. Copious discharge of geothermal liquid (??? 90 ??C) and gas is occurring in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones (to a depth of 13 m) through soft sediments and fractures in rocks along a ???750 m linear trend generally sub-parallel to an onshore fault near Punta Santa Barbara. Hydrothermal activity shows negative correlation with tidal height; temperatures in the area of hydrothermal activity were up to 11.3 ??C higher at low tide than at high tide (measured tidal range ??? 120 cm). Gas samples were collected using SCUBA and analyzed for chemical composition and stable isotope values. The main components of the gas are N2 (??? 53%; 534 mmol/mol), CO2 (??? 43%; 435 mmol/mol), and CH4 (??? 2.2%; 22 mmol/mol). The ??13C values of the CH4 (mean = - 34.3%), and the ratios of CH4 to C2H6 (mean = 89), indicate that the gas is thermogenic in origin. The carbon stable isotopes and the ??15N of the N2 in the gas (mean = 1.7%) suggest it may be partially derived from the thermal alteration of algal material in immature sedimentary organic matter. The He isotope ratios (3He/4He = 1.32 RA) indicate a significant mantle component (16.3%) in the gas. Here, we suggest the name El Requeso??n fault zone for the faults that likely formed as a result of extension in the region during the late Miocene, and are currently serving as conduits for the observed hydrothermal activity. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Forrest, M. J.; Ledesma-Vazquez, J.; Ussler, III, W.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Hilton, D. R.; Greene, H. G.



Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil.  


We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along approximately 150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dendê were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches. PMID:18256899

Santos, Isaac R; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção



Mössbauer studies on some Argentinian soil: Mollisols from Bahia Blanca  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay fractions of a Mollisol sample as is, treated with ammonium oxalate (AO), with dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) and with dithionite-ethilene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (D-EDTA) methods, were studied. Illite-montmorillonites together with hematites, goethites and maghemites, all of the AI-substituted and with a wide range of sizes, were identified. It is found that the AO attack extracts little iron, whereas the other two attacks extract the magnetic signal. Furthermore, the DCB attack facilitates the reduction of the Fe3+ ions, while the D-EDTA method does not. Instead, this attack extracts more clay mineral Fe ions. A comparison with large grain soil samples is made.

Saragovi, C.; Labenski, F.; Duhalde, S. M.; Acebal, S.; Venegas, R.




Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out on the water quality in Bahía de Nipe, with an approximate volume of 1,700 million cubic metres and average depth of 7 m, located NE of the eastern region of Cuba (75040' W, 20050 N). A network of 37 stations was established and seven cruises were conducted during and at the end of the sugar

Teresita Romero-López; Gerardo Suárez-Alvarez; Playa Ciudad Habana; Ciudad Habana



Hydrogeologic Characterization of the Cachoeira Deposit Massif, Caetite, State of Bahia, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hydrogeologic applications for the characterization of rock massifs in future mining activity areas are presented. The study was performed in the Cachoeira uranium deposit (Anomaly No. 13 - Lagoa Real Project) located in the south-central portion of t...

J. A. Bottura J. L. Albuquerque Filho L. M. Ojima



Calc-Sodic Zoning in Rocks from Lagoa Real Uranium Province, State of Bahia, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preliminary studies of the lithogeochemistry, carried out on various deposits from the uranium province of Lagoa Real, show that in relation to the complex and multiphased processes of metasomatism, the sodic metasomatites are younger and were superposed ...

C. Raposo E. C. Matos W. Brito



Characterization of the lead smelter slag in Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil.  


For 33 years, a primary lead smelter operated in Santo Amaro (Brazil). Since the 1970s, large amounts of Pb and Cd have been widely documented in the blood and hair of people living near the smelter. The plant closed down in 1993, and several years later, the Pb levels in the blood of children under 4 years of age living near the smelter were high, where the disposed lead slag was suspected to be the main source of this contamination. The objective of this study is to elucidate the source of the Pb contamination and any other potentially toxic contamination, focusing on the characterization of the slag. The samples used for this characterization study were taken from the slag heaps. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the major constituents of the slag, in decreasing order of wt%, were the following: Fe(2)O(3) (28.10), CaO (23.11), SiO(2) (21.39), ZnO (9.47), MgO (5.44), PbO (4.06), Al(2)O(3) (3.56), C (2.26), MnO (1.44), Na(2)O (0.27), S (0.37), K(2)O (0.26), and TiO(2) (0.25). The Cd content of the slag was 57.3mg/kg, which is relatively low. The X-ray diffraction and the electron probe microanalyzer X-ray mapping indicated that the major phases in the slag were wüstite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and franklinite. Only spheroidal metallic Pb was found in the slag. The leaching study showed that the slag was stable at a pH greater than 2.8, and only in an extremely acidic environment was the solubilization of the Pb enhanced significantly. The solubilization of Zn was very limited in the acidic and alkaline environments. These results can be explained by the limited leachability of the metallic Pb and Zn-bearing compounds. The leaching study used TCLP, SPLP, and SWEP and indicated that the lead slag was stable in weak acidic environments for short contact times. PMID:21440365

Lima, L R P de Andrade; Bernardez, L A



Origin of sulfide and phosphate deposits in Upper Proterozoic carbonate strata, Irece basin, Bahia, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Carbonate strata of the Una Group represent late Proterozoic platform sedimentation in the Irece basin of north-central Brazil. Stratabound sulfide- and phosphate-rich units occur within a 50-m thick tidal flat sequence of dolomitic limestone and cherty dolomite. Three types of primary phosphate concentrations are present: columnar stromatolitic, laminar stromatolitic, and intraclastic. Resedimented phosphate clasts and phosphatic units interbedded with non phosphatic dolomites suggest early diagenetic replacement of algal carbonate units. Local stratabound Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide concentrations at the Tres Irmas prospect occur within silty dolomite with shallow water sedimentary structures and local disturbed laminae, synsedimentary faults, and breccias. Sulfide minerals include pyrite, sphalerite, galena, marcasite, jordanite, tetrahedrite, and covellite. Pyrite crystal aggregates commonly show bladed forms. Nodular aggregates of length-slow quartz are locally associated with sulfides. Sulfur isotope analyses indicate relatively uniform heavy {delta}{sup 34}S values. Barite shows a {delta}{sup 34}S range from +25.2 to +29.6{per thousand}, CDT. Pyrite and sphalerite representative of a variety of textural types have a {delta}{sup 34}S range of +20.2 to +22.6{per thousand}. Late Proterozoic evaporite sulfates show a wide range of {delta}{sup 34} S values from about +10 to +28{per thousand}. Thus, the {delta}{sup 34}S values for Irece barite could reflect original seawater sulfate values. However, the relatively heavy {delta}{sup 34}S values of the associated sulfides suggests that the original seawater sulfate was modified by bacterial sulfate reduction processes in shallow sea floor sediments. Textural and {delta}{sup 34}S evidence suggests that a later stage of metallic mineralization scavenged sulfur from preexisting sulfides or from direct reduction of evaporitic sulfate minerals.

Kyle, J.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)); Misi, A. (Univ. Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil))



Mangrove swamps of the Subaé and Paraguaçú tributary rivers of Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different areas from the Todos os Santos Bay were monitored and the fate of heavy metals in these environments was determined. From 1982 to 1992, a significant worsening in the availability of heavy metals in the different sites of the Bay was observed. However, it must be emphasised that the comparison between the present results and those obtained from other works rests on a gap of at least three years. The determinations of heavy metal concentrations were based on the analysis of surface sediments of the different stations selected and the observed increase is probably due to the transport of the elements by tidal dynamics and upstream riverine transport of industrial effluents.

Paredes, J. F.; Queiroz, A. F. S.; Carvalho, I. G.; Ramos, M. A. S. B.; Santos, A. L. F.; Mosser, C.



EPA Science Inventory

Fenoxycarb is a juvenile hormone (JH) mimic used to control insect pests by interfering with reproductive and developmental processes mediated by JH. Crustaceans are ideal organisms to monitor environmental effects of these endocrine disruptors, since they are dominant aquatic ar...


Risk Factors for Asthma in a Helminth Endemic Area in Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Protective factors associated with atopy or asthma in rural areas include socioeconomic level, overcrowding, and helminth infection. However, little epidemiological information was originated from schistosomiasis areas. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with asthma in a schistosomiasis endemic area. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, socioeconomic, and environmental features. The ISAAC questionnaire was used to identify individuals with asthma. Parasitological exam was done in all participants and skin prick test to aeroallergens in all asthmatics. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 57.4% and Ascaris lumbricoides, 30.8%. Asthma was found in 13.1% of the population, and 35.1% of them had a positive SPT. Active and passive smoking was positively associated with asthma, whereas A. lumbricoides was negatively associated. In a schistosomiasis hyperendemic region, current infection with A. lumbricoides is protective against asthma. However, we cannot rule out the involvement of S. mansoni infection in this process.

Cardoso, Luciana S.; Costa, Daniela M.; Almeida, Maria Cecilia F.; Souza, Robson P.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Oliveira, Ricardo R.



Isomers of the dodecylbenzene in marine sediments from the Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear alkylbenzenes(LAB) have been investigated in surficial sediments from the Todos os Santos Bay, the largest on the Brazilian coast. The presence of these compounds in the environment has been related to sewage pollution because they are manufactured for the preparation of surfactants used in detergent formulations. They are usually present as an homologous series of compounds with a side

V. L. C. Souza Santos; C. C. Raymundo; T. Tavares



Schistosoma mansoni population structure and persistence after praziquantel treatment in two villages of Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praziquantel has been used to treat schistosome infections since 1979 and currently is the only chemotherapeutic agent in production for this purpose, raising concerns about the potential for the emergence of drug resistance. In practice, 10–20% of infected patients will continue to excrete eggs after treatment. It is not understood to what degree this represents selection of a resistant population

Ronald E. Blanton; Walter A. Blank; Jackson M. Costa; Theomira M. Carmo; Eliana A. Reis; Luciano K. Silva; Lúcio M. Barbosa; Mitermayer G. Reis



Aechmea itapoana , a new species from Bahia (Brazil): Taxonomy and ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aechmea itapoana is a new, conspicuous and distinct species from the coastal sand dune scrub of N.E. Brazil. Its possible relationships within subgenusChevaliera, toA. multiflora andA. rodriguesia are discussed.

Wilfried Morawetz; Walter Till



Vocalization and territorial behaviour of Phyllomedusa nordestina Caramaschi, 2006 (Anura: Hylidae) from southern Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Territoriality is common among amphibians with a prolonged breeding season and can be expressed through the defence of territories with vocalizations and aggressive interactions. The present study aims to describe the territorial behaviour of male Phyllomedusa nordestina, test whether the physical characteristics of males influence the results of disputes, and describe the vocalizations of the species. The study was conducted

Tatiana Raquel Alves Vilaça; Juliana Rodrigues dos Santos Silva; Mirco Solé



Analysis of the risk of karst collapse in Lapão, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 2008, the large extent of dissolution of limestone in the Irecê Basin resulted in the occurrence of minor ground shakes and the enhancement of fractures along the surface of the ground and on the walls of buildings in the urban and periurban area of the city of Lapão. After preliminary geological and geotechnical studies to analyse the danger of collapse of underground caves, we have carried out gravity and electro-resistivity profiles in order to map the concealed caves and to help the determination of the level of groundwater within them. The interpretation of the results provided useful information both for the immediate safety of the population and for subsequent hydrological and geotechnical work. We have defined five risk areas based on the variations of the Bouguer and of the electrical resistivity data, by correlating the distribution of gravity lows with the presence of caves and the less resistive zones with the presence of brine water underground.

dos Santos, Emerson S. M.; Silva, Raymundo W. S.; Sampaio, Edson E. S.



New data on the rock composition of the Bahia Seamounts (Brazil Basin, South Atlantic Ocean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 28th cruise of R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov in 2009, five different mountains belonging to the northern chain of the Baia Seamounts, located in the Brazil Basin, were dredged. Igneous rocks, limestones, and Fe-Mn crusts were collected. Igneous rocks are greatly altered resulting from halmyrolithic and/or low-temperature hydrothermal processes; the main secondary minerals are smectite, iron hydroxide, and phillipsite. Igneous rocks are subdivided into two groups, namely, trachybasalts and trachyandesites. Trachybasalts are aphyric rocks, consisting of basal plagioclase microlites, Fe-Ti ore mineral, olivine, and clinopyroxene. Trachyandesites are rarely porphyre rocks. Inclusions in trachyandesite are represented by acidic plagioclase, olivine, biotite, and zircon. The main mass is formed by acidic plagioclase and a small quantity of clinopyroxene.

Skolotnev, S. G.; Peive, A. A.; Eskin, A. E.; Petrova, V. V.; Patina, I. S.



Americamysis bahia: A New Laboratory Model for Conservation Genetics in a Changing Environment (AGA09)  

EPA Science Inventory

Levels of population genetic diversity are expected to play an important role in species persistence during periods of environmental change, yet our understanding of how to quantify relevant aspects of this diversity is not well developed. We are conducting a long-term study wit...


[Quilombo communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: hypertension and associated factors].  


The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension in members of quilombos (slavedescendant African-Brazilian communities) and to evaluate possible associated factors. A population-based survey included 797 individuals 18 years or older. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure > 140mmHg or diastolic blood pressure > 90mmHg or reported use of antihypertensive medication. We used Poisson regression with robust variance and hierarchical entry of variables. Prevalence of hypertension was 45.4% (95%CI: 41.89-48.85). Factors associated with hypertension were: neighborhood security (distal), age, economic class, education, and physical inactivity (intermediate), and body mass index (proximal). Health promotion is needed in the quilombo communities through action at the individual and population levels. The high prevalence of hypertension highlights the need for broad access to health services for prevention, early diagnosis, and guidelines for adequate management. PMID:24068233

Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; César, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira




EPA Science Inventory

The study described here examined effects on mortality, growth, reproduction, and behavior of Americamysis bahi exposed under extended static conditions to bedded sediments from Corpus Christi Bay. ...


Transtensional rifting in the late Proto-Gulf of California near Bahia Kino, Sonora, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of California provides an active rift example to test the role of rift obliquity in continental rupture. Continental rifts require focused strain to rupture and form an ocean basin. Strike-slip faults are ubiquitous in oblique rifts and focused transtensional strain adjacent to these faults may be a catalyst for rupture. To test this hypothesis, I completed structural mapping, fault-kinematic analysis, geochronology, basin analysis, and paleomagnetism of pre- and syn-rift rocks exposed in coastal Sonora, Mexico. Sedimentary basins record ˜16 km of west-northwest-directed transtension across the Kino-Chueca Shear Zone. Onset of transtension in the study area is estimated to be ca. 7 Ma and lasted for approximately 1 million years. This represents a significant portion (˜28%) of plate boundary deformation over this time interval. Dextral shear was progressively localized within this zone of extensional deformation, and together shear and extension acted to focus lithospheric-scale strain into a narrower zone.

Bennett, Scott Edmund Kelsey


Inverse Demographic Analysis of Compensatory Responses to Resource Limitation in the Mysid Crustacean Americamysis bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...


Complex Population Responses to Food Resources in the Marine Crustacean Americamysis Bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...



EPA Science Inventory

Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...


Atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of particulate trace metals in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory system is the major route of entry for airborne particulates, being the effect on the human organism dependent on chemical composition of the particles, exposure time and individual susceptibility. Airborne particulate trace metals are considered to represent a health hazard since they may be absorbed into human lung tissues during breathing. Fossil fuel and wood combustion, as well as

Pedro A. de P. Pereira; Wilson A. Lopes; Luiz S. Carvalho; Gisele O. da Rocha; Nei de Carvalho Bahia; Josiane Loyola; Simone L. Quiterio; Viviane Escaleira; Graciela Arbilla; Jailson B. de Andrade



The Jacobina Paleoproterozoic gold-bearing conglomerates, Bahia, Brazil: a “hydrothermal shear-reservoir” model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The N–S Jacobina foreland basin is a Paleoproterozoic basin (2080 to 1900 Ma) of stacked detrital and schist formations developed along a sinistral wrench–overthrust fault of the Transamazonian orogeny. At least five successive stages are identified in the westward progradation of the basin, wherein bedding-parallel strike–slip thrusts and prograde metamorphism indicate progressive involvement in the Transamazonian collision. Shearing and associated

J. P Milesi; P Ledru; E Marcoux; R Mougeot; V Johan; C Lerouge; P Sabaté; L Bailly; J. P Respaut; P Skipwith




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Hammondia heydorni, Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii são protozoários coccídios que parasitam diferentes espécies animais domésticas e silvestres. E nquanto a infecção por H. heydorni parece ser assintomática, N. caninum e T. gondii podem provocar alterações reprodutivas em ruminantes. N. caninum é um importante causador de abortamentos em bovinos, ao passo que T. gondii induz a abortamentos em caprinos



Palynological origin, phenolic content, and antioxidant properties of honeybee-collected pollen from Bahia, Brazil.  


The aim of this study was to determine the palynological origin, phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant properties of twenty-five samples of bee pollen harvested during a nine-month period (February-November) from the Canavieiras municipality (northeastern Brazil). Of the 25 samples analyzed, only two (February 01 and 02) were heterofloral. The predominant pollens in the samples analyzed during that month were: Cecropia, Eucalyptus, Elaeis, Mimosa pudica, Eupatorium, and Scoparia. Ethyl acetate fractions were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The flavonoids isoquercetin, myricetin, tricetin, quercetin, luteolin, selagin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were detected. The flavonoid present in all 22 samples was isolated and identified as isorhamnetin 3-O-b-neohesperidoside. The total phenolic contents determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent ranged from 41.5 to 213.2 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activities based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and Fe2+ ion chelating activity assays were observed for all extracts, and correlated with the total phenolic content. PMID:22314384

Freire, Kristerson R L; Lins, Antonio C S; Dórea, Marcos C; Santos, Francisco A R; Camara, Celso A; Silva, Tania M S



Expression Analysis of Ecdysone Receptor and Ultraspiracle through Molting Period in Mysid Crustacean, Americamysis bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecdysteroids, primarily 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), play a central role in the growth of arthropods. Molecular target of the ecdysteroids is known as a receptor complex composed of ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP) protein. It is important to clarify the expression profile of EcR\\/USP in crustacean for understanding the endocrine disrupting effects of environmental xenobiotics on crustacean. However, despite EcR\\/USP has



Estrutura e dinâmica do componente arbóreo em área de cabruca na região cacaueira do sul da Bahia, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

. A maioria das árvores pertenceu a espécies de florestas maduras, mas os novos indivíduos recrutados foram quase todos de espécies pioneiras. A estimativa de riqueza total (Chao) foi de 110 espécies, com redução de 20 espécies durante o período. Os resultados confirmaram as indicações de que as cabrucas representam um importante banco de espécies arbóreas nativas, mas estão sendo

Regina Helena Rosa Sambuichi; Rosa Sambuichi



Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

U–Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152±6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155±9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Trilhado granodiorite, and

Edson F. Mello; Roberto P. Xavier; Neal J. McNaughton; Steffen G. Hagemann; Ian Fletcher; Larry Snee



Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152±6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155±9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from

Edson F. Mello; Roberto P. Xavier; Neal J. McNaughton; Steffen G. Hagemann; Ian Fletcher; Larry Snee



[Facilitating factors and difficulties in the the implementation of sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil].  


Drugstores are the health establishments where medications are dispensed, which is why sanitary surveillance is justified as a means of intervention. The health department uses various technologies to control risk in drugstores. In this study we used the theory of the process of work in health as a benchmark in order to describe and analyze the strengths and difficulties encountered in sanitary surveillance in drugstores in Salvador. Case study methodological strategy was adopted, the analytical categories being facilitating factors and difficulties inherent to technicians, drugstore, sanitary surveillance service and the social environment. Data were collected through direct observation techniques and semi-structured interviews, and the findings were assessed using content analysis. The body of information was processed and categorized using QSR N VIVO software. It was revealed that the nature of the facilitating factors and difficulties found in surveillance activities of drugstores indicate the need for urgent change within the scope of services and the sanitary culture in the country. It also stresses the possibilities of offering a quality service for the protection of health, in a setting conducive to the development of sanitary surveillance and the process of decentralization of these actions. PMID:21987329

Bastos, Augusto Amorim; Costa, Ediná Alves; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo



Fluid evolution and chemical controls in the Fazenda Maria Preta (FMP) gold deposit, Rio Itapicuru Greenstone Belt, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fazenda Maria Preta (FMP) gold deposit is confined to two regional-scale, sinistral-oblique brittle–ductile shear zones which are located in a greenschist facies metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary sequence in the northern sector of the lower Proterozic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Brazil. Alteration is pervasive throughout the shear zones and characterized by carbonatization and sericitization of intermediate volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sub-volcanic rocks.

Roberto P. Xavier; Robert P. Foster



ECOLOGY, BEHAVIOR AND BIONOMICS As Formigas como Indicadores Biológicos do Impacto Humano em Manguezais da Costa Sudeste da Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangroves are common in estuaries along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. Although plant diversity is low, this ecosystem supports a range of animals, offering some resources for non-aquatic organisms. Many insects live in mangroves and, between them, many ant species that are exclusively arboreous. Mangroves throughout the world suffer from high levels of human impact, and this is particularly true




Population-level Experiments for Population-level Risk Assessment: An Example Using the Opposum Shrimp Americamysis bahia (NACSETAC)  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...


Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152??6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155??9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Trilhado granodiorite, and ages of 2,130??7 Ma and 2,128??8 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Teofila??ndia tonalite. The emplacement age of the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome as indicated by a 2,080??2-Ma xenotime age for a granite dyke probably marks the end of the felsic magmatism. This age shows good agreement with the Ar-Ar plateau age of 2,080??5 Ma obtained in hornblendes from an amphibolite and with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2,076??10 Ma in detrital zircon crystals from a quartzite, interpreted as the age of the peak of the metamorphism. The predominance of inherited zircons in the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome suggests that the basement of the supracrustal rocks was composed of Archaean continental crust with components of 2,937??16, 3,111??13 and 3,162??13 Ma. Ar-Ar plateau ages of 2,050??4 Ma and 2,054??2 Ma on hydrothermal muscovite samples from the Fazenda Brasileiro gold deposit are interpreted as minimum ages for gold mineralisation and close to the true age of gold deposition. The Ar-Ar data indicate that the mineralisation must have occurred less than 30 million years after the peak of the metamorphism, or episodically between 2,080 Ma and 2,050 Ma, during uplift and exhumation of the orogen. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

Mello, E. F.; Xavier, R. P.; McNaughton, N. J.; Hagemann, S. G.; Fletcher, I.; Snee, L.




EPA Science Inventory

To fully understand the potential long-term ecological impacts a pollutant has on a species, population-level effects must be estimated. Since long-term field experiments are typically not feasible, vital rates such as survival, growth, and reproduction of individual organisms ar...



EPA Science Inventory

Estuarine and marine coastlines are receiving waters for many anthropogenic substances. Concentrations of many of these contaminants have been diminished by regulatory control of effluents, but there is concern that continuing inputs (non-point sources) and contaminants contained...



EPA Science Inventory

Many statutory needs for sediment quality assessment exist (U.S. EPA 1996). A variety of sediment toxicity tests have been used to support the development of sediment quality guidelines and to determine the benthic impacts of dredging activities and point and non-point source tox...



EPA Science Inventory

Many statutory needs for sediment quality assessment exist (U.S. EPA 1996). A variety of sediment toxicity tests have been used to support the development of sediment quality guidelines and to determine the benthic impacts of dredging activities and point and non-point source tox...


The Impact of Brazil’s Bolsa Familia Program on Food Security in Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research project is to evaluate the impact that the Bolsa Família Program has on the level of food security within an impoverished community of Santo Antônio de Jesus. The issue of food security is important because a person’s overall health worsens as a result of not having access to a healthy and well balanced diet. As

Mario Felipe Dest



Stone Tools Associated with Middle Pleistocene Fauna in the Toca DA Esperanca, Central Region, Bahia State, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Excavations /sup (1/) organized on a 12 m/sup 2/ surface have exhumed quaternary deposits under a 50 cm carbonate crust (layer I). These deposits were composed of angular broken stones compacted into breccia (layer II), yellowish sand (layer III) and redd...

H. Lumley M. A. Lumley M. C. M. C. Beltrao




Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effect of removing leishmania-infected dogs on the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis, a controlled intervention study was performed in northeast Brazil. The attempted elimination of seropositive dogs resulted in an initial significant decrease in the annual incidence of seroconversion among dogs from 36% to 6% over the first two years. In the following two years, the incidence increased



Investigation of Neospora caninum , Hammondia sp., and Toxoplasma gondii in tissues from slaughtered beef cattle in Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neospora caninum, Hammondia sp., and Toxoplasma gondii are parasites with morphological and genetic similarities. N. caninum and T. gondii are important abortive agents of cattle and sheep, respectively, and may infect numerous animal species. Hammondia sp. is not known to induce disease in animals, but may cause confusion in the identification of closely related coccidia.\\u000a The aim of this study

Sara Lima Santos; Kattyanne de Souza Costa; Leane Queiroz Gondim; Mariana Sampaio Anares da Silva; Rosângela Soares Uzêda; Kiyoko Abe-Sandes; Luís Fernando Pita Gondim



New Actors, New Political Spaces, Same Divided City? Reflections on Poverty and the Politics of Urban Development in Salvador, Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critics of Lula’s administration argue that business has greatest weight in setting its priorities and that anti-poverty programmes based on conditional cash transfers have little long-term structural impact on social inequality. Yet the coherence and scope of these programmes is now an order of magnitude greater than under the previous administration, their impact on poverty has so far proved sustainable,

John Gledhill; Maria Gabriela Hita



Monitoring the active sessile-colonisation of two drinking water distribution systems based on the protein contents in native biofilm samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms are present to a greater or lesser degree in virtually all drinking water distribution systems. In order to investigate the relative intensity and the spatial and temporal distributions of the active sessile-colonization, protein was determined in native biofilm samples from the Oeiras-Amadora (OADS) and the Almada (ADS) distribution systems in Portugal. Samples (25 cm2) were taken from lengths of

J. Menaia; R. Alves; S. Sanches; G. Santos; E. Mesquita




Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Earnest, C.P., S. Lancaster, C. Rasmussen, C. Kerk- sick, A. Lucia, M. Greenwood, A. Almada, P. Cowan, and R. Krei- der. Low vs. high glycemic,index carbohydrate,gel ingestion dur- ing simulated,64-km cycling time trial performance.,J. Strength Cond. Res. 18(3):466?472. 2004.—We examined,the effect of low and high glycemic,index (GI) carbohydrate,(CHO) feedings dur- ing a simulated,64-km cycling time trial (TT) in nine




75 FR 1066 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Bahia Resort Hotel, 998 West Mission Bay Drive, San Diego, CA 92109...Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: The Bahia Resort Hotel, 998 West Mission Bay Drive, San Diego,...



78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33...Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian...21 gun salute in accordance with...requirements, Security measures, Waterways...reasons discussed in the preamble...Department of Homeland Security Delegation No...Spanish Navy School Ship San...



Preliminary Notes About the Processes of Uranium Albitization at Lagoa Real (Bahia) and Its Comparation with the Russian and Sweden Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief description and interpretation of the development of the processes of albitization in Russia, Sweden and Brazil, is presented. Based on the comparison of similar characteristics, interpreted and suggested, in the light of present knowledge, it is ...

J. H. Stein A. M. Netto D. Drummond A. G. Angeiras



The challenge of maintaining Atlantic forest biodiversity: A multi-taxa conservation assessment of specialist and generalist species in an agro-forestry mosaic in southern Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments have highlighted the importance of forest amount at large spatial scales and of matrix quality for ecological processes in remnants. These developments, in turn, suggest the potential for reducing biodiversity loss through the maintenance of a high percentage of forest combined with sensitive management of anthropogenic areas. We conducted a multi-taxa survey to evaluate the potential for biodiversity

Renata Pardini; Deborah Faria; Gustavo M. Accacio; Rudi R. Laps; Eduardo Mariano-Neto; Mateus L. B. Paciencia; Marianna Dixo; Julio Baumgarten



Predicting the toxicity of major ions in seawater to mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside minnow (Menidia beryllina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although marine organisms are naturally adapted to salinities well above those of freshwater, elevated concentrations of specific ions have been shown to cause adverse effects on some saltwater species. Because some ions are also physiologically essential, a deficiency of these ions can also cause significant effects. To provide a predictive tool to assess toxicity associated with major ions, mysid shrimp

D. A. Pillard; D. L. DuFresne; D. D. Caudle; J. E. Tietge; J. M. Evans



Long-Term Assessment of the Oil Spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Synthesis Report. Volume 2. Technical Report, Part 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental assessments ideally consist of monitoring natural variation or of studying planned environmental modifications, such as the release of heated effluents from a power plant, and their effects. In contrast, unplanned environmental modifications...

B. D. Keller J. B. C. Jackson



People helping turtles, turtles helping people: Understanding resident attitudes towards sea turtle conservation and opportunities for enhanced community participation in Bahia Magdalena, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pacific Mexico, all five sea turtle species have declined over the past century due to intense overexploitation of meat and eggs, fisheries bycatch, and degradation of marine and nesting habitats. One of the most heavily impacted areas has been the Baja California peninsula, where sea turtle populations remain historically low despite existing conservation measures that include a complete moratorium

Jesse Senko; Andrew J. Schneller; Julio Solis; Francisco Ollervides; Wallace J. Nichols



Estimating Stage-Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis Bahia Using Digital Imaging (NAC SETAC 2011)  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...


Estimating Stage Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress Within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis bahia Using Digital Imaging  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...


