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1

[Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil].  

PubMed

The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is important fishery resource along the entire Brasilian coast with excellent potential for marine culture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the reproductive characteristics of the oyster of the Maraú river estuary in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The samples were collected monthly, from September 2006 to August 2007, at two points (I and II) in Camamu Bay. At each site 20 oysters were collected for histological analysis, fixed in Davidson's solution, embedded in paraffin, dehydrated in an ethanol series, sectioned (7 microm thick) and stained with Harris hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). Additionally, 30 oysters were sampled, at each point, for a condition index analysis. The water temperature ranged from 23.5 degrees C to 30 degrees C and the salinity from 15 to 25 ups at Point I (Maraú) and from 25 to 35 at Point II (Tanque Island). The oyster's height ranged from 30 to 92 mm at Point I and from 27 to 102 mm at Point II, with an average of 49.0 mm +/- 9.1 (n = 230) and 49.9 mm +/- 9.9 (n = 237), respectively. Among the sampled oysters at Point I, 59.1% were females, 31.3% males, 1.3% hermaphrodites and 8.2% of the oysters of undetermined sex. At Point II, 66.2% were females, 30.4% males, 0.8% hermaphrodites and 2.5% (n = 237) of undetermined sex. The gonadic stage analysis indicated that the reproduction period of the C. rhizophorae in the Maraú Peninsula was continuous all year, without any regressive phase. The condition index (R) ranged from 8.0% to 17.7%. The peak periods of R coincided with the expressive oyster's percentage in the maturation and liberation gametic stages. The results of these findings will contribute information for the oyster spat collection and to the process installation of the oyster culture in Camamu Bay. PMID:21516642

Lenz, Tiago; Boehs, Guisla

2011-03-01

2

Parasites of the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

This contribution reports the parasites found in the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from September 2006 through October 2007. A total of 460 individuals were collected, fixed in Davidson's solution, and processed by standard histological techniques, and the sections were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The water temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.6 ºC, and the salinity from 25 to 37?. Microscopic analysis showed Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs), Nematopsis sp. (Apicomplexa), and Platyhelminthes, including a turbellarian, sporocysts of Bucephalus sp., metacercariae, and metacestodes of Tylocephalum sp. Parasites were observed mainly in the gills, mantle, and digestive gland. The prevalence of Nematopsis sp. was 100%, and in heavily infected mussels the tissues of the labial palps were damaged. RLOs occurred in high prevalence and intensity of infection in some periods. The digenean sporocysts showed moderate prevalence but high intensity of infection, and caused parasitic castration. In general, there was no significant spatial or temporal variation (p > 0.05) of the parasites, which is probably attributable to the small variations of temperature and salinity in the region. PMID:22990810

Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G

2012-08-01

3

Evaluation of the biodegradability of petroleum in microcosm systems by using mangrove sediments from Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

We investigated the biodegradability of oil in mangrove sediment from Camamu Bay and measured its effect on the bacterial community. Microcosms of mangrove sediment were contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5% (w/v) oil, and the microbial activity was compared to that in uncontaminated sediment. The evolution of CO2 and gas chromatography showed the mineralization of oil compounds, which could reach 100%. Bacterial diversity was determined by polymerase chain reaction using a set of primers for the V3 and V6-V8 regions of 16S rDNA. The band profile obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the amplicons that were obtained for the V3 region showed a negative correlation between band number and oil concentration, whereas that of the V6-V8 region showed a positive correlation between band numbers and oil concentration. The latter also gave similar results for microcosms that were contaminated with 2 and 5% oil. These results demonstrate the mangrove sediment's capacity to recover from oil contamination (in vitro) and suggest that native mangrove microorganisms contain enzymes necessary for the catabolism of oil. PMID:24737430

Santos, A C F; Rezende, R P; Brendel, M; Souza, S S; Gonçalves, A C S; Dias, J C T

2014-01-01

4

Accumulation of trace metals in two commercially important shrimp species from Camamu Bay, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Camamu Bay is the second largest estuary in Bahia state, northeastern Brazil, being recognized by its high diversity and economical relevance for fisheries and tourism. To evaluate the impacts of environmental disturbances in Camamu Bay, trace metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Pb) were quantified in two widespread and commercially exploited shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Xiphopenaeus kroyeri). High concentrations of all metals but Pb were observed in both species by ICPOES. The concentration values for Cr, Co, and Mn were invariably higher than the accepted limits for human consumption in Brazil. Inter and intraspecific variation in metal levels might be related to biological particularities and body size. The accentuated contamination by trace metals in both species validated them as efficient bioindicators of environmental quality. Thus, effective planning, monitoring and regulatory policies should be adopted to inspect and remediate the metal contamination in natural resources from Camamu Bay. PMID:23856807

Migues, Vitor Hugo; de Almeida Bezerra, Marcos; de Francisco, Ana Karina; Guerrazzi, Maria Cecília; de Mello Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes

2013-09-01

5

A successful application of the petroleum system concept in the Camamu basin, offshore Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of a major petroleum system in the Camamu basin, NE Brazil, was undertaken using a multidisciplinary approach involving geochemical, geological, geophysical and microbiostratigraphic research. This approach has greatly enhanced the level of understanding of the petroleum system concept in the area, allowing the identification of a new exploration target. The hydrocarbons sourced by the lowermost Cretaceous lacustrine fresh

M. R. Mello; F. T. T. Goncalves; A. S. T. Netto

1995-01-01

6

A successful application of the petroleum system concept in the Camamu basin, offshore Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The characterization of a major petroleum system in the Camamu basin, NE Brazil, was undertaken using a multidisciplinary approach involving geochemical, geological, geophysical and microbiostratigraphic research. This approach has greatly enhanced the level of understanding of the petroleum system concept in the area, allowing the identification of a new exploration target. The hydrocarbons sourced by the lowermost Cretaceous lacustrine fresh to brackish water black shales, started migration during the Early Cretaceous times, continuing up to now in some parts of the basin. The hydrocarbons were accumulated in Lower Cretaceous, Rio de Contas Formation lacustrine sandstone reservoirs, structured during the rifting process, and sealed by deep water lacustrine shales, or trapped in the Dom Joao Stage (Jurassic), Sergi Formation, against the footwall of major regional faults. The geochemical parameters indicate that the Camamu basin is basically oil prone. Mapping the geographic extent of the petroleum system emphasizes the association of the oil fields with the proposed pod of active source rocks. The integration of these data with a 2D-geochemical modelling allowed the prediction and characterization, in time and space, of the petroleum pathways from source to trap in the area. Two major petroleum systems were selected, as the most attractive, in the Camamu Basin: the pre-rift Morro do Barro-Sergi (!) and synrift Morro do Barro-Rio de Contas (!). This approach allowed the identification of a new exploration target, in the latter one, which, after drilling, resulted in a 157 M bbl discovery, and brought a new insight for the hydrocarbon exploration in the basin.

Mello, M.R.; Goncalves, F.T.T. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Netto, A.S.T. [Petrobras, Bahia (Brazil)

1995-08-01

7

Coastal and shelf circulation in the vicinity of Camamu Bay (14°S), Eastern Brazilian Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Camamu Bay (CMB) is located on the narrowest shelf along the South American coastline and close to the formation of two major Western Boundary Currents (WBC), the Brazil/North Brazil Current (BC/NBC). These WBC flow close to the shelf break/slope region and are expected to interact with the shelf currents due to the narrowness of the shelf. The shelf circulation is investigated in terms of current variability based on an original data set covering the 2002-2003 austral summer and the 2003 austral autumn. The Results show that the currents at the shelf are mainly wind driven, experiencing a complete reversal between seasons due to a similar change in the wind field. Currents at the inner-shelf have a polarized nature, with the alongshore velocity mostly driven by forcings at the sub-inertial frequency band and the cross-shore velocity mainly supra-inertially forced, with the tidal currents playing an important role at this direction. The contribution of the forcing mechanisms at the mid-shelf changes between seasons. During the summer, forcings in the two frequency bands are important to drive the currents with a similar contribution of the tidal currents. On the other hand, during the autumn season, the alongshore velocity is mostly driven by sub-inertial forcings and tidally driven currents still remain important in both directions. Moreover, during the autumn when the stratification is weaker, the response of the shelf currents to the wind forcing presents a barotropic signature. The meso-scale processes related to the WBC flowing at the shelf/slope region also affect the circulation within the shelf, which contribute to cause significant current reversals during the autumn season. Currents at the shelf-estuary connection are clearly supra-inertially forced with the tidal currents playing a key role in the generation of the along-channel velocities. The sub-inertial forcings at this location act mainly to drive the weak ebb currents which were highly correlated with both local and remote wind forcing during the summer season.

Amorim, F. N.; Cirano, M.; Soares, I. D.; Lentini, C. A. D.

2011-02-01

8

AN EVALUATION OF THE 7-DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA (FORMERLY MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

The 7-d test measuring survival, growth, and fecundity of Americamysis bahia formerly Mysidopsis bahia) was developed for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and associated receiving waters for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits. Currently, this test...

9

Extraction of Urban Morphology Parameters from Generic European Datasets: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. The response of urban societies to the evolving climate depends not only on their regional climate characteristics but also on other local factors such as the urban heat island effect. Simulation of this phenomenon with local urban climate models requires comprehensive information about the urban morphology. This study focusses on the extraction of the planar and frontal area indices from detailed 3D city models and their relationship with the European Soil Sealing Level database from the European Environment Agency. These parameters have been calculated on a 1km2 grid and compared with soil sealing values aggregated at the same spatial resolution. The optimal size of the grid is a trade-off between the level of detail and the robustness of the established relationships by reducing the scatter at small scales. Moreover, the transferability of the results to other geographical areas has been investigated. The analyses have been conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission and include the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. First results show a correlation of 70% between the planar area index and the averaged soil sealing using a linear regression model at a 1km scale. Moreover, a good correspondence has been found between the relationships for Antwerp and Berlin which is promising for urban climate modellers to reduce model complexity and analyse various climate scenarios in an effective way.

Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

2014-05-01

10

Urban Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Europe: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. For example, the summer 2003 European heat wave caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. As around 75% of Europe's population resides in urban areas, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of seasonal to decadal-scale climate variability on urban areas and their populations. This study aims at downscaling the spatially coarse resolution CMIP5 climate predictions to the local urban scale and investigating the relation between heat waves and the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect). The resulting heat stress effect is not only driven by climatic variables but also impacted by urban morphology. Moreover, the exposure varies significantly with the geographical location. All this information is coupled with relevant socio-economic datasets such as population density, age structure, etc. focussing on human health. The analyses are conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. The end-user needs have been consolidated in a climate services plan including the production of heat risk exposure maps and the analysis of various scenarios considering e.g. the uncertainty of the global climate predictions, urban expansion over time and the impact of mitigation measures such as green roofs. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for the design and management of climate resilient cities.

Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

2014-05-01

11

78 FR 28167 - Special Local Regulation, Cruce a Nado Internacional de la Bahia de Ponce Puerto Rico, Bahia de...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Internacional de la Bahia de Ponce Puerto Rico, Bahia de Ponce; Ponce, PR AGENCY...waters of Bahia de Ponce in Ponce, Puerto Rico during the Cruce a Nado Internacional de la Bahia de Ponce Puerto Rico, a swimming event. The...

2013-05-14

12

Whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the pre-rift sequence of the Camamu Basin, northeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-rock geochemistry, combined with Sr-Nd isotopic composition of pelitic sedimentary rocks, have been considered to be useful parameters to estimate not only their provenance but also to make inferences about their depositional environment as well as the weathering processes they have been through. The basal sedimentary units of the basins of the northeastern Brazilian continental margin, particularly those of the pre-rift sequence, have been subject of interest of studies based on chemical and isotopic data, since they lack fossil content to establish their age and, therefore, stratigraphic correlations are difficult. The major and trace element contents as well as Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of whole-rock shale samples from five outcrops attributed to the pre-rift supersequence of the Camamu Basin were analyzed with the purpose of characterizing and obtaining further information that would allow a better correlation between the sites studied. The geochemical data suggest that the rocks exposed in the studied outcrops are part of the same sedimentary unit and that they might be correlated to the Capianga Member of the Aliança Formation of the Recôncavo Basin, exposed to the north of the Camamu Basin. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) suggests conditions associated with a humid tropical/subtropical climate at the time of deposition. Nd isotopic compositions indicate provenance from the Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Sao Francisco craton. The results presented here, therefore, show that the combined use of chemical and isotopic analyses may be of great interest to characterize and correlate lithologically homogeneous clastic sedimentary sequences.

Silva, D. R. A.; Mizusaki, A. M. P.; Milani, E. J.; Pimentel, M.; Kawashita, K.

2012-11-01

13

Space Radar Image of Bahia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also limited by the nearly continuous cloud cover in the region and heavy rainfall, which occurs more than 150 days each year. The ability of the shuttle radars to 'see' through the forest canopy to the cultivated cacao below -- independent of weather or sunlight conditions --will allow researchers to distinguish forest from cabruca in unprecedented detail. This SIR-C/X-SAR image was produced by assigning red to the L-band, green to the C-band and blue to the X-band. The Una Reserve is located in the middle of the image west of the coastline and slightly northwest of Comandatuba River. The reserve's primary forests are easily detected by the pink areas in the image. The intensity of red in these areas is due to the high density of forest vegetation (biomass) detected by the radar's L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) channel. Secondary forest is visible along the reserve's eastern border. The Serrado Mar mountain range is located in the top left portion of the image. Cabruca forest to the west of Una Reserve has a different texture and a yellow color. The removal of understory in cabruca forest reduces its biomass relative to primary forest, which changes the L-band and C-band penetration depth and returns, and produces a different texture and color in the image. The region along the Atlantic is mainly mangrove swamp, agricultural fields and urban areas. The high intensity of blue in this region is a result of increasing X-band return in areas covered with swamp and low vegetation. The image clearly separates the mangrove region (east of coastal Highway 001, shown in blue) from the taller and dryer forest west of the highway. The high resolution capability of SIR-C/X-SAR imaging and the sensitivity of its frequency and polarization channels to various land covers will be used for monitoring and mapping areas of importance for conservation. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, rega

1994-01-01

14

BAHIA GRANDE RESTORATION PROJECT DW14945947  

EPA Science Inventory

The Bahia Grande Restoration Project is located on a 6,000+ acre shallow basin that at one time was inundated with biological resources. The basin supported large flocks of wintering and migratory waterfowl. Also, it contributed to a productive recreational and commercial fishe...

15

Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

Reiter, Bernd

2009-01-01

16

Inequality and School reform in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author's research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates that inequality also blocks effective community and parental involvement in school management, as schools tend to distance themselves from neighbourhoods portrayed as poor and black, and thus "dangerous".

Reiter, Bernd

2009-07-01

17

33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable...District § 165.771 Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico (a) Location. The following area is...

2012-07-01

18

33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico. 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable...District § 165.771 Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico. (a) Location. The following area is...

2014-07-01

19

33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable...District § 165.771 Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico (a) Location. The following area is...

2011-07-01

20

33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico. 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable...District § 165.771 Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico. (a) Location. The following area is...

2013-07-01

21

33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable...District § 165.771 Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico (a) Location. The following area is...

2010-07-01

22

33 CFR 110.74c - Bahia de San Juan, PR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bahia de San Juan, PR. 110.74c Section 110.74c Navigation... Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR. The waters of San Antonio Channel, Bahia de San Juan, eastward of...

2010-07-01

23

Cacau Cabruca Agroforestry System of Production in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Southern Bahia probably in the beginning of the 19th century. To establish such system, farmers in the Atlantic rain forest region selectively maintained around 75 adult individual native trees per hectare, removed the o...

24

Amerciamysis bahia Stochastic Matrix Population Model for Laboratory Populations  

EPA Science Inventory

The population model described here is a stochastic, density-independent matrix model for integrating the effects of toxicants on survival and reproduction of the marine invertebrate, Americamysis bahia. The model was constructed using Microsoft® Excel 2003. The focus of the mode...

25

Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

26

Acute Toxicity Responses of Two Crustaceans, Americamysis bahia and Daphnia magna, to Endocrine Disrupters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity of endocrine disrupters in two crustaceans, Americamysis bahia (A. bahia) and Daph- nia magna (D. magna), was investigated and the toxi- cological responses compared. Bisphenol A had the lowest toxicity to D. magna, the 48 hr median lethal concentrations (LC50) values was 12.8 mg\\/l. However, the toxic sensitivity of A. bahia to bisphenol A was ap- proximately

Masashi Hirano; Hiroshi Ishibashi; Naomi Matsumura; Yukiko Nagao; Naoko Watanabe; Akiko Watanabe; Norio Onikura; Katsuyuki Kishi; Koji Arizono

2004-01-01

27

[Occurrence of pleistocenic planorbids in the municipality of Jacobina, Bahia].  

PubMed

We registered Biomphalaria aff. glabrata (Say, 1818) from upper Pleistocene (or Holocene) based on paleontologic and stratigraphic data and in agreement with shell morphology. The shells came from Gruta das Onças, district of Caatinga do Moura, Jacobina country, state of Bahia. We also registered one more evidence of the ancient presence of water in the cave, which agree Cartelle & Bohorquez's (1982) hypothesis about the site. PMID:3507568

Lima, L C

1987-01-01

28

33 CFR 110.74c - Bahia de San Juan, PR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR. The waters of San Antonio Channel, Bahia de San Juan, eastward of longitude 66°05?45? W. [CGD 7-83-29, 49 FR 48540, Dec. 13,...

2013-07-01

29

33 CFR 110.74c - Bahia de San Juan, PR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR. The waters of San Antonio Channel, Bahia de San Juan, eastward of longitude 66°05?45? W. [CGD 7-83-29, 49 FR 48540, Dec. 13,...

2012-07-01

30

33 CFR 110.74c - Bahia de San Juan, PR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR. The waters of San Antonio Channel, Bahia de San Juan, eastward of longitude 66°05?45? W. [CGD 7-83-29, 49 FR 48540, Dec. 13,...

2011-07-01

31

33 CFR 110.74c - Bahia de San Juan, PR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR. The waters of San Antonio Channel, Bahia de San Juan, eastward of longitude 66°05?45? W. [CGD 7-83-29, 49 FR 48540, Dec. 13,...

2014-07-01

32

Documenting Architectural Heritage in Bahia, Brazil, Using Spherical Photogrammetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cultural Heritage disappears at a rate higher than we are able, not only, to restore but also to document: human and natural factors, negligence or worst, deliberate demolitions put in danger the collective Architectural Heritage (AH). According to CIPA statements, the recording is important and has to follow some guidelines. The Architectural and Urban Heritage data have to be historically related, critically assessed and analyzed, before to be organized according to a thematic structure and become available for further uses. This paper shows the experiences developed by the Laboratory of Computer Graphics applied to Architecture and Design (LCAD), at the Architecture School of the Federal University of Bahia (FAUFBA), Brazil, in cooperation with the Università Politecnica delle Marche (UNIVPM, DICEA Department), Italy, in documenting architectural heritage. The research set up now has been carried out in the historical sites of Bahia, as Pelourinho neighborhood, a World Heritage by UNESCO. Other historical sites are in the plan of this survey, like the cities of Lençóis and Mucugê in Chapada Diamantina region. The aim is to build a technological platform based on low cost digital technologies and open source tools, such as Panoramic Spherical Photogrammetry, Spatial Database, Geographic Information Systems, Three-dimensional Geometric Modeling, CAD technology, for the collection, validation and dissemination of AH.

De Amorim, A. L.; Fangi, G.; Malinverni, E. S.

2013-07-01

33

Affirmative Action in Higher Education and Afro-Descendant Women in Bahia, Brazil  

E-print Network

Affirmative Action in Higher Education and Afro-Descendant Women in Bahia, Brazil In 2001, the federal government of Brazil under President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1995 - 2003) passed laws to remedy racial and socioeconomic inequality. Responding...

Aubel, Maraci G.

2011-05-31

34

EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY OF EXTRAPOLATION POPULATION MODELING TO PREDICT THE DYNAMICS OF AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA POPULATIONS IN THE LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

An age-classified projection matrix model has been developed to extrapolate the chronic (28-35d) demographic responses of Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia) to population-level response. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this model for predicting t...

35

Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract The taxonomic treatment of Begoniaceae for the state of Bahia, Brazil, led to the recognition of three new species of Begonia with narrow distributions, which are described and illustrated here: Begonia delicata Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a herb restricted to the region of the Recôncavo; Begonia elianeae Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a shrub endemic to the Atlantic forest of the southern part of the state; and Begonia paganuccii Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a subshrub known only from the type material, collected in the Piedmont of Paraguaçu. Notes on morphology, comparisons with morphologically similar species, etymology, geographic distribution, habitat and phenological data for each species are also presented. Furthermore, keys are provided as an aid to separating the new species from congeneric species that occur in their surroundings. Due to the sparse knowledge of the new species, there is as yet insufficient data to accurately assess their conservation status. PMID:25698891

Gregório, Bernarda de Souza; Costa, Jorge Antonio Silva; Rapini, Alessandro

2015-01-01

36

Relation between denudation history and sediment supply from apatite fission track thermochronology in the northeast Brazilian Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to provide a quantitative overview of Mesozoic-Cenozoic morphotectonic evolution and sediment supply to the northeast Brazilian margin. Landscape evolution and denudation histories for the northeastern Brazilian continental margin (Sergipe, Alagoas, Bahia, and Espírito Santo states) were detailed by apatite fission track thermochronology and thermal-history modeling and related with the sedimentological record of the offshore basins of the passive margin for a comparison with their denudational history. Approximately one hundred basement samples were analyzed from the coast to the inland of the Brazilian margin. The apparent fission track ages vary from 360 to 61 Ma and confined fission track lengths vary between 10 and 14.6 µm, indicating that not all of the samples recorded the same cooling events. The results of apatite fission track ages indicate that the area has been eroded regionally since the Mesozoic (< 250 Ma) and suggest that at less 4 km of overburden has been eroded regionally since the late Cretaceous (< 120 Ma) at a rate of 120 to 15 m/Ma. Two-stage of erosion process is deduced from simulated cooling histories for each sector. The Permian-Early Jurassic exhumation is restricted to the area of the Sertaneja Depression, besides the Diamantina Plateau. During this time, denudation rates are generally <20 m My-1 and record up to 1.5 km of denudation. Pre-rift sedimentation is recorded in the Camamu-Almada, Recôncavo, and Sergipe-Alagoas basins. Samples from the Conquista and Borborema Plateaus, and Mantiqueira Range record a Cretaceous-Paleogene onset of exhumation. This timing is consistent with the offshore sedimentary record, wherein a large clastic wedge started forming in the northeastern Sergipe-Alagoas basin, which suggests Sergipe-Alagoas basin records drainage reorganization and extension of the São Francisco River catchment. Interestingly, the Camamu basin, adjacent to the section of the margin does not record syn/post-rift exhumation, does contain a 6-km thick sedimentary succession, which should thus have been derived from more distal sources. The Neogene final denudation is observed throughout the study area and show conspicuous recent exhumation. The post-rift (<40 Ma) offshore sedimentation rates are generally lower than during preceding phases. This final sedimentary succession is thinner in all basins, consistent with limited onshore erosion during this time.

Jelinek, Andrea; Chemale, Farid; Bueno, Gilmar

2014-05-01

37

ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS AND CYANIDE ON 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' (CRUSTACEA:MYSIDACEA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute and whole life-cycle toxicity tests were conducted with the estuarine mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, exposed to cyanide and selected heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96h LC50) ranged from 3.5 micrograms/1 for mercury to 3130 micrograms/1 for lead, and were ranked in or...

38

Reconnaissance for radioactive rocks in the Paulo Afonso Region, Bahia, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground and air traverses were made to the northwest, north and northeast of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil, covering Precambrian crystalline rocks and sedimentary rocks of the Jatoba series of Jurassic or Cretaceous age. No important radioactivity anomalies were found; samples from the two strongest anomalies had an equivalent uranium-oxide content of 0.002 percent and 0.006 percent.

Haynes, Donald D.; Mau, Henry

1958-01-01

39

CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON TWO SPECIES OF MYSID SHRIMP: 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' AND 'MYSIDOPSIS BIGELOWI'  

EPA Science Inventory

Two species of mysid shrimp, the sub-tropical Mysidopsis bahia and the northern temperate Mysidopsis bigelowi, were exposed simultaneously to cadmium (as CdC12) in a continuous-flow bioassay system to determine the effect on survival and reproductive success. Temperature and sali...

40

[The popular zootherapy in Bahia State: registration of new animal species used as medicinal resources].  

PubMed

This article deals with the use of animals as medicinal resources in Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. The data come from a processional evaluation of academic performance, since it was an exercise requested by the professor of the discipline Ethnobiology (2007.2 semester) to the students of the course Bahia State Teachers' Undergraduation of Feira de Santana State University. They were asked to make a brief survey, in their respective cities, on the use of animals as medicines. Forty-one students, from 21 cities of the country of Bahia State, have participated with data. A total of 95 animals (common names) were recorded, from which 17 are new additions to the list of medicinal animal species already published. The recording of the use of animals as folk medicines in the state of Bahia provides a significant contribution to the phenomenon of zootherapy, because it opens a space to debate about conservation biology, health public policies, sustainable management of natural resources, bioprospection, and patent. It is necessary to carry out more ethnozoological studies both to comprehend the true importance of zootherapy to the traditional communities and to develop some strategies of sustainable management and use of animal species, especially for those under risk of extinction. PMID:21503516

Neto, Eraldo Medeiros Costa

2011-01-01

41

The dancing spirits of world capitalism: Globalisation, popular culture and citizenship in Salvador, Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines claims about the development of a black civil rights movement in a context of cultural and economic globalisation in the city of Salvador, the capital of the large Northeastern state of Bahia, Brazil. The precise issues taken up and the research design have been shaped by the aims and vicissitudes of the wider study of which it

Rowan Ireland

2000-01-01

42

Cabruca its agrobiodiversity potential on small farmers in Southern region of Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Bahia over 200 years ago. This system consists of planting cacao under the shade of trees in the Atlantic rain forest and has on an average 693 cacao plants and 93 trees per hectare. Even though the local community utili...

43

Communications Technology and the Crisis in Education. A Report on the Bahia Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A summary of the workshop convened in May 1971 in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil by the Council on Higher Education in the American Republics to assess current applications of communications technology for the improvement of educational systems in Latin America is given in this document. Against a background which includes: 1) technological asymmetry in…

Council on Higher Education in the American Republics, New York, NY.

44

ACUTE TOXICITY OF EIGHT LABORATORY-PREPARED GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute toxicity tests were conducted during August-September 1983 with eight laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (also called muds) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, Florida. Two of t...

45

Hydrography of Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California: Results of more than twenty five years of investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first study of Bahia Todos Santos (BTS) was reported by Walton in 1955. We conducted oceanographic studies in BTS since 1979. The BTS has a connection with a coastal lagoon named Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), two islands at the western portion and the Port of Ensenada. The general hydrographic characteristics are: In winter the water became homogeneous, less

H. Bustos-Serrano; S. R. Canino-Herrera; R. Morales-Chavez; G. M. Martinez-Garcia

2007-01-01

46

THE ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE ESTUARINE MYSID, 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA'  

EPA Science Inventory

Mysids, small shrimp-like crustacea, are used as practical bioassay animals for investigating the effects of cadmium in seawater. In laboratory tests, the mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) was more sensitive to cadmium than other crustaceans tested. LC50 values were 15.5 micrograms/l with...

47

An applied paleoecology case study: Bahia Grande, Texas prior to construction of the Brownsville Ship Channel  

E-print Network

of Laguna Madre. Since that time, Bahia Grande has been primarily dry with only ephemeral fresh water coming from heavy rainfall events, resulting in a severe decline in biological productivity. A restoration project led by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

Lichlyter, Stephen Alvah

2006-08-16

48

INCREASED REPRODUCTION BY MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) FED WITH ENRICHED ARTEMIA SPP. NAUPLII  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to assess effects of four diets on reproduction by the mysid Mysidopsis bahia in routine culture conditions. wo experiments were performed: the first lasted under semistatic conditions and the second lasted 60 d under flow-through conditions. he objective wa...

49

COMPARATIVE ACUTE TOXICITIES OF SEVERAL PESTICIDES AND METALS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA AND POSTLARVAL PENAEUS DUORARUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of toxic chemicals on estuarine and marine crustaceans are often evaluated using the mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. n a literature survey of results of acute toxicity tests with estuarine crustaceans, Mysidae and Penaeidae were generally the two most sensitive families. owever,...

50

OCCURANCE OF 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' (MYSIDACEA: MYSIDAE) ON THE ATLANTIC COAST OF FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

Occurrence of Mysidopsis bahia (Mysidacea: Mysidae) is reported on the Atlantic Coast of Florida December 6, 1984. The sighting of 22 specimens (15 females, 4 males and 2 juveniles of undetermined sex) occurred at the Link Port Channel, Ft. Pierce, Florida. Dr. Thomas E. Bowman a...

51

Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

52

The Entomophaga grylli (Fresenius) Batko species complex (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) infecting grasshoppers in Ilheus (Bahia) Brazil: notes and new records  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungi from the Entomophthoraceae (Zygomycotina; Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) belonging to the Entomophaga grylli species complex have been found in the state of Bahia, Brazil, to affect populations of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) of the species Rhammatocerus brasiliensis Bruner, Rhammatoce...

53

Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Pas n 1, the major allergen of Bahia grass Paspalum notatum pollen.  

PubMed

Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is a clinically important subtropical grass with a prolonged pollination season from spring to autumn. We aimed to clone and characterise the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1. Grass pollen-allergic patients presenting to a tertiary hospital allergy clinic were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract by skin prick testing, ImmunoCAP, ELISA and immunoblotting. Using primers deduced from the N-terminal peptide sequence of a group 1 allergen of Bahia grass pollen extract separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the complete Pas n 1 cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and cloned. Biological relevance of recombinant Pas n 1 expressed in Escherichia coli was assessed by serum IgE reactivity and basophil activation. Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) consecutive patients presenting with grass pollen allergy were skin prick test positive to Bahia grass pollen. The Pas n 1 cDNA has sequence homology with the beta-expansin 1 glycoprotein family and is more closely related to the maize pollen group 1 allergen (85% identity) than to ryegrass Lol p 1 or Timothy grass Phl p 1 (64 and 66% identity, respectively). rPas n 1 reacted with serum IgE in 47 of 55 (85%) Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients, activated basophils and inhibited serum IgE reactivity with the 29 kDa band of Bahia grass pollen extract. In conclusion the cDNA for the major group 1 allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1, was identified and cloned. rPas n 1 is immunologically active and is a valuable reagent for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:18817975

Davies, Janet M; Mittag, Diana; Dang, Thanh D; Symons, Karen; Voskamp, Astrid; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

2008-12-01

54

[Evaluation of decentralized management of basic pharmaceutical care in Bahia State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This article analyzes the decentralized management of pharmaceutical care at the municipal (local) level in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The working hypothesis is that conditioning factors for such management results mainly from an essentially technical and procedures-based approach that still prevails in pharmaceutical care. Two research strategies were used: an extensive strategy, based on the Protocol of Indicators developed by the Nucleus for Studies and Research in Pharmaceutical Care (NEPAF) at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University in Bahia, in two Bahian municipalities. Data were collected with questionnaires, a checklist, and document analysis. The intensive phase used semi-structured interviews with key informants. The findings confirm the initial premises, detecting management practices limited to the operational dimension, with an emphasis on aspects of the logistic cycle in pharmaceutical care. Some limited strides were identified in the organizational and sustainability dimensions, focused on promoting greater participation and autonomy in the management of pharmaceutical care at the municipal level. PMID:20657985

Barreto, Joslene Lacerda; Guimarães, Maria do Carmo Lessa

2010-06-01

55

Soil and litter fauna of cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry systems deposit great amounts of plant residues on soil and this leads to high levels of soil organic matter\\u000a content and has increased soil biodiversity and improved its conservation. This study compares the distribution of meso and\\u000a macrofaunal communities in soil and litter under cacao agroforestry systems and in a natural forest in the southern Bahia\\u000a state of Brazil.

M. K. da Silva Moço; E. F. da Gama-Rodrigues; A. C. da Gama-Rodrigues; R. C. R. Machado; V. C. Baligar

2009-01-01

56

Photogeologic mapping in central southwest Bahia, using LANDSAT-1 multispectral images. [Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interpretation of LANDSAT multispectral imagery for geologic mapping of central southwest Bahia, Brazil is described. Surface features such as drainage, topography, vegetation and land use are identified. The area is composed of low grade Precambrian rocks covered by Mezozoic and Cenozoic sediments. The principal mineral prospects of economic value are fluorite and calcareous rocks. Gold, calcite, rock crystal, copper, potassium nitrate and alumina were also identified.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Ohara, T.

1981-01-01

57

[Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) at Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México].  

PubMed

Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahia de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness) and higher diversity (Shannon's index). PMID:18457125

García Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez Ruiz, Migdalia

2007-03-01

58

Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

de Souza, Tiago Oliveira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

2014-01-01

59

A new species of Chilicola from Bahia, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Colletidae), with a key to the species of the megalostigma group  

PubMed Central

Abstract The bee genus Chilicola Spinola (Xeromelissinae) is recorded from the State of Bahia, Brazil for the first time, based on a new species of the megalostigma group of the subgenus Hylaeosoma Ashmead. Chilicola (Hylaeosoma) kevani sp. n. is described and figured from males collected in Wesceslau Guimarães, Bahia. The species can be distinguished on the basis of coloration, size, integumental sculpturing, and structure of the hidden metasomal sterna and genitalia. A revised key to the species of the megalostigma group is provided. PMID:22287912

de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas; Mahlmann, Thiago; Engel, Michael S.

2011-01-01

60

Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

2013-12-01

61

Perkinsus sp. infecting oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828) on the coast of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study investigated the occurrence of the protozoan Perkinsus in the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the coast of Bahia State, Brazil. The oysters (n = 900) were collected in February-March and July-August 2010. The Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM) analysis of gills and rectum revealed hypnospores of Perkinsus sp. with a high mean prevalence (63%). The infection intensity varied from very light to advanced. The polymerase chain reaction confirmed Perkinsus in 87.2% of the RFTM-positive oysters. Histological analysis showed trophozoites and schizonts phagocytized by hemocytes, mainly in the intestine and the stomach epithelium. PMID:23201453

Brandão, Rosana Pinho; Boehs, Guisla; Sabry, Rachel Costa; Ceuta, Liliane Oliveira; Luz, Mariane Dos Santos Aguiar; Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; da Silva, Patrícia Mirella

2013-02-01

62

A nonbreeding concentration of Roseate and Common Terns in Bahia, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report recoveries of banded Roseate (Sterna dougallii) and Common (S. hirundo) Terns netted at Mangue Seco, Bahia, Brazil (11? 27'S, 37? 21'W). Mangue Seco is the first reported South American location where large numbers of Roseate Terns concentrate December-March, and where members of both the North American and Caribbean populations occur together during these months. A Roseate Tern recovered at Mangue Seco sets an age record of 25.6 years for the species. Recoveries at Mangue Seco of Common Terns banded in the Azores (37? -38?N, 25? -29?W) suggest there is a regular transatlantic movement by Common Terns between the two locations.

Hays, H.; Lima, P.; Monteiro, L.; DiConstanzo, J.; Cormons, G.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Saliva, J.E.; Spendelow, J.A.; Burger, J.; Pierce, J.; Gochfeld, M.

1999-01-01

63

Trypanosoma cruzi strains from triatomine collected in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Collection of triatomines in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic environments in states of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul, Northeastern and Southern Brazil respectively, and isolation of Trypanosoma cruzi strains. METHODS First, the captured triatomines were identified using insect identification keys, then their intestinal content was examined by abdominal compression, and the samples containing trypanosomatid forms were inoculated in LIT medium and Swiss mice. RESULTS Six triatomine species were collected in cities in Bahia, namely Panstrongylus geniculatus (01), Triatoma melanocephala (11), T. lenti (94), T. pseudomaculata (02), T. sherlocki (26) and T. sordida (460), and two in cities in Rio Grande do Sul, namely T. circummaculata (11) and T. rubrovaria (115). Out of the specimens examined, T. cruzi was isolated from 28 triatomine divided into four different species: T. melanocephala (one), T. lenti (one), T. rubrovaria (16) and T. sordida (10). Their index of natural infection by T. cruzi was 6.4%. CONCLUSIONS The isolation of T. cruzi strains from triatomines found in domestic and peridomestic areas shows the potential risk of transmission of Chagas disease in the studied cities. The maintenance of those T. cruzi strains in laboratory is intended to promote studies that facilitate the understanding of the parasite-vector-host relationship. PMID:24897051

Ribeiro, Aline Rimoldi; Mendonça, Vagner José; Alves, Renata Tomé; Martinez, Isabel; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; Mello, Fernanda; da Rosa, João Aristeu

2014-01-01

64

Measurement of acute toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia using DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} instrument and protocol  

SciTech Connect

DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} uses a fluorescent dye to permeate the cells of aquatic organisms. The technique has been used on frog embryos, fish embryos, and bovine erythrocytes. Two wavelengths of light are used to excite the fluorescent dye, Di-4-ANEPPS. The blue excitation wavelength measures the cell membrane potential while the yellow excitation wavelength measures the amount of dye loaded into the organisms. The authors applied the technique to the shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, used in marine toxicity testing. The authors used from 1 to 10 shrimp, loaded into a 3 ml spectrofluorometry plastic cuvette. The fluorescent dye, Di-4-ANEPPS, was mixed with the 3 ml of ASW in the cuvette at a final Di-4ANEPPS concentration of 10{sub {minus}6} M. After a thirty minute incubation, the fluorescence of Di-4-ANEPPS was measured in the DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} instrument. A similar protocol was used to test various concentrations of standard assay chemicals and effluents. The test chemical was mixed with ASW and Di-4-ANEPPS and incubated with the shrimp for thirty minutes. After thirty minutes, the fluorescence was measured and compared to the fluorescence of the control shrimp. The authors found that the fluorescence from a single shrimp was detectable and gave similar toxicity data as did the replicates using 10 shrimp. They conclude that the DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} assay can be successfully adapted to marine organisms, particularly Mysidopsis bahia.

Blankemeyer, J.T.; Nguyen, T.; Burks, S.L. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Dept. of Zoology

1994-12-31

65

Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot  

PubMed Central

Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

2014-01-01

66

Hawksbill × loggerhead sea turtle hybrids at Bahia, Brazil: where do their offspring go?  

PubMed Central

Hybridization between hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) breeding groups is unusually common in Bahia state, Brazil. Such hybridization is possible because hawksbill and loggerhead nesting activities overlap temporally and spatially along the coast of this state. Nevertheless, the destinations of their offspring are not yet known. This study is the first to identify immature hawksbill × loggerhead hybrids (n = 4) from this rookery by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 157 immature turtles morphologically identified as hawksbills. We also compare for the first time modeled dispersal patterns of hawksbill, loggerhead, and hybrid offspring considering hatching season and oceanic phase duration of turtles. Particle movements varied according to season, with a higher proportion of particles dispersing southwards throughout loggerhead and hybrid hatching seasons, and northwards during hawksbill season. Hybrids from Bahia were not present in important hawksbill feeding grounds of Brazil, being detected only at areas more common for loggerheads. The genetic and oceanographic findings of this work indicate that these immature hybrids, which are morphologically similar to hawksbills, could be adopting behavioral traits typical of loggerheads, such as feeding in temperate waters of the western South Atlantic. Understanding the distribution, ecology, and migrations of these hybrids is essential for the development of adequate conservation and management plans. PMID:24688839

Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis F.; Marcovaldi, Maria A.; Soares, Luciano S.; Monteiro, Danielle S.; Wijeratne, Sarath; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R.

2014-01-01

67

Bioavailability and Natural Pollution of Heavy Metals in Bahia de Magdalena, Baja California, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the pristine environment of Bahia de Magdalena, Baja California, elevated concentrations of heavy metals have been reported in the biota within the bay, such as sea grasses, blue crabs, and marine turtles. While the hypothesized source of these metals has emphasized anthropogenic inputs from a local fish cannery, geologic enrichment of metals from natural ophiolite formations in the Puerto Magdalena region may be an increasingly feasible source. Total (XRF) chromium and nickel concentrations (max 4,450 ppm and 2,396 ppm, respectively) in rock and soil are orders of magnitude higher than average concentrations in the crust and the beach sands directly impacted by waste discharge from the cannery (mean Cr, 55ppm and mean Ni 17ppm at cannery). Bioavailable (HNO3 acid extracted) metals differ between rock and soil versus cannery-impacted sites. Most notably, Ni is very bioavailable (mean 70% total Ni extracted) in pristine ophiolite areas, but almost completely unavailable at cannery-impacted sites. In contrast, Zn is slightly more bioavailable at the impacted cannery site (mean 55% Zn extracted) than the ophiolite rocks (mean 45% Zn extracted). In addition, these results suggest that while metals, such as Cu, Fe, and Mn, have been previously studied in the biota of the bay, other heavy metals such as Ni and Cr should be included in future biological studies within Bahia de Magdalena.

Lee, W.; O'Shea, B.

2012-12-01

68

A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species.ResumoUma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. PMID:22287920

Giacomin, Leandro L; Stehmann, João Renato

2011-01-01

69

A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species. Resumo Uma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. PMID:22287920

Giacomin, Leandro L.; Stehmann, João Renato

2011-01-01

70

Spigelia genuflexa (Loganiaceae), a new geocarpic species from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Spigelia L. (Loganiaceae), Spigelia genuflexa Popovkin & Struwe, sp. n., from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil, is described, being the first reported geocarpic species in the family. During fruit maturation, the basal infructescences bend down towards the ground, depositing the fruit on the surface (and burying it in soft kinds of ground cover, e.g., moss), whereas the upper ones do so slightly but noticeably. The species is a short-lived annual apparently restricted to sandy-soil habitat of the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, with variable and heterogeneous microenvironment and is known from only two restricted localities. A short review of amphi- and geocarpic species is provided. A discussion of comparative morphology within Spigelia with regards to dwarfism, indumentum, and annual habit is included. A phylogenetic parsimony and Bayesian analysis of ITS sequences from 15 Spigelia species plus 17 outgroups in Loganiaceae confirms its independent taxonomic status: on the basis of sequence similarity and phylogenetic topology it is phylogenetically distinct from all Spigelia species sequenced so far. PMID:22287919

Popovkin, Alex V.; Mathews, Katherine G.; Santos, José Carlos Mendes; Molina, M. Carmen; Struwe, Lena

2011-01-01

71

The Opening of South America's First Needle Exchange Program and an Epidemic of Crack Use in Salvador, Bahia-Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 1998, 21% of cumulative AIDS cases in Brazil had occurred among injection drug users (IDUs). After a protracted political battle, the first needle exchange program (NEP) in South America opened in Salvador, Bahia. This paper uses a variety of quantitative and qualitative data sources to describe the opening of the NEP and the impact upon it of a crack

Tarcisio Andrade; Peter Lurie; MariaGuadalupe Medina; Kim Anderson; Ines Dourado

2001-01-01

72

Desenvolvimento de game multi-mouse sobre o Bioma Mata Atlntica Ana Beatriz Bahia Cristina Santos Emlio Takase  

E-print Network

-mouse, edutainment, Mata Atlântica, serious game, colaboração, educação. Contatos dos autores: abbahiaDesenvolvimento de game multi-mouse sobre o Bioma Mata Atlântica Ana Beatriz Bahia Cristina Santos aborda o processo de desenvolvimento de um game educativo e colaborativo sobre o Bioma Mata Atlântica

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

73

'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA': AN ESTUARINE SPECIES SUITABLE FOR LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY TESTS TO DETERMINE EFFECTS OF A POLLUTANT  

EPA Science Inventory

This study documents the successful use of a mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, for life-cycle toxicity tests. These tests were conducted to determine acute and chronic toxicities of metal (cadmium) and pesticide (Kepone). Delay in the formation of mysid brood pouches and release of young ...

