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Sample records for camamu almada bahia

  1. Characterization of small-scale fisheries in the Camamu-Almada basin, southeast state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, T C M; Petrere-Jr, M

    2008-11-01

    In the Camamu-Almada basin, marine fishery is exclusively small-scale, with several structural deficiencies such as boats with low or absent navigational technology, lack of credit and low income. Local fishers complain that shrimp and lobster trawling fishing is the main factor responsible for low stock abundance, but they still persist in these activities as these two species command the highest market prices. So they feel that the target species are already over-fished. We suggest that proper management action, alternative ways of income generation and the payment of job insurance would help to mitigate the problem. PMID:19197488

  2. Accumulation of trace metals in two commercially important shrimp species from Camamu Bay, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Migues, Vitor Hugo; de Almeida Bezerra, Marcos; de Francisco, Ana Karina; Guerrazzi, Maria Cecília; de Mello Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes

    2013-09-01

    Camamu Bay is the second largest estuary in Bahia state, northeastern Brazil, being recognized by its high diversity and economical relevance for fisheries and tourism. To evaluate the impacts of environmental disturbances in Camamu Bay, trace metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Pb) were quantified in two widespread and commercially exploited shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Xiphopenaeus kroyeri). High concentrations of all metals but Pb were observed in both species by ICPOES. The concentration values for Cr, Co, and Mn were invariably higher than the accepted limits for human consumption in Brazil. Inter and intraspecific variation in metal levels might be related to biological particularities and body size. The accentuated contamination by trace metals in both species validated them as efficient bioindicators of environmental quality. Thus, effective planning, monitoring and regulatory policies should be adopted to inspect and remediate the metal contamination in natural resources from Camamu Bay. PMID:23856807

  3. Urban Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Europe: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. For example, the summer 2003 European heat wave caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. As around 75% of Europe's population resides in urban areas, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of seasonal to decadal-scale climate variability on urban areas and their populations. This study aims at downscaling the spatially coarse resolution CMIP5 climate predictions to the local urban scale and investigating the relation between heat waves and the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect). The resulting heat stress effect is not only driven by climatic variables but also impacted by urban morphology. Moreover, the exposure varies significantly with the geographical location. All this information is coupled with relevant socio-economic datasets such as population density, age structure, etc. focussing on human health. The analyses are conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. The end-user needs have been consolidated in a climate services plan including the production of heat risk exposure maps and the analysis of various scenarios considering e.g. the uncertainty of the global climate predictions, urban expansion over time and the impact of mitigation measures such as green roofs. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for the design and management of climate resilient cities.

  4. Sedimentology and palaeontology of the Upper Jurassic Puesto Almada Member (Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Fossati sub-basin), Patagonia Argentina: Palaeoenvironmental and climatic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaleri, Nora G.; Benavente, Cecilia A.; Monferran, Mateo D.; Narváez, Paula L.; Volkheimer, Wolfgang; Gallego, Oscar F.; Do Campo, Margarita D.

    2013-10-01

    Six facies associations are described for the Puesto Almada Member at the Cerro Bandera locality (Fossati sub-basin). They correspond to lacustrine, palustrine, and pedogenic deposits (limestones); and subordinated alluvial fan, fluvial, aeolian, and pyroclastic deposits. The lacustrine-palustrine depositional setting consisted of carbonate alkaline shallow lakes surrounded by flooded areas in a low-lying topography. The facies associations constitute four shallowing upward successions defined by local exposure surfaces: 1) a Lacustrine-Palustrine-pedogenic facies association with a 'conchostracan'-ostracod association; 2) a Palustrine facies association representing a wetland subenvironment, and yielding 'conchostracans', body remains of insects, fish scales, ichnofossils, and palynomorphs (cheirolepidiacean species and ferns growing around water bodies, and other gymnosperms in more elevated areas); 3) an Alluvial fan facies association indicating the source of sediment supply; and 4) a Lacustrine facies association representing a second wetland episode, and yielding 'conchostracans', insect ichnofossils, and a palynoflora mainly consisting of planktonic green algae associated with hygrophile elements. The invertebrate fossil assemblage found contains the first record of fossil insect bodies (Insecta-Hemiptera and Coleoptera) for the Cañadón Asfalto Formation. The succession reflects a mainly climatic control over sedimentation. The sedimentary features of the Puesto Almada Member are in accordance with an arid climatic scenario across the Upper Jurassic, and they reflect a strong seasonality with periods of higher humidity represented by wetlands and lacustrine sediments.

  5. AN EVALUATION OF THE 7-DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA (FORMERLY MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 7-d test measuring survival, growth, and fecundity of Americamysis bahia formerly Mysidopsis bahia) was developed for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and associated receiving waters for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits. Currently, this test...

  6. Whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the pre-rift sequence of the Camamu Basin, northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, D. R. A.; Mizusaki, A. M. P.; Milani, E. J.; Pimentel, M.; Kawashita, K.

    2012-11-01

    Whole-rock geochemistry, combined with Sr-Nd isotopic composition of pelitic sedimentary rocks, have been considered to be useful parameters to estimate not only their provenance but also to make inferences about their depositional environment as well as the weathering processes they have been through. The basal sedimentary units of the basins of the northeastern Brazilian continental margin, particularly those of the pre-rift sequence, have been subject of interest of studies based on chemical and isotopic data, since they lack fossil content to establish their age and, therefore, stratigraphic correlations are difficult. The major and trace element contents as well as Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of whole-rock shale samples from five outcrops attributed to the pre-rift supersequence of the Camamu Basin were analyzed with the purpose of characterizing and obtaining further information that would allow a better correlation between the sites studied. The geochemical data suggest that the rocks exposed in the studied outcrops are part of the same sedimentary unit and that they might be correlated to the Capianga Member of the Aliança Formation of the Recôncavo Basin, exposed to the north of the Camamu Basin. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) suggests conditions associated with a humid tropical/subtropical climate at the time of deposition. Nd isotopic compositions indicate provenance from the Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Sao Francisco craton. The results presented here, therefore, show that the combined use of chemical and isotopic analyses may be of great interest to characterize and correlate lithologically homogeneous clastic sedimentary sequences.

  7. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also limited by the nearly continuous cloud cover in the region and heavy rainfall, which occurs more than 150 days each year. The ability of the shuttle radars to 'see' through the forest canopy to the cultivated cacao below -- independent of weather or sunlight conditions --will allow researchers to distinguish forest from cabruca in unprecedented detail. This SIR-C/X-SAR image was produced by assigning red to the L-band, green to the C-band and blue to the X-band. The Una Reserve is located in the middle of the image west of the coastline and slightly northwest of Comandatuba River. The reserve's primary forests are easily detected by the pink areas in the image. The intensity of red in these areas is due to the high density of forest vegetation (biomass) detected by the radar's L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) channel. Secondary forest is visible along the reserve's eastern border. The Serrado Mar mountain range is located in the top left portion of the image. Cabruca forest to the west of Una Reserve has a different texture and a yellow color. The removal of understory in cabruca forest reduces its biomass relative to primary forest, which changes the L-band and C-band penetration depth and returns, and produces a different texture and color in the image. The region along the Atlantic is mainly mangrove swamp, agricultural fields and urban areas. The high intensity of blue in this region is a result of increasing X-band return in areas covered with swamp and low vegetation. The image clearly separates the mangrove region (east of coastal Highway 001, shown in blue) from the taller and dryer forest west of the highway. The high resolution capability of SIR-C/X-SAR imaging and the sensitivity of its frequency and polarization channels to various land covers will be used for monitoring and mapping areas of importance for conservation. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  8. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also limited by the nearly continuous cloud cover in the region and heavy rainfall, which occurs more than 150 days each year. The ability of the shuttle radars to 'see' through the forest canopy to the cultivated cacao below -- independent of weather or sunlight conditions --will allow researchers to distinguish forest from cabruca in unprecedented detail. This SIR-C/X-SAR image was produced by assigning red to the L-band, green to the C-band and blue to the X-band. The Una Reserve is located in the middle of the image west of the coastline and slightly northwest of Comandatuba River. The reserve's primary forests are easily detected by the pink areas in the image. The intensity of red in these areas is due to the high density of forest vegetation (biomass) detected by the radar's L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) channel. Secondary forest is visible along the reserve's eastern border. The Serrado Mar mountain range is located in the top left portion of the image. Cabruca forest to the west of Una Reserve has a different texture and a yellow color. The removal of understory in cabruca forest reduces its biomass relative to primary forest, which changes the L-band and C-band penetration depth and returns, and produces a different texture and color in the image. The region along the Atlantic is mainly mangrove swamp, agricultural fields and urban areas. The high intensity of blue in this region is a result of increasing X-band return in areas covered with swamp and low vegetation. The image clearly separates the mangrove region (east of coastal Highway 001, shown in blue) from the taller and dryer forest west of the highway. The high resolution capability of SIR-C/X-SAR imaging and the sensitivity of its frequency and polarization channels to various land covers will be used for monitoring and mapping areas of importance for conservation. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, rega

  9. Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

  10. BAHIA GRANDE RESTORATION PROJECT DW14945947

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bahia Grande Restoration Project is located on a 6,000+ acre shallow basin that at one time was inundated with biological resources. The basin supported large flocks of wintering and migratory waterfowl. Also, it contributed to a productive recreational and commercial fishe...

  11. 33 CFR 110.74c - Bahia de San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bahia de San Juan, PR. 110.74c... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR. The waters of San Antonio Channel, Bahia de San Juan, eastward of longitude 66°05?45? W....

  12. 33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Puerto Rico 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety zone... Bahia de Ponce, on approach to or departure from the Puerto de Ponce waterfront facility in Bahia...

  13. 33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Puerto Rico. 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety zone... Bahia de Ponce, on approach to or departure from the Puerto de Ponce waterfront facility in Bahia...

  14. 33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Puerto Rico 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety zone... Bahia de Ponce, on approach to or departure from the Puerto de Ponce waterfront facility in Bahia...

  15. 33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Puerto Rico 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety zone... Bahia de Ponce, on approach to or departure from the Puerto de Ponce waterfront facility in Bahia...

  16. 33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Puerto Rico. 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety zone... Bahia de Ponce, on approach to or departure from the Puerto de Ponce waterfront facility in Bahia...

  17. An evaluation of the seven-day toxicity test with Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia)

    SciTech Connect

    Lussier, S.M.; Kuhn, A.; Comeleo, R.

    1999-12-01

    The 7-d test measuring survival, growth, and fecundity of Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia) was developed for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and associated receiving waters for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits. Currently, this test and its derivatives are also used in toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), risk assessment, and other applications. To evaluate the relative sensitivity of three measurement endpoints (survival, growth, and fecundity), the authors analyzed results from 115 tests with effluents, organic or inorganic chemicals, and receiving waters suspected of being toxic. Controls for 78 of these achieved acceptable survival and growth. Fifty of these 78 tests also achieved acceptable control fecundity. In the 47 tests with significant effects, survival was the most sensitive response in 57%, fecundity in 30%, and growth in 30%. There was little duplication in responses. Improving pretest holding conditions by decreasing the maximum density from {approximately}20 to 10 animals/L and increasing the temperature from {approximately}26 C to a range of 26 to 27 C improved the growth and fecundity in controls. Although the percentage of tests achieving acceptable control survival and growth decreased from 93 to 86%, the percentage achieving acceptable fecundity in controls increased from 60 to 97%. Seasonal differences in fecundity were detected among control groups. Although variable, fecundity is often the most sensitive measure of response. The 7-d mysid test estimates the chronic toxicity of effluents most effectively when all three endpoints are used.

  18. Amerciamysis bahia Stochastic Matrix Population Model for Laboratory Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The population model described here is a stochastic, density-independent matrix model for integrating the effects of toxicants on survival and reproduction of the marine invertebrate, Americamysis bahia. The model was constructed using Microsoft® Excel 2003. The focus of the mode...

  19. Amerciamysis bahia Stochastic Matrix Population Model for Laboratory Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The population model described here is a stochastic, density-independent matrix model for integrating the effects of toxicants on survival and reproduction of the marine invertebrate, Americamysis bahia. The model was constructed using Microsoft® Excel 2003. The focus of the mode...

  20. Cacau Cabruca Agroforestry System of Production in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Southern Bahia probably in the beginning of the 19th century. To establish such system, farmers in the Atlantic rain forest region selectively maintained around 75 adult individual native trees per hectare, removed the o...

  1. TOXICITY OF USED DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Static, acute toxicity tests were conducted with mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and 11 used drilling fluids (also called drilling muds) obtained from active drilling platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Each whole mud was tested, along with three phases of each mud: a liquid phase ...

  2. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  3. [Retrospective study on Latrodectus stings in Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lira-da-Silva, R M; Matos, G B; Sampaio, R O; Nunes, T B

    1995-01-01

    This work is a retrospective study of latrodectism in the State of Bahia, Brazil, from August 1980 to July 1990. The data concerning the accidents were obtained from file cards at the Antivenom Information Center of Bahia (AVICB). Latrodectus curacavienis was the ethiologic agent identified in 28% of the arachnid accidents. The major incidence was registered in urban area (57%) affecting men (70%) more than women, with 10 to 29 year-old age group (58%). Local pain (56%), erythematous papula (29%) and light oedema (17%) were the principal local symptoms. Pain in the limbs (29%), tremor and rigidities (29%), sweating (28%), limbs and arms paresthesia (21%) and abdominal pain (17%) were systemic ones. The treatment was mainly symptomatic (67%) and antivenin serum was used in 21% of the cases. After serotherapy, 64% of the patients left the hospital within less than 24 hours. PMID:7480914

  4. Screening for Structural Hemoglobin Variants in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Wellington Santos; de Oliveira, Roberto Ferreira; Ribeiro, Sanzia Bezerra; da Silva, Isabel Batista; de Araújo, Edna Maria; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2016-01-01

    Brazil was the country that received the largest number of Africans during the time of colonization, and Bahia was the Brazilian state that received the largest number of slaves from Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the coverage of the newborn screening program for sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region of the state of Bahia, and to show the frequency of the subjects with hemoglobin variants in the 2006–2009 period. Blood samples from neonates in twelve cities in the Recôncavo Baiano region were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A total of 16,402 children were born in this period, 14,773 of which underwent newborn screening. In this period 1416 children were born carrying hemoglobin variants HbS and HbC. Forty-seven patients—20 HbSS genotype and 27 HbSC genotype—were diagnosed in eleven of the twelve cities surveyed. The proportion of children born with sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region was 1/314, which was higher than the 1/650 rate for the state of Bahia. The data presented in this study confirm the high frequency of sickle cell disease in Recôncavo Baiano, demonstrating the need to create a referral center for the care of patients with sickle cell diseases in the region. PMID:26901212

  5. Screening for Structural Hemoglobin Variants in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Wellington Santos; de Oliveira, Roberto Ferreira; Ribeiro, Sanzia Bezerra; da Silva, Isabel Batista; de Araújo, Edna Maria; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2016-01-01

    Brazil was the country that received the largest number of Africans during the time of colonization, and Bahia was the Brazilian state that received the largest number of slaves from Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the coverage of the newborn screening program for sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region of the state of Bahia, and to show the frequency of the subjects with hemoglobin variants in the 2006-2009 period. Blood samples from neonates in twelve cities in the Recôncavo Baiano region were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A total of 16,402 children were born in this period, 14,773 of which underwent newborn screening. In this period 1416 children were born carrying hemoglobin variants HbS and HbC. Forty-seven patients-20 HbSS genotype and 27 HbSC genotype-were diagnosed in eleven of the twelve cities surveyed. The proportion of children born with sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region was 1/314, which was higher than the 1/650 rate for the state of Bahia. The data presented in this study confirm the high frequency of sickle cell disease in Recôncavo Baiano, demonstrating the need to create a referral center for the care of patients with sickle cell diseases in the region. PMID:26901212

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS DURING THE LIFE CYCLE OF 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    When considering both survival capacity of Mysidopsis bahia (Mi bahia) through a complete life cycle and time required for juvenile mysids to become reproductively mature, salinity-temperature conditions of 20 parts per thopis and by wgt. dissolved salts and 25 C appear optimal f...

  7. New species and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Two new species are described from Bahia (Brazil): Coleoxestiabeckeri (Cerambycini), and Oncioderesobliqua (Onciderini). Nine species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil). Key to species of Oncioderes Martins & Galileo, 1990 is provided. Coleoxestiabeckeri is included in a previous key. PMID:26312029

  8. New species and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the state of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Galileo, Maria Helena M.; Martins, Ubirajara R.; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species are described from Bahia (Brazil): Coleoxestia beckeri (Cerambycini), and Oncioderes obliqua (Onciderini). Nine species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil). Key to species of Oncioderes Martins & Galileo, 1990 is provided. Coleoxestia beckeri is included in a previous key. PMID:26312029

  9. SYSTEM-LEVEL MONITORING OF RESTORATION EFFORTS AT BAHIA GRANDE MX964487

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bahia Grande Restoration Project is located on a 6,000+ acre shallow basin that at one time was inundated with biological resources and was disrupted by human activity. The project is an attempt to restore Bahia Grande to its original state. Studies indicate that under favorabl...

  10. 33 CFR 110.74c - Bahia de San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bahia de San Juan, PR. 110.74c Section 110.74c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR. The waters of San...

  11. EFFECT OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA AND ITS TOXINS ON MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA (MYSIDACEA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beauveria bassiana spores and metabolites were evaluated for toxicity and pathogenicity to Mysidopsis bahia. tatic acute 96-hr tests were conducted with <24-h-old M. bahia using either conidiospores, the mycotoxin, beauvericin, or a nonpolar extract of the mycelia. onidiospore de...

  12. Documenting Architectural Heritage in Bahia, Brazil, Using Spherical Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Amorim, A. L.; Fangi, G.; Malinverni, E. S.

    2013-07-01

    The Cultural Heritage disappears at a rate higher than we are able, not only, to restore but also to document: human and natural factors, negligence or worst, deliberate demolitions put in danger the collective Architectural Heritage (AH). According to CIPA statements, the recording is important and has to follow some guidelines. The Architectural and Urban Heritage data have to be historically related, critically assessed and analyzed, before to be organized according to a thematic structure and become available for further uses. This paper shows the experiences developed by the Laboratory of Computer Graphics applied to Architecture and Design (LCAD), at the Architecture School of the Federal University of Bahia (FAUFBA), Brazil, in cooperation with the Università Politecnica delle Marche (UNIVPM, DICEA Department), Italy, in documenting architectural heritage. The research set up now has been carried out in the historical sites of Bahia, as Pelourinho neighborhood, a World Heritage by UNESCO. Other historical sites are in the plan of this survey, like the cities of Lençóis and Mucugê in Chapada Diamantina region. The aim is to build a technological platform based on low cost digital technologies and open source tools, such as Panoramic Spherical Photogrammetry, Spatial Database, Geographic Information Systems, Three-dimensional Geometric Modeling, CAD technology, for the collection, validation and dissemination of AH.

  13. Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gregório, Bernarda de Souza; Costa, Jorge Antonio Silva; Rapini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic treatment of Begoniaceae for the state of Bahia, Brazil, led to the recognition of three new species of Begonia with narrow distributions, which are described and illustrated here: Begoniadelicata Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a herb restricted to the region of the Recôncavo; Begoniaelianeae Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a shrub endemic to the Atlantic forest of the southern part of the state; and Begoniapaganuccii Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a subshrub known only from the type material, collected in the Piedmont of Paraguaçu. Notes on morphology, comparisons with morphologically similar species, etymology, geographic distribution, habitat and phenological data for each species are also presented. Furthermore, keys are provided as an aid to separating the new species from congeneric species that occur in their surroundings. Due to the sparse knowledge of the new species, there is as yet insufficient data to accurately assess their conservation status. PMID:25698891

  14. Relation between denudation history and sediment supply from apatite fission track thermochronology in the northeast Brazilian Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, Andrea; Chemale, Farid; Bueno, Gilmar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a quantitative overview of Mesozoic-Cenozoic morphotectonic evolution and sediment supply to the northeast Brazilian margin. Landscape evolution and denudation histories for the northeastern Brazilian continental margin (Sergipe, Alagoas, Bahia, and Espírito Santo states) were detailed by apatite fission track thermochronology and thermal-history modeling and related with the sedimentological record of the offshore basins of the passive margin for a comparison with their denudational history. Approximately one hundred basement samples were analyzed from the coast to the inland of the Brazilian margin. The apparent fission track ages vary from 360 to 61 Ma and confined fission track lengths vary between 10 and 14.6 µm, indicating that not all of the samples recorded the same cooling events. The results of apatite fission track ages indicate that the area has been eroded regionally since the Mesozoic (< 250 Ma) and suggest that at less 4 km of overburden has been eroded regionally since the late Cretaceous (< 120 Ma) at a rate of 120 to 15 m/Ma. Two-stage of erosion process is deduced from simulated cooling histories for each sector. The Permian-Early Jurassic exhumation is restricted to the area of the Sertaneja Depression, besides the Diamantina Plateau. During this time, denudation rates are generally <20 m My-1 and record up to 1.5 km of denudation. Pre-rift sedimentation is recorded in the Camamu-Almada, Recôncavo, and Sergipe-Alagoas basins. Samples from the Conquista and Borborema Plateaus, and Mantiqueira Range record a Cretaceous-Paleogene onset of exhumation. This timing is consistent with the offshore sedimentary record, wherein a large clastic wedge started forming in the northeastern Sergipe-Alagoas basin, which suggests Sergipe-Alagoas basin records drainage reorganization and extension of the São Francisco River catchment. Interestingly, the Camamu basin, adjacent to the section of the margin does not record syn/post-rift exhumation, does contain a 6-km thick sedimentary succession, which should thus have been derived from more distal sources. The Neogene final denudation is observed throughout the study area and show conspicuous recent exhumation. The post-rift (<40 Ma) offshore sedimentation rates are generally lower than during preceding phases. This final sedimentary succession is thinner in all basins, consistent with limited onshore erosion during this time.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY OF EXTRAPOLATION POPULATION MODELING TO PREDICT THE DYNAMICS OF AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA POPULATIONS IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An age-classified projection matrix model has been developed to extrapolate the chronic (28-35d) demographic responses of Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia) to population-level response. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this model for predicting t...

  16. Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gregório, Bernarda de Souza; Costa, Jorge Antonio Silva; Rapini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic treatment of Begoniaceae for the state of Bahia, Brazil, led to the recognition of three new species of Begonia with narrow distributions, which are described and illustrated here: Begonia delicata Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a herb restricted to the region of the Recôncavo; Begonia elianeae Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a shrub endemic to the Atlantic forest of the southern part of the state; and Begonia paganuccii Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a subshrub known only from the type material, collected in the Piedmont of Paraguaçu. Notes on morphology, comparisons with morphologically similar species, etymology, geographic distribution, habitat and phenological data for each species are also presented. Furthermore, keys are provided as an aid to separating the new species from congeneric species that occur in their surroundings. Due to the sparse knowledge of the new species, there is as yet insufficient data to accurately assess their conservation status. PMID:25698891

  17. Batkoa apiculata (Thaxter) Humber affecting Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Una, Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys for fungal pathogens affecting adult mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles were conducted in flooded and swamp-like natural breeding sites near residences in the center and suburbs of the city of Una as well as the nearby village of Outeiro in southern Bahia. Surveys of 54 mosquito breeding si...

  18. THE ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE ESTUARINE MYSID, 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mysids, small shrimp-like crustacea, are used as practical bioassay animals for investigating the effects of cadmium in seawater. In laboratory tests, the mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) was more sensitive to cadmium than other crustaceans tested. LC50 values were 15.5 micrograms/l with...

  19. VARIABILITY OF THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous factors affect the acute toxicity of drilling fluids (muds) to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). Source, composition, and age of drilling fluid sample; preparation of test material; condition of test animals; and skill and experience of the people conducting the tests can influ...

  20. INCREASED REPRODUCTION BY MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) FED WITH ENRICHED ARTEMIA SPP. NAUPLII

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to assess effects of four diets on reproduction by the mysid Mysidopsis bahia in routine culture conditions. wo experiments were performed: the first lasted under semistatic conditions and the second lasted 60 d under flow-through conditions. he objective wa...

  1. ACUTE TOXICITY OF EIGHT LABORATORY-PREPARED GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted during August-September 1983 with eight laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (also called muds) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, Florida. Two of t...

  2. COMPARATIVE ACUTE TOXICITIES OF SEVERAL PESTICIDES AND METALS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA AND POSTLARVAL PENAEUS DUORARUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of toxic chemicals on estuarine and marine crustaceans are often evaluated using the mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. n a literature survey of results of acute toxicity tests with estuarine crustaceans, Mysidae and Penaeidae were generally the two most sensitive families. owever,...

  3. Cabruca its agrobiodiversity potential on small farmers in Southern region of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Bahia over 200 years ago. This system consists of planting cacao under the shade of trees in the Atlantic rain forest and has on an average 693 cacao plants and 93 trees per hectare. Even though the local community utili...

  4. Cabruca agroforests of southern Bahia Brazil: tree component, management, species conservation and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In southern Bahia, cabruca is the agroforestry system in which cocoa is cultivated under the shade of sparse native forest trees. Aiming to characterize the tree component of this system and its management practices, we conducted an inventory of the non-cocoa trees in 16 ha of cabruca and do intervi...