Clustering of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  


Fifteen families with clustering of infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) and/or HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) were observed among 28 families of IDH index cases, 93% of them occurring in two generations. With the exception of two mothers of children with IDH, all the mothers with HAM/TSP had at least one child with HAM/TSP. This is the first report of such clustering involving many families. PMID:23932323

Silva, José Lucas Sena da; Primo, Janeusa Rita L; de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima S P; Batista, Everton da Silva; Moreno-Carvalho, Otávio; Farré, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achiléa L




EPA Science Inventory

Although marine organisms are naturally adapted to salinities well above those of freshwater, elevated concentrations of specific ions have been shown to cause adverse effects on some saltwater species. Because some ions are also physiologically essential, a deficiency of these i...



EPA Science Inventory

Although marine organisms are adapted to naturally high concentrations of total dissolved solids (salinity) in their environment, abnormally high or low concentrations of ions can be toxic. Toxicity can result from aberrant levels of a single ion or from shifts of the entire spec...


Modelling the Shallow Water Equations in Curvilinear Coordinates with Physical Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project is to provide the capability for simulating fluid flow on complicated geometries, such as in the Bahia de Todos Santos. The Bahia de Todos Santos is a bay situated in the northwest corner of Mexico, off the coast of Ensenada and south of San Diego, California, USA. Figure 1.1 shows the Bahia de Todos Santos.




78 FR 35801 - Safety and Security Zones, San Juan Captain of the Port Zone  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Islands; 33 CFR 165.771 Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico; 33 CFR 165.776...vessel is moored. (B) All waters of Bahia de Tallaboa within a 50-yard radius surrounding...vessel is moored. (B) All waters of Bahia de Guayanilla within a 50-yard...



Estudo das variacoes C(sup 13)/C(sup 12) e O(sup 18)/O(sup 16) em ambientes de formacao de rochas de praia na ilha de Itaparica - Bahia. (Study of C(sup 13)/C(sup 12) and O(sup 18)/O(sup 16) variations on environments of beach rocks formation in Itaparica island - Bahia).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calcium carbonate-cemented beach sands or beach rocks have been observed to occur in the inter tidal zone of many tropical beaches. Near Salvador (Brazil) occurrences are found in several locations on the island of Itaparica. A study of the stable isotope...

H. S. Campos



Two new species of Huberia (Melastomataceae: Merianieae) from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new Brazilian species of the genusHuberia,H. carvalhoi andH. consimilis, are described, discussed, and illustrated.Huberia carvalhoi is endemic to Bahia;H. consimilis has a wider distribution, with disjunct populations in Pernambuco, Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro. A key is provided to the three\\u000a Bahia taxa with some comments on the taxonomic affinities of the two new species.

José Fernando A. Baumgratz



The effect of grazing intensity and the presence of a forage legume on nitrogen dynamics in Brachiaria pastures in the Atlantic forest region of the south of Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that with careful grazing management and addition of Pand K, but not N, fertilisers Brachiaria pastures are ableto maintain sustainable live weight gains over many years. However, standardon-farm practice, which generally involves high stocking rates, leads after afew years to pasture decline due mainly to N deficiency for grass regrowth. Togenerate an understanding of the mechanism

R. B. Cantarutti; R. Tarré; R. Macedo; G. Cadisch; C. P. de Rezende; J. M. Pereira; J. M. Braga; J. A. Gomide; E. Ferreira; B. J. R. Alves; S. Urquiaga; R. M. Boddey



Africana Digitization Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Digital Content Group at the University of Wisconsin Library, the Africana Digitization Project provides a excellent template for further projects to make works dealing with Africa more accessible to researchers and other interested parties. Currently, there are eight works available for browsing on the site. These important resources include Andre Alvares Almada's _Brief Treatise on the rivers of Guinea_ from 1594, P.E.H. Hair's _Barbot's West African vocabularies of 1680_ from 1992, and Manuel Alvares's account of travels through modern-day Ethiopia from 1615. All of the works here are in English, and can be searched individually using the online search engine provided. For persons doing work in the field of African history, or those interested in reading travel narratives from Europeans, this repository will prove to be a helpful find. [KMG


40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...section. (1) Marine invertebrate acute toxicity testing â(i) Required testing...bahia ) to develop data on the acute toxicity of the above chlorobenzene isomers to...mysid shrimp, Mysidopis bahia ) acute toxicity testing for 1,2,3- and...



Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucum×P. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine,

H. P. Xia



Rescuing Tradition at the Pierre Verger Cultural Space: Teaching and Learning Afro-Brazilian Culture through Music in Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how the Pierre Verger Cultural Space (PVCS), an educational organization dedicated to teaching Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, uses music to construct a sense of Afro-Brazilian self. Located in a poverty-stricken neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the PVCS sees its mission as "rescuing" ("resgatar") an Afro-Brazilian sense…

Junqueira, Joao Carlos



Rescuing Tradition at the Pierre Verger Cultural Space: Teaching and Learning Afro-Brazilian Culture through Music in Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates how the Pierre Verger Cultural Space (PVCS), an educational organization dedicated to teaching Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, uses music to construct a sense of Afro-Brazilian self. Located in a poverty-stricken neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the PVCS sees its mission as "rescuing" ("resgatar") an Afro-Brazilian sense…

Junqueira, Joao Carlos




EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory populations of the temperate mysid Mysidopsis bigelowi were compared with Mysidopsis bahia to assess the former's suitability as a test organism for toxicological studies. ysidopsis bigelowi is widely distributed and often sympatric with M. bahia, a well-esta...


Toxicity of the organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and dimethoate to Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Environmental Protection Agency routinely use the sub-tropical mysid Americamysis (=Mysidopsis) bahia (Peracarida: Mysidacea) in laboratory testing to measure the toxicity of contaminants and to assess the potential hazards of toxic chemicals to the natural aquatic environment. The use of A. bahia in laboratory toxicity testing has extended to Europe, however, there is increasing interest in using indigenous

S. D. Roast; R. S. Thompson; P. Donkin; J. Widdows; M. B. Jones



Advances in breath odor research: re-evaluation and newly-arising sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The articles in this special section describe the most recent advances in halitosis research presented at the Ninth International Conference on Breath Odor Research, a joint conference with the XXIV CONBRAPE (Brazilian Congress of Periodontology) held at Bahia Othon Palace Hotel in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil on 25–28 May 2011. It has been almost half a century since Joseph Tonzetich of

Ken Yaegaki



Geochemical Balance of the Salgado River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Salgado River basin (Bahia State, Brazil) was studied from the point of view of present climatic and geochemical conditions: inappropriate exploitation, irregular rainfall and high evaporation rate resulting in a state of unbalanced geochemical condit...

L. M. Moreira-nordemann D. Nordemann



40 CFR 136.3 - Identification of test procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...larval survival and growth. Mysid, Mysidopsis...bahia, survival, growth, and fecundity...interfere with their growth. \\3\\ USEPA...numbers of noncoliform bacteria, or samples that...2006. Method 1680: Fecal Coliforms in Sewage...



40 CFR 136.3 - Identification of test procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...larval survival and growth 1006.0 27Mysid...bahia, survival, growth, and fecundity...interfere with their growth.3 USEPA...numbers of noncoliform bacteria, or samples...2006. Method 1680: Fecal Coliforms in Sewage...




EPA Science Inventory

Accumulation, transfer, and loss of Kepone in estuarine organisms were studied in laboratory bioassays. Kepone was bioconcentrated by oysters (Crassostrea virginica), mysids (Mysidopsis bahia), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus), and spo...



EPA Science Inventory

The authors conducted a series of laboratory pulse-exposure experiments to model short-term field exposures of two representative estuarine crustaceans, Penaeus duorarum and Mysidopsis bahia, to the organophosphate insecticide fenthion. These tests established acutely lethal and ...


76 FR 49408 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...interaction) occurs. No other extant populations are known at this time. In 2009, metapopulations existed at two main locations: Bahia Honda State Park (BHSP) and KWNWR, roughly 50 miles (80 kilometers [km]) apart. The metapopulation at KWNWR was...



78 FR 60321 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...spatial scale of human impacts in Antarctica. Samples taken near Palmer Station will be compared with those taken during the Bahia Pariso spill, which occurred near Palmer Station in 1989. Sampling sites would be situated to avoid disturbing native...




EPA Science Inventory

Acute, lethal effects of fenthion (an organophosphate insecticide) on mysids (Mysidopsis bahia), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were determined in laboratory tests and after field applications. Exp...



EPA Science Inventory

A variety of physiological functions was examined in an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) during life-cycle exposures to four classes of pesticides. Pesticide exposure initially elevated respiration rates of juveniles. These increased metabolic requirements reduced the amount of...


75 FR 59285 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, San Luis Obispo County, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Los Osos, San Luis Obispo County, California. We invite comments from the public on the application, which includes the Bahia Vista Estates Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP), and on our preliminary determination that the HCP qualifies as a...




EPA Science Inventory

Low-level exposure to fenthion, following ground ULV application of the organsphosphate pesticide, resulted in increased mortality and sublethal growth retardation of Mysidopsis bahia. These two processes would reduce population production of this crustacean, which serves as an i...


Environmental Assessment for (Hsp2O) Solution in Support of ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... LC 50 330,000 3 Sodium Chlorite Americamysis bahia Mortality Mortality <24h 96h LC 50 576 (mean) 4 Sodium Chlorate ... More results from



EPA Science Inventory

Adult female Lepidophthalmus louisianensis, Palaemonetes pugio, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, Mysidopsis bahia, and Uca panacea were collected from estuarine localities in Santa Rosa Sound, Gulf Breeze, FL during late spring and summer of 1999. Mature ovaries were dissected and homog...



EPA Science Inventory

Structure-activity models which were developed to estimate toxicity of chemicals to freshwater fish were tested for use with an estuarine fish (Cyprinodon variegatus) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). Significant linear and polunomial relationships that correlated well existed betwe...


78 FR 8702 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to the Foreign...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Jalisco, Mexico; Passport 01020023629 (Mexico) (individual) [SDNTK]. 17. RUELAS TOPETE, Carlos Antonio, Calle de la Bahia 3178, Colonia Playas Costa Hermosa, Tijuana, Baja California CP 22240, Mexico; Calle Ventisca 2359 Secc. Dorado,...



75 FR 74073 - Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, Cameron and Willacy Counties, TX; Final Comprehensive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...over 6 increase by four additional staff and miles of hike/bike positions (Outdoor facility expansions trails; one auto tour...Laguna Atascosa Unit. routes, seven hike/ Visitor contact and bike trails and research station at associated parking Bahia...



Cyanobacterial diversity in extreme environments in Baja California, Mexico: a polyphasic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Cyanobacterial diversity from two geographical areas of Baja California Sur, Mexico, were studied: Bahia Concepcion, and\\u000a Ensenada de Aripez. The sites included hypersaline ecosystems, sea bottom, hydrothermal springs, and a shrimp farm. In this\\u000a report we describe four new morphotypes, two are marine epilithic from Bahia Concepcion, Dermocarpa sp. and Hyella sp. The third, Geitlerinema sp., occurs in thermal

A. López-Cortés; F. García-Pichel; U. Nübel; R. Vázquez-Juárez



First records of Synoeca septentrionalis Richards, 1978 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini) in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nests of Synoeca septentrionalis were collected in two Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest localities (Itabuna and Santa Terezinha, in the state of Bahia and Alfredo Chaves in the state of Espírito Santo). Synoeca septentrionalis was previously recorded only from Central America and northwestern South America. This findingextends its geographical distribution to Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, and represents the first record for Synoeca septentrionalis in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest, raising to three the number of Synoeca species known from Bahia State.

Menezes, Rodolpho S. T.; Andena, Sergio R.; Carvalho, Antonio F.; Costa, Marco A.



Standardization of laboratory bioassays with Balanus amphitrite larvae for preliminary oil dispersants toxicological characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Italian National regulations on oil-dispersants use (D.D. 23 December 2002) require for these products to pass several laboratory screenings before they can be applied in oil-spill clean-up. Although legislation recommend the use of the American mysid shrimp Americamysis bahia, for laboratory toxicity testing, there is growing interest in employing local marine crustacean species more representative than A. bahia, in

G. Greco; C. Corrà; F. Garaventa; E. Chelossi; M. Faimali



Toxicological evaluation of the effects of waste-to-energy ash-concrete on two marine species  

SciTech Connect

The toxicological effects of waste-to-energy ash-concrete on survivorship, growth, and fecundity (end-point parameters) of Mysidopsis bahia and on survivorship and growth of Menidia beryllina were evaluated with the 7-d static-renewal toxicity test. Leachate and elutriate solutions were prepared from experimental ash-concrete test cylinders constructed from concrete with additions of either bottom ash (mix BA), mixed bottom ash and scrubber residue, or mixed bottom ash and fly ash (60:40%, mix BA:FA). Control experiments with concrete (without ash) and pH (7-9.5) were conducted to assess any toxic effects of the stabilization process. pH did not affect end-point parameters of Mysidopsis bahia or Menidia beryllina. However, the 100% elutriate solution made from concrete reduced survivorship of Mysidopsis bahia. For experiments with ash-concrete test cylinders with the BA mixture, 10-d leachate solution reduced survivorship of Mysidopsis bahia and the 100% elutriate solutions reduced survivorship of Mysidopsis bahia and Manidia beryllina. With the BA:SR mixture, the 100 and 50% elutriate solutions reduced survivorship of Menidia beryllina. The BA:FA 10- and 5-d leachate solutions and the 100, 50, and 25% elutriate solutions reduced survivorship of Menidia beryllina. The BA:FA 10- and 5-d leachate solutions and the 100, 50, 25% elutriate solutions reduced survivorship of Mysidopsis bahia.

Hamilton, K.L.; Nelson, W.G.; Curley, J.L. (Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States))



Use of digital multispectral videography to assess seagrass distribution in San Quinti??n Bay, Baja California, Mexico [Uso de videografi??a multiespectral digital para evaluar la distributio??n del pasto marino en Bahi??a San Quinti??n, Baja California, Me??xico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Apparent threats to the spatial distribution of seagrass in San Quinti??n Bay prompted us to make a detailed assessment of habitats in the bay. Six coastal habitats and three seagrass subclasses were delineated using airborne digital multispectral videography (DMSV), Eelgrass, Zostera marina, was the predominant seagrass and covered 40% (1949 ha) of the areal extent of the bay in 1999. Eelgrass grew over a wide range of tidal depths from about -3.0 in mean lower low water (MLLW) to about 1.0 m MLLW, but greatest spatial extent occurred in intertidal areas -0.6 m to 1.0 m MLLW. Exposed-continuous (i.e., high density) eelgrass was the most abundant habitat in the bay. Widgeongrass, Ruppia maritima, was the only other seagrass present and covered 3% (136 ha) of the areal extent of the entire bay. Widgeongrass grew in single species stands in the upper intertidal (??? 0.4 MLLW) and intermixed with eelgrass at lower tidal depths. Overall accuracy of the six habitat classes and three subclasses in the DMSV map was relatively high at 84%. Our detailed map of San Quintin Bay can be used in future change detection analyses to monitor the health of seagrasses in the bay.

Ward, D. H.; Tibbitts, T. L.; Morton, A.; Carrera-Gonzalez, E.; Kempka, R.



The petroleum system concept in the Sergipe Basin, northeastern Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The application of a multidisciplinary approach involving geochemical, sedimentological, geophysical, and microbiostratigraphic research, has greatly enhanced the level of understanding of some of the most representative petroleum systems in the Brazilian South Atlantic Margin. Investigation of the data allowed the characterization in time and space of the petroleum pathways from source rock to trap, which represent the oil in-place in reservoir rocks ranging from Neocomian to Tertiary in age. Two major petroleum systems were selected as representative case-studies from various stages of basin formation in Brazilian South Atlantic basins (1) the pro-and syn-rift sequence, in the Camamu basin near the eastern tip of Brazil, and (2) the drift sequence, the Campos F basin, offshore Campos near Rio de Janeiro in southeast Brazil. Although there are other oil source rocks of Aptian, Albian, Cenomanian/Turonian and Tertiary ages in the South Atlantic margin, about 90% of the known petroleum in Brazil originates from Lower Cretaceous source rocks deposited in lacustrine environments in the proto-Atlantic rift. With respect to oil-bearing reservoir rocks, the most prolific ones, by volume, are silicielastic turbidites deposited into bathyal water depths during the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene.

Mello, M.R.; Koutsoukos, E.A.M.; Mohriak, W.U.; Bacoccoli, G.; Netto, A.S.T.; Goncalves, F.T.T.



Antimicrobial effects of ionizing radiation on artificially and naturally contaminated cacao beans. [Aspergillus flavus; Penicillium citrinum  

SciTech Connect

With an initial microbial level of ca. 10/sup 7/ microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation from a Co/sup 60/ source under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 50/sup 0/C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 x 10/sup 4/ and 1.4 x 10/sup 3/ spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D/sub 10/ values for A. flavus and P. citrinum spores on Bahia cacao beans were 0.66 and 0.88 kGy, respectively. 12 references.

Restaino, L.; Myron, J.J.J.; Lenovich, L.M.; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.



Sourcing Brazilian marijuana by applying IRMS analysis to seized samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios were measured in marijuana samples (Cannabis sativa L.) seized by the law enforcement officers in the three Brazilian production sites: Pernambuco and Bahia (the country's Northeast known as Marijuana Polygon), Pará (North or Amazon region) and Mato Grosso do Sul (Midwest). These regions are regarded as different with respect to climate and water

Elisa K. Shibuya; Jorge E. Souza Sarkis; Osvaldo Negrini Neto; Marcelo Z. Moreira; Reynaldo L. Victoria



A Holistic Approach to Family Planning Counseling and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A family planning clinic which was part of a large public maternity hospital in Salvador Bahia, Brazil received a grant to expand its services and to evaluate a service model focusing on client counseling and education. The counseling, education, and service provision process included individual pre-consultation with a nurse, group education and…

Chaves, Lushanhya Coutinho; And Others


The neotropical genus Dendrocephalus (Crustacea: Anostraca: Thamnocephalidae) in Brazil (South America), with a description of two new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species in the neotropical genus Dendrocephalus (Anostraca, Thamnocephalidae) are described from Brazil. Dendrocephalus orientalis n. sp., occurs in temporary rainpools in the eastern part of Brazil in the States of Paraíba and Bahia (Nordeste region). Dendrocephalus goiasensis n. sp. inhabits a temporary rainpool in the ‘cerrados’ in the State of Goias (Centro-Oeste region). The descriptions are based principally

N. Rabet; A. Thiéry



Ionic imbalance as a source of toxicity in an estuarine effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was conducted on the effluent from a petrochemical plant which discharges into an estuary. The effluent had been consistently toxic to mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) but not toxic to sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Phase I effluent toxicity characterization tests revealed that treatment of the effluent with a cation exchange resin (Amberlite® IR-120 Plus) was partially

W. S. Douglas; S. S. Grasso; D. G. Hutton; K. R. Schroeder



Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and

M. T. Souza; O. Níckel; D. Gonsalves




Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on addressing issues of interest concerning the transmission of knowledge on matters of Bahian cuisine, its relationship with the parties, the rituals and celebrations. To this end, it was a sketch map of popular culture in Bahia, scoring their knowledge and taste in cultural practices. Next, the study addresses issues involving food, the hybridism cultural tradition and

Mércia Socorro Ribeiro Cruz; Janete Ruiz Macedo



EPA Science Inventory

An estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) has been identified as one of the most sensitive members of the estuarine community to pollutant stress (for a review see Nimmo and Hamaker, 1982). n the majority of life-cycle toxicity tests using this planktonic estuarine crustacean, sublet...


Ethnoichthyology of artisanal fishing community from Guaibim Beach, Valença (BA), Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the knowledge of fishermen from Guaibim Beach, Valença, Bahia, Brazil on species of fish found in that area. In January 2005, 34 fishermen over 20 years old, who live and work in that area for at least 20 years, were interviewed about the ethnoecology and ethnoictiology aspects of 38 species of fish. The fishermen identified the 38

Mariana Clauzet; Milena Ramires; Alpina Begossi


Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities in extracts from medicinal trees used in the ‘Caatinga’ region in northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of bark extracts of Anadenanthera macrocarpa Brenan (Fabaceae), Astronium urundeuva Engl. (Anacardiaceae), Mimosa verrucosa Benth. (Fabaceae) and Sideroxylon obtusifolium T.D. Penn. (Sapotaceae), four trees used as anti-inflammatory agents in the Brazilian state of Bahia, were studied using different bioassays. The total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) of the aqueous and methanolic extracts

C. Desmarchelier; R. Lisboa Romao; J. Coussio; G. Ciccia



Bureaucratic Politics and the Bay of Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On 17 April 1961, a brigade of 1300 Cuban exiles conducted an amphibious assault at the Bay of Pigs (Bahia de Cochinos) on Cuba's southern coast. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had recruited, organized, trained and equipped the Cuban brigade. CIA o...

D. C. O'Brien



Jungle I.D.: Educational Reform Inside the Brazilian Paramilitary Police  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article draws on direct observation and interviews with 27 of a total class of 70, in the Military Training Camp of the Military Police ( Polícia Militar ), of the State of Bahia, Brazil. This activity is conducted in a secluded area of the jungle and has great psychological repercussions for both trainers and trainees. Through the sacrifice, humiliation,

Eduardo Paes-Machado; Carlos Linhares De Albuquerque



Magnetism of Carbonados.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbonados are porous polycrystalline (with crystal sizes up to 100 micrometer) diamonds. Carbonado is found only in alluvial deposits in Bahia, Brazil and in the Central African Republic (CAR). Alluvial deposit host is 1.5 Ga while the carbonados are bet...

G. Kletetschka P. T. Taylor P. J. Wasilewski



Relationship between Learning Problems and Attention Deficit in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…

Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida



Resistance of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis to nitric oxide: correlation with antimony therapy and TNF-? production  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) produced in macrophages plays a pivotal role as a leishmanicidal agent. A previous study has demonstrated that 20% of the L. (V.) braziliensis isolated from initial cutaneous lesions of patients from the endemic area of Corte de Pedra, Bahia, Brazil, were NO resistant. Additionally, 5 to 11% of the patients did not respond to three or

Anselmo S Souza; Angela Giudice; Júlia MB Pereira; Luís H Guimarães; Amelia R de Jesus; Tatiana R de Moura; Mary E Wilson; Edgar M Carvalho; Roque P Almeida




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to characterize the density and diversity of meso and macro-fauna of soils located under cacao agrosystems of southern Bahia, Brazil. The researched areas studied were: Cacao improved with Erythrina spp. shade tree (CRE); Cacao under an improved cabruca (CRC); Cacao ...


Experience and recommendations for distributed software development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following position paper outlines a software development course project for a semester long class on distributed software development. The developed application was an Android based facial recognition application which returned the name and contact information of people in a picture. Students from Iowa State University in the US, Jilin University in China, and the Federal Universidade da Bahia in

Patrick Carlson; Nan Xiao



Informação genética na mídia impressa: a anemia falciforme em questão Genetic information in the written media: sickle cell anemia at issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the strategies used by the media to approach and disseminate infor- mation about the most prevalent genetic disease in Brazil, sickle cell anemia. In this investigation we analyzed all articles on this matter published between 1998 and 2002 in two newspapers: A Tar- de (State of Bahia, 41 articles) and Folha de S. Paulo (State of São

Debora Diniz; Cristiano Guedes


Tmesiphantes hypogeus sp. nov. (Araneae, Theraphosidae), the first troglobitic tarantula from Brazil.  


A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892, is described from sandstone/quartizitic caves of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. This is the fifth species of the genus and the first record of a troglobitic mygalomorph in Brazil. A key is presented for all Tmesiphantes species. PMID:23460434

Bertani, Rogério; Bichuette, Maria Elina; Pedroso, Denis R



75 FR 4089 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting of the Neurobiology of Motivated Behavior Study Section, February 4, 2010, 8 a.m. to February 5, 2010, 5 p.m., Bahia Resort Hotel, 998 West Mission Bay Drive, San Diego, CA, 92109 which was published in the Federal Register on January...



75 FR 4576 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Imaging. Date: February 13, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Bahia Resort Hotel, 998 West Mission Bay Drive, San Diego, CA 92109. Contact Person: Antonio Sastre, PhD, Scientific...



Recall of Allergenic Extracts - Hollister-Stier Laboratories LLC  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Acacia Golden / A43C2180 7/1/2005 Bahia Grass / A43G3905 & A43C2299 7/1/2005 Cedar, Mountain / A43D2458 7/1/2005 Cedar, Red ... More results from


75 FR 6676 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Neuropharmacology. Date: March 11-12, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Bahia Resort Hotel, 998 West Mission Bay Drive, San Diego, CA 92109. Contact Person: Aidan Hampson, PhD, Scientific...



75 FR 6044 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Section. Date: March 8, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Bahia Resort Hotel, 998 West Mission Bay Drive, San Diego, CA 92109. Contact Person: Kenneth A. Roebuck, PhD, Scientific...




EPA Science Inventory

Measures of physiological performance and energy metabolism were made on an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) exposed throughout a life cycle to the defoliant DEF. EF concentrations > 0.246 ug/l reduced survival through release of the first brood. oung production was completely ...



EPA Science Inventory

A critical step in estimating the ecological effects of a toxicant is extrapolating organism-level response data across higher levels of biological organization. In the present study, the organism-to-population link is made for the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to a range of...


77 FR 42465 - Special Local Regulations, Cruce a Nado Internacional, Ponce Harbor; Ponce, PR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...northeast to point 4 in position 17[deg]58.73 N, 66[deg]37.25 W; thence northwest along the northeastern shoreline of Bahia de Ponce to the origin. All persons and vessels, except those persons participating in the race and vessels patrolling...



75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...received prior to the meeting will be provided to Council members at the meeting. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Bahia Resort Hotel, 998 West Mission Bay Drive, San Diego, California 92109. Send written comments to Mr. Kib Jacobson,...




Microsoft Academic Search

Four types of forages Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), Star grass (Hypoxis hirsute), and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) were collected from the Livestock Experimental Station Rakh Khaire Wala, located in the semi-arid region of central Punjab, Pakistan during two different seasons of 2003. Samples were collected and analyzed for iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc Zn), manganese (Mn),



Use of Marine Toxicity Identification and Evaluation Methods in Determining Causes of Toxicity to Fish in a Marine Aquarium Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained a water sample containing broken pieces of a tropical coral reef decor that was suspected of causing fish toxicity in a major aquarium. A toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) was performed using three species: a mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia; inland silverside Menidia beryllina; and an amphipod, Ampelisca abdita. Initial tests indicated that only the shrimp was sensitive to

K. T. Ho; A. Kuhn; R. M. Burgess; M. Pelletier; D. G. McGovern; J. Charles; L. Patton



Modelagem Digital da Distribuição Espacial de Cactáceae: Morro do Chapéu-Ba  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the procedures to model the habitat of Melocactos pauscispinus sp in Morro do Chapeu region on Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State. Satelite image and DTM were processed to extract hillshade, slope and though IHS fusion a integrated product were generated. Finaly image files were combined with vetorial thematic maps in a GIS environment environment to select by visual

David Brito de Cerqueira



SYSTEMATICS, MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY Genetic Variability of Native Populations of Wasmannia Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and their Biogeographical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) and Wasmannia rochai Forel are economically important ants in the Southeast and Southwest regions of Bahia State, Brazil. Randomly Amplifi ed Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to distinguish and analyze the genetic variability of populations of both species from Ilhéus, Jequié, BA and French Guyana. The genetic distances among W. auropunctata and W. rochai populations (55.8-71.4%)



Variabilidad hidrográfica en Bahía de La Paz, Golfo de California, México (1995-2005)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the hydrological variability in Bahia de La Paz, the largest bay in the Gulf of California. The hydrographic data were obtained in different seasons between 1995 and 2005. A persistent spatial and seasonal variability in temperature and salinity occurred in the bay during the study. In springs and summers, an absence of a mixed layer and the

Maclovio Obeso-Nieblas; Bernardo Shirasago-Germán; Juan Gaviño-Rodríguez; Edgar Perez-Lezama; Hipólito Obeso-Huerta; Ángel Jiménez-Illescas




Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to evaluate the influence of the salinity on some physiological parameters in Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck), which is the principal citrus rootstock in Bahia. The importance of this study is based on the possibility of using water of low quality for irrigation, which is a production constraint for citrus crop. Rangpur lime seeds were selected by



Michanthidium almeidai, a new species from northeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Megachilinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Michanthidium Urban (Hymenoptera, Megachilinae)is described and figured from Sergipe and Bahia States, northeastern Brazil. An identification key, illustrations, and a distribution map for the three species of the genus are presented. The male genitalia of Michanthidium almeidai sp. n. and Michanthidium albitarse are illustrated and compared for the first time.

Urban, Danuncia; Parizotto, Daniele Regina




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies were conducted to determine benefits of bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) buffer strip in mitigating atrazine and fluometuron loss in runoff from erosion trays under simulated rainfall. Two separate experiments were conducted, first with fluometuron, then with atrazine. Except for herbicide t...


Determinants of breastfeeding initiation within the first hour of life in a Brazilian population: cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding within the first hour of life is a potential mechanism for health promotion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of breastfeeding initiation within the first hour of life in Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil, between 2004 and 2005, and investigate the influence of maternal, child and prenatal factors on this practice. METHODS: This is

Tatiana O Vieira; Graciete O Vieira; Elsa Regina J Giugliani; Carlos MC Mendes; Camilla C Martins; Luciana R Silva




EPA Science Inventory

Results are reported for laboratory experiments using the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, as a practical test species for life-cycle studies to determine subtle effects of toxicants. Ratios of the acute 96-hour lethal concentrations to the maximum acceptable toxicant concentratio...



EPA Science Inventory

Data are reported for tests exposing a small, estuarine crustacean, Mysidopsis bahia, to diflubenzuron (Dimilin, TH-6040, (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea)) in flowing seawater. Tests were conducted in intermittent flows from a diluter or continuous flowing water i...