74

ACUTE TOXICITY OF TWO GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS AND SIX ADDITIVES, ALONE AND COMBINED, TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity tests were conducted with two laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (muds) and six commonly used drilling fluid additives to determine their toxicity, alone and combined, to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). In 25 tests, the acute toxicity of combinations of one, two, or ...

75

Slave Labor and Chocolate in Brazil: The Culture of Cacao Plantations in Amazonia and Bahia (17th–19th Centuries)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will explore the origins of commercial cacao production in Brazil, specifically as it is linked inseparably to compelled human labor—first of Native Americans employed in the Amazon rainforest and later of Africans imported for regimented plantation fieldwork in Bahia state. Coerced or enslaved labor, both Native American and African, produced almost all the cacao exported from Brazil until

Timothy Walker

2007-01-01

76

ALTERATIONS IN THE ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) AS INDICATORS OF STRESS FROM CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Various aspects of the energy metabolism of an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) were examined for different life stages during a life-cycle exposure to the organophosphate pesticide fenthion. Dose-response relationships were developed for several metabolic rate functions (oxyge...

77

PROJECTED POPULATION-LEVEL EFFECTS OF THIOBENCARB EXPOSURE ON THE MYSID, AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA, AND EXTINCTION PROBABILITY IN A CONCENTRATION-DECAY EXPOSURE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Population-level effects of the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to varying thiobencarb concentrations were estimated using stage-structured matrix models. A deterministic density-independent matrix model estimated the decrease in population growth rate, l, with increas...

78

IDADE Pb-Pb E ASPECTOS PETROLÓGICOS DA MINERALIZAÇÃO EM SODALITA AZUL DO MACIÇO NEFELINA-SIENÍTICO ITARANTIM, SUL DO ESTADO DA BAHIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pb-Pb AGE AND PETROOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE BLUE SODALITE MINERALIZATION OF THE ITARANTIM NEPHELINE-SYENITE MASSIF, SOUTHERN STATE OF BAHIA The Itarantim nepheline-syenite massif (220 km 2 ) is a late proterozoic intrusion (727±30 Ma; Rb-Sr) of the southern region of the State of Bahia. It is mostly constituted by nepheline-be aring syenites, with biotite or aegirine, and by alkaline dykes.

HERBET CONCEIÇÃO; MOACIR JOSÉ BUENANO MACAMBIRA; MOACYR MOURA MARINHO; PRISGSHEIM DA CUNHA; RITA CUNHA; LEAL MENEZES

2004-01-01

79

A new extinct primate among the Pleistocene megafauna of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

A nearly complete skeleton of a robust-bodied New World monkey that resembles living spider monkeys was recovered from undisturbed Pleistocene deposits in the Brazilian state of Bahia. The skeleton displays the highly specialized postcranial pattern typical of spider and woolly spider monkeys and shares cranial similarities to the spider monkey exclusively. It is generically distinct on the basis of its robustness (>20 kg) and on the shape of its braincase. This new genus indicates that New World monkeys nearly twice the size of those living today were part of the mammalian biomass of southern Amazonia in the late Pleistocene. The discovery of this specimen expands the known adaptive diversity of New World monkeys and demonstrates that they underwent body size expansion in the terminal Pleistocene, as did many other types of mammals. PMID:8692827

Cartelle, C; Hartwig, W C

1996-06-25

80

Back pain in adults living in quilombola territories of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with back pain in adults who live in quilombola territories. METHODS A population-based survey was performed on quilombola communities of Vitória da Conquista, state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The sample (n = 750) was established via a raffle of residences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate sociodemographics and employment characteristics, lifestyle, and health conditions. The outcome was analyzed as a dichotomous variable (Poisson regression). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain was of 39.3%. Age ? 30 years and being a smoker were associated with the outcome. The employment status was not related to back pain. CONCLUSIONS The survey identified a high prevalence of back pain in adults. It is suggested to support the restructuring of the local public service in order to outline programs and access to healthy practices, assistance, diagnosis, and treatment of spine problems. PMID:25372165

Santos, Luis Rogério Cosme Silva; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Lima, Eduardo de Paula

2014-01-01

81

A new extinct primate among the Pleistocene megafauna of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed Central

A nearly complete skeleton of a robust-bodied New World monkey that resembles living spider monkeys was recovered from undisturbed Pleistocene deposits in the Brazilian state of Bahia. The skeleton displays the highly specialized postcranial pattern typical of spider and woolly spider monkeys and shares cranial similarities to the spider monkey exclusively. It is generically distinct on the basis of its robustness (>20 kg) and on the shape of its braincase. This new genus indicates that New World monkeys nearly twice the size of those living today were part of the mammalian biomass of southern Amazonia in the late Pleistocene. The discovery of this specimen expands the known adaptive diversity of New World monkeys and demonstrates that they underwent body size expansion in the terminal Pleistocene, as did many other types of mammals. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:8692827

Cartelle, C; Hartwig, W C

1996-01-01

82

[Critical issues for implementing oral health policy in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study focuses on policy implementation by public organizations. This was a qualitative, exploratory case study focusing on Brazil's National Oral Health Policy, known as "Smiling Brazil", implemented in Salvador, the State capital of Bahia. The study aimed to identify factors that facilitated or hindered the policy's implementation, based on the public policy cycle and Carlos Matus' government triangle concept, for the period from 2004 to 2007. Data collection strategies included analysis of municipal documents, interviews with key informants, and direct observation of top management meetings at the Municipal Health Secretariat. The main factors that hindered implementation of the municipal oral health policy were the project's lack of specificity; lack of human resources; and lack of financial autonomy in the Municipal Health Secretariat. The study showed that the lack of connection between the variables comprising the government triangle raised obstacles to the implementation of oral health policy in Salvador. PMID:21655847

Soares, Catharina Leite Matos; Paim, Jairnilson Silva

2011-05-01

83

Generalized joint hypermobility and black admixture in school children of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Joint hypermobility was investigated in a sample of 3,000 school children, ages 6--7 years, in Bahia, Brazil. A sampling method was designed to assure an equal number of 50 children in the smallest size classes, when age, race, and sex were held constant. Race was classified in five subgroups to assess the proportion of black admixture. The overall frequency of generalized joint hypermobility was 2.3%. The darker the children the lower the frequency of affected children. However, this racial effect was also associated with age: The highest frequency of generalized joint hypermobility was among the youngest and less black mixed children, whereas among the oldest and darker children there was no case of joint hypermobility. PMID:7258335

Santos, M C; Azevêdo, E S

1981-05-01

84

Vtor C. Almada 20.04.195027.09.2013  

E-print Network

, he clearly felt much better on a beach, a mountain river bank or a forest. Vítor was an enthusiastic Province as a center of diversification: the phylogeny of the genus Microlipophrys (Pisces: Blenniidae

85

Characterization and Relocation of Seismic Clusters in the Area of Bahia de Banderas, Jalisco-Nayarit, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed the seismic activity that took place the year of 2003 in the area of Bahia de Banderas, between the states of Jalisco and Nayarit, registrated with a local network of 7 stations, which belongs to the Civil Defence of Jalisco and the University of Guadalajara. 400 events have been located, in these earthquakes we identified some series of a similar waveforms. For defining this similarity between seismic events and in order to classify them into clusters, we have applied the cross-correlation method of the P and S arrivals. We found a fourth part of epicentres gathered into 15 clusters of 3-25 events. For some clusters we used relocations relative to a master event. Located south of Bahia de Banderas exist clusters aligned along structures trending N-S in the area of Tuito. This trend agrees with the topographic relief of the area. Other clustes can be related with active tectonic structures at north of Cajon de Peñas dam (Tomatlan). Another cluster was identified at the East, Amatlan de Cañas-Ameca area, and one more in the center of the Bahia de Banderas.

Rutz Lopez, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Carmona, E.

2004-12-01

86

Mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) life-cycle test: Design comparisons and assessment  

SciTech Connect

This study examines ASTM Standard E1191-90, ``Standard Guide for Conducting Life-cycle Toxicity Tests with Saltwater Mysids,`` 1990, using Mysidopsis bahia, by comparing several test designs to assess growth, reproduction, and survival. The primary objective was to determine the most labor efficient and statistically powerful test design for the measurement of statistically detectable effects on biologically sensitive endpoints. Five different test designs were evaluated varying compartment size, number of organisms per compartment and sex ratio. Results showed that while paired organisms in the ASTM design had the highest rate of reproduction among designs tested, no individual design had greater statistical power to detect differences in reproductive effects. Reproduction was not statistically different between organisms paired in the ASTM design and those with randomized sex ratios using larger test compartments. These treatments had numerically higher reproductive success and lower within tank replicate variance than treatments using smaller compartments where organisms were randomized, or had a specific sex ratio. In this study, survival and growth were not statistically different among designs tested. Within tank replicate variability can be reduced by using many exposure compartments with pairs, or few compartments with many organisms in each. While this improves variance within replicate chambers, it does not strengthen the power of detection among treatments in the test. An increase in the number of true replicates (exposure chambers) to eight will have the effect of reducing the percent detectable difference by a factor of two.

Lussier, S.M.; Champlin, D.; Kuhn, A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Atlantic Ecology Div.; Heltshe, J.F. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States)

1996-12-31

87

A new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil (Serpentes: Colubridae).  

PubMed

We describe a new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the highlands of Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all currently recognized congeners by a unique combination of states of characters on coloration, scale counts, scale ornamentation, and hemipenis. The new species closely resembles Chironius flavolineatus (Jan, 1863) in color pattern, but differs from the later taxon by the presence of two to four posterior temporal scales; cloacal shield entire; six to ten rows of keeled dorsal scales at midbody; ventral scales with posterior dark edges forming conspicuous transverse bars along almost the entire venter; conspicuous dark longitudinal stripes (in "zigzag") in the midventral portion of subcaudals; region of medial constriction of hemipenis slightly covered with spinules separating calyces of apex from spines below region of constriction; and sulcus spermaticus situated on convex face of hemipenis in lateral view. The new species is apparently restricted to Chapada Diamantina, corroborating the biological importance of this region from a conservational perspective. PMID:25543653

Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Hamdan, Breno

2014-01-01

88

Seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in dogs in Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in dogs living in the urban area of the city of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to investigate 24 serovars. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to dog owners to collect data about demography, husbandry and environmental factors. The prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in the population of 282 dogs was 7.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.4-10.7%). Serovar Copenhageni was the most prevalent, followed by serovars Bratislava, Canicola and Gryppotyphosa. No risk factor was detected with regard to demography (age, gender and breed), husbandry (Leptospira vaccinations, food and water exposure through their environment, hunting habits, contact with other animals and contact with rats) and environmental factors (sewage network, garbage collection, history of flooding, river proximity and wastelands). Despite the low prevalence found in this study, the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in healthy dogs in Ilhéus indicates the presence of this agent in the environment, which may be a source of human infection. Knowledge of the serovars present in this environment is important for understanding the epidemiology of leptospirosis and establishing public health policies aimed at its control. PMID:22510215

Oliveira Lavinsky, Manuella; Said, Roueda Abou; Strenzel, Gil Marcelo Reuss; Langoni, Helio

2012-09-01

89

Source and Fate of Sediments in the Bahia de Anasco, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments and wastewater mix in the insular marine waters of the Bah'{i}a de Añasco near Mayag{u}ez, Puerto Rico. Trace metal concentrations in fine sediments deposited in the bay were measured to assess potential impact of the ocean outfall on the biota and habitats that include coral reefs. A Q-mode factor analysis of elemental compositions identified three sediment sources and their relative proportions in 51 core and surficial samples collected from the bay and within the coral reefs: (1) sediments discharged by the R'{i}o Grande de Añasco; (2) calcareous skeletal remains; and (3) sediments discharged by the R'{i}o Guanajibo. The nickel and chromium derived from laterite deposits provide a unique fingerprint for sediments discharged from the R'{i}o Guanajibo. Naturally occurring concentrations of these elements exceed Probable Effect Limits (PEL's: 42 mg/kg for nickel and 160 mg/kg for chromium) in sediments deposited near the river mouth. The detection of mercury at 1 mg/kg in one sample from a core recovered near the wastewater outfall was the only indication of a possible outfall source in the data set. The temporal and spatial variations in source fractions proved useful in determining relative frequencies of historic floods and steady-state circulation patterns off the west coast of Puerto Rico.

Webb, R. M.

2005-12-01

90

Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. Methods This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests. Results We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin’s principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form (“pássaro” in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species. Conclusions The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community. PMID:25012812

2014-01-01

91

Variation of nutrient and metal concentrations in aquatic macrophytes along the Rio Cachoeira in Bahia (Brazil).  

PubMed

The use of cuprous fungicides in cocoa production in the southern part of the state of Bahia (Brazil) for decades has caused an accumulation of copper in various components of the cocoa plantations, and a contamination of regional freshwater ecosystems is suspected. Urban and industrial sources are supposed to contribute to water pollution and eutrophication of the Rio Cachoeira, the main river in this region. In order to study the metal contamination and nutritional status of this freshwater ecosystem, samples of the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were collected at seven sites along the river course. The samples were analysed for their copper, aluminium, chromium, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The levels of heavy metals increased in the downstream direction, particularly in the roots of water hyacinth. A dramatic increase of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in water as well as in plant tissues was found in samples collected downstream from the city of Itabuna. Metal input and eutrophication were attributed to agricultural, industrial and urban sources in the region. Biomonitoring of the water quality using aquatic macrophytes as accumulative indicator plants is recommended in addition to chemical water analyses. PMID:12222613

Klump, Andreas; Bauer, Konrad; Franz-Gerstein, Charis; de Menezes, Max

2002-07-01

92

Comparative toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia and Palaemonetes pugio.  

PubMed

Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used on agricultural crops, as well as for nurseries, golf courses, urban structural and landscaping sites, residential home and garden pest control, and mosquito abatement. Evaluation of sensitive marine and estuarine species is essential for the development of toxicity testing and risk-assessment protocols. Two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia (mysids) and Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp), were tested with the commonly used pyrethroid compounds, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin. Sensitivities of adult and larval grass shrimp and 7-day-old mysids were compared using standard 96-h LC50 bioassay protocols. Adult and larval grass shrimp were more sensitive than the mysids to all the pyrethroids tested. Larval grass shrimp were approximately 18-fold more sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin than the mysids. Larval grass shrimp were similar in sensitivity to adult grass shrimp for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin, but larvae were approximately twice as sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin as adult shrimp. Acute toxicity to estuarine crustaceans occurred at low nanogram per liter concentrations of some pyrethroids, illustrating the need for careful regulation of the use of pyrethroid compounds in the coastal zone. PMID:23364944

DeLorenzo, Marie E; Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Fulton, Michael H

2014-10-01

93

The occurrence of microdiamonds in Mesoproterozoic Chapada Diamantina intrusive rocks--Bahia/Brazil.  

PubMed

The origin of diamonds from Serra do Espinhaço in Diamantina region (State of Minas Gerais) and in Chapada Diamantina, Lençóis region (State of Bahia) remains uncertain, even taking into account the ample research carried out during the last decades. The lack of typical satellite minerals in both districts makes a kimberlitic source for these diamonds uncertain. In mid 18th century the occurrence of a metamorphosed igneous rock composed of martite, sericite and tourmaline was described in Diamantina region and named hematitic phyllite, considered by some researchers as a possible diamond source. Similar rocks were found in Lençóis and examined petrographically and their heavy mineral concentration was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Petrographic analyses indicated an igneous origin for these rocks and SEM analyses showed the discovery of microdiamonds. Geochronological studies using the Ar/Ar technique in muscovites yielded minimum ages of 1515+/-3 Ma, which may correlate with 1710+/-12 Ma from U-Pb method in igneous zircons from the hematitic phyllites. Both rock types also have the same mineral and chemical composition which leads to the conclusion that the intrusive rocks were protolith of the hematitic phyllites. This first discovery of microdiamonds in intrusive rocks opens the possibility of new investigation models for diamond mineralization in Brazilian Proterozoic terrains. PMID:17625685

Battilani, Gislaine A; Gomes, Newton S; Guerra, Wilson J

2007-06-01

94

Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis complex: diagnosis and evaluation of the risk factors from Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Direct diagnoses were made by using - blood smears and nested PCR (nPCR) tests on 309 blood samples from crossbred dairy cattle in the municipality of Ibicaraí, Bahia. From diagnostic blood smear slides, the observed parasitic frequencies were 31.1% for Anaplasma marginale and 20.4% for Babesia sp. From nPCR diagnoses, they were 63% for A. marginale, 34% for Babesia bigemina and 20.4% for Babesia bovis. There were significant differences (P <0.01) between the two diagnostic methods (nPCR and blood smear slides). The compliance obtained from the kappa test was 0.41 and 0.48 for A. marginale and Babesia sp., respectively. The tick samples from the six farms analyzed using nPCR were only positive for A. marginale. Evaluation of the risk factors relating to the presence of ticks and the age of the animals showed that there was a significant association (P <0.01) with the frequency of animals infected with both pathogens. Therefore, under the conditions studied, nPCR proved to be a good tool for diagnosing the agents of the bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis complex because of its sensitivity and specificity in comparison with blood smears. The municipality of Ibicaraí is an area with endemic prevalence of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis confirmed by nPCR and A. marginale is the main agent of the disease. PMID:25271452

Amorim, Lucimar Souza; Wenceslau, Amauri Arias; Carvalho, Fábio Santos; Carneiro, Paulo Luíz Souza; Albuquerque, George Rêgo

2014-01-01

95

[Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].  

PubMed

The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. PMID:21710038

Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

2011-01-01

96

Genetic diversity of Burkholderia (Proteobacteria) species from the Caatinga and Atlantic rainforest biomes in Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The genus Burkholderia (?-Proteobacteria) currently comprises more than 60 species, including parasites, symbionts and free-living organisms. Several new species of Burkholderia have recently been described showing a great diversity of phenotypes. We examined the diversity of Burkholderia spp in environmental samples collected from Caatinga and Atlantic rainforest biomes of Bahia, Brazil. Legume nodules were collected from five locations, and 16S rDNA and recA genes of the isolated microorganisms were analyzed. Thirty-three contigs of 16S rRNA genes and four contigs of the recA gene related to the genus Burkholderia were obtained. The genetic dissimilarity of the strains ranged from 0 to 2.5% based on 16S rDNA analysis, indicating two main branches: one distinct branch of the dendrogram for the B. cepacia complex and another branch that rendered three major groups, partially reflecting host plants and locations. A dendrogram designed with sequences of this research and those designed with sequences of Burkholderia-type strains and the first hit BLAST had similar topologies. A dendrogram similar to that constructed by analysis of 16S rDNA was obtained using sequences of the fragment of the recA gene. The 16S rDNA sequences enabled sufficient identification of relevant similarities and groupings amongst isolates and the sequences that we obtained. Only 6 of the 33 isolates analyzed via 16S rDNA sequencing showed high similarity with the B. cepacia complex. Thus, over 3/4 of the isolates have potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:23546947

Santini, A C; Santos, H R M; Gross, E; Corrêa, R X

2013-01-01

97

New geological model of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites from Bahia (Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New evidence supported by petrography (including mineral chemistry), lithogeochemistry, U-Pb geochronology by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and physicochemical study of fluid and melt inclusions by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry, point to an orogenic setting of Lagoa Real (Bahia-Brazil) involving uraniferous mineralization. Unlike the previous models in which uraniferous albitites represent Na-metasomatised 1.75 Ga anorogenic granitic rocks, it is understood here that they correspond to metamorphosed sodium-rich and quartz-free 1.9 Ga late-orogenic syenitic rocks (Na-metasyenites). These syenitic rocks are rich not only in albite, but also in U-rich titanite (source of uranium). The interpretation of geochemical data points to a petrogenetic connection between alkali-diorite (local amphibolite protolith) and sodic syenite by fractional crystallization through a transalkaline series. This magmatic differentiation occurred either before or during shear processes, which in turn led to albitite and amphibolite formation. The metamorphic reactions, which include intense recrystallization of magmatic minerals, led uraninite to precipitate at 1.87 Ga under Oxidation/Reduction control. A second population of uraninites was also generated by the reactivation of shear zones during the 0.6 Ga Brasiliano Orogeny. The geotectonic implications include the importance of the Orosirian event in the Paramirim Block during paleoproterozoic S?o Francisco Craton edification and the influence of the Brasiliano event in the Paramirim Block during the West-Gondwana assembly processes. The regional microcline-gneiss, whose protolith is a 2.0 Ga syn-collisional potassic granite, represents the albitite host rock. The microcilne-gneiss has no petrogenetic association to the syenite (albitite protolith) in magmatic evolutionary terms.

de Oliveira Chaves, Alexandre

2013-09-01

98

Archeomagnetism in Brazil: New archeointensity data from the Bahia region over the past five centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a clear need of new archeomagnetic data from the southern hemisphere to better constrain the global geomagnetic field models over the past few millennia. In particular, less than 5% of all available absolute archeointensity data have been obtained from this hemisphere. We will present the first archeointensity data obtained for Brazil from the analysis of several groups of architectural brick fragments dated mainly from the so-called colonial period (with ages ranging between ~1550 AD and ~1850 AD). The fragments collected were produced in or close to the city of Salvador, Bahia State (13°S, 38.5°W) and their dating is ascertained with archives and archeological evidences, yielding precise age controls with, in most cases, uncertainties of less than 10 years. Intensity experiments were performed using the Thellier and Thellier (1959) method as modified by Coe (1967). The stability of the magnetic mineralogy was monitored using partial thermoremanent magnetization (pTRM) checks and pTRM tail tests (Riisager and Riisager, 2001) were used to detect possible biases due to the presence of multidomain grains. High-temperature intensity measurements were also carried out using the Triaxe magnetometer (Le Goff and Gallet, 2004). For both experimental procedures, effects related to the anisotropy of the TRM and to the dependence of TRM acquisition on the cooling rate were taken into account. A good agreement is observed when comparing the mean intensity values obtained using the two methods. We will further compare our new archeointensity results with the intensities expected in Brazil from global geomagnetic field models over the past 500 years.

Hartmann, G. A.; Genevey, A.; Trindade, R. I.; Gallet, Y.; Etchevarne, C.; Afonso, M.

2009-12-01

99

Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 ?m, 250-53 ?m, and <53 ?m)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

2010-02-01

100

New geologic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies on the controversial Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit, Carajás Province, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit in the Carajás Province, Brazil, is hosted by steeply dipping metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Igarapé Bahia Group. This group consists of a low greenschist grade unit of the Archean (˜2,750 Ma) Itacaiúnas Supergroup, in which other important Cu-Au and iron ore deposits of the Carajás region are also hosted. The orebody at Igarapé Bahia is a fragmental rock unit situated between chloritized basalt, with associated hyaloclastite, banded iron formation (BIF), and chert in the footwall and mainly coarse- to fine-grained turbidites in the hanging wall. The fragmental rock unit is a nearly concordant, 2 km long and 30-250 m thick orebody made up of heterolithic, usually matrix-supported rocks composed mainly of coarse basalt, BIF, and chert clasts derived from the footwall unit. Mineralization is confined to the fine-grained matrix and comprises disseminated to massive chalcopyrite accompanied by magnetite, gold, U- and light rare earth element (LREE)-minerals, and minor other sulfides like bornite, molybdenite, cobaltite, digenite, and pyrite. Gangue minerals include siderite, chlorite, amphibole, tourmaline, quartz, stilpnomelane, epidote, and apatite. A less important mineralization style at Igarapé Bahia is represented by late quartz-chalcopyrite-calcite veins that crosscut all rocks in the deposit area. Fluid inclusions trapped in a quartz cavity in the ore unit indicate that saline aqueous fluids (5 to 45 wt% NaCl + CaCl2 equiv), together with carbonic (CO2 ± CH4) and low-salinity aqueous carbonic (6 wt% NaCl equiv) fluids, were involved in the mineralization process. Carbonates from the fragmental layer have ?13C values from -6.7 to -13.4 per mil that indicate their origin from organic and possibly also from magmatic carbon. The ?34S values for chalcopyrite range from -1.1 to 5.6 per mil with an outlier at -10.8 per mil, implying that most sulfur is magmatic or leached from magmatic rocks, whereas a limited contribution of reduced and oxydized sulfur is also evident. Oxygen isotopic ratios in magnetite, quartz, and siderite yield calculated temperatures of ˜400°C and ?18O-enriched compositions (5 to 16.5 per mil) for the ore-forming fluids that suggest a magmatic input and/or an interaction with 18O-rich, probably sedimentary rocks. The late veins of the Igarapé Bahia deposit area were formed from saline aqueous fluids (2 to 60 wt% NaCl + CaCl2 equiv) with ?18Ofluid compositions around 0 per mil that indicate contribution from meteoric fluids. With respect to geological features, Igarapé Bahia bears similarity with syngenetic, volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS)-type deposits, as indicated by the volcano-sedimentary geological context, stratabound character, and association with submarine volcanic flows, hyaloclastite, and exhalative beds such as BIF and chert. On the other hand, the highly saline ore fluids and the mineral assemblage, dominated by magnetite and chalcopyrite, with associated gold, U- and LREE-minerals and scarce pyrite, indicate that Igarapé Bahia belongs to the Fe oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) group of deposits. The available geochronologic data used to attest syngenetic or epigenetic origins for the mineralization are either imprecise or may not represent the main mineralization episode but a later, superimposed event. The C, S, and O isotopic results obtained in this study do not clearly discriminate between fluid sources. However, recent B isotope data obtained on tourmaline from the matrix of the fragmental rock ore unit (Xavier, Wiedenbeck, Dreher, Rhede, Monteiro, Araújo, Chemical and boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from Archean and Paleoproterozoic Cu-Au deposits in the Carajás Mineral Province, 1° Simpósio Brasileiro de Metalogenia, Gramado, Brazil, extended abstracts, CD-ROM, 2005) provide strong evidence of the involvement of a marine evaporitic source in the hydrothermal system of Igarapé Bahia. Evaporite-derived fluids may explain the high salinities and the low reduced sulfur mineral paragenesis observed in the deposit. Evaporite

Dreher, Ana M.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Taylor, Bruce E.; Martini, Sérgio L.

2008-02-01

101

Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78?years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State. PMID:22449069

2012-01-01

102

Effects of petroleum and its derivatives in benthic communities at Baía de Todos os Santos\\/Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic community structure and diversity have been investigated to assess stress conditions of Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, as a possible result of the extraction, transportation and refining of petroleum, activities carried out in this area for more than 40 years. Samples were collected over two years, at four stations under the direct influence of stress-causing activities and at

M. C. Peso-Aguiar; D. H. Smith; R. C. F. Assis; L. M. Santa-Isabel; S. Peixinho; E. P. Gouveia; T. C. A. Almeida; W. S. Andrade; C. R. G. Carqueija; F. Kelmo; G. Carrozzo; C. V. Rodrigues; G. C. Carvalho; A. C. S. Jesus

2000-01-01

103

Effects of petroleum and its derivatives in benthic communities at Ba??a de Todos os Santos\\/Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic community structure and diversity have been investigated to assess stress conditions of Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, as a possible result of the extraction, transportation and refining of petroleum, activities carried out in this area for more than 40 years. Samples were collected over two years, at four stations under the direct influence of stress-causing activities and at

M. C Peso-Aguiar; D. H Smith; R. C. F Assis; L. M Santa-Isabel; S Peixinho; E. P Gouveia; T. C. A Almeida; W. S Andrade; C. R. G Carqueija; F Kelmo; G Carrozzo; C. V Rodrigues; G. C Carvalho; A. C. S Jesus

2000-01-01

104

“Shark is the man!”: ethnoknowledge of Brazil’s South Bahia fishermen regarding shark behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background Fishermen’s knowledge is a source of indispensable information in decision-making processes related to efforts to stimulate the management and conservation of fishing resources, especially in developing countries. This study analyzed the knowledge of fishermen from three municipal areas of Bahia in northeast Brazil regarding the behavior repertoire of sharks and the possible influence that these perceptions may have on the inclination to preserve these animals. This is a pioneering study on the ethnobiological aspects of elasmobranchs in Brazil. Methods Open, semi-structured interviews with shark fishing specialists were conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The interviews addressed the fishermen’s profile, fishing techniques and knowledge about sharks, focusing on the behaviours exhibited by sharks. The data were analysed with quantitative approach and conducted with the use of descriptive statistical techniques. Results Sixty-five fishermen were interviewed. They descend from the rafting subculture of Brazil’s northeast, which has historically been disregarded by public policies addressing the management and conservation of fishing resources. The fishing fleet involved in shark fishing includes rafts, fishing boats and lobster boats equipped with fishing lines, gillnets, longlines and “esperas”. The informers classified sharks’ behaviour repertoire into 19 ethological categories, related especially to feeding, reproduction, and social and migratory behaviours. Because they identify sharks as predators, the detailed recognition of the behaviours exhibited is crucial both for an efficient catch and to avoid accidents. Therefore, this knowledge is doubly adaptive as it contributes to safer, more lucrative fishing. A feeling of respect for sharks predominates, since informers recognize the ecological role of these animals in marine ecosystems, attributing them the status of leader (or “the man”) in the sea. Conclusions This work demonstrates the complexity and robustness of artisanal fishermen’s ichthyological knowledge of sharks. Therefore, we suggest that such knowledge should be considered to develop public policies for the control of the fishing activity, as well as to develop and consolidate the National Action Plan for the Conservation of Shark and Ray Species (PAN - Tubarões e Raias). PMID:24994466

2014-01-01

105

Frequency and foraging behavior of Apis mellifera in two melon hybrids in Juazeiro, state of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to verify if there are differences in foraging frequency and behavior of Apis mellifera in two melon hybrids (10:00 - 'Yellow melon' and Sancho -'Piel de Sapo') in the municipality of Juazeiro, state of Bahia, Brazil. The frequency, behavior of visitors and the floral resource foraged were registered from 5:00 am to 6:00 pm. There was a significant difference in the frequency of visits when comparing hydrids (F = 103.74, p <0.0001), floral type (F = 47.25, p <0.0001) and resource foraged (F = 239.14, p <0.0001). The flowers of Sancho were more attractive to A. mellifera when compared with hybrid 10:00, which may be correlated to the morphology and floral resources available. This could be solved with scaled planting, avoiding the overlapping of flowering of both types. PMID:25295739

Kiill, Lúcia H P; Siqueira, Kátia M M; Márcia S, Coelho; Silva, Tamires A; Gama, Diego R S; Araújo, Diego C S; Pereira Neto, Joaquim

2014-10-01

106

Frequency and foraging behavior of Apis mellifera in two melon hybrids in Juazeiro, state of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to verify if there are differences in foraging frequency and behavior of Apis mellifera in two melon hybrids (10:00 - 'Yellow melon' and Sancho -'Piel de Sapo') in the municipality of Juazeiro, state of Bahia, Brazil. The frequency, behavior of visitors and the floral resource foraged were registered from 5:00 am to 6:00 pm. There was a significant difference in the frequency of visits when comparing hydrids (F = 103.74, p <0.0001), floral type (F = 47.25, p <0.0001) and resource foraged (F = 239.14, p <0.0001). The flowers of Sancho were more attractive to A. mellifera when compared with hybrid 10:00, which may be correlated to the morphology and floral resources available. This could be solved with scaled planting, avoiding the overlapping of flowering of both types. PMID:25590739

Kiill, Lúcia H P; Siqueira, Kátia M M; Coelho, Márcia S; Silva, Tamires A; Gama, Diego R S; Araújo, Diego C S; Pereira Neto, Joaquim

2014-12-01

107

Assessment of computer techniques for processing digital LANDSAT MSS data for lithological discrimination of Serra do Ramalho, State of Bahia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enhancement techniques and thematic classifications were applied to the metasediments of Bambui Super Group (Upper Proterozoic) in the Region of Serra do Ramalho, SW of the state of Bahia. Linear contrast stretch, band-ratios with contrast stretch, and color-composites allow lithological discriminations. The effects of human activities and of vegetation cover mask and limit, in several ways, the lithological discrimination with digital MSS data. Principal component images and color composite of linear contrast stretch of these products, show lithological discrimination through tonal gradations. This set of products allows the delineations of several metasedimentary sequences to a level superior to reconnaissance mapping. Supervised (maximum likelihood classifier) and nonsupervised (K-Means classifier) classification of the limestone sequence, host to fluorite mineralization show satisfactory results.

Paradella, W. R. (principal investigator); Vitorello, I.; Monteiro, M. D.

1984-01-01

108

Diversity of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) and associated braconid parasitoids from native and exotic hosts in southeastern Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

We documented fruit fly-host associations and infestation rates over 5 yr in the state of Bahia, Brazil, by systematically collecting native and introduced fruits in backyard and commercial orchards, experimental stations, and patches of native vegetation. Fruit were collected in multiple sites in the southern and southernmost regions of Bahia. A total of 942.22 kg from 27 fruit species in 15 plant families was collected throughout this study. Of these, 15 plant species from six families were infested by Anastrepha species. A total of 11,614 fruit flies was reared from the fruit (5,178 females and 6,436 males). No specimens of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were recovered. Eleven Anastrepha species were recovered from the collected fruit: Anastrepha antunesi Lima (0.04%), Anastrepha distincta Greene (0.1%), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (53.5%), Anastrepha leptozona Hendel (4.5%), Anastrepha manihoti Lima (0.1%), Anastrepha montei Lima (1.0%), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (33.0%), Anastrepha pickeli Lima (2.0%), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (1.0%), Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (3.0%), and Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (1.8%). We recovered 1,265 parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Anastrepha pupae. Three species of braconids were found to parasitize larvae of nine Anastrepha species. The most common parasitoid species recovered was Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) (81.7%), followed by Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (12.2%) and Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) (6.1%). We report A. fraterculus infesting Malay apple Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry and A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, and A. zenildae infesting araza Eugenia stipitata McVaugh for the first time in Brazil. PMID:22546440

Silva, Janisete G; Dutra, Vivian S; Santos, Mirian S; Silva, Nívea M O; Vidal, Daniela B; Nink, Ricardo A; Guimarães, Jorge A; Araujo, Elton L

2010-10-01

109

Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

2012-04-01

110

Atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of particulate trace metals in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Respiratory system is the major route of entry for airborne particulates, being the effect on the human organism dependent on chemical composition of the particles, exposure time and individual susceptibility. Airborne particulate trace metals are considered to represent a health hazard since they may be absorbed into human lung tissues during breathing. Fossil fuel and wood combustion, as well as waste incineration and industrial processes, are the main anthropic sources of metals to the atmosphere. In urban areas, vehicular emissions—and dust resuspension associated to road traffic—become the most important manmade source. This work investigated the atmospheric concentrations of TSP, PM 10 and elements such as iron, manganese, copper and zinc, from three different sites around Salvador Region (Bahia, Brazil), namely: (i) Lapa Bus Station, strongly impacted by heavy-duty diesel vehicles; (ii) Aratu harbor, impacted by an intense movement of goods, including metal ores and concentrates and near industrial centers and; (iii) Bananeira Village located on Maré Island, a non-vehicle-influenced site, with activities such as handcraft work and fishery, although placed near the port. Results have pointed out that TSP concentrations ranged between 16.9 (Bananeira) and 354.0 ?g m -3 (Aratu#1), while for PM 10 they ranged between 30.9 and 393.0 ?g m -3, both in the Lapa Bus Station. Iron was the major element in both Lapa Station and Aratu (#1 and #2), with average concentrations in the PM 10 samples of 148.9, 79.6 and 205.0 ng m -3, respectively. Zinc, on the other hand, was predominant in samples from Bananeira, with an average concentration of 145.0 ng m -3 in TSP samples, since no PM 10 sample was taken from this site. The main sources of iron in the Lapa Station and Aratu harbor were, respectively, soil resuspension by buses and discharge of solid granaries, as fertilizers and metal ores. On the other hand, zinc and copper in the bus station were mainly from anthropic contributions, probably heavy-duty vehicle ageing and wearing actions releasing off Zn from tires and Cu from brake linings. In the Aratu harbor, the high copper concentrations found were probably due to the port's activities, as discharges of copper concentrate on its terminal, although other sources could be possible, as burning of diesel fuel on ships and heavy oil in heaters. Finally, the Bananeira site has been presented as a different profile, since this remote site has shown zinc as the most abundant element, demonstrating to have an unexpected anthropic contribution. On a mass-to-mass basis, both zinc and manganese were in high levels in the Bananeira site and their presence strongly suggest the impact of other sources, such as the Industrial Center of Aratu and/or a siderurgy plant, not far away from that location.

de P. Pereira, Pedro A.; Lopes, Wilson A.; Carvalho, Luiz S.; da Rocha, Gisele O.; de Carvalho Bahia, Nei; Loyola, Josiane; Quiterio, Simone L.; Escaleira, Viviane; Arbilla, Graciela; de Andrade, Jailson B.

111

UPb, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd chronology of granitic basement, hydrothermal albitites and uranium mineralization (Lagoa Real, South-Bahia, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The granites orthogneisses, hydrothermal albitities and rocks which have suffered uranium mineralization from the Lagoa Real District (South State of Bahia, Brazil) have been investigated by U-Pb, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd techniques. U-Pb values on zircons from the granitic protolith give an age of 1725 Ma; U-Pb on U-mineralization dates the primary mineralization at 1395 Ma and indicates a reworking at

Laurent Turpin; Patricia Maruejol; Michel Cuney

1988-01-01

112

Effects of the 1997–1998 El Niño on the cnidarian community of a high turbidity coral reef system (northern Bahia, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are reporting on the results of a 4-year study that allowed for the analysis of the effects of the 1997–1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event on the cnidarian community of the naturally high-turbidity reefs of northern Bahia, Brazil. Cnidarian densities were significantly different between pre- and post-ENSO years, with significant consequent changes in community composition. BIOENV analysis identified

Francisco Kelmo; Martin J. Attrill; Malcolm B. Jones

2003-01-01

113

Dating and isotopic characteristics (Pb and S) of the Fe oxide Cu Au U REE Igarapé Bahia ore deposit, Carajás mineral province, Pará state, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Igarapé Bahia ore deposit is located in the Carajás mineral province, southeast of the Amazonian Craton in northern Brazil. The deposit is hosted by the Archean Igarapé Bahia Group, which consists of mafic metavolcanic, metapyroclastic, and metasedimentary rocks, in addition to banded iron-formations and hydrothermal breccias. Mafic dikes cut these lithological varieties. The Cu-Au mineralization is best developed in breccias that lie between the mafic metavolcanic and metapyroclastic/metasedimentary units. Chalcopyrite, pyrite, bornite, and chalcocite are the main sulfides and are associated with Fe-rich chlorite, magnetite, siderite, and subordinate amounts of tourmaline, fluorite, REE-bearing minerals, and calcite. Dating of chalcopyrite from the hydrothermal breccias and metavolcanic, metapyroclastic, and dike rocks by the Pb-Pb method yields ages of 2772 ± 46, 2756 ± 24, 2754 ± 36, and 2777 ± 22 Ma, respectively. A similar age of 2744 ± 12 Ma of gold from the hydrothermal breccia, mafic metavolcanic rocks, and gossan is also obtained and considered the age of the mineralization, contemporaneous with the formation of the volcanosedimentary sequences of the Igarapé Bahia Group (2745-2747 Ma). These geochronological data support a genetic link between the volcanic processes and the Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au mineralization. Pb-Pb analyses of chalcopyrite leachates from the hydrothermal breccias reveal ages of 2385 ± 122 and 2417 ± 120 Ma, which suggest remobilization, likely due to regional tectonic reactivations related to the development of the Carajás and Cinzento strike-slip fault systems. Pb isotopic analyses show highly radiogenic samples that indicate magmas derived from sources in the upper crust enriched in U and Th. ?34S values (-2.1 to +4.2) are consistent with the derivation of sulfides from magmatic fluids, but a submarine environment similar to that of Archean VMS mineralization in which evaporites have been deposited cannot be ruled out.

Galarza, Marco Antonio; Macambira, Moacir José B.; Villas, Raimundo Netuno

2008-05-01

114

Impact of the Family Health Program on gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Northeast Brazil: an analysis of primary care-sensitive conditions  

PubMed Central

In seeking to provide universal health care through its primary care-oriented Family Health Program, Brazil has attempted to reduce hospitalization rates for preventable illnesses such as childhood gastroenteritis. We measured rates of Primary Care-sensitive Hospitalizations and evaluated the impact of the Family Health Program on pediatric gastroenteritis trends in high-poverty Northeast Brazil. We analyzed aggregated municipal-level data in time-series between years 1999-2007 from the Brazilian health system payer database and performed qualitative, in-depth key informant interviews with public health experts in municipalities in Bahia. Data were sampled for Bahia’s Salvador microregion, a population of approximately 14 million. Gastroenteritis hospitalization rates among children aged less than five years were evaluated. Declining hospitalization rates were associated with increasing coverage by the PSF (P=0.02). After multivariate adjustment for garbage collection, sanitation, and water supply, evidence of this association was no longer significant (P=0.28). Qualitative analysis confirmed these findings with a framework of health determinants, proximal causes, and health system effects. The PSF, with other public health efforts, was associated with decreasing gastroenteritis hospitalizations in children. Incentives for providers and more patient-centered health delivery may contribute to strengthening the PSF’s role in improving primary health care outcomes in Brazil. PMID:23932060

Monahan, Laura J.; Calip, Gregory S.; Novo, Patricia; Sherstinsky, Mark; Casiano, Mildred; Mota, Eduardo; Dourado, Inês

2013-01-01

115

HTLV-1 in pregnant women from the Southern Bahia, Brazil: a neglected condition despite the high prevalence  

PubMed Central

Background As the most frequent pathway of vertical transmission of HTLV-1 is breast-feeding, and considering the higher prevalence in women, it is very important to perform screening examinations for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies as part of routine prenatal care. So far, no studies of HTLV-1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in the Southern region of Bahia, Brazil, have been described. Methods Pregnant women were selected at the two regional reference centers for health care from Southern Bahia. A total of 2766 pregnant women attending the antenatal unit between November 2008 and May 2010 have been analyzed. An extra blood sample was drawn during their routine antenatal testing. A standardized questionnaire was applied and all positive plasma samples were tested by ELISA and were confirmed by Western Blot and PCR. Besides that, positive women were contacted and visited. The family members that were present during the visit were asked to be serologically screened to the virus. A prospective study was also carried out and newborns were followed up to two years for evaluation of vertical transmission. Results HTLV prevalence was 1.05% (CI 95%: 0.70-1.50). There was no association of HTLV-1 infection with age, education, income and ethnic differences. The association with marital status was borderline (OR?=?7.99; 95% CI 1.07-59.3; p?=?0.042). In addition, 43 family members of the HTLV-1 seropositive women have been analyzed and specific reactivity was observed in 32.56%, including two children from previous pregnancy. Conclusion: It is very important to emphasize that the lack of HTLV-1 screening in pregnant women can promote HTLV transmission especially in endemic areas. HTLV screening in this vulnerable population and the promotion of bottle-feeding for children of seropositive mothers could be important cost-effective methods to limit the vertical transmission. Besides that, our data reinforce the need to establish strategies of active surveillance in household and family contacts as important epidemiological surveillance actions for the early detection of virus infection and the prevention of transmission by sexual or and parenteral contact. PMID:24524416

2014-01-01

116

"Cricket singing means rain": semiotic meaning of insects in the district of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the semiotic meanings which are given both to the appearance and/or behavior of insect species according to the ethnoentomological knowledge of the inhabitants of the village of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. Data were collected from February to May 2001 by performing open-ended, recorded interviews with nine men and twenty-five women, whose ages ranged from 19 to 82 years old. Data were analyzed by using the union model, which involves considering all available information on the surveyed subject. Twelve kinds of insects were associated with both beneficial and harmful events, as well as with the indication of changing weather. The way local people perceive and interpret the appearance and/or behavior of certain species of insects depends on the cultural background of each inhabitant. The following semiotic meanings were recorded: fatal, funereal, auspicial, meteorological, societal, monetary, and of abundance or scarcity. The beliefs in the augural power of insects in the village of Pedra Branca are deep-rooted in the local tradition and are transmitted from generation to generation through oral culture. It is hoped that the data now available will be incorporated into a curriculum by those researchers interested in insect conservation and ethnobiology as well. PMID:16532207

Costa Neto, Eraldo M

2006-03-01

117

The ethnocategory ''insect'' in the conception of the inhabitants of Tapera County, São Gonçalo dos Campos, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

This article deals with the construction of the "insect" ethnozoological dominium by the inhabitants of Tapera County, which is located in the municipality of São Gonçalo dos Campos, Bahia State. Data were obtained from March to May 2005 through open-ended interviews carried out with 23 men and 8 women, whose ages ranged from 6 to 66 years old. Interviewees were asked about how they perceived and defined the animals considered as "insects", which types they knew, and if they used them as food resource. Most of the interviews were tape-recorded, and semi-literal transcriptions are kept at the Ethnobiology Laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. Considering the ethnozoological classification system of the inhabitants of Tapera, the term "insect" is a broad semantic category that brings together animals of different and not systematically related taxonomic groups. Apparently, these animals are culturally perceived and categorized as "insects" because they are usually considered as noxious, disgusting, and disease carrier creatures. True insects can be excluded from this ethnocategory due to the perception people have that such animals do not cause "injuries" or because they are useful. Perceptions toward these animals imply ambiguous behavior and feelings, which range from more positive attitudes (conservative) to more negative (destructive). PMID:17625679

Costa-Neto, Eraldo M; Magalhães, Henrique F

2007-06-01

118

Reproductive cycle of Tagelus plebeius (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study characterized the reproductive cycle of the stout razor clam Tagelus plebeius in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Samples of 20 animals per collection were taken biweekly from August 2005 to August 2006. The 480 specimens were measured on the antero-posterior axis (length) and then removed from the shell. After macroscopic analysis, the gonads were fixed in Davidson's solution, processed by routine histology and stained by Harris hematoxylin and eosin. The gonads of both males and females appeared milky white, without sexual dimorphism. Microscopic analyses indicated a M: F ratio of 1.06: 1 and continuous reproduction of T. plebeius in the region. The period from August to October showed the most intense spawning. This study provides another example of continuous reproduction of bivalves in tropical waters, and because this species is a heavily exploited fishery resource in the region, it draws attention to the need for a management plan aimed at reducing harvests. PMID:22990828

Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G

2012-08-01

119

Reproductive cycle of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Veneridae) in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the reproductive cycle of Anomalocardia brasiliana, typical of the estuarine region of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. For this purpose, 20 specimens were collected biweekly between August 2005 and August 2006 on an intertidal bank (14º 48' 23" S and 39º 02' 47" W). The animals were measured on the anteroposterior axis (length), examined macroscopically and removed from the shell and fixed in Davidson's solution. Subsequently, the tissues were impregnated in paraffin, cut into 7 mm sections and stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (HE). The slides were examined under a light microscope. The water temperature at the site ranged from 24 to 30.5 ºC (mean: 27.4 ºC; SD ± 1.9), salinity from zero to 23 (mean: 13.7; SD ± 7.5) and rainfall from 28.3 mm to 248.8 mm monthly (yearly mean: 130 mm). The sample (n = 478) showed a sex ratio (M: F) of 1: 1.2 (p < 0.05) and no cases of hermaphroditism. There was no sexual dimorphism. Males and females showed reproductive synchrony. The reproductive cycle was continuous, with releases of gametes mainly in spring, summer and autumn. These results are similar to those found in other regions, but there was no reproductive rest period as reported for populations in higher latitudes. PMID:21881791

Luz, J R; Boehs, G

2011-08-01

120

Analysis of 15 autosomal STR loci from Mar del Plata and Bahia Blanca (Central Region of Argentina).  