  5. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON TWO SPECIES OF MYSID SHRIMP: 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' AND 'MYSIDOPSIS BIGELOWI'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of mysid shrimp, the sub-tropical Mysidopsis bahia and the northern temperate Mysidopsis bigelowi, were exposed simultaneously to cadmium (as CdC12) in a continuous-flow bioassay system to determine the effect on survival and reproductive success. Temperature and sali...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS IN AN ESTUARINE OPOSSUM SHRIMP, AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Americamysis bahia is a sensitive, and EPA approved, indicator of estuarine water quality. Genomic DNA, prepared from 200-300 whole adults, was cut and size selected for 400-900 nt. After addition of linkers and PCR enrichment, products were probed with biotinylated di- and tetra- nucleotide probes,...

  7. OCCURANCE OF 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' (MYSIDACEA: MYSIDAE) ON THE ATLANTIC COAST OF FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Occurrence of Mysidopsis bahia (Mysidacea: Mysidae) is reported on the Atlantic Coast of Florida December 6, 1984. The sighting of 22 specimens (15 females, 4 males and 2 juveniles of undetermined sex) occurred at the Link Port Channel, Ft. Pierce, Florida. Dr. Thomas E. Bowman a...

  8. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  9. Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  10. The Entomophaga grylli (Fresenius) Batko species complex (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) infecting grasshoppers in Ilheus (Bahia) Brazil: notes and new records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi from the Entomophthoraceae (Zygomycotina; Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) belonging to the Entomophaga grylli species complex have been found in the state of Bahia, Brazil, to affect populations of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) of the species Rhammatocerus brasiliensis Bruner, Rhammatoce...

  11. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Pas n 1, the major allergen of Bahia grass Paspalum notatum pollen.

    PubMed

    Davies, Janet M; Mittag, Diana; Dang, Thanh D; Symons, Karen; Voskamp, Astrid; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2008-12-01

    Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is a clinically important subtropical grass with a prolonged pollination season from spring to autumn. We aimed to clone and characterise the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1. Grass pollen-allergic patients presenting to a tertiary hospital allergy clinic were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract by skin prick testing, ImmunoCAP, ELISA and immunoblotting. Using primers deduced from the N-terminal peptide sequence of a group 1 allergen of Bahia grass pollen extract separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the complete Pas n 1 cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and cloned. Biological relevance of recombinant Pas n 1 expressed in Escherichia coli was assessed by serum IgE reactivity and basophil activation. Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) consecutive patients presenting with grass pollen allergy were skin prick test positive to Bahia grass pollen. The Pas n 1 cDNA has sequence homology with the beta-expansin 1 glycoprotein family and is more closely related to the maize pollen group 1 allergen (85% identity) than to ryegrass Lol p 1 or Timothy grass Phl p 1 (64 and 66% identity, respectively). rPas n 1 reacted with serum IgE in 47 of 55 (85%) Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients, activated basophils and inhibited serum IgE reactivity with the 29 kDa band of Bahia grass pollen extract. In conclusion the cDNA for the major group 1 allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1, was identified and cloned. rPas n 1 is immunologically active and is a valuable reagent for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:18817975

  12. A new species of Chilicola from Bahia, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Colletidae), with a key to the species of the megalostigma group.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas; Mahlmann, Thiago; Engel, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    The bee genus Chilicola Spinola (Xeromelissinae) is recorded from the State of Bahia, Brazil for the first time, based on a new species of the megalostigma group of the subgenus Hylaeosoma Ashmead. Chilicola (Hylaeosoma) kevanisp. n. is described and figured from males collected in Wesceslau Guimarães, Bahia. The species can be distinguished on the basis of coloration, size, integumental sculpturing, and structure of the hidden metasomal sterna and genitalia. A revised key to the species of the megalostigma group is provided. PMID:22287912

  13. Outbreaks of asthma attacks and meteorologic parameters in Bahia Blanca, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, M C; Perillo, G M; Ramon, C G; DiDio, V

    1988-02-01

    Although Bahia Blanca is a relatively small city, the large daily number of asthmatic patients treated is comparable with cities at least ten times its population. A 1-year study of correlation between the daily cases treated and various meteorologic parameters is presented. Asthmatic outbreaks are normally associated with a dramatic decrease in temperature, humidity, and pressure. This condition may favor the activity of airborne allergenics transported mainly by continental winds. PMID:3341612

  14. [Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) at Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México].

    PubMed

    García Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez Ruiz, Migdalia

    2007-03-01

    Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahia de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness) and higher diversity (Shannon's index). PMID:18457125

  15. Photogeologic mapping in central southwest Bahia, using LANDSAT-1 multispectral images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Ohara, T.

    1981-01-01

    The interpretation of LANDSAT multispectral imagery for geologic mapping of central southwest Bahia, Brazil is described. Surface features such as drainage, topography, vegetation and land use are identified. The area is composed of low grade Precambrian rocks covered by Mezozoic and Cenozoic sediments. The principal mineral prospects of economic value are fluorite and calcareous rocks. Gold, calcite, rock crystal, copper, potassium nitrate and alumina were also identified.

  16. Male sleeping aggregation of multiple Eucerini bee genera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hipólito, Juliana; de Oliveira, Favízia F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Males of some groups of bees have to find a place outside the nests to sleep, sometimes forming “male sleeping aggregations”. Here we report the first record of “dense” male sleeping aggregation of two different genera of Eucerini bees observed in Bahia, Brazil. We discuss the possible aim of this kind of aggregation as well the plant utilized on aggregate. PMID:25349523

  17. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them. PMID:26668542

  18. The role of calcium and sodium in toxicity of an effluent to mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia)

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, E.R.; Stekoll, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    The source of acute toxicity of an aged gold mill effluent to juvenile mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia [Americamysis bahia]) was identified. Effluent osmolality was equivalent to that of 12 ppt seawater. At five effluent concentrations ranging from 4 to 100% (v/v), using 12 ppt seawater for dilution, the onset of responses was most rapid at 37% effluent. Simulated effluent was created by adding Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} to distilled water at concentrations equal to those measured in the effluent. The unusual finding of a more rapid onset of responses at 37% than at 100% effluent was duplicated with simulated effluent, demonstrating that responses of M. bahia to effluent were attributable to one or more of the six ions that were included in simulated effluent. Proportionally, excess Ca{sup 2+} and Na{sup +} concentrations in effluent and in simulated effluent, along with the results of the previous experiments, demonstrated that excess Ca{sup 2+} was the sole source of effluent toxicity and that Na{sup +} deficiency, relative to the proportion in seawater, reduced Ca{sup 2+} toxicity.

  19. [On the founders of the Institute of Mathematics and Physics, University of Bahia].

    PubMed

    Dias, A L

    The reduced number of female students of mathematics at the University of Bahia School of Philosophy (Faculdade de Filosofia, Universidade da Bahia - FF/UBa) is quite surprising. To date, they are concentrated in areas traditionally viewed as feminine whereas men predominate in the mathematical fields. I have examined interview data from a few women who graduated in mathematics and went on to teach at the University of Bahia School of Mathematics (Faculdade de Filosofia - FF) and at the Institute of Mathematics and Physics (Instituto de Matemática e Física - IMF), where they were soon to outnumber men and constitute the majority of the mathematics teaching staff. In this study, I have investigated the course of their careers over time: from their early student days, through their time as teaching assistants and professors, and finally as founders of the Institute of Mathematics and Physics, in 1960. Special reference is made to Martha Maria de Souza Dantas, organizer of the I Brazilian Conference on Mathematics Teaching, an event which has provided the groundwork for what was to become the Institute (IMF); and to Arlete Cerqueira Lima, the mastermind behind its creation. PMID:16683339

  20. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Souza, Tiago Oliveira de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran's I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  1. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Tiago Oliveira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  2. Three new species of the genus Paraleucilla Dendy, 1892 (Porifera, Calcarea) from the coast of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Fernanda F; Menegola, Carla; Lanna, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of calcareous sponges from the coast of Bahia State, NE Brazil are described. All of them belong to the genus Paraleucilla (Calcaronea, Leucosolenida, Amphoriscidae): P. solangeae sp. nov., P. oca sp. nov., and P. incomposita sp. nov. The number of species recorded from the Bahia coast has thus increased from 10 to 13. Including these new species, there are now 50 calcareous sponge species known from the entire Brazilian coast. Paraleucilla is now composed of 11 species, six of them occurring along the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The remaining species occur mainly in the Indian Ocean, and also in the Pacific Ocean, Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea. An identification key for all Paraleucilla species is provided. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Solange Peixinho, to acknowledge her contribution to our understanding of the biodiversity of Calcarea from the Bahia coast in Brazil. PMID:24870655

  3. New taxa and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from the state of Bahia (Brazil) and notes on Meridiotroctes (Acanthoderini).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Twelve new species and two new genera are described from Bahia (Brazil): Ectenessa aurantiaca (Ectenessini); Stizocera lingafelteri (Elaphidiini); Raglicia monnei (Graciliini), new genus and species; Tobipuranga aspera (Heteropsini); Cicatrion unicolor, and Pygmodeon obscurum (Neoibidionini); Neophygopoda agdae (Rhinotragini); Arapari bellus (Trachyderini), new genus and species; Meridiotroctes obliquus (Acanthoderini); Melzerella inopinata (Aerenicini); Ceiupaba poranga, and Desmiphora (Desmiphora) nascimentoi (Desmiphorini). Notes on Meridiotroctes Martins & Galileo, 2007 and Cosmisoma brullei (Mulsant, 1862) are provided. Forty-eight species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil) including four species which are recorded for the first time for Brazil. PMID:26249859

  4. A new species of Chilicola from Bahia, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Colletidae), with a key to the species of the megalostigma group

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas; Mahlmann, Thiago; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The bee genus Chilicola Spinola (Xeromelissinae) is recorded from the State of Bahia, Brazil for the first time, based on a new species of the megalostigma group of the subgenus Hylaeosoma Ashmead. Chilicola (Hylaeosoma) kevani sp. n. is described and figured from males collected in Wesceslau Guimarães, Bahia. The species can be distinguished on the basis of coloration, size, integumental sculpturing, and structure of the hidden metasomal sterna and genitalia. A revised key to the species of the megalostigma group is provided. PMID:22287912

  5. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

  6. A nonbreeding concentration of Roseate and Common Terns in Bahia, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, H.; Lima, P.; Monteiro, L.; DiConstanzo, J.; Cormons, G.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Saliva, J.E.; Spendelow, J.A.; Burger, J.; Pierce, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1999-01-01

    We report recoveries of banded Roseate (Sterna dougallii) and Common (S. hirundo) Terns netted at Mangue Seco, Bahia, Brazil (11? 27'S, 37? 21'W). Mangue Seco is the first reported South American location where large numbers of Roseate Terns concentrate December-March, and where members of both the North American and Caribbean populations occur together during these months. A Roseate Tern recovered at Mangue Seco sets an age record of 25.6 years for the species. Recoveries at Mangue Seco of Common Terns banded in the Azores (37? -38?N, 25? -29?W) suggest there is a regular transatlantic movement by Common Terns between the two locations.

  7. Bioavailability and Natural Pollution of Heavy Metals in Bahia de Magdalena, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.; O'Shea, B.

    2012-12-01

    In the pristine environment of Bahia de Magdalena, Baja California, elevated concentrations of heavy metals have been reported in the biota within the bay, such as sea grasses, blue crabs, and marine turtles. While the hypothesized source of these metals has emphasized anthropogenic inputs from a local fish cannery, geologic enrichment of metals from natural ophiolite formations in the Puerto Magdalena region may be an increasingly feasible source. Total (XRF) chromium and nickel concentrations (max 4,450 ppm and 2,396 ppm, respectively) in rock and soil are orders of magnitude higher than average concentrations in the crust and the beach sands directly impacted by waste discharge from the cannery (mean Cr, 55ppm and mean Ni 17ppm at cannery). Bioavailable (HNO3 acid extracted) metals differ between rock and soil versus cannery-impacted sites. Most notably, Ni is very bioavailable (mean 70% total Ni extracted) in pristine ophiolite areas, but almost completely unavailable at cannery-impacted sites. In contrast, Zn is slightly more bioavailable at the impacted cannery site (mean 55% Zn extracted) than the ophiolite rocks (mean 45% Zn extracted). In addition, these results suggest that while metals, such as Cu, Fe, and Mn, have been previously studied in the biota of the bay, other heavy metals such as Ni and Cr should be included in future biological studies within Bahia de Magdalena.

  8. Atmospheric H 2O 2 field measurements in a tropical environment: Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, P.; Tavares, T. M.; Rocha, V. C.; Klockow, D.

    Concentrations of H 2O 2 in atmospheric gas and liquid phases were determined for the first time in the tropical Southern Hemisphere. Measurements were carried out in the Salvador area, Bahia, 13°S, 38°W) both at the seaside and 500 m away from it as well as at 270 km inland, in a rural area, during March-April 1988. Gaseous H 2O 2 was collected by cryogenic and rain by wet only sampling. Analyses were performed with the peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence method, employing a compact field apparatus. The measured gas phase concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 3.9 ppbv compared to 0.01-0.6 ppbv obtained from measurements with similar methodology in Dortmund (51°30'N, 7°30'E), F.R.G, during summer. The corresponding concentration ranges in rainwater are 0.9-6.8 ppmw (Bahia) and 0.1-2.2 ppmw (Dortmund, summertime). Gas/liquid H 2O 2 equilibrium during rain events is only attained at precipitation rates below 1 mm h -1.

  9. Atmospheric H sub 2 O sub 2 field measurements in a tropical environment: Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, P. ); Tavares, T.M.; Rocha, V.C. ); Klockow, D. )

    1988-09-01

    Concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in atmospheric gas and liquid phases were determined for the first time in the South Hemisphere. Measurements were taken in the Salvador area, Bahia, 13{degree}S, 38.3{degree}W, both at the seaside and 500m away from it, as well as at 270km inland, during March-April 1988. Gaseous samples were taken by cryogenic technique and rain by wet only collection. Analyses were performed by the peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence method. This methodology is the same used at Dortmund University and intercalibration was carried out allowing for unrestricted comparisons between previous results from Germany with present ones. Field measurements showed the following: a- H{sub 2}O{sub 2} absolute concentrations in the gas phase ranged from 200 ppt to 3.9 ppb, which is roughly five times that of Dortmund. b-Diurnal variation show maximum concentrations in early afternoon, somewhat earlier than the corresponding ones for Germany. Decreasing concentration during night in Bahia are most probably connected with condensation processes, for an increase in relative humidity reaching 100% is found in most cases at this time. c- H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in rain during daytime varied between 600-6770 ppbw, averaging 2337 ppbw, which is five times greater than daytime summer rain in Dortmund.

  10. Measurement of acute toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia using DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} instrument and protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Blankemeyer, J.T.; Nguyen, T.; Burks, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} uses a fluorescent dye to permeate the cells of aquatic organisms. The technique has been used on frog embryos, fish embryos, and bovine erythrocytes. Two wavelengths of light are used to excite the fluorescent dye, Di-4-ANEPPS. The blue excitation wavelength measures the cell membrane potential while the yellow excitation wavelength measures the amount of dye loaded into the organisms. The authors applied the technique to the shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, used in marine toxicity testing. The authors used from 1 to 10 shrimp, loaded into a 3 ml spectrofluorometry plastic cuvette. The fluorescent dye, Di-4-ANEPPS, was mixed with the 3 ml of ASW in the cuvette at a final Di-4ANEPPS concentration of 10{sub {minus}6} M. After a thirty minute incubation, the fluorescence of Di-4-ANEPPS was measured in the DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} instrument. A similar protocol was used to test various concentrations of standard assay chemicals and effluents. The test chemical was mixed with ASW and Di-4-ANEPPS and incubated with the shrimp for thirty minutes. After thirty minutes, the fluorescence was measured and compared to the fluorescence of the control shrimp. The authors found that the fluorescence from a single shrimp was detectable and gave similar toxicity data as did the replicates using 10 shrimp. They conclude that the DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} assay can be successfully adapted to marine organisms, particularly Mysidopsis bahia.

  11. Microbiological characteristics of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus spp. in Bahia, Brazil: molecular types and antifungal susceptibilities.

    PubMed

    Matos, C S; de Souza Andrade, A; Oliveira, N S; Barros, T F

    2012-07-01

    To determine the profiles of susceptibility to antifungal and the genotypes of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus in Bahia, Brazil, 62 isolates were collected from cases of meningitis in the period from 2006 to 2010. Their susceptibilities to fluconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine were determined by the broth microdilution technique described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and genotyping of the URA5 gene was accomplished by restriction fragment length polymorphism. C. neoformans accounted for 79% of the identified yeast and C. gattii represented the remaining 21%. Evaluation of the genotypes determined that 100% of the C. gattii isolates belong to the VGII genotype, and 98% of the C. neoformans isolates belong to the VNI genotype. Determination of susceptibility revealed isolates resistant to fluconazole (4.8%), 5-flucytosine (1.6%) and amphotericin B (3.2%); the stratification of sensitivity results for each species showed significant differences in susceptibility to azoles. This study is the first to describe the susceptibility profiles of molecular and clinical isolates of Cryptococcus in Bahia, Brazil. The high percentage of C. gattii isolates belonging to the VGII genotype and its lower susceptibility to antifungal agents highlight the importance of knowing which species are involved in cryptococcal infections in northeastern Brazil. PMID:22278291

  12. Hawksbill × loggerhead sea turtle hybrids at Bahia, Brazil: where do their offspring go?

    PubMed Central

    Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis F.; Marcovaldi, Maria A.; Soares, Luciano S.; Monteiro, Danielle S.; Wijeratne, Sarath; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization between hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) breeding groups is unusually common in Bahia state, Brazil. Such hybridization is possible because hawksbill and loggerhead nesting activities overlap temporally and spatially along the coast of this state. Nevertheless, the destinations of their offspring are not yet known. This study is the first to identify immature hawksbill × loggerhead hybrids (n = 4) from this rookery by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 157 immature turtles morphologically identified as hawksbills. We also compare for the first time modeled dispersal patterns of hawksbill, loggerhead, and hybrid offspring considering hatching season and oceanic phase duration of turtles. Particle movements varied according to season, with a higher proportion of particles dispersing southwards throughout loggerhead and hybrid hatching seasons, and northwards during hawksbill season. Hybrids from Bahia were not present in important hawksbill feeding grounds of Brazil, being detected only at areas more common for loggerheads. The genetic and oceanographic findings of this work indicate that these immature hybrids, which are morphologically similar to hawksbills, could be adopting behavioral traits typical of loggerheads, such as feeding in temperate waters of the western South Atlantic. Understanding the distribution, ecology, and migrations of these hybrids is essential for the development of adequate conservation and management plans. PMID:24688839

  13. Spigelia genuflexa (Loganiaceae), a new geocarpic species from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Popovkin, Alex V.; Mathews, Katherine G.; Santos, José Carlos Mendes; Molina, M. Carmen; Struwe, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Spigelia L. (Loganiaceae), Spigelia genuflexa Popovkin & Struwe, sp. n., from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil, is described, being the first reported geocarpic species in the family. During fruit maturation, the basal infructescences bend down towards the ground, depositing the fruit on the surface (and burying it in soft kinds of ground cover, e.g., moss), whereas the upper ones do so slightly but noticeably. The species is a short-lived annual apparently restricted to sandy-soil habitat of the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, with variable and heterogeneous microenvironment and is known from only two restricted localities. A short review of amphi- and geocarpic species is provided. A discussion of comparative morphology within Spigelia with regards to dwarfism, indumentum, and annual habit is included. A phylogenetic parsimony and Bayesian analysis of ITS sequences from 15 Spigelia species plus 17 outgroups in Loganiaceae confirms its independent taxonomic status: on the basis of sequence similarity and phylogenetic topology it is phylogenetically distinct from all Spigelia species sequenced so far. PMID:22287919

  14. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  15. [Evaluation of potential drug interactions in primary health care prescriptions in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia (Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Leão, Danyllo Fábio Lessa; de Moura, Cristiano Soares; de Medeiros, Danielle Souto

    2014-01-01

    Drug interactions are risk factors for the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. The risk for drug interactions includes factors related to prescription that are intrinsic to the patient. This study sought to evaluate the potential drug interactions in primary care prescriptions in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia to fill the knowledge gap on this topic in Brazil. Information about several variables derived from the primary health care prescriptions was collected and drug interactions were evaluated based on information from Medscape and Micromedex(R) databases. Polypharmacy frequency and its association with the occurrence of drug interactions were also evaluated. Results revealed a 48,9% frequency of drug interactions, 74,9% of moderate or greater severity, 8,6% of prescriptions in polypharmacy that in the chi-square test showed a positive association with the occurrence of drug interactions (p < 0,001). Prescriptions from primary care in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia showed a high frequency of drug interactions, however it is necessary to analyze other risk factors for their occurrence at this level of health care. PMID:24473627

  16. Hawksbill × loggerhead sea turtle hybrids at Bahia, Brazil: where do their offspring go?

    PubMed

    Proietti, Maira C; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis F; Marcovaldi, Maria A; Soares, Luciano S; Monteiro, Danielle S; Wijeratne, Sarath; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization between hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) breeding groups is unusually common in Bahia state, Brazil. Such hybridization is possible because hawksbill and loggerhead nesting activities overlap temporally and spatially along the coast of this state. Nevertheless, the destinations of their offspring are not yet known. This study is the first to identify immature hawksbill × loggerhead hybrids (n = 4) from this rookery by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 157 immature turtles morphologically identified as hawksbills. We also compare for the first time modeled dispersal patterns of hawksbill, loggerhead, and hybrid offspring considering hatching season and oceanic phase duration of turtles. Particle movements varied according to season, with a higher proportion of particles dispersing southwards throughout loggerhead and hybrid hatching seasons, and northwards during hawksbill season. Hybrids from Bahia were not present in important hawksbill feeding grounds of Brazil, being detected only at areas more common for loggerheads. The genetic and oceanographic findings of this work indicate that these immature hybrids, which are morphologically similar to hawksbills, could be adopting behavioral traits typical of loggerheads, such as feeding in temperate waters of the western South Atlantic. Understanding the distribution, ecology, and migrations of these hybrids is essential for the development of adequate conservation and management plans. PMID:24688839

  17. Oral Lesions in Elderly Patients in Referral Centers for Oral Lesions of Bahia

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Sarah; Alves, Técia; Santos, Jean; Oliveira, Márcio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?The aging population phenomenon is occurring on a global scale; aging affects all of the structures of organisms, including the oral cavity. Objective?To estimate the frequency of oral lesions, according to the clinical and histopathologic diagnoses, and to describe the sociodemographic profile of the elderly treated at the referral centers of oral lesions of public universities in Bahia, Brazil. Methods?A descriptive epidemiologic study with transverse characteristics was conducted with elderly patients between August 2010 and January 2012. A form was used to collect data. The descriptive analysis consisted of calculating the simple and relative frequencies of sociodemographic variables and oral lesions. Results?The population was predominantly black women, and the minority of elderly people were retired. Fibroid (13%) and squamous cell carcinoma (145%) were more prevalent clinical diagnoses, with squamous cell carcinoma (30.7%) and fibrous hyperplasia more prevalent histopathologic diagnoses. Conclusion?A prevention policy needs to be implemented to reduce new cases of oral lesions in Bahia, Brazil and to aid in early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of oral lesions. PMID:26491471

  18. The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

    1994-01-01

    Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

  19. ACUTE TOXICITY OF TWO GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS AND SIX ADDITIVES, ALONE AND COMBINED, TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity tests were conducted with two laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (muds) and six commonly used drilling fluid additives to determine their toxicity, alone and combined, to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). In 25 tests, the acute toxicity of combinations of one, two, or ...

  20. EFFECT OF FOOD AVAILABILITY ON THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF FOUR CHEMICALS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA IN STATIC EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Static acute 96 h tests were conducted with Mysidopsis bahia using either carbophenothion, cypermethrin, malathion, or 4-(tert-octyl)phenol. The mysids were < 24 h old at test initiation. For each chemical, two replicate tests were conducted simultaneously with each of thr...

  1. ALTERATIONS IN THE ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) AS INDICATORS OF STRESS FROM CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various aspects of the energy metabolism of an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) were examined for different life stages during a life-cycle exposure to the organophosphate pesticide fenthion. Dose-response relationships were developed for several metabolic rate functions (oxyge...

  2. REVIEW OF THE NEOTROPICAL PHYLINE GENUS PLATYSCYTISCA, WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES FROM BAHIA, BRAZIL (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA: MIRIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phyline genus Platyscytisca Costa and Henry is reviewed and one new species, P. nelsoni, is described from Bahia, Brazil. Platyscytisca nelsoni n. sp., the second species recognized in the genus, represents a considerable range extension for the genus. Provided for P. bergmannae Costa and Henr...