Management of Organizational Behavior and Management of People: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reflects an analysis of the behavior of a group of individuals from the strategic level of a multinational organization in the petrochemical industry, located in Candeias, Bahia, Brazil. This group was formed as a study group with the aim of facilitating changes in behavior and attitude in the organization. The current study sought to answer the question of



An Observational and Modeling Study of an Atmospheric Internal Bore during NAME 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations from the 2004 North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) have been used to identify an atmospheric internal bore that occurred over the Gulf of California (GoC) on 31 July 2004. This bore disturbance was identified at Bahia Kino along the northwest coast of Mexico during the late evening of 31 July. It was hypothesized to have originated from the interaction

Elinor R. Martin; Richard H. Johnson



The Effect of Shade on Forage Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of shading on the nutritive value and chemical composition of five tropical grasses was investigated in two experiments. The grasses used were setaria (Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula), green panic (Panicum maximum var. trichoglume cv. Petrie), guinea grass (Panicum maximum cv. Riversdale), signal grass (Bruchiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk) and bahia grass (Paspalum notatum). In the first experiment, grass grown

B. W. Norton; J. R. Wilson; H. M. Shelton; K. D. Hill


Sediment Toxicity and Community Composition of Benthos and Colonized Periphyton in the Everglades–Florida Bay Transitional Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey provides information on sediment toxicity and structural characteristics of the macrobenthic and periphytic algal communities at 10 locations in northeast Florida Bay. Whole sediments were not acutely toxic to Mysidopsis bahia (marine invertebrate) and Hyalella azteca (freshwater invertebrate) relative to reference sediment. Survival was between 80% and 100%. Community structure of the macrobenthos and algal-periphyton varied spatially. A

Michael A. Lewis; Larry R. Goodman; John M. Macauley; James C. Moore



Evaluation of some metals in Brazilian coffees cultivated during the process of conversion from conventional to organic agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of nutrients and toxic elements in coffees cultivated during the process of conversion, on organic agriculture, in southwest Bahia, Brazil. Levels of the nutrients and toxic elements were determined in samples of soils and coffee tissues from two transitional organic farms by atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The metals in soil

José Soares dos Santos; Maria Lúcia Pires dos Santos; Melina Moreira Conti; Sabrina Novaes dos Santos; Elisabeth de Oliveira



Colonization of cacao seedlings by Trichoderma stromaticum, a mycoparasite of the witches’ broom pathogen, and its influence on plant growth and resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trichoderma stromaticum is a mycoparasite of the cacao witches' broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa. This beneficial fungus is being used in Bahia, Brazil to control the witches' broom disease under field conditions. The endophytic potential of this biocontrol agent was studied in both sterile ...


Paleogeographic evolution of the central segment of the South Atlantic during Early Cretaceous times: Paleotopographic and geodynamic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geodynamic processes that control the opening of the central segment of the South Atlantic Ocean (between the Walvis Ridge and the Ascension FZ) are debated. In this paper, we discuss the timing of the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the Early Cretaceous rift by drawing eight paleogeographic and geodynamic maps from the Berriasian to the Middle-Late Aptian, based on a biostratigraphic (ostracodes and pollen) chart recalibrated on absolute ages (chemostratigraphy, interstratified volcanics, Re-Os dating of the organic matter).The central segment of the South Atlantic is composed of two domains, with a two phases evolution of the pre-drift ("rifting") times: a rift phase characterized by tilted blocks and growth strata, followed by a sag basin. The southern domain includes the Namibe, Santos and Campos Basins. The northern domain extends from the Espirito Santo and North Kwanza Basins, in the south, to the Sergipe-Alagoas and North Gabon Basins to the north.Extension started in the northern domain during the Late Berriasian (Congo-Camamu Basin to the Sergipe-Alagoas-North Gabon Basins) and migrated southward. At that time, the southern domain was not a subsiding domain (emplacement of the Parana-Etendeka Trapp). Extension started in this southern domain during the Early Barremian. The rift phase is shorter in the south (5-6 Ma, Barremian to base Aptian) than in the north (19 to 20 Myr, Upper Berriasian to base Aptian). The sag phase is of Middle to Late Aptian age. In the northern domain, this transition corresponds to a hiatus of Early to Middle Aptian age.From the Late Berriasian to base Aptian, the northern domain evolves from a deep lake with lateral highs to a shallower organic-rich one with no more highs. The lake migrates southward in two steps, until the Valanginian at the border between the northern and southern domains, until the Early Barremian, north of Walvis Ridge.

Chaboureau, Anne-Claire; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Rohais, Sébastien; Moulin, Maryline; Aslanian, Daniel



[Proletariat and migrant: free for subordination].  


Using information taken from experiences in Bahia, Brazil, this study attempts to show how the historic process of proletarianization changes in character and level of radicalism at certain moments in the process of the emergence and development of capitalism, thus producing significant changes in migratory patterns. Special focus is given on how the migratory flux in rural Bahia has been more intense in the last 50 years, altering subsequent spacial displacements of population. At the same time, the form of collective organization of production of the salaried classes in both the rural and town areas have been redefined, thus turning migrations into expressive mediation mechanisms in constitution of an eminently urban society. PMID:12143701

Alves De Souza, G A



Multi-year monitoring of estuarine sediments as ultimate sink for DDT, HCH, and other organochlorinated pesticides in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-nine superficial sediment samples used in this study were collected from eight sites in the Bahia Blanca Estuary, located\\u000a in the Buenos Aires Province southwest, Argentina, in a period between April 2005 and March 2009, to assess the concentration\\u000a levels, spatial and seasonal distribution, and putative input sources of 18 selected organochlorine pesticides (OCs), following\\u000a UNEP-IAEA procedures. Average concentration levels

Andrés Hugo Arias; Marcelo T. Pereyra; Jorge E. Marcovecchio



Chemical and biological characterization of municipal sludges, sediments, dredge spoils, and drilling muds  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the chemical composition of municipal sludges and sediments. Some of the topics are: EPA review of regulations of sewage sludge disposal; Canadian marine analytical chemistry standards program; methods for estimating bioavailable particulates, distribution of heavy metals in sewage sludge; toxicity of drilling fluids to Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia); toxicity and hydrocarbon composition of a water-based drilling mud containing diesel fuels or mineral oils additives and risk-based criteria for chemicals in municipal sludge.

Lichtenberg, J.J.; Winter, J.A.; Weber, C.I.; Fradkin, L.



The Politics of Habitus: Publics, Blackness, and Community Activism in Salvador, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how politics is experienced by actors who mediate neighborhood organizations and formal political institutions\\u000a in the Northeastern city of Salvador da Bahia, in Brazil. It is based on a series of ethnographic interviews in 2004 among\\u000a identified community leaders in the city’s poorer neighborhoods, with attention to their politics of habitus—their socially-situated\\u000a modes of expression of political

Gianpaolo Baiocchi; Lisa Corrado




Microsoft Academic Search

This study focus on the characterization of hydrocarbon microseepages in the northern Tucano Basin (Bahia State, Brazil), using geostatistical analysis of regional hydrocarbon geochemical data yielded from soil samples and digital processing of Enhanced Thematic plus (ETM+\\/Landsat7 satellite) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer imagery (ASTER\\/Terra satellite). A theoretical detection model was devised in which gas anomalies (seeps)

T. Lammoglia; C. R. Souza Filho; R. A. Filho


Predation on the southwestern Atlantic fiddler crab ( Uca uruguayensis ) by migratory shorebirds ( pluvialis dominica, P. squatarola, arenaria interpres , and numenius phaeopus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Bahia Samborombon (SW Atlantic; 35°30?–36°22?S; 56°45?–57°23?W) migratory American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-billed plover (P. squatarola), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) forage on fiddler crabs (Uca uruguayensis). These shorebirds have distinct patterns of feeding behavior and capture different proportions of each sex and size. P. dominica made short runs, capturing mostly juvenile crabs, which are eaten

Oscar O. Iribarne; Mariano M. Martinez



Tidal flat macrofaunal communities and their associated environments in estuaries of southern California and northern Baja California, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several tidal flats in both Estero de Punta Banda and Bahia de San Quintín, Baja California, and one in Mission Bay, southern\\u000a California, were sampled for macrofaunal properties (taxonomic composition, density, species richness, and functional groups\\u000a for animals ?0.3 mm) and associated environmental variables (sediment properties, salinity, plant belowground biomass, and\\u000a cover ofZostera marina) in order to establish a benchmark

Theresa Sinicrope Talley; Paul K. Dayton; Silvia E. Ibarra-Obando



Iron-Oxide Mineralogy of a Mollisol from Argentina: A Study by Selective-Dissolution Techniques, X-Ray Diffraction, and Mössbauer Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective-dissolution techniques by ammonium oxalate (OX), dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB), and dithionite-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (D-EDTA), and X ray diffraction and M6ssbauer spectroscopy were used to identify and characterize iron oxides and oxyhydroxides in the <2-mm, <50- p,m, and <2-p~m size fractions of a Mollisol from Bahia Blanca, Argentina. Iron compounds are present at low concentrations in mixtures with quartz, Na-rich feldspar, illite, interstratified




Hazard\\/Risk Assessment of Pyridaben: II. Outdoor Aquatic Toxicity Studies and the Water-Effect Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor acute aquatic toxicity studies with pyridaben and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) showed that the 96-h LC50s in site-specific water were significantly greater than in classical laboratory studies. In addition, outdoor acute studies showed that pyridaben degrades rapidly in water, in hours, which supports other laboratory and field studies on the fate of pyridaben in aquatic

Gary M. Rand; James R. Clark



Carbon turnover (? 13C) and nitrogen mineralization potential of particulate light soil organic matter after rainforest clearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples from under a rainforest, a papaya plantation, a pure Brachiaria humidicola pasture and a B. humidicola\\/Desmodium ovalifolium sward from the humid tropical Bahia, Brazil, were analyzed for fertility parameters, litter quality, particulate light fraction [PLF>10053-100 ?m, < 1.8 g cm?3 density (sodium polytungstate)] and ?13C signatures. Under the grass pasture total soil C was reduced to 80 and

G. Cadisch; H. Imhof; S. Urquiaga; R. M. Boddey; K. E. Giller



Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition,\\u000a quantities and distribution of marine debris along ?150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia,\\u000a Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations\\u000a were observed. Plastics accounted for

Isaac R. Santos; Ana Cláudia Friedrich; Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul



Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important\\u000a sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped\\u000a beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed\\u000a beaches, where cigarette butts,

Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul; Isaac R. Santos; Ana Cláudia Friedrich; Alexandre Matthiensen; Gilberto Fillmann



Multi-frequency EM method for hydrocarbon detection and for monitoring fluid invasion during enhanced oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this work we discuss the results of an experimental study performed with a multi-frequency electro- magnetic method over a mature oil field in Recôncavo basin, Bahia - Brazil. Five 1.8 km transects 200m apart and extending over a block of the oil reservoir were surveyed. The processed EM data are represented as cross-sections of apparent resistivity and induced

Carlos A. Dias; Hédison K. Sato



Mineral status of grazing beef cattle in the warm climate region of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to determine the mineral status of purebred Brahman beef cattle grazing Bermuda-Bahia pastures grown on sandy, well-drained soils in Central Florida. Soil, plant, blood serum and liver tissue concentrations of calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, manganese and cobalt were generally adequate. Sixty-nine per cent of forages and 40% of serum samples were deficient in phosphorus. Seventy-five per

Y. M. Salih; L. R. McDowell; J. F. Hentges; R. M. Mason; J. H. Conrad



Toxicological evaluation of the effects of waste-to-energy ash-concrete on two marine species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicological effects of waste-to-energy ash-concrete on survivorship, growth, and fecundity (end-point parameters) of Mysidopsis bahia and on survivorship and growth of Menidia beryllina were evaluated with the 7-d static-renewal toxicity test. Leachate and elutriate solutions were prepared from experimental ash-concrete test cylinders constructed from concrete with additions of either bottom ash (mix BA), mixed bottom ash and scrubber residue,

Kirk L. Hamilton; Walter G. Nelson; Jeri L. Curley



Knowledge about transplantation and attitudes toward organ donation: a survey among medical students in Northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the registration for the second semester of 2002, 779 of the 1001 students from the Medical School, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, answered an anonymous multiple-choice questionnaire including demographic variables, knowledge about transplantation issues, and willingness to donate organs. Mean age was 21.9 ± 2.9 years (range: 17 to 51 years); 59.5% were men. Regarding the knowledge of which

M. M. D Dutra; T. A. S Bonfim; I. S Pereira; I. C Figueiredo; A. M. D Dutra; A. A Lopes



Isolation of Neospora caninum from the brain of a naturally infected dog, and production of encysted bradyzoites in gerbils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neospora caninum was isolated from the brain of an adult dog in Brazil. Cerebral tissue from the dog was inoculated into Mongolian gerbils. Gerbils were euthanized 3–4 months later and bradyzoite-containing tissue cysts were observed in their brains. N. caninum (designated NC-Bahia) was isolated in cell culture after inoculation with tissue cysts from the gerbils. The identity of the parasite

L. F. P. Gondim; A. M. Pinheiro; P. O. M. Santos; E. E. V. Jesus; M. B. Ribeiro; H. S. Fernandes; M. A. O. Almeida; S. M. Freire; R. Meyer; M. M. McAllister



Uranium enrichment in Archaean crustal basement associated with overthrusting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium deposits cumulatively in the 100,000 tonne U3O8 range occur within ductile shear zones transecting Archaean basement gneisses at Lagoa Real, north-east of Caetité, State of Bahia, Brazil1-3 (Fig. 1). The gneisses, dated at 2,600-3,000 Myr, are at amphibolite to granulite facies of meta-morphism. There is a general concensus that such rocks form near the base of the crust, and

L. M. Lobato; J. M. A. Forman



Impact of the El Niño\\/Southern Oscillation on Visceral Leishmaniasis, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used time-series analysis and linear regression to investigate the relationship between the annual Niño-3 index from 1980 to 1998 and the annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, during 1985-1999. An increase in VL incidence was observed in the post-El Niño years 1989 (+38.7%) and 1995 (+33.5%). The regression model demonstrates that the previous

Carlos Roberto Franke; Mario Ziller; Christoph Staubach; Mojib Latif



[Parasitism in Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) by Encarsia hispida De Santis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), in papaya, in Brazil].  


Infestation of Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) was observed in October 2004, in papaya plants of cultivar Sunrise Solo, under screenhouse conditions, in Cruz das Almas, State of Bahia, Brazil. In infested leaves, around 20% of parasitism on nymphs was verified. Leaves with parasitized nymphs were kept in laboratory until emergence of the parasitoid, identified as Encarsia hispida De Santis. This is the first time that this parasitoid was detected on T. variabilis nymphs in Brazil. PMID:17420874

Lourenção, André L; Fancelli, Marilene; Costa, Valmir A; Ribeiro, Nicolle C


Mass Mortality of Coral Reef Ascidians Following the 1997\\/1998 El Niño Event  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April\\/May each year from 1995 to 2000, ascidians were sampled randomly with 35 1m2 quadrats from three different reef habitats (intertidal reef tops, coastal reef walls and shallow-bank reefs) at four replicate\\u000a localities (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) in northern Bahia (Brazil). As the sampling period included the\\u000a 1997\\/1998 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for

Francisco Kelmo; Martin J. Attrill; Malcolm B. Jones



[The Spanish flu in Salvador, 1918: city of alleys and tenements].  


The article investigates the Spanish flu epidemic that hit the city of Salvador and the state of Bahia, reaching its height between September and December of 1918. The local press is a primary source in this analysis of power politics, sanitary conditions in the state capital, some economic issues, the material conditions for survival in Salvador, and the fragility of public health and assistance policies-- all features of a complex, unequal society made visible by the epidemic. PMID:16116710

Souza, Christiane Maria Cruz de


[The Spanish flu epidemic: a challenge to Bahian medicine].  


The article describes the moment when the medical and health authorities of Bahia state (Brazil) faced the challenge of explaining an illness that was spreading with unexpected virulency throughout the world, provoking much uncertainty and controversy among the global academic and scientific community concerning the diagnosis and etiology of the disease. It analyzes the Bahian medical establishment's stance within these discussions and the scientific knowledge used by medics to explain the epidemic and to recommend therapeutic and prophylactic measures. PMID:19824319

de Souza, Christiane Maria Cruz


Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease across Europe: is there a difference between north and south? Results of the European Collaborative Study on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EC-IBD).  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is three or more times higher in northern than in southern Europe. The aim of this EC funded study was to investigate this apparent variation by ascertaining the incidence of IBD across Europe. METHODS: For the period 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1993 all new patients diagnosed with IBD were prospectively identified in 20 European centres according to a standard protocol for case ascertainment and definition. FINDINGS: Altogether 2201 patients aged 15 years or more were identified, of whom 1379 were diagnosed as UC (including proctitis), 706 as CD, and 116 as indeterminate. The overall incidence per 100,000 at ages 15-64 years (standardised for age and sex) of UC was 10.4 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 7.6 to 13.1) and that of CD was 5.6 (95% CI 2.8 to 8.3). Rates of UC in northern centres were 40% higher than those in the south (rate ratio (RR) = 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.5)) and for CD they were 80% higher (RR = 1.8 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.1)). For UC the highest reported incidence was in Iceland (24.5, 95% CI 17.4 to 31.5) and for CD, Maastricht (The Netherlands; 9.2, 95% CI 6.5 to 11.8) and Amiens (north west France; 9.2, 95% CI 6.3 to 12.2). The lowest incidence of UC was in Almada (southern Portugal) (1.6, 95% CI 0.0 to 3.2) and of CD in Ioannina (north west Greece) (0.9, 95% CI 0.0 to 2.2). An unexpected finding was a difference in the age specific incidence of UC in men and women with the incidence in women but not men declining with age. INTERPRETATION: The higher overall incidence rates in northern centres did not seem to be explained by differences in tobacco consumption or education. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the observed excess for both conditions is less than expected on the basis of previous studies. This may reflect recent increases in the incidence of IBD in southern Europe whereas those in the north may have stabilised.

Shivananda, S; Lennard-Jones, J; Logan, R; Fear, N; Price, A; Carpenter, L; van Blankenstein, M



Mitochondrial DNA variability in populations of Centris aenea (Hymenoptera, Apidae), a crop-pollinating bee in Brazil.  


Centris spp are oil-collecting solitary bees that are valuable pollinators of crops such as Brazil nut, cashew, and acerola. We investigated the genetic variability of populations of C. aenea in the northeastern region of Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from 59 individuals from 6 locations in the States of Pernambuco and Bahia and a 600-650-bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI/COII region amplified by PCR, followed by digestion with the restriction enzymes DraI and SspI. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed eight different haplotypes among the populations. Haplotype A1, revealed by DraI, was the most frequent (50%), and haplotypes A3 and A4 were exclusive to Feira de Santana, Bahia and Morro do Chapéu, Bahia, respectively. Among the haplotypes revealed by SspI, B2 was the most frequent (37%) and B3 was exclusive to Feira de Santana. This information revealing high haplotype diversity will be useful for developing management strategies for Centris, especially because of increasing interest in the rearing and/ or relocation of these bees for crop pollination. PMID:23546967

Ferreira, V S; Aguiar, C M L; Oliveira, E J F; Costa, M A; Santos, G M M; Silva, J G



Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)



Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)



Proposal and phylogenetic relationships of Lapsamita, a new genus of lapsiines, and description of a new species (araneae, salticidae).  


Lapsamita maddisoni gen. et sp. nov. is described from Bahia, Brazil. The presence of palpal claws in females, long ventral spines on front tibiae and metatarsi and long retrolateral tibial apophyses in male palps suggested that the species was closely related to or even nested within Soesiladeepakius Makhan, 2007. To evaluate its phylogenetic position, a cladistic analysis was carried out using a data matrix comprising 24 morphological characters, scored for 13 taxa. The analysis showed L. maddisoni as the sister group of Soesiladeepakius, supporting the proposal of the new genus. Character evolution is discussed and compared to a previous study on the group. PMID:23468857

Ruiz, Gustavo R S



Necrotic enteritis in collared (Pecari tajacu) and white-lipped (Tayassu pecari) peccaries.  


An outbreak of necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens type C was diagnosed in captive collared (Pecari tajacu) and white-lipped (Tayassu pecari) peccaries housed in the Laboratory of Applied Ethology of Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz located in Ilhéus, State of Bahia, Brazil. Four collared peccaries and three white-lipped peccaries, all juveniles (25-105 days old), were affected. For all affected animals, lethargy and inappetance were followed by sudden death within 24 hours. Histopathology of intestinal wall, culture of C. perfringens type C, and the identification of beta-toxin from intestinal content confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:22204072

de Carvalho, Marco Antônio Galvão; Santos, Polyana Silva; Nogueira, Selene Siqueira da Cunha; Lessa, Fabiana; Almeida, Valter dos Anjos; Leça-Júnior, Nilo Fernandes; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama



[Folk medicine using animals in the Chapada Diamantina: incidental medicine?].  


This study examines the traditional therapeutic use of animals or parts of animals by an Afro Brazilian population living in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil. The investigation was conducted over a period of eight months and consisted of open- and semi-structured interviews, photographic documentation and identification of species. Besides presenting a list of animal products and their respective use, we seek to stimulate a discussion about the possible existence of a rational basis for the belief in the therapeutic or prophylactic potential of the animal products used in the traditional medicine of Brazilian populations. PMID:19039402

Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Marques, José Geraldo Wanderley



A new approach for deriving pseudovelocity logs from resistivity logs  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method of generating pseudovelocity logs using measurements of electrical resistivity. A theoretical relation between electrical resistivity and transit time, which is applicable to a wide range of lithologies, has been developed. The application of this relation using a method which defines lithoresistivity zones as lithological intervals related to the same formation and showing small resistivity variations, has been tested in the Reconcavo sedimentary basin in Bahia, Brazil. A comparison of derived pseudovelocity logs with actual sonic logs for five wells shows the validity of the present approach.

Dos Santos, W.L.B.; Ulrych, T.J.; De Lima, O.A.L.



Cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study in this paper a cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers collected in the ferry-boat system (sea route that connects the city of Salvador and Itaparica island, Bahia, Brazil), this study is based on the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method. The DCCA method is designed to investigate power-law cross correlations between different simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity. Here in this paper we show that is possible to discriminate cross-correlation between vehicles and passengers and also identify seasonal components.

Zebende, G. F.; Filho, A. Machado



Live from Antarctica 2: Oceans, Ice and Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page furnishes the background for a group of activities investigating living things in Antarctica centered around a voyage aboard the research vessel Polar Duke from South America to Antarctica. It describes the ship and the people aboard and discusses their duties and areas of research. There is also an account of the wreck of the Argentine supply and cruise ship, Bahia Paraiso which spilled 200,000 gallons of diesel and jet fuel into some of the most pristine waters on Earth, and a description of the Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research project (LTER), which began partly as a reponse ot the wreck.


Dispersed oil toxicity tests with biological species indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Static and flowthrough aquatic acute toxicity testing protocols were utilized on eggs and larvae of seven commercially important invertebrates and fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. Test organisms were exposed to Central and Western Gulf oils, dispersed oil, and Corexit 9527. Species included brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), inland silverside (Menidia berylina), and spot (Leiosomus xanthurus). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) was also tested because gulf menhaden were not available. Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) were evaluated as part of a chronic toxicity assessment.

Fucik, K.W.; Carr, K.A.; Balcom, B.J.



Proposal and Phylogenetic Relationships of Lapsamita, a New Genus of Lapsiines, and Description of a New Species (Araneae, Salticidae)  

PubMed Central

Lapsamita maddisoni gen. et sp. nov. is described from Bahia, Brazil. The presence of palpal claws in females, long ventral spines on front tibiae and metatarsi and long retrolateral tibial apophyses in male palps suggested that the species was closely related to or even nested within Soesiladeepakius Makhan, 2007. To evaluate its phylogenetic position, a cladistic analysis was carried out using a data matrix comprising 24 morphological characters, scored for 13 taxa. The analysis showed L. maddisoni as the sister group of Soesiladeepakius, supporting the proposal of the new genus. Character evolution is discussed and compared to a previous study on the group.

Ruiz, Gustavo R. S.



Molecular evidence confirms that Proctoeces humboldti and Proctoeces chilensis (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) are the same species.  


Two species of Proctoeces Odhner, 1911 have been described in marine organisms from Chile: P. humboldti George-Nascimento & Quiroga (1983), parasitizing the gonads of keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.), and P. chilensis Oliva (1984), an intestinal parasite of Sicyases sanguineus (Teleostei); both species were subsequently considered as P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960). To assist in the resolution of the taxonomic identification of Proctoeces species in marine organisms from Chile, phylogenetic studies using DNA sequences from the V4 region of the SSU rRNA gene were performed. Several specimens of P. lintoni were isolated from keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.) and clingfish (S. sanguineus) from Bahia San Jorge (23°40'S) and Bahia Concepción (36°50'S). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using three different approaches: a neighbour-joining (NJ), a maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). The phylogenetic analysis confirms that specimens of Proctoeces obtained from keyhole limpets and those specimens from the clingfish are in fact the same species. We prefer to consider our specimens as Proctoeces cf. lintoni, as the morphology of Proctoeces appears to be of doubtful value and genetic information about P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960) is not available. In addition, our results strongly suggest that there are at least three species in this genus. PMID:20078901

Valdivia, I M; Cardenas, L; Gonzalez, K; Jofré, D; George-Nascimento, M; Guiñez, R; Oliva, M E



Bioaccumulation and toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes to benthic organisms at the base of the marine food chain.  


As the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) increases over time, so does the potential for environmental release. This research aimed to determine the toxicity, bioavailability, and bioaccumulation of SWNTs in marine benthic organisms at the base of the food chain. The toxicity of SWNTs was tested in a whole sediment exposure with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Americamysis bahia. In addition, SWNTs were amended to sediment and/or food matrices to determine their bioavailability and bioaccumulation through these routes in A. abdita, A. bahia, and the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus. No significant mortality to any species via sediment or food matrices was observed at concentrations up to 100?ppm. A novel near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopic method was utilized to measure and characterize the body burdens of pristine SWNTs in nondepurated and depurated organisms. We did not detect SWNTs in depurated organisms but quantified them in nondepurated A. abdita fed SWNT-amended algae. After a 28-d exposure to [(14) C]SWNT-amended sediment (100?µg/g) and algae (100?µg/g), [(14) C]SWNT was detected in depurated and nondepurated L. plumulosus amphipods at 0.50?µg/g and 5.38?µg/g, respectively. The results indicate that SWNTs are bioaccessible to marine benthic organisms but do not appear to accumulate or cause toxicity. PMID:23404747

Parks, Ashley N; Portis, Lisa M; Schierz, P Ariette; Washburn, Kate M; Perron, Monique M; Burgess, Robert M; Ho, Kay T; Chandler, G Thomas; Ferguson, P Lee



Evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated wastewater and groundwater. Volume 3. Old O-field groundwater. Final report, July 1990-December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of contaminated Old O-Field (Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground) groundwater and the reduction and/or elimination of toxicity by various treatment processes were evaluated. The study was divided into a bench scale and pilot scale study. The bench scale studies consisted of 48-h definitive acute toxicity tests run with daphnid neonates (Daphnia magna) and juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to untreated Old O-Field groundwater and groundwater treated by metals precipitation, UV oxidation (H 2O2 ), carbon adsorption, and carbon adsorption/biological sludge. The pilot scale studies consisted of several 96-h definitive acute toxicity tests run with two freshwater and two saltwater invertebrates and fish and Ames mutagenicity assays. Acute toxicity tests were run on untreated Old O-Field groundwater and groundwater treated by metals precipitation, UV oxidation (H2O2), air stripping, and carbon adsorption during the pilot scale study. The freshwater invertebrate and fish used in the study were daphnid neonates and juvenile fathead minnows, respectively. The saltwater invertebrate and fish were juvenile mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and juvenile sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Ames tests were run on untreated groundwater, UV oxidation-treated groundwater, and carbon-treated groundwater.... Groundwater, Aquatic, Toxicity, Daphnia, Daphnia magna, Fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, Mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, Sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus.

Burton, D.T.; Turley, S.D.



Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian campo rupestre vegetation, with special reference to crepuscular bees.  


Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome. PMID:22208813

Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam



Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian Campo Rupestre Vegetation, with Special Reference to Crepuscular Bees  

PubMed Central

Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome.

Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam



Evaluation of the humoral and cellular immune response to different antigens of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in Canindé goats and their potential protection against caseous lymphadenitis.  


Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a disease that affects goats and sheep, and can cause severe economic losses. In this study, four different antigenic extracts were obtained from the attenuated strain T1, which was isolated in the state of Bahia (Brazil). Forty-four Canindé breed goats were divided in five groups, each receiving a different antigen solution and saline buffer as a control. The humoral response was monitored through the identification of specific IgG by indirect ELISA and Western Blotting, and the production of IFN-gamma was followed in order to observe the activation of cellular response. After twelve weeks of antigen inoculation, the animals were challenged with 2 x 10(5)CFU of a wild strain, also isolated in Bahia, and necropsy was performed on all animals twelve weeks afterwards. It was observed that the attenuated bacteria gave a protection of 33.3%, in addition to the weak humoral response elicited. Animals inoculated with secreted antigen associated with Freund's incomplete adjuvant and oligodeoxynucleotide containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG ODN) showed a strong humoral response, but this inoculation could not prevent the spread of challenge bacteria in the majority of animals. These results demonstrate the immunogenic potential of the attenuated T1 strain in the development of a vaccine against caseous lymphadenitis in goats. PMID:18752855

Moura-Costa, L F; Bahia, R C; Carminati, R; Vale, V L C; Paule, B J A; Portela, R W; Freire, S M; Nascimento, I; Schaer, R; Barreto, L M S; Meyer, R



[School: a place for studying and eating].  