PubMed

Allele frequencies for the 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci included in the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler kit were estimated in a sample of unrelated individuals from Mar del Plata (MDQ; N?=?180) and Bahia Blanca (BB; N?=?85) (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Biological samples were obtained from voluntary donors and forensic cases. Both populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction, except for locus vWA in MDQ and D2S1338 in BB. FGA was the most informative locus, and the least discriminating locus was TPOX in both samples. The combined power of discrimination (PDc) and the combined probability of exclusion (PEc) were similar in MDQ and BB samples (0.999999998?

Parolin, María Laura; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Sambuco, Lorena Andrea; Jaureguiberry, Stella Maris; Iudica, Celia Estela

2014-05-01

121

Frequency of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris) are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the parasite. A total of 272 feline serum samples (134 from feral and 138 from house cats) were subjected to an indirect fluorescent antibody test using cultured merozoites of S. neurona as antigen. Positivity was detected in 4.0% (11/272) of the tested samples, with titers ranging from 25 to 800. The feline sera were also tested for antibodies against the protozoan Neospora caninum, with an observed antibody frequency of 2.9%. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to report antibodies against S. neurona in Brazilian cats. We conclude that cats are exposed to the parasite in the region of this study. Further investigations are needed to confirm the role of cats in the transmission cycle of S. neurona in Brazil. PMID:25517534

Meneses, Iris Daniela Santos de; Andrade, Müller Ribeiro; Uzêda, Rosângela Soares; Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Lindsay, David Scott; Gondim, Luís Fernando Pita

2014-01-01

122

Parasites of three commercially exploited bivalve mollusc species of the estuarine region of the Cachoeira river (Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil).  

PubMed

This paper reports the parasites found in three commercially exploited bivalve molluscs (Mytella guyanensis, Anomalocardia brasiliana and Iphigenia brasiliana) of an estuarine region of Ilhéus, south of Bahia, Brazil (14 degrees 48'23''S; 39 degrees 02'47''W). Samples of 20 individuals of each species were collected fortnightly from August 2005 to August 2006. A total of 1480 individuals was collected and processed by standard histologic techniques; the histologic sections were stained with Harris haematoxylin and eosin and examined with light microscope. The water temperature in the study area varied from 24 to 30.5 degrees C and the salinity from 0 to 23ppt. Remarkable differences were found in the parasitic community between the three mollusc species involved in the study, which occupied different habitats in the estuarine region of the Cachoeira river. The following parasites were found: intracellular rickettsia-like colonies in digestive epithelia; intracellular gregarine Nematopsis sp. in gills, mantle, gonad, digestive gland and foot muscle; sporocysts of a Bucephalidae trematode in gonads, mantle, gills, digestive gland and foot; unidentified digenetic metacercariae in digestive gland and gonad; metacestodes of Tylocephalum sp. in connective tissue in the digestive gland and in gonad; and an unidentified metazoan in mantle and intestinal lumen. No significant temporal variation in the prevalence of any parasite was detected, which could be due to the narrow temperature range of the region and the absence of patterns of salinity and rainfall variation through the year. The infestation by sporocyst was the only pathological threat detected for the studied populations because of its potential for host castration. The low infection intensity and/or prevalence of the other parasites and the lack of obvious lesions suggest that there is no other serious pathological risk for the studied mollusc populations. PMID:19850046

Boehs, Guisla; Villalba, Antonio; Ceuta, Liliane Oliveira; Luz, Joaldo Rocha

2010-01-01

123

Climate Patterns Governing the Presence and Permanence of Salmonellae in Coastal Areas of Bahia de Todos Santos, Mexico?  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of salmonellae as one of the major causes of food-borne infections worldwide, data regarding the presence of these organisms in the environment are limited. We investigated the presence of Salmonella spp. in Bahia de Todos Santos (Baja California, Mexico) and evaluated the environmental factors that affect the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in this arid region. A total of 1,331 samples collected from 21 sites along the coast during a period of 3 years were analyzed for Salmonella spp. Geographical and seasonal distribution of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in association with environmental parameters and with human infections in the area. The incidence of Salmonella bacteria throughout the study was 4.8%, with the highest incidence detected in wastewater (16.2%), followed by stream water (10.6%), mollusks (7.4%), and seawater (2.3%). Twenty different serotypes were identified among the 64 Salmonella isolates. The dominant serotype was Typhimurium (23.4%), followed by Vejle (6.2%). The presence of Salmonella spp. in coastal areas was mostly confined to rainy periods and areas of stream discharges, and runoff was identified as the predominant factor influencing the transport of Salmonella bacteria from source points to the sea via streams. Isolation of Salmonella spp. was negatively and significantly associated with temperature, probably because of the effect of solar radiation in the decline of permanence of Salmonella bacteria. Conversely, human infections prevailed during the warmest months and were negatively correlated with the presence of Salmonella spp. in the marine environment. PMID:18708509

Simental, Lourdes; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

2008-01-01

124

Cost-Effective Control of Plant Disease When Epidemiological Knowledge Is Incomplete: Modelling Bahia Bark Scaling of Citrus  

PubMed Central

A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify—the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule—are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

Neri, Franco M.; DeSimone, R. Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A.

2014-01-01

125

Cost-effective control of plant disease when epidemiological knowledge is incomplete: modelling Bahia bark scaling of citrus.  

PubMed

A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify-the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule-are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

Cunniffe, Nik J; Laranjeira, Francisco F; Neri, Franco M; DeSimone, R Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A

2014-08-01

126

Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and HCV genotypes among hemophiliacs in the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil: analysis of serological and virological parameters.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to analyze HCV serological and virological parameters from hemophiliacs in the State of Bahia. Anti-HCV was investigated by ELISA in a cohort of 268 hemophiliacs A/B who were followed-up in a reference unit for hemotherapy in the State of Bahia. HCV viremia and genotypes were also determined from a subset of 66 anti-HCV seropositive hemophiliacs. Seroprevalence among hemophiliacs was 42.2% (95% CI 36.5-48.1) and was significantly higher (p<0.05) according to age > or =10 years, presence of factor VIII/IX inhibitory antibodies and other infection markers. None of the hemophiliacs less than 5 years of age were anti-HCV seropositive. Viremia was detectable in 77.3% (51/66). HCV genotype 1 (74%) was the most prevalent followed by genotype 3 (22%) and genotype 2 (4%). Our results indicate that HCV prevalence is still high among hemophiliacs, although HCV transmission was not observed in young hemophiliacs. PMID:16410926

Silva, Luciano Kalabric; Silva, Maria Betânia Souza da; Lopes, Gisele Barreto; Rodart, Itatiana Ferreira; Costa, Fernando Quadros; Santana, Nelma P; Paraná, Raymundo; Santana, Aurelino; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos

2005-01-01

127

INTERACTIONS AMONG SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, AND AGE ON GROWTH OF THE ESTUARINE MYSID MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA REARED IN THE LABORATORY THROUGH A COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE - I. BODY MASS AND AGE-SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

A broad range of salinity-temperature conditions (salinities from 3 to 31 o/oo and temperatures from 19 to 31 degrees C) significantly influenced growth rates and subsequent biomass of the estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, reared in the laboratory from the first free juvenile st...

128

Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen's reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40'59"S and 38°56'38"W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary --the region's main river--at 5.5?m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size. Behaviours described were compatible with the observations made in situ and with data found in the scientific literature, confirming the importance of traditional knowledge in complementing scientific data. One behaviour mentioned by the fishermen that had no equivalence in the scientific literature was confirmed in situ and, therefore, constitutes the first record for this species. PMID:22584063

Costa, Martha Eloy Bandeira; Le Pendu, Yvonnick; Neto, Eraldo Medeiros Costa

2012-01-01

129

Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen’s reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40’59”S and 38°56’38”W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary - the region’s main river - at 5.5?m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size. Behaviours described were compatible with the observations made in situ and with data found in the scientific literature, confirming the importance of traditional knowledge in complementing scientific data. One behaviour mentioned by the fishermen that had no equivalence in the scientific literature was confirmed in situ and, therefore, constitutes the first record for this species. PMID:22584063

2012-01-01

130

AVALIAÇÃO DE CLONES DE BANANEIRA DO SUBGRUPO CAVENDISH (Musa acuminata, AAA) EM CRUZ DAS ALMAS-BA Evaluation of banana Cavendish clones in Cruz das Almas City, Bahia State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-nine clones of Cavendish type bananas (49 Nanicão and 20 Grande Naine) collected in the States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Bahia and Santa Catarina were evaluated. The clones were established in an experimental area at the Cassava and Fruit Crops Research Center - EMBRAPA, using micro-aspersion irrigation, in plants spaced at 3.0 m x 2.0 m, and conducted with

Élio José Alves; Andrade Neto; Luis Alberto Lichtemberg; Francisco Ricardo Ferreira

131

Mineralogical and textural evidences of melt transfer in a granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In pelitic rocks, the effect of melt transfer (loss and/or gain) on phase relations can be successfully predicted via phase equilibrium modeling and more particularly using pseudosections with bulk composition as a variable (e.g. White et al., 2001). One of the most obvious effect of melt loss is the dehydration of the rock that limits further melting and favors the preservation of peak metamorphic assemblage. However, in most cases, melt loss has a limited effect that can be hardly seen mineralogically. Indeed, composition of phases like garnet, cordierite or plagioclase, that are first-order metamorphic phase, will not be affected significantly by melt loss. Therefore, evidences of melt extraction must be evidenced texturally. The goal of this contribution is to present an example where both mineralogical and textural evidences of melt extraction have been inferred. The studied sample is a pelitic granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). It is located in the city of Salvador da Bahia, next to the Farol da Bara. Structurally, it is located in a steeply deeping high strain zone that could have play a major role on the segregation and transfer of melt. The gneissic foliation is marked by a compositional banding with centimer-wide quartzo-feldspathic leucosomes in a garnet-bearing granulite. Leucosomes are almost systematically surrounded by a darker layer that is quartz-undersaturated and enriched in spinel and primatic sillimanite. This silica undersaturation is interpreted as the effect of extreme melt extraction and was modeled using phase diagram section. An interesting feature of the rock is that garnet grain size decreases and the number of garnet grains increases in the melanosome away from the leucosome. Furthermore, the type, amount and shape of inclusions in garnet, chemical composition and zoning in garnet also varies greatly and continuously across the gneissic foliation. Texturally, the presence of former melt consists on thin films along grain boundaries, melt pools that are much more abundant in the silica-undersaturated domain close to the leucosome.

Goncalves, Philippe; Santos de Souza, Jailma; Barbosa, Johildo; Bourque, Hugo; Floess, David

2014-05-01

132

[Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State].  

PubMed

Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap-nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 degrees 01' W e 38 degrees 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased (chi2 = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cells partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n = 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants. PMID:18641893

Drummont, Patrícia; Silva, Fabiana O da; Viana, Blandina F

2008-01-01

133

[Generalist bees (Meliponina) and the reproductive success of the mass flowering tree Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum (Fabales: Mimosaceae) in the Atlantic Rainforest, Bahia].  

PubMed

It is controversial the role played by Meliponina bees in the pollination of mass flowering trees with small generalized flowers (FMPG), very common group of trees in the tropical forest canopy. The species richness and relative abundance of flower visiting insects of the mass flowering tree Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum were measured to test the hypothesis of tight ecological association between these generalist bees and FMPG and to evaluate the effect of this relationship upon the reproductive success variation among tree crowns. The flower visiting insects were sampled on 10 flowering tree crowns at the Atlantic Rainforest in southern Bahia. Altogether, 553 visiting insects were collected during the flowering period of S. pulcherrimum: 293 (52%) Meliponina bees out of 438 bees (79.4%). All tree crowns were visited by Meliponina, with the proportion of these bees ranging from 27% to 87%. The tight ecological association between FMPG trees and Meliponina bees is supported by the observed pattern of spatial relationship. Both the relationship between variation of fruit set among tree crowns and species richness (r = 0.3579; P = 0.3098) or relative abundance (r = 0.3070; P = 0.3881) of Meliponina were not statistically significant. Likely a threshold of minimum relative abundance combined with the absolute abundance of these bees explain the fruit set variation among tree crowns of S. pulcherrimum, even by self-pollination. We tested this assumption with a preliminary analysis of Melipona bee genera distribution among the tree crowns. PMID:20877986

Monteiro, Daniela; Ramalho, Mauro

2010-01-01

134

Potential pollinators of Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), in restinga, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) are tropical plant species found in restinga (herbaceous-shrubby, sandy costal ecosystems). They have flowers with poricidal anthers and are pollinated by bees. The study sought to analyse potential pollinators of both plants during visits to their flowers in a restinga area in Bahia. The flowering displayed by both species was considered continuous and long duration, constantly providing pollen to floral visitors. C. ovalifolia was visited by 17 species of bees and C. ramosa by 16 species, predominantly from the Apidae family (with a similarity index of 74%). The behavior displayed by these visiting bees was of vibrating anthers. The small-sized Euglossa sp. Latreille, 1802 and Florilegus similis Urban, 1970 bees played less of a role as pollinators, since they rarely touched the flower stigma during harvests and were thus considered opportunist visitors or casual pollinators. Centris decolorata Lepetier, 1841 (= C. leprieuri) and Xylocopa subcyanea Perez, 1901 are large bees and were considered efficient pollinators of C. ovalifolia and C. ramosa because of the higher frequency and constancy of their visits, and their favourable behaviour and size for pollen transfer between flowers, which guarantees the survival of these native restinga plant species. PMID:21755150

Oliveira-Rebouças, P; Gimenes, M

2011-05-01

135

Predicting the toxicity of major ions in seawater to mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside minnow (Menidia beryllina)  

SciTech Connect

Although marine organisms are naturally adapted to salinities well above those of freshwater, elevated concentrations of specific ions have been shown to cause adverse effects on some saltwater species. Because some ions are also physiologically essential, a deficiency of these ions can also cause significant effects. To provide a predictive tool to assess toxicity associated with major ions, mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside minnows (Menidia beryllina) were exposed to saline solutions containing calcium, magnesium, potassium, strontium, bicarbonate, borate, bromide, and sulfate at concentrations above and below what would be found in seawater. Solution salinity was maintained at approximately 31% by increasing or decreasing sodium and chloride concentrations. Logistic regression models were developed with both the ion molar concentrations and ion activity. Toxicity to all three species was observed when either a deficiency or an excess of potassium and calcium occurred. Significant mortality occurred in all species when exposed to excess concentrations of magnesium, bicarbonate, and borate. The response to the remaining ions varied with species. Sheepshead minnows were the most tolerant of both deficient and elevated levels of the different ions. Mysid shrimp and inland silverside minnows demonstrated similar sensitivities to several ions, but silverside minnow response was more variable. As a result, the logistic models that predict inland silverside minnow survival generally were less robust than for the other two species.

Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Caudle, D.D.; Tietge, J.E.; Evans, J.M.

2000-01-01

136

Dengue Virus 4 (DENV-4) Re-Emerges after 30 Years in Brazil: Cocirculation of DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 in Bahia.  

PubMed

Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease of great concern in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One important cause of the increase in DF is rapid development and urbanization has led to proliferation of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the vector responsible for transmission of the illness. Surveillance of dengue virus (DENV) infection in Brazil shows the predominance of DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3 until 2010. This study reports the reappearance of DENV-4 in Brazil for the first time in 30 years. Serum samples were collected from individuals (n = 214) exhibiting fever and muscular pain in Bahia, Brazil, during 2011-2012. These samples were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/nested PCR, which revealed that 82% of samples were positive for DENV-4; most were older age groups and exhibited a serological pattern consistent with a primary infection. The cocirculation of multiple DENV serotypes within the same city places the population at risk for a fatal form of the disease. Therefore, with the increasing incidence of severe DF cases, early diagnosis will be a priority for public health efforts in Brazil. PMID:25420650

Campos, Gubio Soares; Pinho, Aryane Cruz Oliveira; Brandão, Claudio Jose de Freitas; Bandeira, Antonio Carlos; Sardi, Silvia Ines

2015-01-26

137

Pollen types and levels of total phenolic compounds in propolis produced by Apis mellifera L. (Apidae) in an area of the Semiarid Region of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Twenty-two propolis samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in an area of the Semiarid region the the State of Bahia (Agreste of Alagoinhas), Brazil, were palynologically analyzed and quantified regarding their levels of total phenolic compounds. These samples were processed using the acetolysis technique with the changes suggested for use with propolis. We found 59 pollen types belonging to 19 families and 36 genera. The family Fabaceae was the most representative in this study with nine pollen types, followed by the family Asteraceae with seven types. The types Mikania and Mimosa pudica occurred in all samples analyzed. The types Mimosa pudica and Eucalyptus had frequency of occurrence above 50% in at least one sample. The highest similarity index (c. 72%) occurred between the samples ER1 and ER2, belonging to the municipality of Entre Rios. Samples from the municipality of Inhambupe displayed the highest (36.78±1.52 mg/g EqAG) and lowest (7.68 ± 2.58 mg/g EqAG) levels of total phenolic compounds. Through the Spearman Correlation Coefficient we noticed that there was a negative linear correlation between the types Mimosa pudica (rs = -0.0419) and Eucalyptus (rs = -0.7090) with the profile of the levels of total phenolic compounds of the samples. PMID:24676176

Matos, Vanessa R; Alencar, Severino M; Santos, Francisco A R

2014-03-01

138

Hypothesis on the origin of lineaments in the LANDSAT and SLAR images of precambrian soil in the low Contas River Valley (southern Bahia)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examination of LANDSAT and SLAR images in southern Bahia reveals numerous linear features, which are grouped in five sets, based on their trends: N65 degrees E, N70 degrees W, N45 degrees E and NS/N15 degrees E. Owing to their topographic expressions, distributive patterns, spacing between individual lineaments and their mutual relationships, the lineament sets of N65 degrees E and N70 degrees W, as well as the sets of N40 degrees E and N45 degrees W, are considered as two groups of conjugate shear fractures and the former is older and is always cut by the latter. Their conjugate shear angles are 45 degrees and 85 degrees and their bisector lines are approximately in east-west and north-south directions, respectively. According to Badgeley's argumentation on the conjugate shear angles, the former conjugate shear fractures would be caused by: (1) vertical movements, and the bisector of their conjugate angle would be parallel to the long axis of horsting or folding, or (2) by a compressive force in the east-west direction and under a condition of low confining pressure and temperature.

Liu, C. C. (principal investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

1984-01-01

139

Evaluation of criteria for selecting the spectral attributes of digital LANDSAT MSS imagery for discriminating lithological units in the lower Curaca River Valley, Bahia. [Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of spectral attributes criteria was investigated, based on measures of statistical distance of separability between thematic classes in MSS digital LANDSAT imagery, in order to select the best subsets of channels in composite colors for the detection and discrimination of lithological units in the lower valley of Curaca River, State of Bahia, Brazil. Three situations were investigated: (1) selection of the three best channels, considering all of the original bands (channels 4, 5, 6, and 7); (2) selection of the three best bands, considering the six MSS band-ratios (channels 4/5, 4/6. 4/7, 5/6, 5/7, and 6/7); and (3) selection of the three best bands in a hybrid approach (the four original bands and the six ratios). A visual analysis was done on color composite images using the selected sets. Results show that the hybrid product (bands 4, 5/7, and 7 with green, blue, and red respectively) and the Normal Color Composite (bands 4, 5, and 7 with blue, green, and red colors respectively) had the best performance.

Paradella, W. R. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

140

Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis: comparative pathology of golden hamsters infected with isolates from cutaneous and mucosal lesions of patients residing in Tres Bracos, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The histopathology of primary forepaw and metastatic lymph node, spleen, and liver lesions produced in golden hamsters infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) strains (LTB 111 and LTB558) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) strains (LTB12 and LTB201) of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis isolated from patients residing in Tres Bracos, Bahia, Brazil is described. No pathological features providing clear differentiation of the CL and MCL strains were found. Although amastigotes were plentiful early in the development of primary forepaw lesions, they were either absent or could not be identified with certainty in sections of late stage lesions. Similarly, amastigotes were not found in histologic lesions at metastatic sites; however, leishmanial DNA was detected in both early and late stage forepaw lesions and metastatic lesions using Leishmania kinetoplast DNA and the gene coding for gp63 as hybridization probes. The DNA recovered from metastatic lesions was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues that had been stored at room temperature for prolonged periods. PMID:1849379

Kahl, L P; Byram, J E; David, J R; Comerford, S A; Von Lichtenberg, F

1991-02-01

141

Severe impact and subsequent recovery of a coral assemblage following the 1997-8 El Niño event: a 17-year study from Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The coral reefs of northern Bahia evolved in isolation from other Atlantic systems and under conditions of high environmental stress, particularly high turbidity. We have monitored the scleractinian assemblage of four shallow bank reefs (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) annually for 17 years since 1995, collecting quantitative data on diversity and density of coral colonies. As the sampling period included the 1997-8 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for the first time these results allow a quantitative assessment of the long-term impact of this major environmental stressor on such a coral assemblage. After El Niño, most species showed significantly reduced densities of colonies, this decline occurring for the subsequent two years without evidence of any new settlement until 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the species Porites astreoides went unrecorded. Recovery was slow, and multivariate analysis revealed that assemblages had not returned to the pre-El Niño state until 2011. It therefore took 13 years for full recovery of the coral assemblage to occur, which has consequences for reef systems if such El-Niño events become more frequent in the future. PMID:23741459

Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J

2013-01-01

142

A new species of Astyanax Baird & Girard (Characiformes: Characidae) from the Rio Paraguaçu basin, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil, with comments on bony hooks on all fins.  

PubMed

A new species of Astyanax from the Rio Paraguaçu basin, Bahia, Brazil, is described. This new species is distinguished from its congeners known to occur in Brazilian drainages by the presence of small bony hooks on all fins of mature males. Furthermore, the new species can be diagnosed by its colour pattern, which consists of a unique vertically elongated humeral blotch, a conspicuous dark drop-shaped horizontal blotch over the caudal peduncle, tapering anteriorly and not extending to the median caudal-fin rays, and by the absence of a conspicuous broad dark midlateral stripe. The new species differs further by having the greatest body depth just anterior to the dorsal-fin origin, 32-35 perforated scales in the lateral line and a reduced number of branched anal-fin rays (16-20). Apparently, the new species does not fit into any species complex of Astyanax. The occurrence of bony hooks on all fins of Astyanax is discussed. PMID:24446730

Camelier, P; Zanata, A M

2014-02-01

143

Severe Impact and Subsequent Recovery of a Coral Assemblage following the 1997–8 El Niño Event: A 17-Year Study from Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The coral reefs of northern Bahia evolved in isolation from other Atlantic systems and under conditions of high environmental stress, particularly high turbidity. We have monitored the scleractinian assemblage of four shallow bank reefs (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) annually for 17 years since 1995, collecting quantitative data on diversity and density of coral colonies. As the sampling period included the 1997–8 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for the first time these results allow a quantitative assessment of the long-term impact of this major environmental stressor on such a coral assemblage. After El Niño, most species showed significantly reduced densities of colonies, this decline occurring for the subsequent two years without evidence of any new settlement until 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the species Porites astreoides went unrecorded. Recovery was slow, and multivariate analysis revealed that assemblages had not returned to the pre-El Niño state until 2011. It therefore took 13 years for full recovery of the coral assemblage to occur, which has consequences for reef systems if such El-Niño events become more frequent in the future. PMID:23741459

Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J.

2013-01-01

144

Radiometric quality and performance of TIMESAT for smoothing moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer enhanced vegetation index time series from western Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua platforms in 1999 and 2002, respectively, with temporal resolutions of 1 to 2 days opened the possibility of using a longtime series of satellite images to map land use and land cover classes from different regions of the Earth, to study vegetation phenology, and to monitor regional and global climate change, among other applications. The main objectives of this study were twofold: to analyze the radiometric quality of the time series of enhanced vegetation index (EVI) products derived from the Terra MODIS sensor in western Bahia State, Brazil, and to identify the most appropriate filter to smooth MODIS EVI time series of the study area among those available in the public domain, the TIMESAT algorithm. The 2000 to 2011 time period was considered (a total of 276 scenes). The radiometric quality was analyzed based on the pixel reliability data set available in the MOD13Q1 product. The performances of the three smoothing filters available within TIMESAT (double logistic, Savitzky-Golay, and asymmetric Gaussian) were analyzed using the Graybill's F test and Willmott statistics. Five percent of the MODIS pixels from the study area were cloud-affected, almost all of which were from the rainy season. The double logistic filter presented the best performance.

Borges, Elane F.; Sano, Edson E.; Medrado, Euzébio

2014-01-01

145

Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).  

PubMed

This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals. PMID:22889428

De Zordo, Silvia

2012-01-01

146

Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen’s ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Methods Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen’s profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Results Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach’s Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r?=??0.38, p?=?0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes towards turtle conservation (H?=?8.33; p?=?0.04). Life history, habitat, specific and exogenous taboos, beliefs and the use of hawksbill turtle to make glasses and other handcrafts are also reported in the study. Conclusions Monitoring of spawning areas, preservation of traditional practices, strategies to moderate the use of fishery resources and the local ecological knowledge/attitudes can provide data to improve the conservation practices and management of sea turtles. PMID:23448503

2013-01-01

147

Capture and commercialization of blue land crabs ("guaiamum") Cardisoma guanhumi (Lattreille, 1825) along the coast of Bahia State, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach  

PubMed Central

Background Blue Land Crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) is one of the most important crustacean species captured and commercialized in Brazil. Although this species is not considered to be threatened with extinction, populations of C. guanhumi are known to be rapidly diminishing due to heavy harvesting pressures and degradation of their natural habitats, highlighting the necessity of developing and implanting management and protection strategies for their populations. There have been no ethnozoological publications that have focused specifically on C. guanhumi, in spite of importance of this type of information for developing efficient management plans of resource utilization. So, the present work describes the ethnoecological aspects of the capture and commercialization of C. guanhumi by a fishing community in northeastern Brazil. Methods Field work was carried out in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia in Brazil, between the months of January and March/2011 through the use of open semi-structured interviews with all of the crustacean harvesters in city who acknowledged their work in capturing this species, totaling 12 interviewees. The informants were identified through the use of the "snowball" sampling technique. In addition to the interviews themselves, the "guided tour" technique and direct observations was employed. Results According all the interviewees, the C. guanhumi is popularly called "guaiamum" and is collected in "apicum" zones. They recognize sexual dimorphism in the species based on three morphological characteristics and the harvesters also pointed two stages in the reproductive cycle during the year and another phase mentioned by the interviewees was ecdysis. All of the interviewed affirmed that the size and the quantities C. guanhumi stocks in Mucuri have been diminishing. All of the interviewees agreed that the species and other mangrove resources constituted their principal source of income. The harvesters dedicated three to five days a week to collect Blue Land Crabs and the principal technique utilized for capturing is a trap called a "ratoeira" (rat-trap). Conclusions The results of the present work demonstrated that the community retains a vast and important volume of knowledge about C. guanhumi that could subsidize both scientific studies and the elaboration of viable management and conservation strategies for this species. PMID:22429762

2012-01-01

148

C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 ?m, 1000-2000 ?m, 250-1000 ?m, 53-250 ?m, and <53 ?m). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 ?m) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 ?m size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS.

Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

2011-07-01

149

C and N content in density fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction under cacao agroforestry systems and natural forest in Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO(2). Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 ?m, 1000-2000 ?m, 250-1000 ?m, 53-250 ?m, and <53 ?m). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 ?m) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 ?m size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS. PMID:21387100

Rita, Joice Cleide O; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R; Baligar, Virupax C

2011-07-01

150

The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of "Reserva Ecológica Michelin", "RPPN Serra Bonita" and one Atlantic Forest remnant in the state of Bahia, Brazil, with new geographic records.  

PubMed

The orchid bee faunas of two private natural preserves, 'Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural da Serra Bonita' (RSB) and 'Reserva Ecológica Michelin' (REM), and a forest fragment inside the campus of the 'Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz', were surveyed for the first time. All three areas constitute Atlantic Forest remnants in the southern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 1,782 males belonging to 32 species were actively collected with insect nets during 90 hours of field work from November, 2009, to January, 2012. Euglossa cyanochlora Moure, 1996-one of the rarest orchid bee species-was found at RSB and REM, the latter representing the northernmost record for this species. Euglossa cognata, Moure, 1970 was found at RSB, the northernmost record for this species in the Atlantic Forest and the only recent record for this species at the northern border of Jequitinhonha river. PMID:25055082

Nemésio, A

2014-02-01

151

Detection by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in microcosms of crude oil-contaminated mangrove sediments.  

PubMed

Currently, the effect of crude oil on ammonia-oxidizing bacterium communities from mangrove sediments is little understood. We studied the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in mangrove microcosm experiments using mangrove sediments contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5% crude oil as well as non-contaminated control and landfarm soil from near an oil refinery in Camamu Bay in Bahia, Brazil. The evolution of CO(2) production in all crude oil-contaminated microcosms showed potential for mineralization. Cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis-derived samples generated with primers for gene amoA, which encodes the functional enzyme ammonia monooxygenase, showed differences in the sample contaminated with 5% compared to the other samples. Principal component analysis showed divergence of the non-contaminated samples from the 5% crude oil-contaminated sediment. A Venn diagram generated from the banding pattern of PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to look for operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in common. Eight OTUs were found in non-contaminated sediments and in samples contaminated with 0.5, 1, or 2% crude oil. A Jaccard similarity index of 50% was found for samples contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2% crude oil. This is the first study that focuses on the impact of crude oil on the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium community in mangrove sediments from Camamu Bay. PMID:22370886

dos Santos, A C F; Marques, E L S; Gross, E; Souza, S S; Dias, J C T; Brendel, M; Rezende, R P

2012-01-01

152

[Prevalence of moderate and excessive alcohol consumption and associated factors among residents of Quilombo Communities (hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

The scope of the study was to assess moderate and excessive alcohol consumption and associated factors among residents of Quilombola Communities in Vitória da Conquista in the State of Bahia. It involved a cross-sectional study among 750 individuals aged ? 18 years interviewed in 2011 using an adapted version of the National Survey of Health Questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was classified into abstemious, moderate and heavy drinking categories and was analyzed using the multinomial regression model. Consumption was observed among 41.5% of participants (95% CI [37.8, 44.98]); 10.7% being identified in the excessive consumption category and 30.8% in the moderate consumption category. Moderate consumption was inversely associated with age and is more common among whites and mulattoes, the better educated, the gainfully employed and among smokers. Heavy consumption increased with level of education, being more prevalent among those who had at least 8 years of schooling, smokers and the gainfully employed. The study shows that in these communities there are differences in the sociodemographic characteristics among the profiles of alcohol drinkers and these differences should be taken into account when drawing up proposals for the promotion of healthy habits. PMID:25760121

Cardoso, Luiz Gustavo Vieira; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cesar, Cibele Comini

2015-03-01

153

Gas geochemistry of a shallow submarine hydrothermal vent associated with the El Requeso??n fault zone, Bahi??a Concepcio??n, Baja California Sur, Me??xico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated hydrothermal gas venting associated with a coastal fault zone along the western margin of Bahi??a Concepcio??n, B.C.S., Me??xico. Copious discharge of geothermal liquid (??? 90 ??C) and gas is occurring in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones (to a depth of 13 m) through soft sediments and fractures in rocks along a ???750 m linear trend generally sub-parallel to an onshore fault near Punta Santa Barbara. Hydrothermal activity shows negative correlation with tidal height; temperatures in the area of hydrothermal activity were up to 11.3 ??C higher at low tide than at high tide (measured tidal range ??? 120 cm). Gas samples were collected using SCUBA and analyzed for chemical composition and stable isotope values. The main components of the gas are N2 (??? 53%; 534 mmol/mol), CO2 (??? 43%; 435 mmol/mol), and CH4 (??? 2.2%; 22 mmol/mol). The ??13C values of the CH4 (mean = - 34.3%), and the ratios of CH4 to C2H6 (mean = 89), indicate that the gas is thermogenic in origin. The carbon stable isotopes and the ??15N of the N2 in the gas (mean = 1.7%) suggest it may be partially derived from the thermal alteration of algal material in immature sedimentary organic matter. The He isotope ratios (3He/4He = 1.32 RA) indicate a significant mantle component (16.3%) in the gas. Here, we suggest the name El Requeso??n fault zone for the faults that likely formed as a result of extension in the region during the late Miocene, and are currently serving as conduits for the observed hydrothermal activity. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Forrest, M.J.; Ledesma-Vazquez, J.; Ussler, W., III; Kulongoski, J.T.; Hilton, D.R.; Greene, H. Gary

2005-01-01

154

Winter segregation of migrant European robins Erithacus rubecula in relation to sex, age and size  

E-print Network

Paulo Catry, Ana Campos, Vi´tor Almada and Will Cresswell Catry, P., Campos, A., Almada, V. and Cresswell, W. 2004. Winter segregation of migrant European robins Erithacus rubecula in relation to sex, age´ vora, Portugal. W. Cresswell, University of St. Andrews, School of Biology, Bute Medical Building, St

155

PODER JUDICIRIO TRIBUNAL DE JUSTIA DO ESTADO DA BAHIA  

E-print Network

Santos 10001739 Abraao Barreto Cordeiro 10002343 Abraão França Didier 10006467 Acacia da Costa do Amor Cardoso 10003003 Acacia de Oliveira Nunes 10002080 Acacia Regina Soares de Sa 10010774 Acacio Alves

Maier, Rudolf Richard

156

Acculturation at the La Bahia Mission and Presidio, Goliad, Texas  

E-print Network

. Overall, the Spanish population at the presidi. o and the nati. ve population at the mission appear to have retained their cultural i. dentities. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my committee members David Carlson, Donny Hamilton, Henry Schmidt... in problems between the missionaries and the Canary Island settlers. The Canary Islanders were the initial settlers of the Villa de San Fernando de Bexar which was officially founded in 1731 (Cruz 1988:73-80). These settlers were primarily farmers...

Kloetzer, Diane Kimberley

2000-01-01

157

The effect of temperature on mate preferences and femaleefemale interactions in Syngnathus abaster  

E-print Network

K. SILVA*, M. N. VIEIRA*, V. C. ALMADA§ & N. M. MONTEIRO *Departamento de Zoologia e Antropologia da, Departamento de Zoo- logia e Antropologia da Faculdade de Cie^ncias da Universidade do Porto, Prac¸a Gomes

158

Effects of Coastal Acidification on the Life Cycle and Fitness of the Mysid Shrimp Americamysis Bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most studies of animal responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification focus on isolated individuals or uniformly aged and conditioned cohorts that lack the complexities typical of wild populations. These studies have become the primary data source for meta-analytic predictions abo...

159

Carbon storage in soil-size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shaded-perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively higher quantities of soil carbon (C) because of continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the amount of C sequestered in the soil will vary depending on the turnover time and the extent of physical protection of different soil organic ...

160

TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF A JUVENILE HORMONE MIMIC ON THE ESTUARINE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDACEA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Fenoxycarb is a juvenile hormone (JH) mimic used to control insect pests by interfering with reproductive and developmental processes mediated by JH. Crustaceans are ideal organisms to monitor environmental effects of these endocrine disruptors, since they are dominant aquatic ar...

161

Schistosoma mansoni population structure and persistence after praziquantel treatment in two villages of Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Praziquantel has been used to treat schistosome infections since 1979 and currently is the only chemotherapeutic agent in production for this purpose, raising concerns about the potential for the emergence of drug resistance. In practice, 10–20% of infected patients will continue to excrete eggs after treatment. It is not understood to what degree this represents selection of a resistant population or incomplete elimination due to the presence of immature worms at the time of treatment. We used a population genetics approach to test whether or not persistent Schistosoma mansoni parasites were drawn from the same population as susceptible parasites. In this study, stool samples were collected from 96% of individuals in two small Brazilian communities (populations 482 and 367) and examined for S. mansoni eggs. The combined prevalence of S. mansoni infections in the villages was 41%. Total egg DNA was extracted from each sample and was genotyped at 15 microsatellite markers. Day-to-day variation of the infrapopulation from an individual human host was low (median differentiation using Jost’s D = 0.010), so that a single stool was representative of the genotypes present in stool eggs, at least in the short term. Average pairwise analysis of D among all pre-treatment infrapopulations suggested moderate differentiation (mean D = 0.082 and 0.122 for the two villages), whereas the pre-treatment component population differentiation between the two communities was 0.047. The differentiation of the component population remaining after treatment from the fully susceptible component population was low (mean D = 0.007 and 0.020 for the two villages), suggesting that the persistent parasites were not selected by praziquantel treatment. We will continue to follow these communities for evidence of selection or changes in population structure. PMID:21784077

Blanton, Ronald E; Blank, Walter A; Costa, Jackson M; Carmo, Theomira M; Reis, Eliana A; Silva, Luciano K; Barbosa, Lúcio M; Test, Matthew R; Reis, Mitermayer G

2011-01-01

162

Paleoproterozoic potassic–ultrapotassic magmatism: Morro do Afonso Syenite Pluton, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Morro do Afonso Syenitic Pluton (MASP) is a small, bimodal suite of lamprophyric and syenitic rocks, located in the Serrinha Nucleus, São Francisco Craton, northeastern Brazil. The unit consists predominantly of alkali feldspar syenite with numerous mafic xenoliths and dykes that are predominantly lamprophyric.The syenite shows geochemical and isotopic features typical of the Roman potassic magmas, i.e. low TiO2

D. C. Rios; H. Conceição; D. W. Davis; J. Plá Cid; M. L. S. Rosa; M. J. B. Macambira; I. McReath; M. M. Marinho; W. J. Davis

2007-01-01

163

USE OF LIFE-TABLES FOR EVALUATING THE CHRONIC TOXICITY OF POLLUTANTS TO 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA'  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examines the application of population statistics to laboratory-derived toxicological data for the purpose of developing a predictive model that assesses the population consequences of pollutant and environmentally-induced stress. Life tables are used to calculate age-...

164

Soil and litter fauna of cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems deposit great amounts of plant residues on soil; and eventually, this leads to high levels of soil organic matter content and has increased soil biodiversity and improved its conservation. This study compares the distribution of meso and macrofaunal communities in soil and litte...

165

Evaluation of soil quality in areas of cocoa cabruca, forest and multicropping in southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Atlantic Rain Forest is one of the most complex natural environments of the earth and, linked with this ecosystem, the cacao-cabruca system is agroforestry cultivation with an arrangement including a range of environmental, social and economical benefits and can protect many features of the biod...

166

Trapped in the Street: Defining the Health Care Use of the Homeless Adult in Salvador, Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Statement\\u000aHomelessness is a universal problem. This population represents some of society’s most marginalized members who, paradoxically, need society’s help the most. In this study, data was collected in order to discern in which circumstances and how homeless people utilize medical care in order to better understand the concepts of self efficacy and self agency among this population.\\u000aQuestion

Nicole Lunardi

2010-01-01

167

Combating Educational Inequalities: Afro-Brazilian Youth & the Bahia Street Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In her article entitled “Inequity and Human Rights of African Descendants in Brazil,” Lucila Beato insists that Afro-Brazilian rights are violated everyday. Those who experience this violation the most are Afro-Brazilian, or Black, women who are considered to be at the bottom of the social hierarchy. These women are a double minority who are condemned for being both Black and

Kimberly Menendez

2008-01-01

168

78 FR 26246 - Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Approximately 40 high-speed power boats will be participating...or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the...or on the distribution of power and responsibilities between...Commandant Instruction M16475.lD, which guide the Coast...

2013-05-06

169

78 FR 28164 - Special Local Regulation; Aguada Offshore Grand Prix, Bahia de Aguadilla; Aguada, PR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Approximately 30 high-speed power boats will be participating...or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the...or on the distribution of power and responsibilities between...Commandant Instruction M16475.lD, which guide the Coast...

2013-05-14

170

Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

171

Distribution of organic C oxidizable fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic material to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measuremen...