  3. A new species of Neoathripsodes Holzenthal, 1989 (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) with new generic and species records in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Everton S; Quinteiro, Fabio B; Calor, Adolfo R

    2015-01-01

    Trichoptera is the most species-rich clade of exclusively aquatic insects. In Brazil, 645 species have been recorded, distributed in 70 genera and 16 families. In the Northeast Region of Brazil, 85 species have been recorded, including 56 in Bahia State. Sixteen of the Northeast Region species belong to the family Leptoceridae. Among these, the long-horned caddisfly genus Neoathripsodes Holzenthal has been a monotypic genus since its erection more than 26 years ago. It is an endemic genus in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and only the male stage has been described for its only known species, Neoathripsodes anomalus. In this paper, we describe a new species of Neoathripsodes, with the first description of a female in this genus. Additionally, we present new records for the family Leptoceridae in Bahia, especially from the Serra Bonita Mountains, in order to help solve a long-term problem in Brazilian caddisfly research: An uneven proportion of studies in some regions of the country due to historical reasons. The Northeast Region of Brazil still remains a neglected area in which efforts to unearth its biodiversity should be focused. In this work, four species are recorded for the first time for Bahia State and its Serra Bonita Mountains: Grumichella rostrata Thienemann 1905, Neoathripsodes holzenthali n. sp., Nectopsyche fuscomaculata Flint 1983, and Notalina cipo Holzenthal 1986. Neoathripsodes and Notalina are new generic records for Bahia State. The following four species are new records for Serra Bonita: Atanatolica bonita Costa & Calor 2014, Oecetis martinae Quinteiro & Calor 2015, O. furcata Quinteiro & Calor 2015, and Triplectides gracilis (Burmeister 1839). Additional new distributional records for Bahia State are included in this study. PMID:26624373

  4. Epidemiological and molecular study of Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F S; Wenceslau, A A; Carlos, R S A; Albuquerque, G R

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present article was an epidemiological and molecular study of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of Ilhéus and Itabuna in Bahia, as well as an evaluation of associated risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 153 dogs and DNA was extracted and analyzed by the nested-polymerase chain reaction, using one pair of primers to detect Ehrlichia bacteria and another pair to detect the presence of E. canis. Of the 153 animals, 12 (7.8%) were polymerase chain reaction-positive for E. canis, indicating the presence of the parasite in dogs of the Ilhéus-Itabuna microregion. The associated risk factors were exposure to tick-infested habitats and the fact that the dogs lived in the countryside. PMID:18752193

  5. A new extinct primate among the Pleistocene megafauna of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Cartelle, C; Hartwig, W C

    1996-01-01

    A nearly complete skeleton of a robust-bodied New World monkey that resembles living spider monkeys was recovered from undisturbed Pleistocene deposits in the Brazilian state of Bahia. The skeleton displays the highly specialized postcranial pattern typical of spider and woolly spider monkeys and shares cranial similarities to the spider monkey exclusively. It is generically distinct on the basis of its robustness (>20 kg) and on the shape of its braincase. This new genus indicates that New World monkeys nearly twice the size of those living today were part of the mammalian biomass of southern Amazonia in the late Pleistocene. The discovery of this specimen expands the known adaptive diversity of New World monkeys and demonstrates that they underwent body size expansion in the terminal Pleistocene, as did many other types of mammals. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:8692827

  6. Partial neutralization of rain by seaspray: the case of Recôncavo, Bahia-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Vânia P; Costa, Angela Cristina A; Tavares, Tania M

    2007-07-01

    In the Recôncavo of Bahia (located between 12 degrees 33' and 13 degrees 10'S and 38 degrees 00'and 39 degrees 00'W), there are significant discharges of SO(2) and NO(x) due to local, industrial and urban activities. The incoming air masses from the Atlantic Ocean are enriched with seaspray, which neutralizes part of the rain acidity. The extent of seaspray neutralization of rain acidity was quantified in four sites of the region, each with different loads of seaspray. Rain samples were obtained daily at the same time, integrating the precipitation of the previous 24h, using wet-only collectors and analyzed for pH by potentiometry and for sodium by flame photometry. The amount of rain acidity in Recôncavo neutralized by seaspray ranged from <1% up to 88% and depended on the site. On average, neutralization ranged from 5% to 18%. PMID:16982133

  7. Mangifera indica and Phaseolus vulgaris in the bioindication of air pollution in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, J S; Fernandes, E B; Fawcett, W N

    2000-07-01

    In this article are reported the results of a study on the concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) in Mangifera indica as passive monitor and in Phaseolus vulgaris as active monitor with the intention to study the effects of industrial emissions from the Petrochemical Complex of Camaçari (PCC), Bahia, Brazil, on the vegetation. Leaves from M. indica were collected in two sites in the region under direct influence of industrial emissions and in one presumed nonpolluted reference (background) site. Pots with P. vulgaris were exposed in the same sites. The AA increase in the leaves of M. indica from PCC sites indicates a stress situation. The small AA increase in the P. vulgaris exposed in the more polluted site indicates that the active monitor is a sensitive one. The decrease of its leaf area indicates the inability of this species to activate physiological protection mechanisms like an increase in AA production. PMID:10903824

  8. Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

    2004-12-01

    A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America. PMID:15575989

  9. Environmental impact of uranium mining and ore processing in the Lagoa Real District, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ilson G; Cidu, Rosa; Fanfani, Luca; Pitsch, Helmut; Beaucaire, Catherine; Zuddas, Pierpaolo

    2005-11-15

    Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) started in 2000. Hydrogeochemical monitoring carried out from 1999 to 2001 revealed generally good quality of the water resources outside and inside the mineralized area. No chemical contamination in waters for domestic uses was observed. Hydrochemical characteristics did not vary significantly after 1 year of U exploitation, as compared to premining conditions. Due to the short time of mining, the results cannot exclude future variations in water quality. Leaching experiments helped to describe processes of ore and waste degradation. Sulfate was identified as an indicator for different types of contamination. Potential hazards related to local climate (hot rainy season) were identified. They indicate that tailings derived from the ore processing, destabilized by sulfuric acid attack, may induce acidification and salinization in the surrounding environment. Another potential source of environmental impact could be linked to local radium-rich mineralization, originating radon emission. PMID:16323758

  10. [Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24627062

  11. A new species of Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, 2006 (Ephemeroptera: Leptohyphidae) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Molineri, Carlos; Lima, Lucas R C; Knapp, William D; Docio, Loyana

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the previously monotypic genus Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, 2006 is described based on the male imago, egg and nymph from the state of Bahia, Brazil. Characters and illustrations to distinguish Amanahyphes bahiensis sp. nov. from A. saguassu and all other species in Leptohyphidae are provided. Amanahyphes bahiensis sp. nov. is diagnosed as follows: in the male imago, forewing shaded slightly with brownish at basal third and penes basally fused, distally with diverging lobes, and with a short spine-like projection at midlength on lateral margin; in the nymph, femoral spines long, slender and acuminate, tarsal claws with 10-11 marginal denticles and 2+3 subapical submarginal denticles, gill formula 3/2/2/2. Geographic records of both species are amended and indicated on a map. PMID:26248920

  12. Bahia Adair and vicinity, Sonora: modern siliciclastic-dominated arid macrotidal coastline

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, B.E.; Sinitiere, S.M.; Williams, L.J.

    1989-03-01

    The northwestern Sonoran coastline, in the vicinity of Bahia Adair, combines several important geologic features. The arid landward environments are dominated by the dunes of the Gran Desierto and the surrounding alluvial fans and ephemeral streams. The Colorado River, whose delta lies to the northwest, has been an important source of sediment until very recently. The high tidal energy of the region has profoundly influenced the distribution and geometries of coastal and shallow-marine sand bodies, and the active tectonic setting has also played a role. The Cerro Prieto splay of the San Andreas fault system has been responsible for local uplift and downwarp and resulting transgression and regression. The intertidal and supratidal zones are dominated by sand and constitute a sand-body type that has been seldom considered by petroleum explorationists or other students of ancient sand bodies, and the associated evaporites are rather different from those described from the superficially analogous Persian Gulf sabkhas.

  13. Back pain in adults living in quilombola territories of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Luis Rogério Cosme Silva; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Lima, Eduardo de Paula

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with back pain in adults who live in quilombola territories. METHODS A population-based survey was performed on quilombola communities of Vitória da Conquista, state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The sample (n = 750) was established via a raffle of residences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate sociodemographics and employment characteristics, lifestyle, and health conditions. The outcome was analyzed as a dichotomous variable (Poisson regression). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain was of 39.3%. Age ≥ 30 years and being a smoker were associated with the outcome. The employment status was not related to back pain. CONCLUSIONS The survey identified a high prevalence of back pain in adults. It is suggested to support the restructuring of the local public service in order to outline programs and access to healthy practices, assistance, diagnosis, and treatment of spine problems. PMID:25372165

  14. [Lead poisoning: Zinc protoporphyrin in blood of children from Santo Amaro da Purificação, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F M; Neto, A M; Peres, M F; Gonçalves, H R; Guimarães, G C; Amorim, C J; Silva, J A; Tavares, T M

    1996-01-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological study has investigated lead poisoning among all the 101 children aged 1 to 5 years, living at less then 500 m from a lead smelter which has been operating since 1960 in Santo Amaro da Purificação, State of Bahia, Brazil. Lead poisoning was evaluated by determining the concentrations of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in whole blood. Results were compared with those obtained from 98 children of the same age range, in a nursery from Salvador, capital of the State of Bahia. In Santo Amaro, ZPP geometric mean was 65.5 mg/dl (geometric S.D. = 1.7), much higher, therefore, than the normal threshold of 30 microg/dl recommended by the CDC-USA. A child was excluded from statistical analyses because of very high ZPP level: 789 mg/dl. In Salvador, ZPP geometric mean was 31.0 mg/dl (geometric SD = 1.6). "Extremely elevated" ZPP levels (above 156 mg/dl) were observed in 8% of the children from Santo Amaro and in none (0%) of the children from Salvador, this statistical difference being highly significant. Anaemia was present among 35.0% of the children from Santo Amaro and among 25.5% of those from Salvador. One year-old children showed the highest levels of ZPP and anaemia. No marked statistical association was found between ZPP levels and anaemia. Lead contamination of this children population remained in a permanently high level during, at least, the period from 1980 to 1992. In December, 1993 the lead smelter has definitively ceased its industrial activities in Santo Amaro da Purificação. PMID:14688915

  15. Factors Associated with Food Insecurity in Households of Public School Students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Liliane de Souza; dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Aliaga, Marie Agnès

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191,73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

  16. Factors associated with food insecurity in households of public school students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Bittencourt, Liliane; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria; de Jesus Pinto, Elizabete; Aliaga, Marie Agnes; de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Rita

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191.73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

  17. Evaluation of toxicity of polluted marine sediments from Bahia Salina Cruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Lozano, Maria Cristina; Mendez-Rodriguez, Lia C; Maeda-Martinez, Alejandro M; Murugan, Gopal; Vazquez-Botello, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Bahia Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, Mexico is a major center of oil and refined product distribution on the Mexican Pacific coast. From the start of oil industry operations in 1979, negative effects from discharges of treated effluents in the bay have been a constant concern for local communities. We analyzed 28 surface sediment samples obtained in June, 2002 to evaluate the level of toxicity in the littoral zone, port-harbor, and La Ventosa estuary in Bahia Salina Cruz. The extractable organic matter concentration was high (1,213 to 7,505 micro g g(-1)) in 5 of 7 stations from the port and harbor, whereas it was low in 12 of 16 stations in the littoral zone (36 to 98 micro g g(-1)). The total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest (57 to 142 micro g g(-1)) in the port and harbor compared to the La Ventosa estuary and the littoral zone. Among the heavy metals analyzed, cadmium exceeded the effects range-low values associated with adverse biological effects. The geo-accumulation index of sediments was moderate to strong contamination at 5 stations in the nonlittoral and 6 stations in the littoral zone. The enrichment of lead, zinc, and cadmium at 5 stations from the littoral, port, and harbor suggest that these metals are of anthropogenic origin. Bioassay tests of elutriates of sediments on nauplii of Artemia franciscana and Artemia sp. showed that the port and harbor were more toxic than the La Ventosa estuary and the coastal zone. The Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri) did not show a similar response with the solid phase of the sediments. The results of this study indicate that the high levels of organic content and metals in the sediments of port-harbor and the La Ventosa estuary are mainly caused by anthropogenic activities. PMID:20390851

  18. [Considerations on the Sistema Único de Saúde in the twenty-first century: an interview with Lígia Bahia].

    PubMed

    Bahia, Lígia; Cueto, Marcos; Benchimol, Jaime; Teixeira, Luiz Antonio; Cerqueira, Roberta C

    2014-01-01

    This interview with Lígia Bahia explores evaluations of the first 25 years of Brazil's Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and analyzes the project's progress, impasses, and missteps. Bahia is critical of both tendencies currently found within SUS: the one that sees the system as aimed at equity and the other posing equality as its goal. She criticizes the ambivalence that various spheres of government have displayed in their decisions regarding large corporate groups and private health insurance plans, which conflict with the ideas of SUS. She evaluates the participation of doctors and other healthcare professionals in the system. Lastly, she analyzes the emergence of identity politics, which are missing from the public health reform project, whose emphasis was on equality. PMID:24789487

  19. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  20. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auriculariumcollected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  1. Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from rubber tree crops in the State of Bahia, Brazil, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Nuvoloni, Felipe Micali; Lofego, Antonio Carlos; Castro, Elizeu Barbosa; Feres, Reinaldo José Fazzio

    2015-01-01

    The current study describes the results of a survey of Phytoseiidae mites conducted on a rubber tree plantation in the State of Bahia, Brazil. We present 22 species, two of which are new to science, Amblydromalus insolitus n. sp. Nuvoloni & Lofego, and Typhlodromips paramilus n. sp. Nuvoloni & Lofego, and three new records for this host are presented. The species composition was more related with the records of the northern Brazilian Region, than with that of Southeastern and Midwestern. PMID:26249435

  2. Characterization and Relocation of Seismic Clusters in the Area of Bahia de Banderas, Jalisco-Nayarit, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutz Lopez, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Carmona, E.

    2004-12-01

    We analysed the seismic activity that took place the year of 2003 in the area of Bahia de Banderas, between the states of Jalisco and Nayarit, registrated with a local network of 7 stations, which belongs to the Civil Defence of Jalisco and the University of Guadalajara. 400 events have been located, in these earthquakes we identified some series of a similar waveforms. For defining this similarity between seismic events and in order to classify them into clusters, we have applied the cross-correlation method of the P and S arrivals. We found a fourth part of epicentres gathered into 15 clusters of 3-25 events. For some clusters we used relocations relative to a master event. Located south of Bahia de Banderas exist clusters aligned along structures trending N-S in the area of Tuito. This trend agrees with the topographic relief of the area. Other clustes can be related with active tectonic structures at north of Cajon de Peñas dam (Tomatlan). Another cluster was identified at the East, Amatlan de Cañas-Ameca area, and one more in the center of the Bahia de Banderas.

  3. Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis complex: diagnosis and evaluation of the risk factors from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Lucimar Souza; Wenceslau, Amauri Arias; Carvalho, Fábio Santos; Carneiro, Paulo Luíz Souza; Albuquerque, George Rêgo

    2014-01-01

    Direct diagnoses were made by using - blood smears and nested PCR (nPCR) tests on 309 blood samples from crossbred dairy cattle in the municipality of Ibicaraí, Bahia. From diagnostic blood smear slides, the observed parasitic frequencies were 31.1% for Anaplasma marginale and 20.4% for Babesia sp. From nPCR diagnoses, they were 63% for A. marginale, 34% for Babesia bigemina and 20.4% for Babesia bovis. There were significant differences (P <0.01) between the two diagnostic methods (nPCR and blood smear slides). The compliance obtained from the kappa test was 0.41 and 0.48 for A. marginale and Babesia sp., respectively. The tick samples from the six farms analyzed using nPCR were only positive for A. marginale. Evaluation of the risk factors relating to the presence of ticks and the age of the animals showed that there was a significant association (P <0.01) with the frequency of animals infected with both pathogens. Therefore, under the conditions studied, nPCR proved to be a good tool for diagnosing the agents of the bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis complex because of its sensitivity and specificity in comparison with blood smears. The municipality of Ibicaraí is an area with endemic prevalence of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis confirmed by nPCR and A. marginale is the main agent of the disease. PMID:25271452

  4. Source and Fate of Sediments in the Bahia de Anasco, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    Sediments and wastewater mix in the insular marine waters of the Bah'{i}a de Añasco near Mayag{u}ez, Puerto Rico. Trace metal concentrations in fine sediments deposited in the bay were measured to assess potential impact of the ocean outfall on the biota and habitats that include coral reefs. A Q-mode factor analysis of elemental compositions identified three sediment sources and their relative proportions in 51 core and surficial samples collected from the bay and within the coral reefs: (1) sediments discharged by the R'{i}o Grande de Añasco; (2) calcareous skeletal remains; and (3) sediments discharged by the R'{i}o Guanajibo. The nickel and chromium derived from laterite deposits provide a unique fingerprint for sediments discharged from the R'{i}o Guanajibo. Naturally occurring concentrations of these elements exceed Probable Effect Limits (PEL's: 42 mg/kg for nickel and 160 mg/kg for chromium) in sediments deposited near the river mouth. The detection of mercury at 1 mg/kg in one sample from a core recovered near the wastewater outfall was the only indication of a possible outfall source in the data set. The temporal and spatial variations in source fractions proved useful in determining relative frequencies of historic floods and steady-state circulation patterns off the west coast of Puerto Rico.

  5. Pigment signatures associated with an anoxic coastal zone: Bahia Concepcion, Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Bustillos-Guzmán; López-Cortés; Hernandez; Murillo

    2000-06-01

    Bahia Concepcion is a coastal lagoon that has bottom anoxic conditions and high pigment concentrations during the summer. The phytoplankton responsible for this pigment increase is enigmatic, therefore we sampled the lagoon to analyze the pigment with a C8-HPLC system to look for signatures of phytoplankton groups. Analysis reveals a low pigment concentration in the mixed layer with a higher concentration of zeaxanthin and increasing values of chlorophyll a, peridinin, and fucoxanthin below, which peaked at the depth where oxygen dramatically decreases and H(2)S increases. Below this depth, a high pigmentation was recorded and the most important signatures were six chlorophyll-like pigments that eluted between the fucoxanthin and the chlorophyll a, and one carotenoid that eluted just after the chlorophyll a. Spectral characteristics of these last pigments are very similar to pigments present in the Chlorobiales group. These results suggest that cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates are responsible for the chlorophyll a increases, though in highly pigmented samples, anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are probably the main contributors to the increase in pigments. PMID:10817829

  6. Interflow, overland flow and leaching of natural nutrients on an Alfisol slope of southern Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Oliveira Leite, J.

    1985-09-01

    Two experimental plots for hydrologic studies, 3595 and 7060 m 2, were delimited on a slope of Alfisol planted with cacao in Bahia, Brazil. Volumes of overland flow and interflow were measured daily and samples of collected water were taken monthly for analysis of Ca, Mg, Na, K, N, P and Fe. The highest overland-flow volumes represented 24% and the highest interflow 53% of the rainfall but on the average the volumes of overland flow and interflow were found to represent 1 and 14% of the annual rainfall. The percentage of interflow increases with increasing rainfall. In winter, it is higher than in summer, except during the highest rains observed. The mean annual loss for calcium was 85.8 kg ha -1 yr -1; for magnesium 18.2; potassium 17.0; sodium 23.5; nitrogen 22.1; iron 5.5 and phosphorus 0.9. In relative terms, considering the chemical components of the soils, the K losses are highest, indicating that this element is most leachable. The interflow volumes and the amounts of Na, K, N and P correlated at the 1% significance level in both plots. A general conclusion is that the leaching of nutrients varied with the intensity of the interflow, especially for Na, K, N and P, the leaching of nutrients through overland flow being of less importance.

  7. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings. PMID:21789421

  8. Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. Methods This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests. Results We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin’s principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form (“pássaro” in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species. Conclusions The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community. PMID:25012812

  9. Comparative toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia and Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Fulton, Michael H

    2014-10-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used on agricultural crops, as well as for nurseries, golf courses, urban structural and landscaping sites, residential home and garden pest control, and mosquito abatement. Evaluation of sensitive marine and estuarine species is essential for the development of toxicity testing and risk-assessment protocols. Two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia (mysids) and Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp), were tested with the commonly used pyrethroid compounds, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin. Sensitivities of adult and larval grass shrimp and 7-day-old mysids were compared using standard 96-h LC50 bioassay protocols. Adult and larval grass shrimp were more sensitive than the mysids to all the pyrethroids tested. Larval grass shrimp were approximately 18-fold more sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin than the mysids. Larval grass shrimp were similar in sensitivity to adult grass shrimp for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin, but larvae were approximately twice as sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin as adult shrimp. Acute toxicity to estuarine crustaceans occurred at low nanogram per liter concentrations of some pyrethroids, illustrating the need for careful regulation of the use of pyrethroid compounds in the coastal zone. PMID:23364944

  10. A new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil (Serpentes: Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Hamdan, Breno

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the highlands of Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all currently recognized congeners by a unique combination of states of characters on coloration, scale counts, scale ornamentation, and hemipenis. The new species closely resembles Chironius flavolineatus (Jan, 1863) in color pattern, but differs from the later taxon by the presence of two to four posterior temporal scales; cloacal shield entire; six to ten rows of keeled dorsal scales at midbody; ventral scales with posterior dark edges forming conspicuous transverse bars along almost the entire venter; conspicuous dark longitudinal stripes (in "zigzag") in the midventral portion of subcaudals; region of medial constriction of hemipenis slightly covered with spinules separating calyces of apex from spines below region of constriction; and sulcus spermaticus situated on convex face of hemipenis in lateral view. The new species is apparently restricted to Chapada Diamantina, corroborating the biological importance of this region from a conservational perspective. PMID:25543653

  11. [Use of health services by quilombo communities in southwest Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Reis, Edna Afonso; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal

    2013-09-01

    Use of health services is increasing in Brazil as a whole, but geographic and social inequalities persist, especially among minority groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of health services by members of quilombos (slavedescendant African-Brazilian communities) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. This cross-sectional health survey in 2011 focused on 797 adults (? 18 years old) belonging to quilombos. The magnitude of the associations between explanatory variables and use of services was estimated by the prevalence ratio obtained from Poisson regression with 95% confidence interval. Of the total sample, 455 (57.1%) reported having used health services in the 12 months prior to the interview. Higher rates of health services utilization were associated with female gender, non-single conjugal status, fair, poor, or very poor self-rated health, enrolment in the Family Health Program, and referral to a health facility for regular or on-going care. The results showed underutilization of health services by members of quilombos, thus demonstrating the need to improve health services provision for this population group. PMID:24068228

  12. Morphology and dynamics of large subtidal dunes in Bahia Blanca estuary, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor Salvatierra, Marta; Aliotta, Salvador; Ginsberg, Silvia Susana

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to carry out a detailed analysis of subtidal dune morphology and temporal variability and to estimate dune migration rate to improve knowledge of this topic, and so enhance the existing data on different marine environments in the world and especially in South America where this information is limited. Two swath bathymetry surveys were conducted across a dune field in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina). Morphometric parameters and migration rate according to the dune type, were analyzed. The field is composed of large dunes exhibiting two morphological configurations, which are differentiated into sinuous and barchan dunes. The dunes studied are the largest of the estuary, with heights and wavelengths greater than 5 m and 130 m, respectively. The crests of the large dunes are arranged with an orientation perpendicular to the axis of the channel. From geometrical analysis of the parameters, the dunes show a weakly positive correlation between dune height and wavelength as too between dune height and water depth. No clear relationship was observed between maximum height and wavelength parameters with water depth. Across the estuary, the bedforms migrate in the ebb direction, with mean rate of 43 m year- 1. Comparison of our results with previous data shows that during three decades the western boundary of dune field has been displaced 900 m towards the outer estuary, however the dune field configuration and distribution of diverse types of bedform appear to be relatively stable.