This study seeks to discuss the significance of school nutrition expressed by students in public schools from the state of Bahia, Brazil. The objective is to understand the symbolic aspects associated with school nutrition. The results of a survey into the significance of nutrition offered by the Brazilian School Nutrition Program (PNAE) expressed by students from six public schools in municipalities in the state of Bahia, Brazil, are presented. A qualitative approach to understand nutrition at school and notions about healthy food by analyzing oral and written narratives of adolescents is used. The reports point to opposing stances between food in the home and food outside the home. What is customary can appear strange depending on the time and place. In this sense, they do not make an association between healthy food and PNAE. The food culture requires students to eat food on two occasions: breakfast and lunch (or dinner). These are aspects that are distinct, however they must be combined in school, because for these social actors, studying and eating are necessities that complement each other. PMID:23670374

de Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Ramos, Lilian Barbosa; Fontes, Gardênia Vieira; Santos, Ligia Amparo; de Souza, Elizeu Clementino; dos Santos, Anderson Carvalho; Mota, Sara Emanuela; de Paiva, Janaina Braga; Bernardelli, Tânia Mara; Demétrio, Franklin; Menezes, Isadora



Epidemiological and Clinical Changes in American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in an Area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Transmission Over a 20-Year Period  

PubMed Central

The Health Post of Corte de Pedra is located in a region endemic for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the Brazilian state of Bahia, and it treats 500–1,300 patients annually. To describe temporal changes in the epidemiology of ATL, we reviewed a random sample of 10% of patient charts (N = 1,209) from 1988 to 2008. There was a twofold increase in the number of cases over the 20-year period, with fluctuations in 10-year cycles. Patients were most frequently male, between the ages of 10 and 30 years, and engaged in agricultural labor; 4.3% of patients had mucosal disease, and 2.4% of patients had disseminated disease. Over the study period, the number of disseminated cases increased threefold, the proportion of cases in younger patients and agricultural workers decreased, and the proportion of patients residing in coastal areas increased. ATL is on the rise in Bahia, with a 10-year periodicity and evolving changes in epidemiology and manifestations of disease.

Jirmanus, Lara; Glesby, Marshall J.; Guimaraes, Luiz H.; Lago, Ednaldo; Rosa, Maria Elisa; Machado, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Edgar M.



Effects observed in the Latin American sector ionospheric F region during the intense geomagnetic disturbances in the early part of November 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun was very active in the early part of November 2004. During the period of 8-10 November 2004, intense geomagnetic disturbances with two superstorms were observed. In this paper, we have investigated the generation and suppression of equatorial ionospheric irregularities and the daytime changes in the F region electron density in the Latin American sector during the period of intense geomagnetic disturbances. We present the ionospheric sounding observations carried out at Manaus and Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, during this geomagnetically disturbed period. Also, GPS observations obtained from several stations in Brazil, Argentina, and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the disturbed period are presented. During the main phase of the first superstorm, around the prereversal enhancement time (night of 7-8 November), prompt penetration of electric field was observed and the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities was detected from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (in the northern hemisphere) to Bahia Blanca, Argentina (in the southern hemisphere). The ionospheric sounding observations at Manaus indicate inhibition of prereversal enhancement on the nights of 9-10 and 10-11 November, possibly due to the disturbed thermospheric winds or disturbance electric fields. Virtually no phase fluctuations on the nights of 9-10 and 10-11 November were observed in the Latin American sector. During the daytime on 8 November, the vertical total electron content (VTEC) observations show a negative storm phase at Porto Alegre (Brazil) and Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Again during the daytime on 10 November, the VTEC observations show a negative storm phase from Brasilia (Brazil) to Bahia Blanca. These negative storm phases are associated with a decrease in the O/N2 ratio. During the daytime on 9 November, the VTEC observations show a positive storm phase extending from St. Croix to Porto Alegre, and again on 10 November, VTEC observations show a positive storm phase. These positive storm phases observed are possibly due to changes in large-scale wind circulation and an increase in the O/N2 ratio.

Sahai, Y.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Brunini, C.; Gende, M.; Ferreira, A. S.; Lima, N. S.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Pillat, V. G.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Candido, C. M. N.



Sourcing Brazilian marijuana by applying IRMS analysis to seized samples.  


The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios were measured in marijuana samples (Cannabis sativa L.) seized by the law enforcement officers in the three Brazilian production sites: Pernambuco and Bahia (the country's Northeast known as Marijuana Polygon), Pará (North or Amazon region) and Mato Grosso do Sul (Midwest). These regions are regarded as different with respect to climate and water availability, factors which impact upon the isotope fractionations of these elements within plants. It was possible to differentiate samples from the dry regions (Marijuana Polygon) from those from Mato Grosso do Sul and Pará, that present heavier rainfall. The results were in agreement with the climatic conditions of the suspected regions of origin and this demonstrates that seized samples can be used to identify the isotopic signatures of marijuana from the main producing regions in Brazil. PMID:16183231

Shibuya, Elisa K; Souza Sarkis, Jorge E; Neto, Osvaldo Negrini; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Victoria, Reynaldo L



Heavy metals in sediments from the Paraguay River: a preliminary study.  


The first results ever obtained on heavy metal concentrations (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the Paraguay River surface sediments are presented. Samples collected at 11 locations, along a distance of 570 km, between the cities of Bahia Negra and Alberdi in Paraguay, for six different periods between November 1991 and 1993, were analyzed. The Paraguay sediments appeared to have features of an unpolluted river even though significant amounts of domestic and industrial effluents are discharged near the river channel. The relative heavy metal enrichment in sediments between Bella Vista and Asunción, caused by local domestic sewage and industrial outfalls, is less than for the shale standard values. The heavy metal content of the sediments exhibited seasonal variations. Enhanced organic matter content and biochemical oxygen demand of the river load in winter caused most likely a retainment of the heavy metals in a dissolved state. Consequently, the sediments deposited in the winter were relatively depleted in these elements. PMID:9496666

Facetti, J; Dekov, V M; Van Grieken, R



Prognostic Biomarkers and EBV Infection Research in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Palatine Tonsils  

PubMed Central

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma represents approximately 30%–40% of all diagnoses of non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and may represent up to 80% of all lymphomas that arise in the palatine tonsils. Several studies have attempted to correlate clinical, laboratorial, and tissue factors with the prognosis of the lymphomas, such as the International Prognostic Index, the tissue expression of some proteins, and the lymphocyte count at the time of diagnosis, as well as to correlate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection with worse prognoses. Patients with palatine tonsil DLBCL, from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were studied in order to identify prognostic factors. Twenty-four patients with DLBCL were studied. The factors that negatively influenced the patients' survival rates were the lymphocyte count at the time of diagnosis <1.000/mm3 and the Bcl-2 protein expression. There was no CD5 expression in these lymphomas, and neither was there an association with EBV infection.

Marques, Marinho; Luz, Estela; Hummel, Michael; Vieira, Maria das Gracas; Bahia, Regina Celia; Oliveira, Maria Cristina; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Luz, Ivana; Araujo, Iguaracyra



Non-Detection of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in HHV-8-Seropositive Blood Donors from Three Brazilian Regions  

PubMed Central

Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the etiologic agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and the plasmablastic cell variant of multicentric Castleman disease. In endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, blood transfusions have been associated with a substantial risk of HHV-8 transmission. By contrast, several studies among healthy blood donors from North America have failed to detect HHV-8 DNA in samples of seropositive individuals. In this study, using a real-time PCR assay, we investigated the presence of HHV-8 DNA in whole-blood samples of 803 HHV-8 blood donors from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Amazon, Bahia) who tested positive for HHV-8 antibodies, in a previous multicenter study. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in any sample. Our findings do not support the introduction of routine HHV-8 screening among healthy blood donors in Brazil. (WC?=?140).

Levi, Jose Eduardo; Nascimento, Maria Claudia; Sumita, Laura Masami; de Souza, Vanda Akico Ueda Fick; Freire, Wilton S.; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S.



[Voluntary abortion and domestic violence among women attended at a public maternity hospital of Salvador-BA].  


Quantitative study in order to study domestic violence in women with induced abortion. Interviews were conducted with 147 women hospitalized for induced abortion in a public maternity hospital in Salvador, Bahia. The subjects are characterized by mostly women, black, poorly educated, economically dependent on spouses, experienced psychological abuse, physical and sexual abuse committed by their spouses. Almost half of the women were victims of domestic violence during the current pregnancy, and that was the reason for inducing abortion for 67% of them. The study reveals an association between experience of domestic violence and induced abortion. As mental health consequences, they developed symptoms of post trauma stress disorder. It is necessary that the health professionals consider the cues to identify domestic violence as a health problem associated with induced abortion, which requires a transformation on the training model, including domestic violence as a health issue. PMID:22664597

Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Gesteira, Solange Maria Dos Anjos; Lopes, Regina Lúcia Mendonça; Santos Mota, Rosana; Pérez, Bárbara Angélica Gómez; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira


[Schistosomiasis and the challenge of community participation].  


Using a semiotic and hermeneutical approach, the present paper discusses various theoretical elements in the analysis of popular views of schistosomiasis. Based on field work conducted in the State of Bahia, the authors identify two main processes in the construction of meaning related to schistosomiasis and show that depending on the social context of experience the disease may have a primary or secondary meaning for the populations affected by it. The first level of meaning refers to bodily experiences and is shared intersubjectively, whereas the second type is built on the discourse of health professionals. In the latter case, the popular view of the illness is directly linked to discourses and actions previously established by health programs designed for the control of the disease. PMID:9700227

Alves, P C; Souza, I M; Moura, M A; Cunha, L A



Salinity and chemical weathering rate of rocks in a semi-arid region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rain and river water samples were collected during one year in the Salgado River Basin, a semiarid region in Bahia State, Brazil. The Na, Ca, and K and Mg concentrations and U and total dissolved salts contents in river water, rocks and soils of the basin were measured. A geochemical balance and the chemical weathering of rocks was determined. The water of Salgado River shows high concentration of the total dissolved salts (1,42 g/l) making it impossible to determine the chemical weathering rate of rocks by using the major catons as tracer elements. The results of 36 t/sq km-yr was obtained by using uranium as natural tracer.

Nordemann, L. M. M.



[Health services accessibility in a city of Northeast Brazil].  


In order to analyze the implementation of measures targeting accessibility to primary health care in a municipality (county) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, a single case study was performed with two levels of analysis: system and services organization. The data were obtained from semi-structured interviews, observation of routine care, and document analysis. Of the four health units analyzed, three showed intermediate-level implementation of measures targeting accessibility. The Family Health Units showed better performance, due to measures for patient reception and referral to specialized services, but they revealed problems with scheduling of appointments. Despite having defined primary care as the portal of entry into the system and the implementation of a help desk for setting appointments with specialists, there are persistent organizational barriers in the municipality. A specific policy is recommended to improve accessibility, aimed at organization of the services supply in order to change the health care model. PMID:20512213

Cunha, Alcione Brasileiro Oliveira; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria



Determination of bioactivity of chemical fractions of liquid wastes using freshwater and saltwater algae and crustaceans  

SciTech Connect

Complex wastes from industrial and municipal outfalls were fractionated chemically and tested for toxicity with freshwater and saltwater algae and crustaceans. The organic fraction of each waste was subfractionated into acid-, base-, and neutral-extractable portions, and the inorganic fraction was subfractionated into its anion and cation components. All wastes affected growth of the algae Skeletonema costatum (saltwater) and Monoraphidium capricornutum (freshwater) or survival of Mysidopsis bahia (saltwater) and Daphnia magna (freshwater). Usually, bioactivity was limited to one or two subfractions. In some cases, algal growth was stimulated by a fraction or subfraction, whereas stimulation was not detected in whole waste. It is suggested that fractionation must be done in order to estimate the full potential impact of complex wastes on aquatic systems. The method can also be used to identify toxic factors before application of cost-effective control technology.

Walsh, G.E. (US Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL); Garnas, R.L.



Ozone effects on productivity and diversity of an early successional forest community  

SciTech Connect

There has been little research on the effects of tropospheric ozone on diversity and productivity of native understory vegetation and tree species growing in competition. Loblolly pine and an associated early successional forest community was exposed to 4 treatments of ozone. The treatments were: CF=carbon-filtered air, NF=non-filtered 1X air, AA=ambient air and 2X=twice AA air. Pine height and diameter, number of understory species, and percent-cover were measured. First-year results show the number of species were significantly reduced in 2X compared to CF. Blackberry, although severely injured (visible), dominated the 2X treatments. Bahia grass increased in abundance and cover with decreasing ozone, panicum grass increased in abundance and cover with increasing ozone, and andropogon was unaffected. Pine height and diameter was significantly reduced in the CF treatment. This study will continue for at least one more growing season.

Barbo, D.N.; Chappelka, A.H. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Stolte, K.W. [USDA Forest Service, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)



[Dilemmas of the end-of-life: information about the medical practice in the ICUs].  


The objective of this research was to investigate the knowledge, opinion and practice of critical care physician concerning end-of-life decisions. In this descriptive and cross-sectional study a questionnaire was applied to the physicians working in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Semi-ICU of 5 Hospitals in Salvador, Bahia State. Currently the physicians dealing with terminal patients are indeed concerned about providing comfort to their patients, and at times even avoiding the use of life support measures. Nevertheless, many of the participants admitted that they have omitted information regarding these decisions in the medical records, as they fear consequences with the Medical Council or civil actions against them. This insecurity is related to the lack of information and the absence of an established and clear legislation on these matters. More discussions on this important subject are necessary, involving physicians, hospitals and patients. PMID:21503428

Gaudencio, Debora; Messeder, Octavio



Monitoring the tidal Delaware River for ambient toxicity.  


This study assessed ambient waters in an urbanized area of the Delaware River, to determine whether river water samples exhibited chronic lethal or sublethal toxicity when measured in laboratory experiments. Toxicity was assessed at 16 fixed stations in the main-stem river and 29 stations in tributaries of the tidal Delaware River with salinities from 0 to 15 parts per 1000 (ppt) using Pimephales promelas, Americamysis bahia, Menidia beryllina, and Ceriodaphnia dubia in 7-d tests; Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in a 96-h test; and Hyalella azteca in a 10-d water-only test. The toxicity tests measured organism survival, growth, and reproduction. Results from testing water samples collected in 4 different y indicated that the samples from sites tested in the main-stem of the Delaware River and from the majority of its tributaries did not produce chronic toxicity. The surveys identified tributaries that warrant further assessment for toxicity. PMID:21082667

MacGillivray, A Ronald; Russell, David E; Brown, Steven S; Fikslin, Thomas J; Greene, Richard; Hoke, Robert A; Nally, Christopher; O'Donnell, Linda



Phylogeography of Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Brazil, 2010-2011  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) reemerged in Roraima State, Brazil, 28 years after it was last detected in the country in 1982. To study the origin and evolution of this reemergence, full-length sequences were obtained for 16 DENV-4 isolates from northern (Roraima, Amazonas, Pará States) and northeastern (Bahia State) Brazil during the 2010 and 2011 dengue virus seasons and for an isolate from the 1982 epidemic in Roraima. Spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-4 introductions in Brazil were applied to envelope genes and full genomes by using Bayesian phylogeographic analyses. An introduction of genotype I into Brazil from Southeast Asia was confirmed, and full genome phylogeographic analyses revealed multiple introductions of DENV-4 genotype II in Brazil, providing evidence for >3 introductions of this genotype within the last decade: 2 from Venezuela to Roraima and 1 from Colombia to Amazonas. The phylogeographic analysis of full genome data has demonstrated the origins of DENV-4 throughout Brazil.

Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Silva de Lima, Clayton Pereira; Carvalho, Valeria Lima; Pinto da Silva, Eliana Vieira; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Sousa, Edivaldo Costa; Nunes, Keley Nascimento Barbosa; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Abecasis, Ana Barroso; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe



Genetic variability in wild genotypes of Passiflora cincinnata based on RAPD markers.  


The genetic diversity and characteristics of commercial interest of Passiflora species make it useful to characterize wild germplasm, because of their potential use for fruit, ornamental and medicinal purposes. We evaluated genetic diversity, using RAPD markers, of 32 genotypes of Passiflora cincinnata collected from the wild in the region of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. Thirteen primers generated 95 polymorphic markers and only one monomorphic marker. The mean genetic distance between the genotypes estimated by the complement of the Dice index was 0.51 (ranging from 0.20-0.85), and genotype grouping based on the UPGMA algorithm showed wide variability among the genotypes. This type of information contributes to identification and conservation of the biodiversity of this species and for the identification of pairs of divergent individuals for maximum exploitation of existing variability. PMID:21174261

Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Conceição, L D H C S; Santos, E S L; Cardoso-Silva, C B; Pereira, A S; Oliveira, A C; Corrêa, R X



Outbreak of aggressions and transmission of rabies in human beings by vampire bats in northeastern Brazil.  


Outbreaks of attacks upon human beings by vampire bats seems to be a common phenomenon in several regions of Latin America, but the occurrence of rabies infection among humans bled by vampires, is relatively low. In the present study, two outbreaks of human rabies transmitted by common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are described from Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil, in 1991 and 1992. The first was recorded in Aporá where 308 people were bled by vampires bats and three of these die from this zoonosis. The 2nd outbreak occurred in Conde where only five people were bled by vampires, and two deaths by rabies were registered. Our data suggest that rabies transmitted by bats basically depends on the presence of virus in the vampire bat population and not on the number of humans bled by them. PMID:12621664

Gonçalves, Marcio A S; Sá-Neto, Raymundo J; Brazil, Tania K



The German transit of Venus expeditions of 1874 and 1882: organization, methods, stations, results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first major Government-funded German scientific enterprise was triggered by a smaller one to observe the total solar eclipse of 1868. The photoheliograph built for this occasion was later used for transit of Venus observations, together with three similar instruments. Furthermore, five small Fraunhofer heliometers were used to visually measure the position of Venus on the solar disk. The 1874 expeditions went to Tschifu (China), Kerguelen, Auckland and Mauritius Islands, to Isfahan (Persia) and Luxor (Egypt). The low accuracy achieved from the photographic observations led to the abandonment of such studies in the next transit. The 1882 transit expeditions went to Hartford (Connecticut), Aiken (South Carolina), Bahia Blanca (Argentina), Punta Arenas (Chile) and Royal Sound (South Georgia Island). Meticulous calibrations of the heliometers were carried out before and after the transits, and final results of contact timings, photographic and heliometric observations were only published in 1896.

Duerbeck, Hilmar W.



Use of satellite images for geographical localization of livestock holdings in Brazil.  


Google Earth(®) provides free access to satellite images and has been used in several areas that require cartographic information. The present study assessed the inconsistencies between geo-referencing of livestock premises by GPS and the acquisition of geographic coordinates by remote sensing (RS) images provided by Google Earth(®) in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Distrito Federal, Minas Gerais and Parana. The overall mean and standard deviation of the distances in the study were 30.98±19.89 m. The mean distance differences between the two techniques were, for these states, 37.20±19.75 m, 28.38±17.38 m, 31.61±15.72 m, 28.43±24.30 m, respectively. Despite the fact that there is variation between the geo-referencing points using GPS and RS, geographical localization of health inspections should be useful as long as the errors between the results of the two methodologies are considered. PMID:21917345

Carvalho, Luiz Felipe Ramos; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; McManus, Concepta; Haddad, João Paulo Amaral



Reply [to “Antarctic ice cover”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let me thank D. Milton and L. Lliboutry for sharing their information, criticisms, and thoughts on this important subject. Lliboutry, I believe, has provided useful information that relates to cartographic history. He has, however, unfortunately represented as fact a variety of speculations for which he has provided no references, e.g., “… the gulf should be Bahia Inutil in Tierra del Fuego, not the Weddell Sea…,” “Regio Patalis …actually is Australia,” and “… all the details… [on the] Finaeus map are surely absolutely fanciful….” It appears, rather, that these are his judgments, which I believe add little to the argument or the literature. The interested reader will surely consult the original paper and make his independent judgment.

Weihaupt, John G.



Assessments of medical exposures during interventional radiology procedures.  


This study aims to contribute to the construction of a scenario regarding patient radiation exposure in Brazilian interventional radiology, aiming to provide data for the future drafting of specific legislation on interventional radiology because there is currently a lack of safety regulations for haemodynamics services in this country. Fourteen haemodynamics services in the states of Santa Catarina and Bahia were evaluated. The radiological devices were characterised through measurements of air kerma-area product, entrance surface air kerma (Ke), exposure time, spatial resolution (SR), low-contrast resolution and half-value layer. During the evaluation of instrument parameters, several non-conformities were found according to current Brazilian regulations, with SR presenting the most critical situation. The results of the present study indicate the need for the optimisation of clinical practices in complex radiological procedures, although the overall results for the dose scenario in the present study revealed values similar to those reported in international publications. PMID:22908350

Navarro, Valéria Coêlho Costa; Navarro, Marcus Vinícius Teixeira; Maia, Ana Figueiredo



[A study on the construct validity of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) in an urban population in Northeast Brazil].  


The Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) is one of the most widely used instruments in the world for investigating domestic violence against children, but targeted use has proven inadequate given the phenomenon's complexity. This study focused on the factor structure of CTSPC scales in an urban population in Northeast Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 1,370 children in Salvador, Bahia State. Factor analysis with promax oblique rotation was performed, and the Kuder-Richardson coefficient was calculated. Factor analysis showed a different distribution of items in the factors as compared to the original instrument. Violence showed a gradual profile in each factor. The Kuder-Richardson coefficient was 0.63 for factor 1, 0.59 for factor 2, and 0.42 for factor 3. The items behaved differently from the original instrument, corroborating international studies. These findings support proposing a resizing of the CTSPC. PMID:22124499

Bonfim, Camila Barreto; Santos, Darci Neves; Menezes, Igor Gomes; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio Lima



[Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae)].  


Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae). Parodontidae family is a group of Characiformes fishes distributed throughout South America and parts of Panama, except in the basins of the southern Bahia state in Brasil on the Atlantic coast, Patagonia and the Amazon river channel. The family includes three genera: Apareiodon Eigenmann 1916, Parodon Valenciennes 1849 y Saccodon Kner 1863, 28 recognized species and two valid genera: Parodon and Saccodon. Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis is carried out based on type, and topotypic material from Colombia. Significant differences were found in morphometric, meristic, osteologic and color characters. S. dariensis is widely distributed but P. caliensis is restricted to the upper Cauca River drainage. Three species are considered herein as synonyms of S. dariensis: Apareiodon dariensis, A. compressus and S. caucae. Sexual dimorphism is described for both species. PMID:20737840

Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro; Román-Valencia, César



[Is male violence directed towards Eve or Mary?].  


This paper analyses the different categories of violent death and other injuries occurred in Bahia. In Brazil, traffic accidents, homicides and suicides correspond to the third most common cause of death. Besides, violent acts tend to increase the emergency health services demand. The data were collected from the written press covering all the homicides, grave injuries and notified rapes during 1989. Police violence appeared as responsible for the death of a high proportion (24%) of young males, followed by the disagreement between criminals (18.6%). In relation to females, the quantitative dimension of crimes are lower, more diffused and registered in the family environment. The data point to the importance of male domination in the interpretation of those domestic violent acts. Resisting the ideology of women's inferiority means avoiding both injuries and homicides - a complex task for Brazilian society. PMID:15830043

Noronha, C V; Daltro, M E



Validation of soil moisture in Brazil using SMEX03 data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work was to validate surface soil moisture products as derived from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - AMSR-E (C and X bands) sensor observations for cerrado region in Brazil, using Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03) data. These data were collected in Barreiras city, Bahia state, during the first two weeks of December 2003. The soil moisture derived from AMSR-E sensor was retrieved from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), which was developed by researchers from NASA and the Vrije University Amsterdam. The comparison of time series of the soil moisture showed that the AMSR-E C band and observational data set both give a similar seasonal pattern for cerrado region, presenting a high coefficient of determination (R) for C and X bands. From the results we concluded that the region with cerrado vegetation has a strong potential to retrieve reliable surface soil moisture.

Rossato, L.; de Jeu, R.; Alvalá, R.



Zero-modified Poisson model: Bayesian approach, influence diagnostics, and an application to a Brazilian leptospirosis notification data.  


In this paper, a Bayesian method for inference is developed for the zero-modified Poisson (ZMP) regression model. This model is very flexible for analyzing count data without requiring any information about inflation or deflation of zeros in the sample. A general class of prior densities based on an information matrix is considered for the model parameters. A sensitivity study to detect influential cases that can change the results is performed based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Simulation studies are presented in order to illustrate the performance of the developed methodology. Two real datasets on leptospirosis notification in Bahia State (Brazil) are analyzed using the proposed methodology for the ZMP model. PMID:23564691

Conceição, Katiane S; Andrade, Marinho G; Louzada, Francisco



Power spectrum and Fisher–Shannon information plane analysis of tidal records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time dynamics of tidal fluctuations measured in three sites in Bahia Blanca Estuary (central Argentina), Ingeniero White, Puerto Belgrano and Torre Mareografica, are analyzed. To investigate the time series of the tidal waves we used two different approaches: the power spectral density (PSD) and the Fisher–Shannon (FS) information plane. The PSD permitted: (i) the identification of diurnal, semi-diurnal and higher frequency cycles in all the three tidal signals, and (ii) the detection of two different dynamical regimes (scaling and white-noise), involving respectively timescales lower and higher than about 2–2.5 days. The FS method, which allows to gain insight into the complex structure of a time series, quantifying its degree of organization and order, was applied to the residual tidal series (after removing the main cycles) and permitted to identify a period of low organization in the tidal signal measured at Puerto Belgrano.

Lovallo, Michele; Pierini, Jorge O.; Telesca, Luciano



Phylogeography of dengue virus serotype 4, Brazil, 2010-2011.  


Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) reemerged in Roraima State, Brazil, 28 years after it was last detected in the country in 1982. To study the origin and evolution of this reemergence, full-length sequences were obtained for 16 DENV-4 isolates from northern (Roraima, Amazonas, Pará States) and northeastern (Bahia State) Brazil during the 2010 and 2011 dengue virus seasons and for an isolate from the 1982 epidemic in Roraima. Spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-4 introductions in Brazil were applied to envelope genes and full genomes by using Bayesian phylogeographic analyses. An introduction of genotype I into Brazil from Southeast Asia was confirmed, and full genome phylogeographic analyses revealed multiple introductions of DENV-4 genotype II in Brazil, providing evidence for >3 introductions of this genotype within the last decade: 2 from Venezuela to Roraima and 1 from Colombia to Amazonas. The phylogeographic analysis of full genome data has demonstrated the origins of DENV-4 throughout Brazil. PMID:23092706

Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Silva de Lima, Clayton Pereira; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Pinto da Silva, Eliana Vieira; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Sousa, Edivaldo Costa; Nunes, Keley Nascimento Barbosa; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Abecasis, Ana Barroso; Suchard, Marc A; Lemey, Philippe; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa



Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation among kindergarten children in Bahía Blanca city, Argentina.  


The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is a worldwide public health concern. This human obligate ectoparasite usually infests school age children. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of head lice in kindergarten children from Bahia Blanca. In addition, the influence of risk factors for pediculosis infestation, such as gender, hair characteristics, and socioeconomic class, was studied in relation to the prevalence of this ectoparasite. From a total of 220 pupils examined (125 girls and 95 boys), 94 showed pediculosis. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 42.7 %. Pediculosis was more frequent in girls (53.6 %) than in boys (28.4 %) and in medium, long, and very long hairs. No differences were found between socioeconomic classes. This indicated that head lice are relatively common in kindergarten children from Bahía Blanca. PMID:22752696

Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; González, Jorge Werdin; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Serralunga, Gabriela; Yañez, Loreto; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia



Being Yoruba in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro.  


Through the experiences of two West Africans shipped to Bahia as slaves, probably in the 1840s, then sold south to Rio de Janeiro where they met, became lovers, bought their freedom, married, and divorced, I comment on an ongoing debate over the refashioning or transfer of African ethnic identities in American slave societies. The sources in this Brazilian case suggest that previous identities were not suddenly erased, but rather, new layers of understanding and ways of responding were added. Whatever the dynamic of cultural formation, it was memory that crucially bridged the distance between the past they carried with them and the present into which they were thrust; and so it becomes illuminating to reconstruct the plausibly remembered African pasts on which this couple drew to make sense of an unfamiliar Brazilian present. PMID:21574280

Graham, Sandra Lauderdale



[Factorial analysis of correspondence of the social representations about nurse nocturnal work].  


The study aimed to apprehend the Social Representations of nurses on nocturnal work. It was based on the Theory of Social Representations with qualitative and quantitative approaches. The free evocations of 25 nurses in a public hospital in Salvador-Bahia were collected, that underwent the Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC). The FAC revealed on the opposition game demonstrated, in Factor 1, opposition between shifts service and, in Factor 2, age x length of service. Seized on the semantic universe of nurses the nocturnal work is a Responsibility Work, Hard Work, Initiative Work and Financial Need. The nurses refer to the nocturnal work through representations that give normative character, prescribing attitudes and behaviors socially constructed and accepted as from the category itself, emphasizing the historical development of the profession. Those results indicate the need for strategies that contribute to the development of policies for managing people, considering the specificity, subjectivity and complexity of nocturnal work. PMID:23681374

Veiga, Kátia Conceição Guimarães; Fernandes, Josicelia Dumet; Paiva, Mirian Santos


[Homeopathy in the Unified National Health System in Brazil: users' representations of homeopathic treatment].  