172

[Workplace violence in the healthcare sector: the experience of State health employees in Bahia State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported violence suffered by healthcare workers, using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 679 State health employees through face-to-face interviews and a questionnaire. Of the respondents, 25.9% (95%CI: 22.6%-29.2%) reported having suffered at least one form of violence, with verbal aggression as the most frequent (19.4%). Women aged 25-39 suffered 80% more violence than older women (OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-3.0). Female physicians were the most frequently affected group (OR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.2-12.5). Among men, a nearly fourfold increase in healthcare workplace violence was associated with age 25 to 39 years (OR = 3.9; 95%CI: 1.9-16.4) and nurse assistants or nurse technicians (PR = 3.9; 95%CI: 1.1-13.2). This study can help raise awareness concerning healthcare workplace violence and support policies for health workers' care, with repercussions on quality of care for health services users. PMID:25388314

Silva, Iracema Viterbo; Aquino, Estela M L; Pinto, Isabela Cardoso de Matos

2014-10-01

173

URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

174

Complex Population Responses to Food Resources in the Marine Crustacean Americamysis Bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

175

Factors Associated with Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni Infection in an Endemic Area of Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Detailed knowledge of factors associated with resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in endemic areas might facilitate more effective schistosomiasis control. We conducted a cross-sectional study of persons resistant to schistosomiasis and found no association between socioeconomic status and resistance to infection. Mononuclear cells of resistant subjects produced higher levels of interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13 and interferon-? upon stimulation with soluble egg antigen (SEA) compared with infected persons. When stimulated with Sm21.6 or Sm22.6, levels of IL-10 were higher in cell culture of resistant persons. Levels of IgE against soluble adult worm antigen (SWAP) and against interleukin-4–inducing principle from S. mansoni eggs (IPSE) and levels of IgG4 against SWAP, SEA, and Sm22.6 were lower in the resistant group compared with the susceptible group. Our data suggest that socioeconomic status could not fully explain resistance to S. mansoni infection observed in the studied area. However, a mixture of Th1 and Th2 immune responses and low levels of specific IgG4 against parasite antigens could be mediating resistance to infection. PMID:22302866

Oliveira, Ricardo R.; Figueiredo, Joanemile P.; Cardoso, Luciana S.; Jabar, Rafael L.; Souza, Robson P.; Wells, Martin T.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Araújo, Maria Ilma; Glesby, Marshall J.

2012-01-01

176

Inverse Demographic Analysis of Compensatory Responses to Resource Limitation in the Mysid Crustacean Americamysis bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

177

Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Life Cycle and Fitness of the Mysid Shrimp Americamysis Bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most concern about effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification focuses on mollusks, corals, and coccolithophores because skeletal and shell formation by these organisms is sensitive to the solubility of calcium minerals. However, many other marine organisms are likely affected by...

178

Americamysis bahia: A New Laboratory Model for Conservation Genetics in a Changing Environment (AGA09)  

EPA Science Inventory

Levels of population genetic diversity are expected to play an important role in species persistence during periods of environmental change, yet our understanding of how to quantify relevant aspects of this diversity is not well developed. We are conducting a long-term study wit...

179

Use of an open-path FTIR sensor at Camacari Petrochemical Complex--Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CETREL--Empresa de Protecao Ambiental, is an environmental engineering company, which is owned by the member companies in the Camacari Petrochemical Complex, the largest petrochemical complex in Brazil. CETREL operates a centralized waste treatment plant, treatment and disposal facilities, an incineration unit, groundwater monitoring and air quality monitoring networks. The air monitoring network was designed based on mathematical modeling, and the results showed that the monoitoring of hydrocarbons is important not just within the complex but also at the area surrounding the complex. There are presently no regulations for hydrocarbons in Brazil, however they are monitored due to concerns about health problems arising from human exposure. The network has eight multiparameter monitoring stations, located at the villages nearby, where hydrocarbons are sampled with Summa canisters and subsequently analyzed with a GC/MS, using a Cryogenic trap at the interface. The open-path FTIR is used to monitor at the individual plants and in the areas in between because it is more efficient and costs less than it would to attempt to achieve the same level of coverage using the canisters. Ten locations were selected based on mathematical modeling and knowledge of the likely emission sources. Since August 1993, there have been five different measurement campaigns.

Neves, Neuza; Couto, Elizabeth d. R.; Kagann, Robert H.

1995-05-01

180

Isomers of the dodecylbenzene in marine sediments from the Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear alkylbenzenes(LAB) have been investigated in surficial sediments from the Todos os Santos Bay, the largest on the Brazilian coast. The presence of these compounds in the environment has been related to sewage pollution because they are manufactured for the preparation of surfactants used in detergent formulations. They are usually present as an homologous series of compounds with a side

V. L. C. Souza Santos; C. C. Raymundo; T. Tavares

2000-01-01

181

Genetic characterisation of Langerin gene in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected women from Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Studies on human genetic variations are a useful source of knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. The Langerin protein, found at the surface of Langerhans cells, has an important protective role in HIV-1 infection. Differences in Langerin function due to host genetic factors could influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. To verify the frequency of mutations in the Langerin gene, 118 samples from HIV-1-infected women and 99 samples from HIV-1-uninfected individuals were selected for sequencing of the promoter and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD)-encoding regions of the Langerin gene. Langerin promoter analysis revealed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one mutation in both studied groups, which created new binding sites for certain transcription factors, such as NFAT5, HOXB9.01 and STAT6.01, according to MatInspector software analysis. Three SNPs were observed in the CRD-encoding region in HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals: p.K313I, c.941C>T and c.983C>T. This study shows that mutations in the Langerin gene are present in the analysed populations at different genotypic and allelic frequencies. Further studies should be conducted to verify the role of these mutations in HIV-1 susceptibility. PMID:24676666

Costa, Giselle Calasans de Souza; Jesus, Jaqueline Goes; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Santos, Edson Souza; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Gonçalves, Marilda de Souza; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Júnior

2014-01-01

182

Congresso internacional comemorativo do 1Centenrio do nascimento de Jean Piaget  

E-print Network

- 1 - Congresso internacional comemorativo do 1°Centenàrio do nascimento de Jean Piaget Instituto Piaget (Almada ­ Portugal) (Lisbonne, 19-23 Novembre 1996) Hervé Larroze-Marracq Université Toulouse Le construction des connaissances de Piaget à Vygotsky. Nous l'avons constaté au cours des interventions de ce

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

183

Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152±6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155±9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Trilhado granodiorite, and ages of 2,130±7 Ma and 2,128±8 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Teofilândia tonalite. The emplacement age of the syntectonic Ambrósio dome as indicated by a 2,080±2-Ma xenotime age for a granite dyke probably marks the end of the felsic magmatism. This age shows good agreement with the Ar-Ar plateau age of 2,080±5 Ma obtained in hornblendes from an amphibolite and with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2,076±10 Ma in detrital zircon crystals from a quartzite, interpreted as the age of the peak of the metamorphism. The predominance of inherited zircons in the syntectonic Ambrósio dome suggests that the basement of the supracrustal rocks was composed of Archaean continental crust with components of 2,937±16, 3,111±13 and 3,162±13 Ma. Ar-Ar plateau ages of 2,050±4 Ma and 2,054±2 Ma on hydrothermal muscovite samples from the Fazenda Brasileiro gold deposit are interpreted as minimum ages for gold mineralisation and close to the true age of gold deposition. The Ar-Ar data indicate that the mineralisation must have occurred less than 30 million years after the peak of the metamorphism, or episodically between 2,080 Ma and 2,050 Ma, during uplift and exhumation of the orogen.

Mello, Edson F.; Xavier, Roberto P.; McNaughton, Neal J.; Hagemann, Steffen G.; Fletcher, Ian; Snee, Larry

2006-03-01

184

Local ecological knowledge of the artisanal fishers on Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822) (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) on Ilhéus coast – Bahia State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) of traditional fishermen may be the only source of information regarding the conservation of the marine ecosystem and its endangered species. One of these species is Epinephelus itajara, which can exceed 2 m in length and 400 kg weight, is classified by the IUCN as a critically endangered. In Brazil, there is currently a moratorium that prohibits the capture of this specie, and in the northeastern coast, a Marine Protected Area was recently established properly justified by the existence a one spawning aggregation. The scope of the present study was the analysis the LEK of fishers with the goal of contributing to the conservation of E. Itajara. Methods The Knowledge of 24 “experts” was recorded through semi-structured interviews with fishermen selected based on their expertise. LEK regarding some aspects of the life history of E. itajara, such as its morphology, spatial distribution, feeding, breeding and conservation, was systematized. The interviews were conducted in synchronic and diachronic situations. The data analysis followed the model of unity of the various individual skills, while the consistency of the analysis was tested using a matrix of methods employed in comparative cognitive science. Potential reproductive aggregation sites were identified by experts through projective interviews conducted based on a cartographic database and transferred to a geographic information system (GIS). Results The LEK of these specialists in relation to the biological and ecological characteristics of E. itajara showed a high level of detail and a high agreement with the scientific literature. Projective interviews are presented as a promising tool allowing spatialization of the information generated through the registration of LEK. Therefore, the visualization of information from the fishermen, as well as its analysis and comparison with other databases, is simplified, thereby contributing to the decision-making process concerning the conservation of marine ecosystem in Brazil. Conclusions Integration of LEK with scientific knowledge is an efficient strategy for the conservation of endangered species, as it provides important additional biological information that can be used in the process of participative and sustainable management of marine resources. PMID:24965849

2014-01-01

185

Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in goats, sheep, cattle and water buffaloes in Bahia State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples from 439 goats, 240 sheep, 194 cattle and 104 water buffaloes were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by a latex agglutination test. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 28.93% of goats, 18.75% of sheep, 1.03% of cattle and 3.85% of water buffaloes, at a dilution of ?1:64. The highest titres observed in goats, sheep, cattle and

L. F. Pita Gondim; H. V. Barbosa; C. H. A. Ribeiro Filho; H. Saeki

1999-01-01

186

Energy farming in Brazil: the role of agroforestry on the production of food and energy from biomass in southeast Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the problem of fuel production from plants, on the basis of information drawn from the literature and from case studies conducted in Brazil. Special reference is made to the production of charcoal and the production of alcohol and vegetable oils to replace gasoline and diesel fuel. The potential and socioeconomic implications of energy farming are discussed. Diversified

Alvim

1983-01-01

187

MAPEAMENTO GEOLÓGICO PRELIMINAR DA FOLHA VELHA BOIPEBA (SD24-X-C-IV), BAHIA, COM USO DO PROGRAMA SPRING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent advancement of geothecnologies has been fundamental to the preparation of thematic maps, facilitating the understanding of the various environments that constitute a region. This study aims to identify geomorphological and geological features of the area corresponding to the topographic map of \\

Lila Costa Queiroz; Ádila Fernandes Costa; Gisele Mara Hadlich

188

POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE OF THE MYSID, AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA, TO VARYING THIOBENCARB CONCENTRATIONS BASED ON AGE-STRUCTURED POPULATION MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

To fully understand the potential long-term ecological impacts a pollutant has on a species, population-level effects must be estimated. Since long-term field experiments are typically not feasible, vital rates such as survival, growth, and reproduction of individual organisms ar...

189

Herpetological Review 39(3), 2008 373 Bahia (Arglo and Freitas 2000. Herpetol. Rev. 31:55; Peters and  

E-print Network

@gmail.com), and ANA LAURA NOLASCO V�LEZ, Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias.com). REGINA GRAHAMII (Graham's Crayfish Snake). USA: ILLINOIS: MACON CO.: Decatur Lake at Reas Bridge Rd (39

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

190

VI Simpsio Brasileiro de Solos No Saturados 2007/ Salvador-Bahia 321 Estimation of the Hydraulic Conductivity Function of Unsaturated  

E-print Network

, assuming steady flow, constant temperature, and no changes in water or soil chemistry. However (referred to as the suction y when the air pressure is atmospheric), as the soil becomes unsaturated (i in the proportionality between the flow rate and gradient in an unsaturated soil. As the moisture content of a soil

Zornberg, Jorge G.

191

The Relative Contribution of Immigration or Local Increase for Persistence of Urban Schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely. PMID:25775457

Blanton, Ronald E.; Barbosa, Lúcio M.; Reis, Eliana A.; Carmo, Theomira M.; dos Santos, Cláudio R. A.; Costa, Jackson M.; Aminu, Peace T.; Blank, Walter A.; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C.; Silva, Luciano K.; Reis, Mitermayer G.

2015-01-01

192

STUDIES ON CONTROL OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS: IMPACT OF DOG CONTROL ON CANINE AND HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN JACOBINA, BAHIA, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effect of removing leishmania-infected dogs on the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis, a controlled intervention study was performed in northeast Brazil. The attempted elimination of seropositive dogs resulted in an initial significant decrease in the annual incidence of seroconversion among dogs from 36% to 6% over the first two years. In the following two years, the incidence increased

DAVID A. ASHFORD; JOHN R. DAVID; MIRALBA FREIRE; ROBERTA DAVID; ITALO SHERLOCK

193

The relative contribution of immigration or local increase for persistence of urban schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely. PMID:25775457

Blanton, Ronald E; Barbosa, Lúcio M; Reis, Eliana A; Carmo, Theomira M; Dos Santos, Cláudio R A; Costa, Jackson M; Aminu, Peace T; Blank, Walter A; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C; Silva, Luciano K; Reis, Mitermayer G

2015-03-01

194

Carbon stock and available nutrients in soils under “cacao-cabruca” system in southeast areas of Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In agroecosytems, the efficient nutrient cycling is considered responsible for plant nutrition; however it is important to consider the amount of total available nutrients. Experiments were undertaken to quantify the carbon stock and available nutrients in cacao plantation grown under tree shade of ...

195

AVALIAÇÃO DA PERDA EM PRODUTIVIDADE DE CULTIVARES DE ALGODOEIRO EM FUNÇÃO DA COLHEITA MECANIZADA NO OESTE DA BAHIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of 10% of cotton feathers losses should be considered as the maximum acceptable, being the ideal strip placed among 6 to 8%. Cultural handling factors, as plants population and machines operation speed, as well as operators training can interfere in an efficient way in the productivity losses reduction during the automated crop process. In that way, this work

João Batista; Murilo Barros Pedrosa; João Luis da Silva; Gilvan Barbosa Ferreira; Arnaldo Rocha de Alencar

196

Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152??6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155??9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Trilhado granodiorite, and ages of 2,130??7 Ma and 2,128??8 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Teofila??ndia tonalite. The emplacement age of the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome as indicated by a 2,080??2-Ma xenotime age for a granite dyke probably marks the end of the felsic magmatism. This age shows good agreement with the Ar-Ar plateau age of 2,080??5 Ma obtained in hornblendes from an amphibolite and with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2,076??10 Ma in detrital zircon crystals from a quartzite, interpreted as the age of the peak of the metamorphism. The predominance of inherited zircons in the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome suggests that the basement of the supracrustal rocks was composed of Archaean continental crust with components of 2,937??16, 3,111??13 and 3,162??13 Ma. Ar-Ar plateau ages of 2,050??4 Ma and 2,054??2 Ma on hydrothermal muscovite samples from the Fazenda Brasileiro gold deposit are interpreted as minimum ages for gold mineralisation and close to the true age of gold deposition. The Ar-Ar data indicate that the mineralisation must have occurred less than 30 million years after the peak of the metamorphism, or episodically between 2,080 Ma and 2,050 Ma, during uplift and exhumation of the orogen. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

Mello, E.F.; Xavier, R.P.; McNaughton, N.J.; Hagemann, S.G.; Fletcher, I.; Snee, L.

2006-01-01

197

Carbon, nitrogen, organic phosphorus, microbial biomass and N mineralization in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the soil organic P cycle is important to improve the P fertilization management in low-input tropical agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate organic P (Po) content by Bowman extraction method and labile P fractions by NaHCO3 extraction in soil profiles under cacao ...

198

Relationships between invertebrate communities, litter quality and soil attributes under different cacao agroforestry systems in the south of Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to understand how soil and litter attributes interact with the faunal community, this study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between soil and litter attributes to soil and litter fauna, and further to determine which of these attributes would be most significant in explaining ...

199

Diversity and community structure of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in three ecosystems in Itaparica island, Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

We studied the structure and composition of communities of social wasps associated with the three insular ecosystems: mangrove swamp, the Atlantic Rain Forest and the 'restinga'- lowland sandy ecosystems located between the mountain range and the sea. Three hundred and ninety-one nests of 21 social wasp species were collected. The diversity of wasps found in each ecosystem was significantly correlated to the diversity of vegetation in each of the three physiognomies, (r(2) = 0.85; F(1.16) = 93.85; P < 0. 01). The Tropical Atlantic Forest physiognomy had higher species richness (18 species), followed by the restinga (16 species) and the mangrove (8 species) ecosystems. PMID:17607449

Santos, Gilberto M de M; Bichara Filho, Carlos C; Resende, Janete J; da Cruz, Jucelho D; Marques, Oton M

2007-01-01

200

Population-level Experiments for Population-level Risk Assessment: An Example Using the Opposum Shrimp Americamysis bahia (NACSETAC)  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

201

Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

2013-11-01

202

Natural Breeding Places for Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Semiarid Region of Bahia State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Few microhabitats have been previously identified as natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies so far, and little is known about the influence of climate variables in their density. The present study was conducted in a dry region with a semiarid climate, where visceral leishmaniasis occurs in humans and dogs. The occurrence of breeding places in specific microhabitats was investigated in soil samples collected from five houses, which were also the location used for sampling of adults. All the microhabitats sampled by our study were identified as natural breeding places due to the occurrence of immature forms of sand flies. On a weekly basis, the number of adult sand flies captured was positively correlated with the mean temperature from preceding weeks. These results, in addition to promoting an advance in the knowledge of sand flies biology, may furnish a tool for optimizing the control of the sand flies, by indicating the most suitable periods and microhabitats for the application of insecticides. PMID:22529861

Sangiorgi, Bruno; Miranda, Daniel Neves; Oliveira, Diego Ferreira; Santos, Edivaldo Passos; Gomes, Fernanda Regis; Santos, Edna Oliveira; Barral, Aldina; Miranda, José Carlos

2012-01-01

203

EFFECTS OF WHOLE SEDIMENTS FROM CORPUS CHRISTI BAY ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuarine and marine coastlines are receiving waters for many anthropogenic substances. Concentrations of many of these contaminants have been diminished by regulatory control of effluents, but there is concern that continuing inputs (non-point sources) and contaminants contained...

204

All that glitters is not gold : unexpected lessons from a slum upgrading program in Brazil  

E-print Network

This paper looks at the Ribeira Azul Slum Upgrading Program in Salvador de Bahia Brazil, implemented by the development agency of the state of Bahia, CONDER, and the Italian NGO Associazione Volontari per il Servizio ...

Zuin, Valentina

2005-01-01

205

PREDICTING THE TOXICITY OF MAJOR IONS IN SEAWATER TO MYSID SHRIMP (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA), SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS), AND INLAND SILVERSIDE MINNOW (MENIDIA BERYLLINA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Although marine organisms are naturally adapted to salinities well above those of freshwater, elevated concentrations of specific ions have been shown to cause adverse effects on some saltwater species. Because some ions are also physiologically essential, a deficiency of these i...

206

Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

Pereira, Wagner de S [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios, Caixa Postal 961, CEP 37701-970, Pocos de Caldas, MG, BR Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha (Brazil); Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental, Instituto de Geociencias, av. Litoranea s/no, Boa Viagem, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ Caixa Postal 107.092, CEP 24360-970, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio. Caixa Postal 7, CEP 46.400-000 Caetite, Bahia, Brasil Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil)

2008-08-07

207

Hermaphroditism among dioecious Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) (Mollusca, Psammobiidae) and Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) (Mollusca, Donacidae) on the Cachoeira River estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The samples of Tagelus plebeius and Iphigenia brasiliana were manually collected on the Cachoeira River estuary region (Ilhéus, BA, Brazil) between August 2005 and August 2006, with a periodicity of 15 days, with 20 animals collected/sampled, performing 500 samples from each species. The animals were measured, eviscerated and kept in solution of Davidson and after 24-30 hours, they were transferred to ethanol 70%. The material was processed for routine histology, with paraffin embedding, obtaining 7 microm thick slices, stained with Harris hematoxilin and Eosin (HE). By light microscopy analysis, 2 cases of hermaphroditism (0.4%) in T. plebeius samples and one case (0.2%) in I. brasiliana were registered with predominance of female over male follicles. PMID:20231968

Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G; Santos, J J B

2010-02-01

208

Spatial and temporal hydrochemical variation of a third order river network in a quasi pristine coastal watershed, at Southern Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Rio da Serra watershed presents well preserved fragments of rain forest at the headwaters and small farms at middle and final stretches. These features allowed the study of fluvial hydrochemistry, under quasi pristine conditions. Sampling stations were established in order to represent the basin, and visited during dry, intermediate and wet periods. Obtained results are: temperature (22.1-28.6 °C); electric conductivity (34-52 µS/cm); dissolved oxygen (35-110%); pH (3.8-7.7); total suspended solids (1.1-20 mg/L); chlorophyll (1.0-9.2 µg/L); total N (74-580 µmol/L); particulate N (60-550 µmol/L); N-NO? (0.1-9.3 µmol/L); dissolved organic N (4-0 µmol/L); total phosphorous (5.3-47 µmol/L); particulate P (4.4-59 µmol/L); P-PO? (0.1-0.7 µmol/L); dissolved organic P (0.01-2.0 µmol/L); silicate (30-90 µmol/L); fecal coliforms (80-700 CFU/100mL). In seasonal terms dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, nitrate and silicate concentrations were higher during the dry, whereas TSS was higher during the wet period. Seasonal differences of dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and nitrate were also detected near wetlands areas. Along the basin results showed a distinction between headwaters and other sections, revealing a control of fluvial hydrochemistry by the preserved area, mostly for the dissolved organic N and P species and phosphate. PMID:24270838

Souza, Elly R S de; Paula, Francisco C F de

2013-01-01

209

33 CFR 100.35T07-0297 - Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100...N; thence northwest back to origin. All persons and vessels...401? N; thence west back to origin. All persons and vessels...385? W; thence west back to origin. All persons and...

2013-07-01

210

33 CFR 100.35T07-0297 - Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100...N; thence northwest back to origin. All persons and vessels...401? N; thence west back to origin. All persons and vessels...385? W; thence west back to origin. All persons and...

2014-07-01

211

Clustering of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Fifteen families with clustering of infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) and/or HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) were observed among 28 families of IDH index cases, 93% of them occurring in two generations. With the exception of two mothers of children with IDH, all the mothers with HAM/TSP had at least one child with HAM/TSP. This is the first report of such clustering involving many families. PMID:23932323

da Silva, José Lucas Sena; Primo, Janeusa Rita L; de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima S P; Batista, Everton da Silva; Moreno-Carvalho, Otávio; Farré, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achiléa L

2013-10-01

212

Unawareness of hypertension and its determinants among 'quilombolas' (inhabitants of 'quilombos' - hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) living in Southwest Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of unawareness of arterial hypertension (AH) and associated factors among the quilombola population and to describe aspects of the non-pharmacological management of AH. It involved a cross-sectional study with a sample of 358 people with AH aged 18 years or more. AH was considered systolic blood pressure (BP) ? 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ? 90 mmHg and/or reported use of antihypertensive drugs. Unawareness of AH was classified as persons answering negatively when asked if they suffered from AH. Poisson regression was then used. The prevalence of unawareness of AH was 44.1% (95% CI: 38.9-49.3). Among those who already knew the diagnosis and had drug treatment only 24.8% had controlled BP. The unawareness of AH was positively associated with the male sex and Stage 1 of AH and negatively with increasing age, overweight, negative self-perception of health and medical visits. For non-pharmacological management, low percentages of quilombola reported appropriate standard recommendations of care. Arterial hypertension is a serious public health issue among the quilombola population, revealing great vulnerability in health due to poor levels of awareness, treatment and control. PMID:25760120

Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; César, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

2015-03-01

213

Estimating Stage Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress Within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis bahia Using Digital Imaging  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

214

Estimating Stage-Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis Bahia Using Digital Imaging (NAC SETAC 2011)  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

215

Effects of boat traffic on the behavior of gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus, in Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico: a bioacoustic assessment  

E-print Network

There is widespread concern about the effects that man-made noises have on marine mammals. In this study, potential acoustic and behavioral changes produced by boat traffic on gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) were assessed. Time of day, seasonal...

Ollervides, Francisco

1997-01-01

216

78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2013-0166] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano...de San Juan during the transit of the Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano...the high ranking officials on board the Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El...

2013-03-29

217

The challenge of maintaining Atlantic forest biodiversity: A multi-taxa conservation assessment of specialist and generalist species in an agro-forestry mosaic in southern Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments have highlighted the importance of forest amount at large spatial scales and of matrix quality for ecological processes in remnants. These developments, in turn, suggest the potential for reducing biodiversity loss through the maintenance of a high percentage of forest combined with sensitive management of anthropogenic areas. We conducted a multi-taxa survey to evaluate the potential for biodiversity

Renata Pardini; Deborah Faria; Gustavo M. Accacio; Rudi R. Laps; Eduardo Mariano-Neto; Mateus L. B. Paciencia; Marianna Dixo; Julio Baumgarten

2009-01-01

218

VI Symposium of Specialists in Electric Operational and Expansion Planning -VI SEPOPE, May 24-29,1998, Bahia, Brazil POWER SYSTEM PLANNING IN THE SOUTH AMERICA  

E-print Network

services such as energy, communications, transport, water, etc., central to the functioning of society in infrastructure development and the required regulations in the energy field. It describes how the planning. The quality and quantity of such services are conditioned by the characteristics of the corresponding

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

219

PREDICTION OF POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE FROM MYSID TOXICITY TEST DATA USING POPULATION MODEL TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute and chronic bioassay statistics are used to evaluate the toxicity and the risks of chemical stressors to mysid shrimp Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia). These include LC50 values from acute tests, chronic values (the geometric mean of the no-obsderved-effect co...

220

Rescuing Tradition at the Pierre Verger Cultural Space: Teaching and Learning Afro-Brazilian Culture through Music in Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how the Pierre Verger Cultural Space (PVCS), an educational organization dedicated to teaching Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, uses music to construct a sense of Afro-Brazilian self. Located in a poverty-stricken neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the PVCS sees its mission as "rescuing" ("resgatar") an Afro-Brazilian sense…

Junqueira, Joao Carlos

2010-01-01

221

The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on wood production  

E-print Network

The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand, Brazil f Veracel Celulose, Eunapolis, Bahia, Brazil g International Paper do Brasil, Mogi Guacu, Sao Paulo, Brazil h Suzano Papel e Celulose, Teixeira de Freitas, Bahia, Brazil i CENIBRA, Ipatinga, Minas

Binkley, Dan

222

Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucum×P. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine,

H. P. Xia

2004-01-01

223

Self-organized critical phenomenon as a q-exponential decay - Avalanche epidemiology of dengue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the evolution of dengue disease in the state of Bahia. The number of epidemiological dengue cases for each city follows a Self-Organized Criticality behavior (SOC). However, the analysis of the number of cases in Bahia exhibits a q-exponential distribution. To understand this different behavior, we analyzed the distribution of the power law of SOC (?) to all cities of Bahia. Our findings show that the distribution of ? exhibits a dependence between the exponents, which may be because of migration between cities, causing the emergence of outbreaks in different cities in a correlated and asynchronous time series.

Saba, H.; Miranda, J. G. V.; Moret, M. A.

2014-11-01

224

EFFECTS OF GROUND ULV (ULTRA-LOW VOLUME) APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON ESTUARINE BIOTA. 4. LETHAL AND SUBLETHAL RESPONSES OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

Low-level exposure to fenthion, following ground ULV application of the organsphosphate pesticide, resulted in increased mortality and sublethal growth retardation of Mysidopsis bahia. These two processes would reduce population production of this crustacean, which serves as an i...

225

perfil ong entretenimento blog sinergia utilidade pblica veterinria comunicao viva meio ambiente sade economia gastronomia  

E-print Network

perfil ong entretenimento blog sinergia utilidade pública veterinária comunicação viva meio ONG ENTRETENIMENTO BLOG 2 DE JULHO artigo bahia cidadania ciencia comunicação copa 2014 cultura mídia olimpiadas ong onim politica publicidade rede social RIO+20 salvador saúde segurança tecnologia

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

226

A decision-support model for managing the fuel inventory of a Panamanian generating company  

E-print Network

Bahia Las Minas Corp (BLM) is a fuelpowered generating company in the Panamanian power system. The purpose of this thesis is to design and evaluate a decision-support model for managing the fuel inventory of this company. ...

Perez-Franco, Roberto, 1976-

2004-01-01

227

COMPARISON OF LABORATORY TOXICITY TEST RESULTS WITH RESPONSES OF ESTUARINE ANIMALS EXPOSED TO FENTHION IN THE FIELD  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute, lethal effects of fenthion (an organophosphate insecticide) on mysids (Mysidopsis bahia), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were determined in laboratory tests and after field applications. Exp...

228

The point of Corumbau : a case study in emerging market (Brazil) real estate development feasibility analysis  

E-print Network

In 2003, Renata Oliveira, a young Portuguese architect, has re-discovered the Point of Corumbau in Bahia, Brazil, and, like the Portuguese adventurers who had discovered Brazil 500 years earlier in the same location, found ...

Clayton, Paul B., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

229

Application Vetiver and Three Other Grasses to Oil Shale Mine for Revegetation and Phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucum_P. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 98.6%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96.5%

Hanping Xia; Honghua Ke

230

Use of digital multispectral videography to assess seagrass distribution in San Quinti??n Bay, Baja California, Mexico [Uso de videografi??a multiespectral digital para evaluar la distributio??n del pasto marino en Bahi??a San Quinti??n, Baja California, Me??xico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Apparent threats to the spatial distribution of seagrass in San Quinti??n Bay prompted us to make a detailed assessment of habitats in the bay. Six coastal habitats and three seagrass subclasses were delineated using airborne digital multispectral videography (DMSV), Eelgrass, Zostera marina, was the predominant seagrass and covered 40% (1949 ha) of the areal extent of the bay in 1999. Eelgrass grew over a wide range of tidal depths from about -3.0 in mean lower low water (MLLW) to about 1.0 m MLLW, but greatest spatial extent occurred in intertidal areas -0.6 m to 1.0 m MLLW. Exposed-continuous (i.e., high density) eelgrass was the most abundant habitat in the bay. Widgeongrass, Ruppia maritima, was the only other seagrass present and covered 3% (136 ha) of the areal extent of the entire bay. Widgeongrass grew in single species stands in the upper intertidal (??? 0.4 MLLW) and intermixed with eelgrass at lower tidal depths. Overall accuracy of the six habitat classes and three subclasses in the DMSV map was relatively high at 84%. Our detailed map of San Quintin Bay can be used in future change detection analyses to monitor the health of seagrasses in the bay.

Ward, D.H.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Morton, A.; Carrera-Gonzalez, E.; Kempka, R.

2004-01-01

231

Modelling the Shallow Water Equations in Curvilinear Coordinates with Physical Application  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to provide the capability for simulating fluid flow on complicated geometries, such as in the Bahia de Todos Santos. The Bahia de Todos Santos is a bay situated in the northwest corner of Mexico, off the coast of Ensenada and south of San Diego, California, USA. Figure 1.1 shows the Bahia de Todos Santos. It is part of an image taken from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on the Aqua and Terra satellites in late June and early July 2003 [8]. Roughly 200 square kilometers in size, the bay also contains two islands off the peninsula of Punta Banda. Characteristics of flow in this bay are driven by the moon tide (M2) and wind forcing [9].

Wingenter, S

2005-01-12

232

Antimicrobial effects of ionizing radiation on artificially and naturally contaminated cacao beans. [Aspergillus flavus; Penicillium citrinum  

SciTech Connect

With an initial microbial level of ca. 10/sup 7/ microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation from a Co/sup 60/ source under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 50/sup 0/C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 x 10/sup 4/ and 1.4 x 10/sup 3/ spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D/sub 10/ values for A. flavus and P. citrinum spores on Bahia cacao beans were 0.66 and 0.88 kGy, respectively. 12 references.

Restaino, L.; Myron, J.J.J.; Lenovich, L.M.; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.

1984-04-01

233

Genetic diversity in different populations of sloths assessed by DNA fingerprinting.  

PubMed

In this study we analyzed a population of Bradypus torquatus with individuals originally distributed in different localities of Bahia, and two populations of B. variegatus with individuals from Bahia and São Paulo States. Using the DNA fingerprinting method, we assessed the genetic variability within and between populations. Analysis of the DNA profiles revealed genetic similarity indices ranging from 0.34 +/- 0.07 to 0.87 +/- 0.04. Similar low levels of genetic variability were found only in isolated mammalian populations or among related individuals. This study presents the first analyses of genetic diversity in sloth populations. PMID:12530188

Moraes, N; Morgante, J S; Miyaki, C Y

2002-08-01

234

The petroleum system concept in the Sergipe Basin, northeastern Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The application of a multidisciplinary approach involving geochemical, sedimentological, geophysical, and microbiostratigraphic research, has greatly enhanced the level of understanding of some of the most representative petroleum systems in the Brazilian South Atlantic Margin. Investigation of the data allowed the characterization in time and space of the petroleum pathways from source rock to trap, which represent the oil in-place in reservoir rocks ranging from Neocomian to Tertiary in age. Two major petroleum systems were selected as representative case-studies from various stages of basin formation in Brazilian South Atlantic basins (1) the pro-and syn-rift sequence, in the Camamu basin near the eastern tip of Brazil, and (2) the drift sequence, the Campos F basin, offshore Campos near Rio de Janeiro in southeast Brazil. Although there are other oil source rocks of Aptian, Albian, Cenomanian/Turonian and Tertiary ages in the South Atlantic margin, about 90% of the known petroleum in Brazil originates from Lower Cretaceous source rocks deposited in lacustrine environments in the proto-Atlantic rift. With respect to oil-bearing reservoir rocks, the most prolific ones, by volume, are silicielastic turbidites deposited into bathyal water depths during the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene.

Mello, M.R.; Koutsoukos, E.A.M.; Mohriak, W.U.; Bacoccoli, G.; Netto, A.S.T.; Goncalves, F.T.T.

1996-08-01

235

South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com After centennial, city looks ahead to its future  

E-print Network

to redevelop the Bahia Mar complex to include a five-star Waldorf Astoria hotel, shops, restaurants the trend toward upscale hotels to continue. Developers are in the midst of negotiating with the city a family." The development of Fort Lauderdale stalled as a result of the national recession

Belogay, Eugene A.

236

Estimates of sea turtle mortality from poaching and bycatch in Bahía Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bahia Magdalena on the Pacific coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico, is an important feeding and nursery ground for black turtles Chelonia mydas, loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta, olive ridley turtles Lepidochelys olivacea, and hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata. Despite international and national protection, sea turtles continue to be caught incidentally and hunted for consumption in large numbers. This study examines the

Volker Koch; Wallace J. Nichols; Hoyt Peckham; Victor de la Toba

2006-01-01

237

Stress protein accumulation as an indicator of impact by the petroleum industry in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative concentrations of stress proteins in juvenile mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae), from six study sites in Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, were used to evaluate the possibility of chronic environmental impact induced by 40 years of exposure to the local petroleum industry. Replicated tissue samples from oysters at four sites associated with the extraction, transport and refinement of

I. A. Nascimento; M. B. N. Leite; G. Sansone; S. A. Pereira; D. H. Smith

1998-01-01

238

FROM ORGANISMS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA ACROSS TWO LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION.  

EPA Science Inventory

A critical step in estimating the ecological effects of a toxicant is extrapolating organism-level response data across higher levels of biological organization. In the present study, the organism-to-population link is made for the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to a range of...

239

ALTERATIONS IN THE GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS AS INDICATORS OF POLLUTANT STRESS  

EPA Science Inventory

An estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) has been identified as one of the most sensitive members of the estuarine community to pollutant stress (for a review see Nimmo and Hamaker, 1982). n the majority of life-cycle toxicity tests using this planktonic estuarine crustacean, sublet...

240

Slow death of Atlantic forest trees in cocoa agroforestry in southeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is cultivated in the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo in eastern Brazil under the so-called ‘cabruca system’, where the understorey of native Atlantic forest is cleared and the canopy is thinned out to provide adequate shading for the cocoa trees. Apart from its economic and social role, the cabruca system is said to be important for

Samir G. Rolim; Adriano G. Chiarello

2004-01-01

241

A Holistic Approach to Family Planning Counseling and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A family planning clinic which was part of a large public maternity hospital in Salvador Bahia, Brazil received a grant to expand its services and to evaluate a service model focusing on client counseling and education. The counseling, education, and service provision process included individual pre-consultation with a nurse, group education and…

Chaves, Lushanhya Coutinho; And Others

242

Foreign Fishery Developments New Brazilian Lobster  

E-print Network

Foreign Fishery Developments New Brazilian Lobster Grounds Harvested Brazilian fishermen have begun to fish new lobster grounds along the coast of the state of Bahia. The grounds are reportedly located that they can catch as much lobster during I day on the new grounds as they previously caught during an entire

243

Two new species of the family Niphatidae van Soest, 1980 from Northeastern Brazil (Haplosclerida: Demospongiae: Porifera).  

PubMed

This paper deals with niphatid sponges from the coast of the Bahia State, northeastern coast of the Brazilian shelf (southwestern Atlantic). Two new species are described, Amphimedon estelae sp. nov. and Niphates luizae sp. nov. A taxonomic study of those samples is given, including description and illustrations. Both species were compared with their congeners present in the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:24871419

Santos, George Garcia; Docio, Loyana; Pinheiro, Ulisses

2014-01-01

244

Land, kennis, moed en eenheid: conflicterende discoursen binnen samenleving en gezin over landbouw en droogte in Noordoost Brazilië  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the survival strategies of family farmers in Conceição do Coité, Bahia, in semi-arid Brazil in 1997 and 2008 by using the livelihood framework. It analyses natural capital (land), human capital (work ethic and knowledge), and social capital (mutual aid). Greater access to these capitals is essential to reduce the vulnerability of family farmers. Land as a starting

I. B. F. C. Peerboom

2012-01-01

245

SURVEY FOR EGG PARASITOIDS ATTACKING CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN NORTH FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in the natural enemies of Cactoblastis cactorum, a cactus moth native from Argentina, has increased since its accidental introduction to Bahia Honda Key, Florida, in October 1989. In 1957, C. cactorum was introduced onto the Caribbean islands of the Greater Antilles to manage the invasive p...

246

A CLOSER LOOK AT GRIFFINIA ESPIRITENSIS RAV. (AMARYLLIDACEAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Griffinia espiritensis Ravenna was described from a population near the Sooretama Biological Reserve in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. This species, which ranges north into the state of Bahia, is found only in Coastal Atlantic Rain Forest (Mata Atlântica), and is the most morphologically dive...

247

Estudio de la contaminación por metales pesados en sedimentos y ostiones de la bahía de Manzanillo, Cub a  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contamination by heavy metals was determined at th e coastal tract in the Manzanillo's Bahia, Cuba. Space temporary ch a - racteristics and their accumulative effects were measured in sed i - ments and oysters, in the studied zone. Collected samples wer e obtained of the floor's sediments and organisms from seven station s located in the mentioned zone.

Comunicación Técnic; Pilar Dania; Amat Infante; Allan Pierra Conde; Iván Casals Blet; Daili Vázquez Abell; Antonio Núñez Jiménez

2002-01-01

248

Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

1993-01-01

249

Aquatic Ecology of the Tropics EEES4980-008 Justin Burdine  

E-print Network

features of Lake Titicaca (Peru and Bolivia) and to further investigate the implications of transboundary management and water quality in the Bahia de Puno. Introduction: Lake Titicaca is located 3800 meters above are the three main problems in managing Lake Titicaca (Rieckermann, 2006). Lake Titicaca is central to many

Gottgens, Hans

250

Unveiling the Mirror: Afro-Brazilian Identity and the Emergence of the Community School Movement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Afro-Brazilian residents of urban favelas (outlying, unincorporated slums) have established community schools in response to lack of public schools. A study of three such community schools in Salvador, Bahia, focused on social justice issues, school efforts to rescue a Black identity denied by Brazil's official "racial democracy" rhetoric,…

Jones de Almeida, Adjoa Florencia

2003-01-01

251

CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICAS E SENSORIAIS DE CLONES DE BA TATA-DOCE Physical and sensorial characteristics of sweetpotato clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the physical and sensorial characteristics of sweetpotato clones in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. Sixteen clones were analyzed, originating from Janaúba, MG, Viçosa, MG; Bom Jardim de Minas, MG; Gurupi, TO; Santo Antônio da Platina, PR; Holambra II, SP; Vitória da Conquista, BA; and Condeúba, BA. One utilized randomized blocks with

Adriana Dias Cardoso; Anselmo Eloy; Silveira Viana; Sylvana Naomi Matsumoto; Hermes Bomfim Neto; Camila Rodrigues Khouri; Thiago Lima Melo

252

O USO DE MODELOS MATEMÁTICOS NA ESTIMATIVA DA DENSIDADE BÁSICA DA MADEIRA EM PLANTIOS DE CLONES DE Eucalyptus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 , em torno das quais foram cubadas 216 árvores. Foram avaliados 2 clones (híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus urophylla), nas idades 3, 4,5 e 6 anos, provenientes de três sítios, na região leste do Brasil, abrangendo a parte leste e nordeste do Estado do Espírito Santo e o extremo sul do Estado da Bahia. Em cada altura de

Cláudio Roberto Thiersch; Jose Roberto Scolforo; Antonio Donizette de Oliveira; Gabriel Dehon; Sampaio Peçanha Rezende; Romualdo Maestri

253

Using Thematic Contexts and Previous Solutions for Maintaining and Accessing Institutional Repositories  

E-print Network

Biblioteca Central de la Universidad Nacional del Sur Avda Alem 1253, 8000 Bah´ia Blanca, Argentina ABSTRACT for cataloging incoming digital resources and the ability to reflect a thematic context during the search process advantage of a large set of previously classified resources with the pur- pose of supporting the cataloger

Maguitman, Ana Gabriela

254

ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO MARINE FISH AND A MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

The acute toxicity (96-hr LC50 of un-ionized ammonia to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and larval inland silversides (menidia beryllina) was influenced by pH and salinity in a species specific manner. ith mysids, NH3 was most toxic at pH 7.0 and less toxic pH 8.0 and 9.0. n contrast, ...

255

Incidencia de úlcera por presión y acciones de enfermería  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To estimate the cumulative incidence (IC up ) and density incidence (DI up ) of pressure ulcer (PU) and to describe the implementation of nursing interventions in two hospitals in the State of Bahia before (phase 1) and during an educational intervention (phase 2). Methods: A prospective design was used. The sample consisted of inpatients of medical\\/surgical units. Data

Maria Luiza Anselmi; Marina Peduzzi; Ivan França Junior

2009-01-01

256

[12th International workshop on Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions  

SciTech Connect

The twelfth international workshop on inelastic ion surface collisions was held at the Bahia Mar Resort and Conference Center on South Padre Island, Texas (USA) from January 24-29, 1999. The workshop brought together most of the leading researchers from around the world to focus on both the theoretical and experimental aspects of particle - surface interactions and related topics.

Rabalais, J.W.; Nordlander, P.

1999-10-15

257

AN OVERVIEW OF THE ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECTS OF FIRST AND SECOND GENERATION PESTICIDES ON AN ESTUARINE MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

Results are reported for laboratory experiments using the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, as a practical test species for life-cycle studies to determine subtle effects of toxicants. Ratios of the acute 96-hour lethal concentrations to the maximum acceptable toxicant concentratio...