  13. [Work in health: sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (state of Bahia, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Bastos, Augusto Amorim; Costa, Ediná Alves; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo

    2011-05-01

    A drugstore is an establishment of interest in health, from which medication is dispensed, namely the therapeutic technology most broadly used in the practice of medicine. The scope of this study is to describe and analyze the sanitary surveillance of drugstores. Based on the theory of working processes in healthcare, a case study was conducted on the sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil), examining 2 analytical categories: agents and activities. Data were collected through observation, analysis of documents and interviews, and QSR N Vivo software was used for data processing. Personnel of the surveillance service were found to have varied professional and educational backgrounds, with limited experience in the sanitary surveillance of drugstores, and insufficient technical training for the performance of the tasks assigned. Deficiencies of a managerial nature were detected in the service. Its operation is primarily focused on granting drugstore licenses, prioritizing attendance to spontaneous demand, thereby configuring a technological model of intervention based on sanitary inspection. The findings revealed a need for updating the service and the adoption of technologies to enhance control of risk, given that technological evolution provides drugs that are increasingly more potent, with a concomitant rise in levels risk. PMID:21655712

  14. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis associated with an outbreak in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, Maria Cecília O.; de Lemos, Ana Paula S.; Quaresma, Márcia; Vilasboas, Rita; Marques, Orgali; de Sá, Márcia U.; Ogassavara, Cinthya T.; Brandileone, Maria Cristina de C.; Harrison, Lee H.; Dias, Juarez

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize meningococcal strains isolated from five cases of meningococcal disease (MD) associated with an outbreak in Trancoso – BA, occurred in October 2009. All cases, with the exception of a 39-year-old male, attended a dance party with approximately 1000 youngsters in a rural site. Materials and methods The epidemiological investigation was conducted by the Epidemiological Surveillance Service of Bahia State. Meningococcal strains were characterized at Adolfo Lutz Institute, the Brazilian National Reference Laboratory for Bacterial Meningitis by conventional techniques (serotype, serosubtype and antimicrobial susceptibility test) and by molecular methods (Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis – PFGE and Multilocus Sequence Typing – MLST). Results The PFGE showed 2 closely related restriction profiles, designated as PFGE types A and A1, having 92% relatedness to each other. MLST characterization showed both A and A1 clones were ST-3780, which belongs to the ST-103 complex. All isolates displayed the phenotype C:23:P1.5 and were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Conclusions This is the first reported MD outbreak associated with serogroup C ST-103 complex in Brazil, as well as the party and illicit drug-use associated outbreak. PMID:22078548

  15. Seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in dogs in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Lavinsky, Manuella; Said, Roueda Abou; Strenzel, Gil Marcelo Reuss; Langoni, Helio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in dogs living in the urban area of the city of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to investigate 24 serovars. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to dog owners to collect data about demography, husbandry and environmental factors. The prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in the population of 282 dogs was 7.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.4-10.7%). Serovar Copenhageni was the most prevalent, followed by serovars Bratislava, Canicola and Gryppotyphosa. No risk factor was detected with regard to demography (age, gender and breed), husbandry (Leptospira vaccinations, food and water exposure through their environment, hunting habits, contact with other animals and contact with rats) and environmental factors (sewage network, garbage collection, history of flooding, river proximity and wastelands). Despite the low prevalence found in this study, the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in healthy dogs in Ilhéus indicates the presence of this agent in the environment, which may be a source of human infection. Knowledge of the serovars present in this environment is important for understanding the epidemiology of leptospirosis and establishing public health policies aimed at its control. PMID:22510215

  16. The occurrence of microdiamonds in Mesoproterozoic Chapada Diamantina intrusive rocks--Bahia/Brazil.

    PubMed

    Battilani, Gislaine A; Gomes, Newton S; Guerra, Wilson J

    2007-06-01

    The origin of diamonds from Serra do Espinhaço in Diamantina region (State of Minas Gerais) and in Chapada Diamantina, Lençóis region (State of Bahia) remains uncertain, even taking into account the ample research carried out during the last decades. The lack of typical satellite minerals in both districts makes a kimberlitic source for these diamonds uncertain. In mid 18th century the occurrence of a metamorphosed igneous rock composed of martite, sericite and tourmaline was described in Diamantina region and named hematitic phyllite, considered by some researchers as a possible diamond source. Similar rocks were found in Lençóis and examined petrographically and their heavy mineral concentration was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Petrographic analyses indicated an igneous origin for these rocks and SEM analyses showed the discovery of microdiamonds. Geochronological studies using the Ar/Ar technique in muscovites yielded minimum ages of 1515+/-3 Ma, which may correlate with 1710+/-12 Ma from U-Pb method in igneous zircons from the hematitic phyllites. Both rock types also have the same mineral and chemical composition which leads to the conclusion that the intrusive rocks were protolith of the hematitic phyllites. This first discovery of microdiamonds in intrusive rocks opens the possibility of new investigation models for diamond mineralization in Brazilian Proterozoic terrains. PMID:17625685

  17. Transformations of Mangrove Forests in Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico: Two Decade Results Based on Landsat Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Babu, S.; Abdul Rahaman, S.; Muthushankar, G.; Jonathan, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mangrove forests which thrive along the tropical and subtropical regions are the most productive ecosystems in the world with a wide range of ecological and economical services to mankind. With the rapid urbanization across the globe, these forests tend to be destroying at an alarming rate. The area of concern for this study, Bahia Magdalena is very important for the economy of the state as nearly 50% of the artisan fisheries are established in the mangrove zone. Henceforth this study is an attempt for a regional assessment and to accurately quantify the mangroves using LANDSAT imageries for over two decades in Bahia Magdalena, Baja California. Satellite imageries from the year 1986 through 2014 were analysed to assess the prolonged changes taking place in and around the mangrove reserve. Using the estimates of land use/cover for all the years, the spatio - temporal data was validated using ArcGIS software. The results revealed that the spatial extent of mangroves are decreasing until 2005 due to the developmental plans such as tourism, shrimp farming and establishment of industries in this part of the country. During the past 10 years (~ after 2005) there is no much change in the area extent of mangrove reserves due to afforestation and conservation efforts. Thus the unbiased dataset generated may be widely used for an improved understanding of the role of mangrove forests in the socio economic aspects, protection from natural disasters, identify possible areas for conservation, restoration and rehabilitation; and improve estimates of the amount of carbon stored in mangrove vegetation and the associated marine environment. Keywords: Mangroves, LANDSAT, Bahia Magdalena, México.

  18. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%. PMID:8701041

  19. Bioassay guided purification of the antimicrobial fraction of a Brazilian propolis from Bahia state

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Myrella Lessio; Vilela, Walquíria Ribeiro; Zauli, Rogéria Cristina; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Foglio, Mary Ann; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2009-01-01

    Background Brazilian propolis type 6 (Atlantic forest, Bahia) is distinct from the other types of propolis especially due to absence of flavonoids and presence of other non-polar, long chain compounds, but presenting good in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity. Several authors have suggested that fatty acids found in this propolis might be responsible for its antimicrobial activity; however, so far no evidence concerning this finding has been reported in the literature. The goals of this study were to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the main pure fatty acids in the ethanolic extract and fractions and elucidate the chemical nature of the bioactive compounds isolated from Brazilian propolis type 6. Methods Brazilian propolis type 6 ethanolic extract (EEP), hexane fraction (H-Fr), major fatty acids, and isolated sub-fractions were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (HRGC-FID), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three sub-fractions of H-Fr were obtained through preparative HPLC. Antimicrobial activity of EEP, H-Fr, sub-fractions, and fatty acids were tested against Staphyloccus aureus ATCC 25923 and Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt 1600 using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Results EEP and H-Fr inhibited the growth of the microorganisms tested; nevertheless, no antimicrobial activity was found for the major fatty acids. The three sub-fractions (1, 2, and 3) were isolated from H-Fr by preparative HPLC and only sub-fraction 1 showed antimicrobial activity. Conclusion a) The major fatty acids tested were not responsible for the antimicrobial activity of propolis type 6; b) Sub-fraction 1, belonging to the benzophenone class, was responsible for the antimicrobial activity observed in the present study. The identification of the bioactive compound will improve the development of more efficient uses of this natural product. PMID:19643008

  20. Seroprevalence of HIV, HTLV-I/II and other perinatally-transmitted pathogens in Salvador, Bahia.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, J I; Lopes, M A; Deliège-Vasconcelos, E; Couto-Fernandez, J C; Patel, B N; Barreto, M L; Ferreira Júnior, O C; Galvão-Castro, B

    1995-01-01

    Generation of epidemiological data on perinatally-transmitted infections is a fundamental tool for the formulation of health policies. In Brazil, this information is scarce, particularly in Northeast, the poorest region of the country. In order to gain some insights of the problem we studied the seroprevalence of some perinatally-transmitted infections in 1,024 low income pregnant women in Salvador, Bahia. The prevalences were as follow: HIV-1 (0.10%), HTLV-I/II (0.88%), T.cruzi (2.34%). T.pallidum (3.91%), rubella virus (77.44%). T.gondii IgM (2.87%) and IgG (69.34%), HBs Ag (0.6%) and anti-HBs (7.62%). Rubella virus and T.gondii IgG antibodies were present in more than two thirds of pregnant women but antibodies against other pathogens were present at much lower rates. We found that the prevalence of HTLV-I/II was nine times higher than that found for HIV-1. In some cases such as T.cruzi and hepatitis B infection there was a decrease in the prevalence over the years. On the other hand, there was an increase in the seroprevalence of T.gondii infection. Our data strongly recommend mandatory screening tests for HTLV-I/II, T.gondii (IgM), T.pallidum and rubella virus in prenatal routine for pregnant women in Salvador. Screening test for T.cruzi, hepatitis and HIV-1 is recommended whenever risk factors associated with these infections are suspected. However in areas with high prevalence for these infections, the mandatory screening test in prenatal care should be considered. PMID:8599064

  1. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and <53 μm)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  2. New geological model of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites from Bahia (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Chaves, Alexandre

    2013-09-01

    New evidence supported by petrography (including mineral chemistry), lithogeochemistry, U-Pb geochronology by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and physicochemical study of fluid and melt inclusions by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry, point to an orogenic setting of Lagoa Real (Bahia-Brazil) involving uraniferous mineralization. Unlike the previous models in which uraniferous albitites represent Na-metasomatised 1.75 Ga anorogenic granitic rocks, it is understood here that they correspond to metamorphosed sodium-rich and quartz-free 1.9 Ga late-orogenic syenitic rocks (Na-metasyenites). These syenitic rocks are rich not only in albite, but also in U-rich titanite (source of uranium). The interpretation of geochemical data points to a petrogenetic connection between alkali-diorite (local amphibolite protolith) and sodic syenite by fractional crystallization through a transalkaline series. This magmatic differentiation occurred either before or during shear processes, which in turn led to albitite and amphibolite formation. The metamorphic reactions, which include intense recrystallization of magmatic minerals, led uraninite to precipitate at 1.87 Ga under Oxidation/Reduction control. A second population of uraninites was also generated by the reactivation of shear zones during the 0.6 Ga Brasiliano Orogeny. The geotectonic implications include the importance of the Orosirian event in the Paramirim Block during paleoproterozoic S?o Francisco Craton edification and the influence of the Brasiliano event in the Paramirim Block during the West-Gondwana assembly processes. The regional microcline-gneiss, whose protolith is a 2.0 Ga syn-collisional potassic granite, represents the albitite host rock. The microcilne-gneiss has no petrogenetic association to the syenite (albitite protolith) in magmatic evolutionary terms.

  3. Speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in sediment samples from São Paulo Estuary, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mario Marques; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Moreira, Ícaro Thiago Andrade; de Oliveira, Olívia Maria Cordeiro; de Souza Queiroz, Antônio Fernando; Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes an extraction procedure for the speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in sediment samples using slurry sampling and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization step of extraction of the species was performed employing a full two-level factorial design (2(3)) and a Box-Behnken matrix where the studied factors in both experiments were: extraction temperature, ultrasonic radiation time, and hydrochloric acid concentration. Using the optimized conditions, antimony species can be extracted in closed system using a 6.0 M hydrochloric acid solution at temperature of 70 °C and an ultrasonic radiation time of 20 min. The determination of antimony is performed in presence of 2.0 M hydrochloric acid solution using HG AAS by external calibration technique with limits of detection and quantification of 5.6 and 19.0 ng L(-1) and a precision expressed as relative standard deviation of 5.6 % for an antimony solution with concentration of 6.0 ?g L(-1). The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of two certified reference materials of sediments. For a sample mass of sediment of 0.20 g, the limits of detection and quantification obtained were 0.70 and 2.34 ng g(-1), respectively. During speciation analysis, antimony(III) is determined in presence of citrate, while total antimony is quantified after reduction of antimony(V) to antimony(III) using potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. The method was applied for analysis of six sediment samples collected in São Paulo Estuary (Bahia State, Brazil). The antimony contents obtained varied from 45.3 to 89.1 ng g(-1) for total antimony and of 17.7 to 31.4 ng g(-1) for antimony(III). These values are agreeing with other data reported by the literature for this element in uncontaminated sediment samples. PMID:25537284

  4. Environmental flow in the River Ondas basin in Bahia, Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    de Souza Castro, Elis Regina Rodrigues; Moreira, Michel Castro; da Silva, Demetrius David

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to estimate the environmental flow of a water basin located in the Brazilian Cerrado using the bidimensional model River2D. The study was carried out in a stretch of the lower portion of the River Ondas in the western part of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To carry out the ecohydrological modeling, the following were used: topobathymetry, hydraulic characterization, the streamflows with the probability of non-exceedances (Q50, Q60, Q70, Q80, Q90, and Q95), and the Habitat Suitability Index for species of the genus Hypostomus. In the River2D, the weighted usable areas (WUAs) pertaining to the streamflows associated with different non-exceedances were simulated for the later construction of optimization and identification matrices of the streamflows that maximize the habitat area throughout the year. For juvenile Hypostomus, WUA increased as streamflow increased, with higher values associated with Q50. For adult specimens, lower WUA values were observed associated with Q50, while higher values were associated with Q95, which shows a preference for lower streamflows. The environmental flows found for the stretch of the River Ondas varied over the course of the year. The lowest environmental flows were observed in September (30.31 m(3) s(-1)) and October (29.98 m(3) s(-1)), while the highest were observed in February (44.22 m(3) s(-1)) and March (43.16 m(3) s(-1)). The environmental flow regime obtained restricts the water availability in the basin, for the purpose of water capture, which shows the importance of ecohydrological studies in forming a basis for water resource management actions. PMID:26718949

  5. [Importance of the Teratogen Information Service in Bahia, Brazil, for prevention of congenital malformations: an initial four-year review].

    PubMed

    Toralles, Maria Betânia; Trindade, Bruno Meira Castro; Fadul, Luiza Cavalcanti; Peixoto Junior, Clóvis F; Santana, Marco Antonio Costa Campos de; Alves, Crésio

    2009-01-01

    Teratogenic agents are defined as physical, chemical, or biological agents or nutrient deficiencies that lead to fetal structural or functional alterations. Information on the effects of exposure to teratogens during pregnancy is of the utmost importance. In order to achieve this goal, in 2001, the Bahia State Teratogen Information Service was created in the Medical Genetics Department at the University Hospital of the Federal University in Bahia. The current paper aimed to describe the first four years of operation in the service. From March 2001 to May 2005, the service was consulted by telephone, fax, and e-mail. During this period, 408 queries were made, for a total of 1,091 different reasons. Most queries were made by pregnant women and health care professionals. Hair products, herbal teas, and misoprostol were the most widely investigated agents. The low number of queries (average 1/day) shows the need for more awareness-raising on the risks posed by the various agents. PMID:19180292

  6. Clinical and epidemiological profile of multiple sclerosis in a reference center in the State of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Eduardo; Fukuda, Thiago; Pereira, Júlio; Seixas, Jamile; Miranda, Rafael; Rodrigues, Bernardo; Saback, Thaís; Andrade, Renata; Cardoso, Grace; Martinez, Rosa; Avena, Juliane; Melo, Ailton

    2006-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, demyelinating and degenerative disease that affects the central nervous system. Its prevalence and clinical aspects vary according to the continent considered, being more frequent in Caucasians and young individuals aged 20 to 40 years. Epidemiological data from Brazil show that prevalence is variable, being more frequent in the Southern and Southeastern areas of the country, rather than in the Northern and Northeastern areas. The purpose of this paper is to describe MS clinical and epidemiological features in the State of Bahia, in the Brazilian Northeastern region. Thus, we held a cross-sectional study over the period from February to May, 2005, in the Multiple Sclerosis Patient Support Center ("Núcleo de Apoio aos Pacientes com Esclerose Múltipla") of Bahia, which included all patients with a diagnosis of MS seen over this period of time. A total of 121 patients were investigated, being 80.2% females (female:male ratio=4:1), with higher frequency in mulatto individuals (64%), and the relapsing-remitting type (91.3%). Most patients (68.7%) had mild MS, and blacks were prone to worse prognosis compared to other patients. PMID:17057875

  7. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State. PMID:22449069

  8. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 2: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

  9. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

  10. [Notes on fleas (Siphonaptera) of the fox Cerdocyon thous (Canidae) from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Jacobina, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, E J; Silva, E M; Monte-Alegre, A F; Sherlock, I A

    2000-01-01

    From July to September of 1998, 152 fleas were collected from 18 specimens of the fox Cerdocyon thous captured in the visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Jacobina, State of Bahia, Brazil. The fleas were identified as: 136 Rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi, 11 Pulex irritans, 2 Ctenocephalides canis, 1 Ctenocephalides felis felis and 2 Xenopsylla cheopis. PMID:10881126

  11. PROJECTED POPULATION-LEVEL EFFECTS OF THIOBENCARB EXPOSURE ON THE MYSID, AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA, AND EXTINCTION PROBABILITY IN A CONCENTRATION-DECAY EXPOSURE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory



    Population-level effects of the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to varying thiobencarb concentrations were estimated using stage-structured matrix models. A deterministic density-independent matrix model estimated the decrease in population growth rate, l, with increas...

  12. Geochemistry of contaminated komatiites from the Umburanas greenstone belt, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes Leal, Angela Beatriz de; Santos, André Luis Dias; Bastos Leal, Luiz Rogério; Cunha, José Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The late Archaean Umburanas greenstone belt (UGB) is located in the São Francisco Craton, southwest of Bahia State, Brazil. The lower unit of UGB comprises basal komatiite lavas and tholeiitic basalts intercalated with felsic volcanic rocks. The regional crystalline basement rocks, the Gavião block, predominantly consist of granitic, granodioritic and migmatitic gneiss along with tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) associations. Petrographic studies of UGB komatiites reveal characteristic spinifex igneous texture although primary mineralogy is rarely preserved. Based on textural relationships, komatiites are divided into cumulate, spinifex, and massive types. The MgO content varies in the range 31.5-40.4 wt%. The MgO-SiO2 negative correlation in komatiites suggests olivine fractionation trend. The UGB komatiites are of Al-undepleted type, characterized by Al2O3/TiO2 (21-48) ratio, enriched in highly incompatible LILE relative to moderately incompatible HFSE and distinct negative Nb, Sr and Eu anomalies. Also shows depletion of light rare earths, convex-downward rare earth patterns typically not observed in komatiites world-wide, and primitive mantle normalized Gd/Yb (1.03-1.23) and La/Sm (2.36-4.99) ratios. The negative Eu anomaly is attributed to the circulation of H2O-rich fluid, whereas the negative Nb and Sr anomalies are attributed to contamination from granitic basement rocks of the Gavião block. The UGB komatiites are most likely derived from adiabatic decompressional melting of a mantle plume. The melting took place at liquidus temperatures in the range 1572-1711 °C, which is consistent with mantle-plume origin invoked for several other komatiites in Archaean greenstone belts elsewhere. The melts were more likely generated at a depth shallower than 100 km (pressure < 2.5 GPa) where garnet was absent in the source mineralogy. Geochemical characteristics suggest contamination of primary melts with granitic basement rocks either during ascent of melt or during emplacement of magma in a continental basin setting. Greenschist to low-T amphibolite facies metamorphism at ∼2Ga may also have played a role in modifying the original komatiite petrography and composition.

  13. Prospección de hongos Entomophthorales para el control natural de insectos en Bahía, Brasil [Prospecting Entomophthoralean fungi for the natural control of insects in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on Entomophthorales fungi in southern Bahia State, Brazil, included enzootic and epizootic studies on the dynamics of entomophthoromycosis and their interrelations with insect populations of various insect orders, geographical distributions and incidence on crops, natural grasses and other ...

  14. Use of new antiretroviral drugs and classes in Bahia, Brazil: a real life experience on salvage therapy of AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Brites, Carlos; Nóbrega, Isabella; Martins Netto, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has significantly evolved in the last decade, with an increasing number of new drugs and classes. Currently, even heavily experienced patients can be successfully treated with new regimens. In Brazil, the recent incorporation of some new antiretroviral drugs made it possible to suppress HIV plasma viremia in most treated patients, with significant benefits in terms of quality of life and survival. However, little has been published on outcomes of patients under new drugs-based regimens. We reviewed the safety and efficacy of antiretroviral regimens using recently introduced drugs in Bahia. Our results confirm that patients using darunavir, raltegravir, enfuvirtide, or etravirine presented with a high rate of virological suppression without significant adverse events, after one year of follow-up. PMID:25997781

  15. [Research on antibodies to arbovirus in the serum of residents of the village of Corte de Pedra, Valencia, Bahia].

    PubMed

    Tavares-Neto, J; Travassos da Rosa, A P; Vasconcelos, P F; Costa, J M; Travassos da Rosa, J F; Marsden, P D

    1986-01-01

    A serological survey for research on antibodies to arbovirus was carried out on 288 residents of the rural zone of the village of Corte de Pedra, Valença, Bahia. It was observed that 3.8% of the sample population presented HI and N antibodies against Flaviviruses (Ilhéus 6, St. Louis 2, Yellow fever 3 and Rocio 1). One person, who had previously lived in the Amazon region, had antibodies to Mayaro. The authors were unable to detect either N antibodies for Piry virus in a random sample of 75 persons or CF antibodies against viruses of the Changuinola and Phlebotomus groups and ungrouped BE AR 408005 and BE AR 421710 in another random sample of 28 individuals. Complementary studies should be conducted in order to define the transmission of the different viruses in the area. PMID:3613976

  16. Assessment of computer techniques for processing digital LANDSAT MSS data for lithological discrimination of Serra do Ramalho, State of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradella, W. R. (Principal Investigator); Vitorello, I.; Monteiro, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Enhancement techniques and thematic classifications were applied to the metasediments of Bambui Super Group (Upper Proterozoic) in the Region of Serra do Ramalho, SW of the state of Bahia. Linear contrast stretch, band-ratios with contrast stretch, and color-composites allow lithological discriminations. The effects of human activities and of vegetation cover mask and limit, in several ways, the lithological discrimination with digital MSS data. Principal component images and color composite of linear contrast stretch of these products, show lithological discrimination through tonal gradations. This set of products allows the delineations of several metasedimentary sequences to a level superior to reconnaissance mapping. Supervised (maximum likelihood classifier) and nonsupervised (K-Means classifier) classification of the limestone sequence, host to fluorite mineralization show satisfactory results.

  17. Use of thermal and vegetation index data from earth observing satellites to evaluate the risk of schistosomiasis in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bavia, M E; Malone, J B; Hale, L; Dantas, A; Marroni, L; Reis, R

    2001-04-27

    A geographic information system (GIS) was constructed using maps of regional agroclimatic features, vegetation indices and earth surface temperature data from environmental satellites, together with Schistosoma mansoni prevalence records from 270 municipalities including snail host distributions in Bahia, Brazil to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of infection and to identify environmental factors that influence the distribution of schistosomiasis. In an initial analysis, population density and duration (months) of the annual dry period were shown to be important determinants of disease. In cooperation with the National Institute of Spatial Research in Brazil (INPE), day and night imagery data covering the state of Bahia were selected at approximately bimonthly intervals in 1994 (six day-night pairs) from the data archives of the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-11 satellite. A composite mosaic of these images was created to produce maps of: (1) average values between 0 and +1 of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); and (2) average diurnal temperature differences (dT) on a scale of values between 0 and 15 degrees C. For each municipality, NDVI and dT were calculated for a 3x3 pixel (9 km(2) area) grid and analyzed for relationships to prevalence of schistosomiasis. Results showed a statistically significant relationship of prevalence to dT (rho=-0.218) and NDVI (rho=0.384) at the 95% level of confidence by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results support use of NDVI, dT, dry period climatic stress factors and human population density for development of a GIS environmental risk assessment model for schistosomiasis in Brazil. PMID:11378144

  18. Influence of constant and fluctuating salinity on responses of 'mysidopsis bahia' exposed to cadmium in a life-cycle test

    SciTech Connect

    Voyer, R.A.; McGovern, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Two 28-day, life-cycle tests were conducted to evaluate effects of constant and fluctuating salinities on chronic toxicity of cadmium to Mysidopsis bahia at 27C. Salinities of 10 to 32% and cadmium concentrations of 1 to 9 micrograms/l were examined. Estimated median tolerance concentrations at day 28 ranged from 4.8 to 6.3 micrograms Cd/l over the salinity range of 13 to 29%. Size and fecundity of exposed and unexposed females were predicted to be comparable when cadmium was equal or greater than 5.0 micrograms Cd/l and salinities equal or less than 20% and at concentrations of less than 5 micrograms/l at lower salinities. At higher cadmium levels both responses were impaired regardless of salinity. Reproduction in control treatments was an order of magnitude lower in low (10 and 13%) as compared to high (21, 29, 32%) salinity treatments. This effect of salinity on reproduction was not moderated by periodic exposure to higher, more suitable salinities. Survival, growth and reproduction were not impacted by addition of 5 micrograms Cd/l under fluctuating salinity conditions. The no-effect concentration is 4-5 micgrogram Cd/1 regardless of salinity. Changes in survival, growth and reproduction observed are consistent with the principal distribution of M. bahia in estuaries relative to salinity. Comparison of these data with previously reported acute responses suggests that the acute water quality criterion for cadmium should be salinity-dependent whereas the chronic criterion need not be.