Homeopathy was officially introduced in Brazil in 1840 but was only recognized by the Federal Board of Medicine as a medical specialty in 1980. It still has a limited presence in the Unified National Health System (SUS), with only a few homeopathy services in a handful of Brazilian counties. The current study aimed to analyze National Health System users' representations of homeopathy. A case study was conducted in a health unit in Salvador, Bahia State, using a qualitative methodology. Data collection used 112 questionnaires and 19 in-depth interviews with users of homeopathy services. The study results showed that the main motivation for seeking homeopathic treatment was the failure of previous allopathic treatment. The holistic perspective, use of natural medications, longer consultations, and attentive listening to patients appeared as positive characteristics of homeopathy as compared to allopathy. The results point to the potential contribution of alternative therapeutic practices like homeopathy to the Brazilian National Health System. PMID:17653408

de Andrade Monteiro, Dalva; Bernstein Iriart, Jorge Alberto



[Pain assessment in the premature newborn in Intensive Care Unit].  


This study aimed to analyze the process of pain identification in premature by the professional staff of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital in the interior of Bahia, Brazil. This is a quantitative descriptive exploratory study that was made through a form applied to twenty-four health professional of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The data were analyzed in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The results showed 100% of professionals believed that newborns feel pain, 83.3% knew the pain as the fifth vital sign to be evaluated; 54,8% did not know the pain assessment scales; 70.8% did not use scales and highlighted behavioral and physiological signs of the newborn as signs suggestive of pain. Thus, it is important that professionals understand the pain as a complex phenomenon that demands early intervention, ensuring the excellence of care. PMID:22751705

Santos, Luciano Marques; Pereira, Monick Piton; dos Santos, Leandro Feliciano Nery; de Santana, Rosana Castelo Branco


[Floral resource partitioning by social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) and bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in an area of caatinga in Brazil].  


Wasps and bees are important components of flower visitor guilds in the Neotropical region. The abundance of social wasps and bees, collected during flower visits, was used to calculate niche breadth and niche overlap indices, in order to characterize the utilization of the floral resources by those insects. Samples were taken monthly, for 13 months (156h), by two collectors which captured the specimens on flowers using entomological nets, while walking along a way in an area of caatinga at Itatim, State of Bahia, Brazil. Wasps and bees heavily visited a few sources of floral resources, but the most visited plants by each group were different, and few plant species were important for both groups, resulting in low niche overlap between bees and wasps. The niche overlap among wasp species was generally higher than among bee species. The general overlap, which takes into consideration all species together was low (< 30%). PMID:18246256

Aguiar, Cândida M L; Santos, Gilberto M de M


[Family health program: a space for the reconstruction of social representations of the health-disease process?].  


A qualitative study that investigated the social representations of health-disease process of families accompanied by Family Health Program (FHP) in the rural zone in the municipal of Lafaiete Coutinho, Bahia, Brazil, aiming at analyzing the social representations of families about the health-disease process. Data were colected through a semi-structured interview with 23 members of several families. Content analysis was used do understand sense nucleous. The results showed that the FHP interferes in the reconstruction of social representations of health-disease process, through the organization of health services and of social production of health. It was concluded the FHP has contributed for the democratization of knowbdge of health-disease process, however it is necessary to dimystify cultural values reinforced by a model of attention that emphasized the recovery of diseases. PMID:17340703

Gomes, Liane Oliveira Souza; Aguiar, Maria Geralda Gomes


Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variation across calving lagoons in Eastern North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus).  


Accurate knowledge of population structure in cetaceans is critical for preserving and managing breeding habitat, particularly when habitat is not uniformly protected. Most eastern gray whales return to their major breeding range each winter along the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrating in 3 major calving lagoons, but it is unknown whether genetic differences exist between lagoons. Previous photo-identification studies and genetic studies suggest that gray whales may return to their natal lagoons to breed, potentially resulting in the buildup of genetic differences. However, an earlier genetic study used only one genetic marker and did not include samples from Bahia Magdalena, a major calving lagoon not currently designated as a wildlife refuge. To expand on this previous study, we collected genetic data from the mitochondrial control region (442 bp) and 9 microsatellite markers from 112 individuals across all 3 major calving lagoons. Our data suggest that migration rates between calving lagoons are high but that a small but significant departure from panmixia exists between Bahia Magdalena and Laguna San Ignacio (Fisher's Exact test, P < 0.0001; F(ST) = 0.006, P = 0.025). Coalescent simulations show that the lack of extensive population structure may result from the disruption of structure due to whaling. Another possibility is that rates of migration have always been high (>10% per generation). In addition, microsatellite data showed evidence of a severe population bottleneck. Eastern gray whales are still recovering from the impacts of whaling on their breeding grounds, and these populations should be protected and monitored for future genetic changes. PMID:18974400

Alter, S Elizabeth; Ramirez, Sergio Flores; Nigenda, Sergio; Ramirez, Jorge Urbán; Bracho, Lorenzo Rojas; Palumbi, Stephen R



[Spatial and biogeographic characterization of macroalgal assemblages from Bahía del Rincón, Baja California Sur, Mexico].  


Macroalgal studies in Baja California Sur have dealt mainly with occurrence and seasonality, but some areas are poorly known even for these basic data. Bahia del Rincón-La Rivera is an important high-productivity fisheries area where coastal infrastructure development is under way. A spatial characterization of the marine flora from Bahia del Rincón-La Rivera was done by intensive sampling at different depths and localities with skin and SCUBA diving. At least 500 m2 were surveyed in each site. Additionally. quantitative sampling was done in ten random 25 cm2 quadrates per site. In the intertidal section, density and cover estimates were used. We also investigated the historical records and geographical affinities. A total of 72 species were identified (most were red algae: 62%). We found no general trend in the biogeographical affinities, which varied with each taxonomic group. Most brown algae species were tropical-endemic; red algae temperate-cosmopolite and green algae tropical-cosmopolite. In the spatial assemblage structure we found a high similarity between the intertidal areas, but a low similarity in shallow or deeper areas (3-5 m). This pattern was the same when we compared the abundance of the main species. We suggest that there are significant spatial differences in recruitment and development of the assemblages in relation to vertical distribution (depth) and position along the shore. There is a clear-cut Gelidium-Jania belt in the intertidal zone and a Padina-Dictyota belt below the low tide. Sporadic and year-round species occur in the intertidal zone, annual and perennial species below the low tide line. Sites differ in recruitment and this affects the abundance of other species (such as coraline and Caulerpa species). Temperature and sedimentation affect seasonality, but community structure is relatively constant throughout the year. PMID:17354423

Riosmena-Rodríguez, R; Hinojosa-Arango, G; López-Vivas, J M; León-Cisneros, K; Holguin-Acosta, E


Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land.  


Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucumxP. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96% and 91%, respectively, whereas bana had the lowest survival rate of 62%. The coverage and biomass of vetiver were also the highest after 6-month planting. Fertilizer application significantly increased biomass and tiller number of the four grasses, of which St. Augustine was promoted most, up to 70% for biomass, while vetiver was promoted least, only 27% for biomass. Two heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) tested in this trial had different concentrations in the oil shale residue, and also had different contents and distributions in the four grass species. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the four grasses presented a disparity of only 1.6-3.8 times, but their uptake amounts to the two metals were apart up to 27.5-35.5 times, which was chiefly due to the significantly different biomasses among them. Fertilizer application could abate the ability of the four species to accumulate heavy metals, namely concentration of heavy metals in plants decreased as fertilizer was applied. The total amount of metals accumulated by each plant under the condition of fertilization did not decrease due to an increase of biomass. In summary, vetiver may be the best species used for vegetation rehabilitation in oil shale disposal piles. PMID:14575747

Xia, H P



[The fisheries and growth of Ark Clams (Arcoida: Arcidae) Anadara tuberculosa in Málaga Bay, Colombian Pacific, 2005-2007].  


A. tuberculosa, is the most important bivalve species under exploitation in Colombia. Here, this species is found from Cabo Corrientes (Chocó) to the Ecuador border, in muddy substrates of mangrove forests. In order to determine the growth and the state of fisheries of A. tuberculosa, between December 2005 and April 2007, both, biological (in situ) and commercial studies were performed at Bahia Malaga (Colombian Pacific). The growth was estimated using the general equation of von Bertalanffy, with prior application of the methods of Bhattacharya and Powell-Wetherall. Mortality and exploitation rate were determined using the inverse model of von Bertalanffy. For the biological samplings, a total of 446 individuals of A. tuberculosa (0.64 +/- 0.13 individuals/m2) and 53 individuals (0.05 +/- 0.049 individuals/m2) of Anadara similis were collected. 79% of the catch was below 51mm. In the commercial samplings, 836 individuals of A. tuberculosa (size range: 31.1-92.2mm) were measured, but no A. similis samples were available for this. Recruitment of A. tuberculosa was higher during March, May, July and November. According to the data, A. tuberculosa might be reproducing during December, February, April and August. The data gathered with the biological samples were more reliable on explaining the growth of A. tuberculosa (K=0.332 per year, L(infinity)=88.256mm, t0=0.0556 years) than the one taken from market samples (K=0.256 per year, L(infinity)=89.77mm, t0=0733 years). The high exploitation rate (77%), the low density and the high mortality suggest that A. tuberculosa is in overexploitation state in Bahia Malaga and management strategies are urgently required. PMID:22458219

Lucero, Carlos; Cantera, Jaime; Neira, Raúl



A comparison of acute and chronic toxicity methods for marine sediments.  


Sediment toxicity tests are valuable tools for assessing the potential effects of contaminated sediments in dredged material evaluations because they inherently address complexity (e.g., unknown contaminants, mixtures, bioavailability). Although there is a need to understand the chronic and sublethal impacts of contaminants, it is common to conduct only short-term lethality tests in evaluations of marine sediments. Chronic toxicity methods for marine sediments have been developed but the efficacy of these methods is less documented. In this evaluation of marine sediments collected from the New York/New Jersey (NY/NJ) Harbor, three 10-d acute toxicity test methods (Ampelisca abdita, Leptocheirus plumulosus, Americamysis bahia) and three chronic and sublethal test methods (28-d L. plumulosus, 20- and 28-d Neanthes arenaceodentata) were applied by three testing laboratories. Although the N. arenaceodentata and A. bahia tests did not indicate significant toxicity for the sediments tested in this study, these methods have been reported useful in evaluating other sediments. The 10-d A. abdita, 10-d L. plumulosus and 28-d L. plumulosus tests were comparable between laboratories, indicating 29-43%, 29%, and 43-71% of the tested sediments as potentially toxic. The 28-d L. plumulosus method was the only chronic toxicity test that responded to the test sediments in this study. The 28-d L. plumulosus endpoint magnitudes were related to sediment chemistry and the sublethal endpoints were reduced as much or more than acute lethality endpoints. However, intra-treatment sublethal endpoint variability was greater, compromising detection of statistical significance. In this study, the chronic L. plumulosus test method was less consistent among laboratories relative to acute test methods, identifying potential for toxicity in a similar number (or slightly more) NY/NJ Harbor sediments. PMID:19481793

Kennedy, Alan J; Steevens, Jeffery A; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Farrar, John D; Reiss, Mark R; Kropp, Roy K; Doi, Jon; Bridges, Todd S



Allozyme Diversity and Morphometrics of Melocactus paucispinus (Cactaceae) and Evidence for Hybridization with M. concinnus in the Chapada Diamantina, North-eastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Melocacatus paucispinus (Cactaceae) is endemic to the state of Bahia, Brazil, and due to its rarity and desirability to collectors it has been considered threatened with extinction. This species is usually sympatric and inter-fertile with M. concinnus, and morphological evidence for hybridization between them is present in some populations. Levels of genetic and morphological variation and sub-structuring in populations of these species were assessed and an attempt was made to verify the occurrence of natural hybridization between them. • Methods Genetic variability was surveyed using allozymes (12 loci) and morphological variability using multivariate morphometric analyses (17 vegetative characters) in ten populations of M. paucispinus and three of M. concinnus occurring in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia. • Key Results Genetic variability was low in both species (P = 0·0–33·3, A = 1·0–1·6, He = 0·000–0·123 in M. paucispinus; P = 0·0–25·0, A = 1·0–1·4, He = 0·000–0·104 in M. concinnus). Deficit of heterozygotes within the populations was detected in both species, with high values of FIS (0·732 and 0·901 in M. paucispinus and M. concinnus, respectively). Evidence of hybridization was detected by the relative allele frequency in the two diaphorase loci. High levels of genetic (FST = 0·504 in M. paucispinus and 0·349 in M. concinnus) and morphological (A = 0·20 in M. paucispinus and 0·17 in M. concinnus) structuring among populations were found. • Conclusions The Melocactus spp. displayed levels of genetic variability lower than the values reported for other cactus species. The evidence indicates the occurrence of introgression in both species at two sites. The high FST values cannot be explained by geographical substructuring, but are consistent with hybridization. Conversely, morphological differentiation in M. paucispinus, but not in M. concinnus, is probably due to isolation by distance.




Antimicrobial activity of Marcetia DC species (Melastomataceae) and analysis of its flavonoids by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector  

PubMed Central

Background: Marcetia genera currently comprises 29 species, with approximately 90% inhabiting Bahia (Brazil), and most are endemic to the highlands of the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia). Among the species, only M. taxifolia (A.St.-Hil.) DC. populates Brazil (state of Roraima to Paraná) and also Venezuela, Colombia, and Guyana. Objective: This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of three species of Marcetia (Marcetia canescens Naud., M. macrophylla Wurdack, and M. taxifolia A.StHil) against several microorganism. In addition, the flavonoids were analyzed in extracts by HPLC-DAD. Materials and methods: The tests were made using Gram-positive (three strains of Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (two strains of Escherichia coli, a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another of Salmonella choleraesius) bacteria resistant and nonresistant to antibiotics and yeasts (two strains of Candida albicans and one of C. parapsilosis) by the disk diffusion method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed on the above extracts to isolate flavonoids, which were subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results: Results showed that extracts inhibited the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. The hexane extracts possessed the lowest activity, while the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts were more active. Conclusion: Marcetia taxifolia was more effective (active against 10 microorganisms studied), and only its methanol extract inhibited Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesius). SPE and HPLC-DAD analysis showed that M. canescens and M. macrophylla contain glycosylated flavonoids, while the majority of extracts from M. taxifolia were aglycone flavonoids.

Leite, Tonny Cley Campos; de Sena, Amanda Reges; dos Santos Silva, Tania Regina; dos Santos, Andrea Karla Almeida; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Branco, Alexsandro



Diffusion, intermittency and scaling in wave breaking turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of 3D turbulent velocity have been made near the coast for a variety of weather conditions in the wave breaking zone, and these values have been compared with flume measurements at a 100m long wave tank. There is a strong dependence of the integral lenthscales with the Wave Reynolds number as well as with the position and the wind, quantified through the friction velocity from wind profiles measured at the coastline. Earlier results have been published in Bezerra et al. (1998) and Rodriguez et al(1999). Several effects are important and give several decades of variation of eddy diffusivities measured near the coastline (between 0.0001 and 2 m2s-1)Inman et al.(1971), Zeitler(1976). Measurements of electromagnetic and ADV velocity measurements of the Coastal wave generated turbulence are compared in order to invest the scaling and intermittency of the turbulence produced by wave breaking. The velocity measurements were performed with an array of electromagnetic sensors that could be placed along the coastline in a stainless steel sledge. Rodriguez et al.(1994,1999) showed a parabolic shape of cross-shore diffusivity values but present analysis also shows the crosshore dependence of the intermittency as well as changes in the spectral slopes. Bezerra M.O., Diez M., Medeiros C., Rodriguez A., Bahia E. Sanchez-Arcilla A. y Redondo J.M. (1998) Study on the influence of waves on coastal diffusion using image analysis Applied Scientific Research. 59, 191-204. Rodriguez A., Sanchez-Arcilla A., Redondo J.M and C. Mosso (1999) Macroturbulence measurements with electromagnetic and ultrasonic sensors: a comparison under high-turbulent flows. Experiments in Fluids, 27, 31-42. Inman, D. L.; Tait, R.J.; Nordstrom, C.E. (1971). Mixing in the surf zone. Journal of Geophysical Research, vol 76, n° 15, 3493 - 3514. Zeidler, R. B. (1976) Coastal dispersion of pollutants, Journal of the Waterways Harbors and Coastal Engineering Division, 235 - 254 p. Rodriguez, A.; Bahia, E.; Falques, A.; Arcilla, A. S. And Stive, M. J. F. (1994) Image analysis of surf zone hydrodynamics. Coastal Dynamics 94. A.S.C.E., 350-365.

Redondo, J. M.; Mosso, C.; Marino, R.



A laboratory study on the MSW mechanical behavior in triaxial apparatus.  


Shear strength characterization of MSW materials is a mandatory task when performing analyses related to landfill design and landfill geometry improvements. Despite the considerable amount of research focusing on MSW mechanical behavior there remain certain aspects which are not completely understood and deserve attention in particular the case of the undrained behavior of MSW. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive laboratory testing program using a large-scale triaxial apparatus at the Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil. The effect of factors such as confining pressure, unit weight, fiber content, rate of loading and over-consolidation on the MSW mechanical response were investigated. Tested samples presented typical MSW shear/strain curves (concave upward) in all the tests, despite the pore water pressure reaching levels almost equal to the confining pressure. The obtained results show that increasing confining stress, unit weight, loading rate, fiber content and over-consolidation lead to an increase in the MSW shear strength. The importance of the fibrous components in the waste behavior is highlighted and graphs showing the variation of the MSW shear strength with fiber content in different drainage conditions are shown. The authors believe these results could be of interest to many companies, especially considering the new trend of plastic material recycling (prior landfilling) for energy recovery purposes. PMID:21478006

Karimpour-Fard, Mehran; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Shariatmadari, Nader; Noorzad, Ali



Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) geographical distribution and epidemiological importance.  


Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912) and N. neivai (Pinto 1926) are possible vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis in some regions of Brazil. Further, the latter was until recently, considered a junior synonym of the former. This study has the purpose of updating our knowledge of the geographical distribution of these species, based on specimens deposited at the collection of the Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou-Fiocruz, Faculdade de Saúde Pública-Universidade de São Paulo, and on data presented by literature as also to associate this distribution with the cutaneous leishmaniasis cases reported. It has been reported that N. intermedia occurs in the states of the Northeastern Region, in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, on the northern coast of São Paulo, in eastern Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás, close to the border with Minas Gerais and Bahia. N. neivai occurs in the Southern Region, southern coast and in western São Paulo, southern and western Minas Gerais, southern Goiás, and southern Pará, beyond Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay. It is important to highlight that N. intermedia and N. neivai occur in sympatry in Minas Gerais and São Paulo. N. intermedia or N. neivai are predominant or are captured abundantly in several cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in the Southeastern and Southern regions of Brazil. PMID:17612769

Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi; Falcão, Alda Lima



[Beliefs and behavior patterns of individuals with coronary artery disease].  


The study described beliefs and behavior patterns related to causes and control measures of coronary artery disease (CAD). A hundred adults in an outpatient clinic in Salvador in the state of Bahia were interviewed. The results were analyzed via the qualitative analysis technique. It predominantly involved married and unemployed black men, aged <60 years, with low schooling and income. The average beliefs on the cause of CAD was 1.53 per participant and blamed behavioral, biological, relational and religious factors, and represented excesses related to day-to-day tensions and eating habits. Most of the participants did not consider the disease to be chronic and believed that treatment would be temporary and they would be cured. The average beliefs for control measures were of 1.45, with dietary measures and medication. A sedentary lifestyle was the norm and reducing smoking and alcohol, using less salt and saturated fat in the preparation of meals, consuming white meat, cooked and industrialized food was seen as the answer. Only 66% complied with medical prescriptions. Lack of understanding of the causes and control measures of CAD makes the implementation of medical care, better living and health conditions and self-care essential. PMID:23175413

Gama, Glicia Gleide Gonçalves; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro; Pires, Cláudia Geovana da Silva; Guimarães, Armênio Costa



Cultural interpretations of contagion.  


Anthropological research in recent years has examined how single diseases such as Aids, tuberculosis, measles, malaria and leprosy are conceptualized by laypersons in non-Western societies. But how is disease transmission itself interpreted in other cultures? Data from ethnographical studies in Côte d'Ivoire and the Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, Brazil show that the interpretations of contagion and preventive practices cut across society involving five main relationships: empirical and analogical thinking, symbolic factors and social organization, the concept of person and body elements, natural and supernatural powers and individual and contextual factors. There is not a general theory, such as Pasteur's theory of germs. Instead, contagion presents itself as a transversal, multidimensional concept crossing and interconnecting society and culture. Public health programmes aimed at controlling infectious diseases need first to understand how contagion is conceptualized by laypersons, the extent to which diseases are considered infectious and the relation between perceptions and preventive practices. This would help in implementing infectious disease control programmes within local contexts based on meaningful community participation. PMID:9892285

Caprara, A



Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil).  


In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil), a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997) and rainy (March, 1998) periods. The dominant groups found were Mollusca (Melanoides tuberculata), Oligochaeta, and Chironomidae larvae. Low Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index values were found, but with no significant difference between the sampling periods. However, density and taxonomic richness were significantly different (t(0.05: 31)) = -2.1945; p < 0.05; e t(0.05; 31) = -3.0600; p < 0.01) between the sampling periods, with a reduction in the number of taxa and macroinvertebrate abundance during the rainy period. An increasing gradient in benthic macroinvertebrate community structures was noted along the reservoir cascade from the first reservoir (Apolônio Sales), followed by a decrease downstream from the third reservoir of the system (Xing6). Despite the negative consequences of rapid proliferation of dams, which have caused widespread loss of freshwater habitats, the reservoir cascade system promoted an increase in benthic macroinvertebrate diversity, due to water-quality improvement along the system. PMID:16097725

Callisto, M; Goulart, M; Barbosa, F A R; Rocha, O



[Preliminary analysis of the Information System in the Brazilian Schistosomiasis Control Program, 1999-2003].  


This study provides a preliminary analysis of the Information System in the Schistosomiasis Control Program (SISPCE) in the States of Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas, and Pernambuco, Brazil, from 1999 to 2003. The data analysis suggests a sharp decline in data entry in the system during the transition period involving health services decentralization, followed by a gradual increase. Major under-recording was observed in Pernambuco. SISPCE-DATASUS and IBGE (National Census Bureau) data are insufficient to construct a surveillance index for serious forms of the endemic disease and other aspects that could relate sanitary conditions to schistosomiasis. Reformulation of the SISPCE is key for schistosomiasis control measures, given the new reality in the Brazilian health system. The data system should be redesigned in order to integrate the health policies with the Unified National Health System's guidelines, using a systematic data collection methodology in keeping with local specificities and allowing prospective comparisons and evaluations, in addition to constructing new indicators with an emphasis on morbidity and determinants of the endemic and the adoption of analytical of the that express the real situation of the schistosomiasis in the States. PMID:17187122

de Farias, Leila Maria Mattos; Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo



[Undergraduate students in Public Health: a socio-demographic profile and motivations].  


Undergraduate Courses in Public Health (UCPH) feature a new way of teaching in the Public Health field that aims to educate professionals focused on the main health needs of the Brazilian population and on the Unified Health System. Thus, it is relevant to know the students' socio-demographic profile including their interests in relation to education and professional development. Adopting a quantitative approach with these objectives, a survey was conducted with 304 UCPH students who filled out a semi-structured questionnaire in 2010 in the following federal universities: Acre, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Norte. The overwhelming majority was female, around 26 years of age, single, living with their parents, mostly attended public school, came from lower classes with lower educational background, approved night classes, worked, and contributed to their family incomes. They aspired to work in public sector - preferably in the state capitals - and they saw UCPH as an opportunity to work in the public health field. This profile reveals challenges and advances in the intended education, reinforcing the need to monitor the UCPH development process. PMID:23752532

Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer; Fagundes, Terezinha de Lisieux Quesado; Nunes, Tânia Celeste Matos; Gil, Célia Regina Rodrigues; Pinto, Isabela Cardoso de Matos; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Viana, Solange Veloso; Correa, Guilherme Torres; de Aguiar, Raphael Augusto Teixeira



Spatial patterns and eco-epidemiological systems--part II: characterising spatial patterns of the occurrence of the insect vectors of Chagas disease based on remote sensing and field data.  


While the former part of this back-to-back paper dealt with the identification of multi-scale spatial patterns associated with the presence, abundance and dispersion of the insect vectors (Triatominae) of Chagas disease, this latter part examines the need for pattern characterisation by means of detailed data on environmental, residential, peri-domiciliary and human behaviour. The study site was, in both cases, a single village situated in Bahia, Brazil, wherefrom the data were collected through field observation and a standardised questionnaire, while the environmental characteristics were derived from satellite images and landscape characterisation. Following this, factorial analysis of mixed group (FAMG), an exploratory data analysis method, was applied to "mine" the huge dataset in a hierarchical way and to evaluate the relative impact of different factors such as the surrounding environment, the domiciliary/peri-domiciliary space properties and the presence of domestic animals. In the study village, five principal "districts" associated with different possible causes of infestation were identified. The results favour the role of depressions of the ground surface due to collapse of karstic subsoil (dolines) and open rock faces as infestation sources, vector attraction by outdoor lighting, risk of insect domiciliation in dwellings constructed without finishing materials and associated with apparent disorder. Ultimately, this study not only provides the basic information needed for decision-making and specification of vector control in the study village, but offers also a knowledge-base for more general control strategies in the region. PMID:22109863

Roux, Emmanuel; de Fátima Venâncio, Annamaria; Girres, Jean-François; Romaña, Christine A



Spatial patterns and eco-epidemiological systems--part I: multi-scale spatial modelling of the occurrence of Chagas disease insect vectors.  


Studies that explicitly and specifically take into account the spatial dimension within the study of eco-epidemiological systems remain rare. Our approach of modelling the spatial and/or temporal properties of the entomological and/or epidemiological data before their mapping with possible explanatory variables, objectively underline the significant patterns at different scales. The domiciliary and peri-domiciliary presence and abundance of juvenile and adult vectors of the Chagas disease (Triatoma sordida and Panstrongylus geniculatus) in Bahia state in northeast Brazil, has been modelled by automatically identifying significant multi-scale spatial patterns of the entomological data by the application and adoption of the spatial modelling methodology proposed by Dray et al. (2006) and based on principal coordinate analysis of neighbour matrices. We found that entomological data can be modelled by a set of eigenvectors that present a significant Moran's I index of spatial autocorrelation. The models for juvenile and adult vectors are defined by 28 and 32 eigenvectors that explain 82.3% and 79.9%, respectively, of the total data variances. The results support insect presence as the outcome both of a local scale "near-to-near" dispersal and an infestation from the wild, surrounding environment that produces a higher insect density at the village periphery. PMID:22109862

Roux, Emmanuel; de Fátima Venâncio, Annamaria; Girres, Jean-François; Romaña, Christine A



Population fluctuation and damage caused by phytophagous mites on three rubber tree clones.  


Our aim was to investigate the population fluctuation and the damage caused by the phytophagous mites Calacarus heveae Feres, Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, and Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) on clones FX 2784, FX 3864, and MDF 180 in rubber tree crops from southeastern Bahia, Brazil. Moreover, we tested for the influence of climatic variables on occurrence patterns of these species throughout weekly samples performed from October to April. The infestation peaks was between mid-January and late February. The clones FX 2784 and FX 3864 had the highest infestations and more severe damage possibly caused by C. heveae, which was the most frequent and abundant species in all clones. We found that sunlight duration and rainfall were the most important factors for C. heveae while T. heveae was affected by rainfall and temperature. Eutetranychus banksi was only affected by sunlight duration. However, the best models had low goodness of fit. We concluded that the clones FX 2784 and FX 3864 had a higher susceptibility to mite attack, and the association between climatic variables and favorable physiological conditions were determinant for the population increase of the species from January to April. PMID:23949718

Castro, E B; Nuvoloni, F M; Mattos, C R R; Feres, R J F



Late Quaternary molluscan assemblages from the coastal area of Bahía Bustamante (Patagonia, Argentina): Paleoecology and paleoenvironments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in the composition, distribution, and diversity of molluscan assemblages from Patagonian marine terraces (MT) formed during the late Quaternary sea-level highstands and neotectonic events—between the late Pleistocene, mid-Holocene, and present—are discussed. Molluscs and associated macrofauna (balanids, brachiopods, polychaetes, bryozoans) from nine fossiliferous localities and three modern sites suggest paleoecological, paleobiogeographical, and paleoenvironmental implications for paleoclimatic interpretations of the coastal area of Bahia Bustamante Caleta Malaspina (˜44.9 and 45.3°S) since marine oxygen isotope stage (MOIS) 7. Crepidula protea, Buccinanops paytensis, and Brachidontes rodriguezi are first recorded for the late Pleistocene MTIV (MOIS5-7); Nacella (Patinigera) deaurata, Epitonium magellanicum, B. paytensis, Aequipecten tehuelchus, and Clausinella gayi are recorded for the mid-Holocene MTVI (MOIS1) in the area. These molluscs currently live in the SW Atlantic, but Venericardia procera represents a northward migration and Tegula atra a faunal extinction in response to climate change. Overall, they indicate hard substrates, shallow waters, and truly marine conditions, similar to the modern littoral. With respect to temperature, the qualitative, quantitative, morphological, and distributional variations suggest slightly higher SST during the mid-Holocene (MTVI, MOIS1, hypsithermal), colder for MTV (MOIS5c?, 5a?), and warmer or similar for MTIV (MOIS5e, 7?).