258

Relationship between Learning Problems and Attention Deficit in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…

Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida

2012-01-01

259

Extreme population divergence and conservation implications for the rare endangered Atlantic Forest sloth, Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa: Bradypodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus) is an endangered species endemic to the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil. This biome has been reduced to 7% of its original extent and the remaining forests are highly fragmented. We analyzed 70 samples from the largest remnant populations in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro to characterize their geographic structure

Paula Lara-Ruiz; Adriano G. Chiarello; Fabrício R. Santos

2008-01-01

260

The cacao agroforests of the Brazilian Atlantic forest as habitat for the endangered maned sloth Bradypus torquatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sloths are arboreal mammals strictly dependent upon forested habitats. The southern part of the state of Bahia in northeastern Brazil harbors important forest remnants and the highest genetic diversity known for the maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus), an endangered species endemic to the Atlantic forest. Large extents of cacao agroforests (cabrucas) connected to forest patches mitigate the effects of fragmentation in

Camila Righetto Cassano; Maria Cecília Martins Kierulff; Adriano G. Chiarello

2011-01-01

261

State violence and the ethnographic encounter: feminist research and racial embodiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the idea that black urban communities in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil, particularly women, are currently under siege. This article examines the confinement and silencing of the anthropologist within the overall context of State policing of black communities and black women-led grassroots movements in Salvador. I argue that engaged research methods should be analyzed within the context of

Keisha-Khan Y. Perry

2012-01-01

262

Evaluation of some metals in Brazilian coffees cultivated during the process of conversion from conventional to organic agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of nutrients and toxic elements in coffees cultivated during the process of conversion, on organic agriculture, in southwest Bahia, Brazil. Levels of the nutrients and toxic elements were determined in samples of soils and coffee tissues from two transitional organic farms by atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The metals in soil

José Soares dos Santos; Maria Lúcia Pires dos Santos; Melina Moreira Conti; Sabrina Novaes dos Santos; Elisabeth de Oliveira

2009-01-01

263

Making a Living: The Gringo Ethnographer as Pimp of the Suffering in the Late Capitalist Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

Set in the criminalized, racialized, and sexualized streets of Salvador da Bahia, this article presents experimental ethnographic glimpses of the deeply transnational aspects of desire, suffering, and violence in the disintegrating public spaces of a Northeastern Brazilian city famous for its global tourism fuelled by transnational desire for and consumption of Afro-Brazilian culture and bodies. The author reflects on the

Samuel P. L. Veissiere

2010-01-01

264

THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATURE TOURISM: A CASE STUDY FROM  

E-print Network

THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATURE TOURISM: A CASE STUDY FROM BAHIA Management Title of Thesis: The influence of social capital on the development of nature tourism: A case context. Nature-based tourism provides an opportunity for economic development and can act as an impetus

265

Yoruba Cosmology and Culture in Brazil: A Study of African Survivals in the New World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yoruba cultural, religious, and linguistic traditions have been preserved to a great extent in Brazil, especially in the province of Bahia. Although many Afro-Brazilian religions have historically been considered lower-class, today Candomble and other religious/cultural practices are gaining social acceptance on a national level. (GC)

Gordon, Jacob U.

1979-01-01

266

The production and industrialization in Brazil and the national economy: simulations using an inter-regional input-output model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper intends to analyze the behavior and importance of the sectors of agricultural production and industrialization of coffee for each of the main Brazilian producers (Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Sao Paulo, Paraná, Bahia and Rondônia) in relation to their economies and in relation to other sectors of the national economy. Building an inter-regional input-output system for the year 2002,

Fernando Malateux Sakon; Denise Imori; Fernanda Sartori Camargo da Cunha; Joaquim José Martins Guilhoto; Flávia Maria de Mello Bliska

2012-01-01

267

A PRODUÇÃO E INDUSTRIALIZAÇÃO DO CAFÉ DOS PRINCIPAIS PRODUTORES BRASILEIROS E A ECONOMIA NACIONAL: SIMULAÇÕES SOB UM MODELO INTER-REGIONAL DE INSUMO-PRODUTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar o comportamento e a importância atual dos setores de produção agrícola e de industrialização de café de cada um dos principais Estados produtores brasileiros (Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, São Paulo, Paraná, Bahia e Rondônia) em relação às respectivas economias estaduais e em relação aos demais setores da economia nacional. Para tanto, foi construído um

Fernando Malateaux Sakon; Joaquim Jose Martins Guilhoto; Flavia Maria De Mello Bliska; Denise Imori; Fernanda Sartori De Camargo

2008-01-01

268

Colonization of cacao seedlings by Trichoderma stromaticum, a mycoparasite of the witches’ broom pathogen, and its influence on plant growth and resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma stromaticum, a mycoparasite of the cacao witches‘ broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa, is being used in Bahia, Brazil to control the disease under field conditions. The endophytic potential of this biocontrol agent was studied in both shoot and root tissues of sterile and nonsterile cacao and bean seedlings. Agar plate and light and electron microscopy studies showed that T. stromaticum

J. T. De Souza; B. A. Bailey; A. W. V. Pomella; E. F. Erbe; C. A. Murphy; H. Bae; P. K. Hebbar

2008-01-01

269

Tuesday, March 14, 2006 IMPACT CRATERING: OBSERVATIONS  

E-print Network

. * Schultz P. H. Airesites: A New Class of Late Miocene Tektites from Argentina [#2272] Two new splashform tektites have been discovered attached to 5.28 Ma impact glass collected from the vicinity of Bahia Blanca may indicate an incomplete mixing of parent rocks like Muong Nong tektites. 11:00 a.m. Sheffer A. A

Rathbun, Julie A.

270

USE OF MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION (TIE) METHODS IN DETERMINING CAUSES OF TOXICITY TO FISH IN A MARINE AQUARIUM FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

We obtained a water sample containing broken pieces of a tropical coral reef decor that was suspected of causing fish toxicity in a major aquarium. A toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) was performed using three species: a mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia; inland silvers...

271

CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND LITTER FAUNA IN DIFFERENT COCOA AGROECOSYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to characterize the density and diversity of meso and macro-fauna of soils located under cacao agrosystems of southern Bahia, Brazil. The researched areas studied were: Cacao improved with Erythrina spp. shade tree (CRE); Cacao under an improved cabruca (CRC); Cacao ...

272

Sociability and citizenship: the public spaces of the city of Salvador as an interlacement of concrete, symbolic and imaginary elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses the paradigm of sensitive reason as a socio-anthropological tool for the understanding of the social relations taking place in contemporary cities. For this purpose, the author chose Salvador, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, as a constitutive example of a city that builds its sociability, its daily interlacement, not on instrumental rational relationships (ruled by objective and

Cíntia SanMartin Fernandes; Ciências Sociais Unisinos

2007-01-01

273

Growth of mycorrhized seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. in a copper contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the low infectivity potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in a mining area located at the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil, the effect of mycorrhization on the seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala was investigated, in order to use this species for revegetation of the area. Caatinga soils from both, natural (control) and mining impacted areas, were used to maintain

Cláudia Elizabete Lima Lins; Uided Maaze T. Cavalcante; Everardo V. S. B. Sampaio; Arminda Sacconi Messias; Leonor Costa Maia

2006-01-01

274

U-series dating and taphonomy of Quaternary vertebrates from Brazilian caves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geochronology and taphonomy of internationally important fossil bearing cave deposits were studied, both in the semi-arid Northern Bahia area and the subtropical southeastern Lagoa Santa area of Brazil. Taphonomic analysis suggests that the processes responsible for bone accumulation in the Brazilian caves vary between sites, and taphonomic bias can therefore be significant in causing differences in faunal composition. In

Augusto S. Auler; Luís B. Piló; Peter L. Smart; Xianfeng Wang; Dirk Hoffmann; David A. Richards; R. Lawrence Edwards; Walter A. Neves; Hai Cheng

2006-01-01

275

Banking Service Quality in Vietnam: A Comparison of Customers' and Bank Staff's Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to assess banking service quality in Vietnam and to make a comparison of customers' a nd bank staff's perceptions of this based on six dimensions of the BSQ (bank service quality) model suggested by Bahia & Nantel (2000). All the data were collected through questio nnaires which were delivered to two groups: custome rs and bank staff

Yu-Ping Lee; NGUYEN TUAN ANH; Ching-Yaw Chen

276

Management of Organizational Behavior and Management of People: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reflects an analysis of the behavior of a group of individuals from the strategic level of a multinational organization in the petrochemical industry, located in Candeias, Bahia, Brazil. This group was formed as a study group with the aim of facilitating changes in behavior and attitude in the organization. The current study sought to answer the question of

NILDES R. PITOMBO LEITE; FÁBIO PITOMBO LEITE; LINDOLFO GALVÃO DE ALBUQUERQUE

277

Household Survival in the Face of Poverty in Salvador, Brazil: Towards an Integrated Model of Household Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the survival strategies of low-income urban households in a squatter settlement in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil with those of such households in other regions. Suggests, uses, and criticizes a simple additive model of survival household activities. Identifies important factors that emerge, and suggests issues for further research. (Author/BJV)

Norris, William P.

1988-01-01

278

Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil), a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997) and rainy (March, 1998) periods. The dominant groups found were

M. Callisto; M. Goulart; F. A. R. Barbosa; O. Rocha

2005-01-01

279

Locational dynamics of Brazilian winegrowing: new regions in Rio Grande do Sul and in the São Francisco River Valley area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the research is to identify the locational factors that influenced the decision to expand winemaking activity into other regions of Brazil. In recent years, winemaking has expanded into new regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Serra do Sudeste and Campanha) and into the São Francisco River Valley (states of Bahia and Pernambuco) - regions

Márcia Azanha; Ferraz Dias de Moraes

280

RADIOCARBON DATING SITES OF ITAPARICA DAM, SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER VALLEY, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports radiocarbon dates of samples from archaeological sites in the Itaparica Dam region of the São Francisco River (Brazil). This region is important due to the evidence of its use by several prehistoric groups of hunter- gatherers. In the 1980s, a Brazilian state hydroelectric company (CHESF) engaged the federal universities of Bahia and Per- nambuco to perform an

L R P de Andrade Lima

281

EFFECT OF DIFLUBENZURON ON AN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Data are reported for tests exposing a small, estuarine crustacean, Mysidopsis bahia, to diflubenzuron (Dimilin, TH-6040, (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea)) in flowing seawater. Tests were conducted in intermittent flows from a diluter or continuous flowing water i...

282

Introducing Nicolas G. Bazan, the 2007 Recipient of the  

E-print Network

institute in Bahia Blanca. He built the institute during a dark period in Argentinean history in the 1970s and international meetings in Argentina, Europe, and the United States. In the course of his travels he acquired). Nic fought back through- out the spring of 1981, claiming he had no association with the opponents

283

TOXICITY AND BIOCONCENTRATION OF BHC AND LINDANE IN SELECTED ESTUARINE ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through, 96-hr bioassays were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of technical BHC and lindane to several estuarine animals. Test animals and their respective 96-hr lindane LC50 values were: mysid (Mysidopsis bahia), 6.3 micrograms/L; pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), 0....

284

Paleogeographic evolution of the central segment of the South Atlantic during Early Cretaceous times: Paleotopographic and geodynamic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geodynamic processes that control the opening of the central segment of the South Atlantic Ocean (between the Walvis Ridge and the Ascension FZ) are debated. In this paper, we discuss the timing of the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the Early Cretaceous rift by drawing eight paleogeographic and geodynamic maps from the Berriasian to the Middle-Late Aptian, based on a biostratigraphic (ostracodes and pollen) chart recalibrated on absolute ages (chemostratigraphy, interstratified volcanics, Re-Os dating of the organic matter). The central segment of the South Atlantic is composed of two domains, with a two phases evolution of the pre-drift ("rifting") times: a rift phase characterized by tilted blocks and growth strata, followed by a sag basin. The southern domain includes the Namibe, Santos and Campos Basins. The northern domain extends from the Espirito Santo and North Kwanza Basins, in the south, to the Sergipe-Alagoas and North Gabon Basins to the north. Extension started in the northern domain during the Late Berriasian (Congo-Camamu Basin to the Sergipe-Alagoas-North Gabon Basins) and migrated southward. At that time, the southern domain was not a subsiding domain (emplacement of the Parana-Etendeka Trapp). Extension started in this southern domain during the Early Barremian. The rift phase is shorter in the south (5-6 Ma, Barremian to base Aptian) than in the north (19 to 20 Myr, Upper Berriasian to base Aptian). The sag phase is of Middle to Late Aptian age. In the northern domain, this transition corresponds to a hiatus of Early to Middle Aptian age. From the Late Berriasian to base Aptian, the northern domain evolves from a deep lake with lateral highs to a shallower organic-rich one with no more highs. The lake migrates southward in two steps, until the Valanginian at the border between the northern and southern domains, until the Early Barremian, north of Walvis Ridge.

Chaboureau, Anne-Claire; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Rohais, Sébastien; Moulin, Maryline; Aslanian, Daniel

2013-09-01

285

Description of the male of Tityus kuryi Lourenço, 1997 and notes about males of Tityus stigmurus (Thorell, 1877) and Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922 (Scorpiones, Buthidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The male of Tityus kuryi Lourenço, 1997 is described for the first time. Despite being very similar to the female, the male presents more robust metasomal segments. Additionally, the distribution of the sexual populations of another two species of the T. stigmurus complex is reported herein: T. serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922 and T. stigmurus (Thorell, 1877). Males of T. serrulatus were, until now, restricted to the Minas Gerais State (Southwestern region of Brazil), and with new records reported here, its known distribution now encompasses the Northeastern region of Brazil. Males of T. stigmurus were previously recorded only for two municipalities in the State of Bahia, and here we present eight new records for Bahia State and one for Pernambuco State. We present a key to related species of the T. stigmurus complex based on morphology and coloration pattern. PMID:25152686

dos Santos, Maria Dulcinéia Sales; Porto, Tiago Jordão; Lira-da-Silva, Rejâne Maria; Brazil, Tania Kobler

2014-01-01

286

Impact of El Niño/Southern Oscillation on Visceral Leishmaniasis, Brazil  

PubMed Central

We used time-series analysis and linear regression to investigate the relationship between the annual Niño-3 index from 1980 to 1998 and the annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, during 1985–1999. An increase in VL incidence was observed in the post-El Niño years 1989 (+38.7%) and 1995 (+33.5%). The regression model demonstrates that the previous year’s mean Niño-3 index and the temporal trend account for approximately 50% of the variance in the annual incidence of VL in Bahia. The model shows a robust agreement with the real data, as only the influence of El Niño on the cycle of VL was analyzed. The results suggest that this relationship could be used to predict high-risk years for VL and thus help reduce health impact in susceptible regions in Brazil. PMID:12194766

Franke, Carlos Roberto; Ziller, Mario; Latif, Mojib

2002-01-01

287

Genetic diversity of Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae) explained by the disjunction of South American rainforests.  

PubMed

Angiopolybia pallens is a swarm-founding wasp that occurs in Atlantic and Amazonian rainforests, which have been isolated from each other by a large arid corridor in central Brazil since the Tertiary. In this study, we used data from polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rDNA to infer some aspects of the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of this social wasp population. Samples collected across the species range in both rainforests showed remarkable differences that separated them into two distinct haplogroups. However, some samples from isolated areas in northeastern Bahia were more related to Amazonian lineages than to southern Bahia populations. Vicariant divergenc is discussed under South American rainforests biogeographical proposals. PMID:24446290

Carvalho, A F; Santos, G M M; Menezes, R S T; Costa, M A

2014-01-01

288

Genetic variability in accessions of the acerola germplasm bank of Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazil is the world's largest producer of acerola, Malpighia emarginata (Malpighiaceae); the Northeast is responsible for 60% of the national production. The culture of acerola in Brazil has great genetic variability; plantings have high phenotypic diversity and are not very productive, often originating from propagation by seed. We evaluated the genetic diversity of 42 accessions from the Acerola Active Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Using 15 RAPD primers, 182 markers were obtained, of which 166 were polymorphic and 16 were monomorphic. We found high genetic variability among the accessions (?E = 0.29), with no redundancy. Considering the accessions from the states of Pernambuco, Bahia and Pará as distinct groups, there was greater diversity in accessions from Bahia than from the other two states. PMID:24301774

Moraes Filho, R M; Martins, L S S; Musser, R S; Montarroyos, A V V; Silva, E F

2013-01-01

289

Predation on the southwestern Atlantic fiddler crab ( Uca uruguayensis ) by migratory shorebirds ( pluvialis dominica, P. squatarola, arenaria interpres , and numenius phaeopus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Bahia Samborombon (SW Atlantic; 35°30?–36°22?S; 56°45?–57°23?W) migratory American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-billed plover (P. squatarola), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) forage on fiddler crabs (Uca uruguayensis). These shorebirds have distinct patterns of feeding behavior and capture different proportions of each sex and size. P. dominica made short runs, capturing mostly juvenile crabs, which are eaten

Oscar O. Iribarne; Mariano M. Martinez

1999-01-01

290

New discoveries improve oil prospects in Brazil. Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discovery of the Carmopolis Oil Field has greatly encouraged petroleum exploration in Brazil. Located in the Sergipe basin, 12 miles inland from the Atlantic, Carmopolis was the first discovery of a new area outside of the Bahia fields in 10 yr of exploration by Petrobras. Wells at Carmopolis yield 21°API gravity oil from Muribeca sands at depths of 2500-2700 ft.

Rassmuss

1966-01-01

291

Bee pollen loads and their use in indicating flowering in the Caatinga region of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presents a map of pollen samples collected by Apis mellifera L. in an area of Caatinga (dryland) vegetation in Canudos, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 62 bee pollen samples obtained from pollen-traps between March\\/2004 and February\\/2006 were examined. The pollen loads were acetolyzed and the pollen types identified and counted by sampling using an optical microscope. Thirty-six

Jaílson Santos de Novais; Luciene Cristina Lima e Lima; Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos Santos

2010-01-01

292

Mass mortality of coral reef ascidians following the 1997\\/1998 El NiñO event  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April\\/May each year from 1995 to 2000, ascidians were sampled randomly with 35 1m2quadrats from three different reef habitats (intertidal reef tops, coastal reef walls and shallow-bank reefs) at four replicate localities (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) in northern Bahia (Brazil). As the sampling period included the 1997\\/1998 El Ni? o event, the most severe on record,

Francisco Kelmo; Martin J. Attrill; Malcolm B. Jones

293

Mass Mortality of Coral Reef Ascidians Following the 1997\\/1998 El Niño Event  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April\\/May each year from 1995 to 2000, ascidians were sampled randomly with 35 1m2 quadrats from three different reef habitats (intertidal reef tops, coastal reef walls and shallow-bank reefs) at four replicate\\u000a localities (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) in northern Bahia (Brazil). As the sampling period included the\\u000a 1997\\/1998 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for

Francisco Kelmo; Martin J. Attrill; Malcolm B. Jones

2006-01-01

294

Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil.  

PubMed

Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyatheasubincisa, Cyclodiumtrianae, Elaphoglossumstenophyllum, Hypoderrisbrauniana, Pleopeltisstolzei, Thelypterisarcana, Thelypteriscomosa, Thelypterisvaldepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodiumflagellare, Tectariaheracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophilasalvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurumcostatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypterisrolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains. PMID:25829857

Almeida, Thais Elias; Salino, Alexandre

2015-01-01

295

The complete nucleotide sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus from Brazil infecting Abutilon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of Abutilon mosaic Brazil virus (AbMBV), a new bipartite begomovirus from Bahia, Brazil,\\u000a is described and analyzed phylogenetically. Its DNA A is most closely related to those of Sida-infecting begomoviruses from Brazil and forms a phylogenetic cluster with pepper- and Euphorbia-infecting begomoviruses from Central America. The DNA B component forms a cluster with different Sida- and

T. Paprotka; V. Metzler; H. Jeske

2010-01-01

296

Accessibility to primary healthcare in the capital city of a northeastern state of Brazil: an evaluation of the results of a programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundOrganisational barriers to primary healthcare are still relevant in developing countries. Although descriptive reports of some experiences focusing on improving accessibility have been published, few studies have evaluated specific interventions aimed at overcoming the organisational obstacles.ObjectiveTo evaluate the results of a project designed to improve accessibility to healthcare services in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.MethodologyAn evaluative, cross-sectional, ex post facto study that

Ligia Maria Vieira-da-Silva; Sonia Cristina Lima Chaves; Monique Azevedo Esperidião; Rosana Machado Lopes-Martinho

2010-01-01

297

The aesthetic escape hatch: carnaval, blocos afro and the mutations of baianidade under the signs of globalisation and re-Africanisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Bahian carnavalThe carnaval of Salvador, capital of Bahia State in Brazil, has grown immensely in popularity in recent years, so that it now rivals the more famous Rio carnaval in terms of numbers of visitors. Carnaval culture—music, dance, consumption and consequent entrepreneurial opportunities—has spread to the whole calendar of annual and weekly festivities, religious and secular, and has transformed

Piers Armstrong

1999-01-01

298

Characterization of a Karst Coastal Ecosystem in the Mexican Caribbean: Assessing the Influence of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Submerged Groundwater Discharges on Seagrass  

E-print Network

BA Bahia de la Ascension CC Cayo Culebras DB Drainage Basin GD Groundwater Discharges MBRS Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System RL Reef Lagoon SAV Submerged Aquatic Vegetation SGD Submerged Groundwater Discharges SKBR Sian Ka?an Biosphere Reserve... and bathymetry . 4 Figure 1.2 Freshwater inputs in Ascension Bay ............................................... 5 Figure 1.3 Mean precipitation ? 1SE and air temperature ? 1SE in Sian Ka?an Biosphere Reserve, 2000...

Medina, Israel

2012-07-16

299

Endecous apterus: a new species of cave cricket from northeast Brazil, with comments on the use of subterranean habitats by Luzarinae crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae: Luzarinae).  

PubMed

In this study we describe the first apterous species of Endecous Saussure (1878), collected in two caves at Ituaçu, Bahia State, Brazil. In Brazil, Endecous is the most widespread cricket in hypogean environments and its species can colonize caves and inhabit the entrance and the aphotic zones; Endecous species can also be found in the litter, rock gullies, crevices, burrows, and any natural cavities. The use of subterranean habitat by Endecous crickets and its related genera are discussed. PMID:24872041

Souza-Dias, Pedro G B; Bolfarini, Márcio P; Nihei, Silvio S; De Mello, Francisco A G

2014-01-01

300

Invasion of ancient Lake Titicaca by the globally invasive Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygrophila)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vital population of Physa acuta, a globally invasive species of freshwater gastropods was dicovered in ancient Lake Titicaca in April 2007. The population\\u000a was found near Chucuito (Bahia de Puno) on the Peruvian side in close proximity to a boat landing of the aquaculture facility\\u000a of the University of Puno. Physids occured in great abundances at this site on

Christian Albrecht; Oliver Kroll; Edmundo Moreno Terrazas; Thomas Wilke

2009-01-01

301

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Mostly about USA  

E-print Network

: Georges Claude (Open Cycle OTEC) · 1928 Ougree Experiment, France: Factory Water Outflow (33 °C) & Meuse River Water (12 °C) Qww = Qcw = 0.2 m3/s 59 kW-gross 3luisvega@hawaii.edu #12;Before my Time: French Pioneers Georges Claude (Open Cycle OTEC) · 1927-1930 Bahia Matanzas, Cuba: Ougree equipment with new CWP 1

302

Longivena, a new robber-fly genus from Brazil (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Longivena gen. n. and five new species are described and illustrated from caatinga and cerrado habitats from Brazil: Longivena digitata sp. n., type–species (Maranhão, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso do Sul states), Longivena bilobata sp. n. (Maranhão state), Longivena flava sp. n. (Mato Grosso do Sul state), Longivena limeiraoliverai sp. n. (Maranhão state), Longivena spatulata sp. n. (Maranhão state). An illustrated key is also provided. PMID:25349498

Vieira, Rodrigo; Rafael, José Albertino

2014-01-01

303

Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important\\u000a sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped\\u000a beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed\\u000a beaches, where cigarette butts,

Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul; Isaac R. Santos; Ana Cláudia Friedrich; Alexandre Matthiensen; Gilberto Fillmann

2011-01-01

304

Marine turtles of Brazil:the history and structure of Projeto TAMAR-IBAMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projeto TAMAR-IBAMA, jointly administered by the Government of Brazil and the non-governmental organization Fundação Pró-TAMAR, has established 18 conservation stations which cover 1100 km of the Brazilian mainland coast (in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Esp??rito Santo, Bahia, Sergipe, and Ceará). In the oceanic islands of Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, and Trindade, only the first

Maria Ângela Marcovaldi; Guy Guagni dei Marcovaldi

1999-01-01

305

An intertextual study of Euclides Da Cunha's Os serto?es, R.B. Cunninghame Graham's A Brazilian mystic, and Mario Vargas Llosa's La guerra del fin del mundo  

E-print Network

three works of literature that tell of the extraordinary events surrounding the creation and destruction of the Christian community at Canudos in the state of Bahia in the early years of the Republic of Brazil. These works are ~~ (1902... vegetation; the fertile vales, abundantly irrigated; the coast lands and islands" ~R 39). Cunha explains that due to a paucity of knowledge about the backlands of Northeast Brazil, Hegel failed to identify a fourth geographical category, the backlands...

Erickson, Sandra Sassetti Fernandes

1990-01-01

306

The effects of land tenure on vulnerability to droughts in Northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents evidence on two distinct farming systems—one that utilizes common property pasturelands and another based on private pasturelands—in the Brazilian semi-arid zone. The research is based on a survey carried out in the state of Bahia in 2002. A bivariate analysis was carried out to compare agricultural outputs and income generated in each system. Data suggest that there

Fabiano Toni; Evandro Holanda

2008-01-01

307

Impact of the El Niño\\/Southern Oscillation on Visceral Leishmaniasis, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used time-series analysis and linear regression to investigate the relationship between the annual Niño-3 index from 1980 to 1998 and the annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, during 1985-1999. An increase in VL incidence was observed in the post-El Niño years 1989 (+38.7%) and 1995 (+33.5%). The regression model demonstrates that the previous

Carlos Roberto Franke; Mario Ziller; Christoph Staubach; Mojib Latif

2002-01-01

308

COMPOSI?ˆO FLOR?STICA, ESPECTRO BIOL\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

ñ Little is known about muÁununga vegetation, which occurs surrounded by Tropical Rain Forests in northern Espirito Santo State and southern Bahia State, in sites with sandy and wet soils. This work had the objective of studying floristic and phytophysiognomic aspects in order to evaluate how human activity influenced the structure and composition of the muÁununga vegetation of Caravelas (17o41í13ííS

Augusto Alves Meira Neto; Agostinho Lopes de Souza; Jacinto Moreira de Lana

309

Lamellorthoceratids (Cephalopoda, Orthoceroidea) from the Lower Devonian of New York  

E-print Network

from that of Esopoceras. Gorgonoceras con- tains cameral deposits in the form of straight, thin, radiating lamellae with one large, more massive and distally bifid lamella occupying a ventral position. Also, the chambers of Gorgon- oceras are slightly... longer than those of the New York species. Bahia (1964) has evaluated the genera Arthro- phyllum , Lam ellorthoceras , Coralloceras, and Gorgon oceras and presented reasons for consider- ing at least three of these, Arthrophyllum, Lamel- lorthoceras...

Stanley, G. D., Jr.; Teichert, C.

1976-11-12

310

Toxicological evaluation of the effects of waste-to-energy ash-concrete on two marine species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicological effects of waste-to-energy ash-concrete on survivorship, growth, and fecundity (end-point parameters) of Mysidopsis bahia and on survivorship and growth of Menidia beryllina were evaluated with the 7-d static-renewal toxicity test. Leachate and elutriate solutions were prepared from experimental ash-concrete test cylinders constructed from concrete with additions of either bottom ash (mix BA), mixed bottom ash and scrubber residue,

Kirk L. Hamilton; Walter G. Nelson; Jeri L. Curley

1993-01-01

311

Alguns Aspectos do Teatro no Brasil nos Séculos XVIII e XIX  

E-print Network

a Portugal em 1794. A diversificação de géneros, uma das tónicas do teatro português de então, teve alguns reflexos no Brasil, ao menos fazendo chegar até o Rio o teatro de bonecos, extremamente popular em Lisboa, cedo testemunhado por viajantes... estrangeiros na cidade brasileira. O início do século viu amiudarem-se os espetáculos teatrais em solenidades públicas, como já vinha acontecendo no anterior. Seis comédias foram encenadas na Bahia em 1729 para celebrar o casamento do Príncipe do Brasil com...

Araú jo, Né lson de

1977-10-01

312

Argentine plant increases capacity, improves NGL recoveries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total cryogenic processing capacity at Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A.`s (TGS) Cerri complex in Bahia Blanca, Argentina, is being increased from 22 MMcmd to 40 MMcmd (776 to 1,410 MMcfd) with a future ethane-recovery capacity of 1,900 metric tons\\/day (mtd; 33,600 b\\/d) using Ortloff technology. Very high propane recovery can be maintained as the ethane recovery is controlled over

J. T. Lynch; C. L. Fernandez

1997-01-01

313

Mitochondrial DNA variability in populations of Centris aenea (Hymenoptera, Apidae), a crop-pollinating bee in Brazil.  

PubMed

Centris spp are oil-collecting solitary bees that are valuable pollinators of crops such as Brazil nut, cashew, and acerola. We investigated the genetic variability of populations of C. aenea in the northeastern region of Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from 59 individuals from 6 locations in the States of Pernambuco and Bahia and a 600-650-bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI/COII region amplified by PCR, followed by digestion with the restriction enzymes DraI and SspI. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed eight different haplotypes among the populations. Haplotype A1, revealed by DraI, was the most frequent (50%), and haplotypes A3 and A4 were exclusive to Feira de Santana, Bahia and Morro do Chapéu, Bahia, respectively. Among the haplotypes revealed by SspI, B2 was the most frequent (37%) and B3 was exclusive to Feira de Santana. This information revealing high haplotype diversity will be useful for developing management strategies for Centris, especially because of increasing interest in the rearing and/ or relocation of these bees for crop pollination. PMID:23546967

Ferreira, V S; Aguiar, C M L; Oliveira, E J F; Costa, M A; Santos, G M M; Silva, J G

2013-01-01

314

Taxonomic notes on some Brazilian species of Synalpheus Spence Bate, 1888, with new records and description of a new species (Decapoda, Alpheidae).  

PubMed

The present report deals with several western Atlantic species of the snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus Spence Bate, 1888 occurring in Brazilian territorial waters. Two species, Synalpheus cf. ruetzleri Macdonald & Duffy, 2006 and Synalpheus yano (Ríos & Duffy, 2007), are recorded from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and Brazil (Ceará) for the first time; S. yano is also newly reported from the eastern Gulf of Mexico and USA (Florida). Synalpheus androsi Coutière, 1909, a distinctive species previously known in Brazil only from a single unconfirmed record, is confirmed to be present in Brazilian waters based on material from Bahia and Espírito Santo. Synalpheus tenuispina Coutière, 1909, a poorly known species from southern Brazil, is redescribed. Synalpheus ul (Ríos & Duffy, 2007), previously known from Bahia and Alagoas, is reported from Pernambuco based on older "Calypso" material misidentified as Synalpheus longicarpus (Herrick, 1891). A new species from the Synalpheus paraneptunus Coutière, 1909 complex is described as Synalpheus maxillispinus sp. nov. based on three specimens dredged from moderate depths (15-55 m) off southern Bahia and Espírito Santo, eastern Brazil. Finally, an incomplete specimen that appears to belong to a species presently unknown in Brazil is preliminarily reported as Synalpheus sp. gambarelloides group. Illustrations are provided for all reported taxa except for S. ul. PMID:24943610

Anker, Arthur; Pachelle, Paulo P G

2014-01-01

315

Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease across Europe: is there a difference between north and south? Results of the European Collaborative Study on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EC-IBD).  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is three or more times higher in northern than in southern Europe. The aim of this EC funded study was to investigate this apparent variation by ascertaining the incidence of IBD across Europe. METHODS: For the period 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1993 all new patients diagnosed with IBD were prospectively identified in 20 European centres according to a standard protocol for case ascertainment and definition. FINDINGS: Altogether 2201 patients aged 15 years or more were identified, of whom 1379 were diagnosed as UC (including proctitis), 706 as CD, and 116 as indeterminate. The overall incidence per 100,000 at ages 15-64 years (standardised for age and sex) of UC was 10.4 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 7.6 to 13.1) and that of CD was 5.6 (95% CI 2.8 to 8.3). Rates of UC in northern centres were 40% higher than those in the south (rate ratio (RR) = 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.5)) and for CD they were 80% higher (RR = 1.8 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.1)). For UC the highest reported incidence was in Iceland (24.5, 95% CI 17.4 to 31.5) and for CD, Maastricht (The Netherlands; 9.2, 95% CI 6.5 to 11.8) and Amiens (north west France; 9.2, 95% CI 6.3 to 12.2). The lowest incidence of UC was in Almada (southern Portugal) (1.6, 95% CI 0.0 to 3.2) and of CD in Ioannina (north west Greece) (0.9, 95% CI 0.0 to 2.2). An unexpected finding was a difference in the age specific incidence of UC in men and women with the incidence in women but not men declining with age. INTERPRETATION: The higher overall incidence rates in northern centres did not seem to be explained by differences in tobacco consumption or education. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the observed excess for both conditions is less than expected on the basis of previous studies. This may reflect recent increases in the incidence of IBD in southern Europe whereas those in the north may have stabilised. PMID:9014768

Shivananda, S; Lennard-Jones, J; Logan, R; Fear, N; Price, A; Carpenter, L; van Blankenstein, M

1996-01-01

316

Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions  

PubMed Central

Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne) were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma. PMID:22409901

2012-01-01

317

The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.  

PubMed

The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

Moreira, Danielle de Oliveira; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira de Siqueira, Marinez; Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

2014-01-01

318

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1997-01-01

319

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1997-01-01

320

The Distributional Ecology of the Maned Sloth: Environmental Influences on Its Distribution and Gaps in Knowledge  

PubMed Central

The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

2014-01-01

321

Intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil.  

PubMed

The Brazilian planorbidical chart is slowly but progressively been increased by new data. Distribution of vector species of Schistosoma mansoni, according to Paraense, 1986, may be thus resumed: Biomphalaria glabrata--delimited by parallels 13 and 21 degrees S and meridians 39 and 45 degrees W, area of greater dominance (Southeast Bahia, oriental hal of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). It is observed along the coast line of the states of Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte. Starting from there, it is found towards the southwest, in the direction to the São Francisco River and South-Center of Minas Gerais. Isolated population may be observed in other states. Its presence is probably, associated to the transmission of schistosomiasis in all areas where it occurs. B. tenagophila--extends it self through a wide strip of coast-line from the South of Bahia (17 degrees 45'S; 39 degrees 15'W), RS (33 degrees 41'S, 53 degrees 27'W). In São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul states it is found further inland. It is important in schistosomiasis transmission in the Paraiba valley (SP). Isolated populations are observed in the Federal District and Minas Gerais state. B. straminea--better adapter species to climatic variation, having a more dense distribution in the northeast (41 degrees W and 110 degrees S), south of Bahia and northeast of Minas Gerais (150 and 180 degrees S, 400 and 440 degrees W). It is less susceptible than the B. glabrata, being however, the most important responsible for the transmission of S. mansoni in the northeast, chiefly in the northeastern dry area, where it is almost the only transmissive species. PMID:1343914

Carvalho, O de D

1992-01-01

322

Petroleum systems in the Brazilian sedimentary basins  

SciTech Connect

The application of a multidisciplinary approach involving geochemical, sedimentological, geophysical, and paleontological research has greatly enhanced the level of understanding of some of the most representative petroleum systems in the Brazilian sedimentary basins. The integration of the data allowed the characterization of the petroleum systems were selected as representative case studies: (1) the intracratonic Paleozoic Solimoes system, in the Amazon region; (2) the rift lower Cretaceous Reconcavo system, in Bahia, northeast Brazil; (3) the proto-marine evaporitic Aptian system, in Sergipe, northeast Brazil; and, (4) the Cretaceous-Paleogene marginal, deep-water Campos system, offshore Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil.

Bacoccoli, G.; Mello, M.R.; Mohriak, W.U.; Koutsoukos, E.A.M. (Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1991-03-01

323

Agrarian Social Movements and the Making of Agrodiesel Moral Territories in Northeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to widespread concerns about the socio-ecological impacts of agrofuel production and development, particularly for food security, efforts have been made internationally to implement more sustainable forms of producing agrofuels. Brazil's National Program for the Production and Use of Agrodiesel (PNPB), launched in 2004, is one such attempt. Promoted as a socially and environmentally responsible program, the PNPB was made possible through unprecedented alliances between the 'postneoliberal' Brazilian state, the agribusiness sector, and social movements such as the Rural Trade Union's Movement (MSTTR) and the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST). In this research, I critically analyze the unexpected engagement of social movements in the making of agrodiesel territories in semi-arid Bahia, Northeastern Brazil by examining the territorial and moral processes and practices that underlie the production of castor bean (mamona) for agrodiesel. The methodology adopted comprised participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews (n=74) with leaders and members of the MST and the MSTTR in the territories of the Chapada Diamantina and Irece, in central Bahia. Interviews were also conducted with representatives of family farming cooperatives, government institutions, and agrodiesel companies (Petrobras) in the two study areas and in Salvador, capital of Bahia. Research methods also included the collection and critical discourse analysis of archival and other secondary data sources from public and private institutions. Drawing mainly from cultural geography and political ecology literatures, I argue that social movement leaders enable the making of agrodiesel territories mainly through their role as 'agrodiesel gatekeepers'---as legal interveners, managers, and caregivers. Family farmers tend to enable agrodiesel territorial expansion and to disrupt agrodiesel territorial management by not complying with moral prescriptions of loyalty. I see farmers' disloyalty towards their cooperatives as an everyday form of resistance against agrodiesel oppressive and exploitative practices. I suggest that the making of agrodiesel territories (re)produces gendered and racialized '(im)moral' peasants and serves to better contain peasants' movements. By critically analyzing how agrodiesel practices reproduce, homogenize and differentiate certain subjects, natures, and territories, I hope that this research contributes to politicize the moral geographies of agrodiesel development in semiarid Bahia.

Manzi, Maya

324

A new species of Margaromantis Piza, 1982 (Insecta: Mantodea) from Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract A second species of the Neotropical mantid genus Margaromantis Piza, 1982, Margaromantis nigrolineata sp. n. is described from Bahia, Brazil. This new species can be recognized by the presence of a transverse black strip between compound eyes in the vertex; fore femora exhibiting black calluses on the inner face; lacking yellowish strips over the transverse veins on the metathoracic wings; left dorsal phallomere with rectangular ventral lamina, elongated and grooved lateral process, and a flattened, but not twisted apical process that is upwardly recurved. PMID:25698900

Bravo, Freddy

2015-01-01

325

A new species of Scolopocryptops Newport: a troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede from a remarkable siliciclastic area of eastern Brazil (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopocryptopidae, Scolopocryptopinae).  

PubMed

We describe Scolopocryptopstroglocaudatus sp. n., a new troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede species. The species was found in a remarkable siliciclastic karst area of Eastern Brazil, in three caves of the Chapada da Diamantina, in the state of Bahia. Scolopocryptopstroglocaudatus sp. n. is close to Scolopocryptopsmiersii Newport, 1845 and Scolopocryptopsferrugineusmacrodon (Kraepelin, 1903) but differs from them by troglomorphic features, such as depigmentation, long appendages and a thin cuticle. This new species is the second troglobitic scolopocryptopine described and is the first discovered in Brazil. PMID:25829851

Chagas-Jr, Amazonas; Bichuette, Maria Elina

2015-01-01

326

A study of the material balance techniques for estimating the initial oil in place in an undersaturated water drive reservoir  

E-print Network

in the equation, and unless one has reasonably good control of this variable, the value of the ratio C/N will be in question, 12 The normal equation for the straight line fit is: a g X g X Y i=1 i=1 The Sum of the Squares Deviation (SSD) is: SSD Yi ? ag X Y... 2 =1 i 1 This method gives a sharp minimum of the SSD when plotted against dimensionless time. 13 THE TAQUIPE RESERVOIR, TAQUIPE FIELD Location and General Information The Taquipe Field is located in the Reconcavo Basin in the state of Bahia...

Pato, Sergio Luiz de Moraes

1967-01-01

327

Tracing coastal and estuarine groundwater discharge sources in a complex faulted and fractured karst aquifer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater discharge can be an important input of water, nutrients and other constituents to coastal wetlands and adjacent marine areas, particularly in karst regions with little to no surface water flow. A combination of natural processes (e.g., sea-level rise and climate change) and anthropogenic pressures (e.g., urban growth and development) can alter the subterranean water flow to the coastline. For water management practices and environmental preservation to be better suited for the natural and human environment, a better understanding is needed of the hydrogeologic connectivity between the areas of fresh groundwater recharge and the coastal zone. The Yucatan peninsula has a unique tectonic and geologic history consisting of a Cretaceous impact crater, Miocene and Eocene tectonic plate movements, and multiple sea-level stands. These events have shaped many complex geologic formations and structures. The Sian Káan Biosphere Reserve (SKBR), a UNESCO World Heritage Site located along the Atlantic Ocean, overlaps two distinct hydrogeologic regions: the evaporate region to the south and south west, and the Holbox Fracture Zone to the north. These two regions create a complex network of layered, perched and fractured aquifers and an extensive groundwater cave network. The two regions are distinguished by bedrock mineralogical differences that can be used to trace shallow subsurface water from interior portions of the peninsula to the Bahia de la Ascension in the SKBR. The objective of this research was to use naturally occurring geochemical tracers (eg., Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, K+, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen) to decipher the sources of groundwater flow through the coastal wetlands of the SKBR and into the Bahia de la Ascension. Surface water and groundwater samples were collected during two field campaigns in 2010 and 2012 within the coastal and estuarine waters of the SKBR. Additional water samples were collected at select cenotes along the western boundary of the reserve. Fresh groundwater and surface water from the southern evaporate region was characterized as a calcium sulfate water that was identified to contribute the southern portions of the Bahia de la Ascension. In the northern portions of the Bahia, surface and shallow groundwater chemistry was characterized as a more calcium bicarbonate-type water from the north that was undersaturated with respect to calcite. The implications from this preliminary study address the complex nature of the karst aquifer and help define groundwater flow pathways from the interior of the Yucatan peninsula to the coastal wetlands. Further investigation in the area will increase our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of shallow groundwater; and identify areas of coastal brackish groundwater discharge from the mixing of fresh groundwater and seawater.

Lagomasino, D.; Price, R. M.

2013-05-01

328

Lead and cadmium concentrations in the hair of fishermen from the Subae River basin, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown heavy pollution by lead and cadmium in the Subae River basin, State of Bahia, Brazil, caused by a lead smelter. Concentrations of these metals were determined in scalp hair of fishermen from three riverside towns and from a reference town. Increased levels for both metals were associated with increasing proximity to the smelter. Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were higher among fishermen with straight hair than among those with curly hair. The effects of hair washing, hair type, and color and age on metal concentrations in fishermen's hair were studied.

Carvalho, F.; Tavares, T.M.; Souza, S.P.; Linhares, P.S.

1984-04-01

329

The acute and chronic toxicity of ammonia to marine fish and a mysid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity (96-hr LC50) of un-ionized ammonia to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and larval inland silversides (Menidia beryllina) was influenced by pH and salinity in a species specific manner. With mysids, NH3 was most toxic at pH 7.0 and less toxic at pH 8.0 and 9.0. In contrast, NH3 toxicity to inland silversides was greatest at pH 7.0 and 9.0

D. C. Miller; S. Poucher; J. A. Cardin; D. Hansen

1990-01-01

330

Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains.

