These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Integrated assessment of mangrove sediments in the Camamu Bay (Bahia, Brazil).  

PubMed

Camamu Bay, an Environmentally Protected Area, may be affected by the pressures of tourism and oil exploration in the adjacent continental platform. The current quality of the mangrove sediments was evaluated by porewater bioassays using embryos of Crassostrea rhizophorae and by an analysis of benthic macrofauna and its relationships with organic compounds, trace metals and bioavailability. Porewater toxicity varied from low to moderate in the majority of the samples, and polychaetes dominated the benthos. The Grande Island sampling station (Station 1) presented more sandy sediments, differentiated macrobenthic assemblages and the highest metal concentrations in relation to other stations and guideline values, and it was the only station that indicated a possible bioavailability of metals. The origin of the metals (mainly barium) is most likely associated with the barite ore deposits located in the Grande and Pequena islands. These results may be useful for future assessment of the impact of oil exploration in the coastal region. PMID:21074854

Paixão, Joana F; de Oliveira, Olívia M C; Dominguez, José M L; Almeida, Edna dos Santos; Carvalho, Gilson Correia; Magalhães, Wagner F

2011-03-01

2

Engineering geological mapping for the urban planning of Almada County, Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urban area of Almada County, in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, is undergoing a very high rate of growth. However, there have been several examples of land development having taken place in areas with poor geotechnical characteristics, and a number of illegal constructions have disrupted the natural geomorphological evolution of the area, thus creating potential hazards for people and property.

A. PAULA F. DA SILVA

3

The cenozoic aquifer system of the Lower Tagus Basin: a description of the hydrogeological situation in the Almada region (Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual hydrogeological model of the Mio-Pleistocene deposits in the Almada region, located in the Cenozoic aquifer system of the Lower Tagus Basin (Portugal), has been developed. Though numerous studies have been conducted on its geological features, there have not been enough hydrogeological investigations to define the origin, flow path and the groundwater quality and to understand the coexistence of

Maria Manuela Malhado Simões Ribeiro

2009-01-01

4

Health assessment of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the southern coast of Bahia, northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study investigated the health of natural stocks of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the southern coast of Bahia in northeastern Brazil, during summer and winter 2010, at three localities (sampling points) in the estuaries of the Maraú (Camamu Bay) and Graciosa rivers. A total of 180 oysters (30/sampling point/season) were examined macroscopically for the presence of pathogens and anatomical changes. The specimens were subsequently fixed in Davidson solution, processed for paraffin embedding, sectioned and stained with Harris' hematoxylin and eosin. Histological analysis revealed the presence of Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs), Ancistrocoma, Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Nematopsis, Urastoma, Bucephalus in the sporocyst phase, a nonspecific metacercaria, and a metacestode of genus Tylocephalum. The prevalence of infection was low except for parasitism by Nematopsis sp. which also caused histopathological changes. The presence of Bucephalus sp. caused parasitic castration. These two pathogens significantly affect the health of C. rhizophorae. PMID:23538501

Brandão, Rosana Pinho; Boehs, Guisla; Silva, Patrícia Mirella da

2013-01-01

5

The cenozoic aquifer system of the Lower Tagus Basin: a description of the hydrogeological situation in the Almada region (Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual hydrogeological model of the Mio-Pleistocene deposits in the Almada region, located in the Cenozoic aquifer system\\u000a of the Lower Tagus Basin (Portugal), has been developed. Though numerous studies have been conducted on its geological features,\\u000a there have not been enough hydrogeological investigations to define the origin, flow path and the groundwater quality and\\u000a to understand the coexistence of

Maria Manuela Malhado Simões Ribeiro; Malhado Simões Ribeiro

2009-01-01

6

Extraction of Urban Morphology Parameters from Generic European Datasets: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. The response of urban societies to the evolving climate depends not only on their regional climate characteristics but also on other local factors such as the urban heat island effect. Simulation of this phenomenon with local urban climate models requires comprehensive information about the urban morphology. This study focusses on the extraction of the planar and frontal area indices from detailed 3D city models and their relationship with the European Soil Sealing Level database from the European Environment Agency. These parameters have been calculated on a 1km2 grid and compared with soil sealing values aggregated at the same spatial resolution. The optimal size of the grid is a trade-off between the level of detail and the robustness of the established relationships by reducing the scatter at small scales. Moreover, the transferability of the results to other geographical areas has been investigated. The analyses have been conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission and include the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. First results show a correlation of 70% between the planar area index and the averaged soil sealing using a linear regression model at a 1km scale. Moreover, a good correspondence has been found between the relationships for Antwerp and Berlin which is promising for urban climate modellers to reduce model complexity and analyse various climate scenarios in an effective way.

Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

2014-05-01

7

Sedimentology and palaeontology of the Upper Jurassic Puesto Almada Member (Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Fossati sub-basin), Patagonia Argentina: Palaeoenvironmental and climatic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six facies associations are described for the Puesto Almada Member at the Cerro Bandera locality (Fossati sub-basin). They correspond to lacustrine, palustrine, and pedogenic deposits (limestones); and subordinated alluvial fan, fluvial, aeolian, and pyroclastic deposits. The lacustrine-palustrine depositional setting consisted of carbonate alkaline shallow lakes surrounded by flooded areas in a low-lying topography. The facies associations constitute four shallowing upward successions defined by local exposure surfaces: 1) a Lacustrine-Palustrine-pedogenic facies association with a 'conchostracan'-ostracod association; 2) a Palustrine facies association representing a wetland subenvironment, and yielding 'conchostracans', body remains of insects, fish scales, ichnofossils, and palynomorphs (cheirolepidiacean species and ferns growing around water bodies, and other gymnosperms in more elevated areas); 3) an Alluvial fan facies association indicating the source of sediment supply; and 4) a Lacustrine facies association representing a second wetland episode, and yielding 'conchostracans', insect ichnofossils, and a palynoflora mainly consisting of planktonic green algae associated with hygrophile elements. The invertebrate fossil assemblage found contains the first record of fossil insect bodies (Insecta-Hemiptera and Coleoptera) for the Cañadón Asfalto Formation. The succession reflects a mainly climatic control over sedimentation. The sedimentary features of the Puesto Almada Member are in accordance with an arid climatic scenario across the Upper Jurassic, and they reflect a strong seasonality with periods of higher humidity represented by wetlands and lacustrine sediments.

Cabaleri, Nora G.; Benavente, Cecilia A.; Monferran, Mateo D.; Narváez, Paula L.; Volkheimer, Wolfgang; Gallego, Oscar F.; Do Campo, Margarita D.

2013-10-01

8

Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

Reiter, Bernd

2009-01-01

9

BAHIA GRANDE RESTORATION PROJECT DW14945947  

EPA Science Inventory

The Bahia Grande Restoration Project is located on a 6,000+ acre shallow basin that at one time was inundated with biological resources. The basin supported large flocks of wintering and migratory waterfowl. Also, it contributed to a productive recreational and commercial fishe...

10

TOXICITY OF USED DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Static, acute toxicity tests were conducted with mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and 11 used drilling fluids (also called drilling muds) obtained from active drilling platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Each whole mud was tested, along with three phases of each mud: a liquid phase ...

11

Salvador de Bahia, 2008 1 Esquemas algortmicos bsicos y  

E-print Network

Valladolid #12;Salvador de Bahia, 2008 3 Presentación y referencias Algoritmos y Estructuras de Datos, Domingo Giménez, Norberto Marín: Algoritmos y Estructuras de Datos, Vol I Estructuras, Vol II Algoritmos, Ed. Diego Marín, 2003 En Wikipedia, enlace a apuntes de Algorítmica

Giménez, Domingo

12

Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

13

Acculturation at the La Bahia Mission and Presidio, Goliad, Texas  

E-print Network

OF ARTS May 2000 Major Subject: Anthropology ACCULTURATION AT THE LA BAHIA MISSION AND PRESIDIO, GOLIAD, TEXAS A Thesi. s by DIANE KIMBERLEY KLOETZER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF ARTS Approved as to style and content by: David L. Carlson (Chair of Committee) D. L. Hamilton (Member) c, & ~ H nry C. Schmidt (Member) David L. Carlson (Head of Department) May 2000 Major Subject: Anthropology ABSTRACT...

Kloetzer, Diane Kimberley

2012-06-07

14

OPTIMIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS DURING THE LIFE CYCLE OF 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA'  

EPA Science Inventory

When considering both survival capacity of Mysidopsis bahia (Mi bahia) through a complete life cycle and time required for juvenile mysids to become reproductively mature, salinity-temperature conditions of 20 parts per thopis and by wgt. dissolved salts and 25 C appear optimal f...

15

Community-based management through ecotourism in Bahia de los Angeles, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some places around the world, whale shark ecotourism has become an important economic activity. Specific cases are present in Mexico, the most important being Bahia de los Angeles, Baja California; Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, both in the Sea of Cortes and near Holbox and Contoy Island, Quintana Roo in the Caribbean Sea. Observation and swimming activities

Nirari Cárdenas-Torres; Roberto Enríquez-Andrade; Natalie Rodríguez-Dowdell

2007-01-01

16

Identification and Characterization of the Allergenic Proteins of Bahia Grass (Paspalum notatum) Pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pollen of Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) represents a major cause of type I allergy in diverse geographical areas, particularly in the southeastern coastal plain area of the United States. The aqueous protein extract of Bahia grass pollen contains the allergenically active components that produce skin-test-positive reactions in sensitive patients. Objective: The emphasis of this study included the identification and

George Ghobrial; Saleh A. Naser; Michael Sweeney; Roseann White

2002-01-01

17

SYSTEM-LEVEL MONITORING OF RESTORATION EFFORTS AT BAHIA GRANDE MX964487  

EPA Science Inventory

Bahia Grande Restoration Project is located on a 6,000+ acre shallow basin that at one time was inundated with biological resources and was disrupted by human activity. The project is an attempt to restore Bahia Grande to its original state. Studies indicate that under favorabl...

18

Relation between denudation history and sediment supply from apatite fission track thermochronology in the northeast Brazilian Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to provide a quantitative overview of Mesozoic-Cenozoic morphotectonic evolution and sediment supply to the northeast Brazilian margin. Landscape evolution and denudation histories for the northeastern Brazilian continental margin (Sergipe, Alagoas, Bahia, and Espírito Santo states) were detailed by apatite fission track thermochronology and thermal-history modeling and related with the sedimentological record of the offshore basins of the passive margin for a comparison with their denudational history. Approximately one hundred basement samples were analyzed from the coast to the inland of the Brazilian margin. The apparent fission track ages vary from 360 to 61 Ma and confined fission track lengths vary between 10 and 14.6 µm, indicating that not all of the samples recorded the same cooling events. The results of apatite fission track ages indicate that the area has been eroded regionally since the Mesozoic (< 250 Ma) and suggest that at less 4 km of overburden has been eroded regionally since the late Cretaceous (< 120 Ma) at a rate of 120 to 15 m/Ma. Two-stage of erosion process is deduced from simulated cooling histories for each sector. The Permian-Early Jurassic exhumation is restricted to the area of the Sertaneja Depression, besides the Diamantina Plateau. During this time, denudation rates are generally <20 m My-1 and record up to 1.5 km of denudation. Pre-rift sedimentation is recorded in the Camamu-Almada, Recôncavo, and Sergipe-Alagoas basins. Samples from the Conquista and Borborema Plateaus, and Mantiqueira Range record a Cretaceous-Paleogene onset of exhumation. This timing is consistent with the offshore sedimentary record, wherein a large clastic wedge started forming in the northeastern Sergipe-Alagoas basin, which suggests Sergipe-Alagoas basin records drainage reorganization and extension of the São Francisco River catchment. Interestingly, the Camamu basin, adjacent to the section of the margin does not record syn/post-rift exhumation, does contain a 6-km thick sedimentary succession, which should thus have been derived from more distal sources. The Neogene final denudation is observed throughout the study area and show conspicuous recent exhumation. The post-rift (<40 Ma) offshore sedimentation rates are generally lower than during preceding phases. This final sedimentary succession is thinner in all basins, consistent with limited onshore erosion during this time.

Jelinek, Andrea; Chemale, Farid; Bueno, Gilmar

2014-05-01

19

Affirmative Action in Higher Education and Afro-Descendant Women in Bahia, Brazil  

E-print Network

Affirmative Action in Higher Education and Afro-Descendant Women in Bahia, Brazil In 2001, the federal government of Brazil under President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1995 - 2003) passed laws to remedy racial and socioeconomic inequality. Responding...

Aubel, Maraci G.

2011-05-31

20

New geologic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies on the controversial Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit, Carajás Province, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit in the Carajás Province, Brazil, is hosted by steeply dipping metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Igarapé Bahia Group. This group consists of a low greenschist grade unit of the Archean (˜2,750 Ma) Itacaiúnas Supergroup, in which other important Cu-Au and iron ore deposits of the Carajás region are also hosted. The orebody at Igarapé Bahia is

Ana M. Dreher; Roberto P. Xavier; Bruce E. Taylor; Sérgio L. Martini

2008-01-01

21

Surto de leishmaniose tegumentar americana em Canoa, Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brasil An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Canoa, Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Em 1993, um surto leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA) foi detectado no povoado rural de Canoa, município de Santo Amaro, Bahia. Um estudo observacional prospectivo delineou- se, com objetivo de determinar as taxas de freqüência e caracterizar clinicamente a doença. Foram acompanhados 555 indivíduos, registrando-se 29 casos de LTA, 11 casos sugestivos de LTA pregressa e 529 sadios. Desses 529

Ivonise Follador; Cibele Araujo; Maria Amélia Cardoso; Aldina Barral; José Carlos Miranda; Achiléa Bittencourt; Edgar M. Carvalho

22

Prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis in the state of Bahia, Brazil* Prevalência de aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica em pacientes com fibrose cística na Bahia, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in patients with cystic fibrosis treated at a referral center in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study, with prospective data collection, carried out at the Cystic Fibrosis Referral Center of Bahia of the Octávio Mangabeira Specialized Hospital. We evaluated 74 patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, older than

Ana Cláudia; Costa Carneiro; Antônio Carlos Moreira Lemos; Sérgio Marcos Arruda; Maria Angélica Pinheiro; Santos Santana

2008-01-01

23

Artigo Original Prevalência de aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica em pacientes com fibrose cística na Bahia, Brasil* Prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis in the state of Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in patients with cystic fibrosis treated at a referral center in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study, with prospective data collection, carried out at the Cystic Fibrosis Referral Center of Bahia of the Octavio Mangabeira Specialized Hospital. We evaluated 74 patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, older than

Ana Cláudia Costa Carneiro; Antônio Carlos Moreira Lemos; Sérgio Marcos Arruda; Maria Angélica Pinheiro; Santos Santana

2008-01-01

24

ICHTHYOFAUNA OF BAHiA DE SAN QUINTiN, BAJA CALIFORNIA, MEXICO, AND ITS ADJACENT COAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

A check-list of fish species from Bahia de San Quintin, Baja California, Mexico, and its adjacent shallow coast (~10 m depth) is presented. A total of 682 samplings were conducted between 1993 and 1995, with monthly efforts during 1994. A total of 90 species were identified, 9 of which were elasmobranchs, from 41 families. Sixty-nine species were collected from Bahia

Y SU COSTA ADYACENTE; Jorge Adrian Rosales-Casian

25

Genetic variability in Melipona scutellaris from Recôncavo, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Bees play a key role in pollination and thereby help maintain plant diversity. The stingless bee Melipona scutellaris is an important pollinator in northeastern Brazil because it is endemic to this region. Both deforestation and timber harvesting have reduced the nesting sites for this species, thus reducing its population and range. Genetic studies may help reverse this process by providing important tools for their proper management with a view to conservation of this species. Microsatellite markers have proven to be ideal for mapping genes and population genetic studies. Our aim was to study, using microsatellite markers, the interpopulation genetic variability of M. scutellaris in different parts of the Recôncavo region in Bahia State, Brazil. In all, 95 adult workers from 11 localities in Recôncavo Baiano (Amargosa, Cabaceiras do Paraguaçu, Conceição da Feira, Conceição do Almeida, Domingos Macedo Costa, Governador Mangabeira, Jaguaripe, Jiquiriça, Maragojipe, São Felipe, and Vera Cruz) were analyzed using 10 pairs of microsatellite primers developed for different Meliponini species. The total number of alleles, allele richness, and genetic diversity ranged from 2 to 7 per locus (average = 4.4), 1.00 to 4.88, and 0.0 to 0.850, respectively. The expected and observed heterozygosities varied from 0.0 to 0.76 and 0.0 to 0.84, respectively. No locus showed deviation from the expected frequencies in the chi-square test or linkage disequilibrium. The fixation index, analysis of molecular variance, and unweighted pair-group method using the arithmetic average revealed the effects of human activities on the populations of M. scutellaris, as little genetic structure was detected. PMID:24065683

Viana, J L; Francisco, A K; Carvalho, C A L; Waldschmidt, A M

2013-01-01

26

A closer look at the "Protopithecus" fossil assemblages: new genus and species from Bahia, Brazil  

E-print Network

A closer look at the "Protopithecus" fossil assemblages: new genus and species from Bahia, Brazil to the distal humerus and proximal femur from Lagoa Santa and erect a new genus and species for the skeleton that the bones belonged to a New World monkey (Lund, 1838). These fossils were the first to be correctly

Rosenberger, Alfred H.

27

INCREASED REPRODUCTION BY MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) FED WITH ENRICHED ARTEMIA SPP. NAUPLII  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to assess effects of four diets on reproduction by the mysid Mysidopsis bahia in routine culture conditions. wo experiments were performed: the first lasted under semistatic conditions and the second lasted 60 d under flow-through conditions. he objective wa...

28

Property rights-based management: Whale shark ecotourism in Bahia de los Angeles, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictable and long-term whale shark (Rhincodon typus) aggregations can be observed in few locations around the world. In some places where this occurs the use of the species through ecotourism has become an important economic activity. Bahia de los Angeles, Mexico is an important habitat for whale sharks for up to 7 months per year. Based on their presence, ecotourism

Natalie Rodríguez-Dowdell; Roberto Enríquez-Andrade; Nirari Cárdenas-Torres

2007-01-01

29

[Occurrence of Platynosomum illiciens in enclosured wild cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

This paper reports the occurrence of eggs of Platynosomum illiciens, found in the feces of three species of wild cats Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Leopardus tigrinus from material collected at the enclosures of the Park Zoobotânico Getúlio Vargas in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. It is the first record of this parasite in P. onca and L. tigrinus. PMID:19265585

Castro, Letícia S de; Albuquerque, George R

2008-01-01

30

A LOOK AT THE RURAL WORK: THE REPRESENTATIONS OF WOMEN FROM TAPEROÁ, BAHIA, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study, accomplished in Taperoá, Bahia, Brazil, reports about the understanding of the dichotomic construction of the gender identity and the representations resultant from that construction. The analysis adopted labor as a fundamental category that transcend the understanding of the sexual division between male and female tasks. In that perspective, the analyses were performed taking into consideration the activities

Maria das Graças; Carneiro de Sena

31

ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS AND CYANIDE ON 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' (CRUSTACEA:MYSIDACEA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute and whole life-cycle toxicity tests were conducted with the estuarine mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, exposed to cyanide and selected heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96h LC50) ranged from 3.5 micrograms/1 for mercury to 3130 micrograms/1 for lead, and were ranked in or...

32

EFFECTS OF TRIETHYLENE GLYCOL ON 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDACEA) AND 'MENIDIA PENINSULAE' (PISCES: ATHERINIDAE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic effects of triethylene glycol (TEG), a chemical frequently used as a carrier-solvent in toxicity tests, were investigated in a 23-day life-cycle toxicity test with a mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) and in a 28-day early life-stage toxicity test with the tidewater silverside (Men...

33

Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

34

A new species of Chilicola from Bahia, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Colletidae), with a key to the species of the megalostigma group  

PubMed Central

Abstract The bee genus Chilicola Spinola (Xeromelissinae) is recorded from the State of Bahia, Brazil for the first time, based on a new species of the megalostigma group of the subgenus Hylaeosoma Ashmead. Chilicola (Hylaeosoma) kevani sp. n. is described and figured from males collected in Wesceslau Guimarães, Bahia. The species can be distinguished on the basis of coloration, size, integumental sculpturing, and structure of the hidden metasomal sterna and genitalia. A revised key to the species of the megalostigma group is provided. PMID:22287912

de Oliveira, Favizia Freitas; Mahlmann, Thiago; Engel, Michael S.

2011-01-01

35

Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

2013-12-01

36

A nonbreeding concentration of Roseate and Common Terns in Bahia, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report recoveries of banded Roseate (Sterna dougallii) and Common (S. hirundo) Terns netted at Mangue Seco, Bahia, Brazil (11? 27'S, 37? 21'W). Mangue Seco is the first reported South American location where large numbers of Roseate Terns concentrate December-March, and where members of both the North American and Caribbean populations occur together during these months. A Roseate Tern recovered at Mangue Seco sets an age record of 25.6 years for the species. Recoveries at Mangue Seco of Common Terns banded in the Azores (37? -38?N, 25? -29?W) suggest there is a regular transatlantic movement by Common Terns between the two locations.

Hays, H.; Lima, P.; Monteiro, L.; DiConstanzo, J.; Cormons, G.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Saliva, J.E.; Spendelow, J.A.; Burger, J.; Pierce, J.; Gochfeld, M.

1999-01-01

37

Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot  

PubMed Central

Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot.

Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

2014-01-01

38

Measurement of acute toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia using DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} instrument and protocol  

SciTech Connect

DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} uses a fluorescent dye to permeate the cells of aquatic organisms. The technique has been used on frog embryos, fish embryos, and bovine erythrocytes. Two wavelengths of light are used to excite the fluorescent dye, Di-4-ANEPPS. The blue excitation wavelength measures the cell membrane potential while the yellow excitation wavelength measures the amount of dye loaded into the organisms. The authors applied the technique to the shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, used in marine toxicity testing. The authors used from 1 to 10 shrimp, loaded into a 3 ml spectrofluorometry plastic cuvette. The fluorescent dye, Di-4-ANEPPS, was mixed with the 3 ml of ASW in the cuvette at a final Di-4ANEPPS concentration of 10{sub {minus}6} M. After a thirty minute incubation, the fluorescence of Di-4-ANEPPS was measured in the DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} instrument. A similar protocol was used to test various concentrations of standard assay chemicals and effluents. The test chemical was mixed with ASW and Di-4-ANEPPS and incubated with the shrimp for thirty minutes. After thirty minutes, the fluorescence was measured and compared to the fluorescence of the control shrimp. The authors found that the fluorescence from a single shrimp was detectable and gave similar toxicity data as did the replicates using 10 shrimp. They conclude that the DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} assay can be successfully adapted to marine organisms, particularly Mysidopsis bahia.

Blankemeyer, J.T.; Nguyen, T.; Burks, S.L. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Dept. of Zoology

1994-12-31

39

ACUTE TOXICITY OF TWO GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS AND SIX ADDITIVES, ALONE AND COMBINED, TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity tests were conducted with two laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (muds) and six commonly used drilling fluid additives to determine their toxicity, alone and combined, to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). In 25 tests, the acute toxicity of combinations of one, two, or ...

40

ALTERATIONS IN THE ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) AS INDICATORS OF STRESS FROM CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Various aspects of the energy metabolism of an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) were examined for different life stages during a life-cycle exposure to the organophosphate pesticide fenthion. Dose-response relationships were developed for several metabolic rate functions (oxyge...

41

INFLUENCE OF THE ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDE FENTHION ON 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' EXPOSED DURING A COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE: 1. SURVIVAL, REPRODUCTION, AND AGE-SPECIFIC GROWTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Survival, growth, and various measures of reproductive performance were examined for an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, throughout its life cycle during exposure to the organophosphate insecticide, fenthion. Both individual fecundity of females and total population production ...

42

High prevalence of giardiasis and stronglyloidiasis among HIV-infected patients in Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Diarrhea due to intestinal microbial infections is a frequent manifestation among HIV-infected patients. It has been postulated that HIV-infected patients may have special types of intestinal infections, and that immune activation from such parasites may affect the progression of HIV disease. To evaluate these associations, the frequency of infections was examined in HIV-infected patients in Bahia, Brazil. To determine the potential impact of the presence of intestinal parasitic infections on HIV disease progression, a retrospective study approach was used. The medical charts of 365 HIV-infected patients who had been treated at the AIDS Clinic of the Federal University of Bahia Hospital were reviewed, and the prevalence of parasites was compared with 5,243 HIV-negative patients who had attended the hospital during the same period of time. Among HIV-infected subjects, CD(4) count, RNA plasma viral load (VL), and number of eosinophils were compared according to their stool examination results. The overall prevalence of each parasite was similar for HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. However, the prevalence of S. stercoralis (p<10(-7)) and G. lamblia (p=0.005) was greater for HIV-infected subjects. The mean CD(4) count and viral load of HIV patients in our clinic who had stool examinations was 350 cells +/- 340 and 4.4 +/- 1.4 log RNA viral load, respectively. In this patient group there was no clear association between the level of the absolute CD(4) count or the viral load and a specific parasitic infection. The presence of an intestinal parasitic infection was not associated with faster progression of the HIV disease among HIV-infected patients. We conclude that strongyloidiasis and giardiasis are more frequent in HIV-infected patients in Bahia, Brazil. If this association is due to immune dysregulation, as has been proposed elsewhere, it must occur in patients after only minor shifts in CD(4) count from normal levels, or as a result of immune dysfunction not represented by CD(4) count. These infections do not appear to alter the progression of HIV disease. PMID:12010598

Feitosa, G; Bandeira, A C; Sampaio, D P; Badaró, R; Brites, C

2001-12-01

43

[Mental health and normality: popular conceptions in a northern coastal area of Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study focuses on signs, meanings, and practices related to mental normality and health in a northern coastal area of Bahia, Brazil. It discusses local conceptions about the non-existence or exclusive existence of mental normality, as well as points of view concerning total mental normality. It identifies the prototypes of normality, like "normal", "almost normal", and "false normal", as signs for distinguishing mentally normal persons. The article discusses the underlying values and concepts in local personal classification of mental normality and proposes a structural health device consisting of moral, scientific, religious, environmental, and social elements. It analyzes local normalization and mental health promotion actions and the local system of signs, meanings, and practices of normality. Finally, the article analyzes the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of health. All these goals are met by comparing local conceptions with the scientific literature on medical epistemology, psychoanalysis, sociological labeling theory, and medical anthropology. PMID:16410857

Coelho, Maria Thereza Avila Dantas; de Almeida Filho, Naomar

2005-01-01

44

Mangifera indica and Phaseolus vulgaris in the bioindication of air pollution in Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

In this article are reported the results of a study on the concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) in Mangifera indica as passive monitor and in Phaseolus vulgaris as active monitor with the intention to study the effects of industrial emissions from the Petrochemical Complex of Camaçari (PCC), Bahia, Brazil, on the vegetation. Leaves from M. indica were collected in two sites in the region under direct influence of industrial emissions and in one presumed nonpolluted reference (background) site. Pots with P. vulgaris were exposed in the same sites. The AA increase in the leaves of M. indica from PCC sites indicates a stress situation. The small AA increase in the P. vulgaris exposed in the more polluted site indicates that the active monitor is a sensitive one. The decrease of its leaf area indicates the inability of this species to activate physiological protection mechanisms like an increase in AA production. PMID:10903824

Lima, J S; Fernandes, E B; Fawcett, W N

2000-07-01

45

Bahia Adair and vicinity, Sonora: modern siliciclastic-dominated arid macrotidal coastline  

SciTech Connect

The northwestern Sonoran coastline, in the vicinity of Bahia Adair, combines several important geologic features. The arid landward environments are dominated by the dunes of the Gran Desierto and the surrounding alluvial fans and ephemeral streams. The Colorado River, whose delta lies to the northwest, has been an important source of sediment until very recently. The high tidal energy of the region has profoundly influenced the distribution and geometries of coastal and shallow-marine sand bodies, and the active tectonic setting has also played a role. The Cerro Prieto splay of the San Andreas fault system has been responsible for local uplift and downwarp and resulting transgression and regression. The intertidal and supratidal zones are dominated by sand and constitute a sand-body type that has been seldom considered by petroleum explorationists or other students of ancient sand bodies, and the associated evaporites are rather different from those described from the superficially analogous Persian Gulf sabkhas.

Lock, B.E.; Sinitiere, S.M.; Williams, L.J.

1989-03-01

46

Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America. PMID:15575989

Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

2004-12-01

47

CAVES, STORIES, HISTORy AND POPULAR TRADITIONS IN THE SEMIDESERT (SERTÃO) OF BAHIA, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL JAME, ZGODBE, ZGODOVINA IN LJUDSKO IZRO?ILO V POLPUŠ?AVI (SERTÃO) BAHIA, SEVEROVZHODNA BRAZILIJA  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 553.4(569.5) Elvis Pereira Barbosa & Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos: Caves, stories, history and popular traditions in the semi-des- ert (sertão) of Bahia, northeastern Brazil The symbiosis between man and caves usually causes a mixture of fascination and respect. When looking back at the history of Antique civilizations, there are references to this relationship made in almost all cases. Caves

Elvis Pereira BARBOSA; Luiz Eduardo; Panisset TRAVASSOS

48

Determination of cadmium and lead in cetacean Dolphinidae tissue from the coast of Bahia state in Brazil by GFAAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, cadmium and lead in the muscle, lung, liver and kidney of dolphins (Sotalia guianensis and Stenella clymene) of the Bahia coast in the northwest of Brazil were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples were digested using a diluted oxidant mixture (HNO3+H2O2) with a microwave heating program performed in five steps. The optimized temperatures and

Maria Graças A. Korn; Gabriel Luiz dos Santos; Suzana M. Rosa; Leonardo S. G. Teixeira; Pedro V. de Oliveira

2010-01-01

49

Characterization and Relocation of Seismic Clusters in the Area of Bahia de Banderas, Jalisco-Nayarit, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed the seismic activity that took place the year of 2003 in the area of Bahia de Banderas, between the states of Jalisco and Nayarit, registrated with a local network of 7 stations, which belongs to the Civil Defence of Jalisco and the University of Guadalajara. 400 events have been located, in these earthquakes we identified some series of a similar waveforms. For defining this similarity between seismic events and in order to classify them into clusters, we have applied the cross-correlation method of the P and S arrivals. We found a fourth part of epicentres gathered into 15 clusters of 3-25 events. For some clusters we used relocations relative to a master event. Located south of Bahia de Banderas exist clusters aligned along structures trending N-S in the area of Tuito. This trend agrees with the topographic relief of the area. Other clustes can be related with active tectonic structures at north of Cajon de Peñas dam (Tomatlan). Another cluster was identified at the East, Amatlan de Cañas-Ameca area, and one more in the center of the Bahia de Banderas.

Rutz Lopez, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Carmona, E.

2004-12-01

50

Prevalence of serological markers and risk factors for bloodborne pathogens in Salvador, Bahia state, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of serological markers for HIV-1/2, HBV, HCV, Treponema cruzi and T. pallidum infections. The association of these infections with risk factors in a population from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil was also analysed. Of the 780 enrolled individuals, 545 (70%) were female and 235 (30%) were male. Seroprevalence of 0·8% (6/702), 1·3% (9/678), 1·5% (10/684), 3·5% (23/663) and 11·5% (77/668) for HIV-1/2, HBV, HCV, T. cruzi and T. pallidum infections, respectively, was observed. The seroprevalence of T. pallidum was higher in males 20% (43/210) than in females 7% (34/458) (P < 0·01). An association between age and seroprevalence for T. cruzi (P = 0·02) and T. pallidum (P < 0·01) was observed. HBsAg was associated with having tattoos (3/37 vs. 6/623, P = 0·01) and not having a steady sexual partner (5/141 vs. 4/473, P = 0·04), while anti-HIV-1/2 was associated with having tattoos (2/39 vs. 4/647, P = 0·04); however, larger studies are needed to categorically state the relationship of these risk factors with infectious agents. The prevalence of serological markers for HIV-1/2, HBV, HCV and T. cruzi was consistent with other studies. PMID:22417705

Matos, S B; Jesus, A L S R; Pedroza, K C M C; Sodre, H R S; Ferreira, T L H; Lima, F W M

2013-01-01

51

Orthopedics nursing patients' profile of a public hospital in Salvador-Bahia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe the profile of patients treated in the trauma and orthopedics nursing of a trauma care referral public hospital of in the state of Bahia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which data were collected from medical records of patients in the period from July to December 2008. RESULTS: The profile of the patients involved was formed by subjects mostly male young subjects, victims of trauma from accidents, especially those with motorcycles or car runover. On the other hand,the most frequent traumas associated with urban violence were perforations by gunshot and stab wounds. The primary injury presented by these individuals was exposed fracture of the femur and the most common treatment was external fixation. The most frequent in-hospital complication was wound infection, which required another surgical approach. Most inpatients were discharged and only one death was reported during this period. CONCLUSION: The results of this study corroborate those from other institutions in the country, which may contribute to elaborate public policies for accidents and violence prevention. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453666

de Castro, Renata Reis Matutino; Ribeiro, Natalia Fonseca; de Andrade, Aline Mendonca; Jaques, Bruno Dorea

2013-01-01

52

Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.  

PubMed

An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings. PMID:21789421

Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

2011-01-01

53

Acaricides efficiency on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Bahia state North-Central region.  

PubMed

The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for major losses in the Brazilian livestock, mainly due to reduction in cattle productive performance. Resistance development to major classes of acaricide widely used nowadays has been extensively reported, as well as the occurrence of residues from these compounds in animal products and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of acaricides on R. (B.) microplus collected from rural properties in the North-Central region of Bahia State. Ticks were collected in several cattle farms in the cited region, and an in vitro acaricide efficiency assay was performed based on the immersion of ticks in acaricide solutions made according to manufacturers' recommendations. The results obtained in the experiments indicated varying degrees of efficiency of the several bases studied, with the products benzofenilurea, macrocyclic lactone and fipronil showing the highest levels of efficiency, 100%, 100% and 97.34%, respectively. It was possible to conclude that, for the region studied, there are different degrees of commercial acaricides efficiency, and many present less than 95% effectiveness, value determined as acceptable by the Brazilian legislation. PMID:23538503

Raynal, José Tadeu; Silva, Aretha Alves Borges da; Sousa, Thiago de Jesus; Bahiense, Thiago Campanharo; Meyer, Roberto; Portela, Ricardo Wagner

2013-01-01

54

Mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) life-cycle test: Design comparisons and assessment  

SciTech Connect

This study examines ASTM Standard E1191-90, ``Standard Guide for Conducting Life-cycle Toxicity Tests with Saltwater Mysids,`` 1990, using Mysidopsis bahia, by comparing several test designs to assess growth, reproduction, and survival. The primary objective was to determine the most labor efficient and statistically powerful test design for the measurement of statistically detectable effects on biologically sensitive endpoints. Five different test designs were evaluated varying compartment size, number of organisms per compartment and sex ratio. Results showed that while paired organisms in the ASTM design had the highest rate of reproduction among designs tested, no individual design had greater statistical power to detect differences in reproductive effects. Reproduction was not statistically different between organisms paired in the ASTM design and those with randomized sex ratios using larger test compartments. These treatments had numerically higher reproductive success and lower within tank replicate variance than treatments using smaller compartments where organisms were randomized, or had a specific sex ratio. In this study, survival and growth were not statistically different among designs tested. Within tank replicate variability can be reduced by using many exposure compartments with pairs, or few compartments with many organisms in each. While this improves variance within replicate chambers, it does not strengthen the power of detection among treatments in the test. An increase in the number of true replicates (exposure chambers) to eight will have the effect of reducing the percent detectable difference by a factor of two.

Lussier, S.M.; Champlin, D.; Kuhn, A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Atlantic Ecology Div.; Heltshe, J.F. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States)

1996-12-31

55

[Government health planning in the state of Bahia, Brazil: political actors, social interaction and institutional learning].  

PubMed

This article analyzes the process of government planning in health in the state of Bahia in the 2007-2010 period based on the formulation of the State Health Plan. The benchmark adopted involved adaptation of the theoretical model of the cycle of public policy, including analysis of context, characterization of the actors involved, operations conducted in decision making and the strategic means used. The production of information was through the analysis of documents organized in institutional portfolios and records of the planning process in the organization studied. The analysis of results reveals that the political game included "concessions" and "negotiations" regarding changes in the management and organization of the health system, highlighting the discussion on the problems facing the state management of the Unified Health System (SUS) during the period, and the search for alternatives and solutions to these problems. It also reveals the institutional learning acquired, involving managers and technicians who broadened and reinforced their capacity to analyze and formulate proposals around the government agenda. PMID:25184589

Jesus, Washington Luiz Abreu de; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes

2014-09-01

56

[Use of health services by quilombo communities in southwest Bahia State, Brazil].  

PubMed

Use of health services is increasing in Brazil as a whole, but geographic and social inequalities persist, especially among minority groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of health services by members of quilombos (slavedescendant African-Brazilian communities) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. This cross-sectional health survey in 2011 focused on 797 adults (? 18 years old) belonging to quilombos. The magnitude of the associations between explanatory variables and use of services was estimated by the prevalence ratio obtained from Poisson regression with 95% confidence interval. Of the total sample, 455 (57.1%) reported having used health services in the 12 months prior to the interview. Higher rates of health services utilization were associated with female gender, non-single conjugal status, fair, poor, or very poor self-rated health, enrolment in the Family Health Program, and referral to a health facility for regular or on-going care. The results showed underutilization of health services by members of quilombos, thus demonstrating the need to improve health services provision for this population group. PMID:24068228

Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Reis, Edna Afonso; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal

2013-09-01

57

Comparative toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia and Palaemonetes pugio.  

PubMed

Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used on agricultural crops, as well as for nurseries, golf courses, urban structural and landscaping sites, residential home and garden pest control, and mosquito abatement. Evaluation of sensitive marine and estuarine species is essential for the development of toxicity testing and risk-assessment protocols. Two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia (mysids) and Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp), were tested with the commonly used pyrethroid compounds, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin. Sensitivities of adult and larval grass shrimp and 7-day-old mysids were compared using standard 96-h LC50 bioassay protocols. Adult and larval grass shrimp were more sensitive than the mysids to all the pyrethroids tested. Larval grass shrimp were approximately 18-fold more sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin than the mysids. Larval grass shrimp were similar in sensitivity to adult grass shrimp for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin, but larvae were approximately twice as sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin as adult shrimp. Acute toxicity to estuarine crustaceans occurred at low nanogram per liter concentrations of some pyrethroids, illustrating the need for careful regulation of the use of pyrethroid compounds in the coastal zone. PMID:23364944

DeLorenzo, Marie E; Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Fulton, Michael H

2014-10-01

58

[Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].  

PubMed

The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. PMID:21710038

Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

2011-01-01

59

A closer look at the "Protopithecus" fossil assemblages: new genus and species from Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The recently extinct large-bodied New World monkey Protopithecus brasiliensis Lund 1836 was named based on a distal humerus and proximal femur found in the Lagoa Santa cave system in the southeastern Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. These bones are from an animal about twice the size of the largest extant platyrrhines. One hundred and seventy-five years later, a nearly complete skeleton was discovered in the Toca da Boa Vista caves in the neighboring state of Bahia and was allocated to the same taxon as it was the first platyrrhine fossil of comparable size found since the originals. Our detailed study of the equivalent elements, however, reveals important morphological differences that do not correspond to intraspecific variation as we know it in related platyrrhine taxa. The presence of both an expanded brachioradialis flange on the humerus and gluteal tuberosity on the femur of the Bahian skeleton distinguishes it from the Lagoa Santa fossil as well as from all other platyrrhines. Further cranial and postcranial evidence suggests a closer relationship of the former with the alouattine Alouatta, while the limited Lund material fits more comfortably with the ateline clade. Therefore, we propose to limit P. brasiliensis Lund to the distal humerus and proximal femur from Lagoa Santa and erect a new genus and species for the skeleton from Toca da Boa Vista. Cartelles coimbrafilhoi was a large-bodied frugivore with a relatively small brain and diverse locomotor repertoire including both suspension and climbing that expands the range of platyrrhine biodiversity beyond the dimensions of the living neotropical primates. PMID:23972780

Halenar, Lauren B; Rosenberger, Alfred L

2013-10-01

60

Spatial distribution of triatomines (Reduviidae: Triatominae) in urban areas of the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Environmental changes have a strong influence on the emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases. The city of Salvador, Brazil--currently the focus of a housing boom linked to massive deforestation--is an example in point as the destruction of the remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest around the city has led to an increased risk for Chagas disease. Human domiciles have been invaded by the triatomine vectors of Trypansoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan causing Chagas disease, a problem of particular concern in urban/suburban areas of the city such as the Patamares sector in the north-east, where numbers of both the vector and human cases of the disease have increased lately. To control and prevent further deterioration of the situation, the control programme for Chagas disease, developed by the Bahia Center for Zoonosis Control, has divided the area into a grid of designated surveillance units (ZIs) that are subjected to vector examination. In six out of 98 of these ZIs, 988 triatomes were collected and georeferenced during the 3-year period between 2006 and 2009. The hottest months, that are also generally the driest, showed the highest numbers of triatomines with Triatoma tibiamaculata being the predominant species (98.3%) with Panstrongylus geniculatus present only occasionally (0.6%). Fifty-four percent of all triatomines captured were found inside the homes, and 48.6% out of 479 individuals in the affected ZIs selected for analysis tested positive for T. cruzi infection. The study presented here is a pioneering initiative to map the spatial distribution of triatomines based on geographical information systems with the additional aim of contributing to an expanded knowledge-base about T. cruzi and its vectors in urban areas and raise public health awareness of the risks involved. PMID:21590670

Santana, Karine de Souza O; Bavia, Maria Emília; Lima, Artur Dias; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina S; Soares, Enio Silva; Silva, Marta Mariana Nascimento; Mendonça, Jorge; Martin, Moara de Santana

2011-05-01

61

Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78?years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State. PMID:22449069

2012-01-01

62

Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 1: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

1991-10-01

63

Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 2: Technical report  

SciTech Connect

On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

1991-10-01

64

Development of an in vitro binding assay for ecdysone receptor of mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia).  

PubMed

A global effort has been made to establish screening and testing methods that can identify the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on invertebrates. The purpose of our study was to develop an in vitro receptor binding assay for ecdysone receptor (EcR) in mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia). We cloned mysid shrimp EcR cDNA (2888 nucleotides) and ultraspiracle (USP) cDNA (2116 nucleotides), and determined that they encode predicted proteins of length 570 and 410 amino acids, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of these proteins shared 36-71% homology for EcR and 44-65% for USP with those of other arthropods. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mysid shrimp EcR was classified into an independent cluster together with the EcRs of another mysid species, Neomysis integer and the cluster diverged early from those of the other taxonomic orders of crustaceans. We then expressed the ligand-binding domains (DEF regions) of mysid shrimp EcR (abEcRdef) and USP (abUSPdef) as glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion peptides in Escherichia coli. After purifying the fusion peptides by affinity chromatography and removing the GST labels, we subjected the peptides to a ligand-receptor binding assay. [(3)H]-ponasterone A did not bind to abEcRdef or abUSPdef peptides alone but bound strongly to the abEcRdef/abUSPdef mixture with dissociation constant (K(d))=2.14 nM. Competitive binding assays showed that the IC(50) values for ponasterone A, muristerone A, 20-hydroxyecdysone, and ?-ecdysone were 1.2, 1.9, 35, and 1200 nM, respectively. In contrast, the IC(50) values for two dibenzoylhydrazine ligands (tebufenozide and chromafenozide) were >1.0 × 10(5)nM. The intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation values for the IC(50) values of 20-hydroxyecdysone were 14.7% (n=5) and 16.1% (n=8), respectively. Our results indicate that the binding assay with a mixture of abEcRdef and abUSPdef can be used to screen compounds with a broad range of binding affinities for crustacean EcRs. PMID:21996257

Yokota, Hirofumi; Eguchi, Sayaka; Nakai, Makoto

2011-10-01

65

"Shark is the man!": ethnoknowledge of Brazil's South Bahia fishermen regarding shark behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background Fishermen’s knowledge is a source of indispensable information in decision-making processes related to efforts to stimulate the management and conservation of fishing resources, especially in developing countries. This study analyzed the knowledge of fishermen from three municipal areas of Bahia in northeast Brazil regarding the behavior repertoire of sharks and the possible influence that these perceptions may have on the inclination to preserve these animals. This is a pioneering study on the ethnobiological aspects of elasmobranchs in Brazil. Methods Open, semi-structured interviews with shark fishing specialists were conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The interviews addressed the fishermen’s profile, fishing techniques and knowledge about sharks, focusing on the behaviours exhibited by sharks. The data were analysed with quantitative approach and conducted with the use of descriptive statistical techniques. Results Sixty-five fishermen were interviewed. They descend from the rafting subculture of Brazil’s northeast, which has historically been disregarded by public policies addressing the management and conservation of fishing resources. The fishing fleet involved in shark fishing includes rafts, fishing boats and lobster boats equipped with fishing lines, gillnets, longlines and “esperas”. The informers classified sharks’ behaviour repertoire into 19 ethological categories, related especially to feeding, reproduction, and social and migratory behaviours. Because they identify sharks as predators, the detailed recognition of the behaviours exhibited is crucial both for an efficient catch and to avoid accidents. Therefore, this knowledge is doubly adaptive as it contributes to safer, more lucrative fishing. A feeling of respect for sharks predominates, since informers recognize the ecological role of these animals in marine ecosystems, attributing them the status of leader (or “the man”) in the sea. Conclusions This work demonstrates the complexity and robustness of artisanal fishermen’s ichthyological knowledge of sharks. Therefore, we suggest that such knowledge should be considered to develop public policies for the control of the fishing activity, as well as to develop and consolidate the National Action Plan for the Conservation of Shark and Ray Species (PAN - Tubarões e Raias). PMID:24994466

2014-01-01

66

Assessment of computer techniques for processing digital LANDSAT MSS data for lithological discrimination of Serra do Ramalho, State of Bahia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enhancement techniques and thematic classifications were applied to the metasediments of Bambui Super Group (Upper Proterozoic) in the Region of Serra do Ramalho, SW of the state of Bahia. Linear contrast stretch, band-ratios with contrast stretch, and color-composites allow lithological discriminations. The effects of human activities and of vegetation cover mask and limit, in several ways, the lithological discrimination with digital MSS data. Principal component images and color composite of linear contrast stretch of these products, show lithological discrimination through tonal gradations. This set of products allows the delineations of several metasedimentary sequences to a level superior to reconnaissance mapping. Supervised (maximum likelihood classifier) and nonsupervised (K-Means classifier) classification of the limestone sequence, host to fluorite mineralization show satisfactory results.

Paradella, W. R. (principal investigator); Vitorello, I.; Monteiro, M. D.