Aguirre, Marina L.; Sirch, Yamila Negro; Richiano, Sebastián



Effect of dominant Spartina species on salt marsh detritus production in SW Atlantic estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two cordgrass species of the genus Spartina cohabit in SW Atlantic (southern Brazil 31º48? S to Argentinean Patagonia, 43º20? S) salt marshes. Some salt marshes are dominated by the dense-flowered cordgrass Spartina densiflora (which inhabits the upper intertidal level) and others by the smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora (which inhabits the lower intertidal level). We investigated how the different species dominance affects the detritus dynamics in the Bahia Blanca estuary (38º47? S, 62º20? W Argentina). Field measurements of annual detritus production using destructive methods show that both plants are similar. However, detritus of S. alterniflora shows higher decomposition rates than that of S. densiflora . This difference may be due to a larger N content, lower lignocellulose content and lower C/N ratio of S . alternifora when compared with S. densiflora . Moreover, field sampling shows that S. alterniflora has a larger amount of trapped litter that, according to the litterbag method, has higher decomposition rates. Therefore it is highly likely that S. alterniflora salt marshes contribute towards more profitable detritus for estuarine food webs than marshes dominated by S. densiflora . These results illustrate that the composition of the coastal plant community can determine the quality and profitability of the detritus that support estuarine food webs. They also illustrate that salt marshes belonging to a same biogeographic group and even coexisting in great proximity can have very different ecosystemic roles.

Montemayor, Diana I.; Addino, Mariana; Fanjul, Eugenia; Escapa, Mauricio; Alvarez, M. Fernanda; Botto, Florencia; Iribarne, Oscar O.



Semiotic regulation through inhibitor signs: creating a cycle of rigid meanings.  


This study aims to analyze the process of semiotic regulation in youth transition to adulthood from the perspectives of cultural developmental psychology and dialogical self theory. The focus is on the transformations that occur in youth's self-system configurations during a critical developmental period. In this paper, we will advance the idea that semiotic regulation may lead to the construction of strong signs (i.e. those signs that bring rigidity to personal meaning systems)-and more specifically, of strong inhibitor signs-that block the emergence of alternative meanings, leading to rigidity in the self-system. We present a longitudinal case study of a young man who participated in a social project in Salvador, Bahia to illustrate the process. Data was collected through two rounds of in-depth interviews at ages 18 (1st round) and 21 (2nd round) years. Analysis followed a mapping of positions and counter-positions, as well as emerging tensions and their resolution over time and in different spheres of life (i.e. work, school, and family life). The idea is to show how negotiations of self-positions evolve and activate a mechanism of inhibition of hierarchical integration and construction of alternative future meanings, in which rigid meanings are created and do not allow for emergence of alternative life trajectories. PMID:23188720

de Mattos, Elsa; Chaves, Antônio Marcos



How Pecten Brazil drilled the Amazon basin  

SciTech Connect

Pecten Brazil overcame numerous obstacles to drill two exploratory wells in the Amazon Basin last year. These included: The threat of low water in normally navigable rivers. Dense jungle growth at both locations. Lack of suitable roads for heavy hauling. Inconvenient distances from supply points. An unusual basalt formation responsible for unique drilling problems. Hundreds of helicopter lifts to move drilling rigs, supplies, and personnel. Pecten contracted with Petrobras, the Brazilian national oil company, to evaluate three blocks in the Amazon jungle, each about 68 miles (110 km) on a side, through seismic study and ultimate drilling. Planning for the drilling phase got started on March 17, 1981 with December 1 targeted as spud date for the first well. Actual spud date was November 25, 5 days ahead of schedule, in spite of all obstacles. Pecten has a mid-Amazonas block now under seismic investigation for possible exploratory drilling. Logistics problems in this one provide new difficulties, as the area is extremely wet. Most work is carried on by boat. The company is also looking offshore Bahia, testing the possible extension of the Renconcavo basin. Two wells have already provided good shows of a high pour point oil, with flow rates from 400 to 1,000 b/d. Another area of interest to Pecten is offshore Rio Grande do Norte.

Bleakley, W.B.



Finding oil in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Although oil in fractures of bituminous shales of Early Cretaceous age had been known since 1858 in Bahia, oil production in Brazil was delayed for eight decades. There were two fundamental reasons for this belated development. First, the paucity of good oil and gas seeps like those found in other countries and second, Brazilian entrepreneurs did not have the financing or the tradition of risk taking and technology to plunge into oil exploration. Thus, the development of the oil industry in Brazil evolved along different lines than in other countries. Petrobras was the beginning of the modern period of oil exploration in Brazil. Utilizing seismic interpretation methods, oil was discovered onshore in the Sergipe-Alagoas basin in 1957, in the Espirito Santo basin in 1969, and in the Potiquar basin in 1979. After many years of frustration looking for commercial oil in the huge Amazon basin, Petrobras discovered gas in the Jurua River Valley in 1978. Although offshore drilling began with discovery of the Guaricema field in 1968, it was not until the advent of modern offshore drilling and seismic technology that the prolific Garoupa field was discovered in 1974 which opened up the Campos basin. Furthermore, identification of huge structures in deep water by 3D seismic mapping methods indicate a bright future for Petrobras in offshore Brazil.

Campos, C.W.M.; Delaney, P.J.V. (Board of Stena Maritima, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))



Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease  

PubMed Central

The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.



Multi-element determination in acid-digested soy protein formulations by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.  


The concentrations of major (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) and trace elements (Al, Cu and Fe) in soy protein formulations sold in Bahia (Brazil) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Liquid and powdered soy protein formulation samples, both whole and light, were digested using a conventional heating program on a hot-plate. The powdered samples were prepared according to the label instructions for human consumption. A 5.0-ml aliquot of the soy protein emulsion was transferred to a borosilicate Erlenmeyer and concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid added. After a digestion time of approximately 50 min, hydrogen peroxide was added and heating continued to give a final volume of approximately 5 ml; the colorless digests were then made up to 15.0 ml with deionised water. Residual acid content was determined by acid-base titration. Good agreement between measured and certified values for all analytes in a non-fat milk powder (NIST SRM 1549) indicated that the method was suitable for major and trace elements determination in soy protein formulations. PMID:18473216

Morte, Elane S Boa; Costa, Leticia M; Nobrega, Joaquim A; Korn, Maria das Gracas A



Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus) in northeastern Brazil.  


We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hosts' bodies for each Tropidurus species. All four species of Tropidurus at Morro do Chapéu were parasited by the chigger mite, with high (97-100%) prevalences. Host body size significantly explained the intensity of mite infestation for all species, except T. erythrocephalus. The body regions with highest intensity of infestation in the four lizard species were the mite pockets. The spacial niche width of the chigger varied consistently among the four lizards species studied being highest for T. erytrocephalus and lowest for T. cocorobensis. We conclude that the distribution and intensity with which lizards of the genus Tropidurus are infested by Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae results from the interaction between aspects of host morphology (such as body size and the occurrence and distribution of mite pockets) and ecology (especially microhabitat use). PMID:18642505

Rocha, C F D; Cunha-Barros, M; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A f; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M



Assessing the molecular divergence between Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii populations from Brazil using the timeless gene: further evidence of a species complex  

PubMed Central

Background Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii was the most important vector of human malaria in southern Brazil between 1930–1960. Nowadays it is still considered an important Plasmodium spp. vector in southern and south-eastern Brazil, incriminated for oligosymptomatic malaria. Previous studies based on the analysis of X chromosome banding patterns and inversion frequencies in An. cruzii populations from these areas have suggested the occurrence of three sibling species. In contrast, two genetically distinct groups among An. cruzii populations from south/south-east and north-east Brazil have been revealed by isoenzyme analysis. Therefore, An. cruzii remains unclear. Methods In this study, a partial sequence of the timeless gene (~400 bp), a locus involved in the control of circadian rhythms, was used as a molecular marker to assess the genetic differentiation between An. cruzii populations from six geographically distinct areas of Brazil. Results The timeless gene revealed that An. cruzii from Itaparica Island, Bahia State (north-east Brazil), constitutes a highly differentiated group compared with the other five populations from south and south-east Brazil. In addition, significant genetic differences were also observed among some of the latter populations. Conclusion Analysis of the genetic differentiation in the timeless gene among An. cruzii populations from different areas of Brazil indicated that this malaria vector is a complex of at least two cryptic species. The data also suggest that further work might support the occurrence of other siblings within this complex in Brazil.

Rona, Luisa DP; Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos J; Gentile, Carla; Grisard, Edmundo C; Peixoto, Alexandre A



[Speech-language pathology formation in the city of Salvador and the consolidation of SUS].  


The Human Resources in Health (HRH) academic field is recognized as a critical area, which is part of the reorientation process in the health sector. The elaboration of the Unified Health System (SUS) represents challenges to the academic field process, especially regarding new careers such as speech-language pathology. This is related with the lack of awareness regarding collective health and the past history that strengthened the public health policies in Brazil. Yet, the powerful influence of the service model to the spontaneous demand and reabilitation therapy plays another key role in the aspect. The aim was to analyze the academic field of the speech-language pathology profile in the city of Salvador, Bahia State. Documental analysis and coordinator interviews were used to investigate how the public area is characterized in 3 modules. It was noticed little adhesion of the upper level institutions to the legislation of the field; lack of contact between graduating students and collective health, and a teaching-service disconnection. The graduation of the speech therapist was shown incipient regarding SUS's consolidation. Identifying challenges and opportunities of changes in HRH formation in upper level institutions may lead to better levels of aid to the population, quality of education and expansion of theoretical and practical models of knowledge. PMID:20802888

Lemos, Marcio; Bazzo, Leda Maria Fonseca



Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management  

PubMed Central

In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.). We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.



Diversity and genetic structure among subpopulations of Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae).  


Gossypium mustelinum is the only cotton species native to Brazil; it is endemic to the semi-arid region of the northeast. The populations are found near perennial and semi-perennial sources of water, such as ponds or pools in intermittent streams. Problems with in situ conservation derive from human interference in its habitat, mainly because of excessive cattle grazing and deforestation. Establishing efficient strategies for in situ conservation requires knowledge of the genetic structure of the populations. We evaluated the structure and genetic variability of populations of G. mustelinum in the Tocó and Capivara Rivers (State of Bahia). Two hundred and eighteen mature G. mustelinum plants were genotyped with SSR markers. The molecular data were used to estimate the allelic frequencies, the heterozygosity, the F statistics, and the genetic distance among the populations and among individuals. We found high genetic diversity among the populations. The FST indexes for each population were also high and strongly correlated with physical distance. The high estimated level of endogamy and the low observed heterozygosity are indicative that the populations reproduce mainly by self-fertilization and crosses between related individuals. Consequently, strategies for in situ preservation should include at least three occurrence sites of G. mustelinum from each population. For ex situ conservation, the collections should include as many sites as possible. PMID:23512677

Alves, M F; Barroso, P A V; Ciampi, A Y; Hoffmann, L V; Azevedo, V C R; Cavalcante, U



Genetic assessment of the Atlantic Forest bristle porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae), an endemic species threatened with extinction.  


The bristle-spined porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus, an endemic rodent from Atlantic Forest, was considered to be abundant in the recent past, but population reductions due to habitat loss and expansion of human activities caused this species to be included in the "vulnerable" category of the World Conservation Union Red List. We performed the first genetic assessment in natural populations of this focal species along its geographical distribution. Thirty-five non-invasive samples (hair) were collected from three natural populations in the Brazilian States of Sergipe, Bahia and Espírito Santo. Genetic similarity obtained by Jaccard's index, based on dominant RAPD and ISSR markers, varied between 25 and 100%. Four clusters, mainly coincident with the geographical distribution of the populations, were observed. Analysis of molecular variance based on 47 polymorphic loci showed that there was 15.99% genetic variability among populations and 84.01% within populations. The estimated genetic structure among populations (?(ST)) was 0.16. The populations may have formed a continuum along the past distribution of the Atlantic rainforest but historical events of human occupation resulted in recent divergence among sampled populations. PMID:21644209

Oliveira, C G; Martinez, R A; Giné, G A F; Faria, D M; Gaiotto, F A



Sylvatic and peridomestic populations of Triatoma pseudomaculata are not significantly structured by habitat, as revealed by two genetic markers.  


Chagas disease remains a public health concern in Brazil and other Latin American countries, mainly due to the potential domiciliation of native triatomine species. We analyzed the genetic variability of Triatoma pseudomaculata in sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes throughout three localities in the northeastern state of Bahia, Brazil. We studied polymorphisms generated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and isoenzyme electrophoresis analyses. Based on RAPD analysis, each specimen was assigned to one of three genetic clusters. Although all sylvatic specimens from one locality were grouped into the same cluster, sylvatic and peridomestic specimens from the other two localities were broadly distributed between the remaining two clusters, suggesting that geographic population structuring was not occurring. Furthermore, isoenzyme analysis suggested that distinct populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Low statistical values for Wright's Fst index also supported the absence of population structuring and suggested the occurrence of panmixia. We conclude that genetic flow occurs between sylvatic and peridomestic T. pseudomaculata populations, probably as a consequence of passive and active dispersion of the insects, associated with deforestation and anthropic transformations. PMID:21175934

Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal; Dos Santos, Silvia M; Pires, Marize Quinhones; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; Noireau, François; Pacheco, Raquel S



The German expeditions of 1874 and 1882 to observe the transits of Venus - the planning and the execution of a major scientific project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first major government-funded German scientific enterprise was triggered by a smaller one to observe the total solar eclipse of 1868. The photoheliograph built for this occasion was later used for transit of Venus observations, together with three similar instruments. Furthermore, five small Fraunhofer heliometers were used to visually measure the position of Venus on the solar disk. The 1874 expeditions went to Tschifu (China), Kerguelen, Auckland and Mauritius Islands, to Isfahan (Persia) and Luxor (Egypt). The low accuracy achieved from the photographic observations led to the abandonment of such studies in the next transit. The 1882 transit expeditions went to Hartford (Connecticut), Aiken (South Carolina), Bahia Blanca (Argentina), Punta Arenas (Chile) and Royal Sound (South Georgia Island). Meticulous calibrations of the heliometers were carried out before and after the transits, and final results of contact timings, photographic and heliometric observations were only published in 1896. When two years later the last volume (out of six) of the German Observations appeared, the discovery of the minor planet Eros would revolutionize the determination of the solar parallax.

Duerbeck, Hilmar W.


The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions  

PubMed Central

The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies.

Begossi, Alpina



Periodontal profile and presence of periodontal pathogens in young African-Americans from Salvador, Ba, Brazil  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study evaluated the periodontal status and the presence of periodontopathogens in 132 young, black ethnic subjects who live in Salvador/Bahia-Brazil and have never smoked. Periodontal Probing Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were measured and analyzed by ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05) according to gender and age. The presence of A.actinomycetemcomitans, P.gingivalis, E.corrodens and F.nucleatum was determined by PCR and was analyzed by ANOVA, Wilcoxon, Student-t tests (p<0.05). Mean values of PPD and CAL were 2.18 and 1.0mm, respectively. Clinical parameters did not show differences between subjects of varying gender and age. The microbial prevalence was observed to be 95.45% for E.corrodens followed by F.nucleatum with 68.18%, A.actinomycetemcomitans with 45.45% and P gingivalis with 40.9%. An association between the presence of pathogens and gender and age was not observed (p<0.05). PPD, CAL and PI were not associated with P.gingivalis; however, GI appeared in higher frequencies among subjects without P.gingivalis. In this young, black ethnic, Brazilian population, a high percentage (96.96%) of subjects harbored at least one selected periodontal pathogen, but most subjects showed a healthy periodontal status. Further investigations are required to evaluate the actual influence of the presence of these bacterial species.

Victor, Ligia Valeria; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Aquino, Davi Romeiro; de Carvalho Filho, Jonas; Cortelli, Jose Roberto



Genetic signature of recent glaciation on populations of a near-shore marine fish species (Syngnathus leptorhynchus).  


Continental glaciation has played a major role in shaping the present-day phylogeography of freshwater and terrestrial species in the Northern Hemisphere. Recent work suggests that coastal glaciation during ice ages may have also had a significant impact on marine species. The bay pipefish, Syngnathus leptorhynchus, is a near-shore Pacific coast fish species with an exceptionally wide latitudinal distribution, ranging from Bahia Santa Maria, Baja California to Prince William Sound, Alaska. Survey data indicate that S. leptorhynchus is experiencing a range expansion at the northern limit of its range, consistent with colonization from southern populations. The present study uses six novel microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data to study the present-day population genetic structure of four coastal populations of S. leptorhynchus. Deficits in mtDNA and nuclear DNA diversity in northern populations from regions glaciated during the last glacial maximum (LGM) [c. 18 000 years before present (bp)] suggest that these populations were effected by glacial events. Direct estimates of population divergence times derived from both isolation and isolation-with-migration models of evolution are also consistent with a postglacial phylogenetic history of populations north of the LGM. Sequence data further indicate that a population at the southern end of the species range has been separated from the three northern populations since long before the last interglacial event (c. 130 000 years bp), suggesting that topographical features along the Pacific coast may maintain population separation in regions unimpacted by coastal glaciation. PMID:16689903

Wilson, A B



[Pharmaceutical Assistance in the Family Healthcare Program: points of affinity and discord in the organization process].  


The scope of this study was to discuss the organization of the pharmaceutical assistance service in the family healthcare program. Qualitative research from a critical/analytical perspective was conducted in family healthcare units in a municipality of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Data was collected on the basis of systematic observation, semi-structured interviews and documents analysis from a dialectic standpoint. The organization of Pharmaceutical Assistance consisted of selection, planning, acquisition, storage and dispensing activities. The process was studied in the implementation phase, which was occurring in a centralized and uncoordinated fashion, without the proposed team work. An excess of activity was observed among the healthcare workers and there was an absence of a continued education policy for the workers. For the transformation of this situation and to ensure the organization of pharmaceutical assistance with quality and in an integrated manner, a reworking of the manner of thinking and action of the players concerned (managers, health workers and users), who participate directly in the organization, is necessary. Furthermore, mechanical, bureaucratic and impersonal work practices need to be abandoned. PMID:21987338

Silva Oliveira, Tatiana de Alencar; Maria, Tatiane de Oliveira Silva; Alves do Nascimento, Angela Maria; do Nascimento, Angela Alves



[Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in nursing professionals].  


A cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among nursing assistants in Salvador, Bahia. Three hundred and eight workers, randomly selected, answered a questionnaire applied by trained interviewers during working hours. The majority of respondents worked the day shift and did not usually work overtime. About 34% reported having another regular job. Average time in the formal or informal labor market was 19 years. There was high occupational exposure to repetitive hand movements, standing posture, walking, inadequate postures of the trunk and manual handling of loads. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in at least one body segment was 83.4%.The most affected body segments were: low back (53.9%), legs (51.9%), neck (36.4%), upper back (35.7%) and shoulders (33.8%). There was high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the studied population, which points out to the need for improvements in the working conditions of those professionals. PMID:22782108

Ribeiro, Natália Fonseca; Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Solla, Davi Jorge Fontoura; Santos Junior, Anivaldo Costa; de Sena Junior, Antonio Santos



Thaptomys Thomas 1915 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae, Akodontini) with karyotypes 2n = 50, FN = 48, and 2n = 52, FN = 52: Two monophyletic lineages recovered by molecular phylogeny  

PubMed Central

A novel karyotype with 2n = 50, FN = 48, was described for specimens of Thaptomys collected at Una, State of Bahia, Brazil, which are morphologically indistinguishable from Thaptomys nigrita, 2n = 52, FN = 52, found in other localities. It was hence proposed that the 2n = 50 karyotype could belong to a distinct species, cryptic of Thaptomys nigrita, once chromosomal rearrangements observed, along with the geographic distance, might represent a reproductive barrier between both forms. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood based on partial cytochrome b sequences with 1077 bp were performed, attempting to establish the relationships among the individuals with distinct karyotypes along the geographic distribution of the genus; the sample comprised 18 karyotyped specimens of Thaptomys, encompassing 15 haplotypes, from eight different localities of the Atlantic Rainforest. The intra-generic relationships corroborated the distinct diploid numbers, once both phylogenetic reconstructions recovered two monophyletic lineages, a northeastern clade grouping the 2n = 50 and a southeastern clade with three subclades, grouping the 2n = 52 karyotype. The sequence divergence observed between their individuals ranged from 1.9% to 3.5%.



Crustal evolution between 2.0 and 3.5 Ga in the southern Gavião block (Umburanas-Brumado-Aracatu region), São Francisco Craton, Brazil: A 3.5-3.8 Ga proto-crust in the Gavião block?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main evolution of the Gavião block in the Umburanas-Brumado-Aracatu region, in the state of Bahia, is defined by several sets of tonalitic-trondhjemitic and granodioritic gneisses emplaced during the Paleoarchean. The juvenile Bernada gneisses are emplaced at 3386 ± 9 Ma (SHRIMP zircon age). The Aracatu gneisses, probably derived from the partial melting of ca 3.4 Ga gneisses, are emplaced at 3325 ± 16 Ma. They contain inherited zircon dated at 3366 ± 15 Ma in the range of ages obtained for the juvenile Bernada gneisses. Furthermore, one core in these zircons provides an age of 3487 ± 9 Ma, which is the oldest xenocryst found in the Gavião block. A Neoarchean alkaline granite was emplaced at 2693 ± 5 Ma (Serra de Eixo gneiss) and corresponds to a major crustal reworking stage. All of these rocks were metamorphosed and melted at ca 2.0 Ga, as recorded by monazite ages (EPMA and La-ICPMS) in diatexitic Archean gneisses (Aracatu) and Paleoproterozoic granites (Umburanas). The occurrence of a proto-crust ca 3.5 Ga or older in the Gavião block is discussed based on inherited zircon ages and Sm-Nd isotope signatures of the Archean gneisses.

Santos-Pinto, Marilda; Peucat, Jean-Jacques; Martin, Hervé; Barbosa, Johildo S. F.; Fanning, C. Mark; Cocherie, Alain; Paquette, Jean-Louis



Latest Pleistocene and Holocene river dynamics of the Guadalete River (SW-Andalusia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The river Guadalete runs through the southwestern part of Andalusia (Spain) with its river head being located in the heights of the Sierra de Grazalema. On its course into the Bahia de Cádiz, the Guadalete passes a landscape of high sensitivity. Because of steep gradients in the headwater and several constructions of water reservoirs along the upper course, only the lower reaches of the river are suitable to the reconstruction of Holocene river history. Fluvial architecture is quite complex and shows phases of river aggredation, river stability including features of soil formation inside the sediment and phases of incision as well. However, fluvial behavior and resulting sediment characteristics are likewise dependent on valley geometry, varying from narrow sections to wide valley floors. Particular landscape sensitivity is expressed by local tectonic activity primarily forced by the tilting of marly Keuper substratum, as well as by high erodibility of the surrounding marl landscape, which underlies an intense land use. Several profile analyses of gravel pits and corings enabled us to compile a standard profile, which provides information about the Late Pleistocene and Holocene river history. In our presentation we attempt to describe causes and effects of different sedimentation patterns, meanwhile providing them with a chronological framework.

Faust, D.; Wolf, D.



Influence of wavelength on the outcome of the treatment of TMJ disorders: TMDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that wavelength influences the outcome of many clinical protocols. Laser-phototherapy (LPT) and LEDs have been used on the treatment of pain of several origins including temporomandibular disorders - TMDs. TMDs are common painful multifactorial conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint whose treatment depends on the type and symptoms. Initially it requires pain control and for this, drugs, biting plates, oclusal adjustment, physiotherapy or their association are used. This work reports a series of patients of the Center of Biophotonics of the Federal University of Bahia over 10 years. Following standard anamneses, clinical and imaginologic examination and with the diagnosis of any type of TMD, the patients were set for light treatment. Treatment consisted of three sessions a week during six week. Prior irradiation, the patients were asked to score their pain using a VAS. ?780, ? 790, ? 830nm and/or ?660 and ?680nm lasers or LED were used on each session. Most patients were female (~43.6 years old). At the end of the 12 sessions the patients were again examined and score their pain using VAS. No other intervention was carried out during the treatment. The results were statistically analyzed and showed that most patients were asymptomatic or improved after treatment and that the association of wavelengths was very efficient on the symptomatic group. It is concluded that the association of both wavelengths was effective on pain reduction on TMJ disorders of several origins.

Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Marques, Aparecida Maria C.; Carvalho, Carolina M.; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T.; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.



High natural radiation in Brazilian sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work investigated Brazilian beach sands in order to analyze the total external natural radiation dose using a gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The activities from the radionuclides 40K and the elements from the series of 238U and 232Th were measured. The sand samples from Morro Branco beach, Ceará, and Itacaré beach, Bahia, presented different colors and grain size than the beaches from Sa~o Paulo. A sample collected in Itacaré beach showed an effective dose of 2.5 (1) mSv/yr. This value is outside the annual typical range (0.3-0.6 mSv) indicated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The high effective dose found in Itacaré beach is mainly due to the presence of a large amount of 232Th and 238U. All the other samples collected in Ceará and Sa~o Paulo States are inside the annual typical range. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis showed that this high external radiation is related to the presence of zircon and monazite, which commonly carry traces of uranium and thorium.

Silveira, M. A. G.; Medina, N. H.; Pereira, B. R.; Aguiar, V. A. P.



Migratory flows and foraging habitat selection by shorebirds along the northeastern coast of Brazil: The case of Baía de Todos os Santos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large numbers of Nearctic shorebirds migrate and winter along the coast of northeastern Brazil, but there is little information on their migratory flows, foraging ecology, and on the structure of the species assemblages that they form with resident shorebirds. We studied these issues on intertidal flats of Baía de Todos os Santos (Bahia), the second largest bay in Brazil. During a full year cycle we carried out weekly bird counts in an intertidal area of 280 ha divided in sectors, where we also measured environmental parameters. The analyses of weekly counts resulted in a detailed phenology of use of the area by shorebirds. Five species were resident and ten were Nearctic migrants. Several of the latter had clear peaks in numbers in March and October, revealing the use of the bay as a stopover during both the north-bound and south-bound migration flows. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relationship between environmental parameters and bird numbers indicated that the foraging bird assemblage could be divided into five main groups, occupying distinct ecological gradients in the study area. The most important factors driving this structure were invertebrate prey abundance, percentage of fine sediments, area of mangrove cover and distance to channels. Our findings imply that maintenance of the diversity of intertidal habitats in this bay is crucial to satisfy the particular habitat requirements of resident and migrant shorebirds using the northeastern coastal regions of Brazil.

Lunardi, Vitor O.; Macedo, Regina H.; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.



Oxygenation variability in Mejillones Bay, off northern Chile, during the last two centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Peru Chile Current ecosystem is characterized by high biological productivity and important fisheries. Although this system is likely to be severely affected by climate change, its response to current global warming is still uncertain. In this paper, we analyze 10-166 year-old sediments in two cores collected from Mejillones Bay, an anoxic sedimentary setting favorable for the preservation of proxies. Based on a 166-year chronology, we used proxies of bottom-water oxygenation (Mo, V, S, and the (lycopane + n-C35)/n-C31 ratio) and surface water productivity (biogenic opal, counts of diatom valves, biogenic Ba, organic carbon, and chlorins) to reconstruct environmental variations in Mejillones Bay. During the last two centuries, a shift took place in the coastal marine ecosystem of Bahia Mejillones at decadal scales. This shift was characterized by intense ENSO-like activity, large-scale fluctuations in biological export productivity and bottom water oxygenation, and increased eolian activity (inferred from Ti/Al and Zr/Al). This short-term variability was accompanied by a gradual increase of sulfidic conditions that has intensified since the early 1960s.

Díaz-Ochoa, J. A.; Pantoja, S.; de Lange, G. J.; Lange, C. B.; Sánchez, G. E.; Acuña, V. R.; Muñoz, P.; Vargas, G.



A Remarkable Comet and Other Astronomical Objects in the Brazilian Art Rock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the studies that we have made during the two expeditions to the archaelogical area of Central northwest of the state of Bahia, Brazil, I have the chance to discover in the rock art representations a remarkable comet and other astronomical objects and to verify that the men that had lived at those sites, had an important notions about how to use the stars and planets on their behalf for the day-by-day life. They used to know the starry sky as much as they used the Sun as a mean of guidance, using also the changes of aspect of our satellite all along of a lunation as one of their main time markers}. There are vestiges that the primitive societies used the Sun, the Moon and constellations and even sometimes, a very shining star, like Sirius, Regulus, etc., or even opened starring agglomerated, like the Pleiades, as an element of guidance and/or of time score. Some stars and planets, the same way as the Pleiades among the Brazilian Indians, constituted authentic seasonal marking references.

Mour, R. R. D.



Identification of naturalized goat breeds under conservation from northeastern Brazil using chromosomal markers.  


In order to provide the first cytogenetic data of naturalized and threatened goat breeds from northeastern Brazil, cytogenetic analyses were carried out in individuals of Repartida and Moxotó breeds raised in Bahia and Ceará States. Males and females of both breeds had 2n = 60, with 29 autosomal acrocentric pairs plus the sex chromosome pair. The number of nucleolar organizer region (NOR)-bearing chromosomes ranged from 6 to 8 per metaphase in Moxotó and Repartida goats, respectively. The active NORs in Repartida individuals were located exclusively at the terminal regions of the long arms, as usually detected in Bovidae. Otherwise, Moxotó specimens presented a large autosomal pair with NORs on short arms. GC-rich heterochromatin was detected at the centromeres in both breeds, although polymorphic terminal C-bands were visualized on pair 25 in Moxotó. In addition, GC-rich regions were detected at the terminal regions of the long arms of a single pair in Repartida and of 20 chromosomes in Moxotó goats. The differences in both the number and/or position of Ag-NORs and GC-rich sites between Repartida and Moxotó breeds represent efficient cytogenetic markers that can be used in the identification and conservation of the genetic integrity of each lineage. In spite of the small effective population size of these breeds, chromosomal abnormalities related to drift or inbreeding effects were absent in the samples analyzed. PMID:24065662

Santos, R P; Affonso, P R A M; Diniz, D; Medrado, A S; Silva, K M; Carneiro, P L S



Biotic and environmental factors affect Southwest Atlantic saltmarsh use by juvenile fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish habitat use is affected by biotic and environmental factors. These factors do not act in isolation; they commonly operate together, and can be modified by the presence of habitat structure, like vegetation. We studied at the Bahia Blanca estuary (38° 52? S, 62 0°6? W), the seasonal patterns of fish habitat use in a Spartina alterniflora saltmarsh and a contiguous tidal flat, and related them with biotic and environmental factors. The results showed that all fish species contributed to differences in the structure of fish assemblages between areas. The silverside Odontesthes argentinensis and the menhaden Brevoortia aurea were more abundant and smaller in size in the saltmarsh. In this area, the structure of fish assemblage was positively correlated with the structure of benthic community. The latter, was probably related to the high abundance of the polychaete Laeonereis acuta, the main benthic prey for fishes. Environmental factors that correlated with the structure of fish assemblages were particulate organic matter and sediment penetrability, both in the saltmarsh and in the tidal flat. This evidenced that in terms of physical and chemical factors studied, both areas present similar characteristics for fishes. This work highlights that saltmarshes in southern hemisphere provide both protection and food resources for fishes, and give support to the notion of saltmarshes as important fish habitat worldwide.