Salino, Alexandre

2015-01-01

331

A new species of Scolopocryptops Newport: a troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede from a remarkable siliciclastic area of eastern Brazil (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopocryptopidae, Scolopocryptopinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We describe Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus sp. n., a new troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede species. The species was found in a remarkable siliciclastic karst area of Eastern Brazil, in three caves of the Chapada da Diamantina, in the state of Bahia. Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus sp. n. is close to Scolopocryptops miersii Newport, 1845 and Scolopocryptops ferrugineus macrodon (Kraepelin, 1903) but differs from them by troglomorphic features, such as depigmentation, long appendages and a thin cuticle. This new species is the second troglobitic scolopocryptopine described and is the first discovered in Brazil.

Chagas-Jr, Amazonas; Bichuette, Maria Elina

2015-01-01

332

First record of Parakosa flexipes (Acari: Chirodiscidae) parasitizing a free-tailed bat (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study reports the occurrence of Parakosa flexipes (Pinichpongse) (Chirodiscidae) for the first time in Brazil, along with its infection sites on Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy. Thirty-eight bats were caught using mist nets that were placed near a house at the Mars Center for Cocoa Science in the state of Bahia, of which 14 (37%) were parasitized by P. flexipes. Parakosa flexipes was observed parasitizing M. rufus on hairs that were evidently longer than others distributed over the bat's body, where up to three parasites could be spotted on a single hair. PMID:23184323

Gomes, Luiz Antonio Costa; Silva, Roberta Mariano; Melo, Vanessa Lazaro

2012-01-01

333

New records, threatens and conservation status for Dichotomius schiffleri Vaz-de-Mello, Louzada & Gavino (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): an endangered dung beetle species from Brazilian atlantic forest ecosystems.  

PubMed

Dichotomius schiffleri Vaz-de-Mello et al is often cited as endemic to the preserved coastal sandy-dune vegetation (restinga) of Guriri Island, Espírito Santo state, and is included in the Brazilian List of Endangered Fauna as "critically endangered" (CR). However, we recorded its occurrence in twelve additional sites along the coasts of Espírito Santo, Bahia, Sergipe and Pernambuco. The geographic distribution of D. schiffleri is limited to the coastal Atlantic Forest domain, mainly in preserved restinga patches. We recommend that D. schiffleri remains in the List of Endangered species, but in the "endangered" (EN) category, according to the IUCN criteria. PMID:21584413

Vieira, L; Louzada, J; Vaz-de-Mello, F Z; Lopes, P P; Silva, F A B

2011-01-01

334

Cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study in this paper a cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers collected in the ferry-boat system (sea route that connects the city of Salvador and Itaparica island, Bahia, Brazil), this study is based on the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method. The DCCA method is designed to investigate power-law cross correlations between different simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity. Here in this paper we show that is possible to discriminate cross-correlation between vehicles and passengers and also identify seasonal components.

Zebende, G. F.; Filho, A. Machado

2009-12-01

335

Dispersed oil toxicity tests with biological species indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Static and flowthrough aquatic acute toxicity testing protocols were utilized on eggs and larvae of seven commercially important invertebrates and fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. Test organisms were exposed to Central and Western Gulf oils, dispersed oil, and Corexit 9527. Species included brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), inland silverside (Menidia berylina), and spot (Leiosomus xanthurus). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) was also tested because gulf menhaden were not available. Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) were evaluated as part of a chronic toxicity assessment.

Fucik, K.W.; Carr, K.A.; Balcom, B.J.

1994-08-01

336

Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian Campo Rupestre Vegetation, with Special Reference to Crepuscular Bees  

PubMed Central

Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome. PMID:22208813

Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam

2011-01-01

337

Reduced genetic diversity in endemic Brazilian Lymania spp (Bromeliaceae) populations and implications for conservation.  

PubMed

We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of two sympatric species of Lymania (Bromeliaceae), both endemic to the Atlantic rainforest of southern Bahia (Brazil). Lymania azurea has a restricted occurrence, while Lymania smithii has a wider distribution. Our aim was to provide genetic data to contribute to the design of more efficient conservation strategies for these bromeliads, possibly justifying inclusion in the official Brazilian list of Endangered Species. Up to now, L. azurea has been classified by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment as "data deficient". We sampled four populations of L. azurea throughout its distribution area in southern Bahia and two populations of L. smithii in the same region. Genotyping was performed with 48 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Based on the Jaccard genetic similarity index, L. smithii has greater diversity than L. azurea. An analysis of molecular variation showed greater genetic variance within than between populations for both species. L. azurea was found to have 20% inbreeding, probably due to population fragmentation, with L. smithii showing only 10%. When we analyzed pairs of populations of L. azurea within a conservation unit, we found low population structure (?ST = 0.098), apparently due to a large degree of gene flow between them. In disturbed areas, we found a higher ?ST (0.372). We found low genetic variability for L. azurea, probably as a consequence of habitat fragmentation, supporting the need for its inclusion in the Brazilian list of endangered flora. PMID:24222215

Pamponét, V C C; Alves, T F; Martinez, R A; Corrêa, R X; Gaiotto, F A

2013-01-01

338

Genetic Differentiation in the Stingless Bee, Scaptotrigona xanthotricha Moure, 1950 (Apidae, Meliponini): a Species with Wide Geographic Distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest.  

PubMed

Stingless bees are important pollinators that are severely threatened by anthropic interference, resulting in a strong population decline. Scaptotrigona xanthotricha has a wide distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest, ranging from the northeastern state of Bahia to Santa Catarina in southern Brazil. To understand the genetic structure of S. xanthotricha, 12 species-specific microsatellite loci were analyzed in 42 colonies sampled throughout the species range. The results indicated 5 distinct clusters throughout the sampled area with high rates of genetic diversity, and the greatest diversity was found in southern Bahia. Greater differentiation was observed between samples from the extremes of the distribution, with an F ST value of 0.189 between cluster 1 and 5. The genetic differentiation analysis for all loci had an F ST value of 0.113, a result that is consistent with the analysis of molecular variance, which revealed 7.72% of the variation occurring between groups. The Mantel correlation between a genetic differentiation matrix and a geographic distance matrix (r = 0.184, P = 0.043) indicated a tendency toward increased differentiation with increased distance. This study revealed the profile of differentiation and distribution of genetic diversity in this species and indicates parameters that should be considered in future taxonomic revisions and activities for its management and conservation. PMID:24829365

Duarte, Olívia M P; Gaiotto, Fernanda A; Costa, Marco A

2014-05-14

339

Risk factors associated with Chlamydia psittaci infection in psittacine birds.  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci is the aetiological agent of chlamydiosis in birds, especially Psittaciformes. The objective of the present study was to detect C. psittaci by means of semi-nested PCR among psittacine birds sold at pet markets and kept as pet birds in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Questionnaires were used to identify risk factors involved in the epidemiology of the disease. In addition, the management of birds and cages was observed at each location studied. The frequency of C. psittaci infection was 10.6% (33/311) in the psittacine birds studied. Birds kept in households were less frequently positive (3.4%; 5/148) than those at pet markets (17.2%; 28/163). Among the several factors analysed in the epidemiology of the disease, only population density (P = 0.001) and cage hygiene (P = 0.041) in birds at pet markets were significantly associated with C. psittaci infection. These results demonstrate the presence of C. psittaci infection in Psittaciformes kept as pets and held at pet markets in Salvador, Bahia, showing that this micro-organism is a public health concern. Control measures should be encouraged to prevent the spread of the agent among birds, as well as among employees and customers. PMID:24430249

Santos, F; Leal, D C; Raso, T F; Souza, B M P S; Cunha, R M; Martinez, V H R; Barrouin-Melo, S M; Franke, C R

2014-03-01

340

Paralytic shellfish toxins in the chocolata clam, Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae), in Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California.  

PubMed

Occurrence and toxic profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in the chocolata clam Megapitaria squalida were investigated. From December 2001 to December 2002, 25 clams were obtained monthly from Bahia de La Paz, Gulf of California. Additionally, net (20 microm) and bottle phytoplankton samples were also collected to identify toxic species. Toxins were analyzed by HPLC with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection. Toxicity in the clam was low and varied from 0.14 to 5.46 microg/STXeq/100 g. Toxicity was detected in December, March, April, June, and August. Toxin profile was composed mainly by STX, GTX2, GTX3, dcGTX2, dcGTX3, C2, dcSTX and B1. Gymnodinium catenatum was the only PST-producing dinoflagellate identified in the phytoplankton samples throughout the study period. G. catenatum was observed mainly in net samples from December 2001 to December 2002; however, in bottle samples, G. catenatum was only observed in five months. Highest abundance (2600 cells l(-1)) was observed in March and the lowest (160 cells l(-1)) in June. G. catenatum mainly formed two-cell chains and rarely four or eight. The presence of PST in net phytoplankton samples support the fact that G. catenatum is the main source of PST in the clams. This study represents the first report of PST toxins in the chocolata clam from Bahia de La Paz. PMID:17465127

Gárate-Lizárraga, I; Bustillos-Guzmán, J J; Erler, K; Muñetón-Gómez, M S; Luckas, B; Tripp-Quezada, A

2004-09-01

341

Official crime data versus collaborative crime mapping at a Brazilian city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July of 2013 a group of undergraduate students from the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, published a collaborative web map called "Where I Was Robbed". Their initial efforts in publicizing their web map were restricted to announce it at a local radio as a tool of social interest. In two months the map had almost 10.000 reports, 155 reports per day and people from more the 350 cities had already reported a crime. The present study consists in an investigation about this collaborative web map spatial correlation to official robbery data registered at the Secretary of Public Safety database, for the city of Salvador, Bahia. Kernel density estimator combined with map algebra was used to the investigation. Spatial correlations with official robbery data for the city of Salvador were not found initially, but after standardizing collaborative data and mining official registers, both data pointed at very similar areas as the main hot spots for pedestrian robbery. Both areas are located at two of the most economical active areas of the city, although web map crimes reports were more concentrated in an area with higher income population. This results and discussions indicates that this collaborative application is been used mainly by mid class and upper class parcel of the city population, but can still provide significant information on public safety priority areas. Therefore, extended divulgation, on local papers, radio and TV, of the collaborative crime map application and partnership with official agencies are strongly recommended.

Brito, P. L.; Jesus, E. G. V.; Sant'Ana, R. M. S.; Martins, C.; Delgado, J. P. M.; Fernandes, V. O.

2014-11-01

342

Taxonomic guide and historical review of starfishes in northeastern Brazil (Echinodermata, Asteroidea)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Presently more than 1900 species of sea stars are recognized, of which 77 are recorded for the coast of Brazil. Although the first starfish record in Brazil was published 363 years ago, our knowledge of this fauna remains unsatisfactory from a systematic and ecological point of view, particularly in the north and northeastern regions of the country. This study provides the first annotated list of sea stars from northeastern Brazil. Material described herein is housed at the collections of the Federal University of Paraíba, Federal University of Sergipe, and the Federal University of Bahia, Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo and Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Twenty-one species were identified, belonging to 12 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders. Descriptions of species are provided. Three new occurrences were recorded for northeast Brazil: Astropecten alligator, Luidia ludwigi scotti, and Mithrodia clavigera. Highest diversities of Asteroidea were encountered for the states of Bahia (n = 14 spp), Paraíba (n = 12 spp) and Pernambuco (n = 9 spp). No species were recorded for the states of Maranhão and Sergipe. Sandy substrates and depths below 10 m were the least sampled areas over the continental shelf. Herein we provide a first panorama on the fauna of Asteroidea occurring in the northeast region of Brazil, hopefully to function as a basic reference for biodiversity studies in this poorly studied area. PMID:25408612

Gondim, Anne Isabelley; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; Pereira Dias, Thelma Lúcia

2014-01-01

343

Use of porewater extracts to identify the cause of toxicity in marine and estuarine sediments  

SciTech Connect

Amphipod toxicity tests in the evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal has come under increased scrutiny by the regulated community in the Port of NY/NJ. In recent large-scale assessments of sediment quality in the harbor, the vast majority of locations were deemed highly contaminated when tested with Ampelisca abdita. Toxicity tests, by themselves, do not provide data regarding the cause of toxicity of these sediments. The enormous potential costs associated with most proposed alternatives to ocean disposal of dredged sediments has prompted the investigation of the causative agents of toxicity in sediments of the NY/NJ Harbor. Sediment from five locations in the harbor, selected in consultation with local regulatory agencies to represent diverse potential contamination scenarios, was collected and tested for toxicity to the amphipods Ampelisca abdita, Leptocheirus plumulosus, Eohaustorius estuadus, Rhepoxynius abronius, and the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, using 10-day static bioassays. Porewater from each of the five sediments was extracted under centrifugation and used in water-only toxicity tests with A. abdita, L. plumulosus, R. abronius, E. estuadus, M. bahia, M. beryllina, and Microtox. A Phase 1 Toxicity Identification Evaluation of the three most toxic porewater samples was conducted using several of the species tested. Results from the preliminary investigations and the ongoing TIE`s will be presented. Species selection, porewater toxicity test procedures, and Phase 1, 2, and 3 paradigms will be discussed.

Douglas, W.S. [Aqua Survey, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31

344

Identification of acute toxicants in New Bedford Harbor sediments  

SciTech Connect

New Bedford Harbor (NBH) is a marine Superfund site contaminated with high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. Experiments were conducted to determine the causal toxic agent(s) in pore waters from New Bedford Harbor sediments to amphipods and mysid shrimp. Chemical manipulations to characterize toxicity revealed that pore-water toxicity was organic in nature. Fractionation and subsequent mass spectral identification of peaks in the toxic fraction indicated that PCBs. PAHs, and unknown compounds were present. Comparisons of PAH LC50s and PAH concentrations in this fraction indicated that the toxicity was not due to PAHs because the PAH concentrations were much lower than the reported PAH LC50s. One unknown peak was positively identified as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and the other tentatively identified as pyrazole. Toxicity tests and comparison of toxicity in the blank and toxic fractions eliminated the two unknowns as toxic causal agents. The authors determined the range of PCB LC50s to fall between 10 and 110 ppb for Mysidopsis bahia and Ampelisca abdita. Concentrations of PCBs for the toxic fractions ranged from 12 to 27 ppb. This range falls within the observed PCB LC50s for M. bahia and A. abdita. Based upon these PCB concentrations, they concluded that PCBs were the acute toxic agents in NBH pore waters. Other compounds in the toxic fractions, or compounds that coeluted and were undistinguished from PCBs had minor contributions to the measured toxicity.

Ho, K.T.; McKinney, R.A.; Kuhn, A.; Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Atlantic Ecology Div.

1997-03-01

345

Shallow-water stenopodidean and caridean shrimps from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil: new records and updated checklist.  

PubMed

This study deals with a recent collection of stenopodidean and caridean shrimps made in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil, in July and August 2013. Sampling was carried out in the vicinity of Ilha de Santa Bárbara (17°57'49"S 38°41'53"W). Specimens were obtained by hand or using small hand nets in tide pools or under rocks in the intertidal zone. Part of the material was collected by scuba diving in the shallow subtidal, to a maximum depth of 11 m. We obtained a total of 18 species, 12 of which are reported for the first time for the Abrolhos and 4 as new records for the state of Bahia. The distributions of Microprosthema semilaeve (von Martens, 1872), Typton gnathophylloides Holthuis, 1951, Alpheus verrilli (Schmitt, 1924) and Alpheopsis cf. trigona (Rathbun, 1901) are extended from their previously known ranges. The occurrence of Automate cf. rectifrons Chace, 1972 on the Brazilian coast is confirmed. We thus provide an updated checklist of stenopodidean (2 species) and caridean (29 species) shrimps from the Abrolhos Archipelago, incorporating and critically evaluating previous records.  PMID:25661021

Soledade, Guidomar O; Fonseca, Mytalle S; Almeida, Alexandre O

2015-01-01

346

Evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated wastewater and groundwater. Volume 3. Old O-field groundwater. Final report, July 1990-December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of contaminated Old O-Field (Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground) groundwater and the reduction and/or elimination of toxicity by various treatment processes were evaluated. The study was divided into a bench scale and pilot scale study. The bench scale studies consisted of 48-h definitive acute toxicity tests run with daphnid neonates (Daphnia magna) and juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to untreated Old O-Field groundwater and groundwater treated by metals precipitation, UV oxidation (H 2O2 ), carbon adsorption, and carbon adsorption/biological sludge. The pilot scale studies consisted of several 96-h definitive acute toxicity tests run with two freshwater and two saltwater invertebrates and fish and Ames mutagenicity assays. Acute toxicity tests were run on untreated Old O-Field groundwater and groundwater treated by metals precipitation, UV oxidation (H2O2), air stripping, and carbon adsorption during the pilot scale study. The freshwater invertebrate and fish used in the study were daphnid neonates and juvenile fathead minnows, respectively. The saltwater invertebrate and fish were juvenile mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and juvenile sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Ames tests were run on untreated groundwater, UV oxidation-treated groundwater, and carbon-treated groundwater.... Groundwater, Aquatic, Toxicity, Daphnia, Daphnia magna, Fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, Mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, Sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus.

Burton, D.T.; Turley, S.D.

1992-03-01

347

Isoenzymatic analysis of four Anopheles (Kerteszia) bellator Dyar & Knab (Diptera: Culicidae) populations.  

PubMed

Anopheles bellator is a small silvatic bromelia-breeding mosquito and is a primary human malaria vector species in Southern Brazil. The bromelia-breeding habitat of the species should accompany the Atlantic forest coastal distribution, where bromeliads are abundant. Nonetheless, records on An. bellator collections show a gap in the species geographical distribution. An. bellator has been recorded in Southern Brazil and in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Paraíba. It appears again in the island of Trinidad, in Trinidad and Tobago. The aim of this work was to measure gene flow between different populations of An. bellator collected in the northern and southern extremes of the geographic distribution of this species. Mosquitoes were captured in forest borders in Santa Catarina, São Paulo, and Bahia states in Brazil and in the island of Trinidad in Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Genetic distances varied between 0.076 and 0.680, based on enzymatic profiles from 11 distinct isoenzymes. Results indicate the existence of low-level gene flow between Brazilian populations of An. bellator, and a gene flow was even lower between the Brazilian and the Trinidad populations. This finding lead us to hypothesize that An. bellator did not spread along the coast, but reached northeastern areas through inland routes. PMID:15049088

de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

2003-12-01

348

Deaths from homicides: a historical series1  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: to describe mortality from homicides in Itabuna, in the State of Bahia. METHOD: study with hybrid, ecological and time-trend design. The mortality coefficients per 1,000 inhabitants, adjusted by the direct technique, proportional mortality by sex and age range, and Potential Years of Life Lost were all calculated. RESULTS: since 2005, the external causes have moved from third to second most-common cause of death, with homicides being responsible for the increase. In the 13 years analyzed, homicides have risen 203%, with 94% of these deaths occurring among the male population. Within this group, the growth occurred mainly in the age range from 15 to 29 years of age. It was ascertained that 83% of the deaths were caused by firearms; 57.2% occurred in public thoroughfares; and 98.4% in the urban zone. In 2012, the 173 homicides resulted in 7,837 potential years of life lost, with each death causing, on average, the loss of 45.3 years. CONCLUSIONS: mortality by homicide in a medium-sized city in Bahia reaches levels observed in the big cities of Brazil in the 1980s, evidencing that the phenomenon of criminality - formerly predominant only in the big urban centers - is advancing into the rural area of Brazil, causing changes in the map of violent homicide in Brazil. PMID:25591098

Costa, Flávia Azevedo de Mattos Moura; da Trindade, Ruth França Cizino; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

2014-01-01

349

Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian campo rupestre vegetation, with special reference to crepuscular bees.  

PubMed

Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome. PMID:22208813

Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam

2011-01-01

350

Seismic expression of Late Quaternary Banda submarine canyon and fan offshore northern Baja California  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution seismic reflection profiles obtained throughout the inner California continental borderland offshore northwestern Baja California, Mexico, show the presence of numerous modern submarine canyons and associated fans. One set of these, the Banda submarine canyon/fan, is of relatively recent origin, as demonstrated by onlap of the basal fan sediments against an acoustically transparent, presumably hemipelagic deposit. Late Quaternary sedimentation rates inferred from isotopically dated piston core samples place the age of the postulated hemipelagic unit at approximately 650,000 years ago. The Banda submarine canyon heads within the Bahia Todos Santo and passes through a narrow gorge between Punta Banda and Islas Todos Santos. It is proposed that this submarine canyon and fan system formed entirely during late Quaternary time, following the breach of the Punta Banda ridge during a late Pleistocene high sea level stand. The presence of an ancient, buried channel exiting to the north out of Bahia Todos Santos probably marks the head of an earlier submarine canyon which acted as the conduit of clastic sediments from Valle Maneadero to the deep borderland basins. The now active Banda submarine canyon pirated the supply of terrigenous clastics from this older canyon. The active Agua Blanca fault zone cuts across the head of Banda submarine canyon, suggesting that tectonic movements may have played a role in the development of the Banda submarine canyon and fan system.

Legg, M.R.

1987-05-01

351

Epidemiological and Clinical Changes in American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in an Area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Transmission Over a 20-Year Period  

PubMed Central

The Health Post of Corte de Pedra is located in a region endemic for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the Brazilian state of Bahia, and it treats 500–1,300 patients annually. To describe temporal changes in the epidemiology of ATL, we reviewed a random sample of 10% of patient charts (N = 1,209) from 1988 to 2008. There was a twofold increase in the number of cases over the 20-year period, with fluctuations in 10-year cycles. Patients were most frequently male, between the ages of 10 and 30 years, and engaged in agricultural labor; 4.3% of patients had mucosal disease, and 2.4% of patients had disseminated disease. Over the study period, the number of disseminated cases increased threefold, the proportion of cases in younger patients and agricultural workers decreased, and the proportion of patients residing in coastal areas increased. ATL is on the rise in Bahia, with a 10-year periodicity and evolving changes in epidemiology and manifestations of disease. PMID:22403312

Jirmanus, Lara; Glesby, Marshall J.; Guimarães, Luiz H.; Lago, Ednaldo; Rosa, Maria Elisa; Machado, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

2012-01-01

352

Endemic and threatened tetrapods in the restingas of the biodiversity corridors of Serra do Mar and of the Central da Mata Atlântica in eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Biodiversity corridors comprise a mosaic of land uses connecting fragments of natural forest across a landscape. Two such corridors have been established along the eastern coast of Brazil: the Serra do Mar and the Central da Mata Atlântica corridors, along which most of the coastal plains are restinga areas. In this study, we analyze the present status of the endemic and endangered terrestrial vertebrates of both corridors. We sampled 10 restingas in both corridors, recording species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Some restingas harbor a relatively large number of endemic species,and two main regions of endemism can be identified along the restingas of both corridors: the coastal restingas from northern Espirito Santo State to southern Bahia State (between Linhares, ES, and Tarancoso, BA), and the coastal region between the restingas of Maricá and Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State. Six species of terrestrial vertebrates considered threatened with extinction are found in the restingas of Serra do Mar and Central da Mata Atlântica biodiversity corridors (Liolaemus lutzae, Formicivora littoralis, Mimus gilvus, Schistochlamys melanopis, and Trinomys eliasi). The region located between the restinga of Maricá and that of Jurubatiba is of special relevance for the conservation of vertebrate species of the restingas of the corridors because a considerable number of threatened species of terrestrial vertebrates are found there. We strongly recommend efforts to develop checklists of threatened faunas for the States of Espirito Santo and Bahia. PMID:16025914

Rocha, C F D; Van Sluys, M; Bergallo, H G; Alves, M A S

2005-02-01

353

SAR measurements of coastal features in the NW Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a useful tool to study both marine water dynamics and its pollution, this is relevant near the coastline, where river pollution may be also important. Oil spills and natural slicks are detected with SAR [1-3] to reveal river and vessel pollution as well as the complex eddy and current interaction in the ocean surface near the coastline. In the framework of the ESA and European Union contracts, more than 1000 SAR images of the North-west Mediterranean Sea area taken between December 1996 and December 2008 are presented using self-similar traces that may be used to parametrize mixing at both limits of the Rossby Deformation Radius scale. Results show the ability to identify different SAR signatures and at the same time provide calibrations for the different local configurations of vortices, spirals, oil spills and tensioactive slicks that eventually allow predicting the behaviour of different tracers and pollutants in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to different polarization and intensity levels in satellite imagery can be used to distinguish between natural and man-made sea surface features due to their distinct self-similar as a function of spill parameters, environmental conditions and history of both oil release and weather conditions. (Environmental factors determine [4] spreading, drift and weathering of oil on the sea surface - see: Behaviour oil at sea). Detecting the low contrast patches depends also on the speckle noise which always presents in the image. Application of different filters (available for example in several image processing software (Matlab, Envi, IDL) to the radar data decreases noise level and improves the feature detecting in the image [1] Bezerra, M.O., Diez, M., Medeiros, C., Rodriguez, A., Bahia, E., Sanchez-Arcilla, A. and Redondo, J.M. 1998. Study on the influence of waves on coastal diffusion using image analysis. Applied Scientific Research 59, pp.191-204. [2] Carrillo, A., A., Sanchez,, M.A., Platonov, A., Redondo, J.M. 2001. Coastal and Interfacial Mixing. Laboratory Experiments and Satellite Observations. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, v. B, 26/4. pp. 305-311. [3]Redondo J., Rodriguez A., Bahia E., Falqués A., Gracia V., Sánchez Arcilla A. and Stive M.J.F. (1994). Image Analysis of Surf-Zone Hydrodynamics. Coastal Dynamics'94, ASCE. [4]Rodriguez A., Sánchez-Arcilla A., Redondo, J.M., Bahia E. and Sierra, J.P. (1995): Measurements and modelling of pollutant dispersion in the nearshore region, Water Science and Technology, IAWQ, 32, 10-19.

Redondo, Jose M.; Martinez Benjamin, Juan Jose; Diez, Margarita; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar

2013-04-01

354

Identification and distribution of New World Leishmania species characterized by serodeme analysis using monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Five hundred thirty stocks of Leishmania isolated from human and domestic and wild reservoir hosts, representing a wide geographic distribution of endemic foci of American cutaneous (ACL) and visceral leishmaniases (AVL) were characterized and identified at species and/or subspecies levels based on their reactivity to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay. This study confirms and extends our preliminary results on the high specificity of some of these monoclonals for the L. braziliensis, L. mexicana, and L. donovani complexes. This study also demonstrates the relative stability of these molecular markers and the general usefulness of the method for parasite identification. Two hundred ninety-two of 420 isolates of ACL were classified as members of the L. braziliensis complex. Two hundred twenty-seven were L. b. braziliensis; these showed the widest geographical distribution (Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo; Honduras: Santa Barbara and Yoko; Peru: Ancash, Piura, and Ucayali; and Venezuela: Cojedes, Distrito Federal, Lara, Portuguesa, Vale Hondo, Yaracuy, and Zulia). Forty-one stocks were identified as L. b. guyanensis (from North Brazil: Amazonas, Amapa, Para, and Rondonia). Twenty-one stocks were identified as L. b. panamensis (from Costa Rica: Alajuela, Guanacasten, Limon, Puntarenas, and San Jose; and Honduras: El Paraiso, and Olancho). Out of 128 isolates classified as members of the L. mexicana complex, 74 were differentiated as L. m. amazonensis (from Bolivia; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso do Norte, and Para; Peru: Pasco Forest and Van Humboldt; and Venezuela: Carabobo, Guarico, and Merida). Forty-four stocks were identified as L. m. venezuelensis (from Venezuela: Lara). Six stocks were L. m. mexicana (from Belize; and Mexico: Campeche [corrected] and Quintana Roo, Yucatan). One hundred ten isolates from AVL were identified as L. donovani chagasi (from Brazil: Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, and Sergipe; and Honduras: Valle). The implications of these results with respect to both the clinical and epidemiological data (including the detection of seven unusual characterized stocks) are discussed. PMID:3826486

Grimaldi, G; David, J R; McMahon-Pratt, D

1987-03-01

355

Conservation status and spatial patterns of AGRRA vitality indices in Southwestern Atlantic reefs.  

PubMed

Coral reefs along the Eastern Brazilian coast extend for a distance of 800 km from 12 degrees to 18 degrees S. They are the largest and the richest reefs of Brazil coasts, and represent the Southernmost coral reefs of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Few reef surveys were performed in the 90's in reef areas of Bahia State, particularly in the Abrolhos reef complex, in the Southernmost side of the state. A monitoring program applying the Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) protocol was initiated in 2000, in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, after the creation of the South Tropical America (STA) Regional Node of the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) by the end of 1999. From that time up to 2005, nine reef surveys were conducted along the coast of the State of Bahia, including 26 reefs, with 95 benthic sites, 280 benthic transects, 2025 quadrats and 3537 stony corals. Eighteen of the 26 investigated reefs were assessed once and eight reefs of Abrolhos were surveyed twice to four times. The MDS ordination, analysis of similarity (ANOSIM, one way and two-way nested layouts) and similarity percentages (SIMPER) tests were applied to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of reef vitality. Four indicators of the coral vitality: live coral cover, the density of the larger corals (colonics > 20cm per reef site) and of the coral recruits (colonies < 2cm per square meter), and the percentage of macroalgae indicate that the nearshore reefs, which are located less than 5 km from the coast, are in poorer condition than the reefs located more than 5 km off the coast. A higher density of coral colonies, lower macroalgal index, higher relative percent of turf algae and higher density of coral recruits in offshore reefs compared to the nearshore reefs are the conditions that contribute more than 80% to the dissimilarity between them. The offshore reefs are in better vital condition than the nearshore reefs and have a set of vitality indices more closely related to the Northwestern Atlantic reefs than the nearshore reef. These have been most severely impacted by the effects of direct human activities such as cuthrophic waters associated with sewage pollution, higher sedimentation rates and water turbidity, inadequate use of the reefs and over exploitation of their resources. The implementation of a more effective coral reef monitoring program in Bahia is mandatory, in order to improve the strategies for protection and management efforts of the reefs. PMID:20873038

Kikuchi, Ruy K P; Leão, Zelinda M A N; Oliveira, Marília D M

2010-05-01

356

Use of passive samplers for improving oil toxicity and spill effects assessment.  

PubMed

Methods that quantify dissolved hydrocarbons are needed to link oil exposures to toxicity. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers can serve this purpose. If fibers are equilibrated with oiled water, dissolved hydrocarbons partition to and are concentrated on the fiber. The absorbed concentration (Cpolymer) can be quantified by thermal desorption using GC/FID. Further, given that the site of toxic action is hypothesized as biota lipid and partitioning of hydrocarbons to lipid and fibers is well correlated, Cpolymer is hypothesized to be a surrogate for toxicity prediction. To test this method, toxicity data for physically and chemically dispersed oils were generated for shrimp, Americamysis bahia, and compared to test exposures characterized by Cpolymer. Results indicated that Cpolymer reliably predicted toxicity across oils and dispersions. To illustrate field application, SPME results are reported for oil spills at the Ohmsett facility. SPME fibers provide a practical tool to improve characterization of oil exposures and predict effects in future lab and field studies. PMID:25096583

Letinski, Daniel; Parkerton, Thomas; Redman, Aaron; Manning, Ryan; Bragin, Gail; Febbo, Eric; Palandro, David; Nedwed, Tim

2014-09-15

357

Two new South American species of Solanum section Crinitum (Solanaceae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species of Solanum section Crinitum are described here. Solanum falciforme Farruggia, sp. nov., closely resembles Solanum crinitum and Solanum lycocarpum, but differs by the presence of falcate trichomes on the young growth. It is endemic to the cerrado and adjacent woodlands of Distrito Federal, Bahia, Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The other species, Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia, sp.nov., has close affinities to Solanum sycophanta butdiffers from the latter in having prominent long-stalked stellate hairs along the stem, calyx, petiole and the adaxial surface of the leaf, in contrast to Solanum sycophanta which is glabrous or pubescent with sessile to short-stalked multangulate hairs. This species is narrowly distributed in tropical montane forests of northern Peru and southern Ecuador. PMID:22171169

Farruggia, Frank T.; Bohs, Lynn

2010-01-01

358

[Use of personal protective equipment for motorcycle taxi drivers: perception of risks and associated factors].  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the practices and perceptions of motorcycle taxi drivers concerning the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), based on field research and an exploratory and descriptive qualitative approach. Thirty motorcycle taxi drivers from Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, were interviewed. Data collection used a semi-structured interview and questionnaire. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The results showed: Category 1 - risk perception, subcategory conditioning/determinant factors for the use of PPE; Category 2 - adherence, subcategory adherence to the use of personal protective equipment; Category 3 - PPE as a protective factor against traffic accidents, subcategories 1 - work-related accidents, 2 - use of PPE at the time of the accident, 3 - non-use of PPE at the time of the accident. Finally, motorcycle taxi drivers clearly have some knowledge of personal protective equipment and even acknowledge the importance of its use, despite not always using it properly. PMID:24896065

Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Santos, Ninalva de Andrade; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Santos, Ramon Araújo dos; Mota, Tilson Nunes

2014-04-01

359

New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species.

Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

2015-01-01

360

In search of plumes: a GPR odyssey in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and geoelectrical surveys have been combined to outline underground contaminant plumes of industrial origin within a petrochemical center in Bahia, Brazil. Such plumes are invading the upper phreatic layers of a regional aquifer system which is being exploited for supplying cities and villages in the region, for industrial activities and even for the population of Salvador, the third largest city in Brazil. Three case studies are presented: two are related to conductive plumes localized beneath a metallurgical plant and an effluent treatment plant and another, a DNAPL plume below a dirt petrochemical unit. Resistivity soundings and transverse profiling were useful for a gross delineation of the aquifer structure and the extent of the contamination. GPR processed sections were employed for refining the subsurface stratigraphy and petrophysics as well as for a more precise mapping of the plume boundaries.

Ulrych, T.J. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Lima, O.A.L. de; Sampaio, E.E.S. [Univ. of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

1994-12-31

361

Influence of proximity to an urban center in the pattern of contamination by marine debris.  

PubMed

In order to test the relationship between the occurrence of marine debris and the distance from urban areas, nine beaches in the metropolitan area of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil and the adjacent northern coast were studied. Marine debris were collected, sorted in several categories and weighed. It was observed that plastics were numerically the most abundant component of the collected debris. As expected, the beaches closest to Salvador presented the largest density of debris, with the exception of the Porto da Barra beach, which has an efficient public cleaning system and does not have any vegetation, making it difficult to accumulate solid waste. Linear regression analyses showed significant relationships between the distance from the urban center (Salvador) and the number of marine debris per m(2), the total number of debris per beach (abundance), and the diversity of debris types (richness). The results showed that proximity to urban regions was a key factor in the marine debris distribution along the coast. PMID:24530003

Leite, A S; Santos, L L; Costa, Y; Hatje, V

2014-04-15

362

A complete skeleton of the giant South American primate Protopithecus.  

PubMed

A complete skeleton of a large-bodied New World monkey has been found in Pleistocene cave deposits in the Brazilian state of Bahia. It demonstrates an unprecedented combination of body size, locomotor and cranial morphology. Skeletal features indicate an animal of approximately 25 kg, more than twice the mass of any living South American monkey. We refer the specimen to Protopithecus brasiliensis Lund, 1838, a large Pleistocene primate originally represented by only a proximal femur and distal humerus. The skeleton resembles species of two distinct New World monkey lineages. The cranium is modified for an enlarged vocal sac typical of living howler monkeys, and the postcranium includes suspensory and brachiating components of locomotion as seen in living spider and woolly spider monkeys. This skeleton confirms that adaptive diversity in neotropical primates was greater in the recent past, and that current interpretations of how their distinctive adaptations evolved should be revised. PMID:8692267

Hartwig, W C; Cartelle, C

1996-05-23

363

The German transit of Venus expeditions of 1874 and 1882: organization, methods, stations, results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first major Government-funded German scientific enterprise was triggered by a smaller one to observe the total solar eclipse of 1868. The photoheliograph built for this occasion was later used for transit of Venus observations, together with three similar instruments. Furthermore, five small Fraunhofer heliometers were used to visually measure the position of Venus on the solar disk. The 1874 expeditions went to Tschifu (China), Kerguelen, Auckland and Mauritius Islands, to Isfahan (Persia) and Luxor (Egypt). The low accuracy achieved from the photographic observations led to the abandonment of such studies in the next transit. The 1882 transit expeditions went to Hartford (Connecticut), Aiken (South Carolina), Bahia Blanca (Argentina), Punta Arenas (Chile) and Royal Sound (South Georgia Island). Meticulous calibrations of the heliometers were carried out before and after the transits, and final results of contact timings, photographic and heliometric observations were only published in 1896.

Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

2004-06-01

364

The complete nucleotide sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus from Brazil infecting Abutilon.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequence of Abutilon mosaic Brazil virus (AbMBV), a new bipartite begomovirus from Bahia, Brazil, is described and analyzed phylogenetically. Its DNA A is most closely related to those of Sida-infecting begomoviruses from Brazil and forms a phylogenetic cluster with pepper- and Euphorbia-infecting begomoviruses from Central America. The DNA B component forms a cluster with different Sida- and okra-infecting begomoviruses from Brazil. Both components are distinct from those of the classical Abutilon mosaic virus originating from the West Indies. AbMBV is transmissible to Nicotiana benthamiana and Malva parviflora by biolistics of rolling-circle amplification products and induces characteristic mosaic and vein-clearing symptoms in M. parviflora. PMID:20349251

Paprotka, T; Metzler, V; Jeske, H

2010-05-01

365

Nursing professional education: implications of education for transpersonal care.  

PubMed

This study identifies the perceptions of undergraduate nursing students concerning their education to provide transpersonal care. This qualitative study was conducted in four public universities in Bahia, Brazil with 16 seniors (non-probabilistic sampling) through semi-structured interviews, analyzed through the Collective Subject Discourse. The results expressed the students' feelings in the face of the challenge to provide transpersonal care; the psycho-cognitive competencies required by inter-subjective praxis; their perceptions concerning the curriculum in relation to the psycho-emotional dimension of being, untying critical knots; strategies suggested. The final reflections indicate the need to implement changes in the professional education of nurses in order to recover the humanistic view while preserving the scientific view. Undergraduate courses should develop an interactive methodology capable of supporting a more humane, sensitive and inter-subjective care praxis. PMID:21584370

Nunes, Emanuelle Caires Dias Araújo; da Silva, Luzia Wilma Santana; Pires, Eulina Patricia Oliveira Ramos

2011-01-01

366

Cytogenetic divergence in two sympatric fish species of the genus Astyanax Baird and Girard, 1854 (Characiformes, Characidae) from northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The fish genus Astyanax is widespread throughout the Neotropical region and is one of the most species-rich genera of the Characiformes. Cytogenetic studies of Astyanax have revealed marked intra- and interspecific diversity, with the identification of various species complexes. In this report, we describe the karyotypic structure of two sympatric species of Astyanax (Astyanax sp. and Astyanax aff. fasciatus) from the Middle Contas River basin in the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. Both species had 2n = 48 but differed in their karyotypic formulae. Small heterochromatic blocks and multiple nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were identified in both species. Terminal CMA(3) (+)/DAPI(-) signals were observed in Astyanax sp. and A. aff. fasciatus, mostly coincident with NORs. These results show that chromosomal markers can be used to identify species in this fish complex. These markers can provide useful information for evolutionary studies and investigations on the mechanisms of chromosomal diversity in Astyanax. PMID:23271941

Medrado, Aline Souza; Ribeiro, Mavione Souza; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Carneiro, Paulo Luíz Souza; Costa, Marco Antônio

2012-12-01

367

Potamalpheops tyrymembe sp. n.: the first southwestern Atlantic species of the shrimp genus Potamalpheops Powell, 1979 (Caridea: Alpheidae).  

PubMed

A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Potamalpheops Powell, 1979, P. tyrymembe sp. n., is described based on several specimens collected from burrows of the ucidid crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) and other, unknown burrowing decapods, on a mangrove flat between the Baiano and Serra rivers, Povoado de Tremembé, Maraú, state of Bahia, Brazil (14º08'51.9"S, 39º05'04.4"W). The new species belongs to the P. monodi (Sollaud, 1932) species group, based on the presence of two pairs of spiniform setae on the distal margin of the telson and non-enlarged male chelipeds. It is characterized by a short rostrum and absence of setae on the pterygostomial angle of the carapace. PMID:24870108

Soledade, Guidomar O; Santos, Patricia S; Almeida, Alexandre O

2014-01-01

368

Application of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for detection of bacterial and yeast communities along a salinity gradient in the estuary of the Cachoeira River in Brazil.  

PubMed

An estuary is a transition zone between freshwater and marine ecosystems, resulting in dilution of seawater. Estuaries are also considered environments of intense biological activity related to the processes of nutrient cycling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial community composition along a salinity gradient in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, located in southern Bahia, Brazil. The analysis of bacterial and yeast communities was performed by determining the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis band richness. Formation of zones with similar profiles of bands was observed, and the increasing richness at the intermediate zone demonstrated a clear spatial distinction of communities depending on salinity. In addition, the dissolved oxygen content, temperature, pH, salinity, and dissolved inorganic nutrient contents (NH3(+), NO2(-), NO3(-), PO4(-)) were determined. Nutrients were distributed in similar patterns, with decreasing concentrations as the salinity increases. PMID:23765981

Rodrigues, C S P; Souza, S S; Rezende, R P; Silva, A; Andrioli, J L; Costa, H; Fontana, R; Dias, J C T

2013-01-01

369

Two new species of cheilostome bryozoans from the South Atlantic Ocean .  

PubMed

Two new species of cheilostome bryozoans are described from Bahia and Espírito Santo States, Brazil-Calyptooecia conuma n. sp. and Hippotrema fissurata n. sp. Both genera are registered for the first time in the South Atlantic Ocean. Inter alia, Calyptooecia conuma n. sp. is characterized by the presence of dimorphic brooding zooids with relatively small orifices and no perioral tubercles, contrasting with bigger non-brooding zooids having larger orifices surrounded by perioral tubercles. Hippotrema fissurata n. sp. differs from congeners in colony morphology and colour, in details of the ooecium and in zooidal metrics. Specimens were collected on varied substrata, commonly calcareous nodules and shells as well as other bryozoans and sponges.  PMID:24872298

Almeida, Ana Carolina S; Souza, Facelucia B C

2014-01-01

370

Effluents of Shrimp Farms and Its Influence on the Coastal Ecosystems of Bahía de Kino, Mexico  

PubMed Central

The impact on coastal ecosystems of suspended solids, organic matter, and bacteria in shrimp farm effluents is presented. Sites around Bahía de Kino were selected for comparative evaluation. Effluent entering Bahia Kino (1) enters Laguna La Cruz (2). A control site (3) was outside the influence of effluents. Water quality samples were collected every two weeks during the shrimp culture period. Our data show that the material load in shrimp farm effluents changes biogeochemical processes and aquatic health of the coastal ecosystem. Specifically, the suspended solids, particulate organic matter, chlorophyll a, viable heterotrophic bacteria, and Vibrio-like bacteria in the bay and lagoon were two- to three-fold higher than the control site. This can be mitigated by improvements in the management of aquaculture systems. PMID:23861653

Barraza-Guardado, Ramón H.; Arreola-Lizárraga, José A.; López-Torres, Marco A.; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Magallón-Barrajas, Francisco; Ibarra-Gámez, Cuauhtemoc

2013-01-01

371

Responses of macrobenthos colonizing estuarine sediments contaminated with drilling mud containing diesel oil  

SciTech Connect

Acute toxicities and sublethal effects were determined in several investigations for 11 types of drilling muds obtained from offshore drilling sites in the Gulf of Mexico, which the Petroleum Equipment Suppliers Association supplied to the Environmental Protection Agency. All were used muds that had been recycled during drilling. Those containing the highest amounts of No. 2 diesel fuel oil were the most acutely toxic to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), quahog clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), and sand dollars (Echinarachnius parma) and elicited the greatest sublethal responses in corals (Acropora cervicornis). A lignosulfonate mud was the most toxic, followed by a lime mud containing 3.98 mg diesel/g. The present study was initiated to determine the impact of the lime mud with its diesel oil component on field colonization by macrobenthos.