  19. Magnetic anomalies in Bahia Esperanza: A window of magmatic arc intrusions and glacier erosion over the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Ruiz-Constán, Ana; Pedrera, Antonio; Ghidella, Marta; Montes, Manuel; Nozal, Francisco; Rodríguez-Fernandez, Luis Roberto

    2013-02-01

    Bahia Esperanza, constituting the NE tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, is made up of Paleozoic clastic sedimentary rocks overlain by a Jurassic volcano-sedimentary series and intruded by Cretaceous gabbros and diorites. The area is located along the southern part of the Pacific Margin magnetic anomaly belt. Field magnetic researches during February 2010 contribute to determining the deep geometry of the intermediate and basic intrusive rocks. Moreover, the new field data help constrain the regional Pacific Margin Anomaly, characterized up to now only by aeromagnetic and marine data. Field magnetic susceptibility measurements of intrusive intermediate and basic rocks, responsible for magnetic anomalies, ranges from 0.5 × 10- 3 SI in diorites to values between 0.75 × 10- 3 SI and 1.3 × 10- 3 SI in gabbros. In addition, a significant remanent magnetism should also have contributed to the anomalies. The regional magnetic anomaly is characterized by a westward increase from 100 nT up to 750 nT, associated with large intrusive diorite bodies. They probably underlie most of the western slopes of Mount Flora. Gabbros in the Nobby Nunatak determine local residual rough anomalies that extend northwards and westwards, pointing to the irregular geometry of the top of the basic rocks bodies below the Pirámide Peak Glacier. However, the southern and eastern boundaries with the Buenos Aires Glacier are sharp related to deep glacier incision. As a result of the glacier dynamics, magnetic anomalies are also detected north of the Nobby Nunatak due to the extension of the anomalous body and the presence of gabbro blocks in the moraines. The Bahia Esperanza region is a key area where onshore field geological and magnetic research allows us to constrain the shape of the crustal igneous intrusions and the basement glacier geometry, providing accurate data that complete regional aeromagnetic research.

  20. Atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of particulate trace metals in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de P. Pereira, Pedro A.; Lopes, Wilson A.; Carvalho, Luiz S.; da Rocha, Gisele O.; de Carvalho Bahia, Nei; Loyola, Josiane; Quiterio, Simone L.; Escaleira, Viviane; Arbilla, Graciela; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Respiratory system is the major route of entry for airborne particulates, being the effect on the human organism dependent on chemical composition of the particles, exposure time and individual susceptibility. Airborne particulate trace metals are considered to represent a health hazard since they may be absorbed into human lung tissues during breathing. Fossil fuel and wood combustion, as well as waste incineration and industrial processes, are the main anthropic sources of metals to the atmosphere. In urban areas, vehicular emissions—and dust resuspension associated to road traffic—become the most important manmade source. This work investigated the atmospheric concentrations of TSP, PM 10 and elements such as iron, manganese, copper and zinc, from three different sites around Salvador Region (Bahia, Brazil), namely: (i) Lapa Bus Station, strongly impacted by heavy-duty diesel vehicles; (ii) Aratu harbor, impacted by an intense movement of goods, including metal ores and concentrates and near industrial centers and; (iii) Bananeira Village located on Maré Island, a non-vehicle-influenced site, with activities such as handcraft work and fishery, although placed near the port. Results have pointed out that TSP concentrations ranged between 16.9 (Bananeira) and 354.0 ?g m -3 (Aratu#1), while for PM 10 they ranged between 30.9 and 393.0 ?g m -3, both in the Lapa Bus Station. Iron was the major element in both Lapa Station and Aratu (#1 and #2), with average concentrations in the PM 10 samples of 148.9, 79.6 and 205.0 ng m -3, respectively. Zinc, on the other hand, was predominant in samples from Bananeira, with an average concentration of 145.0 ng m -3 in TSP samples, since no PM 10 sample was taken from this site. The main sources of iron in the Lapa Station and Aratu harbor were, respectively, soil resuspension by buses and discharge of solid granaries, as fertilizers and metal ores. On the other hand, zinc and copper in the bus station were mainly from anthropic contributions, probably heavy-duty vehicle ageing and wearing actions releasing off Zn from tires and Cu from brake linings. In the Aratu harbor, the high copper concentrations found were probably due to the port's activities, as discharges of copper concentrate on its terminal, although other sources could be possible, as burning of diesel fuel on ships and heavy oil in heaters. Finally, the Bananeira site has been presented as a different profile, since this remote site has shown zinc as the most abundant element, demonstrating to have an unexpected anthropic contribution. On a mass-to-mass basis, both zinc and manganese were in high levels in the Bananeira site and their presence strongly suggest the impact of other sources, such as the Industrial Center of Aratu and/or a siderurgy plant, not far away from that location.

  1. Hydrography of Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California: Results of more than twenty five years of investigations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Serrano, H.; Canino-Herrera, S. R.; Morales-Chavez, R.; Martinez-Garcia, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The first study of Bahia Todos Santos (BTS) was reported by Walton in 1955. We conducted oceanographic studies in BTS since 1979. The BTS has a connection with a coastal lagoon named Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), two islands at the western portion and the Port of Ensenada. The general hydrographic characteristics are: In winter the water became homogeneous, less saline (<33.4) and with low stability. During spring and summer a hydrographic structure of three layers is noticed. The deepest layer is composed of the southern California water mass with a relatively high salinity (>33.6) low temperature (13°C), low oxygen (~3mL L-1) and rich in nutrient concentration. The isothermal top layer has relatively high temperature (>17°C) and oxygen concentration (>6mL L-1). The intermediate transition layer (seasonal thermocline) has minimum salinity, maximum oxygen and high stability. During fall there is distribution of heat from the surface layer to the entire water column. The thermic waves propagate with decrease amplitude in ~3 months, from surface to bottom water. The California Current flow generally southward off the western United States and northern Mexico and is one of the major coastal upwelling of the word oceans. The upwelling events in BTS appear regularly at the SW portion and were typically characterized by an increase in pCO2, decrease of O2, increase of nutrients and a lower temperature. Upwelling activity increases surface nutrient availability causing rise in the primary productivity and hence increased zooplankton biomass. The annual upwelling event which had a maximum strength on May, the seasonal warming and cooling, and the water advection were the dominant modifying processes for the variability of seawater characteristics. Higher salinities are located close to the coastline and lower off the bay. The levels of oxygen, alkalinity, pH and chlorophyll indicate that the maximum concentration of phytoplankton is located at the center of the bay. The nitrification support the primary productivity and the NO3 levels were below detection limits; the N/P ratio in 2005 was from 10 to 25; and for 2006 was below 5. There is a net enrichment of anthropogenic nutrients at BTS. The heavy metals and pesticides studies started since the early 80's with problems still to solve for Tl, Cd. There is a net Pb enrichment and higher Cr concentrations at the NE of the bay. The EPB is a wetland ~7 Km. long located at the SE part of the BTS. The EPB is a net source of DIP (deltaDIP = +0.13 mmol m-2 day-1), that brings agricultural runoff to the BTS. It is typically a hypersaline system during summer and a net heterotrophic (p-r = -14 mmol m-2 day-1), and a net denitrifying (nfix-denit = -2.1 mmol m-2 day-1) system. Some anomalies were in 2005 the presence of a huge red tide observed inside BTS (about 50% of the bay) that last for more than six months, this HAB's has killed many fishes (anoxia) and marine mammals. The hydrographic conditions during the red tide were, temperature anomalies higher than 2°C above normal; high nutrient concentration above the normal. In 2006 the values were normal again. The Port of Ensenada, increased in size and activities (tourism, transportation, coastguards for national security, cement industry, research) these developments generate some management problems, like the beach and coastline modification. The aground of the APL Panama, activates the management agencies to prevent and control pollution.

  2. [Management policy-making for work and education in health: the case of the Bahia State Health Department, Brazil, 2007-2008].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Isabela Cardoso de Matos; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes

    2011-09-01

    The construction of Brazil's Unified National Health System (SUS) has raised a set of challenges for the health sector's administrators and personnel, including issues of work management and continuing education for health workers, in view of the financial, political, and organizational constraints in the process of changing the healthcare model. The current study aimed to analyze the process of formulating the Health Work and Education Management Policy by the Bahia State Health Department. Public policy cycle was used as the theoretical framework. The study analyzed data from institutional documents and records of participant observation by one of the authors. The results include mapping the governmental and nongovernmental stakeholders that participated in the process. The analysis highlights a series of problems in the SUS in Bahia related to work management and health workers' profile, taken as the point of departure for priority-setting in the State Strategic Agenda and Health Plan for 2008-2011. PMID:21986605

  3. HTLV-1 in pregnant women from the Southern Bahia, Brazil: a neglected condition despite the high prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As the most frequent pathway of vertical transmission of HTLV-1 is breast-feeding, and considering the higher prevalence in women, it is very important to perform screening examinations for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies as part of routine prenatal care. So far, no studies of HTLV-1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in the Southern region of Bahia, Brazil, have been described. Methods Pregnant women were selected at the two regional reference centers for health care from Southern Bahia. A total of 2766 pregnant women attending the antenatal unit between November 2008 and May 2010 have been analyzed. An extra blood sample was drawn during their routine antenatal testing. A standardized questionnaire was applied and all positive plasma samples were tested by ELISA and were confirmed by Western Blot and PCR. Besides that, positive women were contacted and visited. The family members that were present during the visit were asked to be serologically screened to the virus. A prospective study was also carried out and newborns were followed up to two years for evaluation of vertical transmission. Results HTLV prevalence was 1.05% (CI 95%: 0.70-1.50). There was no association of HTLV-1 infection with age, education, income and ethnic differences. The association with marital status was borderline (OR?=?7.99; 95% CI 1.07-59.3; p?=?0.042). In addition, 43 family members of the HTLV-1 seropositive women have been analyzed and specific reactivity was observed in 32.56%, including two children from previous pregnancy. Conclusion: It is very important to emphasize that the lack of HTLV-1 screening in pregnant women can promote HTLV transmission especially in endemic areas. HTLV screening in this vulnerable population and the promotion of bottle-feeding for children of seropositive mothers could be important cost-effective methods to limit the vertical transmission. Besides that, our data reinforce the need to establish strategies of active surveillance in household and family contacts as important epidemiological surveillance actions for the early detection of virus infection and the prevention of transmission by sexual or and parenteral contact. PMID:24524416

  4. The bivalve Neithea from the Cretaceous of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus Andrade, Edilma; Seeling, Jens; Bengtson, Peter; Souza-Lima, Wagner

    2004-09-01

    On the basis of new collections from the Sergipe and Camamu (Bahia) basins, revision of previously described material from the Pernambuco-Para?´ba Basin and a reassessment of previous descriptions, five species of the pectinid bivalve Neithea are described from the Cretaceous of northeastern Brazil: N. ( N.) alpina (d'Orbigny, 1847) from the Albian of the Camamu Basin; N. ( N.) coquandi (Peron, 1877) from the Aptian-Cenomanian of the Sergipe Basin, the Albian of the Camamu Basin, broadly mid-Cretaceous beds of the Tucano Sul Basin (Bahia), and the Cenomanian of the São Lu?´s Basin (Maranhão); N. ( N.) hispanica (d'Orbigny, 1850) from the Albian-lower Turonian of the Sergipe Basin; N. ( N.) bexarensis (Stephenson, 1941) from the Campanian of the Pernambuco-Para?´ba Basin; N. ( Neithella) notabilis (Münster in Goldfuss, 1833) from the Cenomanian of the Sergipe Basin. All species show a wide geographical distribution, in sharp contrast to previous studies that have indicated a highly endemic mollusc fauna in the Cretaceous of Brazil.

  5. Frequency of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Iris Daniela Santos de; Andrade, Müller Ribeiro; Uzêda, Rosângela Soares; Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Lindsay, David Scott; Gondim, Luís Fernando Pita

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris) are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the parasite. A total of 272 feline serum samples (134 from feral and 138 from house cats) were subjected to an indirect fluorescent antibody test using cultured merozoites of S. neurona as antigen. Positivity was detected in 4.0% (11/272) of the tested samples, with titers ranging from 25 to 800. The feline sera were also tested for antibodies against the protozoan Neospora caninum, with an observed antibody frequency of 2.9%. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to report antibodies against S. neurona in Brazilian cats. We conclude that cats are exposed to the parasite in the region of this study. Further investigations are needed to confirm the role of cats in the transmission cycle of S. neurona in Brazil. PMID:25517534

  6. Source and distribution of organic matter in surface sediments from mangroves on the island of Itaparica, Bahia/Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisângela Costa; Celino, Joil José; Santos, Vera Lúcia Cancio Souza; Bispo De Souza, José Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Elemental analysis and isotopic composition evaluated the impact of human activity at the surface sediments in the largest island of Todos os Santos Bay, northeastern Brazil. Saturated hydrocarbons (n-alkanes and isoprenoids) by gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector and (13)C by mass spectrometer were determined from 30 surface sediment samples in mangroves at the Itaparica Island (Bahia-Brazil) in the rainy and dry season. These data, distribution, and ratio of carbon/nitrogen showed a mixture of sources: continental, marine, and anthropogenic ones. From the chromatographic profiles, light oil contamination was observed in the dry regions of Baiacu, Campinas, and Ponta Grossa, while in Jiribatuba it was observed during the rainy season. However, ?(13)C results during dry and rainy season in the presence of oil also showed in Misericordia and Cacha Prego districts for both periods and Ponta Grossa during the rainy season. Principal component analysis, using a correlation matrix, revealed the latent relationships among all the surface sediment stations investigated and confirmed our analytical results. PMID:23771233

  7. Parasites in the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae cultivated in the estuary of the Graciosa River in Taperoá, Bahia.

    PubMed

    Cova, Aliane Watanabe; Serafim Júnior, Moacyr; Boehs, Guisla; Souza, Jackson Moreira de

    2015-01-01

    In this work, parasites associated with the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae were studied at a cultivation unit in the estuary of the Graciosa River in Taperoá, Bahia. On a monthly basis, between April 2011 and March 2012, 20 oysters were collected, measured and fixed in 10% formaldehyde. In order to identify the parasites, routine histological techniques were used. The specimens were embedded in paraffin and sections, 7 µm thick, were cut. These were then stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin and were examined using an optical microscope. The parameters analyzed to investigate water quality showed that the temperature ranged from 23.9 °C to 29.3 °C, water salinity from 0.4 to 24.2 Practical Salinity Units PSU and recorded rainfall from 80 mm to 406.4 mm/month. During the parasitological analyses, infestation of the polychaete Neanthes succinea was observed in 41% of the oysters. Through histological techniques, the following parasites were identified: colonies of Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs); the protozoa Nematopsis sp. and Ancistrocoma sp.; the turbellarian Urastoma sp.; the metacestode Tylocephalum sp. and an unidentified tapeworm. The data collected showed that there was low-intensity infection with and prevalence of parasites, except for Nematopsis sp., thus attesting that these cultivated oysters were in a healthy condition. PMID:25909249

  8. Reproductive cycle of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Veneridae) in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia.

    PubMed

    Luz, J R; Boehs, G

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the reproductive cycle of Anomalocardia brasiliana, typical of the estuarine region of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. For this purpose, 20 specimens were collected biweekly between August 2005 and August 2006 on an intertidal bank (14º 48' 23" S and 39º 02' 47" W). The animals were measured on the anteroposterior axis (length), examined macroscopically and removed from the shell and fixed in Davidson's solution. Subsequently, the tissues were impregnated in paraffin, cut into 7 mm sections and stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (HE). The slides were examined under a light microscope. The water temperature at the site ranged from 24 to 30.5 ºC (mean: 27.4 ºC; SD ± 1.9), salinity from zero to 23 (mean: 13.7; SD ± 7.5) and rainfall from 28.3 mm to 248.8 mm monthly (yearly mean: 130 mm). The sample (n = 478) showed a sex ratio (M: F) of 1: 1.2 (p < 0.05) and no cases of hermaphroditism. There was no sexual dimorphism. Males and females showed reproductive synchrony. The reproductive cycle was continuous, with releases of gametes mainly in spring, summer and autumn. These results are similar to those found in other regions, but there was no reproductive rest period as reported for populations in higher latitudes. PMID:21881791

  9. Bird-spiders (Arachnida, Mygalomorphae) as perceived by the inhabitants of the village of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Eraldo M Costa

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the conceptions, knowledge and attitudes of the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, on mygalomorph spiders locally known as 'caranguejeiras' (bird-spiders). It is launched here a new filed within ethnozoology: ethnoarachnology, which is defined as the transdisciplinary study of the relationships between human beings and bird-spiders. Data were collected from February to June 2005 by means of open-ended interviews carried out with 30 individuals, which ages ranged from 13 to 86 years old. It was recorded some traditional knowledge regarding the following items: taxonomy, biology, habitat, ecology, seasonality, and behavior. Results show that bird-spiders are classified as "insects". The most commented aspect of the interaction between bird-spiders and inhabitants of Pedra Branca is related to their dangerousness, since they said these spiders are very venomous and can cause health problems. In general, the traditional zoological knowledge of Pedra Branca's inhabitants concerning these spiders is coherent with the academic knowledge. PMID:17101055

  10. [Missed opportunity for timely diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in Afrodescendant communities in the southwest of the state of Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Cláudio Lima; Barroso, Sabrina Martins; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of missed opportunities for timely diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in Afrodescendant communities in Vitoria da Conquista in the state of Bahia. It involved a population-based cross-sectional study based on a probability sample (n=797), where 548 individuals were eligible for analysis considering the risk criteria: age of 45 years old and above, increased Body Mass Index and hypertension. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was estimated at 42.6%. Logistic regression indicated the following statistically associated factors: self-assessed good/very good health conditions; not measuring blood pressure and not consulting with a physician in the past twelve months; and poor access to health services. The high prevalence was associated with factors related to low utilization and poor access to health services. Actions for the diagnosis and prevention of diabetes should prioritize populations at risk, including better education and training of family health care teams, and improvement of attendance at health care units. Enhanced integration between primary and secondary health care actions can positively impact early diagnosis, treatment and reduction of potential complications associated with diabetes in this population. PMID:24897467

  11. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw meats and prepared foods in public hospitals in salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Wellington Luis Reis; Ferreira, Jeane dos Santos; Carvalho, Joelza Silva; Cerqueira, Ellayne Souza; Oliveira, Lucimara Cardoso; Almeida, Rogeria Comastri de Castro

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw meat and fish and foods prepared from them for patient consumption in public hospitals in Salvador, Bahia, in northeastern Brazil. A total of 114 samples of raw meat and fish (chicken, n = 30; beef, n = 30; pork, n = 24; and fish, n = 30) and 63 samples of prepared foods (made with chicken, n = 15; beef, n = 15; pork, n = 15; and fish, n = 18) were collected from the kitchens of 10 different hospitals. Of the 114 investigated raw meat and fish samples, 28.1% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 23.3% beef, 23.3% chicken, 37.5% pork, and 30% fish samples. Of the prepared foods, 9.5% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 5.6% chicken products, 6.7% pork products, and 22.2% fish products. MRSA contamination was not detected in prepared beef dishes. A statistical analysis showed no association between the presence of MRSA and the type of raw food (P > 0.05). The high prevalence of MRSA among the raw foods tested and the presence of the microorganism in prepared foods emphasizes the necessity of enforcing hygienic practices within hospital kitchens. PMID:25472504

  12. C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene and variant hemoglobins: a study in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Couto, Fábio David; Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Moura Neto, José Pereira; Rêgo, Marco Antônio Vasconcelos; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

    2004-01-01

    The C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) is associated with an increase in total homocysteine serum levels (tHcy), described as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Eight hundred forty-three neonates from two different maternity hospitals, one public and another private, in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil were screened for this polymorphism by PCR and RFLP. The T-allele frequency in the total sample was 0.23, and the prevalence rates of heterozygous and homozygous carriers were 36.2% and 5.3%, respectively. The T-allele frequency differed and the T/T genotype was more prevalent at the private maternity hospital. The hemoglobin (Hb) profile was investigated by HPLC in 763 newborns. The frequency of variant Hb was higher at the public than at the private maternity hospital. The association of the C677T polymorphism and the Hb profile was investigated in 683 newborns, showing a relatively high frequency of variant Hbs and the T allele. These data could provide an important basis for further studies focusing on potential risks of vaso-occlusive events in these individuals. PMID:15073633

  13. Fungal communities in gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes in forest and cabruca agrosystems of southern Bahia State (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Reis, Bárbara Monique dos Santos; Silva, Aline; Alvarez, Martín Roberto; Oliveira, Tássio Brito de; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-12-01

    Leaf-cutting ants interact with several fungi in addition to the fungal symbiont they cultivate for food. Here, we assessed alien fungal communities in colonies of Atta cephalotes. Fungus garden fragments were sampled from colonies in the Atlantic Rainforest and in a cabruca agrosystem in the state of Bahia (Brazil) in two distinct periods to evaluate whether differences in nest habitat influence the diversity of fungi in the ant colonies. We recovered a total of 403 alien fungi isolates from 628 garden fragments. The prevalent taxa found in these samples were Escovopsis sp. (26 %), Escovopsioides nivea (24 %), and Trichoderma spirale (10.9 %). Fungal diversity was similar between the colonies sampled in both areas suggesting that ants focus on reducing loads of alien fungi in the fungus gardens instead of avoiding specific fungi. However, fungal taxa composition differed between colonies sampled in the two areas and between the sampling periods. These differences are likely explained by the availability of plant substrates available for foraging over habitats and periods. Ordination analysis further supported that sampling period was the main attribute for community structuring but also revealed that additional factors may explain the structuring of fungal communities in colonies of A. cephalotes. PMID:26615740

  14. Opportunistic responses of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) populations following the 1997 98 El Niño event in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attrill, Martin J.; Kelmo, Francisco

    2007-06-01

    We present results from a seven year (1995-2001) study on the coral reefs in Bahia (Brazil), the reef invertebrate community being severely impacted by the 1997-98 El Niño Southern Oscillation event. Despite local extinction of some taxa, the urchin Diadema antillarum was the only species out of a total of 678 enumerated demonstrating a significant increase in population size following El Niño, indicating a unique response of this species to the stresses associated with these events. Other species of echinoid did not show such a response, most disappearing from the fauna during the two post-El Niño years. The increasing Diadema numbers were most likely due to movement of individuals onto the reef systems from deeper water, exploiting the conditions on the reefs caused by a reduction in competitors and, we speculate, an increase in available space on the reef allowing potential algal settlement to sustain this elevated urchin population. This increased grazing pressure may have prevented algae covering the reef, as seen in other Atlantic reef systems, allowing new coral settlement in 2001.

  15. Baseline trace elements in the seagrass Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Geysa B; de Souza, Thaís L; do N Costa, Fernanda; Moura, Carlos W N; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2016-03-15

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were found in samples of Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) seagrass from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This bay has been impacted by the presence of industrial activity that includes chemical and petrochemical plants as well as an oil refinery and harbor activities located in the north and northeastern area. Samples were collected at 4 stations to evaluate the distribution of element concentrations in this area and under different climatic conditions. The mean concentrations, in mgkg(-1), found in dry tissues for all the studied metals and stations were: As (1.08-5.42), Ba (3.72-32.0), Cd (0.135-1.68), Cr (1.15-10.4), Cu (2.23-13.4), Ni (1.95-9.87), Pb (0.873-5.18), V (3.39-22.4) and Zn (13.1-39.5). Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the seagrass data showed significant inter-site differences for all elements examined except nickel and vanadium. PMID:26874749

  16. [Domains of physical activity in slave-descendant communities in Southwest Bahia State, Brazil: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; César, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors in various domains (leisure-time, work, home, and commuting) among quilombolas (descendants of African slaves) in Bahia State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study of 797 individuals from 18 to 100 years of age. The study adopted a cutoff point of 150 minutes of PA per week. A hierarchical Poisson model was used. The highest prevalence of PA was at work (42.1%), followed by the home environment (39.3%), commuting (35.5%), and leisure time (13.1%). PA at work was associated with male gender, lower age, higher schooling, and consumption of alcohol and fruits. PA in the household domain was associated with female gender, lower age, marital status (married), and negative self-rated health. In commuting, PA was associated with male gender and lower age bracket, and during leisure time with safety, male gender, lower age, and higher schooling. The study concludes that this slave-descendant community displays a profile of PA that is characteristic of rural groups (more active at work, with little leisure-time activity). The determinants of PA were similar to those seen in urban groups. PMID:26200369

  17. Cost-Effective Control of Plant Disease When Epidemiological Knowledge Is Incomplete: Modelling Bahia Bark Scaling of Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Franco M.; DeSimone, R. Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify—the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule—are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

  18. Climate patterns governing the presence and permanence of salmonellae in coastal areas of Bahia de Todos Santos, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Simental, Lourdes; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2008-10-01

    Despite the importance of salmonellae as one of the major causes of food-borne infections worldwide, data regarding the presence of these organisms in the environment are limited. We investigated the presence of Salmonella spp. in Bahia de Todos Santos (Baja California, Mexico) and evaluated the environmental factors that affect the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in this arid region. A total of 1,331 samples collected from 21 sites along the coast during a period of 3 years were analyzed for Salmonella spp. Geographical and seasonal distribution of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in association with environmental parameters and with human infections in the area. The incidence of Salmonella bacteria throughout the study was 4.8%, with the highest incidence detected in wastewater (16.2%), followed by stream water (10.6%), mollusks (7.4%), and seawater (2.3%). Twenty different serotypes were identified among the 64 Salmonella isolates. The dominant serotype was Typhimurium (23.4%), followed by Vejle (6.2%). The presence of Salmonella spp. in coastal areas was mostly confined to rainy periods and areas of stream discharges, and runoff was identified as the predominant factor influencing the transport of Salmonella bacteria from source points to the sea via streams. Isolation of Salmonella spp. was negatively and significantly associated with temperature, probably because of the effect of solar radiation in the decline of permanence of Salmonella bacteria. Conversely, human infections prevailed during the warmest months and were negatively correlated with the presence of Salmonella spp. in the marine environment. PMID:18708509

  19. Cost-effective control of plant disease when epidemiological knowledge is incomplete: modelling Bahia bark scaling of citrus.