Valiñas, Macarena S.; Molina, Lucas M.; Addino, Mariana; Montemayor, Diana I.; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.



Mixing vs Boiling process in a shallow submarine hydrothermal system of Bahía Concepción, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we use geochemical modeling and fluid inclusions to support the hypothesis that the main process that undergoes the fluid discharged by submarine vents in Bahia Concepcion is mixing rather than boiling. Mixing modeling of two different fluids: a high salinity fluid that is mixed with a deep thermal fluid of meteoric origin indicate that the thermal water responsible for the formation of the thermal EM of Bahía Concepción is composed by 20-30% of a HDF and 70-80% of a hot DF of meteoric origin. Boiling would be an alternate process; however, fluid inclusions petrography and microthermometry reveal no boiling evidence present in the samples, as breccias, bladed calcite, or coexisting liquid-rich and vapor-rich inclusions. Furthermore, the salinity of pseudosecondary and secondary fluid inclusions is similar to seawater. The mixing model is consistent with fluid inclusion data, which provide evidence that two different hydrothermal fluids are involved in barite deposition at veins related to the submarine manifestations of Bahía Concepción: a low salinity fluid (139°C and 3.2 wt % NaCl eq) and HSF (129°C and 10.6 wt % NaCl eq.) The trend observed between high- to low-salinity fluids shows the occurrence of mixing processes between both hydrothermal fluids.

Villanueva Estrada, R.; Prol-Ledesma, R.; Rodríguez, A.; Canet, C.; Torres, I.; González, E.



Phototoxicity of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum to marine invertebrate larvae and juveniles  

SciTech Connect

Phototoxicity resulting from photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been reported in the literature for a variety of freshwater organisms. The magnitude of increase in PAH toxicity often exceeds a factor of 100. In the marine environment phototoxicity to marine organisms has not been reported for individual or complex mixtures of PAHs. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis, and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, were exposed to individual known phototoxic PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene), as well as the water-accommodated fractions of several petroleum products (Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, Arabian Light Crude, Prudhoe Bay Crude, Fuel Oil {number_sign}6) containing PAHs. Phototoxicity of individual PAHs was 12 to >50,000 times that of conventional toxicity. Three of the petroleum products demonstrated phototoxicity while the lightest product, Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, was not phototoxic at the concentrations tested. The phototoxicity of petroleum products appears to be dependent on the composition and concentrations of phototoxic PAHs present: lighter oils have fewer multiple aromatic ring, phototoxic compounds while heavier oils have higher levels of these types of molecules. This study shows that phototoxicity can occur in marine waters to marine species. Further, the occurrence of oil in marine waters presents the additional risk of phototoxicity not routinely assessed for during oil spills.

Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.; Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; McKinney, R.A.; Ryba, S.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)



Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease.  


The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobromacacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%. PMID:15951847

Rubini, Marciano R; Silva-Ribeiro, Rute T; Pomella, Alan W V; Maki, Cristina S; Araújo, Welington L; Dos Santos, Deise R; Azevedo, João L



Tests of a system to exclude roots from buried radioactive waste in a warm, humid climate  

SciTech Connect

Vegetation is commonly used to stabilize the ground covering buried waste sites. However, constituents of buried waste can be brought to the surface if the waste is penetrated by plant roots. An ideal waste burial system would allow the use of vegetation to stabilize the soil above the buried waste but would exclude roots from the waste. One system that shows considerable promise is a slow release encapsulation of a root growth inhibitor (Trifluralin). Projected lifetimes of the capsule are in the order of 100 years. The capsule is bonded to a geotextile, which provides an easy means of distributing the capsule evenly over the area to be protected. Vegetation grown in the soil above the barrier has provided good ground cover, although some decrease in growth has been found in some species. Of the species tested the sensitivity to the biobarrier, as measured by the distance root growth stops near the barrier, is bamboo> bahia grass> bermuda grass> soybean. Potential uses for the biobarrier at the Savannah River Site (SRS) include the protection of clay caps over buried, low-level saltstone and protection of gravel drains and clay caps over decommissioned seepage basins. Trails of the biobarrier as part of waste site caps are scheduled to begin during the next 12 months.

Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Corey, J.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Adriano, D.C. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Decker, O.D.; Griggs, R.D. [Lilly Research Laboratories, Greenfield, IN (United States)



Tests of a system to exclude roots from buried radioactive waste in a warm, humid climate  

SciTech Connect

Vegetation is commonly used to stabilize the ground covering buried waste sites. However, constituents of buried waste can be brought to the surface if the waste is penetrated by plant roots. An ideal waste burial system would allow the use of vegetation to stabilize the soil above the buried waste but would exclude roots from the waste. One system that shows considerable promise is a slow release encapsulation of a root growth inhibitor (Trifluralin). Projected lifetimes of the capsule are in the order of 100 years. The capsule is bonded to a geotextile, which provides an easy means of distributing the capsule evenly over the area to be protected. Vegetation grown in the soil above the barrier has provided good ground cover, although some decrease in growth has been found in some species. Of the species tested the sensitivity to the biobarrier, as measured by the distance root growth stops near the barrier, is bamboo> bahia grass> bermuda grass> soybean. Potential uses for the biobarrier at the Savannah River Site (SRS) include the protection of clay caps over buried, low-level saltstone and protection of gravel drains and clay caps over decommissioned seepage basins. Trails of the biobarrier as part of waste site caps are scheduled to begin during the next 12 months.

Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Corey, J.C. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Adriano, D.C. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)); Decker, O.D.; Griggs, R.D. (Lilly Research Laboratories, Greenfield, IN (United States))



Alkaline rocks from continental Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present literature review on Brazilian alkaline rocks stresses mainly the petrographic and geologic aspects. At least eight different rock associations are represented. Agewise, four groups are found among southern Brazilian outcrops: an older one, about 240 m.y. only, that is still poorly known; the massifs clustered around Jacupiranga, about 130 m.y. old; a few occurrences 100-110 m.y. old (Tunas, Itapirapua); and the youngest and most important one, with an age spread from about 80 m.y. to about 53 m.y. Recent research shows a clear tectonic control — both on local and on regional scales — of alkaline occurrences in southern Brazil. Alkaline magmatism was set off by pre-drift and drift activity and is, at its onset, geologically related to basaltic activity. Emplacement of many massifs is also locally controlled by old lineaments (e.g., in the Minas Gerais-Goiás belt), as is emphasized by geophysical data. On a petrographic and chronologic basis, several alkaline provinces are distinguished in southern Brazil. Preliminary data on the Cambrian-Precambrian rocks from southern Bahia State (a province with undersaturated syenites and litchfieldites) and from cratonic areas in northern Brazil are also presented.

Ulbrich, H. H. G. J.; Gomes, C. B.



Synoptic environment associated with heavy rainfall events on the coastland of Northeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northeast Brazil (NEB) has an extensive coastal area, often hit by natural disasters that bring many social and economic losses. The objective of this work was to study the synoptic environment associated with a heavy rainfall event (HRE) on the coastland of NEB. We used daily rainfall data for coastal area of NEB between the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Bahia, divided into two subregions: north and south coastland. This data was obtained from the hydrometeorological network managed by the Agência Nacional de Águas and the daily data reanalysis from the ERAInterim. For the selection of HRE the technique of quantiles was used, thus defined HRE where at least one rain gauge recorded rainfall above 95th percentile. The interannual distribution of events showed occurrence maximum in La Niña years and minimal in El Niño years. The results suggest that the HRE were formed mainly due to the action of upper-level cyclonic vortex, in hight levels, and due to the action to South Atlantic convergence zone, in low levels.

Oliveira, P. T.; Lima, K. C.; Silva, C. M. Santos e.



Isolation, molecular characteristics and disinfection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from ICU units in Brazil.  


The aim of the present study was to isolate S. aureus strains resistant to antibiotics, characterize the genotype profiles of resistance staphylococci, and evaluate the efficacy of antiseptic agents and disinfectants used in two public hospitals of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. Clinical samples were obtained from ICU environments and equipment surfaces in two public hospitals in Vitoria da Conquista. Broth cultures were plated onto mannitol salt agar, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the broth microdilution method according to CLSI. MRSA strains were submitted to PCR for detecting the mecA gene. PCR products were purified and sequenced for SCCmec type identification. Moreover, the strains were tested for efficacy of different disinfectant solutions. S. aureus were isolated from 31 and 67 sites in each hospital, respectively. Among the isolates from hospital 1, 07 (22.6%) were resistant to oxacillin while 28 (41.8%) were resistant in hospital 2. Thirty-one were positive for the mecA gene. All isolates showed SCCmec type III genotype characteristics of the Brazilian epidemic clone. In disinfectant tests, sodium hypochlorite (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%), 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, quaternary ammonium, peracetic acid and formaldehyde were effective against the isolates tested. The strains showed higher resistance to vinegar (4% acetic acid), alcohol and glutaraldehyde. The findings of this study should assist in reducing the occurrence of nosocomial infections and therefore the morbidity, mortality and socio-economic burden caused by prolonged hospitalization. PMID:22707131

Campos, Guilherme B; Souza, Simone G; Lob O, Tassia N; Da Silva, Danilo C C; Sousa, Daniel S; Oliveira, Pollianna S; Santos, Verena M; Amorim, Aline T; Farias, S Vio T; Cruz, Mariluze P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M



Comparative animal and plant toxicities of 10 treated effluents discharged to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The chemical quality and acute and chronic toxicities of 10 effluents discharged to near-coastal areas in Northwest Florida were determined using standard and nonstandard toxicity tests. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate and compare the toxicities of different types of effluents and to assess the ability of a variety of toxicity tests to differentiate effluent-specific effects. Focus was placed on animal-plant sensitivity comparisons because phytotoxicity is rarely determined for effluents discharged to coastal estuaries. The standard toxicity test organisms included two algae, two invertebrates, and two fish. In addition, effluent toxicity was evaluated using three rapid bioassays and an early-seedling-growth toxicity test. Most concentrations of potentially toxic inorganic and organic contaminants in the effluents were low, a finding that contrasted with the sometimes elevated biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient concentrations. With the exception of their effects on algae, the toxicities of most effluents were considered moderate. Chronic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia and Mysidopsis bahia were observed consistently for five effluents; the lowest first-effect levels were typically 35 or 71% effluent. Inhibitory effects on fish and macrophyte seedling growth were infrequent, as were those determined using the three rapid bioassays. Nine of the ten effluents were either phytotoxic or phytostimulatory to algae; first effects were noted in some cases at effluent concentrations less than 6%.

Lewis, M.A.; Weber, D.E.; Stanley, R.S.



Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment  

SciTech Connect

Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A. [US EPA, Narragansett, RI (USA). Office for Research and Development



Multivariate optimization of an ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure for Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn determination in ration to chickens.  


In this work, multivariate optimization techniques were used to develop a method based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction for copper, manganese, nickel and zinc determination from rations for chicken nutrition using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The proportions of extracting components (2.0 mol.L-1 nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acid solutions) were optimized using centroid-simplex mixture design. The optimum proportions of this mixture taken as percentage of each component were respectively 20%, 37% and 43%. Variables of method (sample mass, sonication time and final acid concentration) were optimized using Doehlert design. The optimum values found for these variables were respectively 0.24 g, 18s and 3.6 mol.L-1. The developed method allows copper, manganese, nickel and zinc determination with quantification limits of 2.82; 4.52; 10.7; e 9.69 µg.g-1, and precision expressed as relative standard deviation (%RSD, 25 µg.g-1, N = 5) of 5.30; 2.13; 0.88; and 0.83%, respectively. This method was applied in the analytes determination from chicken rations collected from specialized commerce in Jequié city (Bahia State/Brazil). Application of paired t-test at the obtained results, in a confidence level of 95%, does not show significant difference between the proposed method and the microwave-assisted digestion. PMID:24068081

Barros, Joélia M; Bezerra, Marcos A; Valasques, Gisseli S; Do Nascimento, Baraquízio B; Souza, Anderson S; De Aragão, Nádia M



Determination and evaluation of the mineral composition of Obi (Cola acuminate).  


The obi (Cola acuminate) is a native fruit from Africa, which has been mainly used in the production of soft drinks and also in rituals of African religions. In this paper, the mineral composition of obi collected in seven different cities from Bahia State, Brazil was determined and evaluated using multivariate analysis. The samples were digested using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of apple leaves, furnished by National Institute of Standard and Technology. The study involved 46 samples, being 18 of the red specie and 28 for the white specie. The results expressed as milligrams of element per 100 g(-1) of sample demonstrated that the concentration ranges varied of 21.28-548.77 for potassium, 15.73-129.85 for phosphorous, 27.95-286.92 for calcium, 7.67-134.45 for magnesium, 0.05-1.41 for manganese, 0.21-0.94 for iron, 0.11-0.39 for copper, 0.27-1.35 for zinc, and 0.025-0.517 for strontium. The principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis evidenced that the mineral composition of the red specie is different of the white specie. The red obi has mineral content higher than white obi. PMID:20838923

Martins, Valdinei S; de Jesus, Raildo M; da Silva, Erik G P; Fragoso, Wallace Duarte; Ferreira, Sérgio L C



Food and nutrition insecurity: a marker of vulnerability to asthma symptoms.  


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between food and nutrition insecurity and asthma in children from Latin America. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: São Francisco do Conde, Bahia, north-eastern Brazil. SUBJECTS: The study included 1307 children aged 6-12 years from public elementary schools. Asthma symptoms were collected using a questionnaire that was translated and adapted from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, phase III. The diagnosis of asthma was determined based on reports of wheezing in the previous 12 months. The Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale was used to identify food insecurity. We also obtained demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric information for each participant. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the associations of interest. RESULTS: Of the children surveyed, 10·4 % had a history of wheezing and 64·5 % had some degree of food and nutrition insecurity. We found a positive dose-response relationship and statistically significant associations of asthma with moderate (OR = 1·71, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·89) and severe (OR = 2·51, 95 % CI 1·28, 4·93) food and nutrition insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that moderate and severe food and nutrition insecurity are markers of vulnerability to wheezing. It is important to note that the results of studies in this field have potential implications for social policies that promote food security. Further studies to identify the mechanisms involved in the relationship between food and nutrition insecurity and asthma are needed. PMID:23332100

Ribeiro-Silva, Rita de Cássia; Oliveira-Assis, Ana Marlúcia; Junqueira, Samuel Badaró; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Barreto, Maurício Lima; de Jesus Pinto, Elizabete; da Silva, Luce Alves; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria



Infestation of Mauritia flexuosa palms by triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in the Brazilian savanna.  


To determine the infestation and trypanosome infection of triatomines captured in Mauritia flexuosa palm trees across its geographic distribution in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), we sampled 42 localities in eight states and in the Federal District, Brazil, between July 2005 and January 2010. Overall, 2154 specimens of the species Rhodnius neglectus, Psammolestes tertius, Triatoma sordida, and Microtriatoma borbai, were collected. Among the 341 palms sampled, 182 (53.3%) were infested with R. neglectus, which resulted in the capture of 1639 specimens (9.0 insects per infested palm). P. tertius occurred in 26 palms (8%), which resulted in the capture of 484 specimens (19 insects per infested palm). T. sordida (n=30) and M. borbai (n=1) occurred in only one location. From 537 R. neglectus examined, 44 were infected (8%) with Trypanosoma rangeli and/or Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc Id). M. flexuosa was previously recognized as a suitable breeding ecotope for R. neglectus in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais, Goiás, Tocantins and the Federal District. Our results expand this distribution to other states (São Paulo, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Maranhão and Piauí), and also show that this particular palm tree harbors other triatomine species. Finally, we show that R. neglectus plays an important role in maintaining the enzootic circulation of T. cruzi and T. rangeli in the Brazilian savanna. PMID:22037200

Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Cura, Carolina; Schijman, Alejandro G; Cuba, César A Cuba



Methodological approach to a multidimensional evaluation of food and nutrition policies.  


Recommendations arising from global conferences and summits, expressed the need to formulate and implement public policies to improve household food security. In the context of maximizing benefits given available resources, comprehensive evaluations of the nutrition policies and programs are needed. One obstacle to overcome was a clear definition of terminology; the words efficiency, effectiveness, efficacy and impact, widely used in the context of program evaluation, are sometimes interchanged and there is no consensus about their precise definition. Another approach to health evaluation is based in the paradigm structure-process-outcome. The level structure contemplated the installations, resources, instruments (physical and discursive), as well as the technical bureaucratic organizational structures. Process encompassed the whole set of intervention activities developed, whereas the dimension of outcome comprised the effects of interventions on the health and nutrition of beneficiaries. Each of the three dimensions constitutes a continuum in the evaluation procedure: the structure only fulfills its purposes if the processes are adequate and conversely, processes cannot alone supersede structural limitations. Moreover, all the three dimensions only reach their ultimate objectives through the completion of outcomes. The methodology proposed here has been tested in the case of Bahia, Northeast Brazil, and it was found to be adequate for this type of analysis. We hope this approach of a comprehensive multidimensional evaluation, constitutes an effective contribution for program planners and program managers, in particular with regard to the obstacles detected, some of which can surely be overcome. PMID:15806823

Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves



Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti.  


This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426?mg/L and LC(50) 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94?mg/L, LC(50) 13.51?mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceição, Adilva S; Moura, Flávia de B Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart



Impact of vaccination during an epidemic of serogroup C meningococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil.  


To combat rising incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the city of Salvador, Brazil, the Bahia state immunization program initiated routine childhood immunization with meningococcal C conjugate vaccine (MenC) in February 2010, followed by mass MenC vaccination of city residents 10-24 years of age from May through August 2010. We analyzed trends in incidence of reported cases of meningococcal disease and serogroup distribution among meningococcal isolates identified in hospital-based surveillance in Salvador from January 2000 to December 2011 and estimated vaccine effectiveness using the screening method. Annual incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease increased from 0.1 cases per 100,000 population during 2000-2006 to 2.3 in 2009 and 4.1 in 2010, before falling to 2.0 per 100,000 in 2011. Estimated coverage of mass vaccination reached 80%, 67% and 41% among 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 year olds, respectively. Incidence in 2011 was significantly lower than average rates in 2008-2009 among children <5 years, but reductions among 10-24 year olds were not significant. Among 10-24 year olds, a single dose of MenC vaccine was 100% effective (95% confidence interval, 79-100%) against serogroup C meningococcal disease. Low coverage in the population targeted for mass vaccination may have limited impact on ongoing transmission of serogroup C meningococcal disease despite high vaccine effectiveness. PMID:22749604

Cardoso, Cristiane W; Pinto, Lorene Louise Silva; Reis, Mitermayer G; Flannery, Brendan; Reis, Joice N



Geologic structure and tectonics of inner continental borderland of northern Baja California  

SciTech Connect

Detailed marine geophysical surveys of the inner California continental borderland west of northern Baja California show that the region is underlain by two major, northwest-trending, Quaternary, dextral wrench fault systems. The San Clemente fault system lies along the western part of the inner borderland and is delineated by the San Clemente and San Isidro fault zones. Together, these fault zones connect to form a long (300 km), narrow (5-10 km), continuous zone of faulting that is very similar to the larger San Andreas fault system onshore. The Agua Blanca fault system is a complex zone of shear delineated by three or more subparallel wrench fault zones in the eastern part of the inner borderland. The westernmost San Diego Trough-Bahia Soledad fault zone consists of relatively long (50 km), continuous, main fault traces which cut the Quaternary sediments of the nearshore basin trough. The Coronado Bank-Agua Blanca fault zone is more complicated, with numerous discontinuous, subparallel, right- and left-stepping, anastomosing fault traces which are associated with significant structural relief. A nearshore zone of faults, marked by the Newport-Inglewood-Rose Canyon fault zone in the north and the Estero-Descanso fault zone in the south, parallels the coast and defines the eastern boundary of the California continental borderland structural province. All of these eastern fault zones merge into the transpeninsular Agua Blanca fault, and their N30/sup 0/W trend differs substantially from the trend of the major peninsular ranges fault zones.

Legg, M.R.; Victor, W.O.; Francisco, S.V.



Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.



Use of neomysis mercedis (crustacea: mysidacea) for estuarine toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

The mysid Neomysis mercedis was examined as a test organism for use in acute toxicity tests at intermediate salinities characteristic of estuarine waters. Several sensitive invertebrate species are available for marine assessments (mysids) and freshwater tests (cladocerans), but few are available for estuarine toxicity tests. Observations in the laboratory indicate that Neomysis mercedis can be reared successfully at a temperature of 17[degrees]C, a salinity of 2%, and a population density less than 5/L. Brine shrimp nauplii Artemia salina, algae, and commercial foods were used to sustain mysid cultures. Neomysis mercedis is vivaparous and can complete its life cycle in 3-4 months. Neomysis mercedis is as sensitive as or more sensitive to toxicants than the marine mysid Mysidopsis bahia and the freshwater cladocerans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Simocephalus serrulatus. The mean 96-h LC50 values (concentrations lethal to half the test animals) for N. mercedis, in increasing order, were 0.20 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and for malathion, 14 [mu]g/L for carbofuran, 150 [mu]g/L for copper sulfate, 280 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and 1,600 [mu]g/L for molinate. Neonates (5 d postrelease) were generally more sensitive than older juveniles. Coefficients of variation (100[center dot]SD/mean) of LC50 values varied from 21 to 35%. 37 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Brandt, O.M.; Fujimura, R.W.; Finlayson, B.J. (Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Elk Grove, CA (United States))



A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology



Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic investigations on Isla de los Estados, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expedition in November-December 2005 to Isla de los Estados (Staten Island) off the southeastern tip of South America was a cooperative venture between Lund University (LU) and Stockholm University (SU) in Sweden and the CADIC-CONICET Institute in Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim of the expedition was threefold: (1) to extend the Swedish paleoclimatic "ATLANTIS"-project (Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Azores, Grenada, Tristan da Cunha; PI S Björck) to the southern part of the South American continent, (2) to connect earlier glacial and climate history reconstructions from the Antarctic Peninsula to equivalents north of the Drake Passage in southernmost South America, and (3) to complement paleo-information available from the Tierra del Fuego mainland with information from Isla de los Estados. Focus was on two areas in the northern and north-western part of the island, Bahía Colnett and Bahia Crossley. Detailed geomorphologic and stratigraphic mapping of glacial deposits were combined with sampling sediments for OSL dating. To reconstruct the paleoclimatic development of Isla de los Estados since the last ice retreat, four main peat bog/lake sites were cored and sampled. In addition, living trees of Nothofagus and old logs preserved in the peat were sampled for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies. Preliminary results show that the deglaciation of the study area occurred before 16500 cal yr BP. Detailed multi- proxy analyses of the four sequences are under way and first results will be presented.

Björck, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hjort, C.; Ljung, K.; Martinez, O.; Möller, P.; Ponce, F.; Rabassa, J.; Roig, F.; Unkel, I.; Wohlfarth, B.



Testing of toxicology and emissions-sampling methodology for ocean incineration of hazardous wastes. Final report, January 1985-January 1986  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the development and testing of a system to expose marine organisms to hazardous-waste emissions in order to assess the potential toxicity of incinerator plumes at sea as they contact the marine environment through air-sea exchange and initial mixing. A sampling train was designed and tested at EPA's land-based hazardous-waste incinerator, using transformer oil as a waste feed. The incinerator was operated under conditions which would be appropriate for at-sea incinerators. The sampling train (Marine Incineration Biological Assessment Sampler--MIBAS) provides a sea-water sample containing a plume emission for the marine organisms testing. Five toxicity-test protocols were refined and/or developed for use in the program: (1) a sea-urchin fertilization test; (2) a chronic test using macroalgae Champia parvula; (3) a 7-day chronic test using growth and reproduction of the crustacean Mysidopsis bahia; (4) a 7-day growth and survival test with the fish Menidia beryllina; and (5) a 7-day life-cycle test using the archiannelid worm Dinophilus gyrocilatus. The results of applying these tests during a hazardous-waste burn are given.

Boehm, P.; Cooke, M.; Carr, S.; Piispanen, W.; Werme, C.



[What is garbage, anyway? The opinions of women from an outlying neighborhood in a large Brazilian city].  


Domestic solid waste is cause for current environmental concern in large cities around the world. Little is known about the human health consequences of solid waste disposal in open-air dumps. In addition, there are few studies on people's health practices in relation to solid waste. As the initial step in epidemiological research on the relationship between solid waste and diarrhea, this study describes women's perception of the definition of garbage and the popular understanding of the relationships between garbage and disease, and between garbage and the environment. The study used a qualitative approach in a slum neighborhood in Salvador, Bahia. A total of 13 women were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire in 1999. The FileMaker "diaricamp" application was used for data analysis. Interviewees defined garbage as anything useless and considered it a problem whenever it accumulated in the surroundings producing a bad smell or visual pollution, attracted animals, caused disease in children or adults, or was shifted from the individual to the collective/institutional sphere of action to solve the problem. PMID:12488885

Rêgo, Rita de Cássia Franco; Barreto, Maurício L; Killinger, Cristina Larrea


Sediment chemical contamination and toxicity associated with a coastal golf course complex.  


The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sediments impacted by a coastal golf course complex. Sediment contaminant concentrations were determined at least twice during the two-year study period at 14 sampling stations. In addition, a combination of acute and chronic bioassays were conducted exposing four invertebrate test species to whole sediments and associated pore waters. Overall, the Florida, USA, golf course complex had a measurable impact on sediment chemical quality, particularly in near-field areas. Higher concentrations of several trace metals and organochlorine pesticides were detected in many golf course-associated sediments compared with reference areas; however, concentrations decreased seaward and only a few, primarily chlorinated pesticides, exceeded proposed sediment quality guidelines. Chromium, zinc, and mercury were detected more frequently than other trace metals. The DDT and associated metabolites, dieldrin and chlordane, were the more commonly detected organic contaminants. Acute toxicity was uncommon and occurred consistently for sediment collected from one coastal location. In contrast, chronic toxicity occurred at several study sites based on the response of Mysidopsis bahia. It was concluded that the impact of golf course runoff on sediment quality may be subtle and sensitive biological assessment methods, such as chronic toxicity tests, will be needed to detect adverse effects. PMID:11434280

Lewis, M A; Foss, S S; Harris, P S; Stanley, R S; Moore, J C



The warm chain.  


1 series of events carried smallpox vaccination on an eastward odyssey; a 2nd path led westward from Spain to Spanish America, to the Philippines, and to China. Francisco Xavier Balmis (1753-1819), a Spanish physician, sailed around the world in 3 years, establishing vaccination boards in South America, the Philippines, and China. He led the "Real Expedicion Martima de la Vacuna," sponsored by the Bourbon King Charles IV; its success derived from arm-to-arm passage of the virus using orphan boys on the long voyages across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Venezuela was the 1st country to which Balmis introduced vaccine. He divided the expedition with his deputy, Slavany, who was to lead 1 group through the Spanish colonies in the Vice-Royalty of Peru; Balmis would lead the other group across the Vice-Royalty of New Spain to the far-distant colony in the Philippines. The establishment of central boards to regulate vaccination became one of Balmis's principal preoccupations. The board he created in Venezuela served as the model for those that he and Salvany were to establish later. Balmis sailed to Havana from La Guaira on May 8, 1804; Salvany led his team to Bogota. Balmis's singular success in Caracas, and Salvany's in Bogota, where Salvany also created a Central Vaccination Board, were attributable in large measure to the total support they received from church and civil authorites. The Portuguese throne had a comparable interest in its prize colony, Brazil. In 1804, Felisberto Calderia Brant Pontes sent a group of slave children from Bahia to Lisbon so that arm-to-arm transfer could be made on the return voyage. His effort was successful, and 1335 persons had been vaccinated in Bahia by June 1, 1804. In a decree of September 3, 1803 Charles IV directed that the Balmis expedition should continue to the Philippines. The advancement of health in the Philippines was a major commitment of the Spaniards. The Philippine vaccination expedition, headed by Balmis, sailed from Acapulco on February 8, 1805 with 26 Mexican boys who were to be used for arm-to-arm vaccination. On May 16 Balmis proposed the establishment of a central board of vaccination in Manila for the production, conservation, and distribution of lymph. He also opened a centre to which all residents of the city could come to be inoculated. The calves of the native water buffalo, "caraboa," were used to produce the vaccine, which was shipped to the provinces in glycerine protected by glass slides sealed in paraffin in capillary tubes or in small bottles. A singular set of barriers faced the early physician-vaccinators in China. The British established a vaccination center in Canton on December 2, 1805 with lymph from Balmis's expedition. On the voyage back to Spain, Balmis introduced vaccination on Saint Helena. Through the zeal of 2 physician-entrepreneurs, Jean De Carro and Francisco Xavier Balmis, 1 decade after its discovery, vaccination had girdled the world on Asian and New World voyages from Europe. PMID:12340730

Bowers, J Z



Diffusion in coastal and harbour zones, effects of Waves,Wind and Currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As there are multiple processes at different scales that produce turbulent mixing in the ocean, thus giving a large variation of horizontal eddy diffusivities, we use a direct method to evaluate the influence of different ambient parameters such as wave height and wind on coastal dispersion. Measurements of the diffusivity are made by digital processing of images taken from from video recordings of the sea surface near the coast. The use of image analysis allows to estimate both spatial and temporal characteristics of wave fields, surface circulation and mixing in the surf zone, near Wave breakers and inside Harbours. The study of near-shore dispersion [1], with the added complexity of the interaction between wave fields, longshore currents, turbulence and beach morphology, needs detailed measurements of simple mixing processes to compare the respective influences of forcings at different scales. The measurements include simultaneous time series of waves, currents, wind velocities from the studied area. Cuantitative information from the video images is accomplished using the DigImage video processing system [3], and a frame grabber. The video may be controlled by the computer, allowing, remote control of the processing. Spectral analysis on the images has also used n order to estimate dominant wave periods as well as the dispersion relations of dominant instabilities. The measurements presented here consist mostly on the comarison of difussion coeficients measured by evaluating the spread of blobs of dye (milk) as well as by measuring the separation between different buoys released at the same time. We have used a techniques, developed by Bahia(1997), Diez(1998) and Bezerra(2000)[1-3] to study turbulent diffusion by means of digital processing of images taken from remote sensing and video recordings of the sea surface. The use of image analysis allows to measure variations of several decades in horizontal diffusivity values, the comparison of the diffusivities between different sites is not direct and a good understanding of the dominant mixing processes is needed. There is an increase of diffusivity with wave height but only for large Wave Reynolds numbers. Other important factors are wind speed and tidal currents. The horizontal diffusivity shows a marked anisotropy as a function of wave height and distance from the coast. The measurements were performed under a variety of weather conditions conditional sampling has been used to identify the different influences of the environmental agents on the actual effective horizontal diffusion[4]. [1] Bahia E. (1998) "Un estudio numerico experimental de la dispersion de contaminantes en aguas costeras, PhD Tesis UPC, Barcelona. [2] Bezerra M.O., (2000) "Diffusion de contaminantes en la costa. , PhD Tesis Uni. De Barcelona, Barcelona. [3] Diez M. (1998) "Estudio de la Hidrodinamica de la zona de rompientes mediante el analisis digital de imagenes. Master Thesis, UPC, Barcelona. [4] Artale V., Boffetta G., Celani A., Cencini M. and Vulpiani A., 1997, "Dispersion of passive tracers in closed basins: Beyond the diffusion coefficient", Physics of Fluids, vol 9, pp 3162-1997

Diez, M.; Redondo, J. M.