1984-01-01

67

Use of thermal and vegetation index data from earth observing satellites to evaluate the risk of schistosomiasis in Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

A geographic information system (GIS) was constructed using maps of regional agroclimatic features, vegetation indices and earth surface temperature data from environmental satellites, together with Schistosoma mansoni prevalence records from 270 municipalities including snail host distributions in Bahia, Brazil to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of infection and to identify environmental factors that influence the distribution of schistosomiasis. In an initial analysis, population density and duration (months) of the annual dry period were shown to be important determinants of disease. In cooperation with the National Institute of Spatial Research in Brazil (INPE), day and night imagery data covering the state of Bahia were selected at approximately bimonthly intervals in 1994 (six day-night pairs) from the data archives of the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-11 satellite. A composite mosaic of these images was created to produce maps of: (1) average values between 0 and +1 of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); and (2) average diurnal temperature differences (dT) on a scale of values between 0 and 15 degrees C. For each municipality, NDVI and dT were calculated for a 3x3 pixel (9 km(2) area) grid and analyzed for relationships to prevalence of schistosomiasis. Results showed a statistically significant relationship of prevalence to dT (rho=-0.218) and NDVI (rho=0.384) at the 95% level of confidence by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results support use of NDVI, dT, dry period climatic stress factors and human population density for development of a GIS environmental risk assessment model for schistosomiasis in Brazil. PMID:11378144

Bavia, M E; Malone, J B; Hale, L; Dantas, A; Marroni, L; Reis, R

2001-04-27

68

Influence of constant and fluctuating salinity on responses of 'mysidopsis bahia' exposed to cadmium in a life-cycle test  

SciTech Connect

Two 28-day, life-cycle tests were conducted to evaluate effects of constant and fluctuating salinities on chronic toxicity of cadmium to Mysidopsis bahia at 27C. Salinities of 10 to 32% and cadmium concentrations of 1 to 9 micrograms/l were examined. Estimated median tolerance concentrations at day 28 ranged from 4.8 to 6.3 micrograms Cd/l over the salinity range of 13 to 29%. Size and fecundity of exposed and unexposed females were predicted to be comparable when cadmium was equal or greater than 5.0 micrograms Cd/l and salinities equal or less than 20% and at concentrations of less than 5 micrograms/l at lower salinities. At higher cadmium levels both responses were impaired regardless of salinity. Reproduction in control treatments was an order of magnitude lower in low (10 and 13%) as compared to high (21, 29, 32%) salinity treatments. This effect of salinity on reproduction was not moderated by periodic exposure to higher, more suitable salinities. Survival, growth and reproduction were not impacted by addition of 5 micrograms Cd/l under fluctuating salinity conditions. The no-effect concentration is 4-5 micgrogram Cd/1 regardless of salinity. Changes in survival, growth and reproduction observed are consistent with the principal distribution of M. bahia in estuaries relative to salinity. Comparison of these data with previously reported acute responses suggests that the acute water quality criterion for cadmium should be salinity-dependent whereas the chronic criterion need not be.

Voyer, R.A.; McGovern, D.G.

1991-01-01

69

Diversity of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) and associated braconid parasitoids from native and exotic hosts in southeastern Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

We documented fruit fly-host associations and infestation rates over 5 yr in the state of Bahia, Brazil, by systematically collecting native and introduced fruits in backyard and commercial orchards, experimental stations, and patches of native vegetation. Fruit were collected in multiple sites in the southern and southernmost regions of Bahia. A total of 942.22 kg from 27 fruit species in 15 plant families was collected throughout this study. Of these, 15 plant species from six families were infested by Anastrepha species. A total of 11,614 fruit flies was reared from the fruit (5,178 females and 6,436 males). No specimens of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were recovered. Eleven Anastrepha species were recovered from the collected fruit: Anastrepha antunesi Lima (0.04%), Anastrepha distincta Greene (0.1%), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (53.5%), Anastrepha leptozona Hendel (4.5%), Anastrepha manihoti Lima (0.1%), Anastrepha montei Lima (1.0%), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (33.0%), Anastrepha pickeli Lima (2.0%), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (1.0%), Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (3.0%), and Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (1.8%). We recovered 1,265 parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Anastrepha pupae. Three species of braconids were found to parasitize larvae of nine Anastrepha species. The most common parasitoid species recovered was Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) (81.7%), followed by Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (12.2%) and Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) (6.1%). We report A. fraterculus infesting Malay apple Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry and A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, and A. zenildae infesting araza Eugenia stipitata McVaugh for the first time in Brazil. PMID:22546440

Silva, Janisete G; Dutra, Vivian S; Santos, Mirian S; Silva, Nívea M O; Vidal, Daniela B; Nink, Ricardo A; Guimarães, Jorge A; Araujo, Elton L

2010-10-01

70

Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

2012-04-01

71

Effects of the 1997–1998 El Niño on the cnidarian community of a high turbidity coral reef system (northern Bahia, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are reporting on the results of a 4-year study that allowed for the analysis of the effects of the 1997–1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event on the cnidarian community of the naturally high-turbidity reefs of northern Bahia, Brazil. Cnidarian densities were significantly different between pre- and post-ENSO years, with significant consequent changes in community composition. BIOENV analysis identified

Francisco Kelmo; Martin J. Attrill; Malcolm B. Jones

2003-01-01

72

[Epidemiology of tegumentary American leishmaniasis and its relations with agriculture and prospecting, in a locality of the State of Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study was carried out in the city of Lençóis, State of Bahia, with the objective of verifying the association between leishmaniasis infection and occupation. A Montenegro test and a questionnaire including biological and socio-economic variables were applied to the study group. Sandflies were captured in and around dwellings. The higher-than-average prevalence of leishmaniasis observed among agricultural workers and prospectors is explained by the double exposure to the infection-both at home and at work. PMID:2814307

Dourado, M I; Noronha, C V; Alcantara, N; Ichihara, M Y; Loureiro, S

1989-02-01

73

Impact of the Family Health Program on gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Northeast Brazil: an analysis of primary care-sensitive conditions  

PubMed Central

In seeking to provide universal health care through its primary care-oriented Family Health Program, Brazil has attempted to reduce hospitalization rates for preventable illnesses such as childhood gastroenteritis. We measured rates of Primary Care-sensitive Hospitalizations and evaluated the impact of the Family Health Program on pediatric gastroenteritis trends in high-poverty Northeast Brazil. We analyzed aggregated municipal-level data in time-series between years 1999-2007 from the Brazilian health system payer database and performed qualitative, in-depth key informant interviews with public health experts in municipalities in Bahia. Data were sampled for Bahia’s Salvador microregion, a population of approximately 14 million. Gastroenteritis hospitalization rates among children aged less than five years were evaluated. Declining hospitalization rates were associated with increasing coverage by the PSF (P=0.02). After multivariate adjustment for garbage collection, sanitation, and water supply, evidence of this association was no longer significant (P=0.28). Qualitative analysis confirmed these findings with a framework of health determinants, proximal causes, and health system effects. The PSF, with other public health efforts, was associated with decreasing gastroenteritis hospitalizations in children. Incentives for providers and more patient-centered health delivery may contribute to strengthening the PSF’s role in improving primary health care outcomes in Brazil. PMID:23932060

Monahan, Laura J.; Calip, Gregory S.; Novo, Patricia; Sherstinsky, Mark; Casiano, Mildred; Mota, Eduardo; Dourado, Ines

2013-01-01

74

HTLV-1 in pregnant women from the Southern Bahia, Brazil: a neglected condition despite the high prevalence  

PubMed Central

Background As the most frequent pathway of vertical transmission of HTLV-1 is breast-feeding, and considering the higher prevalence in women, it is very important to perform screening examinations for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies as part of routine prenatal care. So far, no studies of HTLV-1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in the Southern region of Bahia, Brazil, have been described. Methods Pregnant women were selected at the two regional reference centers for health care from Southern Bahia. A total of 2766 pregnant women attending the antenatal unit between November 2008 and May 2010 have been analyzed. An extra blood sample was drawn during their routine antenatal testing. A standardized questionnaire was applied and all positive plasma samples were tested by ELISA and were confirmed by Western Blot and PCR. Besides that, positive women were contacted and visited. The family members that were present during the visit were asked to be serologically screened to the virus. A prospective study was also carried out and newborns were followed up to two years for evaluation of vertical transmission. Results HTLV prevalence was 1.05% (CI 95%: 0.70-1.50). There was no association of HTLV-1 infection with age, education, income and ethnic differences. The association with marital status was borderline (OR?=?7.99; 95% CI 1.07-59.3; p?=?0.042). In addition, 43 family members of the HTLV-1 seropositive women have been analyzed and specific reactivity was observed in 32.56%, including two children from previous pregnancy. Conclusion: It is very important to emphasize that the lack of HTLV-1 screening in pregnant women can promote HTLV transmission especially in endemic areas. HTLV screening in this vulnerable population and the promotion of bottle-feeding for children of seropositive mothers could be important cost-effective methods to limit the vertical transmission. Besides that, our data reinforce the need to establish strategies of active surveillance in household and family contacts as important epidemiological surveillance actions for the early detection of virus infection and the prevention of transmission by sexual or and parenteral contact. PMID:24524416

2014-01-01

75

[The evolution of mortality by homicide in the State of Bahia in the period from 1996 to 2010].  

PubMed

An ecological study was conducted, the objective of which was to describe the evolution of homicide rates for residents of the State of Bahia, Brazil, and its nine health macroregions (MRS) in the period from 1996 to 2010. Crude and adjusted data from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and X85-Y09 codes of the Tenth International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) were analyzed. The number, proportion and homicide mortality rates (TMH) were analyzed. considering the characteristics of the victim and the event. The results revealed a profile of predominantly male mortality, Afro-Brazilian race/ethnicity with little education. The public highways were the main location of occurrence of deaths. There was an increase in TMH in all age groups, though the highest rates were observed in the population of 15 to 39 years of age. The TMH age-standardized rates were higher in the Far South, East, North and South. The conclusion reached was that the killings can be addressed from the loation/regional realities through strategic and planning of intersectoral actions that take into account the socioeconomic and cultural characteristics. PMID:24897488

Souza, Tiago Oliveira de; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach

2014-06-01

76

Structural variations among monocot emergent and amphibious species from lakes of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Temporary lakes are common in the semi-arid region of the State of Bahia and form water mirrors in the rainy season. In this period, various vegetal species appear having different life forms adapted to the seasonality conditions of the rainfall regime. This work surveyed the adaptive anatomical structures of some emergent and amphibious monocot species occurring in these lakes. We studied the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves and scapes of Cyperus odoratus, Oxycaryum cubense, Pycreus macrostachyos (Cyperaceae) - amphibious species; and of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae) and Habenaria repens (Orchidaceae) - emergent species. The anatomical features of the dermal, fundamental and vascular systems confirming the tendency of the adaptive convergence of these plants to temporary lacustrine the environment include: single layered epidermal cells with a thin cuticle layer in the aerial organs; the presence of air canals in all the organs; few or no supporting tissues; and less numerous conducting elements and thinner cell walls in the xylem. The reduction of the supporting tissues, the number of stomata, which can even be absent, and the number of conducting elements and the degree of cell wall lignification in the xylem of the emergent species is more accentuated than that of the amphibious species. The pattern of distribution of aerenchyma in the roots of the studied species was considered important to distinguish between amphibious and emergent life forms. PMID:22437397

Leite, K R B; França, F; Scatena, V I

2012-02-01

77

[Breastfeeding duration, infant feeding regimes, and factors related to living conditions in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study aimed to identify breastfeeding duration, infant feeding regimes, and factors related to living conditions among 811 children under 24 months of age in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Data were statistically analyzed by survival analysis, Pearson's chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression. Median duration of exclusive, predominant, and total breastfeeding was 30.6, 73.0, and 131.5 days, respectively. Exclusive or predominant breastfeeding was discontinued in 83.6% of the subjects. Children with poor living conditions were 2.3 times more likely (95%CI: 1.09-5.01) to receive early supplementary food, whereas the figure for the very poor increased to 2.5 (95%CI: 1.20-5.34). Early exclusive or predominant breastfeeding discontinuation was associated with early pregnancy and poor living conditions of the children and their families. Programs directed towards proper breastfeeding and healthy feeding practices in childhood should consider the social factors associated with early introduction of supplementary foods in this population. PMID:16158158

de Oliveira, Lucivalda P Magalhães; Assis, Ana Marlúcia O; Gomes, Gecynalda Soares da Silva; Prado, Matildes da S; Barreto, Maurício L

2005-01-01

78

C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene and variant hemoglobins: a study in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) is associated with an increase in total homocysteine serum levels (tHcy), described as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Eight hundred forty-three neonates from two different maternity hospitals, one public and another private, in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil were screened for this polymorphism by PCR and RFLP. The T-allele frequency in the total sample was 0.23, and the prevalence rates of heterozygous and homozygous carriers were 36.2% and 5.3%, respectively. The T-allele frequency differed and the T/T genotype was more prevalent at the private maternity hospital. The hemoglobin (Hb) profile was investigated by HPLC in 763 newborns. The frequency of variant Hb was higher at the public than at the private maternity hospital. The association of the C677T polymorphism and the Hb profile was investigated in 683 newborns, showing a relatively high frequency of variant Hbs and the T allele. These data could provide an important basis for further studies focusing on potential risks of vaso-occlusive events in these individuals. PMID:15073633

Couto, Fábio David; Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Moura Neto, José Pereira; Rêgo, Marco Antônio Vasconcelos; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

2004-01-01

79

[Nutritional deficit in children in a major city of the interior of the state of Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

The study sought to analyze the nutritional deficit of children and associated environmental factors and maternal and infant characteristics in a major city in the interior of the state of Bahia. Information from mother/child-under-four duos of a birth cohort was assessed. Malnutrition was defined by the height-for-age (H/A) anthropometric index, at a cutoff of -1 z-score relative to the benchmark of the 2006 Multicentre Growth Reference Study. The variables studied were: the characteristics of children (birth weight and multiple births) and mothers (age at the time of birth, education level, parity and performing prenatal exams) and environmental factors (floor and roof material of residence, source of water consumed, indoor plumbing, water used for consumption and ownership of a refrigerator). Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with nutritional deficit. Nutritional deficit occurred in 24.6% of children. Underweight at birth, inadequate prenatal care, precarious nature of the floor of the home and no indoor plumbing were predictors of malnutrition among children in the study. Factors associated with malnutrition confirm the contribution of social issues in the genesis of malnutrition. PMID:24897223

de Jesus, Gilmar Mercês; Castelão, Elizia Simões; Vieira, Tatiana de Oliveira; Gomes, Daiene Rosa; Vieira, Graciete Oliveira

2014-05-01

80

Cost-effective control of plant disease when epidemiological knowledge is incomplete: modelling Bahia bark scaling of citrus.  

PubMed

A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify-the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule-are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

Cunniffe, Nik J; Laranjeira, Francisco F; Neri, Franco M; DeSimone, R Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A

2014-08-01

81

Cost-Effective Control of Plant Disease When Epidemiological Knowledge Is Incomplete: Modelling Bahia Bark Scaling of Citrus  

PubMed Central

A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify—the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule—are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

Neri, Franco M.; DeSimone, R. Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A.

2014-01-01

82

Threatened fishes of the world: Achondrostoma occidentale Robalo, Almada, Sousa-Santos, Moreira & Doadrio  

E-print Network

- tion (Pereira 2007). Threats: Sewage from pig farms, distilleries, agricultural and urban pollution restricted to small isolated pockets located upstream of the major sources of pollution in the rivers

83

The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The orchid-bee faunas of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants ranging from 1 to 300 ha in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, were surveyed. Baits with seventeen different scents were used to attract orchid-bee males. Four thousand seven hundred and sixty-four males belonging to 36 species were actively collected with insect nets during 300 hours from November, 2008 to November, 2009. Richness and diversity of orchid bees found in this study are the highest ever recorded in the Atlantic Forest domain. Eufriesea dentilabris (Mocsáry, 1897) and Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840) were collected at the 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', the first record of these species for the state of Bahia and the northernmost record for both species. Females Exaerete dentata (Linnaeus, 1758) were also collected at 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal' and old records of Eufriesea aeneiventris (Mocsáry, 1896) in this area makes this site the richest and most diverse concerning its orchid-bee fauna in the entire Atlantic Forest and similar to areas in the Amazon Basin. PMID:23917575

Nemésio, A

2013-05-01

84

INTERACTIONS AMONG SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, AND AGE ON GROWTH OF THE ESTUARINE MYSID MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA REARED IN THE LABORATORY THROUGH A COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE - I. BODY MASS AND AGE-SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

A broad range of salinity-temperature conditions (salinities from 3 to 31 o/oo and temperatures from 19 to 31 degrees C) significantly influenced growth rates and subsequent biomass of the estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, reared in the laboratory from the first free juvenile st...

85

Isolation, pathogenicity and disinfection of Staphylococcus aureus carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Currently, hospital infection is a serious public health problem, and several factors may influence the occurrence of these infections, including the presence of insects, which are carriers of multidrug-resistant bacterial species. The aim of this study was to isolate staphylococci carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia and to identify the resistance profile, pathogenicity and efficacy of disinfection of the premises. A total of 91 insects were collected in 21 strategic points of these hospitals, and 32 isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. Based on antibiogram and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration results, 95% of these strains were susceptible to oxacillin. These strains were also evaluated for the presence of resistance genes encoding resistance to oxacillin/methicillin by polymerase chain reaction, but the sample was negative for this gene. Pathogenicity tests were performed in vitro biofilm formation induced by glucose, where it was found that eight (27.58%) strains were classified as biofilm producers and 21 (72.4%) as stronger producers. In addition, we performed PCR for their virulence genes: Sea (enterotoxin A), SEB (B), Sec (C), PVL (Panton-Valentine Leukocidin), ClfA (clumping factor A) and Spa (protein A). Of these, Sea, Spa PVL were positive in 7 (21.8%), 2 (6.3%) and 1 (3.1%) samples, respectively. The analysis of cytokine induction in the inflammatory response of J774 macrophages by isolates from the two hospitals did not show statistical difference at the levels of IL-6, TNF-?, IL-1 and IL-10 production. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial activity of disinfecting agents on these strains, quaternary ammonium, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, Lysoform(®), 70% alcohol solution of chlorhexidine digluconate, 2% peracetic acid, and 100% vinegar. Resistance was seen in only for the following two disinfectants: 70% alcohol in 31 (96.8%) samples tested and vinegar in 30 (93.8%) samples. The study demonstrated the presence of resistant and pathogenic organisms conveyed by insects, thus suggesting improvement in efforts to control these vectors. PMID:24216155

Oliveira, Pollianna S; Souza, Simone G; Campos, Guilherme B; da Silva, Danilo C C; Sousa, Daniel S; Araújo, Suerda P F; Ferreira, Laiziane P; Santos, Verena M; Amorim, Aline T; Santos, Angelita M O G; Timenetsky, Jorge; Cruz, Mariluze P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M

2014-01-01

86

Hydrographic variability in Bahia De La Paz, B. C. S, Mexico, during the 1997 1998 El Niño  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bah?´a de La Paz is an integral part of the coast of the Gulf of California and is the biggest bay of the eastern side of the Baja California Peninsula. Dynamic forcing and water interchange occur between the bay and the gulf through two different openings, the main and deep North Mouth with 350-m depth and the shallow San Lorenzo Channel with an average depth of 10 m. To determine the oceanographic conditions before and during El Niño 1997-1998 in Bahia de La Paz, CTD data were collected in four surveys aboard the research yacht CICIMAR XV during July 1996, March 1997, July 1997, and March 1998. The results revealed important variations in the hydrographic structure of the bay, both in space and time. The two summers had a complete absence of the mixed layer with a sharper thermocline during summer 1996 (0.25°C/m) than in summer 1997 (0.21°C/m). Additionally, the entire water column experienced an average temperature increase from 1.5°C at the surface with a maximum of 4.2°C to 28 m and around 1°C between 100 and 350 m, showing a halocline structure in summer 1997. At the end of the winters of 1997 and 1998, a 50-m mixed layer was detected, with higher average temperatures of 2.3°C in winter 1998. The temperature differences decreased with depth and were the same at 340 m with no traces of the halocline in winter 1998. The increase of temperature observed in the study area during the periods affected by El Niño 1997-1998 resulted in a sinking of the thermocline and isotherms, showing the strongest effect of this warming (>4°C) in the surface layer to 70 m during summer 1997. The stratification increased during the El Niño and was more evident in the period of small stratification in the region (winter) as showed by the ? parameter with values of 45 J/m 3 in 1998 and 29 J/m 3 in 1997, whereas during the strong stratification period (summer) the difference was small, with values of 137 J/m 3 in 1996 and 139 J/m 3 in 1997. In periods not affected by El Niño, the Gulf of California and the Subtropical Subsurface Waters are usually present in the bay, but during this episode their presence varies in space. Additionally, Surface Equatorial Water was found in the bay, mainly at the end of winter 1998 and with some traces in summer 1997.

Obeso-Nieblas, M.; Shirasago, B.; Sánchez-Velasco, L.; Gaviño-Rodriguez, J. H.

2004-03-01

87

The dominant 55 kDa allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) pollen is a group 13 pollen allergen, Pas n 13.  

PubMed

Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is an important pollen allergen source with a long season of pollination and wide distribution in subtropical and temperate regions. We aimed to characterize the 55 kDa allergen of Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) and ascertain its clinical importance. BaGP extract was separated by 2D-PAGE and immunoblotted with serum IgE of a grass pollen-allergic patient. The amino-terminal protein sequence of the predominant allergen isoform at 55 kDa had similarity with the group 13 allergens of Timothy grass and maize pollen, Phl p 13 and Zea m 13. Four sequences obtained by rapid amplification of the allergen cDNA ends represented multiple isoforms of Pas n 13. The predicted full length cDNA for Pas n 13 encoded a 423 amino acid glycoprotein including a signal peptide of 28 residues and with a predicted pI of 7.0. Tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides of 2D gel spots identified peptides specific to the deduced amino acid sequence for each of the four Pas n 13 cDNA, representing 47% of the predicted mature protein sequence of Pas n 13. There was 80.6% and 72.6% amino acid identity with Zea m 13 and Phl p 13, respectively. Reactivity with a Phl p 13-specific monoclonal antibody AF6 supported designation of this allergen as Pas n 13. The allergen was purified from BaGP extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction and size exclusion chromatography. Purified Pas n 13 reacted with serum IgE of 34 of 71 (48%) grass pollen-allergic patients and specifically inhibited IgE reactivity with the 55 kDa band of BaGP for two grass pollen-allergic donors. Four isoforms of Pas n 13 from pI 6.3-7.8 had IgE-reactivity with grass pollen allergic sera. The allergenic activity of purified Pas n 13 was demonstrated by activation of basophils from whole blood of three grass pollen-allergic donors tested but not control donors. Pas n 13 is thus a clinically relevant pollen allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass likely to be important in eliciting seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma in grass pollen-allergic patients. PMID:21269696

Davies, Janet M; Voskamp, Astrid; Dang, Thanh D; Pettit, Benjamin; Loo, Dorothy; Petersen, Arnd; Hill, Michelle M; Upham, John W; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

2011-03-01

88

Simulium (Psilopelmia) virescens, a new black-fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the southwestern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The last-instar larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium virescens sp. nov. are described and illustrated. This species has a peculiar larva, which has an elongated head capsule and light-green colour. The first thoracic segment has tubercle on its dorsal region and the third thoracic segment has one pair of tubercles; the first to the fourth abdominal segments have one pair of tubercles on each segment. Until now this new species had only been collected at the type locality, which is on the middle stretch of the Correntina River in the southwestern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Females were voraciously biting humans during the field work. This new species represents the second species of Simulium (Psilopelmia) in Brazil and the first registered outside of the Brazilian Amazon Region. PMID:22310543

Hamada, Neusa; Silva, Nayra Gomes da; Pereira, Eleny da Silva

2012-02-01

89

[Community structure and association of waterbirds with spatial heterogeneity in the Bahia Magdalena-Almejas wetland complex, Baja California Sur, Mexico].  

PubMed

Community structure and association of waterbirds with spatial heterogeneity in the Bahia Magdalena-Almejas wetland complex, Baja California Sur, Mexico. To test the hypothesis that spatial heterogeneity determines waterbird diversity in a coastal wetland, we compared waterbird density, diversity, and species composition among various habitats and landscapes units in Bahia Magdalena-Almejas, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Based on diversity patterns and bird distribution, we assessed the effect of coastal development on the waterbird community structure. To gather information on habitat features and waterbird populations we conducted waterbird censuses in 329 habitat segments along the internal coastline of the study area, from February 2002 to February 2003. We performed non-parametric analyses to test the null hypothesis of no diference on waterbird density, and diversity among landscape units and seasons. The species composition was evaluated using ordination techniques. Waterbird density was higher in winter and autumn in the three lagoons of the study area, particularly in the insular coast, sandy beach and dunes; it was higher in the few segments of antropic sustrate. Diversity was significantly higher in mangrove habitat along the peninsular coast, and in mangrove-dunes association on the insular coast. Although modification of coastal natural habitat and boat transit disturbance had no influence on waterbird density or diversity, the highest richness of waterbirds occurred in well preserved areas. Species composition analysis showed differences between Santo Domingo Channel and Magdalena Bay. Pelagic and mangrove habitat had a species composition difference higher than those associations in other habitats. Such differences in species assemblages by habitat and landscape units suggest that communities are structured according to the range of available natural resources in structurally complex habitats, and that dominant piscivorous waterbird species were favored in this community. PMID:18624251

Zárate-Ovando, Bulmara; Palacios, Eduardo; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor

2008-03-01

90

Hypothesis on the origin of lineaments in the LANDSAT and SLAR images of precambrian soil in the low Contas River Valley (southern Bahia)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examination of LANDSAT and SLAR images in southern Bahia reveals numerous linear features, which are grouped in five sets, based on their trends: N65 degrees E, N70 degrees W, N45 degrees E and NS/N15 degrees E. Owing to their topographic expressions, distributive patterns, spacing between individual lineaments and their mutual relationships, the lineament sets of N65 degrees E and N70 degrees W, as well as the sets of N40 degrees E and N45 degrees W, are considered as two groups of conjugate shear fractures and the former is older and is always cut by the latter. Their conjugate shear angles are 45 degrees and 85 degrees and their bisector lines are approximately in east-west and north-south directions, respectively. According to Badgeley's argumentation on the conjugate shear angles, the former conjugate shear fractures would be caused by: (1) vertical movements, and the bisector of their conjugate angle would be parallel to the long axis of horsting or folding, or (2) by a compressive force in the east-west direction and under a condition of low confining pressure and temperature.

Liu, C. C. (principal investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

1984-01-01

91

Pollen types and levels of total phenolic compounds in propolis produced by Apis mellifera L. (Apidae) in an area of the Semiarid Region of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Twenty-two propolis samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in an area of the Semiarid region the the State of Bahia (Agreste of Alagoinhas), Brazil, were palynologically analyzed and quantified regarding their levels of total phenolic compounds. These samples were processed using the acetolysis technique with the changes suggested for use with propolis. We found 59 pollen types belonging to 19 families and 36 genera. The family Fabaceae was the most representative in this study with nine pollen types, followed by the family Asteraceae with seven types. The types Mikania and Mimosa pudica occurred in all samples analyzed. The types Mimosa pudica and Eucalyptus had frequency of occurrence above 50% in at least one sample. The highest similarity index (c. 72%) occurred between the samples ER1 and ER2, belonging to the municipality of Entre Rios. Samples from the municipality of Inhambupe displayed the highest (36.78±1.52 mg/g EqAG) and lowest (7.68 ± 2.58 mg/g EqAG) levels of total phenolic compounds. Through the Spearman Correlation Coefficient we noticed that there was a negative linear correlation between the types Mimosa pudica (rs = -0.0419) and Eucalyptus (rs = -0.7090) with the profile of the levels of total phenolic compounds of the samples. PMID:24676176

Matos, Vanessa R; Alencar, Severino M; Santos, Francisco A R

2014-03-01

92

SHRIMP U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from the early proterozoic Contendas-Mirante supracrustal belt, São Francisco Craton, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology has been undertaken on detrital zircons in a orthoconglomerate from the metamorphosed Contendas-Mirante supracrustal belt, São Francisco Craton, Bahia, Brazil. The majority of the U-Pb age determinations on the detrital zircons are concordant within uncertainty, and display three principal age groups; 2710-2600 Ma, 2400-2300 Ma and most abundant, 2200-2150 Ma. The conglomerate must have been deposited between ca. 2150 Ma (the youngest detrital zircons) and 2000-1900 Ma, when the Contendas-Mirante supracrustal belt was intruded by peraluminous granites. 3100-3400 Ma gneisses and granitoids crop out as domes within the Contendas-Mirante supracrustal belt, which have been interpreted as reactivated basement to the belt. These gneisses have not contributed a significant amount of detrital material to the conglomerate because the oldest detrital zircons have an age of only ca. 2700 Ma. Instead, the source of the detrital material in the conglomerate might be represented by the Jequié Complex to the east, which consists of late Archaean rocks that were migmatized and intruded by granites in the early Proterozoic.

Nutman, A. P.; Cordani, U. G.; Sabaté, P.

1994-04-01

93

Radiometric quality and performance of TIMESAT for smoothing moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer enhanced vegetation index time series from western Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua platforms in 1999 and 2002, respectively, with temporal resolutions of 1 to 2 days opened the possibility of using a longtime series of satellite images to map land use and land cover classes from different regions of the Earth, to study vegetation phenology, and to monitor regional and global climate change, among other applications. The main objectives of this study were twofold: to analyze the radiometric quality of the time series of enhanced vegetation index (EVI) products derived from the Terra MODIS sensor in western Bahia State, Brazil, and to identify the most appropriate filter to smooth MODIS EVI time series of the study area among those available in the public domain, the TIMESAT algorithm. The 2000 to 2011 time period was considered (a total of 276 scenes). The radiometric quality was analyzed based on the pixel reliability data set available in the MOD13Q1 product. The performances of the three smoothing filters available within TIMESAT (double logistic, Savitzky-Golay, and asymmetric Gaussian) were analyzed using the Graybill's F test and Willmott statistics. Five percent of the MODIS pixels from the study area were cloud-affected, almost all of which were from the rainy season. The double logistic filter presented the best performance.

Borges, Elane F.; Sano, Edson E.; Medrado, Euzébio

2014-01-01

94

Evaluation of optimal conditions for determination of low selenium content in shellfish samples collected at Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil using HG-AFS.  

PubMed

This work proposes a procedure for the determination of total selenium content in shellfish after digestion of samples in block using cold finger system and detection using atomic fluorescent spectrometry coupled hydride generation (HG AFS). The optimal conditions for HG such as effect and volume of prereduction KBr 10 % (m/v) (1.0 and 2.0 ml) and concentration of hydrochloric acid (3.0 and 6.0 mol L(-1)) were evaluated. The best results were obtained using 3 mL of HCl (6 mol L(-1)) and 1 mL of KBr 10 % (m/v), followed by 30 min of prereduction for the volume of 1 mL of the digested sample. The precision and accuracy were assessed by the analysis of the Certified Reference Material NIST 1566b. Under the optimized conditions, the detection and quantification limits were 6.06 and 21.21 ?g kg(-1), respectively. The developed method was applied to samples of shellfish (oysters, clams, and mussels) collected at Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil. Selenium concentrations ranged from 0.23?±?0.02 to 3.70?±?0.27 mg kg(-1) for Mytella guyanensis and Anomalocardia brasiliana, respectively. The developed method proved to be accurate, precise, cheap, fast, and could be used for monitoring Se in shellfish samples. PMID:24771464

Lopes Dos Santos, Walter Nei; Macedo, Samuel Marques; Teixeira da Rocha, Sofia Negreiros; Souza de Jesus, Caio Niela; Cavalcante, Dannuza Dias; Hatje, Vanessa

2014-08-01

95

Evaluation of criteria for selecting the spectral attributes of digital LANDSAT MSS imagery for discriminating lithological units in the lower Curaca River Valley, Bahia. [Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of spectral attributes criteria was investigated, based on measures of statistical distance of separability between thematic classes in MSS digital LANDSAT imagery, in order to select the best subsets of channels in composite colors for the detection and discrimination of lithological units in the lower valley of Curaca River, State of Bahia, Brazil. Three situations were investigated: (1) selection of the three best channels, considering all of the original bands (channels 4, 5, 6, and 7); (2) selection of the three best bands, considering the six MSS band-ratios (channels 4/5, 4/6. 4/7, 5/6, 5/7, and 6/7); and (3) selection of the three best bands in a hybrid approach (the four original bands and the six ratios). A visual analysis was done on color composite images using the selected sets. Results show that the hybrid product (bands 4, 5/7, and 7 with green, blue, and red respectively) and the Normal Color Composite (bands 4, 5, and 7 with blue, green, and red colors respectively) had the best performance.

Paradella, W. R. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

96

Lot sizing and scheduling: industrial extensions and research opportunities Alistair Clark; Bernardo Almada-Lobo; Christian Almeder  

E-print Network

manufacturing processes and the shift from make-to-stock to make-to-order, there is a debate about whether or not lot sizing as a trade-off between setups and stocks is still an issue. Nonetheless, a high number advantage of holding stock rather than maintaining a capacity surplus. This is the case in process

Clark, Alistair

97

Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van B?n?den, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen’s reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40’59”S and 38°56’38”W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary - the region’s main river - at 5.5?m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size. Behaviours described were compatible with the observations made in situ and with data found in the scientific literature, confirming the importance of traditional knowledge in complementing scientific data. One behaviour mentioned by the fishermen that had no equivalence in the scientific literature was confirmed in situ and, therefore, constitutes the first record for this species. PMID:22584063

2012-01-01

98

Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen’s ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Methods Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen’s profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Results Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach’s Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r?=??0.38, p?=?0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes towards turtle conservation (H?=?8.33; p?=?0.04). Life history, habitat, specific and exogenous taboos, beliefs and the use of hawksbill turtle to make glasses and other handcrafts are also reported in the study. Conclusions Monitoring of spawning areas, preservation of traditional practices, strategies to moderate the use of fishery resources and the local ecological knowledge/attitudes can provide data to improve the conservation practices and management of sea turtles. PMID:23448503

2013-01-01

99

Capture and commercialization of blue land crabs ("guaiamum") Cardisoma guanhumi (Lattreille, 1825) along the coast of Bahia State, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach  

PubMed Central

Background Blue Land Crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) is one of the most important crustacean species captured and commercialized in Brazil. Although this species is not considered to be threatened with extinction, populations of C. guanhumi are known to be rapidly diminishing due to heavy harvesting pressures and degradation of their natural habitats, highlighting the necessity of developing and implanting management and protection strategies for their populations. There have been no ethnozoological publications that have focused specifically on C. guanhumi, in spite of importance of this type of information for developing efficient management plans of resource utilization. So, the present work describes the ethnoecological aspects of the capture and commercialization of C. guanhumi by a fishing community in northeastern Brazil. Methods Field work was carried out in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia in Brazil, between the months of January and March/2011 through the use of open semi-structured interviews with all of the crustacean harvesters in city who acknowledged their work in capturing this species, totaling 12 interviewees. The informants were identified through the use of the "snowball" sampling technique. In addition to the interviews themselves, the "guided tour" technique and direct observations was employed. Results According all the interviewees, the C. guanhumi is popularly called "guaiamum" and is collected in "apicum" zones. They recognize sexual dimorphism in the species based on three morphological characteristics and the harvesters also pointed two stages in the reproductive cycle during the year and another phase mentioned by the interviewees was ecdysis. All of the interviewed affirmed that the size and the quantities C. guanhumi stocks in Mucuri have been diminishing. All of the interviewees agreed that the species and other mangrove resources constituted their principal source of income. The harvesters dedicated three to five days a week to collect Blue Land Crabs and the principal technique utilized for capturing is a trap called a "ratoeira" (rat-trap). Conclusions The results of the present work demonstrated that the community retains a vast and important volume of knowledge about C. guanhumi that could subsidize both scientific studies and the elaboration of viable management and conservation strategies for this species. PMID:22429762

2012-01-01

100

The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of "Reserva Ecológica Michelin", "RPPN Serra Bonita" and one Atlantic Forest remnant in the state of Bahia, Brazil, with new geographic records.  

PubMed

The orchid bee faunas of two private natural preserves, 'Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural da Serra Bonita' (RSB) and 'Reserva Ecológica Michelin' (REM), and a forest fragment inside the campus of the 'Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz', were surveyed for the first time. All three areas constitute Atlantic Forest remnants in the southern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 1,782 males belonging to 32 species were actively collected with insect nets during 90 hours of field work from November, 2009, to January, 2012. Euglossa cyanochlora Moure, 1996-one of the rarest orchid bee species-was found at RSB and REM, the latter representing the northernmost record for this species. Euglossa cognata, Moure, 1970 was found at RSB, the northernmost record for this species in the Atlantic Forest and the only recent record for this species at the northern border of Jequitinhonha river. PMID:25055082

Nemésio, A

2014-02-01

101

Pb?Pb, Rb?Sr, and K?Ar systematics of the Lagoa Real uranium province (south-central Bahia, Brazil) and the Espinhaço cycle (ca. 1.5-1.0 Ga)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochronologic investigations using Pb?Pb, Rb?Sr, and K?Ar systems have been carried out on the granite-orthogneiss complex of Lagoa Real, Bahia — one of Brazil's most important uranium provinces. Rb?Sr whole rock data on the basement complex yielded an isochron age of about 2700 Ma. The age corresponds to the peak of the Jequié orogenic cycle, when the regional crustal province was probably consolidated. Pb?Pb data for five undeformed examples of the São Timóteo granite and seven gneissic samples defined a well-fitted isochron with an age of 1710 ± 100 Ma. The same undeformed samples furnished a similar Rb?Sr whole rock isochron age of 1710 ± 45 Ma. These ages agree with published U?Pb (zircon) dates, confirming that the intrusion age was around 1700-1720 Ma. The magmas were probably formed largely by melting of crustal components, as shown by ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) i and ?1 values. In complete contrast to the Pb?Pb system, the Rb?Sr system was seriously affected by later events in the orthogneisses. A Rb?Sr isochron apparent age of about 1500 Ma, obtained in one locality, is repeated in other isolated Rb?Sr ages, and also by a U?Pb (zircon) age obtained in albitites within the region. Other Rb?Sr apparent ages of ca. 1200 and ca. 1000 Ma were obtained, but their real geologic significance remains uncertain. K?Ar ages in separated minerals fall within the interval 570-500 Ma and show the influence of the Brasiliano tectonothermal cycle.

Cordani, U. G.; Iyer, S. S.; Taylor, P. N.; Kawashita, K.; Sato, K.; McReath, I.

1992-01-01

102

Gas geochemistry of a shallow submarine hydrothermal vent associated with the El Requeso??n fault zone, Bahi??a Concepcio??n, Baja California Sur, Me??xico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated hydrothermal gas venting associated with a coastal fault zone along the western margin of Bahi??a Concepcio??n, B.C.S., Me??xico. Copious discharge of geothermal liquid (??? 90 ??C) and gas is occurring in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones (to a depth of 13 m) through soft sediments and fractures in rocks along a ???750 m linear trend generally sub-parallel to an onshore fault near Punta Santa Barbara. Hydrothermal activity shows negative correlation with tidal height; temperatures in the area of hydrothermal activity were up to 11.3 ??C higher at low tide than at high tide (measured tidal range ??? 120 cm). Gas samples were collected using SCUBA and analyzed for chemical composition and stable isotope values. The main components of the gas are N2 (??? 53%; 534 mmol/mol), CO2 (??? 43%; 435 mmol/mol), and CH4 (??? 2.2%; 22 mmol/mol). The ??13C values of the CH4 (mean = - 34.3%), and the ratios of CH4 to C2H6 (mean = 89), indicate that the gas is thermogenic in origin. The carbon stable isotopes and the ??15N of the N2 in the gas (mean = 1.7%) suggest it may be partially derived from the thermal alteration of algal material in immature sedimentary organic matter. The He isotope ratios (3He/4He = 1.32 RA) indicate a significant mantle component (16.3%) in the gas. Here, we suggest the name El Requeso??n fault zone for the faults that likely formed as a result of extension in the region during the late Miocene, and are currently serving as conduits for the observed hydrothermal activity. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Forrest, M. J.; Ledesma-Vazquez, J.; Ussler, III, W.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Hilton, D. R.; Greene, H. G.

2005-01-01

103

Salvador Da Bahia: A "Modern" Imperial Rome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The city of Rome is situated on seven hills along the Tiber River. It developed from a series of small villages into numerous city-states, then to a Republic, and finally into an Empire, which covered several million miles. Thousands of miles away from Rome on another continent is Brazil, which measures 3,268,470 square miles in area. This article…

Hobbs, Vivian L.

2004-01-01

104

Palaeogeographic evolution of the central segment of the South Atlantic during Early Cretaceous times: palaeotopographic and geodynamic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Early Cretaceous rift of the central segment of the South Atlantic Ocean is debated. Our objective is to better constraint the timing of its evolution by drawing palaeogeographic and deformation maps. Eight palaeogeographic and deformations maps were drawn from the Berriasian to the Middle-Late Aptian, based on a biostratigraphic (ostracodes and pollens) chart recalibrated on absolute ages (chemostratigraphy, interstratified volcanics, Re-Os dating of the organic matter). The central segment of the South Atlantic is composed of two domains that have a different history in terms of deformation and palaeogeography. The southern domain includes Namibe, Santos and Campos Basins. The northern domain extends from Espirito Santo and North Kwanza Basins, in the South, to Sergipe-Alagoas and North Gabon Basins to the North. Extension started in the northern domain during Late Berriasian (Congo-Camamu Basin to Sergipe-Alagoas-North Gabon Basins) and migrated southward. At that time, the southern domain was not a subsiding domain. This is time of emplacement of the Parana-Etendeka Trapp (Late Hauterivian-Early Barremian). Extension started in this southern domain during Early Barremian. The brittle extensional period is shorter in the South (5-6 Ma, Barremian to base Aptian) than in the North (19 to 20 Myr, Upper Berriasian to Base Aptian). From Late Berriasian to base Aptian, the northern domain evolves from a deep lake with lateral highs to a shallower one, organic-rich with no more highs. The lake migrates southward in two steps, until Valanginian at the border between the northern and southern domains, until Early Barremian, North of Walvis Ridge. The Sag phase is of Middle to Late Aptian age. In the southern domain, the transition between the brittle rift and the sag phase is continuous. In the northern domain, this transition corresponds to a hiatus of Early to Middle Aptian age, possible period of mantle exhumation. Marine influences were clearly occurring since the Early Aptian in the Northern domain and the Campos Basin. They seem sharp, brief flooding coming from the North, i.e. from the Tethys-Central Atlantic, trough a seaway crossing South America from Sao Luis, Parnaiba, Araripe and Almada basins (Arai, 1989). In the absence of data, the importance of those marine flooding during the Middle Aptian in the Santos Basin is still discussed. Keywords: South Atlantic Ocean, Early Cretaceous, Rift, Palaeogeography, Geodynamic

Chaboureau, A. C.; Guillocheau, F.; Robin, C.; Rohais, S.; Moulin, M.; Aslanian, D.

2012-04-01

105

78 FR 28167 - Special Local Regulation, Cruce a Nado Internacional de la Bahia de Ponce Puerto Rico, Bahia de...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...authorized by the Captain of the Port San Juan or a designated representative. DATES...or email Mr. Efrain Lopez, Sector San Juan Prevention Department, Coast Guard...authorized by the Captain of the Port San Juan or a designated representative....

2013-05-14

106

Curriculum Vitae -Sara Isabel da Silva Martins Francisco Nationality: Portuguese  

E-print Network

and inexpensive molecular technique to discriminate the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Atherina species; Almada, VC (in press) In search of phylogeographic patterns in the northeastern Atlantic and adjacent

107

Avaliação Antropométrica em Estudantes de uma Comunidade Litorânea de Camaçari, Bahia Avaliação Antropométrica em Estudantes de uma Comunidade Litorânea de Camaçari, Bahia Avaliação Antropométrica em Estudantes de uma Comunidade Litorânea de Camaçari, Bahia Avaliação Antropométrica em Estudantes de uma Comunidade Litorânea de Camaçari, Bahia Avaliação Antropométrica em Estudantes de uma Comunidade Litorânea de Camaçari, Bahia Anthropometric Evaluation of Students from a Coastal Community in Camaçari, Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A avaliação antropométrica faz parte dos cuidados pediátricos de rotina e é um dos indicadores mais sensíveis de saúde da criança, devido a sua maior facilidade de execução, rapidez e baixo custo. Objetivo: realizar o estudo antropométrico de estudantes de uma comunidade litorânea do Nordeste brasileiro, onde a desnutrição se mantém como importante problema de saúde pública. Material e Métodos:

Caroline O. Kupsch; Danilo A. Badaró; Larissa V. C. Zugaib

2007-01-01

108

TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF A JUVENILE HORMONE MIMIC ON THE ESTUARINE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDACEA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Fenoxycarb is a juvenile hormone (JH) mimic used to control insect pests by interfering with reproductive and developmental processes mediated by JH. Crustaceans are ideal organisms to monitor environmental effects of these endocrine disruptors, since they are dominant aquatic ar...

109

Effects of Coastal Acidification on the Life Cycle and Fitness of the Mysid Shrimp Americamysis Bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most studies of animal responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification focus on isolated individuals or uniformly aged and conditioned cohorts that lack the complexities typical of wild populations. These studies have become the primary data source for meta-analytic predictions abo...

110

Analysis of the risk of karst collapse in Lapão, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 2008, the large extent of dissolution of limestone in the Irecê Basin resulted in the occurrence of minor ground shakes and the enhancement of fractures along the surface of the ground and on the walls of buildings in the urban and periurban area of the city of Lapão. After preliminary geological and geotechnical studies to analyse the danger of collapse of underground caves, we have carried out gravity and electro-resistivity profiles in order to map the concealed caves and to help the determination of the level of groundwater within them. The interpretation of the results provided useful information both for the immediate safety of the population and for subsequent hydrological and geotechnical work. We have defined five risk areas based on the variations of the Bouguer and of the electrical resistivity data, by correlating the distribution of gravity lows with the presence of caves and the less resistive zones with the presence of brine water underground.

dos Santos, Emerson S. M.; Silva, Raymundo W. S.; Sampaio, Edson E. S.

2012-05-01

111

Use of an open-path FTIR sensor at Camacari Petrochemical Complex--Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CETREL--Empresa de Protecao Ambiental, is an environmental engineering company, which is owned by the member companies in the Camacari Petrochemical Complex, the largest petrochemical complex in Brazil. CETREL operates a centralized waste treatment plant, treatment and disposal facilities, an incineration unit, groundwater monitoring and air quality monitoring networks. The air monitoring network was designed based on mathematical modeling, and the results showed that the monoitoring of hydrocarbons is important not just within the complex but also at the area surrounding the complex. There are presently no regulations for hydrocarbons in Brazil, however they are monitored due to concerns about health problems arising from human exposure. The network has eight multiparameter monitoring stations, located at the villages nearby, where hydrocarbons are sampled with Summa canisters and subsequently analyzed with a GC/MS, using a Cryogenic trap at the interface. The open-path FTIR is used to monitor at the individual plants and in the areas in between because it is more efficient and costs less than it would to attempt to achieve the same level of coverage using the canisters. Ten locations were selected based on mathematical modeling and knowledge of the likely emission sources. Since August 1993, there have been five different measurement campaigns.

Neves, Neuza; Couto, Elizabeth d. R.; Kagann, Robert H.