Tagatz, M.E.; Plaia, G.R.; Deans, C.H.

1985-07-01

372

Canto do Brazil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Getting to Brazil is getting more and more expensive, especially considering the rising prices of flights abroad. For those who have never been, or those looking for a compelling perspective on a few regions of this huge country, this site, designed by Geoffrey Hiller is worth a look. Hiller is a photographer who first visited Brazil 25 years ago, and recently returned to explore the country at length. The Flash introduction to the site offers some lovely images, set to the backdrop of rather enchanting music, with narration provided by a woman who talks about the nature of the Brazilian soul. The various short films, which consist of photographs that dissolve and melt into each scene, deal with such locals as Salvador Bahia, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais. After viewing each short film, visitors can wander through the images contained within each film in a separate photo gallery.

Hiller, Geoffrey

373

New distributional data on aquatic and semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha & Nepomorpha) from South America  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Water bugs in general play an important role in freshwater ecosystems, and knowledge about them is essential for the study of water biology and the proper management of aquatic habitats. The Neotropical fauna is relatively well known, but the existence of large under-collected areas makes taxonomic and faunistic studies concerning the aquatic and semiaquatic bugs from tropical America urgent. New information Distributional information is presented for thirty-eight species of Gerromorpha and five Nepomorpha, including first records from the Brazilian states of Bahia (Mesovelia amoena), Ceará (Limnogonus profugus and Rhagovelia whitei), Espírito Santo (R. lucida), Goiás (Halobatopsis platensis and R. zela), Mato Grosso (Rheumatobates bonariensis), Pará (Nerthra terrestris), Paraná (H. spiniventris, Hydrometra fruhstorferi and R. janeira), Piauí (Microvelia ayacuchana, M. pulchella, Neogerris lubricus and Platyvelia brachialis), Rio de Janeiro (Martarega bentoi) and São Paulo (Rheumatobates minutus flavidus); and the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios (Rhagovelia fontanalis).

Cordeiro, Isabelle R S

2015-01-01

374

The endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a potential vector of white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. PMID:24895865

Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge

2014-06-01

375

Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra).  

PubMed

Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil. PMID:12563481

Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho

2002-12-01

376

Water quality of runoff from revegetated mine spoil.  

PubMed

Permanent vegetation plots were established on mixed overburden and topsoiled overburden on a lignite test pit in eastern Texas in 1982. Vegetative treatments included two grass-legume treatments [switchgrass (panicum virgattun) - sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) - subterrancan elover (Trifolitun subterranean) and litte bluestem (Schizachyriun scoparium) - sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) - Illinois hundleflower (Dessmanthus illinoiensis)] and three monocultures [Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), bahia grass (paspalum notatum) and yellow Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans)]. Water was applied to the 0.5m(2) plots using a sprinklertype rainfall simulator and quality of runoff was determined for each plot. Parameters analyzed included: settleable solids, total filterable solids, sediment production, infiltration rate, nitrites, nitrates, total iron and total manganese. Topsoiling significantly increased inliltration and significantly decreased filterable sediments, sediment production and settleable solids. The hydrologie qualities of the switchgrass-sideoats grama-subterranean elover mixture coincided closely with those of the Coastal bermudagrass monoculture. PMID:24221679

Trouart, J E; Knight, R W

1985-03-01

377

Sandy beaches contamination by arsenic, a result of nearshore sediment diagenesis and transport (Brazilian coastline)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the distribution of As, Fe, Ca and Al in beach sands and near-shore surface sediments along the Brazilian coast from the equatorial zone to Rio de Janeiro state. High concentrations of As (up to 120 mg kg-1) exceeding the environmentally acceptable thresholds were found in the beach sands and near-shore surface sediment in several segments of the studied coast. That increased from north to south. The significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.58) between As and calcium carbonate in the beach sands corroborated the hypothesis that calcareous bioclasts participate in metalloid retention and its accumulation in beach sediments. Most likely, enrichment of As occurs in the oxic horizon of sediments caused by the diagenetic redistribution of various elements. Enrichment of As in beach sands occurs in the coast of Bahia and Espirito Santo states. That is facilitated by clastic material of calcareous algae.

Mirlean, N.; Garcia, F.; Baisch, P.; Quintana, G. C.; Agnes, F.

2013-12-01

378

[Peripheral neurological changes in chronic Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The authors review the literature about the cronic nervous form of Chagas' disease, directing their attention toward peripheral neurological aspects. Specifically, they analyse the results obtained from a "bind" research realized in a small community in the countryside of the state of Bahia, Brazil, where a high frequency of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi is reported. From 99 individuals examined, 50 showed a positive sorological test for Chagas' disease. The most frequent neurological findings in the total of 99 individuals were sensory loss and impairment of the deep reflexes. Among those with abolition of deep reflexes, there were 18 cases carrying a positive sorology for Chagas' disease, being that 15 from these 18 cases additionally presented a mild sensory deficit, characterizing a polyneuritic syndrome. In conclusion, they suggest that there is a neuritic form, as subdivision of a nervous form of Chagas' disease, particularly identified as a mixed polyneuritis. PMID:6773510

Fortes-Rêgo, J; Macedo, V O; Prata, A

1980-03-01

379

[Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae)].  

PubMed

Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae). Parodontidae family is a group of Characiformes fishes distributed throughout South America and parts of Panama, except in the basins of the southern Bahia state in Brasil on the Atlantic coast, Patagonia and the Amazon river channel. The family includes three genera: Apareiodon Eigenmann 1916, Parodon Valenciennes 1849 y Saccodon Kner 1863, 28 recognized species and two valid genera: Parodon and Saccodon. Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis is carried out based on type, and topotypic material from Colombia. Significant differences were found in morphometric, meristic, osteologic and color characters. S. dariensis is widely distributed but P. caliensis is restricted to the upper Cauca River drainage. Three species are considered herein as synonyms of S. dariensis: Apareiodon dariensis, A. compressus and S. caucae. Sexual dimorphism is described for both species. PMID:20737840

Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro; Román-Valencia, César

2010-09-01

380

The relationship between mental disorders and types of crime in inmates in a Brazilian prison.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study conducted in prisons in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, investigated the association between the presence of psychiatric disorders in 462 prisoners and the types of crimes committed by them. Psychiatric diagnosis was obtained by means of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A statistically significant association was found between some psychiatric disorders and specific groups of crime: lifelong substance addiction with sex crimes and homicide; antisocial personality disorder with robbery and with kidnapping and extortion; borderline personality disorder with sex crimes; and lifelong alcohol addiction with fraud and conspiracy and with armed robbery and murder. It was concluded that the mental disorders considered more severe (psychosis and bipolar disorder) were not associated with violent crimes, suggesting that the severity of the psychotic disorder may be the factor that has caused psychosis to be associated with violent crimes in previous studies. PMID:24712866

Pondé, Milena P; Caron, Jean; Mendonça, Milena S S; Freire, Antônio C C; Moreau, Nicolas

2014-09-01

381

Habitat structural effect on squamata fauna of the restinga ecosystem in northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this work, we surveyed data on richness and composition of squamatan reptiles and habitat structural effect in nine areas of restinga ecosystem in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. The "restinga" ecosystems are coastal sand dune habitats on the coast of Brazil. Our main hypothesis is that the Squamata fauna composition along these restinga areas would be modulated by habitat structural. After 90 days of field sampling we recorded approximately 5% of reptile species known in Brazil. The composition of Squamata assemblages varied mainly based on the presence or absence of lizards of the genera Ameivula and Tropidurus. Our data showed that habitat structure consistently affected the composition of local Squamata fauna, especially lizards. PMID:24676173

Dias, Eduardo J R; Rocha, Carlos F D

2014-03-01

382

Learning in the informal spaces and re-signification of the existence of undergraduate students of nursing  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: to describe the perception of lecturers and undergraduate nursing students regarding the dialogic experience in the informal spaces and its relationship with training in health. METHOD: experiential descriptions were collected in the context of a public university in the non-metropolitan region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using open interviews. These descriptions were analyzed according to the principles of the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. RESULTS: it was revealed that the informal spaces contribute significantly to the construction of knowledge and professional training strengthening teaching and promoting the re-signification of the subjects' experience. CONCLUSION: it is evidenced that the dialogic experience has relevancy for rethinking the teaching-learning process in the university, such that the informal spaces should be included and valued as producers of meanings for the personal and academic life of lecturers and students, with the ability to re-signify existence. PMID:25493667

de Jesus, Isabel Silva; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Andrade, Luana Machado

2014-01-01

383

Argentine plant increases capacity, improves NGL recoveries  

SciTech Connect

Total cryogenic processing capacity at Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A.`s (TGS) Cerri complex in Bahia Blanca, Argentina, is being increased from 22 MMcmd to 40 MMcmd (776 to 1,410 MMcfd) with a future ethane-recovery capacity of 1,900 metric tons/day (mtd; 33,600 b/d) using Ortloff technology. Very high propane recovery can be maintained as the ethane recovery is controlled over a range of 1,000--1,900 mtd as needed to meet local ethane demand. Total NGL recovery can be increased from 2,600 mtd to 4,500 mtd without additional compression. The paper describes current operations, inlet-residue compression, train retrofit, C{sub 3} recovery, C{sub 2} rejection, C{sub 2} recovery, and the final dual-mode design.

Lynch, J.T. [Ortloff Engineers Ltd., Midland, TX (United States); Fernandez, C.L. [C and F Engineering S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

1997-10-06

384

[Perceptions of students, professors and users regarding the ethical dimension at odontology education].  

PubMed

The present work analyzes the perception that students, professors and users of the ambulatory have concerning the professional education in its ethical dimension, in two odontology course, a public and a private one from Bahia. It also aims to compare these perceptions with the observed ambulatory practice. With these purposes the following research instruments had been applied: questionnaires for 283 students, not-directive interviews with 32 professors and 36 users, and participatory observation in ambulatory practice in the two courses. The results show that (1) students and professors perceive the high stimulation of the ethic dimension, (2) students learn the basic concepts of bioethics theoretical knowledge, and (3) the majority of the users feel respected considering these principles. However, the observation of the ambulatory practice does not confirm all that perception results. PMID:21049167

Matos, Mariângela Silva de; Tenório, Robson

2010-10-01

385

Mass Spectrometry of Flavonoid Vicenin-2, Based Sunlight Barriers in Lychnophora species  

PubMed Central

Lychnophora salicifolia plants collected from four different places in Brazil (three states: Goias, Minas Gerais and Bahia) revealed a conserved accumulation of vicenin-2, a di-C-glycosyl flavonoid. Quantitative studies by UPLC-MS/MS showed high concentration of vicenin-2 in leaves from sixty specimens of six Lychnophora species. So the tissue distributions of vicenin-2 were evaluated in wild Lychnophora leaves (Asteraceae) by laser based imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to propose its distributions and possible functions for the species analyzed. Mass spectrometric imaging revealed that vicenin-2, unlike other flavonoids, was produced at the top of the leaves. The combination of localization and UV absorption properties of vicenin-2 suggests that it could act as a UV light barrier to protect the plants, since plants are sessile organisms that have to protect themselves from harsh external conditions such as intense sunlight. PMID:24603617

Silva, Denise Brentan; Turatti, Izabel Cristina Casanova; Gouveia, Dayana Rubio; Ernst, Madeleine; Teixeira, Simone Pádua; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

2014-01-01

386

Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the eastern Tapaculos (Aves: Rhinocryptidae: Scytalopus, Eleoscytalopus): cryptic diversification in Brazilian Atlantic Forest.  

PubMed

Scytalopus and the recently erected Eleoscytalopus are among the Neotropical groups of birds whose taxonomy is most difficult to resolve given their very conservative morphology. We investigated the phylogeny and species limits of Eleoscytalopus and the eastern Scytalopus using two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear introns of multiple individuals from all species of these groups. The eastern Scytalopus are separated in three well defined clades also supported by morphological or vocal characteristics, although the relationships between these clades could not be resolved. We found several allopatric and very divergent lineages in these genera whose characteristics are consistent with species-level divergence, especially in S.speluncae. The great divergence between E. psychopompus and its sister species supports the former as a valid species. Our results corroborate the importance of the Bahia refuge as an avian center of endemism. PMID:19632344

Mata, Helena; Fontana, Carla Suertegaray; Maurício, Giovanni Nachtigall; Bornschein, Marcos Ricardo; de Vasconcelos, Marcelo Ferreira; Bonatto, Sandro L

2009-11-01

387

New karyotypes of two related species of Oligoryzomys genus (Cricetidae, Rodentia) involving centric fusion with loss of NORs and distribution of telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequences.  

PubMed

Comparative cytogenetics studies based on conventional staining, CBG, GTG, RBG-banding, Ag-NOR staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using telomere probes, length measurements, and meiotic data were performed on two related but previously undescribed cricetid species referred to as Oligoryzomys sp. 1 and Oligoryzomys sp. 2, respectively, from Pico das Almas (Bahia: Brazil) and Serra do Cipó (Minas Gerais: Brazil). Oligoryzomys sp. 1 had 2n = 46 and Oligoryzomys sp. 2 had 2n = 44, 44/45. Our banding data and measurements as well as FISH results support the hypothesis that the difference between the diploid numbers occurred by centric fusion events. The karyotypes had conspicuous and distinguishable macro- and micro-chromosomes, and we suppose that the largest pairs (1, 2, and 3) have evolved from a higher diploid number because of successive tandem fusion mechanisms. PMID:9474904

Silva, M J; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y

1997-01-01

388

Determination of bioactivity of chemical fractions of liquid wastes using freshwater and saltwater algae and crustaceans  

SciTech Connect

Complex wastes from industrial and municipal outfalls were fractionated chemically and tested for toxicity with freshwater and saltwater algae and crustaceans. The organic fraction of each waste was subfractionated into acid-, base-, and neutral-extractable portions, and the inorganic fraction was subfractionated into its anion and cation components. All wastes affected growth of the algae Skeletonema costatum (saltwater) and Monoraphidium capricornutum (freshwater) or survival of Mysidopsis bahia (saltwater) and Daphnia magna (freshwater). Usually, bioactivity was limited to one or two subfractions. In some cases, algal growth was stimulated by a fraction or subfraction, whereas stimulation was not detected in whole waste. It is suggested that fractionation must be done in order to estimate the full potential impact of complex wastes on aquatic systems. The method can also be used to identify toxic factors before application of cost-effective control technology.

Walsh, G.E. (US Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL); Garnas, R.L.

1983-03-01

389

Comparative toxicity of oil, dispersant, and oil plus dispersant to several marine species.  

PubMed

Dispersants are a preapproved chemical response agent for oil spills off portions of the U.S. coastline, including the Texas-Louisiana coast. However, questions persist regarding potential environmental risks of dispersant applications in nearshore regions (within three nautical miles of the shoreline) that support dense populations of marine organisms and are prone to spills resulting from human activities. To address these questions, a study was conducted to evaluate the relative toxicity of test media prepared with dispersant, weathered crude oil, and weathered crude oil plus dispersant. Two fish species, Cyprinodon variegatus and Menidia beryllina, and one shrimp species, Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia), were used to evaluate the relative toxicity of the different media under declining and continuous exposure regimes. Microbial toxicity was evaluated using the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fisheri. The data suggested that oil media prepared with a chemical dispersant was equal to or less toxic than the oil-only test medium. Data also indicated that continuous exposures to the test media were generally more toxic than declining exposures. The toxicity of unweathered crude oil with and without dispersant was also evaluated using Menidia beryllina under declining exposure conditions. Unweathered oil-only media were dominated by soluble hydrocarbon fractions and found to be more toxic than weathered oil-only media in which colloidal oil fractions dominated. Total concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in oil-plus-dispersant media prepared with weathered and unweathered crude oil were both dominated by colloidal oil and showed no significant difference in toxicity. Analysis of the toxicity data suggests that the observed toxicity was a function of the soluble crude oil components and not the colloidal oil. PMID:15648769

Fuller, Chris; Bonner, James; Page, Cheryl; Ernest, Andrew; McDonald, Thomas; McDonald, Susanne

2004-12-01

390

Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variation across calving lagoons in Eastern North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus).  

PubMed

Accurate knowledge of population structure in cetaceans is critical for preserving and managing breeding habitat, particularly when habitat is not uniformly protected. Most eastern gray whales return to their major breeding range each winter along the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrating in 3 major calving lagoons, but it is unknown whether genetic differences exist between lagoons. Previous photo-identification studies and genetic studies suggest that gray whales may return to their natal lagoons to breed, potentially resulting in the buildup of genetic differences. However, an earlier genetic study used only one genetic marker and did not include samples from Bahia Magdalena, a major calving lagoon not currently designated as a wildlife refuge. To expand on this previous study, we collected genetic data from the mitochondrial control region (442 bp) and 9 microsatellite markers from 112 individuals across all 3 major calving lagoons. Our data suggest that migration rates between calving lagoons are high but that a small but significant departure from panmixia exists between Bahia Magdalena and Laguna San Ignacio (Fisher's Exact test, P < 0.0001; F(ST) = 0.006, P = 0.025). Coalescent simulations show that the lack of extensive population structure may result from the disruption of structure due to whaling. Another possibility is that rates of migration have always been high (>10% per generation). In addition, microsatellite data showed evidence of a severe population bottleneck. Eastern gray whales are still recovering from the impacts of whaling on their breeding grounds, and these populations should be protected and monitored for future genetic changes. PMID:18974400

Alter, S Elizabeth; Ramirez, Sergio Flores; Nigenda, Sergio; Ramirez, Jorge Urbán; Bracho, Lorenzo Rojas; Palumbi, Stephen R

2009-01-01

391

Determination of irritant threshold concentrations to weeds, trees and grasses through serial dilutions in intradermal testing on healthy clinically nonallergic dogs.  

PubMed

Irritant threshold concentration (ITC) for intradermal testing (IDT) was determined in 31 healthy, clinically nonallergic dogs. Twenty-three allergens were tested at five variable concentrations ranging from 1000 to 8000 PNU/mL. To distinguish irritant reactions from subclinical IgE-mediated hypersensitivities, serum allergy testing was performed. ITCs were determined by evaluating the lowest concentration to which no dogs (0% cut-off) and to which at least 10% of dogs (> or = 10% cut-off) reacted. ITCs at the 0% cut-off were: 1000 PNU/mL (Johnson grass), 2000 PNU/mL (Ash, Lamb's Quarter and Bermuda), 3000 PNU/mL (Bahia, Rye, Pig Weed and Virginia Oak), 4000 PNU/mL (Marsh Elder and Maple), 5000 PNU/mL (Sorrel sheep) and 7000 PNU/mL (Cocklebur and Black Willow). ITC for Dog Fennel, Box Elder and Red Cedar was <1000 PNU/mL. ITCs at the > or = 10% cut-off were: 2500 PNU/mL (Johnson), 3000 PNU/mL (Box Elder), 5000 PNU/mL (Bahia), 6000 PNU/mL (Pigweed and Marsh Elder) and 8000 PNU/mL (Virginia Oak and Black Willow). For all other allergens, the ITC was >8000 PNU/mL and could not be determined. No significant agreement between positive values was found for the same allergen on IDT and serum allergy testing for each dog suggesting reactions caused by the determined ITCs are less likely subclinical IgE-mediated reactions. These results suggest that ITCs may vary, also they may be very high for the allergens tested and that higher test concentrations may be used for IDT for the tested allergens without inducing an irritant reaction. Further studies are needed to evaluate the benefit of higher IDT concentrations in atopic dogs. PMID:20230589

Bauer, Cynthia L; Hensel, Patrick; Austel, Michaela; Keys, Deborah

2010-04-01

392

[The fisheries and growth of Ark Clams (Arcoida: Arcidae) Anadara tuberculosa in Málaga Bay, Colombian Pacific, 2005-2007].  

PubMed

A. tuberculosa, is the most important bivalve species under exploitation in Colombia. Here, this species is found from Cabo Corrientes (Chocó) to the Ecuador border, in muddy substrates of mangrove forests. In order to determine the growth and the state of fisheries of A. tuberculosa, between December 2005 and April 2007, both, biological (in situ) and commercial studies were performed at Bahia Malaga (Colombian Pacific). The growth was estimated using the general equation of von Bertalanffy, with prior application of the methods of Bhattacharya and Powell-Wetherall. Mortality and exploitation rate were determined using the inverse model of von Bertalanffy. For the biological samplings, a total of 446 individuals of A. tuberculosa (0.64 +/- 0.13 individuals/m2) and 53 individuals (0.05 +/- 0.049 individuals/m2) of Anadara similis were collected. 79% of the catch was below 51mm. In the commercial samplings, 836 individuals of A. tuberculosa (size range: 31.1-92.2mm) were measured, but no A. similis samples were available for this. Recruitment of A. tuberculosa was higher during March, May, July and November. According to the data, A. tuberculosa might be reproducing during December, February, April and August. The data gathered with the biological samples were more reliable on explaining the growth of A. tuberculosa (K=0.332 per year, L(infinity)=88.256mm, t0=0.0556 years) than the one taken from market samples (K=0.256 per year, L(infinity)=89.77mm, t0=0733 years). The high exploitation rate (77%), the low density and the high mortality suggest that A. tuberculosa is in overexploitation state in Bahia Malaga and management strategies are urgently required. PMID:22458219

Lucero, Carlos; Cantera, Jaime; Neira, Raúl

2012-03-01

393

Protegiendo a su familia de los terremotos-Los siete pasos a la seguridad para prepararse en caso de un terremoto (en espa?ol y en ingles)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Les escribimos esta carta para comunicarle un mensaje sumamente importante sobre las preparaciones de emergencia. Historicamente, hemos sufrido terremotos aqui en el Area de la Bahia de San Francisco que han causado graves privaciones para los residentes de la comunidad y da?os increibles a nuestras ciudades. Es probable que suframos un terremoto de gran magnitud en los proximos 30 a?os. Muchos de nosotros venimos de otros paises donde hemos pasado por terremotos y por eso creemos entenderlos. Sin embargo, la manera que nos preparamos para terremotos en nuestros paises de origen puede ser distinta a la que empleamos aca en los Estados Unidos. Muy pocas personas mueren a causa de los derrumbes de los edificios en el Area de la Bahia porque la mayoria de los edificios son construidos para resistir el sacudimiento de la tierra. Pero es muy probable que su familia no tenga atencion medica, alimentos o que esten separados del uno al otro por dias o semanas. Finalmente depende de usted mantener a su familia a salvo hasta que llegue asistencia, por eso les pedimos que nos unamos para aprender a cuidar a su familia antes, durante, y despues de un terremoto. El primer paso es leer este libro. Cada uno de su familia, ni?os y adultos, pueden aprender como prepararse para un terremoto. Haga participar e incluya sus ni?os; pueden ayudarle a prepararse. Aproveche las clases ofrecidas en su comunidad sobre las preparaciones de terremotos por la Cruz Roja Estadounidense (American Red Cross). Estos cursos de preparacion son gratis y disponibles en espa?ol para todos en la comunidad sin tomar en cuenta la historia de la familia, estado legal, genero o edad. Les recomendamos que tome ventaja de estas clases gratuitas. Para mas informacion consulte la ultima pagina de este libro. Recuerde que un terremoto puede ocurrir sin aviso y la unica manera de reducir el da?o de terremotos es estar preparados. !Preparese!

Desarrollado por American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund, California Earthquake Authority, Governor's Office of Emergency Services, New America Media, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency, and U.S. Geological Survey

2007-01-01

394

Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land.  

PubMed

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucumxP. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96% and 91%, respectively, whereas bana had the lowest survival rate of 62%. The coverage and biomass of vetiver were also the highest after 6-month planting. Fertilizer application significantly increased biomass and tiller number of the four grasses, of which St. Augustine was promoted most, up to 70% for biomass, while vetiver was promoted least, only 27% for biomass. Two heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) tested in this trial had different concentrations in the oil shale residue, and also had different contents and distributions in the four grass species. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the four grasses presented a disparity of only 1.6-3.8 times, but their uptake amounts to the two metals were apart up to 27.5-35.5 times, which was chiefly due to the significantly different biomasses among them. Fertilizer application could abate the ability of the four species to accumulate heavy metals, namely concentration of heavy metals in plants decreased as fertilizer was applied. The total amount of metals accumulated by each plant under the condition of fertilization did not decrease due to an increase of biomass. In summary, vetiver may be the best species used for vegetation rehabilitation in oil shale disposal piles. PMID:14575747

Xia, H P

2004-01-01

395

Comparative toxicity of eight oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC to two aquatic test species.  

PubMed

The present study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, South Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach used consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispersants, including Corexit 9500A, the predominant dispersant applied during the DeepWater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Static acute toxicity tests were performed using two Gulf of Mexico estuarine test species, the mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia) and the inland silversides (Menidia beryllina). Dispersant-only test solutions were prepared with high-energy mixing, whereas water-accommodated fractions of LSC and chemically dispersed LSC were prepared with moderate energy followed by settling and testing of the aqueous phase. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values for the dispersant-only tests were calculated using nominal concentrations, whereas tests conducted with LSC alone and dispersed LSC were based on measured total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. For all eight dispersants in both test species, the dispersants alone were less toxic (LC50s: 2.9 to >5,600 µl/L) than the dispersant-LSC mixtures (0.4-13 mg TPH/L). Louisiana sweet crude oil alone had generally similar toxicity to A. bahia (LC50: 2.7 mg TPH/L) and M. beryllina (LC50: 3.5 mg TPH/L) as the dispersant-LSC mixtures. The results of the present study indicate that Corexit 9500A had generally similar toxicity to other available dispersants when tested alone but was generally less toxic as a mixture with LSC. PMID:21766318

Hemmer, Michael J; Barron, Mace G; Greene, Richard M

2011-10-01

396

Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera).  

PubMed

The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará). Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern). Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of Rhinophylla pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to Rhinophylla pumilio (pair 15). However, two chromosomes of Mimon crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes described for Rhinophylla pumilio. PMID:24260663

Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Farias, Solange Gomes; Rissino, Jorge Dores; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

2012-01-01

397

Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará). Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern). Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of Rhinophylla pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to Rhinophylla pumilio (pair 15). However, two chromosomes of Mimon crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes described for Rhinophylla pumilio. PMID:24260663

Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Farias, Solange Gomes; Rissino, Jorge Dores; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

2012-01-01

398

Zero Tillage cotton systems and soil quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity. Cotton is a deep tap-rooted crop, sensitive to physical and chemical impediments to root development; this has engendered a paradigm of heavy soil preparation operations to remove these. But, ZT can overcome such obstacles, allowing the cotton crop to benefit from cost reductions and a number of other benefits, especially erosion control.. Soil quality has three principal dimensions. Maximum yields only occur when soil fertility, structure and biological activity are in balance. Under Zero Tillage management of Brazilian soils, the processes of nutrient availability, nutrient cycling and efficiency result from increasing SOM and higher CEC. ZT system fertility is also strongly influenced by total annual aerial and root biomass generation; C:N ratios of the biomass, changes in aeration in residue breakdown processes (for roots, dependent on internal drainage), reduced fixation of Phosphorus fertilizers, the possibility of surface application of P and K, use of deep-rooted cover crops to re-cycle nutrients and deleterious effects of over-liming. Soil physical parameters undergo a transformation : greater water holding capacity, a small increase in bulk density (ameliorated by a reversal of soil aggregate breakdown inherent to conventional tillage by the binding action of root exudates and fungal hyphae), enhanced particle aggregate size protects SOM from oxidation; old root holes create semi-permanent macro-pores which facilitate rooting, aeration and rainfall infiltration.. Soil life of all types benefits from ZT management and contributes to soil fertility and structural improvements, plus enhancing certain biological controls of pathogenic organisms and allelopathic control of weeds by root exudates and residue breakdown products. Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity.

Landers, J. N.; de Freitas, P. L.

2012-04-01

399

Diffusion, intermittency and scaling in wave breaking turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of 3D turbulent velocity have been made near the coast for a variety of weather conditions in the wave breaking zone, and these values have been compared with flume measurements at a 100m long wave tank. There is a strong dependence of the integral lenthscales with the Wave Reynolds number as well as with the position and the wind, quantified through the friction velocity from wind profiles measured at the coastline. Earlier results have been published in Bezerra et al. (1998) and Rodriguez et al(1999). Several effects are important and give several decades of variation of eddy diffusivities measured near the coastline (between 0.0001 and 2 m2s-1)Inman et al.(1971), Zeitler(1976). Measurements of electromagnetic and ADV velocity measurements of the Coastal wave generated turbulence are compared in order to invest the scaling and intermittency of the turbulence produced by wave breaking. The velocity measurements were performed with an array of electromagnetic sensors that could be placed along the coastline in a stainless steel sledge. Rodriguez et al.(1994,1999) showed a parabolic shape of cross-shore diffusivity values but present analysis also shows the crosshore dependence of the intermittency as well as changes in the spectral slopes. Bezerra M.O., Diez M., Medeiros C., Rodriguez A., Bahia E. Sanchez-Arcilla A. y Redondo J.M. (1998) Study on the influence of waves on coastal diffusion using image analysis Applied Scientific Research. 59, 191-204. Rodriguez A., Sanchez-Arcilla A., Redondo J.M and C. Mosso (1999) Macroturbulence measurements with electromagnetic and ultrasonic sensors: a comparison under high-turbulent flows. Experiments in Fluids, 27, 31-42. Inman, D. L.; Tait, R.J.; Nordstrom, C.E. (1971). Mixing in the surf zone. Journal of Geophysical Research, vol 76, n° 15, 3493 - 3514. Zeidler, R. B. (1976) Coastal dispersion of pollutants, Journal of the Waterways Harbors and Coastal Engineering Division, 235 - 254 p. Rodriguez, A.; Bahia, E.; Falques, A.; Arcilla, A. S. And Stive, M. J. F. (1994) Image analysis of surf zone hydrodynamics. Coastal Dynamics 94. A.S.C.E., 350-365.

Redondo, J. M.; Mosso, C.; Marino, R.

2009-04-01

400

Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic investigations on Isla de los Estados, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expedition in November-December 2005 to Isla de los Estados (Staten Island) off the southeastern tip of South America was a cooperative venture between Lund University (LU) and Stockholm University (SU) in Sweden and the CADIC-CONICET Institute in Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim of the expedition was threefold: (1) to extend the Swedish paleoclimatic "ATLANTIS"-project (Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Azores, Grenada, Tristan da Cunha; PI S Björck) to the southern part of the South American continent, (2) to connect earlier glacial and climate history reconstructions from the Antarctic Peninsula to equivalents north of the Drake Passage in southernmost South America, and (3) to complement paleo-information available from the Tierra del Fuego mainland with information from Isla de los Estados. Focus was on two areas in the northern and north-western part of the island, Bahía Colnett and Bahia Crossley. Detailed geomorphologic and stratigraphic mapping of glacial deposits were combined with sampling sediments for OSL dating. To reconstruct the paleoclimatic development of Isla de los Estados since the last ice retreat, four main peat bog/lake sites were cored and sampled. In addition, living trees of Nothofagus and old logs preserved in the peat were sampled for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies. Preliminary results show that the deglaciation of the study area occurred before 16500 cal yr BP. Detailed multi- proxy analyses of the four sequences are under way and first results will be presented.

Björck, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hjort, C.; Ljung, K.; Martinez, O.; Möller, P.; Ponce, F.; Rabassa, J.; Roig, F.; Unkel, I.; Wohlfarth, B.

2007-05-01

401

Genetic variability and geographical diversity of the main Chagas' disease vector Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Triatominae) in Brazil based on ribosomal DNA intergenic sequences.  

PubMed

Studies were made on the ribosomal DNA intergenic region, comprising complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 sequences, of populations of the triatomine Panstrongylus megistus, the most important vector of Chagas' disease in Brazil since Triatoma infestans eradication. Specimens were from 26 localities of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Bahia, and Sergipe states. In total, 21 ITS-1 and 12 ITS-2 haplotypes were found. Nucleotide differences were higher in ITS-1 (3.00%) than in ITS-2 (1.33%). The intergenic region was 1,513-1,522-bp-long (mean 1,516.9 bp), providing 26 combined haplotypes. The combination of microsatellites found in both ITSs may be of applied usefulness, to assess interpopulation specimen exchange and potential recolonizations after vector elimination by control implementation. Network results suggest that São Paulo may be considered one of the spreading centers of this species. Molecular clock datation suggests that P. megistus populations are diversifying at least since 4.54 million years ago, with diversification still ongoing today by geographical isolation of populations. Evidence is provided about the relationship of genetic diversity with geographical spread that characterizes a major vector and explains its ability to colonize distant areas and different ecotopes, including human habitats, and consequently its importance in Chagas' disease epidemiology. PMID:24897854

Cavassin, Francelisse Bridi; Kuehn, Christian Collins; Kopp, Rogério Luiz; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanette; Da Rosa, João Aristeu; Luz, Ennio; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, María Dolores

2014-05-01

402

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice  

PubMed Central

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications. PMID:25182278

Cortés-Rojas, Diego Francisco; de Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandes; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira

2014-01-01

403

Evaluation of Mobility, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Pb and Cd in Contaminated Soil Using TCLP, BCR and Earthworms  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to investigate the reduction of mobility, availability and toxicity found in soil contaminated with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) from Santo Amaro Municipality, Bahia, Brazil using two combined methods, commonly tested separately according to the literature: metal mobilization with phosphates and phytoextraction. The strategy applied was the treatment with two sources of phosphates (separately and mixed) followed by phytoremediation with vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)). The treatments applied (in triplicates) were: T1—potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4); T2—reactive natural phosphate fertilizer (NRP) and; T3—a mixture 1:1 of KH2PO4 and NRP. After this step, untreated and treated soils were planted with vetiver grass. The extraction procedures and assays applied to contaminated soil before and after the treatments included metal mobility test (TCLP); sequential extraction with BCR method; toxicity assays with Eisenia andrei. The soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) for Pb and Cd were estimated in all cases. All treatments with phosphates followed by phytoremediation reduced the mobility and availability of Pb and Cd, being KH2PO4 (T1) plus phytoremediation the most effective one. Soil toxicity however, remained high after all treatments. PMID:25386955

Kede, Maria Luiza F. M.; Correia, Fabio V.; Conceição, Paulo F.; Salles Junior, Sidney F.; Marques, Marcia; Moreira, Josino C.; Pérez, Daniel V.

2014-01-01

404

Finding oil in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Although oil in fractures of bituminous shales of Early Cretaceous age had been known since 1858 in Bahia, oil production in Brazil was delayed for eight decades. There were two fundamental reasons for this belated development. First, the paucity of good oil and gas seeps like those found in other countries and second, Brazilian entrepreneurs did not have the financing or the tradition of risk taking and technology to plunge into oil exploration. Thus, the development of the oil industry in Brazil evolved along different lines than in other countries. Petrobras was the beginning of the modern period of oil exploration in Brazil. Utilizing seismic interpretation methods, oil was discovered onshore in the Sergipe-Alagoas basin in 1957, in the Espirito Santo basin in 1969, and in the Potiquar basin in 1979. After many years of frustration looking for commercial oil in the huge Amazon basin, Petrobras discovered gas in the Jurua River Valley in 1978. Although offshore drilling began with discovery of the Guaricema field in 1968, it was not until the advent of modern offshore drilling and seismic technology that the prolific Garoupa field was discovered in 1974 which opened up the Campos basin. Furthermore, identification of huge structures in deep water by 3D seismic mapping methods indicate a bright future for Petrobras in offshore Brazil.

Campos, C.W.M.; Delaney, P.J.V. (Board of Stena Maritima, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1989-09-01

405

Effect of dominant Spartina species on salt marsh detritus production in SW Atlantic estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two cordgrass species of the genus Spartina cohabit in SW Atlantic (southern Brazil 31º48' S to Argentinean Patagonia, 43º20' S) salt marshes. Some salt marshes are dominated by the dense-flowered cordgrass Spartina densiflora (which inhabits the upper intertidal level) and others by the smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora (which inhabits the lower intertidal level). We investigated how the different species dominance affects the detritus dynamics in the Bahia Blanca estuary (38º47' S, 62º20' W Argentina). Field measurements of annual detritus production using destructive methods show that both plants are similar. However, detritus of S. alterniflora shows higher decomposition rates than that of S. densiflora. This difference may be due to a larger N content, lower lignocellulose content and lower C/N ratio of S. alternifora when compared with S. densiflora. Moreover, field sampling shows that S. alterniflora has a larger amount of trapped litter that, according to the litterbag method, has higher decomposition rates. Therefore it is highly likely that S. alterniflora salt marshes contribute towards more profitable detritus for estuarine food webs than marshes dominated by S. densiflora. These results illustrate that the composition of the coastal plant community can determine the quality and profitability of the detritus that support estuarine food webs. They also illustrate that salt marshes belonging to a same biogeographic group and even coexisting in great proximity can have very different ecosystemic roles.

Montemayor, Diana I.; Addino, Mariana; Fanjul, Eugenia; Escapa, Mauricio; Alvarez, M. Fernanda; Botto, Florencia; Iribarne, Oscar O.

2011-08-01

406

Comparative Chemistry of Propolis from Eight Brazilian Localities  

PubMed Central

Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo) type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1) black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state) and Pirenópolis (Goiás state); (2) green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state), Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state), Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state), and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state). The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose) in green propolis. PMID:23690840

Righi, A. A.; Negri, G.; Salatino, A.

2013-01-01

407

Miami Art Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you pay a virtual visit to the Miami Art Museum (MAM) before October of this year, you can join in on "I Wish Your Wish" online. Submit a wish, and you'll receive someone else's. Share their wish on Facebook, by email, Twitter, or dozens of other modes and you'll be emailed a free pass to visit the Museum. The on-site installation of "Eu desejo o seu desejo / I Wish Your Wish", by Brazilian artist Rivane Neuenschwander, consists of thousands of multicolored ribbons printed with wishes. Visitors are invited to choose wishes from past visitors and replace them with their own, based on a similar practice at the church of Nosso Senhor do Bonfim in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Other current exhibitions include BETWEEN HERE AND THERE, Modern and Contemporary Art from the Permanent Collection and Mark Dion's "South Florida Wildlife Rescue Unit", an installation that examines humans' interactions with the Florida Everglades since the 1700s. There's also an entire section of the website devoted to the new MAM, currently under construction, sited in Museum Park on Biscayne Bay.

408

[Undergraduate students in Public Health: a socio-demographic profile and motivations].  

PubMed

Undergraduate Courses in Public Health (UCPH) feature a new way of teaching in the Public Health field that aims to educate professionals focused on the main health needs of the Brazilian population and on the Unified Health System. Thus, it is relevant to know the students' socio-demographic profile including their interests in relation to education and professional development. Adopting a quantitative approach with these objectives, a survey was conducted with 304 UCPH students who filled out a semi-structured questionnaire in 2010 in the following federal universities: Acre, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Norte. The overwhelming majority was female, around 26 years of age, single, living with their parents, mostly attended public school, came from lower classes with lower educational background, approved night classes, worked, and contributed to their family incomes. They aspired to work in public sector - preferably in the state capitals - and they saw UCPH as an opportunity to work in the public health field. This profile reveals challenges and advances in the intended education, reinforcing the need to monitor the UCPH development process. PMID:23752532

Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer; Fagundes, Terezinha de Lisieux Quesado; Nunes, Tânia Celeste Matos; Gil, Célia Regina Rodrigues; Pinto, Isabela Cardoso de Matos; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Viana, Solange Veloso; Correa, Guilherme Torres; de Aguiar, Raphael Augusto Teixeira

2013-06-01

409

Beauveria bassiana Strains for Biological Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Plantain  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to select strains of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) in plantain farms (cv. Terra) of the “Recôncavo” and southern regions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The virulence of 32 B. bassiana isolates against C. sordidus was determined under laboratory conditions. Three isolates (CNPMF 407, CNPMF 218, and CNPMF 416) were selected for evaluation under field conditions in plantations located in the counties of Mutuípe and Wenceslau Guimarães. Population of C. sordidus was estimated every 15 days by using pseudostem traps. The efficiency of the three strains of B. bassiana was compared to chemical control (carbofuran, 4g/trap) and absence of control. Carbofuran caused around 90% of adult mortality after 12 months, with a reduction in the population of C. sordidus since the first evaluation. A low number of trapped insects was observed in the fungus-treated plots, suggesting the efficiency of the isolates in controlling the C. sordidus population. The strain CNPMF 218 was the most efficient in controlling C. sordidus adults in both locations, causing around 20% mortality, leading to 40% population size reduction after 12 months. PMID:24187659

Dias, Alex Batista; Delalibera Júnior, Italo; de Jesus, Sandra Cerqueira; do Nascimento, Antonio Souza; Silva, Sebastião de Oliveira e; Caldas, Ranulfo Correa; Ledo, Carlos Alberto da Silva

2013-01-01

410

Interleukin-6 c.-174G>C Polymorphism and Periodontitis in a Brazilian Population  

PubMed Central

Aim. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the teeth supporting structures, triggered by periodontal pathogens, and is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Genes encoding molecules related to the immune response, such as cytokine, are the main candidates for polymorphisms analysis and may be possibly associated with this pathology. A G/C promoter polymorphism on the IL6 gene has been shown to affect basal IL-6 levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism and periodontitis in individuals from Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. Material and Methods. Three hundred and thirty individuals (134 cases, 196 controls) were genotyped for the IL6 c.-174G>C by MS-PCR technique. Concentrations of salivary IL-6 were determined by ELISA method. Results. The IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism was associated with periodontitis when comparing the distribution of genotypes between patients with periodontitis and control subjects. The GC genotype appeared as a protective factor for periodontitis. Results showed increased levels of salivary IL-6 in periodontitis patients. Nevertheless, there was no relationship between the concentrations of IL-6 and genotypes when comparing the case and control groups. Conclusions. Our data indicate an association between IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism and periodontitis and showed that IL-6 may be considered an important marker for periodontitis. PMID:25548674

Gabriela Teixeira, Fernanda; Mendonça, Samir Andrade; Menezes Oliveira, Kamilla; Barbosa dos Santos, Djanilson; Miranda Marques, Lucas; Mendonça Amorim, Maise; de Souza Gestinari, Raquel

2014-01-01

411

Interleukin-6 c.-174G>C Polymorphism and Periodontitis in a Brazilian Population.  

PubMed

Aim. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the teeth supporting structures, triggered by periodontal pathogens, and is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Genes encoding molecules related to the immune response, such as cytokine, are the main candidates for polymorphisms analysis and may be possibly associated with this pathology. A G/C promoter polymorphism on the IL6 gene has been shown to affect basal IL-6 levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism and periodontitis in individuals from Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. Material and Methods. Three hundred and thirty individuals (134 cases, 196 controls) were genotyped for the IL6 c.-174G>C by MS-PCR technique. Concentrations of salivary IL-6 were determined by ELISA method. Results. The IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism was associated with periodontitis when comparing the distribution of genotypes between patients with periodontitis and control subjects. The GC genotype appeared as a protective factor for periodontitis. Results showed increased levels of salivary IL-6 in periodontitis patients. Nevertheless, there was no relationship between the concentrations of IL-6 and genotypes when comparing the case and control groups. Conclusions. Our data indicate an association between IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism and periodontitis and showed that IL-6 may be considered an important marker for periodontitis. PMID:25548674

Gabriela Teixeira, Fernanda; Mendonça, Samir Andrade; Menezes Oliveira, Kamilla; Barbosa Dos Santos, Djanilson; Miranda Marques, Lucas; Mendonça Amorim, Maise; de Souza Gestinari, Raquel

2014-01-01

412

Microsatellite markers for an endemic Atlantic Forest tree, Manilkara multifida (Sapotaceae).  