    PubMed

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Laranjeira, Francisco F; Neri, Franco M; DeSimone, R Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2014-08-01

    A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify-the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule-are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

  20. [Risk factors related with occupational and environmental exposure to organochlorine insecticides in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1985].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, W A

    1991-12-01

    In the cacao-growing region in the southern part of the state of Bahia, the organochlorine insecticides, mainly gamma-benzene hexachloride (BHC) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), have been used for about 40 years on cacao crops and in public health programs for control of the insect vectors of different diseases, especially malaria. This paper presents the results of tests performed on 127 persons, all males, between the ages of 15 and 52 years, divided into eight groups as follows: three groups consisted of persons occupationally exposed to 1.5% BHC, that is, technical hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH); two groups consisted of individuals who had had occasional contact with the products or worked in areas near those in which they were used; two groups were appliers of DDT, and the last group--the control group--consisted of 50 individuals who had had no history of occupational exposure to insecticides. All the participants underwent testing to determine the parameters of biochemistry, hematology, and organochlorine insecticide residues in the blood. It was found that improper handling of the products and failure to use individual protective equipment, together with longer time of exposure, significantly increased the rates of GOT and GPT in the appliers of DDT and technical HCH, and in the latter the rates of alkaline phosphatase, albumin, and cholesterol were also found to be higher. In view of the high morbidity among pesticide appliers in agriculture and public health campaigns, it is important to institute programs to teach these workers to avoid contamination of their persons and of the environment by developing good hygiene habits, using individual protective equipment, and correctly handling the products. Rural workers and public health authorities must become aware of the importance of protective equipment, periodic health examinations, and reduced environmental pollution in order to lessen occupational risks of field workers and promote improved conditions of life for the rural population at large. PMID:1838687

  1. Climate Patterns Governing the Presence and Permanence of Salmonellae in Coastal Areas of Bahia de Todos Santos, Mexico?

    PubMed Central

    Simental, Lourdes; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Despite the importance of salmonellae as one of the major causes of food-borne infections worldwide, data regarding the presence of these organisms in the environment are limited. We investigated the presence of Salmonella spp. in Bahia de Todos Santos (Baja California, Mexico) and evaluated the environmental factors that affect the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in this arid region. A total of 1,331 samples collected from 21 sites along the coast during a period of 3 years were analyzed for Salmonella spp. Geographical and seasonal distribution of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in association with environmental parameters and with human infections in the area. The incidence of Salmonella bacteria throughout the study was 4.8%, with the highest incidence detected in wastewater (16.2%), followed by stream water (10.6%), mollusks (7.4%), and seawater (2.3%). Twenty different serotypes were identified among the 64 Salmonella isolates. The dominant serotype was Typhimurium (23.4%), followed by Vejle (6.2%). The presence of Salmonella spp. in coastal areas was mostly confined to rainy periods and areas of stream discharges, and runoff was identified as the predominant factor influencing the transport of Salmonella bacteria from source points to the sea via streams. Isolation of Salmonella spp. was negatively and significantly associated with temperature, probably because of the effect of solar radiation in the decline of permanence of Salmonella bacteria. Conversely, human infections prevailed during the warmest months and were negatively correlated with the presence of Salmonella spp. in the marine environment. PMID:18708509

  2. Sarcocystis spp. in sheep and goats: frequency of infection and species identification by morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular tests in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Meneses, Iris Daniela S; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; de Jesus, Rogério Fernando; de Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro; Gondim, Luís F Pita

    2016-04-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are cyst-forming coccidia that infect numerous animals species, including several livestock species. Despite the importance of sheep and goat production in Brazil, little it is known about the Sarcocystis species that infect small ruminants in the country and their potential impact on meat condemnation due to the presence of macroscopic cysts of the parasite. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of infection by Sarcocystis spp. in goats and sheep intended for human consumption in Bahia State, Brazil, as well as to identify the parasite species in selected samples. The entire tongue, esophagus, and heart were collected from 120 goats and 120 sheep. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis spp. by macroscopic evaluation, light microscopy, electron microscopy, and molecular tests. Microscopic cysts of Sarcocystis spp. were detected in 95.8 % of sheep and 91.6 % of goats. Using either transmission electron microscopy or partial sequencing of the 18S region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for species identification, Sarcocystis tenella and Sarcocystis arieticanis were observed in sheep and Sarcocystis capracanis in goats. Macroscopic cysts were not detected in the analyzed samples. We concluded that goats and sheep destined for human consumption in Bahia possess high frequencies of Sarcocystis infection. Carcass condemnation due to Sarcocystis macrocysts seems to be rare in the studied region. S. arieticanis and S. capracanis were confirmed for the first time by electron microscopy or by molecular tests in small ruminants from Brazil. PMID:26786832

  3. Triatominae survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Vagner José; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Júlio C R Ferreira; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2015-05-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macaúbas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macaúbas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macaúbas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population. PMID:25802433

  4. Genetic diversity and structure in natural populations of Maytenus truncata Reiss, 1861, a medicinal plant vulnerable to extractivism in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simplicio, R R; Waldschmidt, A M; Amorim, M B; Almeida, B S; Pereira, D G

    2015-01-01

    Maytenus truncata (Celastraceae) is a plant species widely used in the treatment of ulcers and tumors. Despite the intensive harvest of native specimens in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, there is no information about the genetic variability or structure of this species. Therefore, the goal of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity and population structure of M. truncata based on inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. The samples comprised specimens from Jequié, Contendas do Sincorá, Boa Nova, and Boa Vista do Tupim in the State of Bahia. After selection of eight ISSR primers, the percentage of polymorphic loci was equal to 96.2% and genetic diversity was 0.3581. The Mantel test revealed positive correlation among genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.5462), but it was not significant (r ≥ 0, P = 0.8365). Even though AMOVA revealed that most variation was found within populations (68%), a high structuring was detected among them (ΦST = 0.31, P < 0.001). Both UPGMA and Bayesian analyses indicated that gene flow was higher between Jequié and Contendas do Sincorá, whereas samples from Boa Nova and Boa Vista do Tupim were more isolated. This result is likely because of the population decrease and restriction to gene flow associated with intensive extractivism of populations of this species. PMID:26782471

  5. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nemésio, A

    2013-05-01

    The orchid-bee faunas of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants ranging from 1 to 300 ha in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, were surveyed. Baits with seventeen different scents were used to attract orchid-bee males. Four thousand seven hundred and sixty-four males belonging to 36 species were actively collected with insect nets during 300 hours from November, 2008 to November, 2009. Richness and diversity of orchid bees found in this study are the highest ever recorded in the Atlantic Forest domain. Eufriesea dentilabris (Mocsáry, 1897) and Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840) were collected at the 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', the first record of these species for the state of Bahia and the northernmost record for both species. Females Exaerete dentata (Linnaeus, 1758) were also collected at 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal' and old records of Eufriesea aeneiventris (Mocsáry, 1896) in this area makes this site the richest and most diverse concerning its orchid-bee fauna in the entire Atlantic Forest and similar to areas in the Amazon Basin. PMID:23917575

  6. INTERACTIONS AMONG SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, AND AGE ON GROWTH OF THE ESTUARINE MYSID MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA REARED IN THE LABORATORY THROUGH A COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE - I. BODY MASS AND AGE-SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A broad range of salinity-temperature conditions (salinities from 3 to 31 o/oo and temperatures from 19 to 31 degrees C) significantly influenced growth rates and subsequent biomass of the estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, reared in the laboratory from the first free juvenile st...

  7. Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen’s reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40’59”S and 38°56’38”W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary - the region’s main river - at 5.5?m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size. Behaviours described were compatible with the observations made in situ and with data found in the scientific literature, confirming the importance of traditional knowledge in complementing scientific data. One behaviour mentioned by the fishermen that had no equivalence in the scientific literature was confirmed in situ and, therefore, constitutes the first record for this species. PMID:22584063

  8. The -308bp TNF gene polymorphism influences tumor necrosis factor expression in leprosy patients in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joyce Moura; Rêgo, Jamile Leão; de Lima Santana, Nadja; Braz, Marcos; Jamieson, Sarra E; Vieira, Thaillamar Silva; Magalhães, Thaís Lamêgo; Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Castellucci, Léa C

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a debilitating chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, with high incidence and prevalence in Brazil. The -308bp G/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1800629) in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene promoter is a proposed risk factor for leprosy. In Brazil, Northern India, Egypt and Nepal, the common G allele was associated with leprosy. In Eastern India, Thailand and Malawi the minor A allele was the risk factor. Allele A was previously associated with high TNF. We genotyped rs1800629 in 326 leprosy cases from Bahia State, Brazil, including 72 paucibacillary (PB) and 47 multibacillary (MB) without reactions, and 69 reversal reaction (RR) and 78 erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) with reactions. Logistic regression was used to compare patient groups with 331 healthy controls. Relative TNF mRNA was determined in peripheral blood leukocytes by QRTPCR, and serum TNF levels measured by ELISA. We found that TNF mRNA expression was higher (P=0.03) in leprosy patients compared to endemic controls, but did not differ significantly between clinical subgroups. Carriage of the minor A allele was associated (P=0.003) with low TNF mRNA across leprosy patients. Nevertheless, we found no evidence for either allele at this SNP as a risk factor for leprosy per se (OR=1.12, 95% CI 0.79-1.60, P=0.52), PB (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.54-1.81, P=0.97), MB (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.40-1.83, P=0.70), RR (OR=1.37, 95% CI 0.79-2.38, P=0.27) or ENL (OR=0.76, 95% CI 0.40-1.45, P=0.42) when compared to endemic controls. Further studies are required to determine whether the influence of the minor A allele on TNF mRNA levels determines response to treatment, particularly in the context of ENL reaction treatment with anti-TNF therapies and RR reactions where treatment with prednisolone is known to reduce TNF levels. Our findings contribute to understanding TNF as an important determinant of leprosy immunopathology in Brazil. PMID:26829382

  9. “Shark is the man!”: ethnoknowledge of Brazil’s South Bahia fishermen regarding shark behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fishermen’s knowledge is a source of indispensable information in decision-making processes related to efforts to stimulate the management and conservation of fishing resources, especially in developing countries. This study analyzed the knowledge of fishermen from three municipal areas of Bahia in northeast Brazil regarding the behavior repertoire of sharks and the possible influence that these perceptions may have on the inclination to preserve these animals. This is a pioneering study on the ethnobiological aspects of elasmobranchs in Brazil. Methods Open, semi-structured interviews with shark fishing specialists were conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The interviews addressed the fishermen’s profile, fishing techniques and knowledge about sharks, focusing on the behaviours exhibited by sharks. The data were analysed with quantitative approach and conducted with the use of descriptive statistical techniques. Results Sixty-five fishermen were interviewed. They descend from the rafting subculture of Brazil’s northeast, which has historically been disregarded by public policies addressing the management and conservation of fishing resources. The fishing fleet involved in shark fishing includes rafts, fishing boats and lobster boats equipped with fishing lines, gillnets, longlines and “esperas”. The informers classified sharks’ behaviour repertoire into 19 ethological categories, related especially to feeding, reproduction, and social and migratory behaviours. Because they identify sharks as predators, the detailed recognition of the behaviours exhibited is crucial both for an efficient catch and to avoid accidents. Therefore, this knowledge is doubly adaptive as it contributes to safer, more lucrative fishing. A feeling of respect for sharks predominates, since informers recognize the ecological role of these animals in marine ecosystems, attributing them the status of leader (or “the man”) in the sea. Conclusions This work demonstrates the complexity and robustness of artisanal fishermen’s ichthyological knowledge of sharks. Therefore, we suggest that such knowledge should be considered to develop public policies for the control of the fishing activity, as well as to develop and consolidate the National Action Plan for the Conservation of Shark and Ray Species (PAN - Tubarões e Raias). PMID:24994466

  10. [Slave-descendent communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: self-rated health and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; César, Cibele Comini

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of negative self-rated health and associated factors in the quilombola community (descendants of escaped slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. A household survey was conducted with 797 adults in 2011. Data on self-rated health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, social support, health status, and access to health services were obtained through questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for sex and age. Prevalence of negative self-rated health was 12.5%. After statistical modeling, the following variables remained associated with self-rated health: skin color, schooling, adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, chronic illness, physical limitations, and at least one medical visit in the previous 12 months. Self-rated health was associated with socioeconomic/demographic dimensions, lifestyle, social support, and health status. PMID:25166945

  11. Trace elements distribution in hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) tissues on the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Macêdo, Gustavo R; Tarantino, Taiana B; Barbosa, Isa S; Pires, Thaís T; Rostan, Gonzalo; Goldberg, Daphne W; Pinto, Luis Fernando B; Korn, Maria Graças A; Franke, Carlos Roberto

    2015-05-15

    Concentrations of elements (As, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, V, Zn) were determined in liver, kidneys and bones of Eretmochelys imbricata and Chelonia mydas specimens found stranded along the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil. Results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the liver and kidneys of juvenile C. mydas were the highest found in Brazil. We also observed a significant difference (p<0.05) on the bioaccumulation of trace elements between the two species: Al, Co, Mo, Na and Se in the liver; Al, Cr, Cu, K, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr and V in the kidneys; and Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and V in the bones. This study represents the first report on the distribution and concentration of trace elements in E. imbricata in the Brazilian coast. PMID:25796544

  12. A new species of Characidium Reinhardt (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from coastal rivers in the extreme south of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Angela M; Sarmento-Soares, Luisa M; Martins-Pinheiro, Ronaldo F

    2015-01-01

    Characidium helmeri, a species of the family Crenuchidae apparently endemic to rivers draining the extreme south of Bahia, Brazil, is described. The new species is easily distinguished from congeners by having dark, vertically elongated, irregular spots or dashes on flanks, usually more evident over midlateral stripe and/or ventral half of body, where it may present a somewhat curved or zigzag-shape. Characidium helmeri can be further distinguished from most congeners by having lateral line reduced to 13-22 pored scales, adipose fin absent, isthmus naked on its anteriormost portion, 14 scales around caudal peduncle, 4 scales above lateral line and 4 below, two series of dentary teeth, supraorbital absent or extremely reduced, and basicaudal black spot well defined. The occurrence of reductive characters in Characidium is briefly discussed. PMID:26624672

  13. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention. PMID:26648372

  14. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisa S L; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Mori, Gustavo M; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L N; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X; Souza, Anete P de

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  15. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Elisa S. L.; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L. N.; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X.; de Souza, Anete P.

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called ‘Bahian cacao’ or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  16. Mineralogical and textural evidences of melt transfer in a granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Santos de Souza, Jailma; Barbosa, Johildo; Bourque, Hugo; Floess, David

    2014-05-01

    In pelitic rocks, the effect of melt transfer (loss and/or gain) on phase relations can be successfully predicted via phase equilibrium modeling and more particularly using pseudosections with bulk composition as a variable (e.g. White et al., 2001). One of the most obvious effect of melt loss is the dehydration of the rock that limits further melting and favors the preservation of peak metamorphic assemblage. However, in most cases, melt loss has a limited effect that can be hardly seen mineralogically. Indeed, composition of phases like garnet, cordierite or plagioclase, that are first-order metamorphic phase, will not be affected significantly by melt loss. Therefore, evidences of melt extraction must be evidenced texturally. The goal of this contribution is to present an example where both mineralogical and textural evidences of melt extraction have been inferred. The studied sample is a pelitic granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). It is located in the city of Salvador da Bahia, next to the Farol da Bara. Structurally, it is located in a steeply deeping high strain zone that could have play a major role on the segregation and transfer of melt. The gneissic foliation is marked by a compositional banding with centimer-wide quartzo-feldspathic leucosomes in a garnet-bearing granulite. Leucosomes are almost systematically surrounded by a darker layer that is quartz-undersaturated and enriched in spinel and primatic sillimanite. This silica undersaturation is interpreted as the effect of extreme melt extraction and was modeled using phase diagram section. An interesting feature of the rock is that garnet grain size decreases and the number of garnet grains increases in the melanosome away from the leucosome. Furthermore, the type, amount and shape of inclusions in garnet, chemical composition and zoning in garnet also varies greatly and continuously across the gneissic foliation. Texturally, the presence of former melt consists on thin films along grain boundaries, melt pools that are much more abundant in the silica-undersaturated domain close to the leucosome.

  17. Factors associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy in adults with AIDS in the first six months of treatment in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, José Adriano Góes; Dourado, Inês; Brito, Ana Maria de; Silva, Carlos Alberto Lima da

    2015-06-01

    The control of viral replication is essential in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and adherence to therapy is instrumental for such control. Individual and external factors influence adhesion to the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. This is a cross-sectional study to investigate factors associated with non-adherence to HAART in AIDS patients in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, with age ? 13 years and first prescription in 2009. Data was collected from patient charts and pharmacy records. From a total of 216 patients, 65.3% were males; mean age 37.8 ± 9.5 years; single, 67.9%; heterosexual, 64%; more than 8 years of school education, 65.3%; alcohol users, 61.5%; non-smokers, 75,1% or non-illicit drug users, 93.7%. A proportion of 94% started ARV therapy with TCD4+ < 350 cells/mm3; 61.8% were symptomatic; and 68.4% had an adverse drug reaction. The prevalence of non-adherence was 25%. The variables associated were: longer time between HIV infection and AIDS (aOR = 3.9), adverse drug reaction (aOR = 2.4), under 34 years of age (aOR = 2.2), less than 8 years of school education (aOR = 2.2) and illicit drugs use (aOR = 2.6). A high-non-adherence rate is an important problem within the first six months of HAART. PMID:26200367

  18. [Representations and experiences of obstetrician/gynecologists with legal and illegal abortion in two maternity-hospitals in Salvador da Bahia].

    PubMed

    De Zordo, Silvia

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this qualitative study, carried out in two maternity-hospitals in Salvador da Bahia, was to investigate the experience and representations of health professionals, and particularly obstetricians-gynecologists, regarding legal abortion in comparison with their representations and experience with illegal abortion. A questionnaire was distributed and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals (13 obstetricians-gynecologists) in a hospital providing legal abortion (P) and with 20 health professionals (9 obstetricians-gynecologists) in another hospital that does not provide this service (F). The factors that influence the representations and experience of abortion of most obstetricians-gynecologists and explain the high rate of conscientious objection at Hospital P were: 1- the criminalization of abortion and the fear of being denounced; 2- the stigmatization of abortion by certain religious groups and by the physicians themselves; 3- training in obstetrics and the lack of good training in the epidemiology of maternal morbidity-mortality and abortion; 4- representations on gender relations. The main factors associated with liberal attitudes were: age - under 30 and over 45 years of age - experience with high maternal mortality rates due to abortion and experience with legal abortion. PMID:22872336

  19. Evaluation of optimal conditions for determination of low selenium content in shellfish samples collected at Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil using HG-AFS.

    PubMed

    Lopes Dos Santos, Walter Nei; Macedo, Samuel Marques; Teixeira da Rocha, Sofia Negreiros; Souza de Jesus, Caio Niela; Cavalcante, Dannuza Dias; Hatje, Vanessa

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a procedure for the determination of total selenium content in shellfish after digestion of samples in block using cold finger system and detection using atomic fluorescent spectrometry coupled hydride generation (HG AFS). The optimal conditions for HG such as effect and volume of prereduction KBr 10 % (m/v) (1.0 and 2.0 ml) and concentration of hydrochloric acid (3.0 and 6.0 mol L(-1)) were evaluated. The best results were obtained using 3 mL of HCl (6 mol L(-1)) and 1 mL of KBr 10 % (m/v), followed by 30 min of prereduction for the volume of 1 mL of the digested sample. The precision and accuracy were assessed by the analysis of the Certified Reference Material NIST 1566b. Under the optimized conditions, the detection and quantification limits were 6.06 and 21.21 ?g kg(-1), respectively. The developed method was applied to samples of shellfish (oysters, clams, and mussels) collected at Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil. Selenium concentrations ranged from 0.23?±?0.02 to 3.70?±?0.27 mg kg(-1) for Mytella guyanensis and Anomalocardia brasiliana, respectively. The developed method proved to be accurate, precise, cheap, fast, and could be used for monitoring Se in shellfish samples. PMID:24771464

  20. Hypothesis on the origin of lineaments in the LANDSAT and SLAR images of precambrian soil in the low Contas River Valley (southern Bahia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. C. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Examination of LANDSAT and SLAR images in southern Bahia reveals numerous linear features, which are grouped in five sets, based on their trends: N65 degrees E, N70 degrees W, N45 degrees E and NS/N15 degrees E. Owing to their topographic expressions, distributive patterns, spacing between individual lineaments and their mutual relationships, the lineament sets of N65 degrees E and N70 degrees W, as well as the sets of N40 degrees E and N45 degrees W, are considered as two groups of conjugate shear fractures and the former is older and is always cut by the latter. Their conjugate shear angles are 45 degrees and 85 degrees and their bisector lines are approximately in east-west and north-south directions, respectively. According to Badgeley's argumentation on the conjugate shear angles, the former conjugate shear fractures would be caused by: (1) vertical movements, and the bisector of their conjugate angle would be parallel to the long axis of horsting or folding, or (2) by a compressive force in the east-west direction and under a condition of low confining pressure and temperature.

  1. Pollen types and levels of total phenolic compounds in propolis produced by Apis mellifera L. (Apidae) in an area of the Semiarid Region of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matos, Vanessa R; Alencar, Severino M; Santos, Francisco A R

    2014-03-01

    Twenty-two propolis samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in an area of the Semiarid region the the State of Bahia (Agreste of Alagoinhas), Brazil, were palynologically analyzed and quantified regarding their levels of total phenolic compounds. These samples were processed using the acetolysis technique with the changes suggested for use with propolis. We found 59 pollen types belonging to 19 families and 36 genera. The family Fabaceae was the most representative in this study with nine pollen types, followed by the family Asteraceae with seven types. The types Mikania and Mimosa pudica occurred in all samples analyzed. The types Mimosa pudica and Eucalyptus had frequency of occurrence above 50% in at least one sample. The highest similarity index (c. 72%) occurred between the samples ER1 and ER2, belonging to the municipality of Entre Rios. Samples from the municipality of Inhambupe displayed the highest (36.78±1.52 mg/g EqAG) and lowest (7.68 ± 2.58 mg/g EqAG) levels of total phenolic compounds. Through the Spearman Correlation Coefficient we noticed that there was a negative linear correlation between the types Mimosa pudica (rs = -0.0419) and Eucalyptus (rs = -0.7090) with the profile of the levels of total phenolic compounds of the samples. PMID:24676176

  2. [Combined nutritional indicators and associated factors in the Quilombo population (hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) in southwestern Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to estimate the prevalence of the combination of Body Mass Index (BMI) plus Waist Circumference (WC) and of BMI plus Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) and to investigate associated factors. A two-stage random sample of adults (>20 years) living in former African slaves communities (Quilombos) was taken in Vitória da Conquista in the State of Bahia in 2011. Combined BMI+WHR nutritional risk was defined by the simultaneous presence of BMI > 25.0Kg/m2 or > 27.0Kg/m2, if aged > 60 years and WHR > 0.5. BMI + WC nutritional risk was defined by elevated BMI in addition to WC > 80cm for women, or > 94cm for men. Among the 739 participants, the prevalence of combined nutritional indicators were 35.3% (BMI + WHR) and 26.8% (BMI + WC). Female sex and hypertension increased the chances of a combination of both indicators, while being unmarried decreased the chances. The prevalence of BMI + WHR was higher in the 40-59 year age range and the prevalence of BMI + WC was higher in the 40-49 year age range. Less schooling increased the chances of the combined BMI + WHR indicator and watching television for more than two hours/day increased the chances of the BMI + WC indicator. The high prevalence of combined nutritional indicators indicate the need of diet promotion actions to prevent obesity. PMID:25760122

  3. Vulnerability in the context of HIV and syphilis infection in a population of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila D; Kerr, Lígia Regina Franco Sansigolo

    2015-05-01

    Social, individual, and programmatic vulnerability of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the context of the HIV epidemic and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) is a reality in many countries. The survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis in Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities selected 383 MSM in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, using the respondent driven sampling (RDS) technique. Individual vulnerability early sexual initiation (51%), average of eight sex partners, and unprotected receptive anal sex with casual (32%) and steady partners (45%) and positive rapid tests HIV (6.5%) and syphilis (9%). Social vulnerability young adults (80%), black race/skin color (91%), mean monthly family income of BRL 1,000.00, and personal history of discrimination (57%). Programmatic factors no previous HIV test (63%) and no access to lubricant gel (88%). The study showed a profile of vulnerability and the urgent need for interventions and STI prevention in the MSM population in Salvador, in addition to high prevalence rates for HIV and syphilis. PMID:26083178

  4. Predicting the toxicity of major ions in seawater to mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside minnow (Menidia beryllina)

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Caudle, D.D.; Tietge, J.E.; Evans, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Although marine organisms are naturally adapted to salinities well above those of freshwater, elevated concentrations of specific ions have been shown to cause adverse effects on some saltwater species. Because some ions are also physiologically essential, a deficiency of these ions can also cause significant effects. To provide a predictive tool to assess toxicity associated with major ions, mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside minnows (Menidia beryllina) were exposed to saline solutions containing calcium, magnesium, potassium, strontium, bicarbonate, borate, bromide, and sulfate at concentrations above and below what would be found in seawater. Solution salinity was maintained at approximately 31% by increasing or decreasing sodium and chloride concentrations. Logistic regression models were developed with both the ion molar concentrations and ion activity. Toxicity to all three species was observed when either a deficiency or an excess of potassium and calcium occurred. Significant mortality occurred in all species when exposed to excess concentrations of magnesium, bicarbonate, and borate. The response to the remaining ions varied with species. Sheepshead minnows were the most tolerant of both deficient and elevated levels of the different ions. Mysid shrimp and inland silverside minnows demonstrated similar sensitivities to several ions, but silverside minnow response was more variable. As a result, the logistic models that predict inland silverside minnow survival generally were less robust than for the other two species.