1995-05-01

112

Genetic characterisation of Langerin gene in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected women from Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Studies on human genetic variations are a useful source of knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. The Langerin protein, found at the surface of Langerhans cells, has an important protective role in HIV-1 infection. Differences in Langerin function due to host genetic factors could influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. To verify the frequency of mutations in the Langerin gene, 118 samples from HIV-1-infected women and 99 samples from HIV-1-uninfected individuals were selected for sequencing of the promoter and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD)-encoding regions of the Langerin gene. Langerin promoter analysis revealed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one mutation in both studied groups, which created new binding sites for certain transcription factors, such as NFAT5, HOXB9.01 and STAT6.01, according to MatInspector software analysis. Three SNPs were observed in the CRD-encoding region in HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals: p.K313I, c.941C>T and c.983C>T. This study shows that mutations in the Langerin gene are present in the analysed populations at different genotypic and allelic frequencies. Further studies should be conducted to verify the role of these mutations in HIV-1 susceptibility. PMID:24676666

Costa, Giselle Calasans de Souza; Jesus, Jaqueline Goes; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Santos, Edson Souza; Galvao-Castro, Bernardo; Goncalves, Marilda de Souza; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior

2014-01-01

113

Radioactive element distribution in the Archean granulite terrane of Jequié — Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radioactive element distribution in the Archean granulite facies rocks of Jequié, Brazil, has been determined. The K/Rb ratios show a large spread with majority of the values falling within the normal field (K/Rb<300). The Th/U ratios fall into two groups, one group with values in the range of 1.7 to 2.6, whereas the other group show Th/U values greater than 7 (7 to 25). These distributions can be explained on the basis of the presence of accessory minerals apatite and zircon. The relatively high concentrations of the radioactive and other elements in Jequié granulites probably represents the relict primary geochemical character, little modified during metamorphism. The radiogenic heat production data for the area are calculated and using the measured regional heat flow value from nearby area an estimate of the relative thickness of the continental lithosphere is made using the model developed by Oxburgh (1981).

Iyer, S. S.; Choudhuri, A.; Vasconcellos, M. B. A.; Cordani, U. G.

1984-01-01

114

33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.771...

2011-07-01

115

An applied paleoecology case study: Bahia Grande, Texas prior to construction of the Brownsville Ship Channel  

E-print Network

Grande. 24 Smith observed three distinct communities of molluscan fauna from the death assemblage (everything below 5 cm) in the southern Laguna Madre region. In the South Bay and southernmost Laguna Madre area, a Bittium varium... of Axis 2. The 25 Bittium varium-Crepidula convexa community which Smith associated with relatively low salinity water influenced by exchange with the Gulf of Mexico is found at the bottom Figure 8. NMDS ordination of sites from Smith (1985...

Lichlyter, Stephen Alvah

2006-08-16

116

Quaternary International 120 (2004) 2940 Late Pleistocene (Last Interglacial) terrace deposits, Bahia Coyote,  

E-print Network

in growth position and coral-rhodolith sands and marls. Beach sands and gravels and coastal dunes cap, Austin, TX, USA Abstract Late Pleistocene age terrace deposits are exposed in the narrow cliffed coastal

Banner, Jay L.

117

Conservation in tropical landscape mosaics: the case of the cacao landscape of southern Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent debate has contrasted two conservation strategies in agricultural landscapes; either “land sparing” farm development\\u000a combining intensive production practices with forest set-asides, or “wildlife-friendly” farming with greater on-farm habitat\\u000a value but lower yields. We argue that in established mosaic landscapes including old cacao production regions where natural\\u000a forest has already been reduced to relatively small fragments, a combination of

Götz Schroth; Deborah Faria; Marcelo Araujo; Lucio Bede; Sunshine A. Van Bael; Camila R. Cassano; Leonardo C. Oliveira; Jacques H. C. Delabie

2011-01-01

118

EFFECTS OF CORPUS CHRISTI BAY SEDIMENTS ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The study described here examined effects on mortality, growth, reproduction, and behavior of Americamysis bahi exposed under extended static conditions to bedded sediments from Corpus Christi Bay. ...

119

Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Life Cycle and Fitness of the Mysid Shrimp Americamysis Bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most concern about effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification focuses on mollusks, corals, and coccolithophores because skeletal and shell formation by these organisms is sensitive to the solubility of calcium minerals. However, many other marine organisms are likely affected by...

120

USE OF LIFE-TABLES FOR EVALUATING THE CHRONIC TOXICITY OF POLLUTANTS TO 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA'  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examines the application of population statistics to laboratory-derived toxicological data for the purpose of developing a predictive model that assesses the population consequences of pollutant and environmentally-induced stress. Life tables are used to calculate age-...

121

Transtensional rifting in the late Proto-Gulf of California near Bahia Kino, Sonora, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of California provides an active rift example to test the role of rift obliquity in continental rupture. Continental rifts require focused strain to rupture and form an ocean basin. Strike-slip faults are ubiquitous in oblique rifts and focused transtensional strain adjacent to these faults may be a catalyst for rupture. To test this hypothesis, I completed structural mapping, fault-kinematic analysis, geochronology, basin analysis, and paleomagnetism of pre- and syn-rift rocks exposed in coastal Sonora, Mexico. Sedimentary basins record ˜16 km of west-northwest-directed transtension across the Kino-Chueca Shear Zone. Onset of transtension in the study area is estimated to be ca. 7 Ma and lasted for approximately 1 million years. This represents a significant portion (˜28%) of plate boundary deformation over this time interval. Dextral shear was progressively localized within this zone of extensional deformation, and together shear and extension acted to focus lithospheric-scale strain into a narrower zone.

Bennett, Scott Edmund Kelsey

122

URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

123

Risk Factors for Asthma in a Helminth Endemic Area in Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Protective factors associated with atopy or asthma in rural areas include socioeconomic level, overcrowding, and helminth infection. However, little epidemiological information was originated from schistosomiasis areas. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with asthma in a schistosomiasis endemic area. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, socioeconomic, and environmental features. The ISAAC questionnaire was used to identify individuals with asthma. Parasitological exam was done in all participants and skin prick test to aeroallergens in all asthmatics. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 57.4% and Ascaris lumbricoides, 30.8%. Asthma was found in 13.1% of the population, and 35.1% of them had a positive SPT. Active and passive smoking was positively associated with asthma, whereas A. lumbricoides was negatively associated. In a schistosomiasis hyperendemic region, current infection with A. lumbricoides is protective against asthma. However, we cannot rule out the involvement of S. mansoni infection in this process. PMID:22970348

Cardoso, Luciana S.; Costa, Daniela M.; Almeida, Maria Cecilia F.; Souza, Robson P.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Oliveira, Ricardo R.

2012-01-01

124

Threatened fishes of the world: Squalius aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues & Collares-Pereira, 1998)  

E-print Network

-Pereira, 1998) (Cyprinidae) Carla Sousa-Santos & Joana I. Robalo & Vítor C. Almada Received: 25 March 2009 /Accepted: 13 October 2009 # Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009 Keywords Cyprinidae . Endemic (Cyprinidae) in an independent Iberian drainage. J Fish Biol 68(Supplement B):292­301 Sousa-Santos C, Collares

125

Diversity of plant uses in two Caiçara communities from the Atlantic Forest coast, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caiçaras are native inhabitants of the Atlantic coast on southeastern Brazil, whose subsistence is based especially on agriculture and artisanal fishing. Because of their knowledge about the environment acquired through generations, Caiçara people can play an important role in Atlantic Forest conservation. An ethnobotanical study was conducted within two Caiçara communities (Ponta do Almada and Camburí beach, São Paulo State,

NATALIA HANAZAKI; JORGE Y. TAMASHIRO; HERMÓGENES F. LEITÃO-FILHO; ALPINA BEGOSSI

2000-01-01

126

ESPELEOTURISMO NA CAVERNA LAPA DOCE: POTENCIALIDADES PARA UM TURISMO SUSTENTÁVEL NO MUNICÍPIO DE IRAQUARA - BAHIA SPELEOTOURISM IN THE LAPA DOCE CAVE: GREAT POTENTIAL FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND IRAQUARA TOWN - BAHIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O presente trabalho tem como objetivo demonstrar a intrínseca relação existente entre as feições físicas da paisagem cárstica e suas potencialidades para a atividade espeleoturística em Iraquara, abrangendo sua estrutura de produção sob o ideário do ecoturismo sustentável. Serão discutidos alguns conceitos acerca da atividade espeleoturística nacional, regional e local, destacando o espeleoturismo na Caverna Lapa Doce I e

Rodrigo Alves Santos

127

EFFECTS OF WHOLE SEDIMENTS FROM CORPUS CHRISTI BAY ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuarine and marine coastlines are receiving waters for many anthropogenic substances. Concentrations of many of these contaminants have been diminished by regulatory control of effluents, but there is concern that continuing inputs (non-point sources) and contaminants contained...

128

[Facilitating factors and difficulties in the the implementation of sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

Drugstores are the health establishments where medications are dispensed, which is why sanitary surveillance is justified as a means of intervention. The health department uses various technologies to control risk in drugstores. In this study we used the theory of the process of work in health as a benchmark in order to describe and analyze the strengths and difficulties encountered in sanitary surveillance in drugstores in Salvador. Case study methodological strategy was adopted, the analytical categories being facilitating factors and difficulties inherent to technicians, drugstore, sanitary surveillance service and the social environment. Data were collected through direct observation techniques and semi-structured interviews, and the findings were assessed using content analysis. The body of information was processed and categorized using QSR N VIVO software. It was revealed that the nature of the facilitating factors and difficulties found in surveillance activities of drugstores indicate the need for urgent change within the scope of services and the sanitary culture in the country. It also stresses the possibilities of offering a quality service for the protection of health, in a setting conducive to the development of sanitary surveillance and the process of decentralization of these actions. PMID:21987329

Bastos, Augusto Amorim; Costa, Ediná Alves; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo

2011-09-01

129

Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

2013-11-01

130

[Inclusion of persons with disabilities in a Reference Center for STD / AIDS of a town in Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

This qualitative study sought to ascertain the opinion of health professionals about the inclusion of people with disabilities in the activities of reception, prevention and treatment in a Reference Center for STD/AIDS. The data were submitted to Bardin's content analysis technique. The analysis showed that professionals conduct their service in the sense of inclusion, seeking ways of communication to reach these people as the use of LIBRAS, matching the physical structure, equality of attendance and understanding of the vulnerabilities of this population. Despite the great importance of strategies adopted in facilitating a friendly service to people with disabilities, those strategies leave mostly from isolated and individually activities. It is needed an effective link among the service managers and political actors in the construction and adaptation of materials, programs and public policies to achieve equitable and inclusion of this population. PMID:23743840

Sales, Alessandra Santos; de Oliveira, Roberto Ferreira; de Araújo, Edna Maria

2013-01-01

131

[Better this than nothing! Participation and accountability on risk management of Camaçari Petrochemical Complex, in Bahia State].  

PubMed

This research intends to analyze the model adopted in the construction of community advisory committees. The empirical object is the Community Advisory Committee of Camaçari Complex (BA), the first one to be set up in the country and that has been used as a reference for the implementation of others. Participant observation and seventeen interviews were the main sources of data. The advisory committee constitutes itself in a sophisticated mechanism of docilization and responsabilization for the spread of an organizational hegemonic ideology and neoliberal modes of governance. PMID:20069183

Silva, Ana Licks Almeida; Machado, Eduardo Paes; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo

2009-01-01

132

POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE OF THE MYSID, AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA, TO VARYING THIOBENCARB CONCENTRATIONS BASED ON AGE-STRUCTURED POPULATION MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

To fully understand the potential long-term ecological impacts a pollutant has on a species, population-level effects must be estimated. Since long-term field experiments are typically not feasible, vital rates such as survival, growth, and reproduction of individual organisms ar...

133

ECOLOGY, BEHAVIOR AND BIONOMICS As Formigas como Indicadores Biológicos do Impacto Humano em Manguezais da Costa Sudeste da Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangroves are common in estuaries along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. Although plant diversity is low, this ecosystem supports a range of animals, offering some resources for non-aquatic organisms. Many insects live in mangroves and, between them, many ant species that are exclusively arboreous. Mangroves throughout the world suffer from high levels of human impact, and this is particularly true

JACQUES H. C. DELABIE; VALÉRIA R. L. DE; M. PAIM; IVAN C. DO NASCIMENTO; SOFIA CAMPIOLO; CLÉA DOS S. F. MARIANO

2006-01-01

134

Sulfur Isotope Characteristics of Mesothermal Gold Deposits: Results of an Investigation of the Rio Itapicuru Region, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotope analyses were carried out on sulfides from three mesothermal gold deposits of the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt (Fazenda Brasileiro, Maria Preta, and Ambrosio mines) to constrain the source of the hydrothermal solutions. The ores are hosted in a volcanic-sedimentary sequence that evolved in an Archean cratonic area reworked during the Transamazonic event (ca. 2.1 Ga). The ore bodies

M. C. Geraldes; G. C. De Abreu; P. R. Pires; E. F. Mello; S. S. Iyer

2006-01-01

135

Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152??6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155??9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Trilhado granodiorite, and ages of 2,130??7 Ma and 2,128??8 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Teofila??ndia tonalite. The emplacement age of the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome as indicated by a 2,080??2-Ma xenotime age for a granite dyke probably marks the end of the felsic magmatism. This age shows good agreement with the Ar-Ar plateau age of 2,080??5 Ma obtained in hornblendes from an amphibolite and with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2,076??10 Ma in detrital zircon crystals from a quartzite, interpreted as the age of the peak of the metamorphism. The predominance of inherited zircons in the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome suggests that the basement of the supracrustal rocks was composed of Archaean continental crust with components of 2,937??16, 3,111??13 and 3,162??13 Ma. Ar-Ar plateau ages of 2,050??4 Ma and 2,054??2 Ma on hydrothermal muscovite samples from the Fazenda Brasileiro gold deposit are interpreted as minimum ages for gold mineralisation and close to the true age of gold deposition. The Ar-Ar data indicate that the mineralisation must have occurred less than 30 million years after the peak of the metamorphism, or episodically between 2,080 Ma and 2,050 Ma, during uplift and exhumation of the orogen. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

Mello, E. F.; Xavier, R. P.; McNaughton, N. J.; Hagemann, S. G.; Fletcher, I.; Snee, L.

2006-01-01

136

Ant litter fauna of forest, forest edges and adjacent grassland in the Atlantic rain forest region of Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The litter ant fauna was sampled by Winkler sacks and pitfall traps along transects running through Atlantic rain forest into an adjacent grassland. Transects ran 65 m into the forest and 45 m into the field. Ninety-seven species of ants were sampled and scored, 85 were found in the forest, 48 were found in the field and 36 were

J. D. Majer; J. H. C. Delabie; N. L. McKenzie

1997-01-01

137

STORAGE DURATION AND TEMPERATURE AND THE ACUTE TOXICITIES OF ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA AND LEPTOCHEIRUS PLUMULOSUS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Many statutory needs for sediment quality assessment exist (U.S. EPA 1996). A variety of sediment toxicity tests have been used to support the development of sediment quality guidelines and to determine the benthic impacts of dredging activities and point and non-point source tox...

138

STORAGE DURATION AND TEMPERATURE AND THE ACUTE TOXICITIES OF ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA AND LEPTOCHEIRUS PLUMULOSUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many statutory needs for sediment quality assessment exist (U.S. EPA 1996). A variety of sediment toxicity tests have been used to support the development of sediment quality guidelines and to determine the benthic impacts of dredging activities and point and non-point source tox...

139

STUDIES ON CONTROL OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS: IMPACT OF DOG CONTROL ON CANINE AND HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN JACOBINA, BAHIA, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effect of removing leishmania-infected dogs on the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis, a controlled intervention study was performed in northeast Brazil. The attempted elimination of seropositive dogs resulted in an initial significant decrease in the annual incidence of seroconversion among dogs from 36% to 6% over the first two years. In the following two years, the incidence increased

DAVID A. ASHFORD; JOHN R. DAVID; MIRALBA FREIRE; ROBERTA DAVID; ITALO SHERLOCK

140

3D depth-to-basement and density contrast estimates using gravity and borehole data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a gravity inversion method for simultaneously estimating the 3D basement relief of a sedimentary basin and the parameters defining the parabolic decay of the density contrast with depth in a sedimentary pack assuming the prior knowledge about the basement depth at a few points. The sedimentary pack is approximated by a grid of 3D vertical prisms juxtaposed in both horizontal directions, x and y, of a right-handed coordinate system. The prisms' thicknesses represent the depths to the basement and are the parameters to be estimated from the gravity data. To produce stable depth-to-basement estimates we impose smoothness on the basement depths through minimization of the spatial derivatives of the parameters in the x and y directions. To estimate the parameters defining the parabolic decay of the density contrast with depth we mapped a functional containing prior information about the basement depths at a few points. We apply our method to synthetic data from a simulated complex 3D basement relief with two sedimentary sections having distinct parabolic laws describing the density contrast variation with depth. Our method retrieves the true parameters of the parabolic law of density contrast decay with depth and produces good estimates of the basement relief if the number and the distribution of boreholes are sufficient. We also applied our method to real gravity data from the onshore and part of the shallow offshore Almada Basin, on Brazil's northeastern coast. The estimated 3D Almada's basement shows geologic structures that cannot be easily inferred just from the inspection of the gravity anomaly. The estimated Almada relief presents steep borders evidencing the presence of gravity faults. Also, we note the existence of three terraces separating two local subbasins. These geologic features are consistent with Almada's geodynamic origin (the Mesozoic breakup of Gondwana and the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean) and they are important in understanding the basin evolution and in detecting structural oil traps.

Barbosa, V. C.; Martins, C. M.; Silva, J. B.

2009-05-01

141

VI Symposium of Specialists in Electric Operational and Expansion Planning -VI SEPOPE, May 24-29,1998, Bahia, Brazil POWER SYSTEM PLANNING IN THE SOUTH AMERICA  

E-print Network

in indicative planning and how the private sector is defining power system expansion. Challenges in planning services such as energy, communications, transport, water, etc., central to the functioning of society infrastructure, occasionally with a limited contribution from the private sector. That was the case

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

142

Estimating Stage Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress Within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis bahia Using Digital Imaging  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

143

Estimating Stage-Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis Bahia Using Digital Imaging (NAC SETAC 2011)  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

144

Structural analysis of the Rio Preto fold belt (northwestern Bahia / southern Piauí), a doubly-vergent asymmetric fan developed during the Brasiliano Orogeny.  

PubMed

The Rio Preto fold belt borders the northwestern São Francisco craton and shows an exquisite kilometric doubly-vergent asymmetric fan structure, of polyphasic structural evolution attributed exclusively to the Brasiliano Orogeny (?600-540 Ma). The fold belt can be subdivided into three structural compartments: The Northern and Southern compartments showing a general NE-SW trend, separated by the Central Compartment which shows a roughly E-W trend. The change of dip of S2, a tight crenulation foliation which is the main structure of the fold belt, between the three compartments, characterizes the fan structure. The Central Compartment is characterized by sub-vertical mylonitic quartzites, which materialize a system of low-T strike slip shear zones (Malhadinha - Rio Preto Shear Zone) crosscutting the central portion of the fold belt. In comparison to published analog models, we consider that the unique structure of the Rio Preto fold belt was generated by the oblique, dextral-sense interaction between the Cristalândia do Piauí block to the north and the São Francisco craton to the south. PMID:25211100

Caxito, Fabrício A; Uhlein, Alexandre; Morales, Luiz F G; Egydio-Silva, Marcos; Sanglard, Julio C D; Dias, Tatiana G; Mendes, Monica C O

2014-09-01

145

Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 ?Gy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 ?Gy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

2008-08-01

146

Spatial-temporal variation in orchid bee communities (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in remnants of arboreal Caatinga in the Chapada Diamantina region, state of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The spatial and temporal distribution of organisms is a fundamental aspect of biological communities. The present study focused on three remnants of arboreal Caatinga in northeastern Brazil between May, 2009 and April, 2010. A total of 627 euglossine males were captured in traps baited with artificial aromatic compounds. The specimens belonged to 14 species and four genera: Euglossa Latreille, Eulaema Lepeletier, Eufriesea Cockerell, and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg. Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier (41.6), Euglossa carolina Nemésio (15.3%), Eulaema marcii Nemésio (13.6%), and Euglossa melanotricha Moure (12.8%) were the most common species sampled. The distribution of collected specimens per fragment was as follows: Braúna (280 ha)--259 individuals belonging to 14 species; Cambuí (179 ha)--161 individuals from eight species; and Pindoba (100 ha)--207 individuals represented by seven species. Braúna had the highest diversity (H' = 1.91) and estimated species richness. The largest fragment was the main source of the observed variation in species richness and abundance, indicating a non-random pattern of spatial distribution. The analysis of environmental factors indicated that seasonal variation in these factors was the principal determinant of species occurrence and abundance. PMID:23950065

Andrade-Silva, A C R; Nemésio, A; de Oliveira, F F; Nascimento, F S

2012-08-01

147

VI Simpsio Brasileiro de Solos No Saturados 2007/ Salvador-Bahia 421 Relao Entre a Resistncia a Trao Obtida via Ensaio  

E-print Network

the diametrical compression test or the Brazilian test as described by Krishnayya & Eisenstein (1974), Maciel (1991); Das et al. (1995) e Favaretti (1995). The Brazilian test is performed applying a compression de resistência à tração de um solo obtidos usando o ensaio de compressão diametral, ou ensaio

Zornberg, Jorge G.

148

Effects of boat traffic on the behavior of gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus, in Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico: a bioacoustic assessment  

E-print Network

There is widespread concern about the effects that man-made noises have on marine mammals. In this study, potential acoustic and behavioral changes produced by boat traffic on gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) were assessed. Time of day, seasonal...

Ollervides, Francisco

2012-06-07

149

People helping turtles, turtles helping people: Understanding resident attitudes towards sea turtle conservation and opportunities for enhanced community participation in Bahia Magdalena, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pacific Mexico, all five sea turtle species have declined over the past century due to intense overexploitation of meat and eggs, fisheries bycatch, and degradation of marine and nesting habitats. One of the most heavily impacted areas has been the Baja California peninsula, where sea turtle populations remain historically low despite existing conservation measures that include a complete moratorium

Jesse Senko; Andrew J. Schneller; Julio Solis; Francisco Ollervides; Wallace J. Nichols

2011-01-01

150

All that glitters is not gold : unexpected lessons from a slum upgrading program in Brazil  

E-print Network

This paper looks at the Ribeira Azul Slum Upgrading Program in Salvador de Bahia Brazil, implemented by the development agency of the state of Bahia, CONDER, and the Italian NGO Associazione Volontari per il Servizio ...

Zuin, Valentina

2005-01-01

151

Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucum×P. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine,

H. P. Xia

2004-01-01

152

This article was originally published in a journal published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the  

E-print Network

In some places around the world, whale shark ecotourism has become an important economic activity. Keywords: Whale shark; Conservation; Management; Ecotourism 1. Introduction Bahia de los Angeles is one Roo in the Caribbean Sea. Observation and swimming activities with whale sharks in Bahia de los

Enríquez Andrade, Roberto Ramón

153

Advances in breath odor research: re-evaluation and newly-arising sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The articles in this special section describe the most recent advances in halitosis research presented at the Ninth International Conference on Breath Odor Research, a joint conference with the XXIV CONBRAPE (Brazilian Congress of Periodontology) held at Bahia Othon Palace Hotel in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil on 25–28 May 2011. It has been almost half a century since Joseph Tonzetich of

Ken Yaegaki

2012-01-01

154

Rescuing Tradition at the Pierre Verger Cultural Space: Teaching and Learning Afro-Brazilian Culture through Music in Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how the Pierre Verger Cultural Space (PVCS), an educational organization dedicated to teaching Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, uses music to construct a sense of Afro-Brazilian self. Located in a poverty-stricken neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the PVCS sees its mission as "rescuing" ("resgatar") an Afro-Brazilian sense…

Junqueira, Joao Carlos

2010-01-01

155

Self-organized critical phenomenon as a q-exponential decay - Avalanche epidemiology of dengue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the evolution of dengue disease in the state of Bahia. The number of epidemiological dengue cases for each city follows a Self-Organized Criticality behavior (SOC). However, the analysis of the number of cases in Bahia exhibits a q-exponential distribution. To understand this different behavior, we analyzed the distribution of the power law of SOC (?) to all cities of Bahia. Our findings show that the distribution of ? exhibits a dependence between the exponents, which may be because of migration between cities, causing the emergence of outbreaks in different cities in a correlated and asynchronous time series.

Saba, H.; Miranda, J. G. V.; Moret, M. A.

2014-11-01

156

Bernd Ulrich's Curriculum vitæ  

E-print Network

Visiting Research Associate, Purdue University, 1981-1982, ... NSF grant for scientific computing equipment for the mathematical sciences, 1988. .... Conference on Algebra, Dynamical Systems, and Topology, Federal University of Bahia, ...

157

POLYCLONAL ANTISERA AGAINST ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN VITELLIN AND VITELLOGENIN: DEVELOPMENT OF AN OOGENESIS DISFUNCTION ASSAY AS AN INDICATOR OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION FROM JUVENILE HORMONE AGONIST INSECTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

Adult female Lepidophthalmus louisianensis, Palaemonetes pugio, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, Mysidopsis bahia, and Uca panacea were collected from estuarine localities in Santa Rosa Sound, Gulf Breeze, FL during late spring and summer of 1999. Mature ovaries were dissected and homog...

158

7th WESTERN SANDPIPER WORKSHOP Jan 17-19 Simon Fraser University,  

E-print Network

and habitat use of Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) were investigated during the nonbreeding season at Bahia by studying movements of radio-marked dunlin (Calidris alpina) and focal sampling the most used roosts

159

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS AND POPULATION CHANGES IN AN ESTUARINE MYSID DURING CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO A PESTICIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of vital life processes of an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) were examined throughout its life cycle during exposure to the thiocarbamate herbicide, thiobencarb. Initial exposure of juvenile mysids to thiobencarb resulted in elevated respiration rates. Concentrations...

160

The point of Corumbau : a case study in emerging market (Brazil) real estate development feasibility analysis  

E-print Network

In 2003, Renata Oliveira, a young Portuguese architect, has re-discovered the Point of Corumbau in Bahia, Brazil, and, like the Portuguese adventurers who had discovered Brazil 500 years earlier in the same location, found ...

Clayton, Paul B., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

161

ARKITEKTUR I UNDERLANDET AAU 120 Architecture in Wonderland  

E-print Network

samt Bolivia, Brasilien, Nicaragua och Costa Rica. Litteratur An Urbanizing World. Global Report of Architecture, Socio-culture and Tourism in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil, D2, Ark III, LTH 1997. V.S. Naipul: "A

162

Kursplan fr lsret 2001/2002 ARKITEKTUR I UNDERLANDET AAU120  

E-print Network

, Tunisien och Algeriet, Botswana och Sydafrika samt Bolivia, Brasilien, Nicaragua och Costa Rica. Litteratur - The Trinity of Architecture, Socio-culture and Tourism in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil, D2, Ark III, LTH 1997. V

163

WETLAND PLANT SEEDLINGS AS INDICATORS OF NEAR-COASTAL SEDIMENT QUALITY: INTERSPECIFIC VARIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicities of whole sediments collected from an urbanized Florida bayou-estuary were determined for the epibenthic mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, and the infaunal amphipod, Ampelisca abdita. In addition, the phytotoxicities of the same sediments were evaluated using rooted macrophy...

164

75 FR 59285 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, San Luis Obispo County, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...580-square foot) redevelopment project in the community of Los Osos...application, which includes the Bahia Vista Estates Habitat Conservation Plan...with a residential redevelopment project. The project is proposed for a single...

2010-09-27

165

A decision-support model for managing the fuel inventory of a Panamanian generating company  

E-print Network

Bahia Las Minas Corp (BLM) is a fuelpowered generating company in the Panamanian power system. The purpose of this thesis is to design and evaluate a decision-support model for managing the fuel inventory of this company. ...

Perez-Franco, Roberto, 1976-

2004-01-01

166

Reclaiming earthen drainage channels using organic soil amendments  

E-print Network

); and 6. A composted cotton gin trash. The vegetative treatments tested included indigenous vegetation (control), a mixture of common bermudagrass and baltiagrass, and the bermuda/bahia mix with crimson clover. All vegetation treatments were seeded.... After incorporation, plots were broadcast seeded with the bermuda/bahia/millet mix. A chemical tackifier was then applied along with a colored, recycled paper fiber mulch to provide visual evidence of an even application of the tackifier. Crimson...

Carpenter, Todd A

2012-06-07

167

COASTAL CHARTS Stock Number Title Scale =1  

E-print Network

(OMEGA) 950,000 21005 Cabo San Quintin to Punta Eugenia (Mexico-West Coast) (OMEGA) 511,500 21008 Golfo (LORAN-C) 300,000 Plans: A. Bahia de San Quintin 75,000 B. Entrance to Bahia de San Quintin 25,000 21161 de California-Northern Part (Mexico-West Coast) 639,400 21011 Punta Eugenia to Cabo San Lazaro (OMEGA

Russell, Lynn

168

Toxicological evaluation of the effects of waste-to-energy ash-concrete on two marine species  

SciTech Connect

The toxicological effects of waste-to-energy ash-concrete on survivorship, growth, and fecundity (end-point parameters) of Mysidopsis bahia and on survivorship and growth of Menidia beryllina were evaluated with the 7-d static-renewal toxicity test. Leachate and elutriate solutions were prepared from experimental ash-concrete test cylinders constructed from concrete with additions of either bottom ash (mix BA), mixed bottom ash and scrubber residue, or mixed bottom ash and fly ash (60:40%, mix BA:FA). Control experiments with concrete (without ash) and pH (7-9.5) were conducted to assess any toxic effects of the stabilization process. pH did not affect end-point parameters of Mysidopsis bahia or Menidia beryllina. However, the 100% elutriate solution made from concrete reduced survivorship of Mysidopsis bahia. For experiments with ash-concrete test cylinders with the BA mixture, 10-d leachate solution reduced survivorship of Mysidopsis bahia and the 100% elutriate solutions reduced survivorship of Mysidopsis bahia and Manidia beryllina. With the BA:SR mixture, the 100 and 50% elutriate solutions reduced survivorship of Menidia beryllina. The BA:FA 10- and 5-d leachate solutions and the 100, 50, and 25% elutriate solutions reduced survivorship of Menidia beryllina. The BA:FA 10- and 5-d leachate solutions and the 100, 50, 25% elutriate solutions reduced survivorship of Mysidopsis bahia.

Hamilton, K.L.; Nelson, W.G.; Curley, J.L. (Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States))

1993-10-01

169

Use of digital multispectral videography to assess seagrass distribution in San Quinti??n Bay, Baja California, Mexico [Uso de videografi??a multiespectral digital para evaluar la distributio??n del pasto marino en Bahi??a San Quinti??n, Baja California, Me??xico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Apparent threats to the spatial distribution of seagrass in San Quinti??n Bay prompted us to make a detailed assessment of habitats in the bay. Six coastal habitats and three seagrass subclasses were delineated using airborne digital multispectral videography (DMSV), Eelgrass, Zostera marina, was the predominant seagrass and covered 40% (1949 ha) of the areal extent of the bay in 1999. Eelgrass grew over a wide range of tidal depths from about -3.0 in mean lower low water (MLLW) to about 1.0 m MLLW, but greatest spatial extent occurred in intertidal areas -0.6 m to 1.0 m MLLW. Exposed-continuous (i.e., high density) eelgrass was the most abundant habitat in the bay. Widgeongrass, Ruppia maritima, was the only other seagrass present and covered 3% (136 ha) of the areal extent of the entire bay. Widgeongrass grew in single species stands in the upper intertidal (??? 0.4 MLLW) and intermixed with eelgrass at lower tidal depths. Overall accuracy of the six habitat classes and three subclasses in the DMSV map was relatively high at 84%. Our detailed map of San Quintin Bay can be used in future change detection analyses to monitor the health of seagrasses in the bay.

Ward, D.H.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Morton, A.; Carrera-Gonzalez, E.; Kempka, R.

2004-01-01

170

First records of Synoeca septentrionalis Richards, 1978 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini) in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nests of Synoeca septentrionalis were collected in two Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest localities (Itabuna and Santa Terezinha, in the state of Bahia and Alfredo Chaves in the state of Espírito Santo). Synoeca septentrionalis was previously recorded only from Central America and northwestern South America. This findingextends its geographical distribution to Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, and represents the first record for Synoeca septentrionalis in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest, raising to three the number of Synoeca species known from Bahia State. PMID:22368453

Menezes, Rodolpho S. T.; Andena, Sergio R.; Carvalho, Antonio F.; Costa, Marco A.

2011-01-01

171

Paleogeographic evolution of the central segment of the South Atlantic during Early Cretaceous times: Paleotopographic and geodynamic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geodynamic processes that control the opening of the central segment of the South Atlantic Ocean (between the Walvis Ridge and the Ascension FZ) are debated. In this paper, we discuss the timing of the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the Early Cretaceous rift by drawing eight paleogeographic and geodynamic maps from the Berriasian to the Middle-Late Aptian, based on a biostratigraphic (ostracodes and pollen) chart recalibrated on absolute ages (chemostratigraphy, interstratified volcanics, Re-Os dating of the organic matter). The central segment of the South Atlantic is composed of two domains, with a two phases evolution of the pre-drift ("rifting") times: a rift phase characterized by tilted blocks and growth strata, followed by a sag basin. The southern domain includes the Namibe, Santos and Campos Basins. The northern domain extends from the Espirito Santo and North Kwanza Basins, in the south, to the Sergipe-Alagoas and North Gabon Basins to the north. Extension started in the northern domain during the Late Berriasian (Congo-Camamu Basin to the Sergipe-Alagoas-North Gabon Basins) and migrated southward. At that time, the southern domain was not a subsiding domain (emplacement of the Parana-Etendeka Trapp). Extension started in this southern domain during the Early Barremian. The rift phase is shorter in the south (5-6 Ma, Barremian to base Aptian) than in the north (19 to 20 Myr, Upper Berriasian to base Aptian). The sag phase is of Middle to Late Aptian age. In the northern domain, this transition corresponds to a hiatus of Early to Middle Aptian age. From the Late Berriasian to base Aptian, the northern domain evolves from a deep lake with lateral highs to a shallower organic-rich one with no more highs. The lake migrates southward in two steps, until the Valanginian at the border between the northern and southern domains, until the Early Barremian, north of Walvis Ridge.

Chaboureau, Anne-Claire; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Rohais, Sébastien; Moulin, Maryline; Aslanian, Daniel

2013-09-01

172

EFFECT OF DIFLUBENZURON ON AN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Data are reported for tests exposing a small, estuarine crustacean, Mysidopsis bahia, to diflubenzuron (Dimilin, TH-6040, (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea)) in flowing seawater. Tests were conducted in intermittent flows from a diluter or continuous flowing water i...

173

State violence and the ethnographic encounter: feminist research and racial embodiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the idea that black urban communities in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil, particularly women, are currently under siege. This article examines the confinement and silencing of the anthropologist within the overall context of State policing of black communities and black women-led grassroots movements in Salvador. I argue that engaged research methods should be analyzed within the context of

Keisha-Khan Y. Perry

2012-01-01

174

THE CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES (CLAS),  

E-print Network

, music, and dance immersed in Spanish. The program includes Spanish language variations from countries, featuring lounge and dance music from countries around the world. This upbeat, grass-roots movement features by a women's cooperative in Bahia de Caraquez, Ecuador. The products include stationary folders, journals

Machery, Edouard

175

ALTERATIONS IN THE GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS AS INDICATORS OF POLLUTANT STRESS  

EPA Science Inventory

An estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) has been identified as one of the most sensitive members of the estuarine community to pollutant stress (for a review see Nimmo and Hamaker, 1982). n the majority of life-cycle toxicity tests using this planktonic estuarine crustacean, sublet...

176

Estimates of sea turtle mortality from poaching and bycatch in Bahía Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bahia Magdalena on the Pacific coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico, is an important feeding and nursery ground for black turtles Chelonia mydas, loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta, olive ridley turtles Lepidochelys olivacea, and hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata. Despite international and national protection, sea turtles continue to be caught incidentally and hunted for consumption in large numbers. This study examines the

Volker Koch; Wallace J. Nichols; Hoyt Peckham; Victor de la Toba

2006-01-01

177

http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br A COMMUNITY OF FLOWER-VISITING BEES (HYMENOPTERA  

E-print Network

) IN THE COASTAL SAND DUNES OF NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL 1 Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade of a restricted area of dunes with restinga vegetation in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Standardized samples were taken. Key words: bee's abundance; bee diversity; community structure, restinga and dunes, morpho

São Paulo, Universidade de

178

ISOLAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE BACTÉRIAS CANDIDATAS A PROBIÓTICOS EM CAMARÕES DA ESPÉCIE LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O objetivo desse trabalho foi isolar e identificar bactérias candidatas a probióticos do trato intestinal de camarões da espécie Litopenaeus vannamei, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento. Foram utilizados camarões nas fases de recria e inicial (pós-larva) e de crescimento (juvenil), os quais eram adaptados à água doce da Fazenda BAHIA PESCA, especializada em aqüicultura, localizada no município de Santo

M. M. COSTA

179

Ambient Water Toxicity in San Francisco Bay: 1993-2002  

E-print Network

Thalassiosira Results: No toxicity observed Thalassiosira exhibited biostimulation #12;RMP Status & Trends Jeffrey Cotsifas, Stephen Clark, and Staff Pacific EcoRisk #12;RMP Status & Trends Monitoring 1993 (Year survival test with Americamysis bahia Results: No toxicity to bivalve embryo development; Slight toxicity

180

ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOR OF SOILS AND MIXTURES OF SOIL-WHITEWASH MUD1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study sought to observe the behavior of soils in natural state and in mixtures, in different ratios, with the industrial solid residue called whitewash mud. The work was conducted with samples of typical soils from the region of Alagoinhas, Bahia-Brazil. Wet chemical analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used in order to obtain the classification of the industrial

Carlos Cardoso Machado; José Maurício Machado Pires; Maurício Paulo; F. Fontes; Reginaldo Sérgio

181

This article was originally published in a journal published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the  

E-print Network

(2007) 119­127 Property rights-based management: Whale shark ecotourism in Bahia de los Angeles, Mexico for whale sharks for up to 7 months per year. Based on their presence, ecotourism activities California, Mexico Abstract Predictable and long-term whale shark (Rhincodon typus) aggregations can

Enríquez Andrade, Roberto Ramón

182

The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on wood production  

E-print Network

m Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil Forest Ecology and Management 259 (2010) 1684The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand Forest Service, 240 W. Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA d Affiliate Faculty, Graduate Degree Program

Binkley, Dan

183

SHORT COMMUNICATION Delineating geographic boundaries of the woolly mouse opossums,  

E-print Network

in the Atlantic Forest from the North and North- east of Minas Gerais state in Brazil, going south along threatened fragments of the Atlantic Forest, especially in Minas Gerais and Bahia states, Brazil. Keywords management program, nor can they be correctly listed on the Endangered Fauna Red List of Brazil

DeSalle, Rob

184

Cenas de linchamento: reconstruções dramáticas da violência coletiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study focuses on lynching in Bahia (Brazil) through police narratives published in the local press (A Tarde), from 1997 to 2001. Due to the characteristics of empirical evidence an attempt was made to reconstruct the popular action through the scene concept, inspired in the theories of social dramaturgy (Goffman, 1999) and the hermeneutic phenomenological theory by Ricouer (1996). The

Rafael Torres de Cerqueira; Ceci Vilar Noronha

2004-01-01

185

A Holistic Approach to Family Planning Counseling and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A family planning clinic which was part of a large public maternity hospital in Salvador Bahia, Brazil received a grant to expand its services and to evaluate a service model focusing on client counseling and education. The counseling, education, and service provision process included individual pre-consultation with a nurse, group education and…

Chaves, Lushanhya Coutinho; And Others

186

Modelagem Digital da Distribuição Espacial de Cactáceae: Morro do Chapéu-Ba  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the procedures to model the habitat of Melocactos pauscispinus sp in Morro do Chapeu region on Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State. Satelite image and DTM were processed to extract hillshade, slope and though IHS fusion a integrated product were generated. Finaly image files were combined with vetorial thematic maps in a GIS environment environment to select by visual

David Brito de Cerqueira

2005-01-01

187

Turismo sustentável e alivio a pobreza: avaliação de impacto  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the social impacts of the project PRODETUR in Porto Seguro and Bahia. Among the analyzed channels, we have focused on the impact on variables related to sewering (access to piped water, sewer and garbage collection), besides some socio-economic ones (occupation, contribution to social security, income and poverty). In addition, we analyzed the impact on the distribution of

Marcelo Cortes Neri; Wagner Lopes Soares

2008-01-01

188

Agronomy Notes Dec 2011 Volume 35:12  

E-print Network

it is turned or chisel plowed which destroys the stand. Most growers will want to use a no-till drill to plant in April. Wheat yield planted with a no-till drill behind soybean, bahia , and bermuda grass was 36, 21

Watson, Craig A.

189

CHANGES IN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

Measures of physiological performance and energy metabolism were made on an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) exposed throughout a life cycle to the defoliant DEF. EF concentrations > 0.246 ug/l reduced survival through release of the first brood. oung production was completely ...

190

AN OVERVIEW OF THE ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECTS OF FIRST AND SECOND GENERATION PESTICIDES ON AN ESTUARINE MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

Results are reported for laboratory experiments using the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, as a practical test species for life-cycle studies to determine subtle effects of toxicants. Ratios of the acute 96-hour lethal concentrations to the maximum acceptable toxicant concentratio...

191

FROM ORGANISMS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA ACROSS TWO LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION.  

EPA Science Inventory

A critical step in estimating the ecological effects of a toxicant is extrapolating organism-level response data across higher levels of biological organization. In the present study, the organism-to-population link is made for the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to a range of...

192

Stress protein accumulation as an indicator of impact by the petroleum industry in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative concentrations of stress proteins in juvenile mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae), from six study sites in Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, were used to evaluate the possibility of chronic environmental impact induced by 40 years of exposure to the local petroleum industry. Replicated tissue samples from oysters at four sites associated with the extraction, transport and refinement of

I. A Nascimento; M. B. N Leite; G Sansone; S. A Pereira; D. H Smith

1998-01-01

193

An Observational and Modeling Study of an Atmospheric Internal Bore during ELINOR R. MARTIN AND RICHARD H. JOHNSON  

E-print Network

An Observational and Modeling Study of an Atmospheric Internal Bore during NAME 2004 ELINOR R the 2004 North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) have been used to identify an atmospheric internal bore that occurred over the Gulf of California (GoC) on 31 July 2004. This bore disturbance was identified at Bahia

Martin, Elinor R.

194

TOXICITY AND BIOCONCENTRATION OF BHC AND LINDANE IN SELECTED ESTUARINE ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through, 96-hr bioassays were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of technical BHC and lindane to several estuarine animals. Test animals and their respective 96-hr lindane LC50 values were: mysid (Mysidopsis bahia), 6.3 micrograms/L; pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), 0....

195

Unveiling the Mirror: Afro-Brazilian Identity and the Emergence of the Community School Movement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Afro-Brazilian residents of urban favelas (outlying, unincorporated slums) have established community schools in response to lack of public schools. A study of three such community schools in Salvador, Bahia, focused on social justice issues, school efforts to rescue a Black identity denied by Brazil's official "racial democracy" rhetoric,…

Jones de Almeida, Adjoa Florencia

2003-01-01

196

Carry-over effects of winter location contribute to variation in timing of nest initiation and clutch size in Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed carry-over effects from winter location on timing of nest initiation and clutch size of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) using observations of individually marked brant breeding at the Tutakoke River colony in Alaska, and wintering along a latitudinal gradient at three areas on the Pacific coast of Baja California: northernmost Bahia San Quintin (BSQ), Laguna Ojo de Liebre

Jason L. Schamber; James S. Sedinger; David H. Ward

2012-01-01

197

EFFECT OF p,p' -DDT ON DEVELOPMENTAL STABILITY OF PECTORAL FIN RAYS IN THE GRUNION, LEURESTHES TENUIS  

E-print Network

; La Jolla Shores, 91; San Diego, 101; and Bahia San Quintin, 270. All of these localities are south of Biology, University of California, San DIego, La Jolla, CA 92037; present address: Dames & Moore, 1100 Glendon Avenue, Suite 1000, Los Angeles, CA 90024. .2 Department of Biology, University of California, San

198

INTERNATIONAL REGIONAL SCIENCE REVIEW (Vol. 25, No. 2, 2002)Walker et al. / LAND USE IN FOREST FRONTIERS LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE  

E-print Network

WALKER Department of Geography, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, rwalker@mailhost.soc.ufl.edu MARCELLUS CALDAS College of Agronomy, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, mmcaldas@ufba.br LUIZ GUILHERME TEIXEIRA SILVA EMBRAPA/CPATU, Belém, Brazil, lugui@cpatu.embrapa.br Tropical deforestation remains

Walker, Robert T.

199

Ecological Applications, 14(4) Supplement, 2004, pp. S299S312 2004 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

Department of Geography, 315 Natural Science Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 USA 2Geography and Earth Science Department, Shippensburg University, Shippensburg, Pennsylvania-Bahia-Brasil, Cep.44.380­000 5IMAZON, Bele´m, Brazil Abstract. This paper presents the prototype of a predictive

Walker, Robert T.

200

Comparison of methods for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in tissues of naturally exposed pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of five diagnostic methods commonly used for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in tissues of naturally infected pigs. We purchased 20 heads of pigs in butcher shops in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia. Brain\\u000a and tongue fragments were taken from each animal for the performance of PCR against T. gondii. The rest of

Rodrigo A. Bezerra; Fábio S. Carvalho; Luciana A. Guimarães; Daniele S. Rocha; Fabiana L. Silva; Amauri A. Wenceslau; George R. Albuquerque

201

O estado da arte dos estudos do jornalismo digital no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1996, with the publication of the Manual for Internet Journalism by Bahia Federal University's College of Communication, Brazilian researchers have studied the emergence and growth of digital journalism. This article presents the current state of research into Brazilian digital journalism as it has evolved from the Research Group in Online Journalism (GJOL), an influential team of researchers that has

Carla Schwingel

202

Aquatic Ecology of the Tropics EEES4980-008 Justin Burdine  

E-print Network

features of Lake Titicaca (Peru and Bolivia) and to further investigate the implications of transboundary management and water quality in the Bahia de Puno. Introduction: Lake Titicaca is located 3800 meters above are the three main problems in managing Lake Titicaca (Rieckermann, 2006). Lake Titicaca is central to many

Gottgens, Hans

203

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH: ROGER FOSDICK (B. 11/18/36)  

E-print Network

University of Rio de Janeiro COPPE, Brazil (2 months) 1980 Erskine Fellow Department of Civil Engineering Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica Universidad Na¸cional del Sur Bahia Blanca, Argentina (2 months) 1 Bari Bari, Italy Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture Universita degli Studi di Parma Parma

Janssen, Michel

204

53Structure of bee-flower system in the coastal sand dune of Abaet, Northeast of Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 50(1): 53-63, maro 2006  

E-print Network

. Structure of bee-flower system in the coastal sand dune of Abaeté, northeastern Brazil. For twelve months, northeasternBrazil 1 Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia. Rua Barão were oligotrophic in a shrub Mediterranean ecosystem, in Greece. In this context, Dicks et al. (2002

São Paulo, Universidade de

205

People helping turtles, turtles helping people: Understanding resident attitudes towards sea turtle conservation and opportunities for enhanced community  

E-print Network

of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA b The School for Field turtles, over three decades of widespread protection of nesting beaches, and in-water monitoring of sea conservation and opportunities for enhanced community participation in Bahia Magdalena, Mexico Jesse Senko a

Gerber, Leah R.