Application of multi-dimensional discrimination diagrams and probability calculations to Paleoproterozoic acid rocks from Brazilian cratons and provinces to infer tectonic settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present work, we applied two sets of new multi-dimensional geochemical diagrams (Verma et al., 2013) obtained from linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of natural logarithm-transformed ratios of major elements and immobile major and trace elements in acid magmas to decipher plate tectonic settings and corresponding probability estimates for Paleoproterozoic rocks from Amazonian craton, São Francisco craton, São Luís craton, and Borborema province of Brazil. The robustness of LDA minimizes the effects of petrogenetic processes and maximizes the separation among the different tectonic groups. The probability based boundaries further provide a better objective statistical method in comparison to the commonly used subjective method of determining the boundaries by eye judgment. The use of readjusted major element data to 100% on an anhydrous basis from SINCLAS computer program, also helps to minimize the effects of post-emplacement compositional changes and analytical errors on these tectonic discrimination diagrams. Fifteen case studies of acid suites highlighted the application of these diagrams and probability calculations. The first case study on Jamon and Musa granites, Carajás area (Central Amazonian Province, Amazonian craton) shows a collision setting (previously thought anorogenic). A collision setting was clearly inferred for Bom Jardim granite, Xingú area (Central Amazonian Province, Amazonian craton) The third case study on Older São Jorge, Younger São Jorge and Maloquinha granites Tapajós area (Ventuari-Tapajós Province, Amazonian craton) indicated a within-plate setting (previously transitional between volcanic arc and within-plate). We also recognized a within-plate setting for the next three case studies on Aripuanã and Teles Pires granites (SW Amazonian craton), and Pitinga area granites (Mapuera Suite, NW Amazonian craton), which were all previously suggested to have been emplaced in post-collision to within-plate settings. The seventh case studies on Cassiterita-Tabuões, Ritápolis, São Tiago-Rezende Costa (south of São Francisco craton, Minas Gerais) showed a collision setting, which agrees fairly reasonably with a syn-collision tectonic setting indicated in the literature. A within-plate setting is suggested for the Serrinha magmatic suite, Mineiro belt (south of São Francisco craton, Minas Gerais), contrasting markedly with the arc setting suggested in the literature. The ninth case study on Rio Itapicuru granites and Rio Capim dacites (north of São Francisco craton, Serrinha block, Bahia) showed a continental arc setting. The tenth case study indicated within-plate setting for Rio dos Remédios volcanic rocks (São Francisco craton, Bahia), which is compatible with these rocks being the initial, rift-related igneous activity associated with the Chapada Diamantina cratonic cover. The eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth case studies on Bom Jesus-Areal granites, Rio Diamante-Rosilha dacite-rhyolite and Timbozal-Cantão granites (São Luís craton) showed continental arc, within-plate and collision settings, respectively. Finally, the last two case studies, fourteenth and fifteenth showed a collision setting for Caicó Complex and continental arc setting for Algodões (Borborema province).

Verma, Sanjeet K.; Oliveira, Elson P.



Diet, foraging, and use of space in wild golden-headed lion tamarins.  


Lion tamarins (Callitrichidae: Leontopithecus) are small frugi-faunivores that defend large home ranges. We describe results from the first long-term investigation of wild golden-headed lion tamarins (L. chrysomelas; GHLTs). We present data about activity budgets, daily activity cycles, diet, daily path length, home range size, home range overlap, and territorial encounters for three groups of GHLTs that were studied for 1.5-2.5 years in Una Biological Reserve, Bahia State, Brazil, an area characterized by aseasonal rainfall. We compare our results to those from other studies of lion tamarins to identify factors that may influence foraging and ranging patterns in this genus. Ripe fruit, nectar, insects, and small vertebrates were the primary components of the GHLT diet, and gums were rarely eaten. Fruit comprised the majority of plant feeding bouts, and the GHLTs ate at least 79 different species of plants from 32 families. The most common foraging sites for animal prey were epiphytic bromeliads. The GHLTs defended large home ranges averaging 123 ha, but showed strong affinities for core areas, spending 50% of their time in approximately 11% of their home range. Encounters with neighboring groups averaged two encounters every 9 days, and they were always aggressive. Data about time budgets and daily activity cycles reveal that the GHLTs spent most of their time foraging for resources or traveling between foraging sites distributed throughout their home ranges. The GHLTs spent much less time consuming exudates compared to lion tamarins in more seasonal environments. Additionally, the GHLTs had much larger home ranges than golden lion tamarins (L. rosalia), and did not engage in territorial encounters as frequently as L. rosalia. GHLT ranging patterns appear to be strongly influenced by resource acquisition and, to a lesser extent, by resource defense. PMID:15152369

Raboy, Becky E; Dietz, James M



On Thermally Forced Upwelling in a Small bay With Application to Concepción Bay, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical model describing thermally forced upwelling in a semi-enclosed deep bay is presented. The model is 2-dimensional (integrated in the lateral direction) and models the vertical circulation as response to a surface heat flux. It is assumed that the water outside the bay is kept cold. The cold water enters the bay where it becomes exposed to intense heating and thus becomes less dense. The heated and low-density water forms an outward directed divergent surface current which gives rise to an upwelling spread over the bay and a compensating inflow of cold water at depth. It is assumed that the scales are such that the surface layer outflow is geostrophic. The model is thought to be applicable to a bay at a low-latitude coast where large-scale upwelling along the coast brings cold water to the surface (e.g. Chile). Four equations are used: conservation of heat in the surface layer, geostrophic surface outflow, continuity of volume and a mechanical-energy equation. The model is forced by a constant surface heat flux. The system of equations is solved using dimensional analysis, and thus leaves a universal non-dimensional constant to be determined by observations. The model predicts a divergent outflow in the heated surface layer, which increases linearly (for a rectangular bay) from the head of the bay. The upwelling velocity is thus constant and so is the surface excess temperature. Numerical experiments using a 3D-model in a simple setup show similar response after a few days of spin up. The model predictions are found to be in reasonable good agreement, both in a qualitative and a quantitative sense, with observations from Bahia de Concepción, Chile, during some summer days with low winds. The intense upwelling in the bay those days resulted in a very high primary production as was indicated by the green colour of the water and the small Secchi-disk depth).

Rodhe, J.



[Hurricane impact on Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) beds in the Mexican Caribbean].  


Hurricanes have increased in strength and frequency as a result of global climate change. This research was conducted to study the spatio-temporal distribution and changes of Thalassia testudinum, the dominant species in Bahia de la Ascension (Quintana Roo, Mexico), when affected by heavy weather conditions. To complete this objective, a 2001 Landsat ETM+ image and the information from 525 sampling stations on morpho-functional and coverage of T. testudinum were used, and the seeds generated for the classification of eight benthic habitats. To quantify the changes caused by two hurricanes, we used two images, one of 1988 (Gilberto) and another of 1995 (Roxanne); other three data sets (2003, 2005 and 2007) were also used to describe the study area without major weather effects. Six categorial maps were obtained and subjected to analysis by 8 Landscape Ecology indexes, that describe the spatial characteristics, structure, function, change of the elements (matrix-patch-corridor), effects on ecosystems, connectivity, edges, shape and patch habitat fragmentation. Models indicate that T. testudinum may be classified as a continuum (matrix), since the fragments were not observed intermittently, but as a progression from minimum to maximum areas in reference to their coverage (ecological corridors). The fragments do not have a regular shape, indicating that the impacts are recent and may be due to direct effects (high-intensity hurricanes) or indirect (sediment). Fragments of type "bare soils" have a discontinuous distribution, and are considered to be the sites that have remained stable over a long timescale. While more dense coverage areas ("beds", "medium prairie" and "prairie") have low fragmentation and high connection of fragments. Features have an irregular perimeter and radial growth of formal; suggesting that the impact of meteors has no effect on the resilience of T. testudinum in this ecosystem, indicating good environmental quality to grow in this bay. PMID:21516658

Arellano-Méndez, Leonardo U; Liceaga-Correa, María de los Angeles; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Hernández-Núñez, Héctor



Extent and site of mineral release from six forage species incubated in mobile dacron bags.  


A study was conducted to measure the extent of DM disappearance and mineral release from six forage species within the rumen, abomasum and intestines of the adult bovine using the mobile bag technique. Three nonlactating Holstein cows, fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas, were given ad libitum access to alfalfa hay. One gram (DM) of alfalfa, rhizoma peanut, dwarf elephantgrass, bahiagrass, bermudagrass, and limpograss was individually weighed into 8-cm x 3-cm dacron bags. After ruminal incubation for 24 h, bags were incubated in an acid-pepsin solution (a simulated abomasal environment) for 1 h, inserted into the duodenum via cannula, and collected in the feces upon excretion. Ruminal incubation accounted for 86% to 100% of total DM disappearance. Release of Ca from all forages was at least 65%, with the majority having extents of release of over 70%. Most Ca was released in the rumen, but acid-pepsin incubation and washing increased Ca release an additional 17 to 272%. Forages with the highest NDF concentration (bermuda, bahia, and limpograss) sequestered Ca in the intestines. Total tract P release ranged from 84 to 98%, with an average of 7.5 percentage units occurring postabomasally. Grasses released more P in the intestines than legumes. Eighty-eight to 98% of total Mg was released in the rumen. Acid-pepsin incubation increased Mg release only slightly, with some Mg being sequestered in the intestines. Potassium release was complete in the rumen. Ranking of minerals based on maximal extent of release was K greater than Mg greater than P greater than Ca. With the exception of K, legumes released more of their minerals than grasses. PMID:2016206

Emanuele, S M; Staples, C R; Wilcox, C J



Pityriasis versicolor: clinical-epidemiological characterization of patients in the urban area of Buerarema-BA, Brazil*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a cutaneous pigmentation disorder caused by a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia sp. It is a superficial mycosis characterized by well-defined, slightly scaly skin lesions of variable color. In Brazil, the number of reported cases is small, and there are few epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES: to assess incidence, characteristics of the lesions, effectiveness of the Zileri's Sign procedure, and the epidemiological profile of PV in the urban area of Buerarema - Bahia. METHODS: Biological samples were collected on pre-established days at Basic Health Care Units from July to September 2010. Sample collection was followed by laboratory diagnosis using Porto's Method. RESULTS: Of the 158 patients with suspected PV participating in the study, 105 (66.5%) were positive; 72 (68.6%) were female and 33 (31.4%) were male. Sex and location of lesions showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The region with the highest rate of cases of PV was found to be the center of the city, with 40.9% of diagnosed cases. The most affected age group was between 10 and 19 years. There was a significant association between the results produced through Zileri's Sign and Porto's Method in relation to positive and negative results (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a higher prevalence of PV among individuals at puberty. The Zileri's Sign method proved to be counterproductive, because it showed low efficacy as a method for clinical diagnosis, yielding negative results for 36 (34.3%) patients who had been diagnosed with PV through laboratory examination.

Santana, Juliano Oliveira; de Azevedo, Fernanda Luiza Andrade; Campos, Pedro Costa



Preconcentration and determination of copper in tobacco leaves samples by using a minicolumn of sisal fiber (Agave sisalana) loaded with Alizarin fluorine blue by FAAS.  


In the present study, a minicolumn of sisal fiber loaded with alizarin fluorine blue is proposed as a preconcentration system for copper determination in tobacco leaf samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. During the optimization procedure, a two level full factorial design (2(4)) was used at the preliminary evaluation of four factors, involving the following variables: sampling flow rate, elution flow rate, buffer concentration and pH. Regarding the studied levels, this design has shown that buffer concentration and pH were significant factors. The experimental conditions established in the optimization step were: pH=4.75, buffer concentration of 0.005 mol L(-1) for elution with HCl 1.0 mol L(-1) this system allows the determination of copper content with a detection limit (LD) of 0.018 ?g L(-1) and a quantification limit (LQ) of 0.061 ?g L(-1) precision expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 4.65 and 5.07%, utilizing concentration of 10 and 2.0 ?g L(-1), respectively, and a preconcentration factor of 75, for a sample volume of 50.0 mL. Accuracy was confirmed by copper determination in the standard reference material, NIST SRM 1570 a trace element units in Spinach Leaves and by spike tests with recovery levels ranging from 93 to 100%; the procedure was applied for copper determination in tobacco leaf samples collected in Cruz das Almas City, Bahia, Brazil. The achieved concentrations of the three samples analyzed varied from 0.15 to 0.52 ?g g(-1). PMID:22284492

Dias, Fábio de S; Bonsucesso, Josemário S; Oliveira, Lucas C; dos Santos, Walter N L



Elemental concentrations in different species of seaweeds from Loreto Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico: implications for the geochemical control of metals in algal tissue.  


Concentration levels of 21 elements were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, As, Sb, Th, U, Br, Hf, Ta, Zr, and Ag) in seven different seaweed species (Codium cuneatum, Sargassum sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Laurencia johnstonii, L. papillosa, Gracilaria pachidermatica and Hypnea pannosa), collected in a shallow coastal zone from Bahia de Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Measured concentrations in algal tissue spanned almost eight orders of magnitude (from 2.0 x 10(-3) microg g(-1) for Hf to 1.2 x 10(5) microg g(-1) for Ca). Ca was consistently the most abundant element in all analyzed seaweeds, followed by Fe and Sr. Brown algae showed a tendency to incorporate higher concentrations of elements than red and green algae. Additionally, there were significant linear correlations (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) between a total of 76 different pairs of elements, some of them (e.g. Rb-Ni, Rb-Ag, Sc Cr, Sc-Fe, Sc Ni, Sc Hf, Cr Fe, Fe Ni, Fe-Hf and Ni-Th) highly correlated (r2 > 0.900). A significant correlation (r2 = 0.701, n = 18, P < 0.001) exists between our measurements in the tissue of algae and their corresponding average elemental concentrations in oceanic water from the North Pacific Ocean. Hence, overall elemental abundance in algal tissue apparently is controlled by the elemental abundance in oceanic water, whereas metabolic processes as well as environmental factors relevant to each region modify the final concentration of a given element in the body of a macroalgae. PMID:11504337

Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Huerta-Diaz, M A; Choumiline, E; Holguín-Quiñones, O; Zertuche-González, J A



Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter cloacae endophytes from healthy Theobroma cacao L. trees can systemically colonize seedlings and promote growth.  


Clonal genotypes resistant to fungal diseases are an important component of the cocoa production system in southeastern Bahia state (Brazil), so that technologies for faster production of stronger and healthier plantlets are highly desirable. In this study, the effects of inoculated bacterial endophytes isolated from healthy adult cacao plants on seedlings, and aspects related to inoculation methods, colonization patterns, and photosynthesis were investigated. Sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp-60, and rpo-B genes placed the wild-type isolates within the species Enterobacter cloacae (isolates 341 and 344) and Bacillus subtilis (isolate 629). Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (rif(R)) variants for 344 were also produced and tested. Endophytic application was either by immersion of surface sterilized seeds in bacterial suspensions or direct inoculation into soil, 20 days after planting non-inoculated seeds into pots. Results from in vitro recovery of inoculated isolates showed that the wild-type endophytes and rif(R) variants systemically colonized the entire cacao seedlings in 15-20 days, regardless of the inoculation method. Some endophytic treatments showed significant increases in seedlings' height, number of leaves, and dry matter. Inoculation methods affected the combined application of endophytes, which maintained the growth-promotion effects, but not in the same manner as in single applications. Interestingly, the 344-3.2 rif(R) variant showed improved performance in relation to both the wild type and another related variant. Photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance increased significantly for some endophytic treatments, being partially associated with effects on growth and affected by the inoculation method. The results suggest that E. cloacae and B. subtilis endophytes from healthy adult plants (not transmitted by seeds) were able to promote vegetative growth on cacao seedlings. The development of products for large-scale use in seedlings/plantlets production systems was discussed. PMID:23212670

Leite, Hianna Almeida Câmara; Silva, Anderson Barbosa; Gomes, Fábio Pinto; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Faria, José Cláudio; de Souza, Jorge Teodoro; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes



Tolerance of Sponge Assemblages to Temperature Anomalies: Resilience and Proliferation of Sponges following the 1997-8 El-Ni?o Southern Oscillation  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs across the world are under threat from a range of stressors, and while there has been considerable focus on the impacts of these stressors on corals, far less is known about their effect on other reef organisms. The 1997–8 El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had notable and severe impacts on coral reefs worldwide, but not all reef organisms were negatively impacted by this large-scale event. Here we describe how the sponge fauna at Bahia, Brazil was influenced by the 1997–8 ENSO event. Sponge assemblages from three contrasting reef habitats (reef tops, walls and shallow banks) at four sites were assessed annually from 1995 to 2011. The within-habitat sponge diversity did not vary significantly across the study period; however, there was a significant increase in density in all habitats. Multivariate analyses revealed no significant difference in sponge assemblage composition (ANOSIM) between pre- and post-ENSO years for any of the habitats, suggesting that neither the 1997–8 nor any subsequent smaller ENSO events have had any measurable impact on the reef sponge assemblage. Importantly, this is in marked contrast to the results previously reported for a suite of other taxa (including corals, echinoderms, bryozoans, and ascidians), which all suffered mass mortalities as a result of the ENSO event. Our results suggest that of all reef taxa, sponges have the potential to be resilient to large-scale thermal stress events and we hypothesize that sponges might be less affected by projected increases in sea surface temperature compared to other major groups of reef organisms.

Kelmo, Francisco; Bell, James J.; Attrill, Martin J.



Passion fruit green spot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on passion fruit in Brazil.  


Passion fruit green spot disease was first identified in 1997 after a severe outbreak at Vera Cruz County, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mature yellow fruits of Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Degener showed characteristic green spots, 2-5 mm in diameter and patches of green tissues were present on senescent leaves. The devastating effect to passion flower is caused by necrotic lesions that encircle the stems and kill the plant. In severe cases, entire orchards of a few hectares in size have been completely destroyed. The disease was always preceded by heavy infestations of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues (fruits, leaves, and stems) consistently revealed the presence of short, bacilliform particles (50-70 nm x 100-120 nm) in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as the presence of a dense viroplasm in the cytoplasm. This cytopathic effect has been found in several other Brevipalpus-transmitted or associated viruses and is classified as a cytoplasmic type of disease. Experimental reproduction of the leaf and stem symptoms was achieved by transferring B. phoenicis collected from affected field passion flower plants onto healthy plants. The evidence supports a viral etiology for the disease and the agent was named passion fruit green spot virus. Its relationship with other B. phoenicis related viruses continues to be studied. The disease was also found in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Sergipe, Rondonia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and in the Federal District. Use of one or more of the following acaricides (hexythiazox, fenbutatin-oxide, propargite, quinomethionate, or dicofol) has significantly reduced the incidence of the disease. PMID:14756419

Kitajima, E W; Rezende, J A M; Rodrigues, J C V



The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data.  


A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO(4)(2-)). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC(marine) using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na(2)MoO(4)·2H(2)O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC(10) levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC(5,50%) (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74(mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a value that can be used for national and international regulatory purposes. PMID:22663766

Heijerick, D G; Regoli, L; Stubblefield, W



Functional Polymorphisms in IL13 Are Protective against High Schistosoma mansoni Infection Intensity in a Brazilian Population  

PubMed Central

Background IL-13 is a signature cytokine of the helper T cell type 2 (TH2) pathway which underlies host defense to helminthic infection and activates production of IgE in both parasitized populations and in urban settings after allergen exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings Two functional polymorphisms in IL13, rs1800925 (or c.1-1111C>T) and rs20541 (or R130Q) were previously found to be associated with Schistosoma hematobium infection intensity. They have not been thoroughly explored in S. mansoni-endemic populations, however, and were selected along with 5 tagging SNPs for genotyping in 812 individuals in 318 nuclear families from a schistosomiasis-endemic area of Conde, Bahia, in Brazil. Regression models using GEE to account for family membership and family-based quantitative transmission disequilibrium tests (QTDT) were used to evaluate associations with total serum IgE (tIgE) levels and S. mansoni fecal egg counts adjusted for non-genetic covariates. We identified a protective effect for the T allele at rs20541 (P?=?0.005) against high S. mansoni egg counts, corroborated by QTDT (P?=?0.014). Our findings also suggested evidence for protective effects for the T allele at rs1800925 and A allele at rs2066960 after GEE analysis only (P?=?0.050, 0.0002). Conclusions/Significance The two functional variants in IL13 are protective against high S. mansoni egg counts. These markers showed no evidence of association with tIgE levels, unlike tIgE levels previously studied in non-parasitized or atopic study populations.

Grant, Audrey V.; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Ponte, Eduardo Vieira; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Gao, Peisong; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Beaty, Terri H.



Baseline susceptibility to Cry1Ac insecticidal protein in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in Brazil.  


The tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), is one of the target pests of genetically modified cotton expressing Cry1Ac insecticidal protein (Bt cotton) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. This study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of field-collected populations of H. virescens to Cry1Ac to establish a baseline for use in an insect resistance management program for Bt cotton in Brazil. Insects were sampled from the main Brazilian cotton-growing regions (Bahia, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás) during the cropping seasons of 2007/08 and 2008/09. Cry1Ac susceptibility was estimated by using diet incorporation bioassays. H. virescens was highly susceptible to Cry1Ac protein. The estimated LC50 values varied from 0.18 to 0.66 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet among the 2007-2008 populations (approximately 3.7-fold variation). Similarly, the EC50 values based on growth inhibition ranged from 0.0053 to 0.0161 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet for the 2007-2008 populations (approximately 3.0-fold variation). A joint analysis of the mortality data across all tested populations was used to develop and validate the diagnostic concentrations of 3.1 and 5.6 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet, the upper bound of the confidence interval and twice the LC99 were selected, for resistance monitoring programs of H. virescens to Cry1Ac protein in Brazil. PMID:24020298

Albernaz, K C; Merlin, B L; Martinelli, S; Head, G P; Omoto, C



Predictive modeling of hazardous waste landfill total above-ground biomass using passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation assessed remotely sensed data and geospatial modeling technique(s) to map the spatial distribution of total above-ground biomass present on the surface of the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) hazardous waste landfill. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, regression kriging, and tree-structured regression were employed to model the empirical relationship between in-situ measured Bahia (Paspalum notatum Flugge) and Centipede [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] grass biomass against an assortment of explanatory variables extracted from fine spatial resolution passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data. Explanatory variables included: (1) discrete channels of visible, near-infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) reflectance, (2) spectral vegetation indices (SVI), (3) spectral mixture analysis (SMA) modeled fractions, (4) narrow-band derivative-based vegetation indices, and (5) LIDAR derived topographic variables (i.e. elevation, slope, and aspect). Results showed that a linear combination of the first- (1DZ_DGVI), second- (2DZ_DGVI), and third-derivative of green vegetation indices (3DZ_DGVI) calculated from hyperspectral data recorded over the 400--960 nm wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum explained the largest percentage of statistical variation (R2 = 0.5184) in the total above-ground biomass measurements. In general, the topographic variables did not correlate well with the MWMF biomass data, accounting for less than five percent of the statistical variation. It was concluded that tree-structured regression represented the optimum geospatial modeling technique due to a combination of model performance and efficiency/flexibility factors.

Hadley, Brian Christopher


Dispersion in harbour and coastal areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results of turbulent flows in the sea surface near the coastline have been performed using both Lagrangian and Eulerian methods, field tests are presented using video recordings and velocity sensors[1]. The spatial and temporal resolution is limited by the measuring instruments, which results in "filtering" out the very small scales. The experimental field-results obtained during the Vilanova i la geltru experiments [2], under reduced longshore currents and spilling/plunging breaking waves are compared with experiments performed at the Barcelona harbour. The field-measurements include several tests across the surf and enclosed zones. The measured turbulent properties are compared with macroturbulence characteristics and parameterisations [2,3]. Diffusion is measured and related to the local velocity spectra so that a generalized Richardson law may be used, Numerical models on turbulent dispersion for different spectra are compared with the measurements [4,5]. [1] Diez M., Estudio de la Hidrodinamica de la zona de rompientes mediante el analisis digital de imagenes, Master Thesis, UPC, Barcelona (1998). [2] Bezerra M. O., Diez M., Medeiros C., Rodriguez A., Bahia E., Sanchez-Arcilla A. and Redondo J. M., J. Flow Turb. Combust., 59 (1998) 127. [3] Rodriguez A., Sanchez-Arcilla A., Redondo J. M. and Mosso C., Exp. Fluids, 27(1999) 31. [4] Castilla R., Simulacion cinematica de flujo turbulento. Aplicacion al estudio de la estructura de la turbulencia y la dispersíon turbulenta, PhD Thesis UPC , Barcelona (2001). [5] Castilla R., Redondo J. M., Gamez-Monterol P. J. and Babiano A., Nonlinear Processes Geophys., 14 (2007) 139.

Diez, M.; Castilla, R.



Assessment of primary health care received by the elderly and health related quality of life: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Population aging leads to increased burden of chronic diseases and demand in public health. This study aimed to assess whether the score of Primary Health Care (PHC) is associated with a) the model of care - Family Health Strategy (FHS) vs. traditional care model (the Basic Health Units; BHU); b) morbid conditions such as - hypertension, diabetes mellitus, mental disorders, chronic pain, obesity and central obesity; c) quality of life in elderly individuals who received care in those units. Methods A survey was conducted among the elderly between August 2010 and August 2011, in Ilheus, Bahia. We interviewed elderly patients - 60 years or older - who consulted at BHU or FHS units in that day or participated in a group activity, and those who were visited at home by the staff of PHC, selected through a random sample. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, services’ attainment of primary care attributes, health problems and quality of life were investigated. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) was used to assess quality of life and PCATool to generate PHC scores. In addition, weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Trained research assistants, under supervision performed the data collection. Results A total of 511 elderly individuals were identified, two declined to participate, resulting in 509 individuals interviewed. The health care provided by the FHS has higher attainment of PHC attributes, in comparison to the BHU, resulting in lower prevalence of score below six. Except for hypertension and cardiovascular disease, other chronic problems were not independently associated with low scores in PHC. It was observed an independent and positive association between PHC score and the mental component of quality of life and an inverse association with the physical component. Conclusions This study showed higher PHC attributes attainment in units with FHS, regardless of the health problem. The degree of orientation to PHC increased the mental component score of quality of life.



Collapse of the northern Jalisco continental slope:Subduction erosion, forearc slivering, or subduction beneath the Tres Marias escarpment?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jalisco subduction zone exhibits several interesting characteristics. Among these is that convergence between the Rivera and North American plate is highly oblique, especially north of 20N, the obliquity progressively increasing to the NW. By analogy to other better studied subduction zones, this distribution of forces should produce a NW-SE extension in the overriding plate, especially north of 20N. This has led to the proposal that the trench perpendicular Bahia de Banderas is an expression of this extension [Kostoglodov and Bandy, JGR, vol. 100, 1995]. To further investigate this proposal, multibeam bathymetric data and seafloor backscatter images, seismic reflection sub-bottom profiles and marine magnetic data were collected during the MORTIC08 campaign of the B.O. EL PUMA in March 2009. The bathymetric data provides for 100% coverage (20 to 200 meter spacing of the actual measured depth value depending on the water depth) of the continental slope and trench areas north of 20N. These data indicate that a marked change occurs in the morphology of the continental slope at 20N. To the north the slope consists of a broad, fairly flat plain lying between a steep lower inner trench slope to the west and a steep, concave seaward, escarpment to the east. In contrast, to the south