  5. Dengue virus 4 (DENV-4) re-emerges after 30 years in Brazil: cocirculation of DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 in Bahia.

    PubMed

    Campos, Gubio Soares; Pinho, Aryane Cruz Oliveira; Brandão, Claudio Jose de Freitas; Bandeira, Antonio Carlos; Sardi, Silvia Ines

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease of great concern in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One important cause of the increase in DF is rapid development and urbanization has led to proliferation of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the vector responsible for transmission of the illness. Surveillance of dengue virus (DENV) infection in Brazil shows the predominance of DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3 until 2010. This study reports the reappearance of DENV-4 in Brazil for the first time in 30 years. Serum samples were collected from individuals (n = 214) exhibiting fever and muscular pain in Bahia, Brazil, during 2011-2012. These samples were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/nested PCR, which revealed that 82% of samples were positive for DENV-4; most were older age groups and exhibited a serological pattern consistent with a primary infection. The cocirculation of multiple DENV serotypes within the same city places the population at risk for a fatal form of the disease. Therefore, with the increasing incidence of severe DF cases, early diagnosis will be a priority for public health efforts in Brazil. PMID:25420650

  6. Severe impact and subsequent recovery of a coral assemblage following the 1997-8 El Niño event: a 17-year study from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    The coral reefs of northern Bahia evolved in isolation from other Atlantic systems and under conditions of high environmental stress, particularly high turbidity. We have monitored the scleractinian assemblage of four shallow bank reefs (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) annually for 17 years since 1995, collecting quantitative data on diversity and density of coral colonies. As the sampling period included the 1997-8 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for the first time these results allow a quantitative assessment of the long-term impact of this major environmental stressor on such a coral assemblage. After El Niño, most species showed significantly reduced densities of colonies, this decline occurring for the subsequent two years without evidence of any new settlement until 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the species Porites astreoides went unrecorded. Recovery was slow, and multivariate analysis revealed that assemblages had not returned to the pre-El Niño state until 2011. It therefore took 13 years for full recovery of the coral assemblage to occur, which has consequences for reef systems if such El-Niño events become more frequent in the future. PMID:23741459

  7. [Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Drummont, Patrícia; Silva, Fabiana O da; Viana, Blandina F

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap-nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 degrees 01' W e 38 degrees 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased (chi2 = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cells partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n = 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants. PMID:18641893

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreira Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Sacramento Cunha Machado, Márcia; Borges da Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando; Fernandes Weyll Pimentel, Rodrigo; Teixeira Ferreira, Tatiana; Silva Leoni, Fernanda Maria; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide. PMID:23133306

  9. [Susceptibility of the horn fly (Haematobia irritans) to insecticides in the Tabuleiros Costeiros region in states of Alagoas, Bahia and Sergipe, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Amaury A A; Azevedo, Hymerson C; de Melo, Cristiano B; de Barros, Antônio Thadeu M

    2006-01-01

    Susceptibility of horn fly populations to insecticides was evaluated at the Tabuleiros Costeiros region in the states of Alagoas, Bahia, and Sergipe from April 2001 to December 2002. A total of 37 bioassays were conducted in 23 ranches from 12 municipalities. Fly susceptibility was determined by the impregnated filter paper method using the active ingredients diazinon, permethrin, and cypermethrin. A high susceptibility to diazinon was found, with LC50 varying from 0.23 to 1.41 microg/cm2 and resistance ratios (RR) = 1.3. On the other hand, resistance to pyrethroids was detected in all studied populations. Cypermethrin LC50 ranged from 19.94 to 1,928 microg/cm2 and RR from 21.2 to 4,484.4. Although resistance levels to permethrin were much lower (RR<6), all LC50 were significantly higher than the LC50 obtained from the susceptible population. All ranches relied on pyrethroids for horn fly control, most cypermethrin (88.46%) and deltamethrin (80.77%) products. Spraying, by using manual backpack sprayers, was routinely used in all ranches. History of insecticide use as well as inadequate control practices help to explain the spread resistance of horn fly populations to pyrethroids detected in the region. PMID:16834898

  10. [Dietary patterns of children under five years of age living in the State capital and other counties of Bahia State, Brazil, 1996 and 1999-2000].

    PubMed

    Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim de; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Oliveira, Valterlinda A; Oliveira, Lucivalda P M; D'Innocenzo, Silvana; Teles, Carlos Antonio Santos; Pereira, Sheila Regina dos Santos; Prado, Matildes da Silva; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study included 3,817 preschool children, of whom 1,770 in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, and 2,047 in urban and rural areas from nine other municipalities (counties) in the same State. The study used 24-hour recall and principal components analysis to identify and compare dietary patterns. The sample was stratified by age and area. In the first six months of life, breast milk composed the second and third patterns, with positive loadings for children in all 10 municipalities. For children under 17 months of age, pattern 1 was characterized by cow's milk, flour, and sugar, except in rural areas. Pattern 2 was similar for children aged 6-17 months and consisted of bread/cookies, rice, beans, and meat. For children 18-23 months of age in urban areas, pattern 1 showed negative loadings for sugar, cow's milk, and flour. In children over 24 months of age, fruits were not part of the first pattern. The study showed low consumption of milk and low variety of fruits and vegetables. This food consumption profile indicates the need for early interventions to promote healthy eating habits. PMID:24627012

  11. Evaluation of criteria for selecting the spectral attributes of digital LANDSAT MSS imagery for discriminating lithological units in the lower Curaca River Valley, Bahia. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradella, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The use of spectral attributes criteria was investigated, based on measures of statistical distance of separability between thematic classes in MSS digital LANDSAT imagery, in order to select the best subsets of channels in composite colors for the detection and discrimination of lithological units in the lower valley of Curaca River, State of Bahia, Brazil. Three situations were investigated: (1) selection of the three best channels, considering all of the original bands (channels 4, 5, 6, and 7); (2) selection of the three best bands, considering the six MSS band-ratios (channels 4/5, 4/6. 4/7, 5/6, 5/7, and 6/7); and (3) selection of the three best bands in a hybrid approach (the four original bands and the six ratios). A visual analysis was done on color composite images using the selected sets. Results show that the hybrid product (bands 4, 5/7, and 7 with green, blue, and red respectively) and the Normal Color Composite (bands 4, 5, and 7 with blue, green, and red colors respectively) had the best performance.

  12. Severe Impact and Subsequent Recovery of a Coral Assemblage following the 1997–8 El Niño Event: A 17-Year Study from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    The coral reefs of northern Bahia evolved in isolation from other Atlantic systems and under conditions of high environmental stress, particularly high turbidity. We have monitored the scleractinian assemblage of four shallow bank reefs (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) annually for 17 years since 1995, collecting quantitative data on diversity and density of coral colonies. As the sampling period included the 1997–8 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for the first time these results allow a quantitative assessment of the long-term impact of this major environmental stressor on such a coral assemblage. After El Niño, most species showed significantly reduced densities of colonies, this decline occurring for the subsequent two years without evidence of any new settlement until 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the species Porites astreoides went unrecorded. Recovery was slow, and multivariate analysis revealed that assemblages had not returned to the pre-El Niño state until 2011. It therefore took 13 years for full recovery of the coral assemblage to occur, which has consequences for reef systems if such El-Niño events become more frequent in the future. PMID:23741459

  13. Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).

    PubMed

    De Zordo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals. PMID:22889428

  14. The 2 Ga peraluminous magmatism of the Jacobina — Contendas Mirante Belt (Bahia) Brazil): Major and trace-element geochemistry and metallogenic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuney, Michel; Sabaté, Pierre; Vidal, Philippe; Marinho, Moacyr M.; Conceiçao, Herbet

    1990-12-01

    The Jacobina — Contendas Mirante belt represents a Transamazonian (2 Ga), N-S, 500-km long, elongated orogenic domain in the central part of the São Francisco craton, Bahia state. Numerous syntectonic to post-tectonic peraluminous leucogranites were emplaced along the major structures of the belt. Their mineralogical and geochemical and some of their metallogenetic characteristics are very similar to their Hercynian and Himalayan equivalents. However, their average peraluminous index varies from one granitic pluton to another and biotite is, on average, slightly more magnesian in the Transamazonian leucogranites. Higher oxygen fugacity is indicated by the general occurrence of magnetite, the stability of allanite and sometimes epidote in most of the plutons and by biotite chemistry. The peraluminous magmatism of the Jacobina-Contendas Mirante belt results from crustal partial melting during a continental collision event at 2 Ga. Trace-element geochemistry implies variable source composition and/or melting conditions for the different granitic plutons and some different facies within the same plutonic unit. The scarcity of ilmenite, the general occurrence of magnetite, and the relatively low peraluminous index of some of these granites suggest that graphite-beating sediments are not a significantly source material. From their mineralogical and geochemical characteristics, acid meta-igneous rocks such as the Sete Voltas TTG suite of presumed Archaean age, seem to represent a suitable source for these granites. Sn, W, Li, F and Be enrichment of most Transamazonian leucogranites is much weaker than in the mineralized Variscan equivalents. The Caetano-Aliança and Riacho das Pedras granites represent the most specialized granitic bodies. Beryl (emerald), molybdenite and scheelite mineralizations are related to some of these granites which intrude ultrabasic formations: the Campo Formoso and the Carnaiba granites. In many of these granites, uranium content is comparable to values measured in mineralized Hercynian leucogranites. The occurrence of hexavalent uranium minerals, mineralization and episyenitic alteration are favourable criteria for finding Variscan-type uranium ore deposits.

  15. [Nutritional status of pre-school children of the semi-arid region of Bahia (Brazil): II--Vitamin A deficiency].

    PubMed

    Santos, L M; Assis, A M; Martins, M C; Araújo, M P; Morris, S S; Barreto, M L

    1996-02-01

    A survey of 754 preschool children was undertaken in the urban areas of seven small towns of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil, to determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, as well as its association with variables such as a age, family income, mother's schooling and dietary adequacy in vitamin A. Protein energy malnutrition and anemia were also studied and are reported separately. The clinical ophthalmological examination did not reveal any signs or symptoms of xerophthalmia amongst these children. In 563 children serum retinol was determined and the average value found was 20.3 micrograms/dl (SD = 10.8 micrograms/dl); the prevalence of deficient serum retinol (below 10.0 micrograms/dl) was of 15.3%. In all 7 localities studied, the prevalence of deficient retinol levels was above 5.0%, the criterion recommended by WHO for considering it a Public Health Problem. The distribution of serum retinol was similar between the sexes, but there was an age trend: the prevalence of deficient and low levels decreased with age. There was no association between deficient serum retinol and family income per capita or mother's education. Results from the 24 h food consumption survey revealed that only 8% of children had an adequate intake of vitamin A through the diet; 66% received less than 1/2 and 35% less than 1/4 of the recommended daily intake of vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiency should be considered a Public Health Problem in the region due to the high prevalence of deficient levels of serum retinol as well as the large dietary inadequacy. PMID:9008924

  16. Study of the association between the interleukin-1 ? c.3954C>T polymorphism and periodontitis in a population sample from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Samir A.; Teixeira, Fernanda G.; Oliveira, Kamilla M.; Santos, Djanilson B.; Marques, Lucas M.; Amorim, Maise M.; Gestinari, Raquel De S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone. Different factors are associated with the onset and prognosis of this disease, both environmental and genetic. The latter particularly relate to molecules secreted as a function of the host immune response, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines. Studies indicate that the polymorphism c. 3954C > T in the interleukin-1 ? encoding gene (IL1B) can be considered as an aggravating factor in the periodontitis condition. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate whether there is an association between the IL1B c. 3954C > T gene polymorphism and the prevalence of periodontitis in the population from Vitória da Conquista–Bahia, Brazil. Materials and Methods: A total of 347 subjects (134 cases and 213 controls) who provided epithelial tissue of the oral cavity and saliva samples for DNA extraction and quantification of IL1B, respectively, were selected. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism followed by electrophoresis in agarose gel. The evaluation of the cytokine concentration was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical Analysis: Statistical calculations involved in this work include Chi-square test, Fisher Exact test, Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: Our findings revealed that: (i) No statistically significant relationship between periodontitis and the polymorphism studied was observed; (ii) no significant difference between the concentrations of IL1B in saliva between the case and control subjects and between the genotypes of these individuals and the concentrations of this cytokine. Conclusions: We conclude that, in the sample evaluated, the IL1B c. 3954C > T polymorphism did not present as an etiological factor for periodontitis. PMID:26097351

  17. Neoproterozoic anorogenic magmatism in the Southern Bahia Alkaline Province of NE Brazil: U-Pb and Pb-Pb ages of the blue sodalite syenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Maria de Lourdes da Silva; Conceição, Herbet; Macambira, Moacir José Buenano; Galarza, Marco Antonio; Cunha, Mônica Pringsheim; Menezes, Rita Cunha Leal; Marinho, Moacyr Moura; Filho, Basílio Elesbão da Cruz; Rios, Débora Correia

    2007-08-01

    Blue sodalite syenite is a rare rock, and the Southern Bahia Alkaline Province (SBAP) is the only place in Brazil where economic deposits are found. This province forms part of the Archaean to Paleoproterozoic São Francisco craton, and contains a few batholiths, a large number of stocks and hundreds of dykes. Its southern part lies close to the tectonic contact between the craton and the Neoproterozoic Araçuaí mobile melt. Blue sodalite-bearing syenites are found in almost all the igneous bodies of the SBAP as dykes or pegmatitic masses hosted by nepheline syenite. Economically viable quantities for the production of dimension stones are found only in the Floresta Azul alkaline complex, the Itaju do Colônia and Rio Pardo stocks and the Itarantim batholith.U-Pb ages obtained for titanite from Itaju do Colônia (732 ± 8 Ma) and Rio Pardo (714 ± 8) and Pb-Pb evaporation ages of zircon from Floresta Azul (696 ± 3 Ma) and Itarantim (722 ± 5 Ma). The geochronology of the SBAP shows that the anorogenic alkaline magmatism persisted for at least 58 Ma, demonstrating an extensional tectonic environment in the southern part of the São Francisco craton at this time. The data show that the rift phase which preceded the formation of the Araçuaí orogen was active until at least 700 Ma. The reported ages are similar to those found for the nepheline syenite host bodies, which supports the conclusions of the previous petrologic study demonstrating that blue sodalite is formed during the crystallization of these bodies. Two different processes are involved. In the magmatic process, sodalite occurs as disseminated and interstitial crystals among alkali feldspar crystals, and is associated with calcite and cancrinite formed by destabilization of nepheline. In the metasomatic process, discontinuous bands of sodalite are in sharp contact with nepheline syenite pegmatite, and its crystal aggregates often contain relict textures of nepheline and albite been replaced by sodalite.

  18. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of extracts prepared from different tissues of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi that occurs in the coast of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    D’Sousa’ Costa, Cinara Oliveira; Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Loureiro, Marta Bruno; Simões, Rafael Conceição; de Castro, Renato Delmondez; Fernandez, Luzimar Gonzaga

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schinus terebinthifolius is widely used in traditional medicine by Brazilian quilombola and indigenous communities for treatment of several diseases. Extracts from different tissues are being used to produce creams to treat cervicitis and cervicovaginitis. However, most studies are limited to the assessment of the essential oils and extracts obtained from the leaves. Objective: The aim was to evaluate antioxidant and antibacterial activities, to assess the phytochemical profile and to quantify total phenolic compounds of various extracts prepared from S. terebinthifolius grown in the coast of Bahia, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Extracts were obtained by hot continuous extraction (soxhlet) and by maceration. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant properties were assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical screening was performed as described by in the literature and antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) was determined by the microdilution broth assay. Results: Extraction method greatly affected the metabolite profile of the extracts. Antioxidant activity varied between 21.92% and 85.76%, while total phenols ranged between 5.44 and 309.03 mg EAG/g of extract. Leaf extract obtained with soxhlet showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15.62 μg/mL, while stem extract obtained by maceration was able to inhibit the growth of E. faecalis at 62.5 μg/mL. Stem bark extracts showed a MIC of 500 μg/mL for both extraction methods, while no inhibition was observed for fruit extracts. Conclusion: In general, total phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were higher in samples obtained by soxhlet. Our results provide important clues in order to identify alternative sources of bioactive compounds that can be used to develop new drugs. PMID:26246739

  19. Capture and commercialization of blue land crabs ("guaiamum") Cardisoma guanhumi (Lattreille, 1825) along the coast of Bahia State, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Blue Land Crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) is one of the most important crustacean species captured and commercialized in Brazil. Although this species is not considered to be threatened with extinction, populations of C. guanhumi are known to be rapidly diminishing due to heavy harvesting pressures and degradation of their natural habitats, highlighting the necessity of developing and implanting management and protection strategies for their populations. There have been no ethnozoological publications that have focused specifically on C. guanhumi, in spite of importance of this type of information for developing efficient management plans of resource utilization. So, the present work describes the ethnoecological aspects of the capture and commercialization of C. guanhumi by a fishing community in northeastern Brazil. Methods Field work was carried out in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia in Brazil, between the months of January and March/2011 through the use of open semi-structured interviews with all of the crustacean harvesters in city who acknowledged their work in capturing this species, totaling 12 interviewees. The informants were identified through the use of the "snowball" sampling technique. In addition to the interviews themselves, the "guided tour" technique and direct observations was employed. Results According all the interviewees, the C. guanhumi is popularly called "guaiamum" and is collected in "apicum" zones. They recognize sexual dimorphism in the species based on three morphological characteristics and the harvesters also pointed two stages in the reproductive cycle during the year and another phase mentioned by the interviewees was ecdysis. All of the interviewed affirmed that the size and the quantities C. guanhumi stocks in Mucuri have been diminishing. All of the interviewees agreed that the species and other mangrove resources constituted their principal source of income. The harvesters dedicated three to five days a week to collect Blue Land Crabs and the principal technique utilized for capturing is a trap called a "ratoeira" (rat-trap). Conclusions The results of the present work demonstrated that the community retains a vast and important volume of knowledge about C. guanhumi that could subsidize both scientific studies and the elaboration of viable management and conservation strategies for this species. PMID:22429762

  20. Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen’s ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Methods Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen’s profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Results Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach’s Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r = −0.38, p = 0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes towards turtle conservation (H = 8.33; p = 0.04). Life history, habitat, specific and exogenous taboos, beliefs and the use of hawksbill turtle to make glasses and other handcrafts are also reported in the study. Conclusions Monitoring of spawning areas, preservation of traditional practices, strategies to moderate the use of fishery resources and the local ecological knowledge/attitudes can provide data to improve the conservation practices and management of sea turtles. PMID:23448503

  1. Isolation, pathogenicity and disinfection of Staphylococcus aureus carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pollianna S; Souza, Simone G; Campos, Guilherme B; da Silva, Danilo C C; Sousa, Daniel S; Araújo, Suerda P F; Ferreira, Laiziane P; Santos, Verena M; Amorim, Aline T; Santos, Angelita M O G; Timenetsky, Jorge; Cruz, Mariluze P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M

    2014-01-01

    Currently, hospital infection is a serious public health problem, and several factors may influence the occurrence of these infections, including the presence of insects, which are carriers of multidrug-resistant bacterial species. The aim of this study was to isolate staphylococci carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia and to identify the resistance profile, pathogenicity and efficacy of disinfection of the premises. A total of 91 insects were collected in 21 strategic points of these hospitals, and 32 isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. Based on antibiogram and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration results, 95% of these strains were susceptible to oxacillin. These strains were also evaluated for the presence of resistance genes encoding resistance to oxacillin/methicillin by polymerase chain reaction, but the sample was negative for this gene. Pathogenicity tests were performed in vitro biofilm formation induced by glucose, where it was found that eight (27.58%) strains were classified as biofilm producers and 21 (72.4%) as stronger producers. In addition, we performed PCR for their virulence genes: Sea (enterotoxin A), SEB (B), Sec (C), PVL (Panton-Valentine Leukocidin), ClfA (clumping factor A) and Spa (protein A). Of these, Sea, Spa PVL were positive in 7 (21.8%), 2 (6.3%) and 1 (3.1%) samples, respectively. The analysis of cytokine induction in the inflammatory response of J774 macrophages by isolates from the two hospitals did not show statistical difference at the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-10 production. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial activity of disinfecting agents on these strains, quaternary ammonium, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, Lysoform(®), 70% alcohol solution of chlorhexidine digluconate, 2% peracetic acid, and 100% vinegar. Resistance was seen in only for the following two disinfectants: 70% alcohol in 31 (96.8%) samples tested and vinegar in 30 (93.8%) samples. The study demonstrated the presence of resistant and pathogenic organisms conveyed by insects, thus suggesting improvement in efforts to control these vectors. PMID:24216155

  2. C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and <53 μm). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS.

  3. The interactive effects of essential ions and salinity on the survival of Mysidopsis bahia in 96-H acute toxicity tests of effluents discharged to marine and estuarine receiving waters

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, W.S.; Horne, M.T.

    1997-10-01

    The importance of salinity in whole effluent toxicity tests using marine organisms has been acknowledged in most testing protocols. However, little if any attention has been given to the specific effects of alteration of the ionic composition of seawater solutions to the test organism. The presence of persistent toxicity in effluents with no apparent toxic agents prompted examination of the potential influence of essential ions on the survival of the opossum shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, a common effluent toxicity indicator organism. Through stepwise additions of ionic salts to deionized water, the minimum complement of salts to maintain survival of M. bahia during 96-h exposures was determined to be Ca, Mg, K, Br, Na, and Cl. The toxicity curves for Ca, Mg, K, and Br were then determined across test salinity ranging from 10 to 35 parts per thousand. These curves for Ca, Mg, and K revealed that there are significant negative effects on survival when the essential ions are present in either low or high concentrations relative to the levels in natural seawater. Although there were no statistically detectable effects of Br on organism survival over the concentration range tested (5--480 mg/L). Br toxicity at concentrations less than 5 mg/L and greater than 700 mg/L have been shown in other studies. In addition, the tolerance ranges for K, Ca, and Mg were shown to shift significantly with changes in salinity, with lower salinity causing an apparent decrease in tolerance to an excess of essential ions. Tests with toxic effluents from five industrial and municipal sources revealed that adjustment of the ionic balance prior to testing reduced or eliminated toxicity in four of the five whole effluents tested. Suggestions for integrating this information into biomonitoring programs and toxicity identification evaluations are presented.

  4. Tectonic fabric revealed by AARM of the proterozoic mafic dike swarm in the Salvador city (Bahia State): São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, M. Irene B.; Berquó, Thelma S.

    2008-04-01

    Magnetic fabric and rock magnetism studies were performed on 25 unmetamorphosed mafic dikes of the Meso-Late Proterozoic (˜1.02 Ga) dike swarm from Salvador (Bahia State, NE Brazil). This area lies in the north-eastern part of the São Francisco Craton, which was dominantly formed/reworked during the Transamazonian orogeny (2.14-1.94 Ga). The dikes crop out along the beaches and in quarries around Salvador city, and cut across both amphibolite dikes and granulites. Their widths range from a few centimeters up to 30 m with an average of ˜4 m, and show two main trends N140-190 and N100-120 with vertical dips. Magnetic fabrics were determined using both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). The magnetic mineralogy was investigated by many experiments including remanent magnetization measurements at variable low temperatures (10-300 K), Mössbauer spectroscopy, high temperature magnetization curves (25-700 °C) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rock magnetism study suggests pseudo-single-domain magnetite grains carrying the bulk magnetic susceptibility and AARM fabrics. The magnetite grains found in these dikes are large and we discard the presence of single-domain grains. Its composition is close to stoichiometric with low Ti substitution, and its Verwey transition occurs around 120 K. The main AMS fabric recognized in the swarm is so-called normal, in which the Kmax- Kint plane is parallel to the dike plane and the magnetic foliation pole ( Kmin) is perpendicular to it. This fabric is interpreted as due to magma flow, and analysis of the Kmax inclination permitted to infer that approximately 80% of the dikes were fed by horizontal or sub-horizontal flows ( Kmax < 30°). This interpretation is supported by structural field evidence found in five dikes. In addition, based on the plunge of Kmax, two mantle sources could be inferred; one of them which fed about 80% of the swarm would be located in the southern part of the region, and the other underlied the Valéria quarry. However, for all dikes the AARM tensors are not coaxial with AMS fabrics and show a magnetic lineation (AARM max) oriented to N30-60E, suggesting that magnetite grains were rotated clockwise from dike plane. The orientation of AARM lineation is similar to the orientation of a system of faults in which the Salvador normal fault is the most important. These faults were formed during Cretaceous rifting in the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá assemblage that corresponds to an aborted intra-continental rift formed during the opening of the South Atlantic. Therefore, the AARM fabric found for the Salvador dikes is probably tectonic in origin and suggests that the dike swarm was affected by the important tectonic event responsible for the break-up of the Gondwanaland.