206

RADIOCARBON DATING SITES OF ITAPARICA DAM, SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER VALLEY, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports radiocarbon dates of samples from archaeological sites in the Itaparica Dam region of the São Francisco River (Brazil). This region is important due to the evidence of its use by several prehistoric groups of hunter- gatherers. In the 1980s, a Brazilian state hydroelectric company (CHESF) engaged the federal universities of Bahia and Per- nambuco to perform an

L R P de Andrade Lima

207

Locational dynamics of Brazilian winegrowing: new regions in Rio Grande do Sul and in the São Francisco River Valley area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the research is to identify the locational factors that influenced the decision to expand winemaking activity into other regions of Brazil. In recent years, winemaking has expanded into new regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Serra do Sudeste and Campanha) and into the São Francisco River Valley (states of Bahia and Pernambuco) - regions

Márcia Azanha; Ferraz Dias de Moraes

208

Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil), a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997) and rainy (March, 1998) periods. The dominant groups found were

M. Callisto; M. Goulart; F. A. R. Barbosa; O. Rocha

2005-01-01

209

Características físico-químicas de amostras de mel de Melipona asilvai (Hymenoptera: Apidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey samples of the Melipona asilvai stingless bee collected in the Itaberaba and Tucano counties, semi- arid region of the State of Bahia, Brazil, were analyzed with the objective of contributing for the knowledge of the characteristics physical-chemical of that product. Most of the physical-chemical parameters showed values adequated for the human consumption, faciliting the exploration of that product by

Bruno de Almeida Souza; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho; Geni da Silva Sodré; Luis Carlos Marchini

2004-01-01

210

Wetland plant seedlings as indicators of near-coastal sediment quality: interspecific variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicities of whole sediments collected from an urbanized Florida bayou-estuary were determined for the epibenthic mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, and the infaunal amphipod, Ampelisca abdita. In addition, the phytotoxicities of the same sediments were evaluated using rooted macrophytes, Scirpus robustus Pursh and Spartina alterniflora Loisel. The results of the 24 bioassays conducted for 7–28 days, were compared for interspecific differences.

M. A. Lewis; D. E. Weber; R. S. Stanley

2000-01-01

211

Spanish-Portuguese-Amerindian Literature Ra-dio Show-WPTS: Showcases the radio show;  

E-print Network

--ARTS & CRAFTS --FOOD Listed by alphabetical order Aida Hernandez: Mexican dishes and jewelry. American Home coast and the Colombian plains (los llanos). Cumbia, Porro y Pasaje Llanero. Latin American Cultural by a cooperative of low income women in Bahia de Carquez, Ecuador. The products include stationary folders

Machery, Edouard

212

Genetic diversity of Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae) explained by the disjunction of South American rainforests.  

PubMed

Angiopolybia pallens is a swarm-founding wasp that occurs in Atlantic and Amazonian rainforests, which have been isolated from each other by a large arid corridor in central Brazil since the Tertiary. In this study, we used data from polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rDNA to infer some aspects of the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of this social wasp population. Samples collected across the species range in both rainforests showed remarkable differences that separated them into two distinct haplogroups. However, some samples from isolated areas in northeastern Bahia were more related to Amazonian lineages than to southern Bahia populations. Vicariant divergenc is discussed under South American rainforests biogeographical proposals. PMID:24446290

Carvalho, A F; Santos, G M M; Menezes, R S T; Costa, M A

2014-01-01

213

Chemical and biological characterization of municipal sludges, sediments, dredge spoils, and drilling muds  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the chemical composition of municipal sludges and sediments. Some of the topics are: EPA review of regulations of sewage sludge disposal; Canadian marine analytical chemistry standards program; methods for estimating bioavailable particulates, distribution of heavy metals in sewage sludge; toxicity of drilling fluids to Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia); toxicity and hydrocarbon composition of a water-based drilling mud containing diesel fuels or mineral oils additives and risk-based criteria for chemicals in municipal sludge.

Lichtenberg, J.J.; Winter, J.A.; Weber, C.I.; Fradkin, L.

1988-01-01

214

Possible Wind Transport of Coffee Leaf Rust across the Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

COFFEE leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berk. and Br.), for long widespread in Asia and Africa, can devastate crops of Coffea arabica. The fungus spread rapidly in West Africa between 1952 and 19621,2, but the New World seemed free from it until 1970 when it was found scattered over a wide area in Bahia, Brazil, where its consequences may be serious3,4.

J. Bowden; P. H. Gregory; C. G. Johnson

1971-01-01

215

Tourmaline B-isotopes fingerprint marine evaporites as the source of high-salinity ore fluids in iron oxide copper-gold deposits, Carajás Mineral Province (Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carajás Mineral Province in northern Brazil containsa variety of world-class (>100 Mt ore) iron oxide copper-gold(IOCG) deposits, including the only Archean examples of thisdeposit class (e.g., the Igarapé Bahia\\/Alemãoand Salobo deposits). Tourmaline of schorl-dravite composition,a common gangue mineral in these deposits, precipitated shortlyprior to and after the ore assemblage. A boron isotope studyof texturally different tourmaline from three IOCG

Roberto Perez Xavier; Michael Wiedenbeck; Robert B. Trumbull; Ana M. Dreher; Lena V. S. Monteiro; Dieter Rhede; Carlos E. G. de Araújo; Ignacio Torresi

2008-01-01

216

Environmental risk assessment of a metal-contaminated area in the Tropics. Tier I: screening phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The present study presents data on the screening phase (tier 1) of a site-specific ecological risk assessment in a former\\u000a smelter area heavily contaminated with metals (Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil). Joining information from three lines of evidence\\u000a (LoE), chemical, ecotoxicological, and ecological, integrated risk values were calculated to rank sites within the area and\\u000a identify those that may need further

Júlia C. Niemeyer; Matilde Moreira-Santos; Marco Antonio Nogueira; Gabriel Machado Carvalho; Rui Ribeiro; Eduardo Mendes Da Silva; José Paulo Sousa

2010-01-01

217

The aesthetic escape hatch: carnaval, blocos afro and the mutations of baianidade under the signs of globalisation and re-Africanisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Bahian carnavalThe carnaval of Salvador, capital of Bahia State in Brazil, has grown immensely in popularity in recent years, so that it now rivals the more famous Rio carnaval in terms of numbers of visitors. Carnaval culture—music, dance, consumption and consequent entrepreneurial opportunities—has spread to the whole calendar of annual and weekly festivities, religious and secular, and has transformed

Piers Armstrong

1999-01-01

218

Agroforestry adoption and maintenance: self-efficacy, attitudes and socio-economic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry is a key land use in the development of ecological corridors in tropical rainforests biomes. This research tested\\u000a the social dimensions of agroforestry adoption and maintenance in the Atlantic rainforest of Southern Bahia, Brazil. A quasi-experiment\\u000a research design compared a group of farmers who participated in an agroforestry development program with a group of similar\\u000a farmers who were not

Meghan M. McGinty; Mickie E. Swisher; Janaki Alavalapati

2008-01-01

219

Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important\\u000a sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped\\u000a beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed\\u000a beaches, where cigarette butts,

Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul; Isaac R. Santos; Ana Cláudia Friedrich; Alexandre Matthiensen; Gilberto Fillmann

2011-01-01

220

Predation on the southwestern Atlantic fiddler crab ( Uca uruguayensis ) by migratory shorebirds ( pluvialis dominica, P. squatarola, arenaria interpres , and numenius phaeopus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Bahia Samborombon (SW Atlantic; 35°30?–36°22?S; 56°45?–57°23?W) migratory American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-billed plover (P. squatarola), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) forage on fiddler crabs (Uca uruguayensis). These shorebirds have distinct patterns of feeding behavior and capture different proportions of each sex and size. P. dominica made short runs, capturing mostly juvenile crabs, which are eaten

Oscar O. Iribarne; Mariano M. Martinez

1999-01-01

221

Cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study in this paper a cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers collected in the ferry-boat system (sea route that connects the city of Salvador and Itaparica island, Bahia, Brazil), this study is based on the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method. The DCCA method is designed to investigate power-law cross correlations between different simultaneously recorded time series in

G. F. Zebende; A. Machado Filho

2009-01-01

222

Mass Mortality of Coral Reef Ascidians Following the 1997\\/1998 El Niño Event  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April\\/May each year from 1995 to 2000, ascidians were sampled randomly with 35 1m2 quadrats from three different reef habitats (intertidal reef tops, coastal reef walls and shallow-bank reefs) at four replicate\\u000a localities (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) in northern Bahia (Brazil). As the sampling period included the\\u000a 1997\\/1998 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for

Francisco Kelmo; Martin J. Attrill; Malcolm B. Jones

2006-01-01

223

Mass mortality of coral reef ascidians following the 1997\\/1998 El NiñO event  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April\\/May each year from 1995 to 2000, ascidians were sampled randomly with 35 1m2quadrats from three different reef habitats (intertidal reef tops, coastal reef walls and shallow-bank reefs) at four replicate localities (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) in northern Bahia (Brazil). As the sampling period included the 1997\\/1998 El Ni? o event, the most severe on record,

Francisco Kelmo; Martin J. Attrill; Malcolm B. Jones

224

Longivena, a new robber-fly genus from Brazil (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Longivena gen. n. and five new species are described and illustrated from caatinga and cerrado habitats from Brazil: Longivena digitata sp. n., type–species (Maranhão, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso do Sul states), Longivena bilobata sp. n. (Maranhão state), Longivena flava sp. n. (Mato Grosso do Sul state), Longivena limeiraoliverai sp. n. (Maranhão state), Longivena spatulata sp. n. (Maranhão state). An illustrated key is also provided. PMID:25349498

Vieira, Rodrigo; Rafael, Jose Albertino

2014-01-01

225

Octopus predation on hermit crabs: A test of selectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging selectivity of the predator Octopus digueti on the hermit crab Pagurus albus was investigated in the laboratory. The animals were collected from the lower tidal regions of Bahia Cholla, Sonora, Mexico in the northern Gulf of California. Hermit crab shell?preference experiments with the field?predominant gastropod shell Cerithium stercusmuscarum established a relationship of ideal?fit which served as a reference guide

Donald R. Kobayashi

1986-01-01

226

Zanthoxylum articulatum Engler (Rutaceae) Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Zanthoxylum articulatum Engler (Rutaceae), collected in Jacobina-Bahia, Northwest of Brazil, was subjected to hydrodistillation and its essential oil was characterized by GC\\/MS. Twelve compounds were identified representing 90.4% of the oil. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes (65.4%) were the major constituents with viridiforol (35.4%), spathulenol (9.9%), elemol (9.7%) and globulol (6.5%) being the main compounds. The oil was examined with

Edinilza Maria A. Feitosa; Angela Martha C. Arriaga; Telma Leda G. Lemos; Jefferson Q. Lima; Jackson Nunes e Vasconcelos; Maria Conceicao F. Oliveira; Gilvandete Maria P. Santiago; Ronaldo F. Nascimento

2007-01-01

227

Tidal flat macrofaunal communities and their associated environments in estuaries of southern California and northern Baja California, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several tidal flats in both Estero de Punta Banda and Bahia de San Quintín, Baja California, and one in Mission Bay, southern\\u000a California, were sampled for macrofaunal properties (taxonomic composition, density, species richness, and functional groups\\u000a for animals ?0.3 mm) and associated environmental variables (sediment properties, salinity, plant belowground biomass, and\\u000a cover ofZostera marina) in order to establish a benchmark

Theresa Sinicrope Talley; Paul K. Dayton; Silvia E. Ibarra-Obando

2000-01-01

228

Endecous apterus: a new species of cave cricket from northeast Brazil, with comments on the use of subterranean habitats by Luzarinae crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae: Luzarinae).  

PubMed

In this study we describe the first apterous species of Endecous Saussure (1878), collected in two caves at Ituaçu, Bahia State, Brazil. In Brazil, Endecous is the most widespread cricket in hypogean environments and its species can colonize caves and inhabit the entrance and the aphotic zones; Endecous species can also be found in the litter, rock gullies, crevices, burrows, and any natural cavities. The use of subterranean habitat by Endecous crickets and its related genera are discussed. PMID:24872041

Souza-Dias, Pedro G B; Bolfarini, Márcio P; Nihei, Silvio S; De Mello, Francisco A G

2014-01-01

229

Invasion of ancient Lake Titicaca by the globally invasive Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygrophila)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vital population of Physa acuta, a globally invasive species of freshwater gastropods was dicovered in ancient Lake Titicaca in April 2007. The population\\u000a was found near Chucuito (Bahia de Puno) on the Peruvian side in close proximity to a boat landing of the aquaculture facility\\u000a of the University of Puno. Physids occured in great abundances at this site on

Christian Albrecht; Oliver Kroll; Edmundo Moreno Terrazas; Thomas Wilke

2009-01-01

230

Determination of hafnium and zirconium in geological materials by neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, neutron activation analysis was applied to analyze the geological standard materials: GSP-1 and W-1 from USGS, GB-1 and BB-1 from the University of Bahia, Brazil and a sample of uraniferous rock. Hf was determined by instrumental method and the obtained results was shown with relative standard deviations varying from 1.1 to 14%. In the case of Zr

J. P. Lins; M. Saiki

1997-01-01

231

Toxicological evaluation of the effects of waste-to-energy ash-concrete on two marine species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicological effects of waste-to-energy ash-concrete on survivorship, growth, and fecundity (end-point parameters) of Mysidopsis bahia and on survivorship and growth of Menidia beryllina were evaluated with the 7-d static-renewal toxicity test. Leachate and elutriate solutions were prepared from experimental ash-concrete test cylinders constructed from concrete with additions of either bottom ash (mix BA), mixed bottom ash and scrubber residue,

Kirk L. Hamilton; Walter G. Nelson; Jeri L. Curley

1993-01-01

232

The Relevance of Rooted Vascular Plants as Indicators of Estuarine Sediment Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity assessments and numerical quality assessment guidelines for estuarine sediments are rarely based on information for\\u000a aquatic plants. The effect of this lack of information on contaminated sediment toxicity evaluations is largely unknown. For\\u000a this reason, the toxicities of whole sediments collected from 15 sites in three urbanized Florida bayou-estuaries were determined\\u000a for the benthic invertebrates Mysidopsis bahia and Ampelisca

M. A. Lewis; D. E. Weber; R. S. Stanley; J. C. Moore

2001-01-01

233

Mitochondrial DNA variability in populations of Centris aenea (Hymenoptera, Apidae), a crop-pollinating bee in Brazil.  

PubMed

Centris spp are oil-collecting solitary bees that are valuable pollinators of crops such as Brazil nut, cashew, and acerola. We investigated the genetic variability of populations of C. aenea in the northeastern region of Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from 59 individuals from 6 locations in the States of Pernambuco and Bahia and a 600-650-bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI/COII region amplified by PCR, followed by digestion with the restriction enzymes DraI and SspI. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed eight different haplotypes among the populations. Haplotype A1, revealed by DraI, was the most frequent (50%), and haplotypes A3 and A4 were exclusive to Feira de Santana, Bahia and Morro do Chapéu, Bahia, respectively. Among the haplotypes revealed by SspI, B2 was the most frequent (37%) and B3 was exclusive to Feira de Santana. This information revealing high haplotype diversity will be useful for developing management strategies for Centris, especially because of increasing interest in the rearing and/ or relocation of these bees for crop pollination. PMID:23546967

Ferreira, V S; Aguiar, C M L; Oliveira, E J F; Costa, M A; Santos, G M M; Silva, J G

2013-01-01

234

Taxonomic notes on some Brazilian species of Synalpheus Spence Bate, 1888, with new records and description of a new species (Decapoda, Alpheidae).  

PubMed

The present report deals with several western Atlantic species of the snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus Spence Bate, 1888 occurring in Brazilian territorial waters. Two species, Synalpheus cf. ruetzleri Macdonald & Duffy, 2006 and Synalpheus yano (Ríos & Duffy, 2007), are recorded from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and Brazil (Ceará) for the first time; S. yano is also newly reported from the eastern Gulf of Mexico and USA (Florida). Synalpheus androsi Coutière, 1909, a distinctive species previously known in Brazil only from a single unconfirmed record, is confirmed to be present in Brazilian waters based on material from Bahia and Espírito Santo. Synalpheus tenuispina Coutière, 1909, a poorly known species from southern Brazil, is redescribed. Synalpheus ul (Ríos & Duffy, 2007), previously known from Bahia and Alagoas, is reported from Pernambuco based on older "Calypso" material misidentified as Synalpheus longicarpus (Herrick, 1891). A new species from the Synalpheus paraneptunus Coutière, 1909 complex is described as Synalpheus maxillispinus sp. nov. based on three specimens dredged from moderate depths (15-55 m) off southern Bahia and Espírito Santo, eastern Brazil. Finally, an incomplete specimen that appears to belong to a species presently unknown in Brazil is preliminarily reported as Synalpheus sp. gambarelloides group. Illustrations are provided for all reported taxa except for S. ul. PMID:24943610

Anker, Arthur; Pachelle, Paulo P G

2014-01-01

235

The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.  

PubMed

The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

Moreira, Danielle de Oliveira; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Siqueira, Marinez Ferreira de; Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

2014-01-01

236

The Distributional Ecology of the Maned Sloth: Environmental Influences on Its Distribution and Gaps in Knowledge  

PubMed Central

The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sergio Lucena

2014-01-01

237

Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions  

PubMed Central

Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne) were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma. PMID:22409901

2012-01-01

238

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1997-01-01

239

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1997-01-01

240

Intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil.  

PubMed

The Brazilian planorbidical chart is slowly but progressively been increased by new data. Distribution of vector species of Schistosoma mansoni, according to Paraense, 1986, may be thus resumed: Biomphalaria glabrata--delimited by parallels 13 and 21 degrees S and meridians 39 and 45 degrees W, area of greater dominance (Southeast Bahia, oriental hal of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). It is observed along the coast line of the states of Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte. Starting from there, it is found towards the southwest, in the direction to the São Francisco River and South-Center of Minas Gerais. Isolated population may be observed in other states. Its presence is probably, associated to the transmission of schistosomiasis in all areas where it occurs. B. tenagophila--extends it self through a wide strip of coast-line from the South of Bahia (17 degrees 45'S; 39 degrees 15'W), RS (33 degrees 41'S, 53 degrees 27'W). In São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul states it is found further inland. It is important in schistosomiasis transmission in the Paraiba valley (SP). Isolated populations are observed in the Federal District and Minas Gerais state. B. straminea--better adapter species to climatic variation, having a more dense distribution in the northeast (41 degrees W and 110 degrees S), south of Bahia and northeast of Minas Gerais (150 and 180 degrees S, 400 and 440 degrees W). It is less susceptible than the B. glabrata, being however, the most important responsible for the transmission of S. mansoni in the northeast, chiefly in the northeastern dry area, where it is almost the only transmissive species. PMID:1343914

Carvalho, O de D

1992-01-01

241

A taxonomic revision of the Liophis lineatus complex (Reptilia:Colubridae) of Central and South America  

E-print Network

'd* f th 1 ttt Bt*t*'gy 1, B*'1. It was otherwise impossible for me to obtain them. Thanks to Richard Etheridge for hand carrying these specimens back to the United States and to James Dixon for hand carrying them back to Brazil. Special thanks... and p te ' bo dy f ~L* h' ~ ~d'2 1 . MHNP 1967/145 Pernambuco, Brazil 13. Pattern illustrations of the anterior and p t* ' b dy f L~hts ~d'1 . UMMZ 108756, Bahia, Brazil 14. Pattern illustrations of the anterior and p t 1o b dy f ~L' h' ~d...

Michaud, Edward Joseph

2012-06-07

242

Tourmaline B-isotopes fingerprint marine evaporites as the source of high-salinity ore fluids in iron oxide copper-gold deposits, Carajás Mineral Province (Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carajás Mineral Province in northern Brazil containsa variety of world-class (>100 Mt ore) iron oxide copper-gold(IOCG) deposits, including the only Archean examples of thisdeposit class (e.g., the Igarapé Bahia/Alemãoand Salobo deposits). Tourmaline of schorl-dravite composition,a common gangue mineral in these deposits, precipitated shortlyprior to and after the ore assemblage. A boron isotope studyof texturally different tourmaline from three IOCG deposits(Igarapé Bahia, Salobo, and Sossego) using secondaryion mass spectrometry (SIMS) provides new evidence in the long-standingdebate of magmatic versus non-magmatic sources for the highsalinity (up to 50 wt% NaCl equiv.) of ore fluids in these deposits.Values of {delta}11B from 14{per thousand} to 26.5{per thousand} for the Igarapé Bahia andSalobo deposits confirm marine evaporite-derived brinesin the ore fluids, whereas lower {delta}11B values for the IgarapéBahia deposit (5.8{per thousand} to 8.8{per thousand}) suggest that these fluids may havemixed with an isotopically different hydrothermal fluid, orone that had a mixed boron source. More variable and isotopicallylighter boron in tourmaline from the Sossego deposit (-8{per thousand}to 11{per thousand}) is attributed to mixed sources, including light boronleached from felsic intrusive and volcanic host rocks, and heavyboron derived from marine evaporites. The boron isotope dataindicate that the characteristic high salinity of the ore fluidsin the Carajás Mineral Province was acquired by the interactionof hydrothermal fluids with marine evaporites. For IOCG depositsthat contain tourmaline as a common gangue mineral, boron isotopesoffer a valuable tool to constrain the high-salinity sourceproblem, which is a critical issue in metallogenesis of IOCGdeposits worldwide.

Perez Xavier, Roberto; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Trumbull, Robert B.; Dreher, Ana M.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Rhede, Dieter; de Araújo, Carlos E. G.; Torresi, Ignacio

2008-09-01

243

The electric power rationing program through the energy quota system; A utility's experience  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, an energy quota is defined as the maximum kWh that can be used by individual customers during the rationing period. This quota is assigned by the utility and calculated on the basis of average energy consumption during the previous year. This rationing system was used by utilities in northeastern Brazil when a severe water shortage occurred in 1987. Although it is democratic and participative, this method requires balanced quota assignment criteria, efficient management and effective communication with customers to be viable. The utility's experience in the state of Bahia, Brazil, was satisfactory and played a vital role in overcoming the 1987 electric power shortage.

Bastos, A.C.F. (Companhia de Electricidade do Estado da Bahia, COELBA, Av. Edgar Santos, 300 40100 Salvador, Bahia (BR))

1992-08-01

244

Proposal and Phylogenetic Relationships of Lapsamita, a New Genus of Lapsiines, and Description of a New Species (Araneae, Salticidae)  

PubMed Central

Lapsamita maddisoni gen. et sp. nov. is described from Bahia, Brazil. The presence of palpal claws in females, long ventral spines on front tibiae and metatarsi and long retrolateral tibial apophyses in male palps suggested that the species was closely related to or even nested within Soesiladeepakius Makhan, 2007. To evaluate its phylogenetic position, a cladistic analysis was carried out using a data matrix comprising 24 morphological characters, scored for 13 taxa. The analysis showed L. maddisoni as the sister group of Soesiladeepakius, supporting the proposal of the new genus. Character evolution is discussed and compared to a previous study on the group. PMID:23468857

Ruiz, Gustavo R. S.

2013-01-01

245

Agrarian Social Movements and the Making of Agrodiesel Moral Territories in Northeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to widespread concerns about the socio-ecological impacts of agrofuel production and development, particularly for food security, efforts have been made internationally to implement more sustainable forms of producing agrofuels. Brazil's National Program for the Production and Use of Agrodiesel (PNPB), launched in 2004, is one such attempt. Promoted as a socially and environmentally responsible program, the PNPB was made possible through unprecedented alliances between the 'postneoliberal' Brazilian state, the agribusiness sector, and social movements such as the Rural Trade Union's Movement (MSTTR) and the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST). In this research, I critically analyze the unexpected engagement of social movements in the making of agrodiesel territories in semi-arid Bahia, Northeastern Brazil by examining the territorial and moral processes and practices that underlie the production of castor bean (mamona) for agrodiesel. The methodology adopted comprised participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews (n=74) with leaders and members of the MST and the MSTTR in the territories of the Chapada Diamantina and Irece, in central Bahia. Interviews were also conducted with representatives of family farming cooperatives, government institutions, and agrodiesel companies (Petrobras) in the two study areas and in Salvador, capital of Bahia. Research methods also included the collection and critical discourse analysis of archival and other secondary data sources from public and private institutions. Drawing mainly from cultural geography and political ecology literatures, I argue that social movement leaders enable the making of agrodiesel territories mainly through their role as 'agrodiesel gatekeepers'---as legal interveners, managers, and caregivers. Family farmers tend to enable agrodiesel territorial expansion and to disrupt agrodiesel territorial management by not complying with moral prescriptions of loyalty. I see farmers' disloyalty towards their cooperatives as an everyday form of resistance against agrodiesel oppressive and exploitative practices. I suggest that the making of agrodiesel territories (re)produces gendered and racialized '(im)moral' peasants and serves to better contain peasants' movements. By critically analyzing how agrodiesel practices reproduce, homogenize and differentiate certain subjects, natures, and territories, I hope that this research contributes to politicize the moral geographies of agrodiesel development in semiarid Bahia.

Manzi, Maya

246

The Muses of Chaos and Destruction of Arena conta Zumbi  

E-print Network

was made possible by the shift in theatrical codes. University of North Carolina Notes 1. These included Este mundo é meu (music by Sérgio Ricardo, with Toquinho and Manini, directed by Chico de Assis, opening August 5, 1965); Arena conta Bahia (written... and directed by Boal, music by Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil, with Maria Bethânia, Gal Costa, and Tomzé, preview in the Teatro Brasileiro de Comedia on September 8, 1965); Tempo de guerra (written by Boal and Guarnieri on texts by Bertolt Brecht, directed...

Anderson, Robert K.

1996-04-01

247

Dispersed oil toxicity tests with biological species indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Static and flowthrough aquatic acute toxicity testing protocols were utilized on eggs and larvae of seven commercially important invertebrates and fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. Test organisms were exposed to Central and Western Gulf oils, dispersed oil, and Corexit 9527. Species included brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), inland silverside (Menidia berylina), and spot (Leiosomus xanthurus). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) was also tested because gulf menhaden were not available. Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) were evaluated as part of a chronic toxicity assessment.

Fucik, K.W.; Carr, K.A.; Balcom, B.J.

1994-08-01

248

Tracing coastal and estuarine groundwater discharge sources in a complex faulted and fractured karst aquifer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater discharge can be an important input of water, nutrients and other constituents to coastal wetlands and adjacent marine areas, particularly in karst regions with little to no surface water flow. A combination of natural processes (e.g., sea-level rise and climate change) and anthropogenic pressures (e.g., urban growth and development) can alter the subterranean water flow to the coastline. For water management practices and environmental preservation to be better suited for the natural and human environment, a better understanding is needed of the hydrogeologic connectivity between the areas of fresh groundwater recharge and the coastal zone. The Yucatan peninsula has a unique tectonic and geologic history consisting of a Cretaceous impact crater, Miocene and Eocene tectonic plate movements, and multiple sea-level stands. These events have shaped many complex geologic formations and structures. The Sian Káan Biosphere Reserve (SKBR), a UNESCO World Heritage Site located along the Atlantic Ocean, overlaps two distinct hydrogeologic regions: the evaporate region to the south and south west, and the Holbox Fracture Zone to the north. These two regions create a complex network of layered, perched and fractured aquifers and an extensive groundwater cave network. The two regions are distinguished by bedrock mineralogical differences that can be used to trace shallow subsurface water from interior portions of the peninsula to the Bahia de la Ascension in the SKBR. The objective of this research was to use naturally occurring geochemical tracers (eg., Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, K+, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen) to decipher the sources of groundwater flow through the coastal wetlands of the SKBR and into the Bahia de la Ascension. Surface water and groundwater samples were collected during two field campaigns in 2010 and 2012 within the coastal and estuarine waters of the SKBR. Additional water samples were collected at select cenotes along the western boundary of the reserve. Fresh groundwater and surface water from the southern evaporate region was characterized as a calcium sulfate water that was identified to contribute the southern portions of the Bahia de la Ascension. In the northern portions of the Bahia, surface and shallow groundwater chemistry was characterized as a more calcium bicarbonate-type water from the north that was undersaturated with respect to calcite. The implications from this preliminary study address the complex nature of the karst aquifer and help define groundwater flow pathways from the interior of the Yucatan peninsula to the coastal wetlands. Further investigation in the area will increase our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of shallow groundwater; and identify areas of coastal brackish groundwater discharge from the mixing of fresh groundwater and seawater.

Lagomasino, D.; Price, R. M.

2013-05-01

249

Cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study in this paper a cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers collected in the ferry-boat system (sea route that connects the city of Salvador and Itaparica island, Bahia, Brazil), this study is based on the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method. The DCCA method is designed to investigate power-law cross correlations between different simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity. Here in this paper we show that is possible to discriminate cross-correlation between vehicles and passengers and also identify seasonal components.

Zebende, G. F.; Filho, A. Machado

2009-12-01

250

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne triclosan in food crops.  

PubMed

Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial compound commonly found in biosolids. Thus, plants grown in biosolids-amended soil may be exposed to TCS. We evaluated the plant toxicity and accumulation potential of biosolids-borne TCS in two vegetables (lettuce and radish) and a pasture grass (bahia grass). Vegetables were grown in growth chambers and grass in a greenhouse. Biosolids-amended soil had TCS concentrations of 0.99, 5.9, and 11 mg/kg amended soil. These TCS concentrations represent typical biosolids containing concentrations of 16 mg TCS/kg applied at agronomic rates for 6 to 70 consecutive years, assuming no TCS loss. Plant yields (dry wt) were not reduced at any TCS concentration and the no observed effect concentration was 11 mg TCS/kg soil for all plants. Significantly greater TCS accumulated in the below-ground biomass than in the above-ground biomass. The average bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were 0.43 ± 0.38 in radish root, 0.04 ± 0.04 in lettuce leaves, 0.004 ± 0.002 in radish leaves, and <0.001 in bahia grass. Soybean (grain) and corn (leaves) grown in our previous field study where soil TCS concentrations were lower (0.04-0.1 mg/kg) had BAF values of 0.06 to 0.16. Based on the data, we suggest a conservative first approximate BAF value of 0.4 for risk assessment in plants. PMID:22761010

Pannu, Manmeet W; Toor, Gurpal S; O'Connor, George A; Wilson, Patrick C

2012-09-01

251

[In-service training for pedagogical coordinators in school nutrition: the report of an experience].  

PubMed

This article describes the experience of in-service training for pedagogical coordinators of the Brazilian School Nutrition Program (PNAE) developed by the Cooperation Center for Student Food and Nutrition of the Federal University of Bahia (CECANE-UFBA). Participant observation and analysis of data documented in films, group discussion summaries, procedural and final evaluations and field diaries are used. The formative experiences were in 2011, in two municipalities in Bahia and Sergipe states, involving 118 pedagogical coordinators from 79 municipalities in both states. It was revealed that the objective of raising awareness and guiding pedagogical coordinators for mainstreaming the theme of food and nutrition has been achieved. The educational proposal was evaluated by the coordinators as "dynamic," "productive" and "interactive," promoting the exchange of experiences among participants. Despite considering the theme relevant, the pedagogical coordinators do not have sufficient training about food and nutrition to back their teaching practices. It is considered that their training has some limitations on the impact in the fieldwork, as the knowledge acquired night be dissipated when the coordinators return to their workplace due to the lack of ongoing training. PMID:23670376

Santos, Ligia Amparo da Silva; Carvalho, Danilo Melo de Morais; Reis, Amélia Borba Costa; Ramos, Lilian Barbosa; de Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares

2013-04-01

252

Imaging industrial contaminant plumes with resistivity techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic geophysical procedure has been developed and applied to image groundwater contamination caused by industrial activities in Bahia, Brazil. The procedure combines the use of conventional Schlumberger sounding with a regular scheme of sampling the resistivity stratification in depth. This is achieved by traversing an area with multiple profiles measured at selected electrode spacing. By multiple profiles we mean closely spaced partial soundings made using only six electrode spacings. Partial and complete soundings are correlated and inverted assuming horizontally stratified models within the limits covered by each electrode array. Pseudo-resistivity sections constructed from these data are inverted and adjusted using a two-dimensional finite difference algorithm. Electrical and lithological well logs are used to constrain this interpretation. The procedure was successfully applied to investigate the groundwater conditions and to outline contaminant plumes within industrial areas of the Camaçari Petrochemical Center, Recôncavo basin, Bahia. The study includes cases of electrically conductive plumes generated by infiltration of inorganic aqueous effluents and a resistive plume containing hydrocarbon contaminants.

de Lima, Olivar A. L.; Sato, Hédison K.; Porsani, Milton J.

1995-12-01

253

Evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated wastewater and groundwater. Volume 3. Old O-field groundwater. Final report, July 1990-December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of contaminated Old O-Field (Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground) groundwater and the reduction and/or elimination of toxicity by various treatment processes were evaluated. The study was divided into a bench scale and pilot scale study. The bench scale studies consisted of 48-h definitive acute toxicity tests run with daphnid neonates (Daphnia magna) and juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to untreated Old O-Field groundwater and groundwater treated by metals precipitation, UV oxidation (H 2O2 ), carbon adsorption, and carbon adsorption/biological sludge. The pilot scale studies consisted of several 96-h definitive acute toxicity tests run with two freshwater and two saltwater invertebrates and fish and Ames mutagenicity assays. Acute toxicity tests were run on untreated Old O-Field groundwater and groundwater treated by metals precipitation, UV oxidation (H2O2), air stripping, and carbon adsorption during the pilot scale study. The freshwater invertebrate and fish used in the study were daphnid neonates and juvenile fathead minnows, respectively. The saltwater invertebrate and fish were juvenile mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and juvenile sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Ames tests were run on untreated groundwater, UV oxidation-treated groundwater, and carbon-treated groundwater.... Groundwater, Aquatic, Toxicity, Daphnia, Daphnia magna, Fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, Mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, Sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus.

Burton, D.T.; Turley, S.D.

1992-03-01

254

Taxonomic guide and historical review of starfishes in northeastern Brazil (Echinodermata, Asteroidea)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Presently more than 1900 species of sea stars are recognized, of which 77 are recorded for the coast of Brazil. Although the first starfish record in Brazil was published 363 years ago, our knowledge of this fauna remains unsatisfactory from a systematic and ecological point of view, particularly in the north and northeastern regions of the country. This study provides the first annotated list of sea stars from northeastern Brazil. Material described herein is housed at the collections of the Federal University of Paraíba, Federal University of Sergipe, and the Federal University of Bahia, Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo and Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Twenty-one species were identified, belonging to 12 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders. Descriptions of species are provided. Three new occurrences were recorded for northeast Brazil: Astropecten alligator, Luidia ludwigi scotti, and Mithrodia clavigera. Highest diversities of Asteroidea were encountered for the states of Bahia (n = 14 spp), Paraíba (n = 12 spp) and Pernambuco (n = 9 spp). No species were recorded for the states of Maranhão and Sergipe. Sandy substrates and depths below 10 m were the least sampled areas over the continental shelf. Herein we provide a first panorama on the fauna of Asteroidea occurring in the northeast region of Brazil, hopefully to function as a basic reference for biodiversity studies in this poorly studied area. PMID:25408612

Gondim, Anne Isabelley; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; Pereira Dias, Thelma Lúcia

2014-01-01

255

Application of Neomysis awatschensis as a standard marine toxicity test organism in China.  

PubMed

The small mysid crustacean Neomysis awatschensis was collected in the west coast of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China in 1992 and acclimated and cultured in laboratory conditions since then. Standard acute toxicity tests using 4-6 d juvenile mysids of this species were conducted and the results were compared with Mysidopsis bahia, a standard toxicity test organism used in the US in terms of their sensitivities to reference toxins, as well as their taxonomy, morphology and geographic distributions. Because of its wide distribution along the Chinese coast, similar sensitivity to pollutants as M. bahia, short life history, small size and the ease of handling, this study intended to use N. awatschensis as one of the standard marine organisms for toxicity testing in China. The species were applied to acute toxicity evaluations of drilling fluid and its additives, organotin TPT and toxic algae, and to chronic (life cycle) toxicity assays of organotin TPT and a toxic dinofalgellate Alexandrium tamarense, respectively. Using N. awatschensis as a standard toxicity testing organism in marine pollution assessment in China is suggested. PMID:14758898

Yan, Tian; Zhou, Ming-jiang; Tan, Zhi-jun; Li, Zheng-yan; Li, Jun; Yu, Ren-cheng; Wang, Li-ping

2003-11-01

256

Identification of acute toxicants in New Bedford Harbor sediments  

SciTech Connect

New Bedford Harbor (NBH) is a marine Superfund site contaminated with high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. Experiments were conducted to determine the causal toxic agent(s) in pore waters from New Bedford Harbor sediments to amphipods and mysid shrimp. Chemical manipulations to characterize toxicity revealed that pore-water toxicity was organic in nature. Fractionation and subsequent mass spectral identification of peaks in the toxic fraction indicated that PCBs. PAHs, and unknown compounds were present. Comparisons of PAH LC50s and PAH concentrations in this fraction indicated that the toxicity was not due to PAHs because the PAH concentrations were much lower than the reported PAH LC50s. One unknown peak was positively identified as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and the other tentatively identified as pyrazole. Toxicity tests and comparison of toxicity in the blank and toxic fractions eliminated the two unknowns as toxic causal agents. The authors determined the range of PCB LC50s to fall between 10 and 110 ppb for Mysidopsis bahia and Ampelisca abdita. Concentrations of PCBs for the toxic fractions ranged from 12 to 27 ppb. This range falls within the observed PCB LC50s for M. bahia and A. abdita. Based upon these PCB concentrations, they concluded that PCBs were the acute toxic agents in NBH pore waters. Other compounds in the toxic fractions, or compounds that coeluted and were undistinguished from PCBs had minor contributions to the measured toxicity.

Ho, K.T.; McKinney, R.A.; Kuhn, A.; Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Atlantic Ecology Div.

1997-03-01

257

[School: a place for studying and eating].  

PubMed

This study seeks to discuss the significance of school nutrition expressed by students in public schools from the state of Bahia, Brazil. The objective is to understand the symbolic aspects associated with school nutrition. The results of a survey into the significance of nutrition offered by the Brazilian School Nutrition Program (PNAE) expressed by students from six public schools in municipalities in the state of Bahia, Brazil, are presented. A qualitative approach to understand nutrition at school and notions about healthy food by analyzing oral and written narratives of adolescents is used. The reports point to opposing stances between food in the home and food outside the home. What is customary can appear strange depending on the time and place. In this sense, they do not make an association between healthy food and PNAE. The food culture requires students to eat food on two occasions: breakfast and lunch (or dinner). These are aspects that are distinct, however they must be combined in school, because for these social actors, studying and eating are necessities that complement each other. PMID:23670374

de Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Ramos, Lilian Barbosa; Fontes, Gardênia Vieira; Santos, Ligia Amparo; de Souza, Elizeu Clementino; dos Santos, Anderson Carvalho; Mota, Sara Emanuela; de Paiva, Janaina Braga; Bernardelli, Tânia Mara; Demétrio, Franklin; Menezes, Isadora

2013-04-01

258

Detection and genetic diversity of a heliothine invader (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from north and northeast of Brazil.  

PubMed

The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was recently introduced in Brazil. During the 2012-2013 harvest, producers reported reduced yields up to 35% on major crops. The economic losses reached US$ 1 billion only in western Bahia, triggering a phytosanitary crisis. The deficiencies in existing taxonomic keys to deal with the morphologically indistinct larvae of H. armigera and the native Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) constrained the detection of new incursions of this heliothine invader. This study explored the identity of heliothine larvae that were found infesting soybean- and corn-growing areas from Roraima state, northern Brazil, through sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. The inter- and intraspecies sequence variations of DNA barcodes in H. armigera and H. zea were analyzed. The genetic diversity and population structure of the specimens from Roraima and two populations from Piauí and Bahia states, northeastern Brazil, were assessed by adding the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene to the analysis. Owing to the lack of studies on genetic introgression for the two species, the suitability of using three different nuclear genes to distinguish the two species was also investigated. The results showed strong evidence that the heliothine larvae from north and northeast of Brazil are conspecific with H. armigera, suggesting that this invasive moth has already crossed the Amazon basin. Surveys in the north of South America should start as soon as possible to monitor the entry or spread of this moth in the Caribbean, Central America, and the United States. PMID:25026655

Mastrangelo, T; Paulo, D F; Bergamo, L W; Morais, E G F; Silva, M; Bezerra-Silva, G; Azeredo-Espin, A M L

2014-06-01

259

[Evaluation of Brazilian public policies to promote food security and fight hunger, 1995-2002. 2 - the Workers' Nutrition Program].  

PubMed

This study evaluated the Workers' Nutrition Program in Brazil from 1995 to 2002, from a structure-process-results perspective. The methodology involved documental research and a case study in 45 municipalities in the State of Bahia, resulting in 2,389 household interviews. In relation to structure, we analyzed the program's normative evolution until 2002. As for nutritional recommendations, the program shifted from insufficient calorie supply in the 1980s to a positive association between overweight and employment in companies adopting the Workers' Nutrition Program. In Bahia, overall program coverage was insufficient among the 5,120 adults 20 years or older who were interviewed. A significant difference was observed in access to food benefits among workers in the interior of the State (6.1%) as compared to the State capital, Salvador (26.1%). However, targeting was adequate: all workers benefiting from the program in the interior and 92.4% of those in Salvador earned less than five times the minimum wage (approximately US dollars 950/month). It is necessary to improve the program's coverage in the target population in order to raise workers' awareness about their rights and the actions developed by the program. PMID:17653411

Pacheco Santos, Leonor Maria; Nazaré Araújo, Maria da Purificação; Martins, Maísa Cruz; Veloso, Iracema Santos; Assunção, Marilena Pacheco; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria

2007-08-01

260

Epidemiological and Clinical Changes in American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in an Area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Transmission Over a 20-Year Period  

PubMed Central

The Health Post of Corte de Pedra is located in a region endemic for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the Brazilian state of Bahia, and it treats 500–1,300 patients annually. To describe temporal changes in the epidemiology of ATL, we reviewed a random sample of 10% of patient charts (N = 1,209) from 1988 to 2008. There was a twofold increase in the number of cases over the 20-year period, with fluctuations in 10-year cycles. Patients were most frequently male, between the ages of 10 and 30 years, and engaged in agricultural labor; 4.3% of patients had mucosal disease, and 2.4% of patients had disseminated disease. Over the study period, the number of disseminated cases increased threefold, the proportion of cases in younger patients and agricultural workers decreased, and the proportion of patients residing in coastal areas increased. ATL is on the rise in Bahia, with a 10-year periodicity and evolving changes in epidemiology and manifestations of disease. PMID:22403312

Jirmanus, Lara; Glesby, Marshall J.; Guimaraes, Luiz H.; Lago, Ednaldo; Rosa, Maria Elisa; Machado, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

2012-01-01

261

Seismic expression of Late Quaternary Banda submarine canyon and fan offshore northern Baja California  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution seismic reflection profiles obtained throughout the inner California continental borderland offshore northwestern Baja California, Mexico, show the presence of numerous modern submarine canyons and associated fans. One set of these, the Banda submarine canyon/fan, is of relatively recent origin, as demonstrated by onlap of the basal fan sediments against an acoustically transparent, presumably hemipelagic deposit. Late Quaternary sedimentation rates inferred from isotopically dated piston core samples place the age of the postulated hemipelagic unit at approximately 650,000 years ago. The Banda submarine canyon heads within the Bahia Todos Santo and passes through a narrow gorge between Punta Banda and Islas Todos Santos. It is proposed that this submarine canyon and fan system formed entirely during late Quaternary time, following the breach of the Punta Banda ridge during a late Pleistocene high sea level stand. The presence of an ancient, buried channel exiting to the north out of Bahia Todos Santos probably marks the head of an earlier submarine canyon which acted as the conduit of clastic sediments from Valle Maneadero to the deep borderland basins. The now active Banda submarine canyon pirated the supply of terrigenous clastics from this older canyon. The active Agua Blanca fault zone cuts across the head of Banda submarine canyon, suggesting that tectonic movements may have played a role in the development of the Banda submarine canyon and fan system.

Legg, M.R.

1987-05-01

262

Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian Campo Rupestre Vegetation, with Special Reference to Crepuscular Bees  

PubMed Central

Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome. PMID:22208813

Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam

2011-01-01

263

Effects observed in the Latin American sector ionospheric F region during the intense geomagnetic disturbances in the early part of November 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun was very active in the early part of November 2004. During the period of 8-10 November 2004, intense geomagnetic disturbances with two superstorms were observed. In this paper, we have investigated the generation and suppression of equatorial ionospheric irregularities and the daytime changes in the F region electron density in the Latin American sector during the period of intense geomagnetic disturbances. We present the ionospheric sounding observations carried out at Manaus and Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, during this geomagnetically disturbed period. Also, GPS observations obtained from several stations in Brazil, Argentina, and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the disturbed period are presented. During the main phase of the first superstorm, around the prereversal enhancement time (night of 7-8 November), prompt penetration of electric field was observed and the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities was detected from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (in the northern hemisphere) to Bahia Blanca, Argentina (in the southern hemisphere). The ionospheric sounding observations at Manaus indicate inhibition of prereversal enhancement on the nights of 9-10 and 10-11 November, possibly due to the disturbed thermospheric winds or disturbance electric fields. Virtually no phase fluctuations on the nights of 9-10 and 10-11 November were observed in the Latin American sector. During the daytime on 8 November, the vertical total electron content (VTEC) observations show a negative storm phase at Porto Alegre (Brazil) and Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Again during the daytime on 10 November, the VTEC observations show a negative storm phase from Brasilia (Brazil) to Bahia Blanca. These negative storm phases are associated with a decrease in the O/N2 ratio. During the daytime on 9 November, the VTEC observations show a positive storm phase extending from St. Croix to Porto Alegre, and again on 10 November, VTEC observations show a positive storm phase. These positive storm phases observed are possibly due to changes in large-scale wind circulation and an increase in the O/N2 ratio.

Sahai, Y.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Brunini, C.; Gende, M.; Ferreira, A. S.; Lima, N. S.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Pillat, V. G.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Candido, C. M. N.

2009-03-01

264

Outbreak of aggressions and transmission of rabies in human beings by vampire bats in northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of attacks upon human beings by vampire bats seems to be a common phenomenon in several regions of Latin America, but the occurrence of rabies infection among humans bled by vampires, is relatively low. In the present study, two outbreaks of human rabies transmitted by common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are described from Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil, in 1991 and 1992. The first was recorded in Aporá where 308 people were bled by vampires bats and three of these die from this zoonosis. The 2nd outbreak occurred in Conde where only five people were bled by vampires, and two deaths by rabies were registered. Our data suggest that rabies transmitted by bats basically depends on the presence of virus in the vampire bat population and not on the number of humans bled by them. PMID:12621664

Gonçalves, Marcio A S; Sá-Neto, Raymundo J; Brazil, Tania K

2002-01-01

265

[Schistosomiasis and the challenge of community participation].  