PubMed

Manilkara multifida is a tropical tree that is endemic to the Atlantic forests of southern Bahia, Brazil. Currently, populations of this species are restricted to fragmented landscapes that are susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. Considering this issue, and that there is no genetic information available for this endangered species, we developed microsatellite markers for M. multifida to provide resources for future conservation genetics studies. Using an enriched genomic library, we isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite loci and optimized the amplification conditions for M. multifida. For each locus, we estimated the number of alleles, H E and H O, paternity exclusion Q, individual identity I and fixation index F, and examined the presence of null alleles. The mean number of alleles was 11.9, and the heterozygosity was high at all loci (average H E = 0.809 and H O = 0.777). The combined values for both paternity exclusion and individual identity were Q = 0.9959 and I = 5.45 × 10(-11), respectively. No evidence of null alleles was detected. The results of our analysis indicated that all eight microsatellites are promising for assessing questions involving inbreeding, gene flow, co-ancestry and mating patterns in M. multifida. PMID:23487575

Moraes, Ramiris C S; Vivas, Caio V; Oliveira, Fernanda A; Menezes, Ivandilson P P; van den Berg, Cassio; Gaiotto, Fernanda A

2013-01-01

413

Microsatellite markers for an endemic Atlantic Forest tree, Manilkara multifida (Sapotaceae)  

PubMed Central

Manilkara multifida is a tropical tree that is endemic to the Atlantic forests of southern Bahia, Brazil. Currently, populations of this species are restricted to fragmented landscapes that are susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. Considering this issue, and that there is no genetic information available for this endangered species, we developed microsatellite markers for M. multifida to provide resources for future conservation genetics studies. Using an enriched genomic library, we isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite loci and optimized the amplification conditions for M. multifida. For each locus, we estimated the number of alleles, HE and HO, paternity exclusion Q, individual identity I and fixation index F, and examined the presence of null alleles. The mean number of alleles was 11.9, and the heterozygosity was high at all loci (average HE = 0.809 and HO = 0.777). The combined values for both paternity exclusion and individual identity were Q = 0.9959 and I = 5.45 × 10–11, respectively. No evidence of null alleles was detected. The results of our analysis indicated that all eight microsatellites are promising for assessing questions involving inbreeding, gene flow, co-ancestry and mating patterns in M. multifida. PMID:23487575

Moraes, Ramiris C. S.; Vivas, Caio V.; Oliveira, Fernanda A.; Menezes, Ivandilson P. P.; van den Berg, Cassio; Gaiotto, Fernanda A.

2013-01-01

414

The German expeditions of 1874 and 1882 to observe the transits of Venus - the planning and the execution of a major scientific project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first major government-funded German scientific enterprise was triggered by a smaller one to observe the total solar eclipse of 1868. The photoheliograph built for this occasion was later used for transit of Venus observations, together with three similar instruments. Furthermore, five small Fraunhofer heliometers were used to visually measure the position of Venus on the solar disk. The 1874 expeditions went to Tschifu (China), Kerguelen, Auckland and Mauritius Islands, to Isfahan (Persia) and Luxor (Egypt). The low accuracy achieved from the photographic observations led to the abandonment of such studies in the next transit. The 1882 transit expeditions went to Hartford (Connecticut), Aiken (South Carolina), Bahia Blanca (Argentina), Punta Arenas (Chile) and Royal Sound (South Georgia Island). Meticulous calibrations of the heliometers were carried out before and after the transits, and final results of contact timings, photographic and heliometric observations were only published in 1896. When two years later the last volume (out of six) of the German Observations appeared, the discovery of the minor planet Eros would revolutionize the determination of the solar parallax.

Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

415

The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions  

PubMed Central

The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies. PMID:17010204

Begossi, Alpina

2006-01-01

416

Oxygenation variability in Mejillones Bay, off northern Chile, during the last two centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Peru Chile Current ecosystem is characterized by high biological productivity and important fisheries. Although this system is likely to be severely affected by climate change, its response to current global warming is still uncertain. In this paper, we analyze 10-166 year-old sediments in two cores collected from Mejillones Bay, an anoxic sedimentary setting favorable for the preservation of proxies. Based on a 166-year chronology, we used proxies of bottom-water oxygenation (Mo, V, S, and the (lycopane + n-C35)/n-C31 ratio) and surface water productivity (biogenic opal, counts of diatom valves, biogenic Ba, organic carbon, and chlorins) to reconstruct environmental variations in Mejillones Bay. During the last two centuries, a shift took place in the coastal marine ecosystem of Bahia Mejillones at decadal scales. This shift was characterized by intense ENSO-like activity, large-scale fluctuations in biological export productivity and bottom water oxygenation, and increased eolian activity (inferred from Ti/Al and Zr/Al). This short-term variability was accompanied by a gradual increase of sulfidic conditions that has intensified since the early 1960s.

Díaz-Ochoa, J. A.; Pantoja, S.; de Lange, G. J.; Lange, C. B.; Sánchez, G. E.; Acuña, V. R.; Muñoz, P.; Vargas, G.

2011-01-01

417

Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management  

PubMed Central

In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.). We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. PMID:21410969

2011-01-01

418

Recognition on space photographs of structural elements of Baja California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gemini and Apollo photographs provide illustrations of known structural features of the peninsula and some structures not recognized previously. An apparent transform relationship between strike-slip and normal faulting is illustrated by the overlapping vertical photographs of northern Baja California. The active Agua Blanca right-lateral strike-slip fault trends east-southeastward to end at the north end of the Valle San Felipe and Valle Chico. The uplands of the high Sierra San Pedro Martir are a low-relief surface deformed by young faults, monoclines, and warps, which mostly produce west-facing steps and slopes; the topography is basically structural. The Sierra Cucapas of northeasternmost Baja California and the Colorado River delta of northwesternmost Sonora are broken by northwest-trending strike-slip faults. A strike-slip fault is inferred to trend northward obliquely from near Cabo San Lucas to La Paz, thence offshore until it comes ashore again as the Bahia Concepcion strike-slip fault.

Hamilton, W.

1971-01-01

419

Residual fluxes of suspended sediment in a tidally dominated tropical estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses the fine sediment fluxes in the Caravelas estuarine system (Bahia, Brazil, 17o45'S and 039o12'W). The estuary reaches the ocean at the shore across from the Abrolhos Bank, the largest tropical reef habitat in the South Atlantic. The Caravelas estuarine system is composed of several meandering channels, which are connected to the ocean by a double inlet system. These two openings - the Caravelas and Nova Viçosa estuaries - are connected by a narrow, 30 km long channel. The Caravelas estuary does not receive significant continental input, while the Nova Viçosa estuary receives the contribution of the Peruíbe River, which drains an area of approximately 5000 km2. To understand the fine sediment dynamics and net transport, observations of tides, currents, salinity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were recorded in 13-h tidal surveys (spring and neap tide) and with 20-day long CTDs/ADCP moorings at the Caravelas estuary and in the interconnection channel. The SSC dynamic in the Caravelas estuary is primarily driven by advection, with SSC originating in the inlet and inner shelf area. Residual water and sediment transport are up-estuary in the Caravelas estuary and toward the Caravelas estuary in the interconnection channel. The residual transport showed pronounced synodical modulation and was stronger during spring tide. The Caravelas estuary function as a trap for inner shelf materials and fine sediments delivered by the Peruípe River at Nova Viçosa.

Schettini, Carlos Augusto França; Duarte Pereira, Marçal; Siegle, Eduardo; de Miranda, Luiz Bruner; Silva, Mário P.

2013-11-01

420

Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H., Jr.; Bonde, R.K.

2000-01-01

421

Health of subsistence fishermen and challenges for Occupational Health Surveillance.  

PubMed

There are approximately a million subsistence fishermen in Brazil whose activities expose them to severe occupational hazards without adequate health protection. This article conducts an analysis of working conditions and health risks faced by subsistence fishermen and outlines challenges to the implementation of Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT) actions. The methodology is based on qualitative analysis of risks and working conditions through observation and interviews, and diagnosis of occupational illnesses with clinical evaluation. Mobile teams conducted eight years of activities together with fishing communities throughout the state of Bahia. The results revealed the challenge of surveying a traditional self-employed category with relative management autonomy. Fishermen face precarious living conditions without access to occupational health services. They are exposed to thirty work-related illnesses without protection, diagnosis, treatment and social security coverage. The conclusion reached is that there is a need for intersectorial VISAT action to reduce excessive working hours, organization of the Unified Health System (SUS) for acknowledgement of occupational illnesses and guaranteeing social security rights through actions focused on health education. PMID:25388177

Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Gomez, Carlos Minayo

2014-12-01

422

Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management.  

PubMed

In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.).We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages.Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. PMID:21410969

Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana V; Araujo, Luciana G; Andreoli, Tainá B; Clauzet, Mariana; Martinelli, Claudia M; Ferreira, Allan G I; Oliveira, Luiz E C; Silvano, Renato A M

2011-01-01

423

Production, extraction and characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by the native Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides R2 strain.  

PubMed

The genus Leuconostoc belongs to a group of lactic acid bacteria usually isolated from fermented vegetables, which includes species involved in the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS). These biopolymers possess considerable commercial potential. Because of the wide variety of industrial applications of EPS, this study aimed to produce and characterize the native exopolysaccharide strain Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides R2, which was isolated from cabbage collected in a semi-arid region of Bahia. We employed the following conditions for the production of EPS: 10.7% sucrose, pH 8.2, without agitation and incubation at 28ºC for 30 hours. The fermentation broth was treated with ethanol and generated two types of polysaccharide substances (EPS I and EPS II). The identification of EPS I and EPS II was conducted using FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C and DEPT-135 NMR spectra. The two substances were identified as linear dextran ? polysaccharides (1 ? 6) which indicated different characteristics with respect to thermal analysis and density of free packaging, viscosity and time of solubilization. Both dextrans are of low density, possess high thermal stability and exhibited the behavior characteristic of pseudoplastic polymers. PMID:22652760

Paulo, Elinalva M; Boffo, Elisangela F; Branco, Alexsandro; Valente, Angela M M P; Melo, Itamar S; Ferreira, Antonio G; Roque, Milton R A; Assis, Sandra A de

2012-06-01

424

[Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in nursing professionals].  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among nursing assistants in Salvador, Bahia. Three hundred and eight workers, randomly selected, answered a questionnaire applied by trained interviewers during working hours. The majority of respondents worked the day shift and did not usually work overtime. About 34% reported having another regular job. Average time in the formal or informal labor market was 19 years. There was high occupational exposure to repetitive hand movements, standing posture, walking, inadequate postures of the trunk and manual handling of loads. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in at least one body segment was 83.4%.The most affected body segments were: low back (53.9%), legs (51.9%), neck (36.4%), upper back (35.7%) and shoulders (33.8%). There was high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the studied population, which points out to the need for improvements in the working conditions of those professionals. PMID:22782108

Ribeiro, Natália Fonseca; Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Solla, Davi Jorge Fontoura; Santos Junior, Anivaldo Costa; de Sena Junior, Antonio Santos

2012-06-01

425

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in asymptomatic Brazilian adolescents  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among asymptomatic Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: Transversal observational study included asymptomatic adolescents with central obesity from private and public schools in Salvador-Bahia, northeastern Brazil. The children answered a questionnaire that included age, gender, race, and medical history, and were submitted to a complete physical exam and abdominal ultrasound. Biochemical exams included: ALT, AST, GGT, C reactive protein (CRP), fasting glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides. Criteria for NAFLD included: the presence of steatosis in ultrasound and/or high level of ALT, negative or occasional historic of intake of alcohol (? 140 g/wk), negative investigation for hepatitis A, B, C, auto-immune hepatitis, Wilson disease and hemochromatosis. RESULTS: From October, 2005 to October, 2006, the study included 1801 subjects between 11 and 18 years of age and a mean age of 13.7 ± 2.0 years. One hundred ninety-nine had central obesity. The prevalence of NAFLD was 2.3%, most of whom were male and white. Insulin resistance (IR) was observed in 22.9% of them and had positive correlations with ALT and GGT (P < 0.05). Elevated CRP was observed in 6.9% of the cases; however, it was not associated with WC, IR or liver enzymes. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of NAFLD in Brazilian adolescents was low. The ethnicity may have influence this frequency in the population studied, which had a large proportion of African descendents. PMID:19152453

Rocha, Raquel; Cotrim, Helma Pinchemel; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Barbosa, Daniel Batista Valente; Santos, Adméia Souza; de Moura Almeida, Alessandro; Cunha, Bruno; Guimarães, Isabel

2009-01-01

426

Genetic assessment of the Atlantic Forest bristle porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae), an endemic species threatened with extinction.  

PubMed

The bristle-spined porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus, an endemic rodent from Atlantic Forest, was considered to be abundant in the recent past, but population reductions due to habitat loss and expansion of human activities caused this species to be included in the "vulnerable" category of the World Conservation Union Red List. We performed the first genetic assessment in natural populations of this focal species along its geographical distribution. Thirty-five non-invasive samples (hair) were collected from three natural populations in the Brazilian States of Sergipe, Bahia and Espírito Santo. Genetic similarity obtained by Jaccard's index, based on dominant RAPD and ISSR markers, varied between 25 and 100%. Four clusters, mainly coincident with the geographical distribution of the populations, were observed. Analysis of molecular variance based on 47 polymorphic loci showed that there was 15.99% genetic variability among populations and 84.01% within populations. The estimated genetic structure among populations (?(ST)) was 0.16. The populations may have formed a continuum along the past distribution of the Atlantic rainforest but historical events of human occupation resulted in recent divergence among sampled populations. PMID:21644209

Oliveira, C G; Martinez, R A; Giné, G A F; Faria, D M; Gaiotto, F A

2011-01-01

427

Ochratoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin A in cocoa during farm processing.  

PubMed

This study investigated the occurrence of fungi with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA), and the occurrence of OTA, in Brazilian cocoa beans. Two hundred and twenty two samples of cocoa were evaluated, taken at various stages of fermentation, drying and storage. Samples were collected from Bahia, the main cocoa producing region in Brazil. Fungi with the potential to produce OTA were isolated by direct plating of cocoa beans on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar after surface disinfection, and identified by standard techniques. The ability of the fungi to produce OTA was estimated using the agar plug technique and TLC. The presence of OTA in cocoa samples was determined by HPLC after immunoaffinity column clean up. The most common ochratoxigenic species found were Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger aggregate, with lower numbers of A. melleus, A. westerdijkiae and Av. ochraceus. A considerable increase in the numbers of these species was observed during drying and storage. OTA was found at all stages of cocoa processing, with the major incidence during drying and storage. The OTA levels found were in general low and there was a strong positive correlation between the presence of A. carbonarius and OTA contamination in the beans. PMID:20709419

Copetti, Marina V; Pereira, José Luís; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

2010-09-30

428

Optimization of Hyalella azteca IQ Toxicity Test{trademark} for prediction of 28-day sediment toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

The IQ Toxicity Test, which is a rapid screening toxicity test consisting of the observation of in-vivo inhibition of an enzymatic process using a fluorescent substrate, has proven successful for the determination of 24 and 48-hour EC50`s of D. magna, C. dubia, D. pulex and M. bahia. The application of this concept to utilize the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca may be an excellent way in which to reduce the standard 28-day chronic sediment toxicity test to possibly one hour`s time. This study incorporates an additive experimental design to explore the effects of and interactions between five specific variables: size of the amphipod, exposure time to the toxicant, concentration of substrate, exposure time to the substrate, and length of time starved prior to testing. The results of the IQ toxicity test were compared to those of a 28-day chronic sediment toxicity test. Preliminary data indicate that there is an optimal combination of these variables which results in a concise, reproducible toxicity test for use with Hyalella azteca, and would potentially be applicable to other freshwater amphipods in the future.

Novotny, A.N.; Ezzard, C.L.; Douglas, W.S.; Home, M.T. [Aqua Survey, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

429

Dietary Patterns and Wheezing in the Midst of Nutritional Transition: A Study in Brazil  

PubMed Central

To assess the influence of dietary patterns on the prevalence of wheezing in the child and adolescent population in Northeastern Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of male and female students, 6–12 years old, from the public elementary schools of São Francisco do Conde, Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The report of wheezing in the past 12 months was collected using a questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Program phase III, adapted to Portuguese. Consumption patterns were derived from principal component analysis based on the frequency of consumption of 97 food items by the food frequency questionnaire. We also obtained the anthropometric status, level of physical activity, pubertal development, and socioeconomic information, for each participant. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations of interest. Of the children surveyed, 10.6% reported having wheezing. We identified 2 dietary patterns named Western and Prudent. We found a positive statistically significant association of the Western pattern with wheeze (odds ratio=1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.10–2.84) after adjustment for total energy intake and controlling for potential confounders. The results showed that the Western dietary pattern was associated with wheezing. Our result is according with previous findings reported in several other studies. PMID:23555072

Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Cruz, Alvaro Augusto; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; DInnocenzo, Silvana; Barreto, Maurício Lima; da Silva, Luce Alves; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria

2013-01-01

430

Use of marine TIE methods in determining causes of toxicity to fish in a public marine aquarium  

SciTech Connect

Aquarium personnel observed that a number of organisms in the coral reef tank were succumbing to fungal and other diseases. It was suspected that organisms were compromised due to a common environmental stressor because many types of fish were affected. One possible stressor was the home-made painted coral decor in the tank. The coral reef decor was crumbling in several sections of the display and release of toxic agents was suspected. A water sample containing broken pieces of the decor was shipped to the lab and a TIE performed. Phase 1 TIE results indicated that toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia (mysid shrimp) was removed after EDTA addition and to some extent after cation exchange column treatment.None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange column treatment. None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange columns will be presented. This study demonstrates a unique application of TIE methods.

Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; Burgess, R.M.; Pelletier, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Charles, J. [Science Application International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)

1995-12-31

431

Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.  

PubMed

The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging. PMID:24615028

Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

2014-01-01

432

Microbial genotoxicity as an environmental indicator for near-coastal sediment pore waters.  

PubMed

The genotoxic potential of sediment pore water collected from coastal areas in the Gulf of Mexico has not been reported frequently in the literature. This report summarizes a study of the microbial mutagenicity of 31 pore water samples obtained from sediment affected by non-point source runoff and compares the results with those for more traditional chemical and biological indicators of sediment quality. Genotoxicity was determined pre- and post-enzyme activation using a proprietary short-term microbial assay for pore water centrifuged from sediment collected adjacent to a Florida coastal golf complex and from an urbanized bayou-estuary. Sediment and the associated pore water also were analyzed for acute toxicity to Hyallela azteca, Palaemonetes pugio, or Americamysis bahia and for benthic macroinvertebrate diversity (sediment only). Genotoxicity (direct and enzyme-activated) was detected in 4 of 17 (golf complex) and in 10 of 14 (urbanized bayou) pore water samples. The lowest toxic pore water concentrations were between 1.8% and 44.4% (direct) and between 2.6% and 25% (enzyme-activated). The results of the genotoxic assay paralleled those based on exceedance of proposed sediment quality guidelines, pore water acute toxicity and Shannon-Wiener diversity index values for 81%, 58%, and 65% of the comparisons, respectively. PMID:16646015

Lewis, Michael A; Daniels, Carol B; Chancy, Cynthia A

2006-06-01

433

Sediment chemical contamination and toxicity associated with a coastal golf course complex.  

PubMed

The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sediments impacted by a coastal golf course complex. Sediment contaminant concentrations were determined at least twice during the two-year study period at 14 sampling stations. In addition, a combination of acute and chronic bioassays were conducted exposing four invertebrate test species to whole sediments and associated pore waters. Overall, the Florida, USA, golf course complex had a measurable impact on sediment chemical quality, particularly in near-field areas. Higher concentrations of several trace metals and organochlorine pesticides were detected in many golf course-associated sediments compared with reference areas; however, concentrations decreased seaward and only a few, primarily chlorinated pesticides, exceeded proposed sediment quality guidelines. Chromium, zinc, and mercury were detected more frequently than other trace metals. The DDT and associated metabolites, dieldrin and chlordane, were the more commonly detected organic contaminants. Acute toxicity was uncommon and occurred consistently for sediment collected from one coastal location. In contrast, chronic toxicity occurred at several study sites based on the response of Mysidopsis bahia. It was concluded that the impact of golf course runoff on sediment quality may be subtle and sensitive biological assessment methods, such as chronic toxicity tests, will be needed to detect adverse effects. PMID:11434280

Lewis, M A; Foss, S S; Harris, P S; Stanley, R S; Moore, J C

2001-07-01

434

Dentistry in Brazil: its history and current trends.  

PubMed

The objectives of this article are to provide a short history of dentistry and dental education in Brazil and to analyze the nature of its development to date. The databases consulted are those provided by the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry, Brazilian Ministry of Health, Brazilian Ministry of Education, National Institute of Studies and Educational Research Anísio Teixeira, and Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Formal dental education in Brazil started in the late nineteenth century with the creation of courses annexed to existing schools of medicine in Rio de Janeiro and Bahia. Today, there are 191 institutions of higher education nationwide granting degrees in dentistry (137 private [71.7 percent] and fifty-four public [28.3 percent]), with a total of 17,157 student positions offered annually. These schools graduate around 10,000 professionals per year-one of the highest rates in the world. Both the distribution of schools of dentistry and of dentists varies among the regions of the country, with the greatest concentrations in major metropolitan centers with high population density, resulting in limited coverage in the more deprived regions. A review of epidemiological data for oral health and distribution of dentists in Brazil indicates that there is a lack of systematic planning for the allocation of the dental workforce and a lack of consideration of regional needs in the development of dental training programs in Brazil today. PMID:19234079

Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Diniz, Diego Garcia

2009-02-01

435

Migratory flows and foraging habitat selection by shorebirds along the northeastern coast of Brazil: The case of Baía de Todos os Santos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large numbers of Nearctic shorebirds migrate and winter along the coast of northeastern Brazil, but there is little information on their migratory flows, foraging ecology, and on the structure of the species assemblages that they form with resident shorebirds. We studied these issues on intertidal flats of Baía de Todos os Santos (Bahia), the second largest bay in Brazil. During a full year cycle we carried out weekly bird counts in an intertidal area of 280 ha divided in sectors, where we also measured environmental parameters. The analyses of weekly counts resulted in a detailed phenology of use of the area by shorebirds. Five species were resident and ten were Nearctic migrants. Several of the latter had clear peaks in numbers in March and October, revealing the use of the bay as a stopover during both the north-bound and south-bound migration flows. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relationship between environmental parameters and bird numbers indicated that the foraging bird assemblage could be divided into five main groups, occupying distinct ecological gradients in the study area. The most important factors driving this structure were invertebrate prey abundance, percentage of fine sediments, area of mangrove cover and distance to channels. Our findings imply that maintenance of the diversity of intertidal habitats in this bay is crucial to satisfy the particular habitat requirements of resident and migrant shorebirds using the northeastern coastal regions of Brazil.

Lunardi, Vitor O.; Macedo, Regina H.; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

2012-01-01

436

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice.  

PubMed

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications. PMID:25182278

Cortés-Rojas, Diego Francisco; de Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandes; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira

2014-02-01

437

Lesions Associated with Halocercus brasiliensis Lins de Almeida, 1933 in the Lungs of Dolphins Stranded in the Northeast of Brazil.  

PubMed

The parasitic fauna of cetaceans is an important tool for ecological studies, including analyses on the causes of death. Halocercus brasiliensis is a nematode frequently found in the bronchi and bronchioles of some cetaceans, and it is commonly associated with focal inflammation of the respiratory tract leading to bacterial pneumonia and septicemia and, sometimes, to death. The objective of this study was to report infections by H. brasiliensis in the respiratory tract of Delphinidae stranded on the northern seaside of Bahia, Sergipe, and south of Alagoas, all states in the northeast region of Brazil. A total of 30 individuals, 1 Feresa attenuate (pygmy killer whale), 9 Stenella clymene (Clymene dolphin), and 20 Sotalia guianensis (Guiana dolphin) were studied. In 16 of them, the presence of H. brasiliensis was observed with a mean intensity of 3.5 ± 0.6 (range 1-9) in the hosts. Macroscopically, parasitic calcified nodules, lung congestion, edema, and emphysema were observed. Histopathological examination showed interstitial and granulomatous pneumonia with multifocal infiltrates, discrete to moderate edema, congestion, diffuse hemorrhage, and foci of calcification. We conclude that parasitic pneumonia in the sampled individuals may have directly contributed to stranding and death of the animals. PMID:25171594

Guimarães, J P; Febronio, A M B; Vergara-Parente, J E; Werneck, M R

2015-04-01

438

Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment  

SciTech Connect

Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A. [US EPA, Narragansett, RI (USA). Office for Research and Development

2009-01-15

439

Stable nitrogen isotopes in the turtle grass Thalassia testudinum from the Mexican Caribbean: Implications of anthropogenic development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient inputs associated with population growth threaten the integrity of coastal ecosystems. To assess the rapid increase in tourism, we compared the ?15N from Thalassia testudinum collected at sites with different levels of tourism development to detect the N inputs of wastewater discharge (WD) along the coast of Quintana Roo. The contributions of nitrogen enriched in 15N are directly related to the increase of WD inputs in areas of tourism development (Nichupte Lagoon in Cancun) and decreased toward Bahia Akumal and Tulum. The ?15N from T. testudinum was significantly lower at Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. In areas of the lowest development and with tourist activity restricted, such as the Yum Balam Reserve and Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, the ?15N values were relatively enriched compared to Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. Therefore, Puerto Morelos and Mahahual may be used for baseline isotopic monitoring where tourist activities are growing and can lead to environmental pressure on the reef lagoon ecosystem. The anthropogenic N input has the potential to impact, both environmentally and economically, the seagrass meadows and the coral reefs along the coast of Quintana Roo and the Caribbean.

Sánchez, Alberto; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma. Concepción; Talavera-Sáenz, Ana; Aguíñiga-García, Sergio

2013-12-01

440

Chemical and toxicological evaluation of water quality following the exxon Valdez oil spill  

SciTech Connect

As part of a comprehensive water-quality assessment program performed in Prince William Sound and the western Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989, water samples were collected from 417 locations, most of them in areas through which the oil drifted, to assess the distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column. Over 5,000 water samples were analyzed for individual and total petroleum alkanes and for aromatic hydrocarbons by very sensitive gas chromatographic techniques. A total of 2,461 of these samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concurrent with some of these samples, an additional 123 water samples were collected in April 1989 (a week to a month after the spill) at 32 offshore locations and in June 1989 at 7 nearshore sites in Prince William Sound to determine the toxicity of the water to representative species of marine organisms. The toxicity of Prince William Sound water was assessed with standard Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and American Society for Testing and materials (ASTM) marine toxicity tests with representative species of three taxonomic groups: (1) Skeletonema costatum (a marine diatom), (2) Mysidopsis bahia (a crustacean), and (3) larval/juvenile Cyprinodon variegatus (a fish, the sheepshead minnow). 58 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Neff, J.M. [Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States); Stubblefield, W.A. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

441

'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement  

PubMed Central

This paper records the meaning of the term 'offense' and the folk knowledge related to local beliefs and practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. The data was recorded from September to November 2006 by means of open-ended interviews performed with 74 individuals of both genders, whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the local terms biting, stinging and pricking are synonymous and used as equivalent to offending. All these terms mean to attack. A total of 23 types of 'snakes' were recorded, based on their local names. Four of them are Viperidae, which were considered the most dangerous to humans, besides causing more aversion and fear in the population. In general, local people have strong negative behavior towards snakes, killing them whenever possible. Until the antivenom was present and available, the locals used only charms, prayers and homemade remedies to treat or protect themselves and others from snake bites. Nowadays, people do not pay attention to these things because, basically, the antivenom is now easily obtained at regional hospitals. It is understood that the ethnozoological knowledge, customs and popular practices of the Pedra Branca inhabitants result in a valuable cultural resource which should be considered in every discussion regarding public health, sanitation and practices of traditional medicine, as well as in faunistic studies and conservation strategies for local biological diversity. PMID:20346120

2010-01-01

442

Establishing relative sensitivities of various toxicity testing organisms to ammonia  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of ammonia to various organisms was examined to develop a baseline for mortality in several commonly used testing species. This baseline data will assist in choosing the proper test species and in interpreting results as they pertain to ammonia. Responses for two juvenile fish species, three marine amphipods, and two species of mysid shrimp were compared for their sensitivity to levels of ammonia. All mortality caused by ammonia in the bottom-dwelling Citharichthys stigmaeus occurred within 24 h of exposure, whereas mortality in the silverside, Menidia beryllina, occurred over the entire 96-h test duration. Responses to ammonia varied among the amphipods Rhepoxynius abronius, Ampelisca abdita, and Eohaustorius estuarius. R. abronius and A. abdita showed similar sensitivity to ammonia at lower concentrations; A. abdita appeared more sensitive than R. abronius at levels above 40 mg/L. Concentrations of ammonia required to produce significant mortality in the amphipod E. estuarius were far higher than the other species examined (> 100 mg/L NH{sub 3}). A comparison of ammonia toxicity with two commonly used invertebrates, Holmesimysis sculpts and Mysidopsis bahia, suggest that these two species of mysid have similar sensitivities to ammonia. Further studies with ammonia that examine sensitivity of different organisms should be conducted to assist regulatory and environmental agencies in determining appropriate test species and in interpreting toxicological results as they may be affected by levels of ammonia.

Karle, L.M.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, M.E.; Karls, R.K. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1994-12-31

443

Investigations into methods of removing from marine sediments that toxicity attributable to organic contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Sediments from contaminated estuaries such as New York/New Jersey Harbor are toxic due to the presence of a diversity of contaminants, e.g., heavy metals, ammonia, and organics such as PCBs, PAHs, PCDDs and PCDFs. To facilitate Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) studies of whole sediments, the authors have developed a strategy for selectively reducing or removing organic contaminant residues with minimal disruption of the dynamics of other classes of contaminants that contribute to whole sediment toxicity. The strategy consists of an optional prewash of the sediment slurry with a nonpolar volatile solvent to remove globular and crystalline contaminant phases, turbation of sediment slurry (elevated temperature may be required) in the presence of polyethylene strips (PE) or charcoal-impregnated PE strips and triolein-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), and finally addition of small amounts of fine-grained activated carbon (shown to be nontoxic) to the test sediment. Replicate (n = 2) samples of a marine sediment spiked and aged with 500 {micro}g/g dieldrin were successfully detoxified using these procedures, as 48 h bioassays (Mysidopsis bahia and Ampelisca abdita) showed no toxicity, while untreated sediment and SPMD dialysates were toxic. Gas chromatographic analysis of the treated sediment samples showed that 97 and > 99 percent of the dieldrin had been removed. Detoxification of other sediments with naturally incurred high-K{sub oc} organic pollutants may be more problematic.

Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Gibson, V.L. [Midwest Science Center, Columbia, MO (United States); Ho, K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

1995-12-31

444

Spatio-temporal variation in the incubation duration and sex ratio of hawksbill hatchlings: implication for future management.  

PubMed

Climate change poses a unique threat to species with temperature dependent sex determination (TSD), such as marine turtles, where increases in temperature can result in extreme sex ratio biases. Knowledge of the primary sex ratio of populations with TSD is key for providing a baseline to inform management strategies and to accurately predict how future climate changes may affect turtle populations. However, there is a lack of robust data on offspring sex ratio at appropriate temporal and spatial scales to inform management decisions. To address this, we estimate the primary sex ratio of hawksbill hatchlings, Eretmochelys imbricata, from incubation duration of 5514 in situ nests from 10 nesting beaches from two regions in Brazil over the last 27 years. A strong female bias was estimated in all beaches, with 96% and 89% average female sex ratios produced in Bahia (BA) and Rio Grande do Norte (RN). Both inter-annual (BA, 88 to 99%; RN, 75 to 96% female) and inter-beach (BA, 92% to 97%; RN, 81% to 92% female) variability in mean offspring sex ratio was observed. These findings will guide management decisions in Brazil and provide further evidence of highly female-skew sex ratios in hawksbill turtles. PMID:25086976

dei Marcovaldi, Maria A G; Santos, Armando J B; Santos, Alexsandro S; Soares, Luciano S; Lopez, Gustave G; Godfrey, Matthew H; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Fuentes, Mariana M P B

2014-08-01

445

Xylocopa bees in tropical coastal sand dunes: use of resources and their floral syndromes.  

PubMed

Large bees such as species from Xylocopa Latreille are usually associated with pollination in tropical sand dune areas, which frequently present shrubby herbaceous vegetation adapted to conditions of high salinity, high solar radiation and strong winds. We report on the diversity of Xylocopa and the plants they visited to collect nectar and pollen, focusing on the floral syndromes they present in these plants and on the breadth of the trophic niche in a tropical sand dune fragment over the year. The field work was carried out monthly in Baixio (Bahia, Brazil; Northern Coast Environmental Protection Area) from April 2008 to March 2009, over two consecutive days, from 06:30?AM to 05:00?PM. The medium-large body sized Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) cearensis Ducke and Xylocopa (Schonnherria) subcyanea Pérez were noticeable for their frequency, constancy on the flowers and sharing of plant species. Xylocopa spp. visited plants with flowers of different shapes, colors, inflorescence arrangement and syndromes. However, their resource collections were mainly concentrated on Cuphea brachiata, Waltheria cinerascens, Croton sellowii and Chamaecrista ramosa, which may be considered key species for Xylocopa spp. maintenance in coastal sand dune and restinga environments in Northeast Brazil. PMID:23949807

Figueiredo, N; Gimenes, M; de Miranda, M D; Oliveira-Rebouças, P

2013-06-01

446

Biotic and environmental factors affect Southwest Atlantic saltmarsh use by juvenile fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish habitat use is affected by biotic and environmental factors. These factors do not act in isolation; they commonly operate together, and can be modified by the presence of habitat structure, like vegetation. We studied at the Bahia Blanca estuary (38° 52' S, 62 0°6' W), the seasonal patterns of fish habitat use in a Spartina alterniflora saltmarsh and a contiguous tidal flat, and related them with biotic and environmental factors. The results showed that all fish species contributed to differences in the structure of fish assemblages between areas. The silverside Odontesthes argentinensis and the menhaden Brevoortia aurea were more abundant and smaller in size in the saltmarsh. In this area, the structure of fish assemblage was positively correlated with the structure of benthic community. The latter, was probably related to the high abundance of the polychaete Laeonereis acuta, the main benthic prey for fishes. Environmental factors that correlated with the structure of fish assemblages were particulate organic matter and sediment penetrability, both in the saltmarsh and in the tidal flat. This evidenced that in terms of physical and chemical factors studied, both areas present similar characteristics for fishes. This work highlights that saltmarshes in southern hemisphere provide both protection and food resources for fishes, and give support to the notion of saltmarshes as important fish habitat worldwide.

Valiñas, Macarena S.; Molina, Lucas M.; Addino, Mariana; Montemayor, Diana I.; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

2012-02-01

447

Development of aquatic toxicity benchmarks for oil products using species sensitivity distributions.  

PubMed

Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to spilled oil and chemically dispersed oil continues to be a significant challenge in spill response and impact assessment. We used standardized tests from the literature to develop species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) of acute aquatic toxicity values for several petroleum products and 2 Corexit oil dispersants. Fifth percentile hazard concentrations (HC5s) were computed from the SSDs and used to assess relative oil product toxicity and in evaluating the feasibility of establishing toxicity benchmarks for a community of species. The sensitivity of mysids (Americamysis bahia) and silversides (Menidia beryllina) were evaluated within the SSDs to determine if these common test species were appropriate surrogates for a broader range of species. In general, SSD development was limited by the availability of acute toxicity values that met standardization criteria for a diversity of species. Pooled SSDs were also developed for crude oil and Corexit dispersants because there was only small variability in the HC5s among the individual oil or dispersant products. The sensitivity of mysids and silversides varied across the oil and dispersant products, with the majority of toxicity values greater than the HC5. Application of SSDs appears to be a reasonable approach to developing oil product toxicity benchmarks, but additional toxicity data are needed for a larger range of species conducted under standardized test conditions. PMID:23554001

Barron, Mace G; Hemmer, Michael J; Jackson, Crystal R

2013-10-01

448

Trends in premature mortality due to chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazilian federal units.  

PubMed

Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have a high mortality rate, mainly in lower and middle income countries. The major groups are cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic respiratory disease (CRD), cancer and diabetes. The Action Plan to reduce NCDs in Brazil, 2011-2022 established a 2% yearly reduction in the NCD premature mortality rate as a goal. The aim of the study was to analyze trends in premature mortality rates and also show goal achievement scenarios for each Federal Unit (FU). A time series analysis of the standardized mortality rate between2000-2011 was performed using the linear regression model. The average annual rate of increase and the 95% confidence interval were estimated. Each FU was classified as being likely or unlikely to achieve the goal. The FUs likely to achieve the goal were: for CVD - Federal District, Santa Catarina, Mato Grosso, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Espírito Santo and Paraná states; for CRD - Amazonas, Federal District and Paraná. For neoplasms and diabetes, none of the FUs are likely to achieve the goal. The articulation of the three levels of government will allow the strengthening of interventions to reduce the determinants of NCDs and to improve access and quality in health care. PMID:25760106

Alves, Carla Guimarães; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libânio de

2015-03-01

449

Estimation of divergence time between two sibling species of the Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii complex using a multilocus approach  

PubMed Central

Background Anopheles cruzii is the primary human Plasmodium vector in southern and southeastern Brazil. The distribution of this mosquito follows the coast of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Previous studies indicated that An. cruzii is a complex of cryptic species. Results A multilocus approach using six loci, three circadian clock genes and three encoding ribosomal proteins, was implemented to investigate in more detail the genetic differentiation between the An. cruzii populations from Santa Catarina (southern Brazil) and Bahia States (northeastern Brazil) that represent two sibling species. The analysis revealed very high FST values and fixed differences between the two An. cruzii sibling species in all loci, irrespective of their function. An Isolation with Migration model was fit to the data using the IM program. The results reveal no migration in either direction and allowed a rough estimate of the divergence time between the two sibling species. Conclusions Population genetics analysis of An. cruzii samples from two Brazilian localities using a multilocus approach confirmed that they represent two different sibling species in this complex. The results suggest that the two species have not exchanged migrants since their separation and that they possibly diverged between 1.1 and 3.6 million years ago, a period of intense climatic changes. PMID:20356389

2010-01-01

450

Quick, portable toxicity testing of marine or terrigenous fluids, sediments, or chemicals with bioluminescent organism  

SciTech Connect

A hand-held, battery-operated instrument, which measures bioluminescence inhibition of the microscopic marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula, is capable of field-testing substances for toxicity. The organism is sensitive to ppb of strong toxicants. It tolerates some solvents in concentrations necessary for testing lipophylic samples. A test consumes only micrograms of sample. This method requires no adjustments for salinity, pH, color, or turbidity. It has been used successfully to test oil-well drilling fluids, brines produced with oil, waters and sediments from streams and lakes and petroleum-plant effluents containing contaminants such as benzene. The test is non-specific; however, if the substance is known, the end-point effects a direct measurement of its concentration. One-hour toxicity screening tests in the field produce results comparable to the standard four-hour laboratory test. Keeping the sample in the dark during incubation and testing, together with shortness of the overall procedure, eliminates anomalies from light-sensitive substances. Day-to-day variation, as well as among test replicates, is less than 10%. This quick method yields results comparable with a quick test that uses Photobacterium phosphoria, and with 96-hour tests that use Mysidopsis bahia, Artemia salina, Gonyaulax polyedra, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Cyprinodon variegatus.

Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L. [Lumitox Gulf L.C., New Orleans, LA (United States)

1995-12-31

451

A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

1995-05-01

452

Endangered light-footed clapper rail affects parasite community structure in coastal wetlands.  

PubMed

An extinction necessarily affects community members that have obligate relationships with the extinct species. Indirect or cascading effects can lead to even broader changes at the community or ecosystem level. However, it is not clear whether generalist parasites should be affected by the extinction of one of their hosts. We tested the prediction that loss of a host species could affect the structure of a generalist parasite community by investigating the role of endangered Light-footed Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris levipes) in structuring trematode communities in four tidal wetlands in southern California, U.S.A. (Carpinteria Salt Marsh, Mugu Lagoon) and Mexico (Estero de Punta Banda, Bahia Falsa-San Quintin). We used larval trematode parasites in first intermediate host snails (Cerithidea californica) as windows into the adult trematodes that parasitize Clapper Rails. Within and among wetlands, we found positive associations between Clapper Rails and four trematode species, particularly in the vegetated marsh habitat where Clapper Rails typically occur. This suggests that further loss of Clapper Rails is likely to affect the abundance of several competitively dominant trematode species in wetlands with California horn snails, with possible indirect effects on the trematode community and changes in the impacts of these parasites on fishes and invertebrates. PMID:17913133

Whitney, Kathleen L; Hechinger, Ryan F; Kuris, Armand M; Lafferty, Kevin D

2007-09-01

453

The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions.  

PubMed

The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7.5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves special attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies. PMID:17010204

Begossi, Alpina

2006-01-01

454

A potential source for cellulolytic enzyme discovery and environmental aspects revealed through metagenomics of Brazilian mangroves  

PubMed Central

The mangroves are among the most productive and biologically important environments. The possible presence of cellulolytic enzymes and microorganisms useful for biomass degradation as well as taxonomic and functional aspects of two Brazilian mangroves were evaluated using cultivation and metagenomic approaches. From a total of 296 microorganisms with visual differences in colony morphology and growth (including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungus), 179 (60.5%) and 117 (39.5%) were isolated from the Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Bahia (BA) samples, respectively. RJ metagenome showed the higher number of microbial isolates, which is consistent with its most conserved state and higher diversity. The metagenomic sequencing data showed similar predominant bacterial phyla in the BA and RJ mangroves with an abundance of Proteobacteria (57.8% and 44.6%), Firmicutes (11% and 12.3%) and Actinobacteria (8.4% and 7.5%). A higher number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds were found in the BA mangrove. Specific sequences involved in the cellulolytic degradation, belonging to cellulases, hemicellulases, carbohydrate binding domains, dockerins and cohesins were identified, and it was possible to isolate cultivable fungi and bacteria related to biomass decomposition and with potential applications for the production of biofuels. These results showed that the mangroves possess all fundamental molecular tools required for building the cellulosome, which is required for the efficient degradation of cellulose material and sugar release. PMID:24160319

2013-01-01

455

Rickettsial agents in avian ixodid ticks in northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

Birds are important in the maintenance and spread of ticks and tick-borne diseases. In this context we screened birds in the Atlantic forest north of the São Francisco River and Caatinga in northeast Brazil. In the Atlantic forest Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma varium and Amblyomma auricularium were identified. A. longirostre was infected by "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" and A. nodosum by a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent. In Caatinga, Amblyomma parvum and A. auricularium were identified. A. auricularium was infected by "Ca. R. amblyommii" and Rickettsia bellii. "Canditatus Rickettsia andenae" was also identified in A. parvum collected from birds in Caatinga. In addition, Rickettsia sp. genotype AL was identified in A. varium collected on the clothes of the field team in one area of Atlantic forest. Here we provide a series of new host records for several Neotropical Amblyomma species and document rickettsial infections of "Ca. R. amblyomii" and a R. parkeri-like agent in Paraíba State, and R. bellii and "Ca. R. andenae" in Bahia State. For the first time we provide information regarding the infection of A. varium by "Ca. R. amblyommii". PMID:25800099

Lugarini, Camile; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Ogrzewalska, Maria; de Vasconcelos, Nathália Costa Teixeira; Ellis, Vincenzo A; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Bianque; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B; Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos

2015-04-01

456

Use of neomysis mercedis (crustacea: mysidacea) for estuarine toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

The mysid Neomysis mercedis was examined as a test organism for use in acute toxicity tests at intermediate salinities characteristic of estuarine waters. Several sensitive invertebrate species are available for marine assessments (mysids) and freshwater tests (cladocerans), but few are available for estuarine toxicity tests. Observations in the laboratory indicate that Neomysis mercedis can be reared successfully at a temperature of 17[degrees]C, a salinity of 2%, and a population density less than 5/L. Brine shrimp na