PubMed

Using a semiotic and hermeneutical approach, the present paper discusses various theoretical elements in the analysis of popular views of schistosomiasis. Based on field work conducted in the State of Bahia, the authors identify two main processes in the construction of meaning related to schistosomiasis and show that depending on the social context of experience the disease may have a primary or secondary meaning for the populations affected by it. The first level of meaning refers to bodily experiences and is shared intersubjectively, whereas the second type is built on the discourse of health professionals. In the latter case, the popular view of the illness is directly linked to discourses and actions previously established by health programs designed for the control of the disease. PMID:9700227

Alves, P C; Souza, I M; Moura, M A; Cunha, L A

1998-01-01

266

Effluents of Shrimp Farms and Its Influence on the Coastal Ecosystems of Bah?a de Kino, Mexico  

PubMed Central

The impact on coastal ecosystems of suspended solids, organic matter, and bacteria in shrimp farm effluents is presented. Sites around Bahía de Kino were selected for comparative evaluation. Effluent entering Bahia Kino (1) enters Laguna La Cruz (2). A control site (3) was outside the influence of effluents. Water quality samples were collected every two weeks during the shrimp culture period. Our data show that the material load in shrimp farm effluents changes biogeochemical processes and aquatic health of the coastal ecosystem. Specifically, the suspended solids, particulate organic matter, chlorophyll a, viable heterotrophic bacteria, and Vibrio-like bacteria in the bay and lagoon were two- to three-fold higher than the control site. This can be mitigated by improvements in the management of aquaculture systems. PMID:23861653

Barraza-Guardado, Ramon H.; Arreola-Lizarraga, Jose A.; Lopez-Torres, Marco A.; Casillas-Hernandez, Ramon; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Magallon-Barrajas, Francisco; Ibarra-Gamez, Cuauhtemoc

2013-01-01

267

Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation among kindergarten children in Bahía Blanca city, Argentina.  

PubMed

The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is a worldwide public health concern. This human obligate ectoparasite usually infests school age children. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of head lice in kindergarten children from Bahia Blanca. In addition, the influence of risk factors for pediculosis infestation, such as gender, hair characteristics, and socioeconomic class, was studied in relation to the prevalence of this ectoparasite. From a total of 220 pupils examined (125 girls and 95 boys), 94 showed pediculosis. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 42.7 %. Pediculosis was more frequent in girls (53.6 %) than in boys (28.4 %) and in medium, long, and very long hairs. No differences were found between socioeconomic classes. This indicated that head lice are relatively common in kindergarten children from Bahía Blanca. PMID:22752696

Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; González, Jorge Werdin; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Serralunga, Gabriela; Yañez, Loreto; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

2012-09-01

268

Exposure to organic solvents and its effects on the central nervous system in workers of the Camaçari petrochemical complex in Brazil.  

PubMed

While numerous studies have been carried out in industrialized countries, only very few epidemiologic investigations performed in developing countries are reported in the international literature. This study is one of the few examples of investigations carried out in a region where industrialization is at its beginning. A sample of 188 workers employed at the Camaçari Petrochemical Complex in Bahia, Brazil, and exposed for over five years to organic solvents was submitted to neurobehavioral testing (QQS questionnaire, MANS battery) together with a 1/1 control group paired for age, school attendance and alcohol consumption. The exposed subjects showed differences significantly worse at emotional status, manual dexterity, recognition memory and subjective symptoms. Exposed subjects are therefore characterized by decreased psychophysical well-being. PMID:9419828

Saretto, G; Oliveira, F C; Kato, M; Reis, E J; Castro, R C; Dorigatti, F; Camerino, D; Gilioli, R

1997-01-01

269

[Family income and child malnutrition in the coast of Camaçari, Brazil].  

PubMed

A study on malnutrition prevalence was carried out in a sample of 388 children, aged 0 to 5 years, living in the coast of Camaçari County, State of Bahia, Brazil. Prevalence of malnutrition indicated by low weight-for-age, degrees I, II and III--according to Gómez' criteria--was 62.1%. According to the criteria proposed by Waterlow, prevalence of malnutrition was 64.9%, 26.5% of stunted children, 20.7% of wasted, and 17.7% of stunted plus wasted children. The relationship between income and malnutrition became statistically significant when the per capita family income index was used, instead of the total family income index. Concerning the nature of malnutrition, it was observed that only stunting--in an inversely proportional fashion--was significantly associated with income. Prevalence rates of wasting or wasting plus stunting were not significantly associated with the per capita or with the total family income. PMID:2134136

Cedraz, L M; Carvalho, F M

1990-09-01

270

[Progebiophilus bruscai (Isopoda:Bopyridae) parasitizing the shrimp Upogebia dawsoni (Thalassinoidea:Upogebiidae), in Baja California Sur, Mexico)].  

PubMed

Parasitism of the isopod Progebiophilus bruscai Salazar-Vallejo & Leija-Tristán over the common mud shrimp, Upogebia dawsoni Williams, was analysed in the Ensenada and Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Mud-shrimps were collected in three similar sites that differ in grain size and in the anthropogenic organic matter enrichment. Four-hundred-nine mud-shrimps were collected; the largest abundance was registered in the organically enriched site, but they were significantly smaller and more heavily parasited than the animals from the site lacking such organic enrichment. The size of the parasite is clearly dependent on the size of the mud-shrimp. This is the first study of the upogebiid-bopyris relationship in Mexico. PMID:1844147

Leija-Tristán, A; Salazar-Vallejo, S I

1991-06-01

271

[Cumulative annual incidence of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders in an urban area of Brazil].  

PubMed

This study focused on the annual cumulative incidence (ACI) of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs (ULMSD) among workers covered by the National Social Insurance System in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Cases were workers who received disability compensation benefits when unable to work due to ULMSD, during the year 2008. The data were obtained from the administrative systems of the National Social Insurance Institute and Ministry of Labor and Employment. ACI was 15 per 10,000 workers. Increased ACI of ULMSD was associated with female gender, lower income, and work in financial activities or manufacturing. Women earning the minimum wage (US$ 64.00 per month) or less had the highest ACI of ULMSD (123 per 10,000), suggesting inequalities in the occurrence of these disorders. The study indicates the need to prioritize preventive actions focusing on ergonomics and work organization, early diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. PMID:22124490

Souza, Norma Suely Souto; Santana, Vilma Sousa

2011-11-01

272

Water quality of runoff from revegetated mine spoil.  

PubMed

Permanent vegetation plots were established on mixed overburden and topsoiled overburden on a lignite test pit in eastern Texas in 1982. Vegetative treatments included two grass-legume treatments [switchgrass (panicum virgattun) - sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) - subterrancan elover (Trifolitun subterranean) and litte bluestem (Schizachyriun scoparium) - sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) - Illinois hundleflower (Dessmanthus illinoiensis)] and three monocultures [Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), bahia grass (paspalum notatum) and yellow Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans)]. Water was applied to the 0.5m(2) plots using a sprinklertype rainfall simulator and quality of runoff was determined for each plot. Parameters analyzed included: settleable solids, total filterable solids, sediment production, infiltration rate, nitrites, nitrates, total iron and total manganese. Topsoiling significantly increased inliltration and significantly decreased filterable sediments, sediment production and settleable solids. The hydrologie qualities of the switchgrass-sideoats grama-subterranean elover mixture coincided closely with those of the Coastal bermudagrass monoculture. PMID:24221679

Trouart, J E; Knight, R W

1985-03-01

273

Peridomestic structure, farming activity and triatomine infestation.  

PubMed

The role of peridomestic structure and farming activity on triatomine infestation was studied on two vector species of Chagas disease (Triatoma pseudomaculata and T. brasiliensis) in Bahia State, northeastern Brazil. A randomly selected population issued from 136 farms was divided into four categories according to the householder activity. At regional scale, the dwellings of farmers working on degraded land of irrigated farms are less exposed to T. pseudomaculata infestation. At premises scale, the farmers and casual workers, who have smaller peridomiciles and less cattle, are also less exposed to T. pseudomaculata. The association of T. brosiliensis with the most mobile populations (casual workers and young breeders) suggests a passive transport of this competitive species. Finally, the retired farmers that own large premises and cattle, but have more sedentary behavior, are the most exposed to T. pseudomaculata infestation. PMID:17007216

Pojo De Rego, I; Walter, A; Ferreira, A J; Rangel, M; Girard-Ferreira, E; Noireau, F

2006-09-01

274

[Use of personal protective equipment for motorcycle taxi drivers: perception of risks and associated factors].  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the practices and perceptions of motorcycle taxi drivers concerning the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), based on field research and an exploratory and descriptive qualitative approach. Thirty motorcycle taxi drivers from Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, were interviewed. Data collection used a semi-structured interview and questionnaire. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The results showed: Category 1 - risk perception, subcategory conditioning/determinant factors for the use of PPE; Category 2 - adherence, subcategory adherence to the use of personal protective equipment; Category 3 - PPE as a protective factor against traffic accidents, subcategories 1 - work-related accidents, 2 - use of PPE at the time of the accident, 3 - non-use of PPE at the time of the accident. Finally, motorcycle taxi drivers clearly have some knowledge of personal protective equipment and even acknowledge the importance of its use, despite not always using it properly. PMID:24896065

Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Santos, Ninalva de Andrade; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; dos Santos, Ramon Araújo; Mota, Tilson Nunes

2014-04-01

275

Ergonomic evaluation of the preparation of cuttings and minicuttings for eucalyptus seedling production, with the use of scissors.  

PubMed

This study was conducted in a nursery for eucalyptus seedling production in a forest Company, located in the southern state of Bahia, Brazil. It aimed to evaluate the ergonomic conditions of the preparation of cuttings and mini-cuttings with scissors for Eucalyptus seedling production to increase well-being, satisfaction and safety and minimizing the occurrence of occupational diseases, also improving the process efficiency and final product quality. Environmental conditions, levels of noise, postures, RSI risk and physical workload were assessed. The environmental conditions complied with the recommended norms, except at certain times of day, when workers should make compensation breaks. The workers that collect minicuttings presented postures classified as normal by OWAS. On the other hand, the posture of workers dealing with cutting preparation requires corrections in a short run. The workers were subjected to moderate RSI risk due to the high degree of repeatability found. The physical workload was classified as mild, with no need for ergonomic interventions. PMID:22317599

Cunha, Eduarda Gabriela Santos; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

2012-01-01

276

[A study on the construct validity of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) in an urban population in Northeast Brazil].  

PubMed

The Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) is one of the most widely used instruments in the world for investigating domestic violence against children, but targeted use has proven inadequate given the phenomenon's complexity. This study focused on the factor structure of CTSPC scales in an urban population in Northeast Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 1,370 children in Salvador, Bahia State. Factor analysis with promax oblique rotation was performed, and the Kuder-Richardson coefficient was calculated. Factor analysis showed a different distribution of items in the factors as compared to the original instrument. Violence showed a gradual profile in each factor. The Kuder-Richardson coefficient was 0.63 for factor 1, 0.59 for factor 2, and 0.42 for factor 3. The items behaved differently from the original instrument, corroborating international studies. These findings support proposing a resizing of the CTSPC. PMID:22124499

Bonfim, Camila Barreto; Santos, Darci Neves; Menezes, Igor Gomes; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

2011-11-01

277

The endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a potential vector of white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. PMID:24895865

Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge

2014-06-01

278

Study on the bacterial midgut microbiota associated to different Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae).  

PubMed

The bacterial community associated with the midgut of three Brazilian Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) populations, two from endemic areas for visceral leishmaniasis (Jacobina, Bahia State and São Luís, Maranhão State) and one from a non-endemic area (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais State), was identified. Five groups, 35 females each, from each population were separated; a total of 175 females per collecting area were analyzed. The species identification was based on molecular and traditional bacteriological methods. All bacteria were either affiliated to non-Enterobacteriaceae, such as Acinetobacter, Burkholderia, Flavimonas, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, or and to Enterobacteriaceae, such as Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Serratia, Pantoea, Morganella and Weeksella. Stenotrophomonas was found to be associated with all three populations studied. In addition, Serratia spp., which are well documented as laboratory contaminant of insects, were detected only in the Jacobina population. We also discuss the impact of the colonization of insect gut by bacteria on the development and transmission of pathogens. PMID:19061048

Gouveia, Cheryl; Asensi, Marise D; Zahner, Viviane; Rangel, Elizabeth F; Oliveira, Sandra M P de

2008-01-01

279

Mass Spectrometry of Flavonoid Vicenin-2, Based Sunlight Barriers in Lychnophora species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lychnophora salicifolia plants collected from four different places in Brazil (three states: Goias, Minas Gerais and Bahia) revealed a conserved accumulation of vicenin-2, a di-C-glycosyl flavonoid. Quantitative studies by UPLC-MS/MS showed high concentration of vicenin-2 in leaves from sixty specimens of six Lychnophora species. So the tissue distributions of vicenin-2 were evaluated in wild Lychnophora leaves (Asteraceae) by laser based imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to propose its distributions and possible functions for the species analyzed. Mass spectrometric imaging revealed that vicenin-2, unlike other flavonoids, was produced at the top of the leaves. The combination of localization and UV absorption properties of vicenin-2 suggests that it could act as a UV light barrier to protect the plants, since plants are sessile organisms that have to protect themselves from harsh external conditions such as intense sunlight.

Silva, Denise Brentan; Turatti, Izabel Cristina Casanova; Gouveia, Dayana Rubio; Ernst, Madeleine; Teixeira, Simone Pádua; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

2014-03-01

280

Impurity Content Characterization of Brazilian Quartz Lascas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lattice impurities (Al, Li, Fe) free from the influence of cations in inclusion liquid were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) in quartz lascas taken from 10 deposits with known localities in three states, Minas Gerais, Tocantins and Bahia. Levels of Al content and associated Li content depend on the localities of deposits. Quartz deposit regions with high Al content are composed of granite, gneiss, and pegmatite as surrounding rocks. It was concluded that the charge compensation for Al-Si substitution in quartz lascas was realized substantially by the formation of Al-Li and Al-OH centers which were confirmed from the linear relation of Al-Li plots by AAS data and IR spectra due to Al-OH center. The variety in Al-Li and Al-OH correlations was attributed to the fluctuation of growing conditions of quartz in nature.

Iwasaki, Hideo; Iwasaki, Fumiko; Oliveira, Virginia A. R.; Hummel, Daniele C. A.; Pasquali, Maria A.; Guzzo, Pedro L.; Watanabe, Noêmia; Suzuki, Carlos K.

1991-07-01

281

Toxicity of sediment-incorporated drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The 24, 96, or 168-h LC50s of four used drilling fluids or barite incorporated into sediment were determined in toxicity tests with lancelets (Branchiostoma caribaeum), a benthic chordate. The number of lancelets that did not burrow into contaminated sediments was used to calculate EC50s at the same times that LC50s were determined. Observations of the burrowing behavior allowed quantitation of effects after 24-h exposures to each of the drilling fluids whereas lancelet mortality was sufficient to calculate 24-h LC50s for only one drilling fluid. Drilling fluids were less toxic to lancelets when incorporated into sediments than to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) or benthic invertebrate communities in water-column exposures.

Clark, J.R.; Patrick, J.M.

1987-01-01

282

Influence of proximity to an urban center in the pattern of contamination by marine debris.  

PubMed

In order to test the relationship between the occurrence of marine debris and the distance from urban areas, nine beaches in the metropolitan area of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil and the adjacent northern coast were studied. Marine debris were collected, sorted in several categories and weighed. It was observed that plastics were numerically the most abundant component of the collected debris. As expected, the beaches closest to Salvador presented the largest density of debris, with the exception of the Porto da Barra beach, which has an efficient public cleaning system and does not have any vegetation, making it difficult to accumulate solid waste. Linear regression analyses showed significant relationships between the distance from the urban center (Salvador) and the number of marine debris per m(2), the total number of debris per beach (abundance), and the diversity of debris types (richness). The results showed that proximity to urban regions was a key factor in the marine debris distribution along the coast. PMID:24530003

Leite, A S; Santos, L L; Costa, Y; Hatje, V

2014-04-15

283

Association between eating patterns and body mass index in a sample of children and adolescents in Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between eating patterns and body mass index (BMI) in children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study of 1,247 male and female students, aged between 6 and 12, from public elementary schools in São Francisco do Conde, Bahia State, Brasil. BMI was used to analyze the children's nutritional status. Food consumption frequencies, in addition to demographic and socioeconomic information, were collected for each participant. Dietary patterns were identified through a factor analysis. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.3% (10.2% overweight and 7.1% obese). Two eating patterns, "obesogenic" and "prudent", were identified. The former is characterized by sweets and sugars, typical Brazilian dishes, pastries, fast food, oils, milk, cereals, cakes, and sauces, and was positively associated with increased BMI (ßi = 0.244; p = 0.018). An "obesogenic" dietary pattern was associated with increased BMI. PMID:25388325

Santos, Nadya Helena Alves Dos; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Silva, Luce Alves da; Silva, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro

2014-10-01

284

Additions to the mycobiota of the weed Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

A sequel to the work of systematic surveying the mycobiota of Lantana camara, aimed at finding potential biocontrol agents, was carried out during 1995-1996 covering part of its centre of origin in Brazil (state of Minas Gerais). Fifty-eight sampling sites, representing the four main climatic types in the state of Minas Gerais, were surveyed. Additional ad hoc collections were made in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, Parana, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Fifteen fungal species were recorded in association with L. camara including the previously undescribed species Phomopsis lantanae-glutinosae sp. nov. Five fungi are also newly recorded on this host in Brazil: Cercospora lantanicola, Corynespora cassiicola, Meliola ambigua, Mycovellosiella lantaniphila and Phornopsis lantanae. The following fungi, previously recorded on L. camara in Brazil, are recorded here for the first time in Minas Gerais: Dendryphielia aspera, Micropustulomyces mucilaginosus, Mycovellosiella lantanae, Pseudocercospora guianensis and Puccinia lantanae. PMID:11554581

Pereira, J M; Barreto, R W

2001-01-01

285

Power spectrum and Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of tidal records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time dynamics of tidal fluctuations measured in three sites in Bahia Blanca Estuary (central Argentina), Ingeniero White, Puerto Belgrano and Torre Mareografica, are analyzed. To investigate the time series of the tidal waves we used two different approaches: the power spectral density (PSD) and the Fisher-Shannon (FS) information plane. The PSD permitted: (i) the identification of diurnal, semi-diurnal and higher frequency cycles in all the three tidal signals, and (ii) the detection of two different dynamical regimes (scaling and white-noise), involving respectively timescales lower and higher than about 2-2.5 days. The FS method, which allows to gain insight into the complex structure of a time series, quantifying its degree of organization and order, was applied to the residual tidal series (after removing the main cycles) and permitted to identify a period of low organization in the tidal signal measured at Puerto Belgrano.

Lovallo, Michele; Pierini, Jorge O.; Telesca, Luciano

2012-10-01

286

Canto do Brazil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Getting to Brazil is getting more and more expensive, especially considering the rising prices of flights abroad. For those who have never been, or those looking for a compelling perspective on a few regions of this huge country, this site, designed by Geoffrey Hiller is worth a look. Hiller is a photographer who first visited Brazil 25 years ago, and recently returned to explore the country at length. The Flash introduction to the site offers some lovely images, set to the backdrop of rather enchanting music, with narration provided by a woman who talks about the nature of the Brazilian soul. The various short films, which consist of photographs that dissolve and melt into each scene, deal with such locals as Salvador Bahia, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais. After viewing each short film, visitors can wander through the images contained within each film in a separate photo gallery.

Hiller, Geoffrey

287

[The work of the intensive care nurse: a study on the social representations structure].  

PubMed

This study aims at characterizing the social representations of the nurse in the intensive care unit (ICU) by identifying the central core and the peripheral system. It was carried out in five ICUs from both public and philanthropic teaching, research and assistance hospitals in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil). Data were gathered from ninety nurses by means of free evocation from the phrase: nurse's work in an ICU and then processed with the EVOC software. Analysis was performed by building a four-digit chart based on the structural approach to the theory of social representations. Results point out stress, responsibility, integral care and gratification as the core elements. The peripheral system comprised personal and professional attitudes deemed necessary to perform the work. Therefore, it could be concluded that stress and responsible work are relieved by the gratifying feeling of providing integral care, which demands a range of personal and professional attitudes. PMID:18856125

Silva, Iranete Almeida Sousa; da Cruz, Enêde Andrade

2008-09-01

288

Two new South American species of Solanum section Crinitum (Solanaceae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species of Solanum section Crinitum are described here. Solanum falciforme Farruggia, sp. nov., closely resembles Solanum crinitum and Solanum lycocarpum, but differs by the presence of falcate trichomes on the young growth. It is endemic to the cerrado and adjacent woodlands of Distrito Federal, Bahia, Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The other species, Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia, sp.nov., has close affinities to Solanum sycophanta butdiffers from the latter in having prominent long-stalked stellate hairs along the stem, calyx, petiole and the adaxial surface of the leaf, in contrast to Solanum sycophanta which is glabrous or pubescent with sessile to short-stalked multangulate hairs. This species is narrowly distributed in tropical montane forests of northern Peru and southern Ecuador. PMID:22171169

Farruggia, Frank T.; Bohs, Lynn

2010-01-01

289

[Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae)].  

PubMed

Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae). Parodontidae family is a group of Characiformes fishes distributed throughout South America and parts of Panama, except in the basins of the southern Bahia state in Brasil on the Atlantic coast, Patagonia and the Amazon river channel. The family includes three genera: Apareiodon Eigenmann 1916, Parodon Valenciennes 1849 y Saccodon Kner 1863, 28 recognized species and two valid genera: Parodon and Saccodon. Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis is carried out based on type, and topotypic material from Colombia. Significant differences were found in morphometric, meristic, osteologic and color characters. S. dariensis is widely distributed but P. caliensis is restricted to the upper Cauca River drainage. Three species are considered herein as synonyms of S. dariensis: Apareiodon dariensis, A. compressus and S. caucae. Sexual dimorphism is described for both species. PMID:20737840

Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro; Román-Valencia, César

2010-09-01

290

Effluents of shrimp farms and its influence on the coastal ecosystems of Bahía de Kino, Mexico.  

PubMed

The impact on coastal ecosystems of suspended solids, organic matter, and bacteria in shrimp farm effluents is presented. Sites around Bahía de Kino were selected for comparative evaluation. Effluent entering Bahia Kino (1) enters Laguna La Cruz (2). A control site (3) was outside the influence of effluents. Water quality samples were collected every two weeks during the shrimp culture period. Our data show that the material load in shrimp farm effluents changes biogeochemical processes and aquatic health of the coastal ecosystem. Specifically, the suspended solids, particulate organic matter, chlorophyll a, viable heterotrophic bacteria, and Vibrio-like bacteria in the bay and lagoon were two- to three-fold higher than the control site. This can be mitigated by improvements in the management of aquaculture systems. PMID:23861653

Barraza-Guardado, Ramón H; Arreola-Lizárraga, José A; López-Torres, Marco A; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Magallón-Barrajas, Francisco; Ibarra-Gámez, Cuauhtemoc

2013-01-01

291

Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land.  

PubMed

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucumxP. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96% and 91%, respectively, whereas bana had the lowest survival rate of 62%. The coverage and biomass of vetiver were also the highest after 6-month planting. Fertilizer application significantly increased biomass and tiller number of the four grasses, of which St. Augustine was promoted most, up to 70% for biomass, while vetiver was promoted least, only 27% for biomass. Two heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) tested in this trial had different concentrations in the oil shale residue, and also had different contents and distributions in the four grass species. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the four grasses presented a disparity of only 1.6-3.8 times, but their uptake amounts to the two metals were apart up to 27.5-35.5 times, which was chiefly due to the significantly different biomasses among them. Fertilizer application could abate the ability of the four species to accumulate heavy metals, namely concentration of heavy metals in plants decreased as fertilizer was applied. The total amount of metals accumulated by each plant under the condition of fertilization did not decrease due to an increase of biomass. In summary, vetiver may be the best species used for vegetation rehabilitation in oil shale disposal piles. PMID:14575747

Xia, H P

2004-01-01

292

Comparative toxicity of eight oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC to two aquatic test species.  

PubMed

The present study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, South Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach used consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispersants, including Corexit 9500A, the predominant dispersant applied during the DeepWater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Static acute toxicity tests were performed using two Gulf of Mexico estuarine test species, the mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia) and the inland silversides (Menidia beryllina). Dispersant-only test solutions were prepared with high-energy mixing, whereas water-accommodated fractions of LSC and chemically dispersed LSC were prepared with moderate energy followed by settling and testing of the aqueous phase. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values for the dispersant-only tests were calculated using nominal concentrations, whereas tests conducted with LSC alone and dispersed LSC were based on measured total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. For all eight dispersants in both test species, the dispersants alone were less toxic (LC50s: 2.9 to >5,600 µl/L) than the dispersant-LSC mixtures (0.4-13 mg TPH/L). Louisiana sweet crude oil alone had generally similar toxicity to A. bahia (LC50: 2.7 mg TPH/L) and M. beryllina (LC50: 3.5 mg TPH/L) as the dispersant-LSC mixtures. The results of the present study indicate that Corexit 9500A had generally similar toxicity to other available dispersants when tested alone but was generally less toxic as a mixture with LSC. PMID:21766318

Hemmer, Michael J; Barron, Mace G; Greene, Richard M

2011-10-01

293

[The fisheries and growth of Ark Clams (Arcoida: Arcidae) Anadara tuberculosa in Málaga Bay, Colombian Pacific, 2005-2007].  

PubMed

A. tuberculosa, is the most important bivalve species under exploitation in Colombia. Here, this species is found from Cabo Corrientes (Chocó) to the Ecuador border, in muddy substrates of mangrove forests. In order to determine the growth and the state of fisheries of A. tuberculosa, between December 2005 and April 2007, both, biological (in situ) and commercial studies were performed at Bahia Malaga (Colombian Pacific). The growth was estimated using the general equation of von Bertalanffy, with prior application of the methods of Bhattacharya and Powell-Wetherall. Mortality and exploitation rate were determined using the inverse model of von Bertalanffy. For the biological samplings, a total of 446 individuals of A. tuberculosa (0.64 +/- 0.13 individuals/m2) and 53 individuals (0.05 +/- 0.049 individuals/m2) of Anadara similis were collected. 79% of the catch was below 51mm. In the commercial samplings, 836 individuals of A. tuberculosa (size range: 31.1-92.2mm) were measured, but no A. similis samples were available for this. Recruitment of A. tuberculosa was higher during March, May, July and November. According to the data, A. tuberculosa might be reproducing during December, February, April and August. The data gathered with the biological samples were more reliable on explaining the growth of A. tuberculosa (K=0.332 per year, L(infinity)=88.256mm, t0=0.0556 years) than the one taken from market samples (K=0.256 per year, L(infinity)=89.77mm, t0=0733 years). The high exploitation rate (77%), the low density and the high mortality suggest that A. tuberculosa is in overexploitation state in Bahia Malaga and management strategies are urgently required. PMID:22458219

Lucero, Carlos; Cantera, Jaime; Neira, Raúl

2012-03-01

294

Protegiendo a su familia de los terremotos-Los siete pasos a la seguridad para prepararse en caso de un terremoto (en espa?ol y en ingles)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Les escribimos esta carta para comunicarle un mensaje sumamente importante sobre las preparaciones de emergencia. Historicamente, hemos sufrido terremotos aqui en el Area de la Bahia de San Francisco que han causado graves privaciones para los residentes de la comunidad y da?os increibles a nuestras ciudades. Es probable que suframos un terremoto de gran magnitud en los proximos 30 a?os. Muchos de nosotros venimos de otros paises donde hemos pasado por terremotos y por eso creemos entenderlos. Sin embargo, la manera que nos preparamos para terremotos en nuestros paises de origen puede ser distinta a la que empleamos aca en los Estados Unidos. Muy pocas personas mueren a causa de los derrumbes de los edificios en el Area de la Bahia porque la mayoria de los edificios son construidos para resistir el sacudimiento de la tierra. Pero es muy probable que su familia no tenga atencion medica, alimentos o que esten separados del uno al otro por dias o semanas. Finalmente depende de usted mantener a su familia a salvo hasta que llegue asistencia, por eso les pedimos que nos unamos para aprender a cuidar a su familia antes, durante, y despues de un terremoto. El primer paso es leer este libro. Cada uno de su familia, ni?os y adultos, pueden aprender como prepararse para un terremoto. Haga participar e incluya sus ni?os; pueden ayudarle a prepararse. Aproveche las clases ofrecidas en su comunidad sobre las preparaciones de terremotos por la Cruz Roja Estadounidense (American Red Cross). Estos cursos de preparacion son gratis y disponibles en espa?ol para todos en la comunidad sin tomar en cuenta la historia de la familia, estado legal, genero o edad. Les recomendamos que tome ventaja de estas clases gratuitas. Para mas informacion consulte la ultima pagina de este libro. Recuerde que un terremoto puede ocurrir sin aviso y la unica manera de reducir el da?o de terremotos es estar preparados. !Preparese!

Desarrollado por American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund, California Earthquake Authority, Governor's Office of Emergency Services, New America Media, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency, and U.S. Geological Survey

2007-01-01

295

Allozyme Diversity and Morphometrics of Melocactus paucispinus (Cactaceae) and Evidence for Hybridization with M. concinnus in the Chapada Diamantina, North-eastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Melocacatus paucispinus (Cactaceae) is endemic to the state of Bahia, Brazil, and due to its rarity and desirability to collectors it has been considered threatened with extinction. This species is usually sympatric and inter-fertile with M. concinnus, and morphological evidence for hybridization between them is present in some populations. Levels of genetic and morphological variation and sub-structuring in populations of these species were assessed and an attempt was made to verify the occurrence of natural hybridization between them. • Methods Genetic variability was surveyed using allozymes (12 loci) and morphological variability using multivariate morphometric analyses (17 vegetative characters) in ten populations of M. paucispinus and three of M. concinnus occurring in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia. • Key Results Genetic variability was low in both species (P = 0·0–33·3, A = 1·0–1·6, He = 0·000–0·123 in M. paucispinus; P = 0·0–25·0, A = 1·0–1·4, He = 0·000–0·104 in M. concinnus). Deficit of heterozygotes within the populations was detected in both species, with high values of FIS (0·732 and 0·901 in M. paucispinus and M. concinnus, respectively). Evidence of hybridization was detected by the relative allele frequency in the two diaphorase loci. High levels of genetic (FST = 0·504 in M. paucispinus and 0·349 in M. concinnus) and morphological (A = 0·20 in M. paucispinus and 0·17 in M. concinnus) structuring among populations were found. • Conclusions The Melocactus spp. displayed levels of genetic variability lower than the values reported for other cactus species. The evidence indicates the occurrence of introgression in both species at two sites. The high FST values cannot be explained by geographical substructuring, but are consistent with hybridization. Conversely, morphological differentiation in M. paucispinus, but not in M. concinnus, is probably due to isolation by distance. PMID:16423866

LAMBERT, SABRINA MOTA; BORBA, EDUARDO LEITE; MACHADO, MARLON CAMARA; ANDRADE, SONIA CRISTINA DA SILVA

2006-01-01

296

[Spatial and biogeographic characterization of macroalgal assemblages from Bahía del Rincón, Baja California Sur, Mexico].  

PubMed

Macroalgal studies in Baja California Sur have dealt mainly with occurrence and seasonality, but some areas are poorly known even for these basic data. Bahia del Rincón-La Rivera is an important high-productivity fisheries area where coastal infrastructure development is under way. A spatial characterization of the marine flora from Bahia del Rincón-La Rivera was done by intensive sampling at different depths and localities with skin and SCUBA diving. At least 500 m2 were surveyed in each site. Additionally. quantitative sampling was done in ten random 25 cm2 quadrates per site. In the intertidal section, density and cover estimates were used. We also investigated the historical records and geographical affinities. A total of 72 species were identified (most were red algae: 62%). We found no general trend in the biogeographical affinities, which varied with each taxonomic group. Most brown algae species were tropical-endemic; red algae temperate-cosmopolite and green algae tropical-cosmopolite. In the spatial assemblage structure we found a high similarity between the intertidal areas, but a low similarity in shallow or deeper areas (3-5 m). This pattern was the same when we compared the abundance of the main species. We suggest that there are significant spatial differences in recruitment and development of the assemblages in relation to vertical distribution (depth) and position along the shore. There is a clear-cut Gelidium-Jania belt in the intertidal zone and a Padina-Dictyota belt below the low tide. Sporadic and year-round species occur in the intertidal zone, annual and perennial species below the low tide line. Sites differ in recruitment and this affects the abundance of other species (such as coraline and Caulerpa species). Temperature and sedimentation affect seasonality, but community structure is relatively constant throughout the year. PMID:17354423

Riosmena-Rodríguez, R; Hinojosa-Arango, G; López-Vivas, J M; León-Cisneros, K; Holguin-Acosta, E

2005-01-01

297

Antimicrobial activity of Marcetia DC species (Melastomataceae) and analysis of its flavonoids by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector  

PubMed Central

Background: Marcetia genera currently comprises 29 species, with approximately 90% inhabiting Bahia (Brazil), and most are endemic to the highlands of the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia). Among the species, only M. taxifolia (A.St.-Hil.) DC. populates Brazil (state of Roraima to Paraná) and also Venezuela, Colombia, and Guyana. Objective: This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of three species of Marcetia (Marcetia canescens Naud., M. macrophylla Wurdack, and M. taxifolia A.StHil) against several microorganism. In addition, the flavonoids were analyzed in extracts by HPLC-DAD. Materials and methods: The tests were made using Gram-positive (three strains of Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (two strains of Escherichia coli, a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another of Salmonella choleraesius) bacteria resistant and nonresistant to antibiotics and yeasts (two strains of Candida albicans and one of C. parapsilosis) by the disk diffusion method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed on the above extracts to isolate flavonoids, which were subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results: Results showed that extracts inhibited the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. The hexane extracts possessed the lowest activity, while the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts were more active. Conclusion: Marcetia taxifolia was more effective (active against 10 microorganisms studied), and only its methanol extract inhibited Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesius). SPE and HPLC-DAD analysis showed that M. canescens and M. macrophylla contain glycosylated flavonoids, while the majority of extracts from M. taxifolia were aglycone flavonoids. PMID:23060695

Leite, Tonny Cley Campos; de Sena, Amanda Reges; dos Santos Silva, Tania Regina; dos Santos, Andrea Karla Almeida; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Branco, Alexsandro

2012-01-01

298

Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variation across calving lagoons in Eastern North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus).  

PubMed

Accurate knowledge of population structure in cetaceans is critical for preserving and managing breeding habitat, particularly when habitat is not uniformly protected. Most eastern gray whales return to their major breeding range each winter along the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrating in 3 major calving lagoons, but it is unknown whether genetic differences exist between lagoons. Previous photo-identification studies and genetic studies suggest that gray whales may return to their natal lagoons to breed, potentially resulting in the buildup of genetic differences. However, an earlier genetic study used only one genetic marker and did not include samples from Bahia Magdalena, a major calving lagoon not currently designated as a wildlife refuge. To expand on this previous study, we collected genetic data from the mitochondrial control region (442 bp) and 9 microsatellite markers from 112 individuals across all 3 major calving lagoons. Our data suggest that migration rates between calving lagoons are high but that a small but significant departure from panmixia exists between Bahia Magdalena and Laguna San Ignacio (Fisher's Exact test, P < 0.0001; F(ST) = 0.006, P = 0.025). Coalescent simulations show that the lack of extensive population structure may result from the disruption of structure due to whaling. Another possibility is that rates of migration have always been high (>10% per generation). In addition, microsatellite data showed evidence of a severe population bottleneck. Eastern gray whales are still recovering from the impacts of whaling on their breeding grounds, and these populations should be protected and monitored for future genetic changes. PMID:18974400

Alter, S Elizabeth; Ramirez, Sergio Flores; Nigenda, Sergio; Ramirez, Jorge Urbán; Bracho, Lorenzo Rojas; Palumbi, Stephen R

2009-01-01

299

Intensive Eucalyptus plantation management in Brazil: Long-term effects on soil carbon dynamics across 300 sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensively managed forest plantations now cover more than 6 million hectares in Brazil, and another 20 million hectares in other tropical regions. Although aboveground biomass, and therefore carbon, is well monitored due to commercial interest, the belowground carbon dynamics and site sustainability remain poorly understood. So, how does intensive silviculture change the storage of carbon in soils? Trends in soil organic carbon from land-use change indicate that conversion from pastures to Eucalyptus plantations should maintain soil carbon stocks. However, comprehensive, long-term studies are needed to understand the variability in these trends to better manage these systems for sustainable productivity across a highly variable landscape, as well as to understand the role that soils may play in sequestering carbon for climate change mitigation. In this unique, long-term soil study, soil samples were collected in the 1980s/90s, 2001, and 2010 across 300 intensively managed Eucalyptus plantation sites located in the states of Bahia, Espirito Santo, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. Natural ecosystems for these states include Savannah-Dry Forest, Atlantic Forest, and Savanna, respectively. The sampling covered at least three complete rotations of Eucalyptus at each site; climate, past land use, productivity, and soil characteristics vary across this geographic gradient. Across the two periods, both Espirito Santo (P<0.001) and Bahia (P=0.05) showed a decrease in soil carbon concentrations, while Sao Paulo saw no change over time. For the 0-30 cm layer, plantations in Espirito Santo state had the largest decrease in soil carbon concentration up to 2001, decreasing soil carbon stocks at an average rate of 1.3 Mg C ha-1 year-1. This, however, was followed by no significant change from 2001 to 2010 which may indicate stabilization of soil carbon stocks under the new land use. The Eucalyptus in Bahia created no change in the first sampling period, but saw a decline of 0.35 Mg C ha-1year-1 in soil carbon in the second sampling period from 2001-2010. Initial results show that, across the regions, sites that had higher soil carbon stocks tended to lose more soil carbon under intensive silviculture. In all three regions, clay content related strongly to soil carbon concentrations. However, the clay did not have a consistent relationship with the rates of change in soil carbon concentration, varying among regions, with negative, positive, and no relationship for the 2001-2010 time period. Further investigation will determine relationships with temperature and precipitation, past land use history, and Eucalyptus productivity. These results will be essential in evaluating the effects on soil organic carbon dynamics due to conversion to short-rotation Eucalyptus plantations in the tropics across a broad and variable landscape.

Cook, R. L.; Stape, J.; Binkley, D.

2011-12-01

300

Zero Tillage cotton systems and soil quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity. Cotton is a deep tap-rooted crop, sensitive to physical and chemical impediments to root development; this has engendered a paradigm of heavy soil preparation operations to remove these. But, ZT can overcome such obstacles, allowing the cotton crop to benefit from cost reductions and a number of other benefits, especially erosion control.. Soil quality has three principal dimensions. Maximum yields only occur when soil fertility, structure and biological activity are in balance. Under Zero Tillage management of Brazilian soils, the processes of nutrient availability, nutrient cycling and efficiency result from increasing SOM and higher CEC. ZT system fertility is also strongly influenced by total annual aerial and root biomass generation; C:N ratios of the biomass, changes in aeration in residue breakdown processes (for roots, dependent on internal drainage), reduced fixation of Phosphorus fertilizers, the possibility of surface application of P and K, use of deep-rooted cover crops to re-cycle nutrients and deleterious effects of over-liming. Soil physical parameters undergo a transformation : greater water holding capacity, a small increase in bulk density (ameliorated by a reversal of soil aggregate breakdown inherent to conventional tillage by the binding action of root exudates and fungal hyphae), enhanced particle aggregate size protects SOM from oxidation; old root holes create semi-permanent macro-pores which facilitate rooting, aeration and rainfall infiltration.. Soil life of all types benefits from ZT management and contributes to soil fertility and structural improvements, plus enhancing certain biological controls of pathogenic organisms and allelopathic control of weeds by root exudates and residue breakdown products. Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity.

Landers, J. N.; de Freitas, P. L.

2012-04-01

301

The influence of insect juvenile hormone agonists on metamorphosis and reproduction in estuarine crustaceans.  

PubMed

Comparative developmental and reproductive studies were performed on several species of estuarine crustaceans in response to three juvenile hormone agonists (pyriproxyfen, methoprene and fenoxycarb). Larval development of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was greater than two orders of magnitude more sensitive to disruption by methoprene and fenoxycarb than was embryonic development. Developing larvae of the mud crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, exhibited reduced metamorphic success at lower concentrations of methoprene and pyriproxyfen than grass shrimp larvae. These responses suggest that the more rigidly controlled metamorphic process in crabs is more sensitive to compounds acting as endocrine disruptors than is the more flexible metamorphic pattern in shrimp. The final crab larval stage, the megalopa, was more sensitive to methoprene and fenoxycarb exposure than earlier zoeal stages. Mud crab larvae exposed to fenoxycarb had reduced biomass and lipid content, particularly triglycerides and sterols. Concentrations of fenoxycarb which reduced the reproductive capacity in single life-cycle exposures of the estuarine mysid, Americamysis bahia, were similar to those concentrations which inhibited metamorphosis in grass shrimp. Juvenile mysids released by exposed adults and reared through maturation without further exposure produced fewer young and had altered sex ratios (lower percentages of males) at lower parental-exposure concentrations than directly affected parental reproduction. These transgenerational responses may well be a product of irreversible effects during developmental exposures which become apparent following maturation and initiation of reproduction. These findings support using a functional approach as an appropriate screening procedure to evaluate potential environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals in aquatic environments. PMID:21676750

McKenney, Charles L

2005-01-01

302

Evaluation of Mobility, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Pb and Cd in Contaminated Soil Using TCLP, BCR and Earthworms.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the reduction of mobility, availability and toxicity found in soil contaminated with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) from Santo Amaro Municipality, Bahia, Brazil using two combined methods, commonly tested separately according to the literature: metal mobilization with phosphates and phytoextraction. The strategy applied was the treatment with two sources of phosphates (separately and mixed) followed by phytoremediation with vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)). The treatments applied (in triplicates) were: T1-potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4); T2-reactive natural phosphate fertilizer (NRP) and; T3-a mixture 1:1 of KH2PO4 and NRP. After this step, untreated and treated soils were planted with vetiver grass. The extraction procedures and assays applied to contaminated soil before and after the treatments included metal mobility test (TCLP); sequential extraction with BCR method; toxicity assays with Eisenia andrei. The soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) for Pb and Cd were estimated in all cases. All treatments with phosphates followed by phytoremediation reduced the mobility and availability of Pb and Cd, being KH2PO4 (T1) plus phytoremediation the most effective one. Soil toxicity however, remained high after all treatments. PMID:25386955

Kede, Maria Luiza F M; Correia, Fabio V; Conceição, Paulo F; Junior, Sidney F Salles; Marques, Marcia; Moreira, Josino C; Pérez, Daniel V

2014-01-01

303

Polytypic and polymorphic cytogenetic variations in the widespread anuran Physalaemus cuvieri (Anura, Leiuperidae) with emphasis on nucleolar organizing regions.  

PubMed

We investigated the NOR distribution in ten populations of Physalaemus cuvieri from different regions of Brazil and Argentina. A high variability in NOR pattern was observed and provided a useful tool in grouping several populations. The specimens from the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil, could easily be distinguished from all the other analyzed populations, since its karyotype presented NORs in the chromosome pairs 1,3,4 and 10 (and sometimes also in chromosome 5), and several pericentromeric C-bands. A NOR-site in chromosome 9 characterized three populations from the northeastern region of Brazil. Interestingly, the P. cuvieri populations located in opposite extremes of the geographic distribution had, as a fixed condition, the presence of NORs in 8q int and llp. Besides interpopulational divergences, intrapopulational variability was observed in the number of NORs, except for populations from the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais, which are boundary states respectively in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In relation to NOR size, interindividual variations occurred in all Brazilian and Argentinean populations. Additionally, intraindividual variability in NOR size was detected in specimens from Minas Gerais. The data presented herein revealed substantial geographic polytypic variation in P. cuvieri and indicated that a taxonomic reexamination of this species is necessary. PMID:19621135

Quinderé, Yeda R S D; Lourenço, Luciana B; Andrade, Gilda V; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M

2009-01-01

304

[Pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Centris tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) nests].  

PubMed

A new treatment protocol was developed to analyze pollen residues found in nests of Centris tarsata Smith harvested from nest-traps. The study area was located in the Canudos Biological Station in the municipality of Canudos (09 masculine56'34'S; 38 masculine59'17'W), in the northeastern micro-region of Bahia State, Brazil. The local vegetation is an open caatinga (deciduous dryland vegetation), the regional climate is semi-arid, the average annual temperature is 24.1 masculineC, and the annual regional rainfall rate is 454 mm. Ten nests of C. tarsata were collected in trap-nests during the first semester of 2004. Pollen analysis from the nests required the development of a new methodology that combined techniques of palynological sediment analysis with the more common pollinic analysis by acetolysis. Microscopic analyses employed optical microscopy techniques. The pollinic spectrum of the samples from C. tarsata indicated the presence of 17 pollen types from seven plant families, which were present in assemblage of five to eleven pollen types, pointed to the plants used by bees to feed on their offspring. The most represented plant families were Leguminosae (49.3%) and Solanaceae (43.2%). The most frequent pollen types in the samples were from Solanum paniculatum (43.8%) and Senna rizzini (32.1%). The protocol developed provides a new tool for diet assessment of Centris and other groups of solitary bees. PMID:19488507

Dórea, Marcos da C; Dos Santos, Francisco de A R; Lima, Luciene C de L E; Figueroa, Luís E R

2009-01-01

305

Miami Art Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you pay a virtual visit to the Miami Art Museum (MAM) before October of this year, you can join in on "I Wish Your Wish" online. Submit a wish, and you'll receive someone else's. Share their wish on Facebook, by email, Twitter, or dozens of other modes and you'll be emailed a free pass to visit the Museum. The on-site installation of "Eu desejo o seu desejo / I Wish Your Wish", by Brazilian artist Rivane Neuenschwander, consists of thousands of multicolored ribbons printed with wishes. Visitors are invited to choose wishes from past visitors and replace them with their own, based on a similar practice at the church of Nosso Senhor do Bonfim in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Other current exhibitions include BETWEEN HERE AND THERE, Modern and Contemporary Art from the Permanent Collection and Mark Dion's "South Florida Wildlife Rescue Unit", an installation that examines humans' interactions with the Florida Everglades since the 1700s. There's also an entire section of the website devoted to the new MAM, currently under construction, sited in Museum Park on Biscayne Bay.

306

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice  

PubMed Central

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications. PMID:25182278

Cortes-Rojas, Diego Francisco; de Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandes; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira

2014-01-01

307

Use of marine TIE methods in determining causes of toxicity to fish in a public marine aquarium  

SciTech Connect

Aquarium personnel observed that a number of organisms in the coral reef tank were succumbing to fungal and other diseases. It was suspected that organisms were compromised due to a common environmental stressor because many types of fish were affected. One possible stressor was the home-made painted coral decor in the tank. The coral reef decor was crumbling in several sections of the display and release of toxic agents was suspected. A water sample containing broken pieces of the decor was shipped to the lab and a TIE performed. Phase 1 TIE results indicated that toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia (mysid shrimp) was removed after EDTA addition and to some extent after cation exchange column treatment.None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange column treatment. None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange columns will be presented. This study demonstrates a unique application of TIE methods.

Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; Burgess, R.M.; Pelletier, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Charles, J. [Science Application International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)

1995-12-31

308

Late Quaternary molluscan assemblages from the coastal area of Bahía Bustamante (Patagonia, Argentina): Paleoecology and paleoenvironments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in the composition, distribution, and diversity of molluscan assemblages from Patagonian marine terraces (MT) formed during the late Quaternary sea-level highstands and neotectonic events—between the late Pleistocene, mid-Holocene, and present—are discussed. Molluscs and associated macrofauna (balanids, brachiopods, polychaetes, bryozoans) from nine fossiliferous localities and three modern sites suggest paleoecological, paleobiogeographical, and paleoenvironmental implications for paleoclimatic interpretations of the coastal area of Bahia Bustamante-Caleta Malaspina (˜44.9 and 45.3°S) since marine oxygen isotope stage (MOIS) 7. Crepidula protea, Buccinanops paytensis, and Brachidontes rodriguezi are first recorded for the late Pleistocene MTIV (MOIS5-7); Nacella (Patinigera) deaurata, Epitonium magellanicum, B. paytensis, Aequipecten tehuelchus, and Clausinella gayi are recorded for the mid-Holocene MTVI (MOIS1) in the area. These molluscs currently live in the SW Atlantic, but Venericardia procera represents a northward migration and Tegula atra a faunal extinction in response to climate change. Overall, they indicate hard substrates, shallow waters, and truly marine conditions, similar to the modern littoral. With respect to temperature, the qualitative, quantitative, morphological, and distributional variations suggest slightly higher SST during the mid-Holocene (MTVI, MOIS1, hypsithermal), colder for MTV (MOIS5c?, 5a?), and warmer or similar for MTIV (MOIS5e, 7?).

Aguirre, Marina L.; Sirch, Yamila Negro; Richiano, Sebastián

2005-10-01

309

Palaeoecology of a 3-kyr biosedimentary record of a coral reef-supporting carbonate shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assesses the 3-kyr paleoecology and sedimentary evolution of the Abrolhos carbonate shelf, Bahia, Brazil, using a two-meter-long core collected in a carbonate muddy sediment. The paleoecology was based on the distribution of benthic foraminifer functional groups associated with grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N and ?13C. The results identified three biosedimentary units showing that symbiont-bearing foraminifers (Peneroplis and Archaias) decrease in abundance. However, other small taxa (Miliolinella and Cornuspira) and stress-tolerant genera (Bolivina, Elphidium and Ammonia) increase in abundance toward the core top. Grain size decreases toward the top of the core, suggesting a weakening of hydrodynamic winnowing toward recent time. The TOC and TN concentrations increase, and the C/N ratios decrease, suggesting an increase of marine productivity from nearby goblet-shaped structures called "chapeirões". Changes in the benthic foraminifer community can be linked to the sedimentological and organic matter input, which are the result of climatic and oceanographic variations at different spatial and time scales, thus illustrating reduced potential to support symbiont-bearing foraminifer communities to the end of the Holocene.

Almeida, Carine M.; Barbosa, Catia Fernandes; Cordeiro, Renato C.; Seoane, José Carlos S.; Fermino, Gerson M.; Silva, Patricia O.; Turcq, Bruno J.

2013-11-01

310

Influence of wavelength on the outcome of the treatment of TMJ disorders: TMDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that wavelength influences the outcome of many clinical protocols. Laser-phototherapy (LPT) and LEDs have been used on the treatment of pain of several origins including temporomandibular disorders - TMDs. TMDs are common painful multifactorial conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint whose treatment depends on the type and symptoms. Initially it requires pain control and for this, drugs, biting plates, oclusal adjustment, physiotherapy or their association are used. This work reports a series of patients of the Center of Biophotonics of the Federal University of Bahia over 10 years. Following standard anamneses, clinical and imaginologic examination and with the diagnosis of any type of TMD, the patients were set for light treatment. Treatment consisted of three sessions a week during six week. Prior irradiation, the patients were asked to score their pain using a VAS. ?780, ? 790, ? 830nm and/or ?660 and ?680nm lasers or LED were used on each session. Most patients were female (~43.6 years old). At the end of the 12 sessions the patients were again examined and score their pain using VAS. No other intervention was carried out during the treatment. The results were statistically analyzed and showed that most patients were asymptomatic or improved after treatment and that the association of wavelengths was very efficient on the symptomatic group. It is concluded that the association of both wavelengths was effective on pain reduction on TMJ disorders of several origins.

Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Marques, Aparecida Maria C.; Carvalho, Carolina M.; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T.; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.

2013-03-01

311

Comparison of two coproparasitological techniques for the detection of Platynosomum sp. infection in cats.  

PubMed

Platynosomum sp. is the etiologic agent of platynosomiasis, a hepatic disease that affects domestic cats. The parasite develops in the bile ducts and gallbladder, causing severe hepato-biliary disease. Considering the importance of the disease and the increase in the number of households with cats, the aim of this study was to compare two different techniques for the detection of the parasite's eggs and to assess the frequency of Platynosomum sp. infection in cats. Forty fecal samples from cats of different ages, from an animal shelter in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, were subjected to two different techniques: a centrifugal fecal flotation procedure in Sheather's sugar solution and centrifugal sedimentation in formalin-ether solution. Positive results were found for 12.5% of the samples using the centrifugal fecal flotation assay, whereas all samples were negative when employing the centrifugal sedimentation test. The results suggest that this parasite can be found infecting cats in Salvador city and that centrifugal fecal flotation in sugar solution can be a more suitable detection of the parasite's eggs at fecal samples. Therefore, platynosomiasis must be included in the diseases to be studied routinely in domestic felids. PMID:24877787

Rocha, Nathalia Oliveira; Portela, Ricardo Wagner; Camargo, Soelen Silva; Souza, Wagner Rocha; Carvalho, Gilson Correia; Bahiense, Thiago Campanharo

2014-08-29

312

[The pig sty].  

PubMed

A first-page picture of the journal O Estado de S. Paulo on October, 1993, depicts 3 children playing in the ruins of a school building in Bahia. They are dressed in rags, just like the immense majority of children begotten in recent years. They are disgracefully filthy, with dishevelled hair, in the company of a pig content to share its habitat with such animalistic beings. In the inside pages of the same edition are profuse photos of other pigs dressed in suits and ties. This ostentation mocks the people and mainly the 3 children who do not attend school because the money for it has been embezzled from their pockets. Decent journalists, conscious of these piggish humans, endeavor every day to make this country a decent place to live. In the fight for a dignified and decent country, the journal Planejamento Agora, edited by ABEPF, makes an important statement with its slogan that the fight is true when the spirit is unabated. Planejamento Agora stoically battles to make every animal child alive today a human child who is wanted. The work and team of Planejamento Agora are saluted, and they are urged to continue the struggle on behalf of such children. PMID:12346085

Pires, J C

1993-11-01

313

[Socioeconomic position and duration of disability benefit due to work-related musculoskeletal disorders].  

PubMed

This study estimated the effect of socioeconomic position on the duration of disability benefits due to musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs. A cohort study including 563 insured workers from the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, registered in the General Social Security System and who received temporary disability benefits due to musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs, was performed in 2008 using data from the National Social Security Institute. The results show that among union member workers with high psychosocial demands at work, those with low socioeconomic status are almost twice as likely to receive benefit for a shorter period of time compared to those with a higher socioeconomic position (RR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.25-2.87). These results reveal an inequitable situation or unnecessary use of insurance for workers with a higher socioeconomic position. Future research aimed at elucidating the differences in the use of benefits are needed so that social insurance system managers may take the appropriate steps to resolve this issue. PMID:22331158

Souza, Norma Suely Souto; Santana, Vilma Sousa

2012-02-01

314

Review on the Precambrian geotectonics of the Brazilian Shield and its correlations within West Gondwana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Brazilian Shield, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic rocks are widespread in the large Amazonian Craton, as well as in the São Francisco, São Luiz, Rio de La Plata and other smaller cratonic fragments. Archean nuclei are present as granite-greenstone terrains in the Carajás region and in Central Bahia, and as medium to high-grade crustal fragments within younger belts. The Neoproterozoic tectonic provinces of Borborema, Tocantins and Mantiqueira, that include several orogenic belts active between 950 and 520 Ma, are associated to the process of agglutination of West Gondwana. Their correlative tectonic units in West and South-West Africa are the Trans-Saharan, West Congo, Damara, Gariep and Saldania belts. Juvenile, mantle derived, intra-oceanic magmatic arcs are found within the Tocantins province and the Trans-Saharan belt. They are associated to the Transbrasiliano lineament in South America, and indicate the existence of a large oceanic domain separating Amazonia and West-Africa from the São Francisco-Congo craton in the Neoproterozoic. On the other hand, the crustal signature of granitoid rocks suggests that the Neoproterozoic Adamastor ocean may not have been very large, and that the Rio de La Plata and Kalahari cratons were always relatively close together and to the São Francisco-Congo.

Cordani, U. G.

2003-04-01

315

Xylocopa bees in tropical coastal sand dunes: use of resources and their floral syndromes.  

PubMed

Large bees such as species from Xylocopa Latreille are usually associated with pollination in tropical sand dune areas, which frequently present shrubby herbaceous vegetation adapted to conditions of high salinity, high solar radiation and strong winds. We report on the diversity of Xylocopa and the plants they visited to collect nectar and pollen, focusing on the floral syndromes they present in these plants and on the breadth of the trophic niche in a tropical sand dune fragment over the year. The field work was carried out monthly in Baixio (Bahia, Brazil; Northern Coast Environmental Protection Area) from April 2008 to March 2009, over two consecutive days, from 06:30?AM to 05:00?PM. The medium-large body sized Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) cearensis Ducke and Xylocopa (Schonnherria) subcyanea Pérez were noticeable for their frequency, constancy on the flowers and sharing of plant species. Xylocopa spp. visited plants with flowers of different shapes, colors, inflorescence arrangement and syndromes. However, their resource collections were mainly concentrated on Cuphea brachiata, Waltheria cinerascens, Croton sellowii and Chamaecrista ramosa, which may be considered key species for Xylocopa spp. maintenance in coastal sand dune and restinga environments in Northeast Brazil. PMID:23949807

Figueiredo, N; Gimenes, M; de Miranda, M D; Oliveira-Rebouças, P

2013-06-01

316

Multi-element determination in acid-digested soy protein formulations by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.  

PubMed

The concentrations of major (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) and trace elements (Al, Cu and Fe) in soy protein formulations sold in Bahia (Brazil) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Liquid and powdered soy protein formulation samples, both whole and light, were digested using a conventional heating program on a hot-plate. The powdered samples were prepared according to the label instructions for human consumption. A 5.0-ml aliquot of the soy protein emulsion was transferred to a borosilicate Erlenmeyer and concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid added. After a digestion time of approximately 50 min, hydrogen peroxide was added and heating continued to give a final volume of approximately 5 ml; the colorless digests were then made up to 15.0 ml with deionised water. Residual acid content was determined by acid-base titration. Good agreement between measured and certified values for all analytes in a non-fat milk powder (NIST SRM 1549) indicated that the method was suitable for major and trace elements determination in soy protein formulations. PMID:18473216

Morte, Elane S Boa; Costa, Leticia M; Nobrega, Joaquim A; Korn, Maria das Gracas A

2008-05-01

317

Recognition on space photographs of structural elements of Baja California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gemini and Apollo photographs provide illustrations of known structural features of the peninsula and some structures not recognized previously. An apparent transform relationship between strike-slip and normal faulting is illustrated by the overlapping vertical photographs of northern Baja California. The active Agua Blanca right-lateral strike-slip fault trends east-southeastward to end at the north end of the Valle San Felipe and Valle Chico. The uplands of the high Sierra San Pedro Martir are a low-relief surface deformed by young faults, monoclines, and warps, which mostly produce west-facing steps and slopes; the topography is basically structural. The Sierra Cucapas of northeasternmost Baja California and the Colorado River delta of northwesternmost Sonora are broken by northwest-trending strike-slip faults. A strike-slip fault is inferred to trend northward obliquely from near Cabo San Lucas to La Paz, thence offshore until it comes ashore again as the Bahia Concepcion strike-slip fault.

Hamilton, W.

1971-01-01

318

Systematics of spiny predatory katydids (Tettigoniidae: Listroscelidinae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest based on morphology and molecular data.  

PubMed

Listroscelidinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) are insectivorous Pantropical katydids whose taxonomy presents a long history of controversy, with several genera incertae sedis. This work focused on species occurring in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the world's most threatened biomes. We examined material deposited in scientific collections and visited 15 conservation units from Rio de Janeiro to southern Bahia between November 2011 and January 2012, catching 104 specimens from 10 conservation units. Based on morphological and molecular data we redefined Listroscelidini, adding a new tribe, new genus and eight new species to the subfamily. Using morphological analysis, we redescribed and added new geographic records for six species, synonymized two species and built a provisional identification key for the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae. Molecular results suggest two new species and a new genus to be described, possibly by the fission of the genus Hamayulus. We also proposed a 500 bp region in the final portion of the COI to be used as a molecular barcode. Our data suggest that the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae are seriously endangered, because they occur in highly preserved forest remnants, show high rates of endemism and have a narrow geographic distribution. Based on our results, we suggest future collection efforts must take into account the molecular barcode data to accelerate species recognition. PMID:25118712

Fialho, Verônica Saraiva; Chamorro-Rengifo, Juliana; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano; Yotoko, Karla Suemy Clemente

2014-01-01

319

Upper mantle material in the Brazilian shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on the nature of the upper mantle can be obtained from nodules in kimberlites and basalt and from mantle-derived magmas, mineral inclusions in diamonds, as well as from the fields of geodesy, seismology, geothermy, geomagnetism and petrological models for the upper mantle. In Brazil studies of these kinds are still in the stage of data gathering. This article intends to present some of this data related to the alpine peridotites, nodules in basalts, mineral inclusions in diamonds, and kimberlites, without any pretension of deeper-going interpretation. Alpine peridotites are found all over Brazil and are grouped in three main classes: the serpentinized dunites-peridotites of small and medium size; the gabbro-pyroxenite-peridotite association in large complexes, the latter described only in the central part of Brazil; and the pyroxenite-gabbroic gneisses of the Goianira-Trindade type. Kimberlites have been described in Minas Gerais and Piaui states, but they also exist in Mato Grosso and possibly in Rondonia, Goiás, Roraima and Bahia. Inclusions in diamonds studied from Minas Gerais, Piauí, Mato Grosso, Paraná, Sa˜o Paulo and Goiás include olivine, pyroxene, garnet, chromite, sulphides, ilmenite, zircon and rutile. Ultramafic nodules in basalts and basanites from Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba states and Fernando de Noronha Island are essentially Iherzolites, like the ones described from Paraguay.

Berbert, C. O.; Svisero, D. P.; Sial, A. N.; Meyer, H. O. A.

1981-04-01

320

Inequalities in oral health practices and social space: an exploratory qualitative study.  

PubMed

This study analyzed the oral health practices and access to dental care of individuals according to their position in social space. The rationale was based on the hypothesis that different positions in social space may imply different habitus, in the sense conferred by Bourdieu. Such dispositions would influence practical behavior, choices and preferences in general and in this context, dental care. Twenty-two semi-structured interviews were carried out with individuals, as part of a multiple case study carried out in two municipalities in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Differences were found between the two study groups both with respect to actions of personal care and in seeking and using dental services. This, in addition to poor material and living conditions, and difficult access to restorative dental work in the public sector, may explain part of the pattern of tooth loss found in the adult Brazilian population. The adoption of effective communicative and educational actions by health professionals should be stimulated. However, the structural dimension of the social determinants requires transformations in the structures that generate the perceptions and practices of agents. The study discusses the implications of these data to public dental policies that are focused on reducing these inequalities. PMID:18035447

Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima; Vieira-da-Silva, Lígia Maria

2008-04-01

321

Assessing the molecular divergence between Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii populations from Brazil using the timeless gene: further evidence of a species complex  

PubMed Central

Background Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii was the most important vector of human malaria in southern Brazil between 1930–1960. Nowadays it is still considered an important Plasmodium spp. vector in southern and south-eastern Brazil, incriminated for oligosymptomatic malaria. Previous studies based on the analysis of X chromosome banding patterns and inversion frequencies in An. cruzii populations from these areas have suggested the occurrence of three sibling species. In contrast, two genetically distinct groups among An. cruzii populations from south/south-east and north-east Brazil have been revealed by isoenzyme analysis. Therefore, An. cruzii remains unclear. Methods In this study, a partial sequence of the timeless gene (~400 bp), a locus involved in the control of circadian rhythms, was used as a molecular marker to assess the genetic differentiation between An. cruzii populations from six geographically distinct areas of Brazil. Results The timeless gene revealed that An. cruzii from Itaparica Island, Bahia State (north-east Brazil), constitutes a highly differentiated group compared with the other five populations from south and south-east Brazil. In addition, significant genetic differences were also observed among some of the latter populations. Conclusion Analysis of the genetic differentiation in the timeless gene among An. cruzii populations from different areas of Brazil indicated that this malaria vector is a complex of at least two cryptic species. The data also suggest that further work might support the occurrence of other siblings within this complex in Brazil. PMID:19358734

Rona, Luisa DP; Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos J; Gentile, Carla; Grisard, Edmundo C; Peixoto, Alexandre A

2009-01-01

322

Quick, portable toxicity testing of marine or terrigenous fluids, sediments, or chemicals with bioluminescent organism  

SciTech Connect

A hand-held, battery-operated instrument, which measures bioluminescence inhibition of the microscopic marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula, is capable of field-testing substances for toxicity. The organism is sensitive to ppb of strong toxicants. It tolerates some solvents in concentrations necessary for testing lipophylic samples. A test consumes only micrograms of sample. This method requires no adjustments for salinity, pH, color, or turbidity. It has been used successfully to test oil-well drilling fluids, brines produced with oil, waters and sediments from streams and lakes and petroleum-plant effluents containing contaminants such as benzene. The test is non-specific; however, if the substance is known, the end-point effects a direct measurement of its concentration. One-hour toxicity screening tests in the field produce results comparable to the standard four-hour laboratory test. Keeping the sample in the dark during incubation and testing, together with shortness of the overall procedure, eliminates anomalies from light-sensitive substances. Day-to-day variation, as well as among test replicates, is less than 10%. This quick method yields results comparable with a quick test that uses Photobacterium phosphoria, and with 96-hour tests that use Mysidopsis bahia, Artemia salina, Gonyaulax polyedra, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Cyprinodon variegatus.

Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L. [Lumitox Gulf L.C., New Orleans, LA (United States)

1995-12-31

323

The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions  

PubMed Central

The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies. PMID:17010204

Begossi, Alpina

2006-01-01

324

[Significances of the life experience for the long-lived elderly person in the process of death/dying and mourning].  

PubMed

This is a study using the Heideggerian theoretical-phenomenological approach, which sought to understand the significances of the life experience for the long-lived elderly person in the process of death/dying and mourning. It was conducted in 2009 with 16 long-lived senior citizens of both genders who were aged between 80 and 90, members of a community center for the elderly located in a suburban neighborhood of the city of Salvador in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The results showed that the long-lived elderly person experiences the mourning status process when relatives and friends become ill and die. Furthermore, they gave ambiguous reports with respect to the fear of death. With the attributed significances, it was possible to arrive at the unit of significance, namely the authenticity and lack of authenticity of the individual regarding imminent death. The conclusion reached is that long-lived elderly individuals faced with the process of death/dying and mourning is apparent or concealed in accordance with the moment they are experiencing and the opportunities that present themselves, in other words, it is greatly influenced by their past. PMID:25119070

Menezes, Tânia Maria de Oliva; Lopes, Regina Lúcia Mendonça

2014-08-01

325

Chronic ulcers and myasis as ports of entry for Clostridium tetani.  

PubMed

Evaluating tetanus immune status is not yet the usual clinical practice regarding patients with chronic ulcers or myasis. However, of 858 tetanus patients at Hospital Couto Maia (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil) aged 1 year or above, 2 had pressure ulcers and 17 had chronic ulceration of the lower limbs where these skin lesions were the ports of entry for Clostridium tetani. In these 19 cases, the following predisposing factors were described: venous insufficiency (n=6), sickle cell anemia (n=2), Hansen s disease (n=1), malnutrition (n=1), diabetes mellitus (n=1), trauma (n=1) and unknown factors (n=7). In 6 other cases, in addition to the Hansen s disease patient, the port of entry for tetanus was the site of extraction of Tunga penetrans larvae. In these 25 cases, the majority of patients (68%) were over 40 years old (17/25) and all of these patients stated that they had either not followed a tetanus toxoid vaccination regimen (19/25), or had partially completed such a regimen, or did not give precise information (6/25). Among the same series studied, over half (52%) of the patients died (13/25). We conclude that tetanus prevention must be included in the treatment of chronic skin ulcer patients, vaccination coverage should be increased among older people, and strategies aimed at improving coverage for all age groups must be reviewed. PMID:11980594

Greco, J B; Sacramento, E; Tavares-Neto, J

2001-12-01

326

Genetic power of a Brazilian three-generation family with generalized aggressive periodontitis. II.  

PubMed

The genetic power of a Brazilian three-generation family with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) has been reported. The empirical logarithms of the odds (LOD) score thresholds for genetic linkage analysis of complex diseases proposed by Haines rely on confirmation from independent datasets. This study estimated the power of another large Brazilian family with GAgP for future linkage analysis. The three-generation family was seen at the Dental School of the Federal University of Bahia. Following the previously described methodology, full-mouth periodontal probing at 6 sites/tooth was performed in all 19 family members. Six out of 12 siblings were affected with GAgP. All affected family members were non-smokers and did not present diabetes or any other systemic condition or consanguinity. A parametric simulation (?=0) was performed on 100 replicates using the statistical software SLINK for linkage analysis. There was maximum expected LOD scores of 3.75 and 3.45 at penetrance rate F=0.98, and both studied phenocopy rates P=0.0 and P=0.02, respectively. The power of the study increased with the increase of the adopted penetrance rates in both studied phenocopy rates. The studied Brazilian three-generation family showed statistical power for future genetic linkage analysis of candidate genes to GAgP. PMID:21519652

Rapp, Gisela Estela; Pineda-Trujillo, Nicolas; McQuillin, Andrew; Tonetti, Maurizio

2011-01-01

327

Morphological variation in the reef coral Montastrea cavernosa in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphological variability is a widespread but poorly understood characteristic of many colonial animals. In this study morphologic variation in Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus 1767) from northeastern Brazil is examined. Colonies were collected from three depths: 0 5, 10 15 and 15 20 m at the Abrolhos reefs (Bahia state), and from a single depth (0 5 m) at Tamandaré (Pernambuco state). Fifteen measurements or counts were made on each sample. They include the most important characteristics commonly used to separate species in the family Faviidae. The results of statistical analyses show that almost every character studied varies. Between colonies, localities and depth classes, the most variable features are the spacing of corallites, the diameter of corallite, the height of theca and of outer columella, the thickness of first cycle septa, the length of first cycle costae, and the thickness of fourth cycle costae. Canonical discriminant analyses show that the samples from 0 5 m are the most widely separated from samples collected at the other depth classes. Variability within populations is greater than between, but both are significant. Montastrea cavernosa in Brazil is characterized by high morphological variability and polymorphism within populations and cannot be completely explained by environmental variables.

Amaral, F. D.

1994-05-01

328

Crustal evolution between 2.0 and 3.5 Ga in the southern Gavião block (Umburanas-Brumado-Aracatu region), São Francisco Craton, Brazil: A 3.5-3.8 Ga proto-crust in the Gavião block?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main evolution of the Gavião block in the Umburanas-Brumado-Aracatu region, in the state of Bahia, is defined by several sets of tonalitic-trondhjemitic and granodioritic gneisses emplaced during the Paleoarchean. The juvenile Bernada gneisses are emplaced at 3386 ± 9 Ma (SHRIMP zircon age). The Aracatu gneisses, probably derived from the partial melting of ca 3.4 Ga gneisses, are emplaced at 3325 ± 16 Ma. They contain inherited zircon dated at 3366 ± 15 Ma in the range of ages obtained for the juvenile Bernada gneisses. Furthermore, one core in these zircons provides an age of 3487 ± 9 Ma, which is the oldest xenocryst found in the Gavião block. A Neoarchean alkaline granite was emplaced at 2693 ± 5 Ma (Serra de Eixo gneiss) and corresponds to a major crustal reworking stage. All of these rocks were metamorphosed and melted at ca 2.0 Ga, as recorded by monazite ages (EPMA and La-ICPMS) in diatexitic Archean gneisses (Aracatu) and Paleoproterozoic granites (Umburanas). The occurrence of a proto-crust ca 3.5 Ga or older in the Gavião block is discussed based on inherited zircon ages and Sm-Nd isotope signatures of the Archean gneisses.

Santos-Pinto, Marilda; Peucat, Jean-Jacques; Martin, Hervé; Barbosa, Johildo S. F.; Fanning, C. Mark; Cocherie, Alain; Paquette, Jean-Louis

2012-12-01

329

[Sexual-affective trajectories of people with chronic leg ulcers: aspects of therapeutic listening].  

PubMed

This is a qualitative study that aims to discuss the trajectories of people with chronic sores on the lower limbs,focusing on their affective and sexual experiences. Fifty-one adult outpatients participated and they received care at the infirmary of a public hospital in Salvador-Bahia, between 2008 and 2009. Data was collected through techniques that included themed-story drawings and in-depth interviews, during therapeutic listening sessions,followed by an analysis of the content and an analysis of the drawing contents. Three categories emerged solitary sexual-affective trajectory, fragmented sexual-affective trajectory, and continuous or linear sexual-affective trajectory. It was concluded that the limitations imposed by sores influence the subjectivity of these people, leading them to processes of loss of self-confidence, self-deprecation and fear of sexual- affective demands. It becomes clear, therefore, for the need to promote, not only curative interventions for the body, but also to include therapeutic listening and psychological support in the assistance offered to these people. PMID:24344599

Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana; Paiva, Mirian Santos; Aparício, Elena Casado; Rodrigues, Gilmara Ribeiro Santos

2013-09-01

330

Periodontal profile and presence of periodontal pathogens in young African-Americans from Salvador, Ba, Brazil  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study evaluated the periodontal status and the presence of periodontopathogens in 132 young, black ethnic subjects who live in Salvador/Bahia-Brazil and have never smoked. Periodontal Probing Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were measured and analyzed by ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05) according to gender and age. The presence of A.actinomycetemcomitans, P.gingivalis, E.corrodens and F.nucleatum was determined by PCR and was analyzed by ANOVA, Wilcoxon, Student-t tests (p<0.05). Mean values of PPD and CAL were 2.18 and 1.0mm, respectively. Clinical parameters did not show differences between subjects of varying gender and age. The microbial prevalence was observed to be 95.45% for E.corrodens followed by F.nucleatum with 68.18%, A.actinomycetemcomitans with 45.45% and P gingivalis with 40.9%. An association between the presence of pathogens and gender and age was not observed (p<0.05). PPD, CAL and PI were not associated with P.gingivalis; however, GI appeared in higher frequencies among subjects without P.gingivalis. In this young, black ethnic, Brazilian population, a high percentage (96.96%) of subjects harbored at least one selected periodontal pathogen, but most subjects showed a healthy periodontal status. Further investigations are required to evaluate the actual influence of the presence of these bacterial species. PMID:24031206

Victor, Ligia Valeria; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Aquino, Davi Romeiro; de Carvalho Filho, Jonas; Cortelli, Jose Roberto

2008-01-01

331

Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic investigations on Isla de los Estados, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expedition in November-December 2005 to Isla de los Estados (Staten Island) off the southeastern tip of South America was a cooperative venture between Lund University (LU) and Stockholm University (SU) in Sweden and the CADIC-CONICET Institute in Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim of the expedition was threefold: (1) to extend the Swedish paleoclimatic "ATLANTIS"-project (Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Azores, Grenada, Tristan da Cunha; PI S Björck) to the southern part of the South American continent, (2) to connect earlier glacial and climate history reconstructions from the Antarctic Peninsula to equivalents north of the Drake Passage in southernmost South America, and (3) to complement paleo-information available from the Tierra del Fuego mainland with information from Isla de los Estados. Focus was on two areas in the northern and north-western part of the island, Bahía Colnett and Bahia Crossley. Detailed geomorphologic and stratigraphic mapping of glacial deposits were combined with sampling sediments for OSL dating. To reconstruct the paleoclimatic development of Isla de los Estados since the last ice retreat, four main peat bog/lake sites were cored and sampled. In addition, living trees of Nothofagus and old logs preserved in the peat were sampled for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies. Preliminary results show that the deglaciation of the study area occurred before 16500 cal yr BP. Detailed multi- proxy analyses of the four sequences are under way and first results will be presented.

Björck, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hjort, C.; Ljung, K.; Martinez, O.; Möller, P.; Ponce, F.; Rabassa, J.; Roig, F.; Unkel, I.; Wohlfarth, B.

2007-05-01

332

Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) geographical distribution and epidemiological importance.  

PubMed

Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912) and N. neivai (Pinto 1926) are possible vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis in some regions of Brazil. Further, the latter was until recently, considered a junior synonym of the former. This study has the purpose of updating our knowledge of the geographical distribution of these species, based on specimens deposited at the collection of the Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou-Fiocruz, Faculdade de Saúde Pública-Universidade de São Paulo, and on data presented by literature as also to associate this distribution with the cutaneous leishmaniasis cases reported. It has been reported that N. intermedia occurs in the states of the Northeastern Region, in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, on the northern coast of São Paulo, in eastern Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás, close to the border with Minas Gerais and Bahia. N. neivai occurs in the Southern Region, southern coast and in western São Paulo, southern and western Minas Gerais, southern Goiás, and southern Pará, beyond Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay. It is important to highlight that N. intermedia and N. neivai occur in sympatry in Minas Gerais and São Paulo. N. intermedia or N. neivai are predominant or are captured abundantly in several cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in the Southeastern and Southern regions of Brazil. PMID:17612769

Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi; Falcão, Alda Lima

2007-06-01

333

Life cycle differences among Brazilian sandflies of the Lutzomyia longipalpis sibling species complex.  

PubMed

The developmental cycles of five Brazilian populations of the Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva species complex (Diptera: Psychodidae) were compared under laboratory conditions. Three of the populations were derived from insects collected in allopatric sites at Natal (Rio Grande do Norte State), Jacobina (Bahia State) and Lapinha Cave (Minas Gerais State). The other two originated from Sobral (Ceará State), where the males of two sympatric species can be distinguished by the presence of one (1S) or two (2S) pairs of abdominal spots. The results of the present study clearly show that all three populations whose males produce C16 pheromones and use pulse-type copulation songs (Jacobina, Lapinha Cave and Sobral 1S) are more easily adapted to the colonization conditions used in our laboratory, producing larger egg batches, with higher survival and an overall faster developmental cycle. This contrasts with populations producing C20 male pheromones and using burst-type copulation songs (Natal and Sobral 2S) that produce smaller egg batches, have higher oviposition mortality and a slower rate of development under identical laboratory conditions. In conclusion, these phenological differences are a further indication of the differentiation of the siblings within the Lu. longipalpis species complex. PMID:19712160

Souza, N A; Andrade-Coelho, C A; Silva, V C; Ward, R D; Peixoto, A A

2009-09-01

334

Production, extraction and characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by the native Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides R2 strain.  

PubMed

The genus Leuconostoc belongs to a group of lactic acid bacteria usually isolated from fermented vegetables, which includes species involved in the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS). These biopolymers possess considerable commercial potential. Because of the wide variety of industrial applications of EPS, this study aimed to produce and characterize the native exopolysaccharide strain Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides R2, which was isolated from cabbage collected in a semi-arid region of Bahia. We employed the following conditions for the production of EPS: 10.7% sucrose, pH 8.2, without agitation and incubation at 28ºC for 30 hours. The fermentation broth was treated with ethanol and generated two types of polysaccharide substances (EPS I and EPS II). The identification of EPS I and EPS II was conducted using FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C and DEPT-135 NMR spectra. The two substances were identified as linear dextran ? polysaccharides (1 ? 6) which indicated different characteristics with respect to thermal analysis and density of free packaging, viscosity and time of solubilization. Both dextrans are of low density, possess high thermal stability and exhibited the behavior characteristic of pseudoplastic polymers. PMID:22652760

Paulo, Elinalva M; Boffo, Elisangela F; Branco, Alexsandro; Valente, Angela M M P; Melo, Itamar S; Ferreira, Antonio G; Roque, Milton R A; Assis, Sandra A de

2012-06-01

335

Effect of dominant Spartina species on salt marsh detritus production in SW Atlantic estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two cordgrass species of the genus Spartina cohabit in SW Atlantic (southern Brazil 31º48' S to Argentinean Patagonia, 43º20' S) salt marshes. Some salt marshes are dominated by the dense-flowered cordgrass Spartina densiflora (which inhabits the upper intertidal level) and others by the smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora (which inhabits the lower intertidal level). We investigated how the different species dominance affects the detritus dynamics in the Bahia Blanca estuary (38º47' S, 62º20' W Argentina). Field measurements of annual detritus production using destructive methods show that both plants are similar. However, detritus of S. alterniflora shows higher decomposition rates than that of S. densiflora. This difference may be due to a larger N content, lower lignocellulose content and lower C/N ratio of S. alternifora when compared with S. densiflora. Moreover, field sampling shows that S. alterniflora has a larger amount of trapped litter that, according to the litterbag method, has higher decomposition rates. Therefore it is highly likely that S. alterniflora salt marshes contribute towards more profitable detritus for estuarine food webs than marshes dominated by S. densiflora. These results illustrate that the composition of the coastal plant community can determine the quality and profitability of the detritus that support estuarine food webs. They also illustrate that salt marshes belonging to a same biogeographic group and even coexisting in great proximity can have very different ecosystemic roles.

Montemayor, Diana I.; Addino, Mariana; Fanjul, Eugenia; Escapa, Mauricio; Alvarez, M. Fernanda; Botto, Florencia; Iribarne, Oscar O.

2011-08-01

336

The genus Paravelia Breddin, 1898 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) in Brazil, with descriptions of eight new species.  

PubMed

Eight new species of Paravelia Breddin, 1898 from Brazil are described and illustrated: P. amapaensis sp. nov. from Amapá State, P. bipunctata sp. nov. from Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul States, P. bilobata sp. nov. and P. polhemusi sp. nov. from Mato Grosso State, P. bahiana sp. nov. from Bahia State, P. lacrymosa sp. nov. from Minas Gerais State, P. micromaculata sp. nov. from Maranhão State, and P. ornata sp. nov. from Amazonas State. The genus is redescribed, with photos of the dorsal view for nineteen species: P. basalis (Spinola), P. biae Spangler, P. boliviana Breddin, P. bullialata Polhemus & Polhemus, P. capillata (Drake& Harris), P. capixaba Moreira, Nessimian & Rúdio, P. conata (Hungerford), P. dilatata Polhemus & Polhemus, P. foveata Polhemus & Polhemus, P. itatiayana (Drake), P. lanemeloi Moreira & Barbosa, P. manausana Polhemus & Polhemus, P. nieseri Moreira & Barbosa, P. platensis (Berg), P. recens (Drake & Harris), P. rotundanotata (Hungerford), P. spinifera Polhemus & Polhemus, P. splendoris (Drake & Harris) and P. williamsi (Hungerford). Three of these species are recorded for the first time from Brazil: P. platensis, P. spinifera and P. williamsi. Also, the macropterous forms of P. capixaba and P. dilatata are described. Lastly, an identification key to the 36 species of Paravelia recorded from Brazil and a checklist of described species are presented. PMID:24872030

Rodrigues, Higor D D; Moreira, Felipe F F; Nieser, Nico; Chen, Ping Ping; Melo, Alan L; Dias-Silva, Karina; Giehl, Nubia F S

2014-01-01

337

Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426?mg/L and LC50 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94?mg/L, LC50 13.51?mg/L, and LC50 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Costa, Ana L. S.; Conceicao, Adilva S.; Moura, Flavia de B. Prado; Santana, Antonio Euzebio Goulart

2012-01-01

338

Coastal Fog, South Peruvian Coast at Pisco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coastal fog commonly drapes the Peruvian coast. This image captures complex interactions between land, sea, and atmosphere along the southern Peruvian coast. When Shuttle astronauts took the image in February of 2002, the layers of coastal fog and stratus were being progressively scoured away by brisk south to southeast winds. Remnants of the cloud deck banked against the larger, obstructing headlands like Peninsula Paracas and Isla Sangayan, giving the prominent 'white comma' effect. Southerlies also produced ripples of internal gravity waves in the clouds offshore where warm, dry air aloft interacts with a thinning layer of cool, moist air near the sea surface on the outer edge of the remaining cloud bank. South of Peninsula Baracas, the small headlands channeled the clouds into streaks-local horizontal vortices caused by the headlands provided enough lift to give points of origin of the clouds in some bays. Besides the shelter of the peninsula, the Bahia de Pisco appears to be cloud-free due to a dry, offshore flow down the valley of the Rio Ica. The STS-109 crew took image STS109-730-80 in February 2002. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

339

Wetland plant seedlings as indicators of near-coastal sediment quality: interspecific variation.  

PubMed

The toxicities of whole sediments collected from an urbanized Florida bayou-estuary were determined for the epibenthic mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, and the infaunal amphipod, Ampelisca abdita. In addition, the phytotoxicities of the same sediments were evaluated using rooted macrophytes, Scirpus robustus Pursh and Spartina alterniflora Loisel. The results of the 24 bioassays conducted for 7-28 days, were compared for interspecific differences. Toxicity to the benthic invertebrate species was predicted to be likely in all cases, based on comparison to effects-based sediment quality assessment guidelines. However, acute toxicity was uncommon and occurred at only one of the six sampling stations. In contrast, several sediments were either significantly phytostimulatory or phytoinhibitory (P < 0.05) relative to a reference estuarine sediment. The results show the importance of considering interspecific variation and phytoassessment in contaminated sediment evaluations. Phytoassessment, the focus of this research, provided useful information that would have been missing if only the animal test species were used. For this reason, the phytotoxicity data base needs to be increased to better evaluate the relevance of most current contaminated sediment evaluations for coastal areas and also to determine the realism of proposed numerical sediment quality assessment guidelines and criteria. PMID:11460746

Lewis, M A; Weber, D E; Stanley, R S

2000-01-01

340

[Repetitive tasks under time pressure: the musculoskeletal disorders and the industrial work].  

PubMed

An ergonomic study was carried out to characterize repetitive work and psychosocial demands at work in a plastic industry in The Greater Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil. Global observations of tasks were preliminary carried out to investigate work organization, production organization and tasks determinants. Time requirements in tasks development involved psychosocial demands and physical demands, particularly when the latter implied very fast repetitive work. Secondly, those findings led to systematic observations with simultaneous interviews of workers. Work cycles in each task of molding/finishing plastic bags were measured by video analysis. All disturbances that required worker regulation on tasks development were recorded. This study allowed identifying variabilities of work process and of tasks development, and to put into evidence the extra demands and changeable tasks processes that require workers' regulation. In that situation, higher cognitive and physical demands are resulted from time pressure. The inadequate work conditions associated to time pressure and a work organization with low control generate a situation in which the task development is just possible under workers' body overload. PMID:20464207

Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Assunção, Ada Avila; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

2010-05-01

341

Residual fluxes of suspended sediment in a tidally dominated tropical estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses the fine sediment fluxes in the Caravelas estuarine system (Bahia, Brazil, 17o45'S and 039o12'W). The estuary reaches the ocean at the shore across from the Abrolhos Bank, the largest tropical reef habitat in the South Atlantic. The Caravelas estuarine system is composed of several meandering channels, which are connected to the ocean by a double inlet system. These two openings - the Caravelas and Nova Viçosa estuaries - are connected by a narrow, 30 km long channel. The Caravelas estuary does not receive significant continental input, while the Nova Viçosa estuary receives the contribution of the Peruíbe River, which drains an area of approximately 5000 km2. To understand the fine sediment dynamics and net transport, observations of tides, currents, salinity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were recorded in 13-h tidal surveys (spring and neap tide) and with 20-day long CTDs/ADCP moorings at the Caravelas estuary and in the interconnection channel. The SSC dynamic in the Caravelas estuary is primarily driven by advection, with SSC originating in the inlet and inner shelf area. Residual water and sediment transport are up-estuary in the Caravelas estuary and toward the Caravelas estuary in the interconnection channel. The residual transport showed pronounced synodical modulation and was stronger during spring tide. The Caravelas estuary function as a trap for inner shelf materials and fine sediments delivered by the Peruípe River at Nova Viçosa.

Schettini, Carlos Augusto França; Duarte Pereira, Marçal; Siegle, Eduardo; de Miranda, Luiz Bruner; Silva, Mário P.

2013-11-01

342

Detection of a resistance gradient to Passion fruit woodiness virus and selection of 'yellow' passion fruit plants under field conditions.  

PubMed

Productivity of 'yellow' passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa O. Deg.) is reduced by infection with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). We examined resistance in 72 yellow passion fruit plants grown from open-pollinated commercial seed. Plants were mechanically inoculated with CABMV virus and maintained in the field in order to select contrasting genotypes for resistance. Isolates were obtained from symptomatic leaves of yellow passion fruit plants from field production in Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia state and were characterized by sequencing the viral coat protein gene. Severity of leaf symptoms of the disease, evaluated through a global leaf disease index, was measured during the eighth month of growth. Morpho-agronomic variables of fruit were evaluated from months 10 to 12. Significant linear regressions between the quantification of the leaf symptoms and the morpho-agronomic characteristics related to productivity were detected (5.17%

Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Moreira, C N; Figueira, A R; Corrêa, R X; Oliveira, A C

2008-01-01

343

Dietary Patterns and Wheezing in the Midst of Nutritional Transition: A Study in Brazil  

PubMed Central

To assess the influence of dietary patterns on the prevalence of wheezing in the child and adolescent population in Northeastern Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of male and female students, 6–12 years old, from the public elementary schools of São Francisco do Conde, Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The report of wheezing in the past 12 months was collected using a questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Program phase III, adapted to Portuguese. Consumption patterns were derived from principal component analysis based on the frequency of consumption of 97 food items by the food frequency questionnaire. We also obtained the anthropometric status, level of physical activity, pubertal development, and socioeconomic information, for each participant. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations of interest. Of the children surveyed, 10.6% reported having wheezing. We identified 2 dietary patterns named Western and Prudent. We found a positive statistically significant association of the Western pattern with wheeze (odds ratio=1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.10–2.84) after adjustment for total energy intake and controlling for potential confounders. The results showed that the Western dietary pattern was associated with wheezing. Our result is according with previous findings reported in several other studies. PMID:23555072

Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Cruz, Alvaro Augusto; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; DInnocenzo, Silvana; Barreto, Maurício Lima; da Silva, Luce Alves; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria

2013-01-01

344

Risk factors for death in patients with severe asthma*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for death among patients with severe asthma. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study. Among the patients with severe asthma treated between December of 2002 and December of 2010 at the Central Referral Outpatient Clinic of the Bahia State Asthma Control Program, in the city of Salvador, Brazil, we selected all those who died, as well as selecting other patients with severe asthma to be used as controls (at a ratio of 1:4). Data were collected from the medical charts of the patients, home visit reports, and death certificates. RESULTS: We selected 58 cases of deaths and 232 control cases. Most of the deaths were attributed to respiratory causes and occurred within a health care facility. Advanced age, unemployment, rhinitis, symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, long-standing asthma, and persistent airflow obstruction were common features in both groups. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender, FEV1 pre-bronchodilator < 60% of predicted, and the lack of control of asthma symptoms were significantly and independently associated with mortality in this sample of patients with severe asthma. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of outpatients with severe asthma, the deaths occurred predominantly due to respiratory causes and within a health care facility. Lack of asthma control and male gender were risk factors for mortality. PMID:25210958

Fernandes, Andreia Guedes Oliva; Souza-Machado, Carolina; Coelho, Renata Conceicao Pereira; Franco, Priscila Abreu; Esquivel, Renata Miranda; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Cruz, Alvaro Augusto

2014-01-01

345

Brazil-Africa geological links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.

1981-04-01

346

[Towards a dialogue of knowledge between subsistence fishermen, shellfish gatherers and environmental labor law].  

PubMed

The dialogue of knowledge between subsistence fishermen and shellfish gatherers on the right to a healthy working environment is established as a new process for claims for an improvement in working conditions by populations affected by environmental problems, and especially in Todos os Santos Bay (BTS). The communities surrounding the BTS have complained to the State Public Prosecutor about the harmful effects to health and the environment caused by the Aratu Industrial Complex and the Port of Aratu. Researchers in the fields of, chemistry, toxicology, oceanography, biology and medicine from the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA) have demonstrated the effects of contamination on the BTS in sundry scientific publications. The scope of this article is to reflect on the contribution of that dialogue on environmental labor law (DAT) in Brazil. The methodology of this study involved semi-structured interviews, participant observation and document analysis. The conclusion reached is that environmental labor law in Brazil must include the dialogue of knowledge to ensure access to a healthy working environment for subsistence fishermen and shellfish gatherers. PMID:25272110

Carvalho, Ingrid Gil Sales; Rêgo, Rita de Cássia Franco; Larrea-Killinger, Cristina; Rocha, Júlio César de Sá da; Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Machado, Louise Oliveira Ramos

2014-10-01

347

Multivariate optimization of an ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure for Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn determination in ration to chickens.  

PubMed

In this work, multivariate optimization techniques were used to develop a method based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction for copper, manganese, nickel and zinc determination from rations for chicken nutrition using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The proportions of extracting components (2.0 mol.L-1 nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acid solutions) were optimized using centroid-simplex mixture design. The optimum proportions of this mixture taken as percentage of each component were respectively 20%, 37% and 43%. Variables of method (sample mass, sonication time and final acid concentration) were optimized using Doehlert design. The optimum values found for these variables were respectively 0.24 g, 18s and 3.6 mol.L-1. The developed method allows copper, manganese, nickel and zinc determination with quantification limits of 2.82; 4.52; 10.7; e 9.69 µg.g-1, and precision expressed as relative standard deviation (%RSD, 25 µg.g-1, N = 5) of 5.30; 2.13; 0.88; and 0.83%, respectively. This method was applied in the analytes determination from chicken rations collected from specialized commerce in Jequié city (Bahia State/Brazil). Application of paired t-test at the obtained results, in a confidence level of 95%, does not show significant difference between the proposed method and the microwave-assisted digestion. PMID:24068081

Barros, Joélia M; Bezerra, Marcos A; Valasques, Gisseli S; Do Nascimento Jr, Baraquízio B; Souza, Anderson S; De Aragão, Nádia M

2013-09-01

348

[Prevalence of eating disorders in urban workers in a city of the northeast of Brazil].  

PubMed

This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of eating disorders among workers living in urban areas of Feira de Santana, Bahia. It involves an epidemiologic, descriptive and exploratory cross-sectional study of 1,273 randomly selected workers. Socio-demographic and work characteristics, lifestyle, psychosocial aspects at work and eating behavior were investigated. Females were predominant (60.2%), the youngest 51.7% were up to 35 years old, married (53.1%), Afro-Brazilian descent (55.2%), with high school education (51.5%) and with low incomes (81.2%). The prevalence of Binge Eating Disorder and Bulimia Nervosa were, respectively, 4.3% and 1%. The prevalence of these disorders was higher among workers who indulged in excessive alcohol consumption, were dissatisfied with their personal appearance and weight, reported violence in childhood and had financial problems or related worries. Also included were those involved in house care services and commerce, who had informal work arrangements or were in highly demanding work environments. Besides investigating the relation between eating disorders and work, data was provided about these disorders in a population-based study. It is hoped that this study may encourage investments in health policies for these disorders. PMID:23670388

Prisco, Ana Paula Kalil; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; de Almeida, Maura Maria Guimarães; Santos, Kionna Oliveira Bernardes

2013-04-01

349

Geologic structure and tectonics of inner continental borderland of northern Baja California  

SciTech Connect

Detailed marine geophysical surveys of the inner California continental borderland west of northern Baja California show that the region is underlain by two major, northwest-trending, Quaternary, dextral wrench fault systems. The San Clemente fault system lies along the western part of the inner borderland and is delineated by the San Clemente and San Isidro fault zones. Together, these fault zones connect to form a long (300 km), narrow (5-10 km), continuous zone of faulting that is very similar to the larger San Andreas fault system onshore. The Agua Blanca fault system is a complex zone of shear delineated by three or more subparallel wrench fault zones in the eastern part of the inner borderland. The westernmost San Diego Trough-Bahia Soledad fault zone consists of relatively long (50 km), continuous, main fault traces which cut the Quaternary sediments of the nearshore basin trough. The Coronado Bank-Agua Blanca fault zone is more complicated, with numerous discontinuous, subparallel, right- and left-stepping, anastomosing fault traces which are associated with significant structural relief. A nearshore zone of faults, marked by the Newport-Inglewood-Rose Canyon fault zone in the north and the Estero-Descanso fault zone in the south, parallels the coast and defines the eastern boundary of the California continental borderland structural province. All of these eastern fault zones merge into the transpeninsular Agua Blanca fault, and their N30/sup 0/W trend differs substantially from the trend of the major peninsular ranges fault zones.

Legg, M.R.; Victor, W.O.; Francisco, S.V.

1987-05-01

350

Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management  

PubMed Central

In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.). We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. PMID:21410969

2011-01-01

351

How Pecten Brazil drilled the Amazon basin  

SciTech Connect

Pecten Brazil overcame numerous obstacles to drill two exploratory wells in the Amazon Basin last year. These included: The threat of low water in normally navigable rivers. Dense jungle growth at both locations. Lack of suitable roads for heavy hauling. Inconvenient distances from supply points. An unusual basalt formation responsible for unique drilling problems. Hundreds of helicopter lifts to move drilling rigs, supplies, and personnel. Pecten contracted with Petrobras, the Brazilian national oil company, to evaluate three blocks in the Amazon jungle, each about 68 miles (110 km) on a side, through seismic study and ultimate drilling. Planning for the drilling phase got started on March 17, 1981 with December 1 targeted as spud date for the first well. Actual spud date was November 25, 5 days ahead of schedule, in spite of all obstacles. Pecten has a mid-Amazonas block now under seismic investigation for possible exploratory drilling. Logistics problems in this one provide new difficulties, as the area is extremely wet. Most work is carried on by boat. The company is also looking offshore Bahia, testing the possible extension of the Renconcavo basin. Two wells have already provided good shows of a high pour point oil, with flow rates from 400 to 1,000 b/d. Another area of interest to Pecten is offshore Rio Grande do Norte.

Bleakley, W.B.

1983-09-01

352

Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil).  

PubMed

In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil), a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997) and rainy (March, 1998) periods. The dominant groups found were Mollusca (Melanoides tuberculata), Oligochaeta, and Chironomidae larvae. Low Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index values were found, but with no significant difference between the sampling periods. However, density and taxonomic richness were significantly different (t(0.05: 31)) = -2.1945; p < 0.05; e t(0.05; 31) = -3.0600; p < 0.01) between the sampling periods, with a reduction in the number of taxa and macroinvertebrate abundance during the rainy period. An increasing gradient in benthic macroinvertebrate community structures was noted along the reservoir cascade from the first reservoir (Apolônio Sales), followed by a decrease downstream from the third reservoir of the system (Xing6). Despite the negative consequences of rapid proliferation of dams, which have caused widespread loss of freshwater habitats, the reservoir cascade system promoted an increase in benthic macroinvertebrate diversity, due to water-quality improvement along the system. PMID:16097725

Callisto, M; Goulart, M; Barbosa, F A R; Rocha, O

2005-05-01

353

Chromosomal polymorphisms due to supernumerary chromosomes and pericentric inversions in the eyelidless microteiid lizard Nothobachia ablephara (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae).  

PubMed

Cytogenetic studies were performed on eight specimens of the monotypic microteiid lizard Nothobachia ablephara, endemic of the sand dunes of the middle São Francisco river, in the semiarid caatinga, State of Bahia, Brazil. Chromosomes from fibroblast cultures were analysed after conventional, Ag-NOR staining, C-, and replication R- banding. A basic karyotype of 2n = 62, consisting mostly of subtelocentric and acrocentric chromosomes of decreasing size, was found in five specimens. Diploid number variation (2n = 63 and 2n = 64) occurred in two specimens due to the presence of one and two medium-sized subtelocentric supernumerary chromosomes (Bs). The Bs were not clearly distinguishable from the autosomes in Giemsa-stained metaphases and C-banding, but showed late replication after R-banding. Polymorphisms of pairs 1 and 5, observed in three different combinations, including acrocentrics, subtelocentrics, submetacentrics and metacentrics, were interpreted as the result of small pericentric inversions. Variation in the number of Ag-NORs was also reported. A chromosomal mechanism of sex determination of the XX:XY type is present in this species. Our data add more evidence to confirm the remarkable chromosomal variability that has been found in Gymnophthalmidae. PMID:10461869

Pellegrino, K C; Rodrigues, M T; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y

1999-01-01

354

Systematics and evolution of the Jacchus group of marmosets (Platyrrhini).  

PubMed

Interspecific differentiation and geographic variation patterns in 39 skull traits of eastern Brazilian marmosets are analyzed. Eastern Callithrix taxa are distinct morphologically, and no evidence of intergradation among taxa is observed. Instead, there are sharp, stepped morphological boundaries among taxa, consistent with species-level distinction. The morphological similarity cluster diagram obtained from Mahalanobis distances is different from available molecular trees, and the general picture emerging is that the eastern Callithrix taxa should be considered as good species arising recently in South American history. In particular, C. kuhlii is morphologically distinct from other marmoset taxa, including C. geoffroyi and C. penicillata, which were previously hypothesized to be the parental populations that formed C. kuhlii by hybridization. Furthermore, C. kuhlii populations from southeastern Bahia do not overlap morphologically with any C. penicillata population, including the upper São Francisco River populations that display skin colors and pelage patterns to some extent similar to true Kuhli's marmosets. There is a negative, though insignificant, correlation between the morphological distance matrix and a Mahalanobis distance matrix estimated from nine climatic variables, a pattern opposite to that expected under a parapatric speciation model. This result, together with the lack of clinal variation in skull traits, suggests that an allopatric model of speciation might best explain eastern marmoset diversification. PMID:14669232

Marroig, Gabriel; Cropp, Susan; Cheverud, James M

2004-01-01

355

Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment  

SciTech Connect

Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A. [US EPA, Narragansett, RI (USA). Office for Research and Development

2009-01-15

356

Boto, a class II transposon in Moniliophthora perniciosa, is the first representative of the PIF/Harbinger superfamily in a phytopathogenic fungus.  

PubMed

Boto, a class II transposable element, was characterized in the Moniliophthora perniciosa genome. The Boto transposase is highly similar to plant PIF-like transposases that belong to the newest class II superfamily known as PIF/Harbinger. Although Boto shares characteristics with PIF-like elements, other characteristics, such as the transposase intron position, the position and direction of the second ORF, and the footprint, indicate that Boto belongs to a novel family of the PIF/Harbinger superfamily. Southern blot analyses detected 6-12 copies of Boto in C-biotype isolates and a ubiquitous presence among the C- and S-biotypes, as well as a separation in the C-biotype isolates from Bahia State in Brazil in at least two genotypic groups, and a new insertion in the genome of a C-biotype isolate maintained in the laboratory for 6 years. In addition to PCR amplification from a specific insertion site, changes in the Boto hybridization profile after the M. perniciosa sexual cycle and detection of Boto transcripts gave further evidence of Boto activity. As an active family in the genome of M. perniciosa, Boto elements may contribute to genetic variability in this homothallic fungus. This is the first report of a PIF/Harbinger transposon in the genome of a phytopathogenic fungus. PMID:23103978

Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Almeida, Ana Paula Morais Martins; Cota, Júnio; Pamphile, João Alencar; da Silva, Gilvan Ferreira; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Brommonschenkel, Sérgio Hermínio; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

2013-01-01

357

Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H., Jr.; Bonde, R.K.

2000-01-01

358

Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) shell length, total weight and condition factor?  

PubMed

The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm). The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors. PMID:19802448

Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Gálvez, L

2009-08-01

359

Baseline susceptibility to Cry1Ac insecticidal protein in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in Brazil.  

PubMed

The tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), is one of the target pests of genetically modified cotton expressing Cry1Ac insecticidal protein (Bt cotton) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. This study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of field-collected populations of H. virescens to Cry1Ac to establish a baseline for use in an insect resistance management program for Bt cotton in Brazil. Insects were sampled from the main Brazilian cotton-growing regions (Bahia, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás) during the cropping seasons of 2007/08 and 2008/09. Cry1Ac susceptibility was estimated by using diet incorporation bioassays. H. virescens was highly susceptible to Cry1Ac protein. The estimated LC50 values varied from 0.18 to 0.66 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet among the 2007-2008 populations (approximately 3.7-fold variation). Similarly, the EC50 values based on growth inhibition ranged from 0.0053 to 0.0161 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet for the 2007-2008 populations (approximately 3.0-fold variation). A joint analysis of the mortality data across all tested populations was used to develop and validate the diagnostic concentrations of 3.1 and 5.6 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet, the upper bound of the confidence interval and twice the LC99 were selected, for resistance monitoring programs of H. virescens to Cry1Ac protein in Brazil. PMID:24020298

Albernaz, K C; Merlin, B L; Martinelli, S; Head, G P; Omoto, C

2013-08-01

360

Satellite DNA derived from 5S rDNA in Physalaemus cuvieri (Anura, Leiuperidae).  

PubMed

In the present study, we describe for the first time a family of 190-bp satellite DNA related to 5S rDNA in anurans and the existence of 2 forms of 5S rDNA, type I (201 bp) and type II (690 bp). The sequences were obtained from genomic DNA of Physalaemus cuvieri from Palmeiras, State of Bahia, Brazil. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the satellite DNA obtained by digestion with EcoRI, called PcP190EcoRI, is 70% similar to the coding region of type I 5S rDNA and 66% similar to the coding region of type II 5S rDNA. Membrane hybridization and PCR amplification of the sequence showed that PcP190EcoRI is tandemly repeated. The satellite DNA as well as type I and type II 5S rDNA were localized in P. cuvieri chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The PcP190EcoRI sequence was found in the centromeres of chromosomes 1-5 and in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 3. Type I 5S rDNA was detected in chromosome 3, coincident with the site of PcP190EcoRI. Type II 5S rDNA was located interstitially in the long arm of chromosome 5. None of these sequences co-localized with nucleolar organizer regions. Our data suggests that this satellite DNA originates from the 5S ribosomal multigene family, probably by gene duplication, nucleotide divergence and sequence dispersion in the genome. PMID:21464559

Vittorazzi, S E; Lourenço, L B; Del-Grande, M L; Recco-Pimentel, S M

2011-01-01

361

The taxonomic status of the endangered thin-spined porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus (Olfers, 1818), based on molecular and karyologic data  

PubMed Central

Background The thin-spined porcupine, also known as the bristle-spined rat, Chaetomys subspinosus (Olfers, 1818), the only member of its genus, figures among Brazilian endangered species. In addition to being threatened, it is poorly known, and even its taxonomic status at the family level has long been controversial. The genus Chaetomys was originally regarded as a porcupine in the family Erethizontidae, but some authors classified it as a spiny-rat in the family Echimyidae. Although the dispute seems to be settled in favor of the erethizontid advocates, further discussion of its affinities should be based on a phylogenetic framework. In the present study, we used nucleotide-sequence data from the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and karyotypic information to address this issue. Our molecular analyses included one individual of Chaetomys subspinosus from the state of Bahia in northeastern Brazil, and other hystricognaths. Results All topologies recovered in our molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly supported Chaetomys subspinosus as a sister clade of the erethizontids. Cytogenetically, Chaetomys subspinosus showed 2n = 52 and FN = 76. Although the sexual pair could not be identified, we assumed that the X chromosome is biarmed. The karyotype included 13 large to medium metacentric and submetacentric chromosome pairs, one small subtelocentric pair, and 12 small acrocentric pairs. The subtelocentric pair 14 had a terminal secondary constriction in the short arm, corresponding to the nucleolar organizer region (Ag-NOR), similar to the erethizontid Sphiggurus villosus, 2n = 42 and FN = 76, and different from the echimyids, in which the secondary constriction is interstitial. Conclusion Both molecular phylogenies and karyotypical evidence indicated that Chaetomys is closely related to the Erethizontidae rather than to the Echimyidae, although in a basal position relative to the rest of the Erethizontidae. The high levels of molecular and morphological divergence suggest that Chaetomys belongs to an early radiation of the Erethizontidae that may have occurred in the Early Miocene, and should be assigned to its own subfamily, the Chaetomyinae. PMID:19192302

Vilela, Roberto V; Machado, Taís; Ventura, Karen; Fagundes, Valéria; de J Silva, Maria José; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo

2009-01-01

362

Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. Objective To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Methods Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (? 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (? 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (? 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ? 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ? 4,000g). Results One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW. PMID:23740400

de Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves; Guimaraes, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla; Guimaraes, Armenio Costa

2013-01-01

363

Blooms of Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Gymnodiniaceae) in the Gulf of California, Mexico.  

PubMed

Cochlodinium polykrikoides was the species responsible for the discoloration that occurred between September 15th and 27th, 2000 in a shallow coastal lagoon located in the southern part of the Bahia de La Paz, on the west side of the Gulf of California. Blooms of C. polykrikoides were observed four days after two rainy days with a seawater temperature of 29 to 31 degrees C. Nutrient concentration ranges during the bloom were 0.165-0.897 microM NO2+NO3, 0.16-3.25 microM PO4, and 1.0-35.36 microM SiO4. Abundance of C. polykrikoides ranged from 360 x 10(3) to 7.05 x 10(6)/cells l(-1). Biomass expressed in terms of chlorophyll a was high, ranging from 2.7 to 56.8 mg/m3. A typical dinoflagellate pigment profile (chlorophyll a and c, peridinin, diadinoxantin, and beta-carotene) was recorded. In this study, the red tide occurred in front of several fish and shrimp-culture ponds. No PST toxins were found in the samples. However, 180 fish were found dead in the infected fish-pond; the gills were the most affected part. C. polykrikoides is a cyst-forming species that recurs in this area. New blooms were observed in November 2000 and September-November 2001 in the same area. Anthropogenic activities, such as eutrophication caused by water discharge in this shallow lagoon, and nutrient enrichment in the culture ponds, as well as effects from precipitation and wind stress, could have favored the outbreak of this dinoflagellate. PMID:17465117

Gárate-Lizárraga, I; López-Cortes, D J; Bustillos-Guzmán, J J; Hernández-Sandoval, F

2004-09-01

364

An initial probabilistic hazard assessment of oil dispersants approved by the United States National Contingency Plan.  

PubMed

Dispersants are commonly applied during oil spill mitigation efforts; however, these industrial chemicals may present risks to aquatic organisms individually and when mixed with oil. Fourteen dispersants are listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). Availability of environmental effects information for such agents is limited, and individual components of dispersants are largely proprietary. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches including Chemical Toxicity Distributions (CTDs) may be useful as an initial step toward prioritizing environmental hazards from the use of dispersants. In the present study, we applied the CTD approach to two acute toxicity datasets: NCP (the contingency plan dataset) and DHOS (a subset of NCP listed dispersants reevaluated subsequent to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill). These datasets contained median lethal concentration (LC50) values for dispersants alone and dispersant:oil mixtures, in two standard marine test species, Menidia beryllina and Mysidopsis bahia. These CTDs suggest that dispersants alone are generally less toxic than oil. In contrast, most dispersant:oil mixtures are more toxic than oil alone. For the two datasets (treated separately because of differing methodologies), CTDs would predict 95% of dispersant:oil mixtures to have acute toxicity values above 0.32 and 0.76 mg/L for Mysidopsis and 0.33 mg/L and 1.06 mg/L for Menidia (for DHOS and NCP, respectively). These findings demonstrate the utility of CTDs as a means to evaluate the comparative ecotoxicity of dispersants alone and in mixture with different oil types. The approaches presented here also provide valuable tools for prioritizing prospective and retrospective environmental assessments of oil dispersants. PMID:21425326

Berninger, Jason P; Williams, E Spencer; Brooks, Bryan W

2011-07-01

365

Distribution, habitat, size, and color pattern of Cnemidophorus lemniscatus (Sauria: Teiidae) on Cayo Cochino Pequen??o, Honduras  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cayo Cochino Pequen??o is a 0.64-km2 Caribbean island in the Cayos Cochinos archipelago, Department of Islas de la Bahi??a, Honduras. One published report noted the presence of the rainbow whiptail (Cnemidophorus lemniscatus) on Cayo Cochino Pequen??o, but nothing is known about the biology of this insular population. During a part of the dry season in July and August 2004, we used drift fences, pitfall traps, and separate observational transects to elucidate the distribution and habitat use of C. lemniscatus on the island. The only population of this species was located in a narrow coastal zone (width to 60 m and length to 450 m) on the southern half of the eastern windward side of the island. We analyzed the percentage of the canopy cover and the percentage of 4 ground coverage types along 2 transects 200 m long in this area to understand the basis of the suitability of the habitat for C. lemniscatus. Descriptively, the area harboring this species on Cayo Cochino Pequen??o consisted of the remnants of a coconut palm grove with low-lying herbaceous vegetation and grasses, in which a mosaic of small, open areas of sandy soil and coral fragments, with or without accumulations of debris, were the foci of lizard activities. Also observed in this habitat were 2 individuals of the brown racer (Dryadophis melanolomus), an actively foraging snake and likely predator on C. lemniscatus. Data obtained on rainbow whiptails captured in pitfall traps and subsequently released were used to determine the size and color patterns of hatchlings and adult males and females.

Montgomery, C. E.; Reed, R. N.; Shaw, H. J.; Boback, S. M.; Walker, J. M.

2007-01-01

366

Efficacy of parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in faecal specimens.  

PubMed

To compare the efficacy of stool examination for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm, a total of 634 stool samples from the routine laboratory service of the Pharmacia Faculty, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, were examined by agar plate culture (APC), Baermann-Moraes and spontaneous sedimentation. The sensitivity of agar plate culture, calculated by combining results of all 3 methods, was 95% for S. stercoralis and 77.6% for hookwoorm. Moreover, APC had superior accuracy than Baermann-Moraes and spontaneous sedimentation for S. stercoralis and hookworm diagnosis, respectively. The S. stercoralis and hookworm positive samples from the laboratory routine, obtained after the previous analysis, along with those initially selected, were used to evaluate the concordance between microscopic examination and both the type of furrows left by larvae and the time for culture positivity using the APC method. Of 115 stool samples positive for S. stercoralis and 92 positive for hookworm, 110 (95.7%) and 89 (96.7%), respectively, had concordant results for furrows and morphological characteristics. The cumulative percentage of positivity increased to 94% by the third day of observation; at this time, only 19.6% of hookworm-positive samples had positive culture plates. Analyses of 74 S. stercoralis-positive stool samples stored at 4°C for 24, 48 and 72h showed the presence of larvae in 48.6%, 28.4% and 23% of samples, respectively when re-examined by the APC. As a definitive diagnosis of strongyloidiasis depends on the microscopic demonstration of parasites, increasing the sensitivity of the detection requires the use of different parasitological methods, including APC. PMID:21896267

Inês, Elizabete de J; Souza, Joelma N; Santos, Renata C; Souza, Eliane S; Santos, Fred L; Silva, Mônica L S; Silva, Moacir P; Teixeira, Márcia C A; Soares, Neci M

2011-12-01

367

Collapse of the northern Jalisco continental slope:Subduction erosion, forearc slivering, or subduction beneath the Tres Marias escarpment?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jalisco subduction zone exhibits several interesting characteristics. Among these is that convergence between the Rivera and North American plate is highly oblique, especially north of 20N, the obliquity progressively increasing to the NW. By analogy to other better studied subduction zones, this distribution of forces should produce a NW-SE extension in the overriding plate, especially north of 20N. This has led to the proposal that the trench perpendicular Bahia de Banderas is an expression of this extension [Kostoglodov and Bandy, JGR, vol. 100, 1995]. To further investigate this proposal, multibeam bathymetric data and seafloor backscatter images, seismic reflection sub-bottom profiles and marine magnetic data were collected during the MORTIC08 campaign of the B.O. EL PUMA in March 2009. The bathymetric data provides for 100% coverage (20 to 200 meter spacing of the actual measured depth value depending on the water depth) of the continental slope and trench areas north of 20N. These data indicate that a marked change occurs in the morphology of the continental slope at 20N. To the north the slope consists of a broad, fairly flat plain lying between a steep lower inner trench slope to the west and a steep, concave seaward, escarpment to the east. In contrast, to the south the continental slope exhibits a more gradual deepening until the steep lower inner trench slope. A prominent submarine canyon deeply incises the continental slope between these two morphotectonic domains. This canyon appears to represent the boundary between two NW-SE diverging forearc blocks or slivers, consistent with the presence of oblique convergence. In contrast, the broad, fairly flat plain is better explained by subsidence induced by subduction erosion (i.e. erosion of the base of the overriding plate underneath the continental slope area). The shoaling of the trench axis northward towards the Puerto Vallarta Graben and subsequent deepening may be related to subduction of the Rivera Plate beneath the Tres Marias Escarpment.

Bandy, W. L.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Ortiz-Zamora, G.; Ortega-Ramirez, J.; Galindo Dominguez, R. E.; Ponce-Núñez, F.; Pérez-Calderón, D.; Rufino-Contreras, I.; Valle-Hernández, S.; Pérez-González, E.

2010-12-01

368

Preconcentration and determination of copper in tobacco leaves samples by using a minicolumn of sisal fiber (Agave sisalana) loaded with Alizarin fluorine blue by FAAS.  

PubMed

In the present study, a minicolumn of sisal fiber loaded with alizarin fluorine blue is proposed as a preconcentration system for copper determination in tobacco leaf samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. During the optimization procedure, a two level full factorial design (2(4)) was used at the preliminary evaluation of four factors, involving the following variables: sampling flow rate, elution flow rate, buffer concentration and pH. Regarding the studied levels, this design has shown that buffer concentration and pH were significant factors. The experimental conditions established in the optimization step were: pH=4.75, buffer concentration of 0.005 mol L(-1) for elution with HCl 1.0 mol L(-1) this system allows the determination of copper content with a detection limit (LD) of 0.018 ?g L(-1) and a quantification limit (LQ) of 0.061 ?g L(-1) precision expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 4.65 and 5.07%, utilizing concentration of 10 and 2.0 ?g L(-1), respectively, and a preconcentration factor of 75, for a sample volume of 50.0 mL. Accuracy was confirmed by copper determination in the standard reference material, NIST SRM 1570 a trace element units in Spinach Leaves and by spike tests with recovery levels ranging from 93 to 100%; the procedure was applied for copper determination in tobacco leaf samples collected in Cruz das Almas City, Bahia, Brazil. The achieved concentrations of the three samples analyzed varied from 0.15 to 0.52 ?g g(-1). PMID:22284492

Dias, Fábio de S; Bonsucesso, Josemário S; Oliveira, Lucas C; dos Santos, Walter N L

2012-01-30

369

Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee's permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that "facilitators" under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and intermediate institutionalism. The regional interagency committee's managerial routine needs to incorporate more democratic devices for connecting with educational institutions, devices that are more permeable to social demands relating to regional policy making. PMID:25210821

Santos, Adriano Maia Dos; Giovanella, Ligia

2014-08-01

370

Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

2003-08-01

371

Exserohilum rostratum: Characterization of a Cross-Kingdom Pathogen of Plants and Humans  

PubMed Central

Pathogen host shifts represent a major source of new infectious diseases. There are several examples of cross-genus host jumps that have caused catastrophic epidemics in animal and plant species worldwide. Cross-kingdom jumps are rare, and are often associated with nosocomial infections. Here we provide an example of human-mediated cross-kingdom jumping of Exserohilum rostratum isolated from a patient who had received a corticosteroid injection and died of fungal meningitis in a Florida hospital in 2012. The clinical isolate of E. rostratum was compared with two plant pathogenic isolates of E. rostratum and an isolate of the closely related genus Bipolaris in terms of morphology, phylogeny, and pathogenicity on one C3 grass, Gulf annual rye grass (Lolium multiflorum), and two C4 grasses, Japanese stilt grass (Microstegium vimineum) and bahia grass (Paspalum notatum). Colony growth and color, as well as conidia shape and size were the same for the clinical and plant isolates of E. rostratum, while these characteristics differed slightly for the Bipolaris sp. isolate. The plant pathogenic and clinical isolates of E. rostratum were indistinguishable based on morphology and ITS and 28S rDNA sequence analysis. The clinical isolate was as pathogenic to all grass species tested as the plant pathogenic strains that were originally isolated from plant hosts. The clinical isolate induced more severe symptoms on stilt grass than on rye grass, while this was the reverse for the plant isolates of E. rostratum. The phylogenetic similarity between the clinical and plant-associated E. rostratum isolates and the ability of the clinical isolate to infect plants suggests that a plant pathogenic strain of E. rostratum contaminated the corticosteroid injection fluid and was able to cause systemic disease in the affected patient. This is the first proof that a clinical isolate of E. rostratum is also an effective plant pathogen. PMID:25285444

Sharma, Kalpana; Goss, Erica M.; Dickstein, Ellen R.; Smith, Matthew E.; Johnson, Judith A.; Southwick, Frederick S.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

2014-01-01

372

Mortality normalization of chronic growth data for point estimate determination  

SciTech Connect

The US EPA seven day chronic Pimephales promelas (EPA/600/4-89/001), Cyprinodon variegatus, Menidia beryllina, and Mysidopsis bahia (EPA/600/4-87/028) protocols use a final mass measurement as an estimate of chronic toxicity. The mean final mass per surviving organism is determined per replicate at the conclusion of the bioassay and used for all statistical analysis. Calculating point estimates using final mass measurements determined in this way can be problematic. Ignoring all mortality when determining the final mass can bias the growth data. The sampled population for growth determination are no longer randomly distributed, having been preselected based on their resistance to the toxic constituent. Two techniques for normalizing this growth data were examined using effluent and reference toxicant data from seven day chronic Pimephales promelas bioassays. The first technique combined the mortality and growth endpoints by defining the final mass as the total replicate mass divided by the number of organisms present at test initiation. The second method employed an initial mass as an estimate of the final mass for all dead larvae. The growth endpoints were calculated as indicated in the protocol (EPA/600/4-89/001) and with both normalization procedures. The endpoint determination methods were then evaluated using linear interpolation (ICp). Both normalization methods dramatically improved the linear interpolation`s ability to calculate effect levels which could not be calculated in non-normalized data sets. Comparative differences in point estimates between the two normalization techniques indicate that combining the mortality and growth endpoints by dividing the replicate mass by number of organisms at initiation can, and in most cases will, overestimate toxicity.

Markle, P.; Bottomley, J.; Baird, R.

1995-12-31

373

Comparison of empirical models for predicting lethal body burdens of neutral, organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Three empirical models that predict lethal body burdens (LBBs) for neutral organic compounds were evaluated by using a probabilistic modeling technique. The models had the general form: log LBB = [(m log K{sub ow} + b) + (log K{sub ow} + log lipid content)]. The median and 95% predictive intervals from the model were compared to 14 independently-developed, residue-effect values from the literature for seven compounds and five aquatic species. One model, which was developed by calculating mean slopes (m) and intercepts (b) from thirteen published linear quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), consistently overestimated the LBBs reported in the literature. A second model, which was developed by fitting Pimephales promelas toxicity data to a one compartment, first-order kinetic model, accurately predicted 7 of 14 (50%) reported LBBs. A third model was developed by fitting toxicity test data from three species (Cyprinodon variegatus, Mysidopsis bahia, and P. promelas) to a linear QSAR, and correctly predicted 13 of 14 (93%) reported LBBs. This study demonstrated that LBBs were accurately predicted on the basis of the toxicant`s octanol-water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) and the lipid content of the exposed organism. The multi-species model was more accurate than the single-species model for predicting LBBs. An accurate multi-species model could not be estimated by calculating the mean slope and intercept of several single-species QSARs; the original data were required. These results verify that empirical, structure-based models are a valid approach for predicting the toxicity of neutral, organic compounds to a variety of species. This modeling approach has applications for assessing ecological risks, especially for species that have not been used in laboratory toxicity tests.

Kubitz, J.A.; Lauren, D.J.; Barber, T.R. [ENTRIX, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States); [ENTRIX, Inc., Sacramento, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

374

Environmental assessment of an alkyl dimethyl benyzl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) based mollusicide using laboratory tests  

SciTech Connect

A series of acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted to estimate the potential environmental impact of n-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) when used to control zebra mussels and other types of macrofouling organism in industrial cooling systems. The ADBAC-based molluscicide was tested as pure product and often detoxification with bentonite clay. Six flow-through acute tests were conducted to estimate the toxicity of ADBAC. In addition three chronic toxicity tests using Pimephales promelas, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of complexing the ADBAC-based molluscicide with a bentonite clay as a detoxification strategy. A 29-day CO{sub 2} Production test was also conducted to evaluate the biodegradability of the molluscicide. Of the six species tested in acute flow-through experiments, D. magna (LC{sub 50} = 0.02 mg ADBAC/L) was the most sensitive species followed by Mysidopsis bahia (LC{sub 50} = 0.08 mg ADBAC/L), Menidia beryllina (LC{sub 50} = 0.88 mg ADBAC/L), P. promelas (LC{sub 50} = 0.36 mg ADBAC/L), Cyprinodon variegatus (LC{sub 50} = 0.88 mg ADBAC/L), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (LC{sub 50} = 1.01 mg ADBAC/L). In the detoxification studies the three test species were exposed to treatment levels of: 0:0, 2.5:0, 2.5:25, 2.5:37.5, 2.5:50, 2.5:75, and 0:75 as mg/L ADBAC:clay. Bentonite clay was found to be an effective detoxification agent for this molluscicide at all treatment levels, except for the 2.5:25 treatment. In addition, a biodegradation study showed that the ADBAC-based molluscicide was readily biodegradable by unacclimated activated sludge microorganisms releasing 65.9% of the theoretical possible CO{sub 2} after 29 days.

Dobbs, M.G.; Cherry, D.S.; Scott, J.C. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Petrille, J.C. [Betz Water Management Center, Trevose, PA (United States)

1995-06-01

375

Passion fruit green spot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on passion fruit in Brazil.  

PubMed

Passion fruit green spot disease was first identified in 1997 after a severe outbreak at Vera Cruz County, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mature yellow fruits of Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Degener showed characteristic green spots, 2-5 mm in diameter and patches of green tissues were present on senescent leaves. The devastating effect to passion flower is caused by necrotic lesions that encircle the stems and kill the plant. In severe cases, entire orchards of a few hectares in size have been completely destroyed. The disease was always preceded by heavy infestations of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues (fruits, leaves, and stems) consistently revealed the presence of short, bacilliform particles (50-70 nm x 100-120 nm) in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as the presence of a dense viroplasm in the cytoplasm. This cytopathic effect has been found in several other Brevipalpus-transmitted or associated viruses and is classified as a cytoplasmic type of disease. Experimental reproduction of the leaf and stem symptoms was achieved by transferring B. phoenicis collected from affected field passion flower plants onto healthy plants. The evidence supports a viral etiology for the disease and the agent was named passion fruit green spot virus. Its relationship with other B. phoenicis related viruses continues to be studied. The disease was also found in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Sergipe, Rondonia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and in the Federal District. Use of one or more of the following acaricides (hexythiazox, fenbutatin-oxide, propargite, quinomethionate, or dicofol) has significantly reduced the incidence of the disease. PMID:14756419

Kitajima, E W; Rezende, J A M; Rodrigues, J C V

2003-01-01

376

Probabilistic inversion of gravity data from the Reconcavo Basin, Northeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity imaging is still a useful tool both in Solid Earth Geophysics and Exploration Geophysics, in special for the oil industry in the latter case. Although it provides a lower resolution than exploration seismology techniques, gravity imaging is cheaper and is very useful in integrated studies together with reflection exploration seismology. As an ill-posed inverse problem, gravity imaging needs extra information, like prior information or regularization, in order to reduce its ill-posedness. There are several approaches for gravity modeling. The 2-D model can be characterized by a set of uniform blocks, where the density can vary from a block to the other but it is constant within each block. The inversion is in this case linear, and consists in the determination of 2-D density distribution from the values of observed gravity anomalies. Also, the 2-D model can be characterized by a set of vertical prisms of different sizes. The inversion is in this case non-linear, and consists in the determination of the bottom coordinate of each prism. We applied the fast simulated annealing and the minimum relative entropy approaches to a set of real data from the Reconcavo Basin, nearby the city of Salvador, capital of the State of Bahia, Brazil. Both formulations are based on probabilistic philosophies, and the second is also based on the concept of entropy. It is defined an objective function which contains the relative entropy of the probability density function of the model parameters. The objective function is then minimized under adequate constraints in order to give the output estimate of the model parameters. The tests with real data show the feasibility of these approaches and its advantage in relation to generalized inversion, in particular in underdetermined gravity inverse problems where prior information has a crucial role.

Bassrei, A.

2010-12-01

377

Exserohilum rostratum: Characterization of a Cross-Kingdom Pathogen of Plants and Humans.  

PubMed

Pathogen host shifts represent a major source of new infectious diseases. There are several examples of cross-genus host jumps that have caused catastrophic epidemics in animal and plant species worldwide. Cross-kingdom jumps are rare, and are often associated with nosocomial infections. Here we provide an example of human-mediated cross-kingdom jumping of Exserohilum rostratum isolated from a patient who had received a corticosteroid injection and died of fungal meningitis in a Florida hospital in 2012. The clinical isolate of E. rostratum was compared with two plant pathogenic isolates of E. rostratum and an isolate of the closely related genus Bipolaris in terms of morphology, phylogeny, and pathogenicity on one C3 grass, Gulf annual rye grass (Lolium multiflorum), and two C4 grasses, Japanese stilt grass (Microstegium vimineum) and bahia grass (Paspalum notatum). Colony growth and color, as well as conidia shape and size were the same for the clinical and plant isolates of E. rostratum, while these characteristics differed slightly for the Bipolaris sp. isolate. The plant pathogenic and clinical isolates of E. rostratum were indistinguishable based on morphology and ITS and 28S rDNA sequence analysis. The clinical isolate was as pathogenic to all grass species tested as the plant pathogenic strains that were originally isolated from plant hosts. The clinical isolate induced more severe symptoms on stilt grass than on rye grass, while this was the reverse for the plant isolates of E. rostratum. The phylogenetic similarity between the clinical and plant-associated E. rostratum isolates and the ability of the clinical isolate to infect plants suggests that a plant pathogenic strain of E. rostratum contaminated the corticosteroid injection fluid and was able to cause systemic disease in the affected patient. This is the first proof that a clinical isolate of E. rostratum is also an effective plant pathogen. PMID:25285444

Sharma, Kalpana; Goss, Erica M; Dickstein, Ellen R; Smith, Matthew E; Johnson, Judith A; Southwick, Frederick S; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

2014-01-01

378

Are the Taitao granites formed due to subduction of the Chile ridge?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Taitao granites are distributed around the Late Miocene Taitao ophiolite (5.66 ± 0.33 Ma to 5.19 ± 0.15 Ma) exposed at the western tip of the Taitao peninsula, southern Chile, ~ 50 km southeast from the present day Chile triple junction. In this paper, we report sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb ages for the Taitao granites to elucidate the temporal relationship between the ophiolite and granites, and discuss the origin of the granitic melts. Five intrusive bodies of the Taitao granites have U-Pb ages ranging from 5.70 ± 0.25 Ma (Tres Montes pluton in southeast) to 3.92 ± 0.07 Ma (Cabo Raper pluton in southwest). The Estero Cono, Seno Hoppner and Bahia Barrientos intrusions that fringe eastern margin of the ophiolite have U-Pb ages ranging from 5.17 ± 0.09 Ma to 4.88 ± 0.3 Ma. Recycled zircon cores are common only in the Tres Montes pluton. Our data indicate that the generation of the granitic melts started in the Tres Montes area when a short segment of the Chile ridge system started to subduct ca. 6 Ma ago. This magmatism involved contamination with sediments/basement rocks. A part of the subducting ridge center was emplaced to form the present Taitao ophiolite at ~ 5.6 Ma. Generation of granitic melts continued as the spreading center of the same ridge segment subducted, due perhaps to partial melting of the ophiolite and/or oceanic crust enhanced by heat from upwelling mantle beneath the ridge. Granitic magmas with various compositions developed during subduction of the ridge. Emplacement of the ophiolite and formation of continental crust took place almost simultaneously.

Anma, Ryo; Armstrong, Richard; Orihashi, Yuji; Ike, Shin-ichi; Shin, Ki-Cheol; Kon, Yoshiaki; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Ota, Tsutomu; Kagashima, Shin-ichi; Shibuya, Takazo; Yamamoto, Shinji; Veloso, Eugenio E.; Fanning, Mark; Hervé, Francisco

2009-12-01

379

The North?east?Brazilian Liana, Adenocalymna dichilum (Bignoniaceae) Pollinated by Bats  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Of the set of syndromes displayed by specialized (euphilic) flowers, adaptation to pollination by bats (chiropterophily) is the least known. Accumulated new evidence reveals that this pollination mode plays a considerable role in tropical communities, especially in the neotropics. One family in which bat?pollinated species are known in several genera is the Bignoniaceae. Here is reported, for the first time, bat pollination and floral ecology in Adenocalymna dichilum (tribe Bignonieae). • Methods Floral features of this species growing in Bahia (north?east Brazil) indicated possible chiropterophily, which was subsequently confirmed by direct observation and from photographs of bat visits. Timing of anthesis and nectar parameters were monitored in the field, and floral morphology was investigated with fixed flowers. • Key Results One to two flowers open per night on the upright, simple racemes of A. dichilum during several weeks in a ‘steady state’ mode. The bilabiate, cream?coloured corollas are functional for only a single night and wilt during the following day. A stout corolla, with a musky odour, and a large nectary disc with large quantities of watery nectar also conform to the syndrome. Glossophaga soricina (Glossophaginae) visited and pollinated the flowers in a trap?lining manner. Whilst hovering, the bats put their heads into the corolla mouth for less than 1 s to feed, thereby effecting the transfer of pollen which is deposited on their backs. • Conclusions Adenocalymna, a New World genus comprising approx. 50 species, exhibits floral adaptive radiation including species pollinated by bees, birds and possibly moths. The discovery of chiropterophily in A. dichilum adds another facet to the array of floral syndromes represented in the genus. PMID:15037447

MACHADO, ISABEL CRISTINA; VOGEL, STEFAN

2004-01-01

380

Evapotranspiration parameterizations at a grass site in Florida, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In spite of the fact that grasslands account for about 40% of the ice-free global terrestrial land cover, their contribution to the surface exchanges of energy and water in local and regional scale is so far uncertain. In this study, the sensitivity of evapotranspiration (ET) and other energy fluxes to wetness variables, namely the volumetric Soil Water Content (SWC) and Antecedent Precipitation Index (API), over a non-irrigated grass site in Central Florida, USA (28.049 N, 81.400 W) were investigated. Eddy correlation and soil water content measurements were taken by USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) at the grass study site, within 100 m of a SFWMD (South Florida Water Management District) weather station. The soil is composed of fine sands and it is mainly covered by Paspalum notatum (bahia grass). Variable soil wetness conditions with API bounds of about 2 to 160 mm and water table levels of 0.03 to 1.22 m below ground surface, respectively, were observed throughout the year 2004. The Bowen ratio exhibited an average of 1 and values larger than 2 during few dry days. The daytime average ET was classified into two stages, first stage (energy-limited) and second stage (water- limited) based on the water availability. The critical values of API and SWC were found to be about 56 mm and 0.17 respectively, with the second one being approximately 33% of the SWC at saturation. The ET values estimated by the simple Priestley-Taylor (PT) method were compared to the actual values. The PT coefficient varied from a low bound of approximately 0.4 to a peak of 1.21. Simple relationships for the PT empirical factor were employed in terms of SWC and API to improve the accuracy of the second stage observations. The results of the ET parameterizations closely match eddy-covariance flux values on daily and longer time steps.

Rizou, M.; Sumner, David M.; Nnadi, F.

2007-01-01

381

When depth is no refuge: cumulative thermal stress increases with depth in Bocas del Toro, Panama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are increasingly affected by high-temperature stress events and associated bleaching. Monitoring and predicting these events have largely utilized sea surface temperature data, due to the convenience of using large-scale remotely sensed satellite measurements. However, coral bleaching has been observed to vary in severity throughout the water column, and variations in coral thermal stress across depths have not yet been well investigated. In this study, in situ water temperature data from 1999 to 2011 from three depths were used to calculate thermal stress on a coral reef in Bahia Almirante, Bocas del Toro, Panama, which was compared to satellite surface temperature data and thermal stress calculations for the same area and time period from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coral Reef Watch Satellite Bleaching Alert system. The results show similar total cumulative annual thermal stress for both the surface and depth-stratified data, but with a striking difference in the distribution of that stress among the depth strata during different high-temperature events, with the greatest thermal stress unusually recorded at the deepest measured depth during the most severe bleaching event in 2005. Temperature records indicate that a strong density-driven temperature inversion may have formed in this location in that year, contributing to the persistence and intensity of bleaching disturbance at depth. These results indicate that depth may not provide a stress refuge from high water temperature events in some situations, and in this case, the water properties at depth appear to have contributed to greater coral bleaching at depth compared to near-surface locations. This case study demonstrates the importance of incorporating depth-stratified temperature monitoring and small-scale oceanographic and hydrologic data for understanding and predicting local reef responses to elevated water temperature events.

Neal, B. P.; Condit, C.; Liu, G.; dos Santos, S.; Kahru, M.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kline, D. I.

2014-03-01

382

Relative salinity tolerance of warm season turfgrass species.  

PubMed

Fresh water, coupled with soil salinization in many areas has resulted in an increased need forscreening of salt tolerant turf grasses. Relative salinity tolerance of eightwarm season turfgrass species were examined in this study in sand culture. Grasses were grown in a glasshouse, irrigated with either distilled water or saline sea water adjusted to 24, 48 or 72 dSm-1. Salt tolerances of the grasses were assessed on the basis of their shoot and root growth, leaf firing and turf quality. Regression analysis indicated that Zoysiajaponica (Japanese lawn grass) (JG), Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustine) (SA), Cynodon dactylon (satiri) (BS), Zoysia teneuifolia (Korean grass) (KG), Digitaria didactyla (Serangoon grass) (SG), Cynodon dactylon (Tifdwarf) (TD), Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass) (BG) and Axonopus compressus(Pearl blue) (PB) suffered a 50% shoot growth reduction at 36.0, 31.8, 30.9, 28.4, 26.4, 25.7, 20.0 and 18.6 dSm1 of salinity, respectively and a root growth reduction at44.9, 43.7, 33.4, 31.0, 29.5 27.5, 21.5 and 21.4 dSm- of salinity, respectively. Leaf firing and turf quality of the selected species, as a whole, were also found to be affected harmoniously with the change in root and shoot growth. On the basis of the experimental results the selected species were ranked for salinity tolerance as JG>SA>BS>KG>SG >TD>BG>PB. PMID:22167942

Uddin, Kamal M; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Othman, Radziah; Rahim, Anuar Abdul

2011-05-01

383

Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.  

PubMed

Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both types of subtropical grass pollens to achieve optimal diagnosis and treatment of patients with allergic respiratory disease in subtropical regions of the world. PMID:24684550

Davies, J M

2014-06-01

384

Differential Responses of Emergent Intertidal Coral Reef Fauna to a Large-Scale El-Ni?o Southern Oscillation Event: Sponge and Coral Resilience  

PubMed Central

There is a paucity of information on the impacts of the 1997–8 El Niño event and subsequent climatic episodes on emergent intertidal coral reef assemblages. Given the environmental variability intertidal reefs experience, such reefs may potentially be more resilient to climatic events and provide important insights into the adaptation of reef fauna to future ocean warming. Here we report the results of a 17-year (1995–2011) biodiversity survey of four emergent coral reef ecosystems in Bahia, Brazil, to assess the impact of a major El Niño event on the reef fauna, and determine any subsequent recovery. The densities of two species of coral, Favia gravida and Siderastrea stellata, did not vary significantly across the survey period, indicating a high degree of tolerance to the El Niño associated stress. However, there were marked decreases in the diversity of other taxa. Molluscs, bryozoans and ascidians suffered severe declines in diversity and abundance and had not recovered to pre-El Niño levels by the end of the study. Echinoderms were reduced to a single species in 1999, Echinometra lucunter, although diversity levels had recovered by 2002. Sponge assemblages were not impacted by the 1997–8 event and their densities had increased by the study end. Multivariate analysis indicated that a stable invertebrate community had re-established on the reefs after the El Niño event, but it has a different overall composition to the pre-El Niño community. It is unclear if community recovery will continue given more time, but our study highlights that any increase in the frequency of large-scale climatic events to more than one a decade is likely to result in a persistent lower-diversity state. Our results also suggest some coral and sponge species are particularly resilient to the El Niño-associated stress and therefore represent suitable models to investigate temperature adaptation in reef organisms. PMID:24675785

Kelmo, Francisco; Bell, James J.; Moraes, Simone Souza; Gomes, Rilza da Costa Tourinho; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Attrill, Martin J.

2014-01-01

385

Epidemiological situation of leprosy in Salvador from 2001 to 2009*  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium leprae was first described as the bacillus that causes leprosy, a chronic granulomatous infectious disease, in 1873 by Amauer Hansen. Leprosy is part of a group of 10 neglected diseases and Bahia has endemic levels of this illness, varying between high and very high. The detection of 52 new cases of leprosy in children under 15 years old in Salvador in 2006 is alarming, and suggests an early contact with the disease. The aim of this review is to analyze the epidemiological situation, the detection rate and evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of leprosy in Salvador, in the period 2001-2009. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using secondary data collected at Notifiable Diseases Information System Database (SINAN) through the notification of patients with leprosy. Over these nine years 3,226 patients were reported, with a predominance of: females (51.5%), and clinical multibacillary forms in the general population (51.7%), but when we analyze those under 15 years old, paucibacillary forms (tuberculoid + indeterminate) prevailed. The tuberculoid form was the most diagnosed type of presentation. The annual detection rate in Salvador remained at a very high level of endemicity during the studied period and for those under 15 years old it ranged between high and very high. Grade 2 disabilities both at the time of diagnosis and at discharge after cure, varied between low and medium. Based on these data we conclude that the high levels of leprosy detection rates in the general population, plus the variation between high and very high levels in those under 15 years old, associated with the medium level of grade 2 disabilities at the time of diagnosis and discharge, demonstrate the need for improvement on the existing services, investment in active case finding and training of the healthcare professionals in Salvador. PMID:24626655

Moreira, Shirlei Cristina; Batos, Claudilson Jose de Carvalho; Tawil, Lara

2014-01-01

386

Effects of physical phenomena on the distribution of nutrients and phytoplankton productivity in a coastal lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level, salinity, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, silicate, chlorophylls a, b and c and their phaeophytins, phytoplankton abundance and phytoplankton productivity time series were generated for the mouth and three interior locations of Bahia San Quintin, Baja California, Mexico, for 10 days during summer of 1979. The samples were taken once every 2 h. This was done to describe space and time variability of these ecological properties and to elucidate the main factors that cause this variability. Upwelling events bring nutrient reach waters near the bay mouth and tidal currents propagate those waters throughout the bay. Nutrient remineralization at the sediments and the effect of turbulence induced by tidal currents and winds increase nutrient concentrations in the interiors of the bay. In comparison with available information on nutrients limited growth of planktonic algae, nutrients seemed not to be limiting to phytoplankton growth during the sampling period. Phytoplankton cell abundances at the extremes of the lagoon are an order of magnitude lower than at the mouth due to greater turbidity. Chlorophyll concentrations at the extremes are about one-third of those of the mouth. Primary productivity decreases from the mouth to the interiors in the same manner as chlorophyll does. There is not a significant difference in cell size between phytoplankton at the bay mouth and those at the extremes of the bay. Primary productivity in the bay is comparable to the productivity maxima of other upwelling areas. There is no clear permanent dominance of diatoms over dinoflagellates, or vice versa, at any location in the bay. The alternation of upwelling and non-upwelling played an important role, together with that of the spring-neap tide cycle, in producing low frequency (< 0.01 cycles h -1) temporal variability of ecological properties throughout the bay.

Millan-Nuñez, Roberto; Alvarez-Borrego, Saul; Nelson, David M.

1982-09-01

387

TcCYS4, a cystatin from cocoa, reduces necrosis triggered by MpNEP2 in tobacco plants.  

PubMed

In Brazil, most cocoa bean production occurs in Southern Bahia. Witches' broom disease arrived in this area in 1989 and has since caused heavy losses in production. The disease is caused by the basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, a hemibiotrophic fungus that produces the necrosis and ethylene-inducting protein (MpNEP2) during infection; this protein can activate cysteine proteases and induce programmed cell death. Cysteine proteases can be modulated by cystatin. In this study, we overexpressed TcCYS4, a cocoa cystatin, in tobacco plants and evaluated the effect on MpNEP2 in model plants. Tccys4 cDNA was cloned into the pCAMBIA 1390 vector and inserted into the tobacco plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. Transcript and protein levels in Tcccys4:tobacco lines were 8.9- and 1.5-fold higher than in wild-type plants (wt). Tcccys4:tobacco lines showed no change in growth compared to wt plants. CO2 net assimilation (A) increased in Tcccys4:tobacco lines compared to wt plants. Only one line showed statistically significant stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) changes. MpNEP2 was infiltered into the foliar mesophyll of Tcccys4:tobacco lines and wt plants, and necrotic lesions were attenuated in lines highly expressing Tccys4. Our results suggest that cocoa cystatin TcCYS4 affects MpNEP2 activity related to the progression of programmed cell death in tobacco plants. This may occur through the action of cystatin to inhibit cysteine proteases activated by MpNEP2 in plant tissues. Further studies are necessary to examine cystatin in the Theobroma cacao-M. perniciosa pathosystem. PMID:25299077

Santana, L S; Costa, M G C; Pirovani, N M; Almeida, A F; Alvim, F C; Pirovani, C P

2014-01-01

388

Diversity and Localization of Bacterial Endosymbionts from Whitefly Species Collected in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is the first survey of whitely populations collected in Brazil, and provides further insights into the complexity of infection with secondary endosymionts in whiteflies. PMID:25259930

Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

2014-01-01

389

New Low-Temperature Thermochronology Reveals Contrasting Modes of Continental Extension Across the Sonoran Rifted Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sonoran rifted margin extends 250 km from the western flanks of the Sierra Madre Occidental to the Gulf of California and contains a classic Basin and Range morphology that indicates "broad-rift" mode of continental extension. However, new low-temperature thermochronology reveals that the Sonoran rifted margin is also internally composed of at least two temporally and spatially distinct belts that display other distinct styles of extension. Mountain ranges that lie within a narrow belt (20 km wide) along the coast of the Gulf of California between Puerto Libertad and Bahia Kino yield highly discordant apatite fission track (AFT) ages that range from 5 to 54 Ma and likely reflect the strong tilting of these tectonic blocks. The widespread occurrence of AFT ages between 5 and 7 Ma, which are typically found in the deepest crustal levels of the tilt blocks, and the presence of Quaternary scarps indicate that extension in the coastal region largely occurred from late Miocene to recent times. We infer that this belt is dominated by a "narrow-rift" mode of extension where deformation has been focused to produce the Gulf depression. Well inland from the coast (175 km east) is a belt of metamorphic core complexes that extends more than 200 km from Magdalena to Mazatan and typically yields older and more concordant AFT ages from 14 to 23 Ma. However, the presence of ages as young as 8 to 11 Ma indicate that the "metamorphic-core-complex" mode of extension in this belt likely overlapped in time with the "narrow-rift" mode of extension in the Gulf of California. We conclude that the juxtaposition of major deformation belts each with different modes of continental extension reflects the diverse processes that have affected the Sonoran margin through time.

Kohn, B. P.; Fletcher, J. M.; Gleadow, A. J.; Calmus, T.; Nourse, J. A.

2003-12-01

390

Tolerance of Sponge Assemblages to Temperature Anomalies: Resilience and Proliferation of Sponges following the 1997-8 El-Ni?o Southern Oscillation  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs across the world are under threat from a range of stressors, and while there has been considerable focus on the impacts of these stressors on corals, far less is known about their effect on other reef organisms. The 1997–8 El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had notable and severe impacts on coral reefs worldwide, but not all reef organisms were negatively impacted by this large-scale event. Here we describe how the sponge fauna at Bahia, Brazil was influenced by the 1997–8 ENSO event. Sponge assemblages from three contrasting reef habitats (reef tops, walls and shallow banks) at four sites were assessed annually from 1995 to 2011. The within-habitat sponge diversity did not vary significantly across the study period; however, there was a significant increase in density in all habitats. Multivariate analyses revealed no significant difference in sponge assemblage composition (ANOSIM) between pre- and post-ENSO years for any of the habitats, suggesting that neither the 1997–8 nor any subsequent smaller ENSO events have had any measurable impact on the reef sponge assemblage. Importantly, this is in marked contrast to the results previously reported for a suite of other taxa (including corals, echinoderms, bryozoans, and ascidians), which all suffered mass mortalities as a result of the ENSO event. Our results suggest that of all reef taxa, sponges have the potential to be resilient to large-scale thermal stress events and we hypothesize that sponges might be less affected by projected increases in sea surface temperature compared to other major groups of reef organisms. PMID:24116109

Kelmo, Francisco; Bell, James J.; Attrill, Martin J.

2013-01-01

391

Magnetism of Carbonados  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonados are porous polycrystalline (with crystal sizes up to 100 micrometer) diamonds. Carbonado is found only in alluvial deposits in Bahia, Brazil and in the Central African Republic (CAR). Alluvial deposit host is 1.5 Ga while the carbonados are between 2.6 - 3.8 Ga. The process of fusing the carbonado microcrystals together is not fully understood, partly due to fact that the origin of these carbonado, is not known. Several modes of origins are proposed for carbonado. First, a crustal origin. Carbonados have a light carbon and helium isotopic signature. They contain an enrichment of the rare-earth elements (REE). Carbonados have tightly trapped atmospheric noble gases and contain an evidence of high He content despite the carbonado expected depletion of He at mantle temperatures. Carbonados have high porosity incompatible with high pressure mantle conditions. Second, a mantle origin is proposed based on similar REE pattern to kimberlites. The presence of nitrogen platelet (by IR spectra) indicates high temperature origin and syngenetic inclusions of rutile, ilmenite, and magnetite indicates high pressure and high temperature conditions consistent with mantle origin as well. Third, it is proposed that carbonado diamonds are a result of early impacts into crustal rocks. This is indicated by the rare and controversial occurrence of high pressure diamond polymorph, londsdaleite, frequently found in diamonds from meteorite impact sites, and by observation of planar deformation features, possibly indicating shock events. Finally, it is suggested that carbonados have an extraterrestrial origin, as indicated by a long term annealing based on observation of a zero-phonon line, attributed to paired nitrogen atoms in association with a vacancy.

Kletetschka, G.; Taylor, P. T.; Wasilewski, P. J.

1999-01-01

392

A Community Study of Factors Related to Poorly Controlled Asthma among Brazilian Urban Children  

PubMed Central

Background Asthma constitutes a serious public health problem in many regions of the world, including the city of Salvador, State of Bahia – Brazil. The purpose of this study was to analyse the factors associated with poor asthma control. Methodology/Principal Findings Two definitions were used for asthma: 1) wheezing in the last 12 months; 2) wheezing in the last 12 months plus other asthma symptoms or asthma diagnosis ever. The definition of poorly controlled asthma was: at least one reported hospitalisation due to asthma and/or high frequency of symptoms, in the last year. Children with poorly controlled asthma (N?=?187/374) were compared with wheezing children with controlled asthma regarding age, gender, atopy, parental asthma, rhinitis, eczema, exposure to second hand tobacco smoke, presence of moulds, pets and pests in the house, helminth infections and body mass index. Crude and logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. There was a higher proportion of poorly controlled asthma among children with eczema (OR?=?1.55; 95% CI 1.02; 2.37). The strength of the association was greater among children with eczema and rhinitis (42.6%, 53.4% and 57.7%, respectively, in children who had no rhinitis nor eczema, had only one of those, and had both (p?=?0.02 for trend test). The presence of mould in the houses was inversely associated with poorly controlled asthma (OR?=?0.54; 95% CI 0.34; 0.87). Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate an association between eczema and poor asthma control in this environment, but emphasize the role of various other individual and environmental factors as determinants of poor control. PMID:22693565

Simoes, Silvia de Magalhaes; da Cunha, Sergio S.; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Dias, Karen Conceicao; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M.; Amorim, Leila D.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Barreto, Mauricio L.

2012-01-01

393

Epidemiological situation of leprosy in Salvador from 2001 to 2009.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium leprae was first described as the bacillus that causes leprosy, a chronic granulomatous infectious disease, in 1873 by Amauer Hansen. Leprosy is part of a group of 10 neglected diseases and Bahia has endemic levels of this illness, varying between high and very high. The detection of 52 new cases of leprosy in children under 15 years old in Salvador in 2006 is alarming, and suggests an early contact with the disease. The aim of this review is to analyze the epidemiological situation, the detection rate and evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of leprosy in Salvador, in the period 2001-2009. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using secondary data collected at Notifiable Diseases Information System Database (SINAN) through the notification of patients with leprosy. Over these nine years 3,226 patients were reported, with a predominance of: females (51.5%), and clinical multibacillary forms in the general population (51.7%), but when we analyze those under 15 years old, paucibacillary forms (tuberculoid + indeterminate) prevailed. The tuberculoid form was the most diagnosed type of presentation. The annual detection rate in Salvador remained at a very high level of endemicity during the studied period and for those under 15 years old it ranged between high and very high. Grade 2 disabilities both at the time of diagnosis and at discharge after cure, varied between low and medium. Based on these data we conclude that the high levels of leprosy detection rates in the general population, plus the variation between high and very high levels in those under 15 years old, associated with the medium level of grade 2 disabilities at the time of diagnosis and discharge, demonstrate the need for improvement on the existing services, investment in active case finding and training of the healthcare professionals in Salvador. PMID:24626655

Moreira, Shirlei Cristina; Batos, Claudilson José de Carvalho; Tawil, Lara

2014-01-01

394

Pityriasis versicolor: clinical-epidemiological characterization of patients in the urban area of Buerarema-BA, Brazil*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a cutaneous pigmentation disorder caused by a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia sp. It is a superficial mycosis characterized by well-defined, slightly scaly skin lesions of variable color. In Brazil, the number of reported cases is small, and there are few epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES: to assess incidence, characteristics of the lesions, effectiveness of the Zileri's Sign procedure, and the epidemiological profile of PV in the urban area of Buerarema - Bahia. METHODS: Biological samples were collected on pre-established days at Basic Health Care Units from July to September 2010. Sample collection was followed by laboratory diagnosis using Porto's Method. RESULTS: Of the 158 patients with suspected PV participating in the study, 105 (66.5%) were positive; 72 (68.6%) were female and 33 (31.4%) were male. Sex and location of lesions showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The region with the highest rate of cases of PV was found to be the center of the city, with 40.9% of diagnosed cases. The most affected age group was between 10 and 19 years. There was a significant association between the results produced through Zileri's Sign and Porto's Method in relation to positive and negative results (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a higher prevalence of PV among individuals at puberty. The Zileri's Sign method proved to be counterproductive, because it showed low efficacy as a method for clinical diagnosis, yielding negative results for 36 (34.3%) patients who had been diagnosed with PV through laboratory examination. PMID:23739695

Santana, Juliano Oliveira; de Azevedo, Fernanda Luiza Andrade; Campos, Pedro Costa

2013-01-01

395

The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data.  

PubMed

A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO(4)(2-)). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC(marine) using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na(2)MoO(4)·2H(2)O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC(10) levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC(5,50%) (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74(mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a value that can be used for national and international regulatory purposes. PMID:22663766

Heijerick, D G; Regoli, L; Stubblefield, W

2012-07-15

396

[Sea star (Asteroidea) association structures on the rocky reef in the Gulf of California, Mexico].  

PubMed

Sea stars are invertebrates that play relevant roles in rocky and coral reefs: they occupy different levels in food webs and may act as top predators. There are numerous studies on taxonomy and biogeography of the class in the eastern tropical Pacific, but information about the attributes and composition of its assemblages is scant. The objectives of this study were the examination and comparison of asteroid community structure from four regions of the Gulf of California, Mexico, characterized by the presence of rocky reefs, and the search for possible associations between pairs of species. In August 2004 we visited four locations in the western gulf: Bahia de Los Angeles (29 degrees N), Santa Rosalia (27 degrees N), Loreto (26 degrees N) and La Paz (24 degrees N), and censuses sea stars using 50 m2 belt transects (N=93). Abundance and species richness was estimated, as well as diversity (H'), evenness (J') and taxonomic distinctness (delta*); then, all variables were compared among regions with analysis of variance. In addition, an ordination analysis was run looking for groups of locations with similar faunistic composition. Our results showed that Loreto Bay had the highest richness and abundance of asteroids, probably because it presents a large number of habitats and multiple food sources; these conditions seem to favor the occurrence of rare species and of detritivores. However, there were no significant interregional differences among ecological indices, nor we detected groups of locations singled out because of its species composition. Thus, community structure of sea stars in rocky areas of the Gulf of California is quite homogeneous and do not change with latitude. This is a consequence of the fact that all regions under analysis had the species Phataria unifascialis and Pharia pyramidatus as dominant in number. There were significant positive associations between three pairs of species: apparently competition is not particularly relevant to control sea star community structure in the Gulf. PMID:17469253

Reyes Bonilla, Héctor; González Azcárraga, Adriana; Rojas Sierra, Aracely

2005-12-01

397

Duration of exclusive breastfeeding in a Brazilian population: new determinants in a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Determinants of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) differ in effect and magnitude across populations. The present study aimed to identify factors associated with discontinuation of EBF in a municipality in northeastern Brazil, including variables that have received little or no attention in previous literature. Methods This cohort study involved 1,344 mother-child pairs selected from maternity hospitals in Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. Subjects were followed up for 6 months through monthly home visits, and discontinuation of EBF was recorded. Possible determinants were tested using Cox’s four-level hierarchical survival model, taking into consideration the temporal proximity of the predisposing factors to interruption of EBF. Median duration of EBF was estimated using Kaplan-Meier’s survival curve. Results Median duration of EBF was 89 days. Out of the 19 variables tested, 9 showed an association with EBF cessation; of these, two had never been evaluated in Brazilian studies, namely, mother partner’s appreciation for breastfeeding (hazard ratio [HR] 0.62; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.48-0.79) and limiting the number of nighttime feeds at the breast (HR 1.58; 95% CI 1.11-2.23). Another two variables that had been previously evaluated, but had never been described as determinants of discontinuation of EBF showed association: presence of cracked nipples (HR 2.54; 95% CI 2.06-3.13) and prenatal care provided by public services (HR 1.34; 95% CI 1.17-1.55). Other variables showing associations with the outcome were: guidance on breastfeeding received at the hospital (HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.68-0.92), birth in a Baby-Friendly Hospital (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.73-0.99), less than or equal to 8 years of maternal schooling (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.17-1.53), mother working outside the home (HR 1.73; 95% CI 1.53-1.95), and use of a pacifier (HR 1.40; 95% CI 1.14-1.71). Conclusions The study confirmed that the factors associated with EBF duration are multiple, variable, and dependent on the population being evaluated. Characteristics that had never been previously evaluated or described, at least in Brazilian studies, behaved as determinants of EBF in the present study, and thus allow to expand the existing list of factors determining this practice. PMID:24885939

2014-01-01

398

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection in systemic lupus erythematosus patients and evaluation of the risk for HPV-induced lesions.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most common bacterial cause of sexually transmitted disease. It has been associated with arthritis and it is a risk factor for human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions. There are few studies on the frequency of CT infection among systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of endocervical CT infection among SLE patients and evaluate whether or not CT infection is a risk factor for HPV-induced lesions. A cross-sectional study included a group of patients who fulfilled the American College Rheumatology criteria for a definite diagnosis of SLE and a control group of non-SLE female individuals from Bahia, Brazil. Polymerase chain reaction was used on endocervical swab specimens to test for CT; a gynecological examination including a cervical cytology and biopsy was done for the identification of HPV lesions. A total of 105 SLE patients were studied, and the control group was composed of 104 age-matched apparently normal women. The prevalence of CT endocervical infection was 3.0 % [confidence interval (CI) 95 % = 0.6-8.0 %] in the SLE group and 5.0 % (95 % CI = 2.0-11.0 %) in the control group; the prevalence ratio was 0.60 (95 % CI = 0.1-2.5). The prevalence of vulvar condyloma was higher among SLE patients (11.0 vs. 1.0 %, p < 0.001), as were the prevalences of low-grade lesion (12.0 vs. 1.0 %, p < 0.001) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (9.0 vs. 1.0 %, p = 0.02). There was no association between the presence of HPV lesions and CT infections. However, the small number of patients with CT prevents a definite conclusion from being drawn. The prevalence of endocervical CT infection in women with SLE is low and similar to that of the normal population. This suggests that this infection has no role in the pathogenesis of SLE or the development of HPV-induced lesions. PMID:22484838

CostaPinto, Licia; Olavarria, Viviana Gallazzi; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Lyrio, Leomar D' Cirqueira; Oliveira, Rone Peterson Cerqueira; Santana, Iuri Usêda; Cruz, Cristiane Bahiana; Santiago, Mittermayer Barreto

2013-03-01

399

On the origin and tectonic significance of the intra-plate events of Grenvillian-type age in South America: A discussion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this article is to examine the available evidence of intra-plate tectonic episodes of "Grenvillian-type age", affecting the South-American continent, assessing their possible causal correlation with the tectonic processes occurring within the orogenic belts active at their margins. For the Amazonian Craton, the active margin is represented by the Rondonian-San Ignacio and Sunsas belts. However, active margins of similar age are not recognized for the São Francisco and the Rio de La Plata Cratons, and the intra-plate events over them could be reflections of the Kibaran, Irumide or Namaqua orogenic collisions in Africa. Grenvillian-type age events over the Amazonian Craton can be described in four different aspects: shearing and tectonic reactivation along zones of weakness, cratogenic granitic magmatism, alkaline ring complexes, and pervasive regional heating in some localized regions. The first of them may reflect the compressional stresses at active margins, however the others may have different origins. Within the type-region of the K'Mudku tectono thermal episode, mylonites and pseudotachylites cut across the regional granitoid and metamorphic rocks. These shear belts developed under low-to-moderate temperature conditions, that induced resetting of K-Ar and Rb-Sr mineral ages. In the São Francisco Craton, extensional and compressional events of Grenvillian-type age are well registered by the structural features exhibited by the sedimentary rocks of the Espinhaço Supergroup. For example, in Bahia state, an Appalachian-style structure is observed, with large synclines and anticlines extending along hundreds of kilometers. The major difference between the Amazonian and the Congo-São Francisco Cratons is related to heat originated from the Earth's interior. Amazonia exhibits very large areas heated up to 350-400 °C, where the K'Mudku thermo-tectonic episodes were detected. In addition, Amazonia comprises a large amount of cratogenic granitic intrusions, and some alkalic complexes of Mesoproterozoic age, whose origin could be attributed, at least partially, to deeper sources of heat. This is not reported for the São Francisco Craton, and also for its African counterpart, the Congo Craton. Moreover, the Grenvillian-type age intra-plate features over South America demonstrate that while many cratonic fragments were colliding to build Rodinia, rifting was already occurring in parts of the Amazonian and the Congo-São Francisco Cratons.

Cordani, Umberto G.; Fraga, Leda Maria; Reis, Nelson; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Brito-Neves, Benjamim B.

2010-01-01

400

Country watch: Brazil.  

PubMed

Prior to the successful, low-cost, multimedia campaigns of GAPA-Bahia (GAPA-BA), a nongovernmental organization (NGO), campaigns to educate people about HIV, AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were produced by the Brazilian National AIDS/STD Program. Their first campaign, in 1990, focused on fear; their second, in 1995, known as the Braulio campaign, targeted poor men with little education via a conversation between a man and his penis "which had its own will power, opinions about condoms, and a compulsion to have sex." Both campaigns failed. GAPA-BA, in 1990, joined the chorus protesting the campaigns; the NGO believed the messages failed because 1) frightening people drives them away from information and 2) frequent association of AIDS with death is depressing and carries a subliminal message of guilt to those infected. GAPA-BA became the first NGO to produce low-cost, multimedia campaigns nationwide. They focused on "the social responsibility of fighting the disease while emphasizing the value of life and individual sexual freedom." The first campaign, in 1993 and in 1994, used charismatic singers to send short messages encouraging individual responsibility in condom use. The second campaign, in 1995, used "elements from the local culture by affirming the Afro-Bahain heritage expressed in popular music and dance." The light-hearted prevention message during Carnival was "Don't hide from pleasure, avoid AIDS" as a condom was inflated. The 1996 campaign ("Don't rely on luck; use a condom") required five newspaper ads, radio spots, TV ads, 25,000 posters, billboards, and ads on public buses. Five HIV-infected or HIV-affected persons spoke about their lives. This was the first time people living with HIV/AIDS took on educational roles and shed their dangerous and frightening stereotypes. The campaigns are sponsored by donors or remain low in cost because community-based organizations have sensitized other social actors who respond through the community to the epidemic. Carnival bands, hospitals, and drug industries are now producing campaigns. PMID:12347929

Henriques, H

1996-01-01

401

An Observational and Modeling Study of an Atmospheric Internal Bore During NAME 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric internal bores have been identified and studied in a variety of locations around the world. However, until now, atmospheric bores have not been explicitly reported in the North American monsoon region. Observations from the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) 2004, including soundings, surface observations, and wind profilers have been used to identify and describe the structure, dynamics and significance of an atmospheric internal undular bore in the NAME region along the Gulf of California (GoC). Such bores could potentially be important in GoC monsoon surges, which are often instrumental in bringing abundant moisture to the southwestern United States. An undular bore was identified at Bahia Kino in northwestern Mexico during the late evening of 31 July 2004, and was hypothesized to have developed from the interaction of an outflow from a large mesoscale convective system (MCS), which developed along the western slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental during the afternoon, and a surface stable layer. The vertical structure and undular nature of the bore was initially identified from 915-MHz wind profiler data. Results show a series of waves along the bore's leading edge and turbulent mixing of air from above the stable layer to the surface on the downstream face of the leading undulation. The speed of the bore calculated from satellite imagery and surface observations (16.5 ms-1) compared favorably with the speed of a bore from hydraulic theory. In order to further investigate the formation and dissipation mechanisms of the bore, a real-data simulation of the event was performed using version 2.1.2 of the advanced research Weather and Forecasting model (WRF). Results show the model captured the structure of the bore but it was produced too far south compared to observations as the MCS also developed too far south. Results indicate the bore formed due to the collision between the MCS outflow and a stable layer formed by a sea breeze from the GoC and was maintained by wave trapping from an elevated stable layer. It is suggested that the bore dissipated due to enhanced turbulence as the surface stable layer on which it propagated reduced in depth. Explanations of the model results will be presented.

Martin, E. R.; Johnson, R. H.

2007-05-01

402

Determination of copper in airborne particulate matter using slurry sampling and chemical vapor generation atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

The present paper describes the development of a method for the determination of copper in airborne particulate matter using slurry sampling and chemical vapor generation atomic absorption spectrometry (CVG AAS). Chemometric tools were employed to characterize the influence of several factors on the generation of volatile copper species. First, a two-level full factorial design was performed that included the following chemical variables: hydrochloric acid concentration, tetrahydroborate concentration, sulfanilamide concentration and tetrahydroborate volume, using absorbance as the response. Under the established experimental conditions, the hydrochloric acid concentration had the greatest influence on the generation of volatile copper species. Subsequently, a Box-Behnken design was performed to determine the optimum conditions for these parameters. A second chemometric study employing a two-level full factorial design was performed to evaluate the following physical factors: tetrahydroborate flow rate, flame composition, alcohol volume and sample volume. The results of this study demonstrated that the tetrahydroborate flow rate was critical for the process. The chemometric experiments determined the following experimental conditions for the method: hydrochloric acid concentration, 0.208 M; tetrahydroborate concentration, 4.59%; sulfanilamide concentration, 0.79%; tetrahydroborate volume, 2.50 mL; tetrahydroborate flow rate, 6.50 mL min(-1); alcohol volume, 200 µL; and sample volume, 7.0 mL. Thus, this method, using a slurry volume of 500 µL and a final dilution of 7 mL, allowed for the determination of copper with limits of detection and quantification of 0.30 and 0.99 µg L(-1), respectively. Precisions, expressed as RSD%, of 4.6 and 2.8% were obtained using copper solutions at concentrations of 5.0 and 50.0 µg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by the analysis of a certified reference material of urban particulate matter. The copper concentration obtained was 570±63 mg kg(-1), and the certified value was 610±70 mg kg(-1). This method was applied for the determination of copper in airborne particulate matter samples collected in two Brazilian regions of Bahia State, Brazil. The copper contents found varied from 14.46 to 164.31 ng m(-3). PMID:24913868

Silva, Laiana O B; Leao, Danilo J; dos Santos, Debora C; Matos, Geraldo D; de Andrade, Jailson B; Ferreira, Sergio L C

2014-09-01

403

Variability of coastal suprabenthic assemblages from sandy beaches of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela.  

PubMed

The suprabenthos or hyperbenthos is the macrofaunal assemblage of small-sized organisms that interact for some time in the benthic boundary layer. Information about the taxonomic composition and role of suprabenthic species, especially in littoral zones, is scarce and scattered. This work attempts to contribute alleviate this problem. We analyze the temporal and spatial variations of suprabenthic assemblages in the swash-zone from four beaches of the littoral coast of Venezuela. For each beach, two sites were chosen, and special attention was given to water and sediment characteristics. 12 environmental variables were measured: Dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation percentage, pH, salinity, surface temperature, total, organic and inorganic suspended solids, total organic carbon, organic matter in sediment, grain size of sediment, and amount of dragged material of sample. All faunal samples were taken on a monthly basis during 2011; these were extracted using a manual suprabenthic sledge towed parallel to the shoreline. Samples were sorted and identified to their lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 24 141 specimens (mean abundance: 26.16 +/- 55.35 ind./m2) belonging to 21 taxonomic groups were identified. Analysis suggests that seasonality does not explain observed changes either in fauna or environmental variables. It was found that suprabenthic assemblages, total suprabenthos density, richness and environmental variables changed in a dissimilar fashion between months and beaches. The most frequent groups were amphipods and decapods; and at the species/categories level post-larval shrimp (Penaeidae), Grapsidae crab megalopae and Arenaeus cribarius megalopae were common. Dissimilarity between months in each beach was primarily explained by the abundance of amphipods, ctenophores, decapods and mysids. For particular months and selected beaches very high abundances of ctenophores were found. This group dominated the sample even though it is not usually a representative group in suprabenthos. Samples showed low correlations between suprabenthos and environmental variables. A somewhat stronger correlation could be established between water characteristics and dragged material abundance. The studied suprabenthos assemblage was found to have high taxa richness and very dynamic behaviour at spatial and temporal scale. Further analysis suggested that there is no evident pattern of distribution and that causality can not be directly attributed to temporal variation only. Possibly there is an influence of a synergy of environmentals or biological factors, rather than a single variable. The species Americamysis bahia and Americamysis taironana are reported for the first time in Venezuela. This study represents the first ecological research of the suprabenthos in the Caribbean region. PMID:25102634

Ortega, Ileana; Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly J

2014-06-01

404

Dabigatran Versus Warfarin After Bioprosthesis Valve Replacement for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation Postoperatively: Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Warfarin and similar vitamin K antagonists have been the standard therapy for patients with mechanical or biological valve prosthesis and atrial fibrillation (AF). Even with the appropriate use of therapy, some studies have reported that there is a high incidence of thromboembolic events, 1%-4% per year. Furthermore, a bleeding risk is significant, ranging from 2% to 9% per year, according to some studies. Objective The objective of our study was to examine the effect of dabigatran etexilate versus dose-adjusted warfarin for the prevention of intracardiac thrombus in persistent or permanent AF at least 3 months after aortic and/or mitral bioprosthesis replacement. Methods Dabigatran versus warfarin after bioprosthesis valve replacement for the management of atrial fibrillation postoperatively (DAWA) is a phase 2, prospective, open label, randomized exploratory pilot study. The main variable to be observed in this study is intracardiac thrombus. From August 2013 to April 2015, 100 patients, at least 3 months after aortic and/or mitral bioprosthesis replacement and permanent or persistent AF postoperatively, who match eligibility criteria will be selected from Ana Nery Hospital in Salvador-Bahia with a follow-up of three months. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either dabigatran etexilate or warfarin. Results Although the present study has no statistic power to proof non-inferiority, it is expected that the dabigatran etexilate group will be protected as well as the warfarin group from intracardiac thrombus, without increasing the bleeding rates, since we are using safer doses (110 mg bid). The lack of necessity of monitoring INR is also another factor that contributes to a better adherence to the new drug and it can make all the difference in the manner of doing anticoagulation for patients with similar clinical characteristics. Conclusions The study is in the recruitment phase. It is possible that dabigatran etexilate is as effective as warfarin in preventing the emergence of intracardiac thrombus in patients with AF and mitral and/or aortic bioprosthesis. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01868243; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01868243 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation/6OABiuasd). PMID:24691436

Roriz, Pollianna DS; Bulhoes, Fabio V; Nunes, Bianca DA; Muniz, Juliana QV; Neto, Italvar NDCR; Fernandes, Andre MS; Reis, Francisco JFBD; Camara, Edmundo JN; Junior, Erenaldo DSR; Segundo, Deusdeth TS; Silva, Felipe Pinho E Albuquerque; Aras, Roque

2014-01-01

405

Selection of Properties as References for Ecological Restoration in Brazilian Semiarid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The São Francisco River has suffered over many years with the deterioration of its margins. Degradation is more intense when it removes native vegetation for logging, for livestock or expansion of arable land. It is remarkable the loss of biodiversity in degraded areas, increased erosion, siltation of the river, among other negative aspects. In the Lower Middle São Francisco River Valley this degradation is very worrying, especially because this semiarid region is the most populated in the world and has an uncontrolled growth of urban areas along the river margins. When compared to other regions along the river, there is more irrigated agriculture area. The application of ecological restoration models faces the process of selection of properties. The universe of analysis is very large because there are several areas with different degrees of degradation. In addition most farmers do not accept the environmental police and management. This study aimed to select 2 properties per city for pilot implementation restoration ecology in two ways. Firstly, it was defined a series criteria for choosing areas through GIS techniques. After, questionnaires were applied for selecting the properties in the cities. The study involved the Integrated Network of Economic Development (RIDE) composed by 4 cities in the state of Pernambuco and 4 in Bahia. Land use and land cover type were diagnosed in the counties from the images processing, which served as basis for defining a cutout of 3 km (1:50.000) band Riverside. The use land and land cover was classified into six main categories (shrubs, forest, grassland, water, urban area and desert) based on IBGE and the interpretation key which was established previously for PROBIO/MMA. Then, 759 units were processed and degradation degree was evaluated using the vegetation cover index. This index was used as orientation to preselect the areas to be checked in field. After field checking, 68 farms were selected in eight counties of the RIDE for the application of the questionnaires. The criteria were established and took into account qualitative and quantitative aspects, such as total area, conservation area, length margin, location, land ownership, conservation actions, the owner's interest in preserving, the neighbors' interests in participating of the plan, awareness actions for conservation, availability of human resources, recognition of the landscape, perception of interactions between humans and other coastal and river subjective factors. Based on these criteria, 16 properties were selected.

Alvarez, I. A.; Oliveira, A. R.; Rennó, C. D.; Pereira, L. A.; Vicente, L. E.; Andrade, R. G.; Santos, S. M.; Taura, T. A.

2011-12-01

406

Effectiveness of the use of LLLT on disorders of the maxillofacial region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dentistry has traditionally depended on science and technology for improvement of diagnostic tools and treatment options. The impact of using light sources in clinical Dentistry has been significantly higher than in clinical Medicine and Surgery. Light sources have been used as a therapeutic agent for many centuries. The major use of light for therapeutic applications in health care sciences was noticeably initiated after the development of lasers in 1960. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of LLLT on treating disorders of the maxillofacial region. For this, the records of patients treated at the Laser Center of the School of Dentistry of the Federal University of Bahia were revised. We analyzed 867 treatment cycles in 572 patients. The mean age of the patients was 53.5 years old, most were females. Majority of them complained of some pain. G50.0 and K07.6 were the most frequent diagnostics. The mean energy density per session was 18.36 +/- 14.6 J/cm2 and mean treatment one 176.4 +/- 132.4 J/cm2. IR laser was the most frequently used wavelength. Most patients were asymptomatic or improved at discharge. Improved or asymptomatic patients had a mean age of 50.9 years old. For these, the mean number of sessions was 13, the total mean session energy density was 16.6 J/cm2 and mean total energy density treatment was 169.5 J/cm2. For symptomatic patients, the mean age was 56.4 years old. The mean number of sessions was 10. The mean energy density per session on these patients was 20.6 J/cm2 and mean total treatment energy density was 210.9 J/cm2. 55.34% of the patients were asymptomatic or improved at discharge. For these, the mean number of sessions was 13, the total mean session energy density was 16.6 J/cm2 and mean total energy density treatment was 169.5 J/cm2. For symptomatic patients, the mean age was 56.4 years old. The mean number of sessions was 10. The mean energy density per session on these patients was 20.6 J/cm2 and mean total treatment energy density was 210.9 J/cm2. The results of this study are indicative that the use of LLLT for treating different disorders of the maxillofacial region is effective and well accepted by the patients.

Soares, Luiz G. P.; Carvalho, Carolina M.; Marques, Aparecida M. C.; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

2012-03-01

407

Turbidity Current Head Mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on coastal diffusion using image analysis. Applied Scientific Research 59,.191-204. 1998. [5] J.M. Redondo. Turbulent mixing in the Atmosphere and Ocean. Fluid Physics. 584-597. World Scientific. New York. 1994

Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

2010-05-01

408

2002 Hyperspectral Analysis of Hazardous Waste Sites on the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous waste site inspection is a labor intensive, time consuming job, performed primarily on the ground using visual inspection and instrumentation. It is an expensive process to continually monitor hazardous waste and/or landfill sites to determine if they are maintaining their integrity. In certain instances, it may be possible to monitor aspects of the hazardous waste sites and landfills remotely. The utilization of multispectral data was suggested for the mapping of clays and iron oxides associated with contaminated groundwater, vegetation stress, and methane gas emissions (which require longer wavelength detectors). The Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, S.C. is a United States Department of Energy facility operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. For decades the SRS was responsible for developing weapons grade plutonium and other materials for the nation's nuclear defense. Hazardous waste was generated during this process. Waste storage site inspection is a particularly important issue at the SRS because there are over 100 hazardous waste sites scattered throughout the 300 mile complex making it difficult to continually monitor all of the facilities. The goal is to use remote sensing technology to identify surface anomalies on the hazardous waste sites as early as possible so that remedial work can take place rapidly to maintain the integrity of the storage sites. The anomalous areas are then targeted for intensive in situ human examination and measurement. During the 1990s, many of the hazardous waste sites were capped with protective layers of polyethelene sheeting and soil, and planted with bahia grass and/or centipede grass. This research investigated hyperspectral remote sensing technology to determine if it can be used to measure accurately and monitor possible indicators of change on vegetated hazardous waste sites. Specifically, it evaluated the usefulness of hyperspectral remote sensing to assess the condition of vegetation on clay- caps on the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF). This report first describes the principles of hyperspectral remote sensing. In situ measurement and hyperspectral remote sensing methods used to analyze hazardous waste sites on the Savannah River Site are then presented.

Gladden, J.B.

2003-08-28

409

Geochemical fingerprint of desert surface sediments and aeolian dust exported from southern South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind-transported dust is a tracer of atmospheric circulation and also provides important information about the climatic conditions prevailing in dust source areas. Understanding the origin of mineral dust deposited in different environments (e.g., continent, ocean, polar ice sheet) and the variability of its concentration and composition, can be used as a proxy for the interpretation of the wind systems characteristics and probable changes in the atmospheric circulation patterns. In order to improve the atmospheric circulation models developed for the Southern Hemisphere, it is necessary to increase the understanding of the characteristics of the South American dust sources. Prospero et al., (2002), showed the existence of three present-day persist dust sources in South America: Patagonia (39°-52°S), central-western Argentina (26°-33°S), and the Puna-Altiplano plateau (19°-26°S). An important question to be addressed is whether these dust sources were also important during the last glacial-interglacial cycles. In most cases, researchers working in the reconstruction of paleo-environments in the Southern Hemisphere have employed sparse geochemical and isotopic data from southern South American samples. As a consequence, there are no regional or systematic studies that define their geochemical "fingerprints" of likely sources. The main goal of this work is to identify the "fingerprints" of materials exported from these areas by means of rare earth elements (REEs) and Sr-Nd-Pb-isotopes measured in surface sediments (topsoils) and mineral dust samples. Samples (n=86) were taken across the "arid diagonal" of southern South America in a N-S transect from Uyuni (20°39'S, 68°11'W, Bolivia) to Bahia Blanca (38°43'S, 62°15'W, Argentina) representing different geomorphologic environments: e.g., ephemeral lakes, lowland areas, edges of salt flats, alluvial fans, dunes, etc. Preliminary data indicate the existence of a heterogeneous chemical/isotopic signature along the "arid diagonal": a) the Altiplano and Puna have chemical and isotopic compositions inherited from the large volume of Cenozoic ignimbrites and from the Late Paleozoic granitoids (south of 21°S), respectively, b) the potential dust source in central-western Argentina appears to show a separate geochemical fingerprint explained basically by the mixing of metamorphic rocks from Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Central Argentina and, c) dust from Patagonia with clear chemical/isotopic signatures characteristic of the Quaternary volcanism (Gaiero et al., 2004; 2007). These results are promising, as they would enable the identification of the main dust source regions in provenance studies of different paleoclimatic records (Pampean loess, Antarctic ice cores, Atlantic and Southern oceans, etc).

Gili, S.; Gaiero, D. M.; Jweda, J.; Koestner, E.; Chemale, F.; Kaplan, M. R.; Goldstein, S. L.

2012-12-01

410

Brazil's mental health adventure.  

PubMed

This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at the Connecticut Mental Health Center. Since 1997, I've spent my vacations traveling and working in Brazil as an Outside Consultant on mental health projects with colleagues in Rio and Sao Paulo. In my travels I've been befriended and supported by adherents of a social movement, not unlike the U.S. Civil Rights Movement, that has struggled for many years to close Brazil's long-term psychiatric hospitals, create community-based services and expand the rights of mental patients. Now I see my Brazilian connection as part of my ongoing recovery. I see myself as having the opportunity to be a link between the mental health worlds of the U.S. and Brazil. I believe the two countries have much to offer each other when it comes to mental health. PMID:12653451

Weingarten, Richard

2003-01-01

411

Miocene to Recent Volcanism in NE Baja California and its Correlation to Adjacent Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the status of knowledge of volcanic rocks from part of NW Mexico. Rocks of the Puertecitos Volcanic Province, NE Baja California, span the time period from subduction-related volcanism (the "early to middle Miocene arc" of Gastil et al.) through to modern rift-related volcanism. Ages and major element geochemistry of the principal rock packages were summarized by Martin-Barajas and colleagues in various publications. Additional geochronology and paleomagnetic studies were done by Lewis (1994) and Nagy (1997) to characterize the ages, magnetic polarities, and distributions of the major pyroclastic flow deposits and lavas. The arc-related rocks consist of voluminous epiclastic material of 20-17 Ma and local vents of mafic to intermediate lavas as young as 15.5 Ma. These were eroded prior to deposition of the ca. 12.5 Ma Tuff of San Felipe, a peralkaline high-Si rhyolite pyroclastic flow deposit that is inferred to indicate post-subduction volcanism. Intermediate lavas were erupted in this region ca 9 Ma, followed by a 6.4-6.1 Ma sequence of rhyolite domes and ignimbrites. In the southern Puertecitos Volcanic Province, another pulse of volcanism from 3.3 to 2.7 Ma produced a series of at least 20 thin, high-temperature pyroclastic flow deposits. Volcanism continued with Pliocene and Quaternary andesites and more evolved lavas. This volcanic history is compared to that of surrounding regions. The 20-15 Ma arc rocks are partly younger than similar rocks farther north in the Baja California peninsula and are coeval with volcanic arc rocks farther south. Northward, the centers decrease in frequency in map view; volumes decrease and the relationship of these lavas to coeval lavas near the border (e.g., Alverson Fm in S. California) is not clear. This may be an effect of the northern limit of the corresponding subduction zone. The ca. 6 Ma volcanism is related to rifting of the northern Gulf of California, particularly due to its structurally controlled location (an accommodation zone in the rift system). The ca 3 Ma pulse of volcanism has been related to a "ridge jump" type event (relocation of the plate boundary from the Lower Tiburon basin to the Lower Delfin Basin, within a single spreading segment of the Pacific-North America rift). Both the 6 Ma pulse and the 3 Ma pulse thus seem to be controlled by local processes rather than by regional events. The ca. 12.5 Ma Tuff of San Felipe erupted before the Gulf opened, when Baja California and Sonora were adjacent; the likely vent location is on the modern Sonoran coast north of Bahia de Kino. Work by Oskin (2002), and ongoing studies, allow outcrops of this unit to be correlated over a modern distance of at least 430 km from NE Baja California to east of Hermosillo, Sonora. It has been included by Vidal-Solano and others (2005) as part of a significant episode of post-subduction peralkaline volcanism in Sonora, attributed to regional extension and lithospheric thinning.

Stock, J. M.

2007-05-01

412

Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp  

SciTech Connect

Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Entomology and Nematology, P.O. Box 110630, Gainesville, FL 32611-0630 (United States); Adjei, M.B. [University of Florida, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, 3401 Experiment Station, Ona, FL 33865-9706 (United States); Vicente, N.E. [University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. Box 9030, Mayaguez, PR 00681-9030 (Puerto Rico)

2007-03-15

413

U-Pb baddeleyite ages, distribution and geochemistry of 925 Ma mafic dykes and 900 Ma sills in the North China craton: Evidence for a Neoproterozoic mantle plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous Neoproterozoic mafic dykes, referred to as the Dashigou swarm, are identified in the central and southeastern parts of the North China craton (NCC). They are 305-010° trending dykes, with widths of ~ 10-100 m and exposed lengths of several to > 10 km. Precise U-Pb isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) measurements on baddeleyite grains separated from three dykes yield 207Pb/ 206Pb average ages of 924.0 ± 3.7 Ma (Dashigou dyke), 921.8 ± 2.6 Ma (Yangjiaogou dyke) and 925.8 ± 1.7 Ma (Taohuagou dyke). Baddeleyite grains from a late-stage pegmatite vein in the Dashigou dyke were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) methods. These yield a 207Pb/ 206Pb average age of 920.4 ± 5.7 Ma. The Dashigou dyke swarm exhibits an overall radiating geometry (the overall fan angle is about 60°), with a focal point located along the southern margin of the eastern NCC, where a large ca. 900 Ma sill swarm was previously recognized. The rift system hosting these slightly younger sills, named the Xu-Huai Rift System, could represent two breakup-parallel arms of a rift-rift-rift triple junction related to the initiation of the magma center that produced the Dashigou dykes. The sills have similar characteristics and could be cogenetic with the Dashigou dykes. The Dashigou dykes are coarse-grained, composed mainly of clinopyroxene and plagioclase feldspar, with or without olivine. One of the most primitive dykes has 47.79 wt.% SiO 2, 6.41 wt.% MgO, 1.38 wt.% TiO 2, 17.77 wt.% Al 2O 3, 10.47 wt.% CaO and 0.62 wt.% K 2O. It shows slight enrichment in light rare earth elements and a slightly positiveEu/Eu* anomaly (1.1), and is slightly depleted in high field-strength elements compared to neighboring elements on a primitive mantle-normalized spidergram. The Dashigou dykes show some similarities with enriched-mid ocean ridge basalts (E-MORB) or ocean island basalts (OIB) and have ?Nd t values of + 1.8 to + 3.1 and 87Sr/ 86Sr t values of 0.7019-0.7047 (t = 920 Ma). All these characteristics indicate that they are not likely derived from the ancient lithospheric mantle under the NCC, but rather from a mantle source below, in the asthenosphere. This 925-900 Ma magmatism represents a second sub-lithospheric mantle upwelling event following the 1780-1730 Ma event that occurred shortly (~ 70 Ma) after the formation of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Therefore the SCLM of the NCC was multiply metasomatized during asthenospheric upwellings (at least at 1780-1730 and 925-900 Ma), before most of its eastern part was finally removed during the Mesozoic. Collectively, these ~ 925 Ma dykes and ~ 900 Ma sills constitute a large igneous province (LIP) with an areal extent of about 0.5 Mkm 2 and a diameter of about 1000 km. This LIP probably resulted from a Neoproterozoic mantle plume centered along the present southern margin of the eastern NCC, and probably resulted in the break-off and rifting away of a separate crustal block. We speculate that this conjugate block could have been the combined São Francisco-Congo craton on the basis of precisely matched ages for the Bahia dykes (São Francisco craton) and Gangila-Mayumbian volcanic associations (western part of the Congo craton).

Peng, Peng; Bleeker, Wouter; Ernst, Richard E.; Söderlund, Ulf; McNicoll, Vicki

2011-11-01