  5. [Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) and notification of infant-juvenile violence in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in Feira de Santana in the state of Bahia].

    PubMed

    Souza, Camila dos Santos; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Musse, Jamilly de Oliveira; Sobrinho, Carlito Nascimento; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis

    2014-03-01

    The scope of the study is to analyze data of children and adolescents who are the victims of different forms of violence, registered in the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA/MS) in Feira de Santana in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The total number of records, since the implementation of VIVA in the city (01/2009 to 01/2011) was used and the analyses sought associations between characteristics of violence and profiles of victims and perpetrators. The results showed that children and adolescents were molested using different types of violence, including the use of physical force, verbal threats and weapons and sundry cases of personal injury. Approximately 35% were hospitalized and 15% died. Physical violence was more common among males during adolescence in the home environment and perpetrated by a family member. Sexual violence occurred with greater frequency among females during childhood and 55.5% of the cases occurred in the home environment and more frequently perpetrated by a family member or acquaintances. The results highlight the importance of investments in policies and programs for harm prevention and reduction, seeking to broaden coverage in the care and the enhancement of the information system and surveys of these indicators. PMID:24714892

  6. [Prevalence of moderate and excessive alcohol consumption and associated factors among residents of Quilombo Communities (hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Luiz Gustavo Vieira; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cesar, Cibele Comini

    2015-03-01

    The scope of the study was to assess moderate and excessive alcohol consumption and associated factors among residents of Quilombola Communities in Vitória da Conquista in the State of Bahia. It involved a cross-sectional study among 750 individuals aged ? 18 years interviewed in 2011 using an adapted version of the National Survey of Health Questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was classified into abstemious, moderate and heavy drinking categories and was analyzed using the multinomial regression model. Consumption was observed among 41.5% of participants (95% CI [37.8, 44.98]); 10.7% being identified in the excessive consumption category and 30.8% in the moderate consumption category. Moderate consumption was inversely associated with age and is more common among whites and mulattoes, the better educated, the gainfully employed and among smokers. Heavy consumption increased with level of education, being more prevalent among those who had at least 8 years of schooling, smokers and the gainfully employed. The study shows that in these communities there are differences in the sociodemographic characteristics among the profiles of alcohol drinkers and these differences should be taken into account when drawing up proposals for the promotion of healthy habits. PMID:25760121

  7. A contribution to regional stratigraphic correlations of the Afro-Brazilian depression - The Dom João Stage (Brotas Group and equivalent units - Late Jurassic) in Northeastern Brazilian sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchle, Juliano; Scherer, Claiton Marlon dos Santos; Born, Christian Correa; Alvarenga, Renata dos Santos; Adegas, Felipe

    2011-04-01

    The Dom João Stage comprises an interval with variable thickness between 100 and 1200 m, composed of fluvial, eolian and lacustrine deposits of Late Jurassic age, based mainly on the lacustrine ostracod fauna (although the top deposits may extend into the Early Cretaceous). These deposits comprise the so-called Afro-Brazilian Depression, initially characterized as containing the Brotas Group of the Recôncavo Basin (which includes the Aliança and the Sergi Formations) and subsequently extended into the Tucano, Jatobá, Camamu, Almada, Sergipe, Alagoas and Araripe Basins in northeastern Brazil, encompassing the study area of this paper. The large occurrence area of the Dom João Stage gives rise to discussions about the depositional connectivity between the basins, and the real extension of sedimentation. In the first studies of this stratigraphic interval, the Dom João Stage was strictly associated with the rift phase, as an initial stage (decades of 1960-70), but subsequent analyses considered the Dom João as an intracratonic basin or pre-rift phase - without any relation to the active mechanics of a tectonic syn-rift phase (decades of 1980-2000). The present work developed an evolutionary stratigraphic and tectonic model, based on the characterization of depositional sequences, internal flooding surfaces, depositional systems arrangement and paleoflow directions. Several outcrops on the onshore basins were used to build composite sections of each basin, comprising facies, architectural elements, depositional systems, stratigraphic and lithostratigraphic frameworks, and paleocurrents. In addition to that, over a hundred onshore and offshore exploration wells were used (only 21 of which are showed) to map the depositional sequences and generate correlation sections. These show the characteristics and relations of the Dom João Stage in each studied basin, and they were also extended to the Gabon Basin. The results indicate that there were two main phases during the Dom João Stage, in which distinctive sedimentary environments were developed, reflecting depositional system arrangements, paleoflow directions were diverse, and continuous or compartmented basins were developed.

  8. Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Isaac R; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along approximately 150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dendê were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches. PMID:18256899

  9. Salvador Da Bahia: A "Modern" Imperial Rome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Vivian L.

    2004-01-01

    The city of Rome is situated on seven hills along the Tiber River. It developed from a series of small villages into numerous city-states, then to a Republic, and finally into an Empire, which covered several million miles. Thousands of miles away from Rome on another continent is Brazil, which measures 3,268,470 square miles in area. This article…

  10. [Health survey in Quilombola communities (descendants of Afro-Brazilian slaves who escaped from slave plantations that existed in Brazil until abolition in 1888) in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia (COMQUISTA Project), Brazil: methodological aspects and descriptive analysis].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Medeiros, Danielle Souto de; Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Souzas, Raquel; Giatti, Luana; Steffens, Ana Paula; Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Souza, Cláudio Lima; Moura, Cristiano Soares de; Soares, Daniela Arruda; Santos, Luis Rogério Cosme Silva; Cardoso, Luiz Gustavo Vieira; Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos de; Martins, Poliana Cardoso; Neves, Orlando Sílvio Caires; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this article was to present the methodology, preliminary descriptive results and the reliability of the instruments used in the COMQUISTA Project. It involved a cross-sectional study with adults (>18 years) and children (up to 5 years old) of Quilombola communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia. Data collection consisted of individual and household interviews, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. A semi-structured questionnaire adapted from the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS) was used and the interviews were conducted using handheld computers. 397 housing units were visited and 797 adults and 130 children were interviewed. The demographic profile of the Quilombolas was similar to the Brazilian population with respect to sex and age, however, they had precarious access to basic sanitation and a low socioeconomic status. The analysis of reliability revealed the adequacy of strategies adopted for quality assurance and control in the study. The methodology used was considered adequate to achieve the objectives and can be used in other populations. The results indicate the need for implementing strategies to improve the quality of life and reduce the degree of vulnerability of the Quilombolas. PMID:24897483

  11. 78 FR 28167 - Special Local Regulation, Cruce a Nado Internacional de la Bahia de Ponce Puerto Rico, Bahia de...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public Participation and Request for... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation, Cruce a Nado Internacional...

  12. Analysis of the risk of karst collapse in Lapão, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Emerson S. M.; Silva, Raymundo W. S.; Sampaio, Edson E. S.

    2012-05-01

    On October 2008, the large extent of dissolution of limestone in the Irecê Basin resulted in the occurrence of minor ground shakes and the enhancement of fractures along the surface of the ground and on the walls of buildings in the urban and periurban area of the city of Lapão. After preliminary geological and geotechnical studies to analyse the danger of collapse of underground caves, we have carried out gravity and electro-resistivity profiles in order to map the concealed caves and to help the determination of the level of groundwater within them. The interpretation of the results provided useful information both for the immediate safety of the population and for subsequent hydrological and geotechnical work. We have defined five risk areas based on the variations of the Bouguer and of the electrical resistivity data, by correlating the distribution of gravity lows with the presence of caves and the less resistive zones with the presence of brine water underground.

  13. Carbon storage in soil-size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shaded-perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively higher quantities of soil carbon (C) because of continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the amount of C sequestered in the soil will vary depending on the turnover time and the extent of physical protection of different soil organic ...

  14. Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

  15. Characterization of the lead smelter slag in Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, L R P de Andrade; Bernardez, L A

    2011-05-30

    For 33 years, a primary lead smelter operated in Santo Amaro (Brazil). Since the 1970s, large amounts of Pb and Cd have been widely documented in the blood and hair of people living near the smelter. The plant closed down in 1993, and several years later, the Pb levels in the blood of children under 4 years of age living near the smelter were high, where the disposed lead slag was suspected to be the main source of this contamination. The objective of this study is to elucidate the source of the Pb contamination and any other potentially toxic contamination, focusing on the characterization of the slag. The samples used for this characterization study were taken from the slag heaps. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the major constituents of the slag, in decreasing order of wt%, were the following: Fe(2)O(3) (28.10), CaO (23.11), SiO(2) (21.39), ZnO (9.47), MgO (5.44), PbO (4.06), Al(2)O(3) (3.56), C (2.26), MnO (1.44), Na(2)O (0.27), S (0.37), K(2)O (0.26), and TiO(2) (0.25). The Cd content of the slag was 57.3mg/kg, which is relatively low. The X-ray diffraction and the electron probe microanalyzer X-ray mapping indicated that the major phases in the slag were wüstite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and franklinite. Only spheroidal metallic Pb was found in the slag. The leaching study showed that the slag was stable at a pH greater than 2.8, and only in an extremely acidic environment was the solubilization of the Pb enhanced significantly. The solubilization of Zn was very limited in the acidic and alkaline environments. These results can be explained by the limited leachability of the metallic Pb and Zn-bearing compounds. The leaching study used TCLP, SPLP, and SWEP and indicated that the lead slag was stable in weak acidic environments for short contact times. PMID:21440365

  16. Americamysis bahia: A New Laboratory Model for Conservation Genetics in a Changing Environment (AGA09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of population genetic diversity are expected to play an important role in species persistence during periods of environmental change, yet our understanding of how to quantify relevant aspects of this diversity is not well developed. We are conducting a long-term study wit...

  17. USE OF LIFE-TABLES FOR EVALUATING THE CHRONIC TOXICITY OF POLLUTANTS TO 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the application of population statistics to laboratory-derived toxicological data for the purpose of developing a predictive model that assesses the population consequences of pollutant and environmentally-induced stress. Life tables are used to calculate age-...

  18. EFFECTS OF CORPUS CHRISTI BAY SEDIMENTS ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study described here examined effects on mortality, growth, reproduction, and behavior of Americamysis bahi exposed under extended static conditions to bedded sediments from Corpus Christi Bay.

  19. Environmental effects on the gills and blood of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to rivers of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, André Luis; Prado, Thiago Matos; Maciel, Letícia Aguilar da Silva; Couto, Ricardo David

    2015-01-01

    Through the integration of chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses, this study investigated the effects of multiple pollutants on environmental biomarkers, such as gill histopathological changes and hematological and biochemical parameters, in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to four sites in the Jacuipe and Subaé rivers over seven days. Sediment analyses identified Sapelba as the most contaminated site, followed by Oliveira de Campinhos, Santo Amaro and Jacuípe. Water analyses revealed aluminum, iron and manganese at all sites. Aluminum and other metal were also detected in the gills of fishes. Fish exposed to the Sapelba site exhibited significant necrosis formation, as well as higher hematological parameters and trend to increase of cortisol levels. However, filament epithelium proliferation was higher at the Oliveira de Campinhos and Santo Amaro sites, at which the lowest levels of the hematological variables were observed. Multivariate analysis grouped some gill histopathological changes together, such as epithelial detachment with edema and lamellar epithelial proliferation with the lamellar fusion of adjacent filaments, revealing relationships among them. Positive associations were identified between sediment contamination and necrosis and cortisol, while water contamination was related with filament epithelium proliferation, aneurism, lamellar fusion and several hematological parameters. Furthermore, relationships between blood parameters and gill histopathological changes demonstrated a joint physiological response that may have resulted from environmental variables such as dissolved oxygen. The results exhibited the direct influence of xenobiotics on these biomarkers but also highlighted the need to consider the complexity of environmental factors to optimize the adoption of these environmental predictive tools. PMID:25450911

  20. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  1. Topographic and hydrographic survey data for the São Francisco River near Torrinha, Bahia, Brazil, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the surveying techniques and data-processing methods used to collect, process, and disseminate topographic and hydrographic data. All standard and non?standard data-collection methods, techniques, and data process methods were documented. Additional discussion describes the quality-assurance and quality-control elements used in this study, along with the limitations for the Torrinha-Itacoatiara study reach data. The topographic and hydrographic geospatial data are published along with associated metadata.

  2. Distribution of organic C oxidizable fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic material to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measuremen...

  3. Quartz sand resources in the Santa Maria Eterna formation, Bahia, Brazil: A geochemical and morphological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Murilo Ferreira Marques dos; Fujiwara, Eric; Schenkel, Egont Alexandre; Enzweiler, Jacinta; Suzuki, Carlos Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the quartz sand occurrences of the Santa Maria Eterna formation, in northeastern Brazil, as a potential source of raw material for silica glass manufacturing. Samples of quartz sand were analyzed by ICP-MS to determine a range of trace elements and establish its chemical purity. The technological potential of the sand was obtained by counting the quantity of bubbles formed during flame fusion over silica plate. Both chemistry and bubble formation indicate that the raw material is suitable for producing silica glass. The work also investigated the composition of fluid inclusions in the quartz grains and the surface micro-texture by scanning electron microscopy. With the results obtained by these procedures, we inferred that the quartz sand was probably formed in a marine environment, by the precipitation of silica in the form of quartz. The main impurities of the samples are probably present in the mineral inclusions implying that purification is possible and probably competitive.

  4. [Quilombo communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: hypertension and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; César, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2013-09-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension in members of quilombos (slavedescendant African-Brazilian communities) and to evaluate possible associated factors. A population-based survey included 797 individuals 18 years or older. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ? 140mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ? 90mmHg or reported use of antihypertensive medication. We used Poisson regression with robust variance and hierarchical entry of variables. Prevalence of hypertension was 45.4% (95%CI: 41.89-48.85). Factors associated with hypertension were: neighborhood security (distal), age, economic class, education, and physical inactivity (intermediate), and body mass index (proximal). Health promotion is needed in the quilombo communities through action at the individual and population levels. The high prevalence of hypertension highlights the need for broad access to health services for prevention, early diagnosis, and guidelines for adequate management. PMID:24068233

  5. Risk Factors for Asthma in a Helminth Endemic Area in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Luciana S.; Costa, Daniela M.; Almeida, Maria Cecília F.; Souza, Robson P.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Oliveira, Ricardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Protective factors associated with atopy or asthma in rural areas include socioeconomic level, overcrowding, and helminth infection. However, little epidemiological information was originated from schistosomiasis areas. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with asthma in a schistosomiasis endemic area. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, socioeconomic, and environmental features. The ISAAC questionnaire was used to identify individuals with asthma. Parasitological exam was done in all participants and skin prick test to aeroallergens in all asthmatics. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 57.4% and Ascaris lumbricoides, 30.8%. Asthma was found in 13.1% of the population, and 35.1% of them had a positive SPT. Active and passive smoking was positively associated with asthma, whereas A. lumbricoides was negatively associated. In a schistosomiasis hyperendemic region, current infection with A. lumbricoides is protective against asthma. However, we cannot rule out the involvement of S. mansoni infection in this process. PMID:22970348

  6. Use of an open-path FTIR sensor at Camacari Petrochemical Complex--Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Neuza; Couto, Elizabeth d. R.; Kagann, Robert H.

    1995-05-01

    CETREL--Empresa de Protecao Ambiental, is an environmental engineering company, which is owned by the member companies in the Camacari Petrochemical Complex, the largest petrochemical complex in Brazil. CETREL operates a centralized waste treatment plant, treatment and disposal facilities, an incineration unit, groundwater monitoring and air quality monitoring networks. The air monitoring network was designed based on mathematical modeling, and the results showed that the monoitoring of hydrocarbons is important not just within the complex but also at the area surrounding the complex. There are presently no regulations for hydrocarbons in Brazil, however they are monitored due to concerns about health problems arising from human exposure. The network has eight multiparameter monitoring stations, located at the villages nearby, where hydrocarbons are sampled with Summa canisters and subsequently analyzed with a GC/MS, using a Cryogenic trap at the interface. The open-path FTIR is used to monitor at the individual plants and in the areas in between because it is more efficient and costs less than it would to attempt to achieve the same level of coverage using the canisters. Ten locations were selected based on mathematical modeling and knowledge of the likely emission sources. Since August 1993, there have been five different measurement campaigns.

  7. 78 FR 28164 - Special Local Regulation; Aguada Offshore Grand Prix, Bahia de Aguadilla; Aguada, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73, FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Aguada Offshore Grand...

  8. Sedimentation Dynamics in Bahia de Banderas Nayarit, from Ameca River to Bucerias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedroza Ruciles, S.; Cupul Magaña, A.; Escudero Ayala, C.

    2013-05-01

    At last years different actions had made it on the coast in Banderas Bay modifying its dynamics, sand process extractions in Ameca River, deforestation in the zone of estuary and extensions in urban zone affects the beach and coastal dunes. Keeping a lot of sand in circulation which has made changes in erosion process and triggering retrocession in coastline as hazard because an increment of sea level affects edifications near to the beach and estuaries. We present analysis of sedimentation dynamics in an extension approximately, 10 km from the north of the end in Ameca River until Bucerias, Nayarit. For that reason we have made topographic and bathymetric studies with total station and GPS in four zones using technics at the edge of the beach every 109.3613 yards and transversals transect and longitudinal, every 3 months starting in august 2012 and ending in march 2013;

  9. 78 FR 26246 - Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice..., anchoring in, or remaining within; a buffer zone around the race area, where all persons and vessels, except those persons and vessels enforcing the buffer zone or authorized participants transiting to...

  10. Complex Population Responses to Food Resources in the Marine Crustacean Americamysis Bahia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  11. Inverse Demographic Analysis of Compensatory Responses to Resource Limitation in the Mysid Crustacean Americamysis bahia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  12. Records on floral biology and visitors of Jacquemontia montana (Moric.) Meisn. (Convolvulaceae) in Mucugê, Bahia.

    PubMed

    Silva, F O; Kevan, S D; Roque, N; Viana, B F; Kevan, P G

    2010-08-01

    We present the first records on pollination biology of Jacquemontia montana (Moric.) Meisn. (Convolvulaceae), a widespread climber in the Chapada Diamantina. Our objectives were to (1) characterise flower morphology and biology of J. montana; (2) sample flower visitors and (3) make inferences about potential pollinators, based on foraging behaviour. Observations and sampling were performed on two patches from 8:00 AM to 3:30 PM, May 15th to 16th, 2007. The corolla is bowl shaped, pentamerous, gamopetalous, actinomorphic, and yellow, with a mean diameter of 22.43 +/- 1.81 mm, the depth being variable during flower phases. Stigma receptivity lasted from 8:00 AM-3:30 PM and pollen viability from 9:00 AM-3:30 PM Pollen. showed great decline in number but not in viability during anthesis. Nectarivorous (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera) and herbivorous (Orthoptera) insects were found on the flowers. Both male and female bees (Dialictus spp., Robertson 1902) were the most frequent flower visitor. The bees' behaviour, and time spent on flowers, varied according to the resource gathered (i.e., pollen or nectar). The Dialictus species are likely to be the main pollinator of J. montana, considering the frequency, contact with reproductive parts, and carrying only J. montana pollen spread over the ventral part of the thorax, abdomen and legs. Although not quantified, nectar may still be available in the afternoon, considering the behaviour of bees on flowers during this time. Pollen:ovule ration that was1.200:4, suggests facultative xenogamy. PMID:20730356

  13. Distribution of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, E; Viana, Z C V; Onofre, C R E; Korn, M G A; Santos, V L C S

    2016-02-01

    In this study, concentrations of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species (Litopenaeus vannamei) from farming and zone natural coastal located in the northeastern Brazil were investigated. The elements determination was performed by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES). The following ranges of concentrations in the tissues were obtained in µg g-1 dry weight: Al: 13.4-886.5, Cd: 0.93-1.80; Cu: 24.8-152; Fe: 3.2-410.9; Mn: 0.36-24.4; Se: 0.094-9.81 and Zn: 20.3-109.4. The shrimp muscle can be a good iron source (about 88.9 mg-1g dry weight). The distribution of Se concentration in tissues showed much variation between locations, and the concentration levels found in shrimp muscles of wild samples were high, where its levels in 67% of muscle and 50% of others tissues samples exceeded the ANVISA limit, indicating evidence of selenium bioaccumulation. Significant correlation was observed between the following pairs of elements: Fe-Zn (r= -0.70), Mn-Cu (r= -0.74), Se-Cu (r= -0.68), Se-Mn (r= 0.82) in the muscles; Fe-Al (r= 0.99), Mn-Al (r= 0.62), Mn-Fe (r= 0.62), Se-Al (r = 0.88), Se-Fe (r= 0.87), Se-Mn (r= 0.58) in the exoskeleton and Cu-Zn (r = 0.68), Al-Cu (r= 0.88), Fe-Cu (r= 0.95) and Fe-Al (r= 0.97) in the viscera. PMID:26909636

  14. Cadmium concentrations in blood of children living near a lead smelter in Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Lima, M.E.; Alt, F.

    1986-08-01

    A prevalence study of cadmium absorption was carried out among 396 children aged 1 to 9 years living at less than 900 m from a primary lead smelter in Santo Amaro City, northeast Brazil. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of cadmium concentrations in blood (CdB) were 0.087 and 2.5 mumole/liter, respectively, ranging from 0.004 to 0.511 units. Ninety-six per cent of these children presented CdB higher than 0.0089 mumole/liter (or 1.0 microgram/liter) which is usually taken as a reference level. Higher CdB levels were significantly associated with shorter distance from child's home to smelter chimney, residence time in the area greater than 7 months, racial groups Light and Medium, and heavy infection by hookworm. The variation in CdB levels was not associated with child's age, nutritional status, iron status, family per capita income, blood lead level, being a child of a lead worker, the habit of pica, and contamination of child's peridomiciliar environment by smelter dross.

  15. Shallow Miocene basaltic magma reservoirs in the Bahia de Los Angeles basin, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Argote, Luis A.; García-Abdeslem, Juan

    1999-01-01

    The basement in the Bahı´a de Los Angeles basin consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Cretaceous granitoids. The Neogene stratigraphy overlying the basement is formed, from the base to the top, by andesitic lava flows and plugs, sandstone and conglomeratic horizons, and Miocene pyroclastic flow units and basaltic flows. Basaltic dikes also intrude the whole section. To further define its structure, a detailed gravimetric survey was conducted across the basin about 1 km north of the Sierra Las Flores. In spite of the rough and lineal topography along the foothills of the Sierra La Libertad, we found no evidence for large-scale faulting. Gravity data indicates that the basin has a maximum depth of 120 m in the Valle Las Tinajas and averages 75 m along the gravimetric profile. High density bodies below the northern part of the Sierra Las Flores and Valle Las Tinajas are interpreted to be part of basaltic dikes. The intrusive body located north of the Sierra Las Flores is 2.5 km wide and its top is about 500 m deep. The lava flows of the top of the Sierra Las Flores, together with the distribution of basaltic activity north of this sierra, suggests that this intrusive body continues for 20 km along a NNW-trending strike. Between the sierras Las Flores and Las Animas, a 0.5-km-wide, 300-m-thick intrusive body is interpreted at a depth of about 100 m. This dike could be part of the basaltic activity of the Cerro Las Tinajas and the small mounds along the foothills of western Sierra Las Animas. The observed local normal faulting in the basin is inferred to be mostly associated with the emplacement of the shallow magma reservoirs below Las Flores and Las Tinajas.

  16. Geotectonic setting and metallogeny of the northern São Francisco craton, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, João Batista Guimarães; da Silva, Maria da Glória; Misi, Aroldo; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; da Silva Sá, José Haroldo

    2010-11-01

    This paper aims at establishing a tectonic and temporal framework to characterize the metallogenic processes that contributed to the origin of the mineral provinces in the northern São Francisco Craton. Many Archean mineralizations (eg. massive sulfide zinc, lead, zinc and copper, besides magnesite-talc, iron-titanium-vanadium, iron, chromite and manganese) were generated before the assembly of the Craton. Deposits of chromite, nickel, gold and emerald were produced during the Paleoproterozoic orogenic cycle, when the Craton was amalgamated into the Atlantica paleocontinent. An extension event is recorded in the Neoproterozoic, during the breakup of Rodinia, associated with deposits of phosphorite and uranium. Kimberlite diamond and gold mineralization were generated during the Brasiliano orogenic cycle, coeval with the amalgamation of West Gondwana. A long-lasting and rather uniform crustal stress is recorded in the area during the Cambrian period. Resetting of the isotopic and magnetic systems that affected the Neoproterozoic sediments of the Irecê Basin at about 520 Ma was attributed to the regional-scale fluid migration and mineralization in the aftermath of the Brasiliano orogenic cycle.

  17. TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF A JUVENILE HORMONE MIMIC ON THE ESTUARINE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDACEA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenoxycarb is a juvenile hormone (JH) mimic used to control insect pests by interfering with reproductive and developmental processes mediated by JH. Crustaceans are ideal organisms to monitor environmental effects of these endocrine disruptors, since they are dominant aquatic ar...

  18. Evaluation of soil quality in areas of cocoa cabruca, forest and multicropping in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic Rain Forest is one of the most complex natural environments of the earth and, linked with this ecosystem, the cacao-cabruca system is agroforestry cultivation with an arrangement including a range of environmental, social and economical benefits and can protect many features of the biod...

  19. Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Life Cycle and Fitness of the Mysid Shrimp Americamysis Bahia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most concern about effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification focuses on mollusks, corals, and coccolithophores because skeletal and shell formation by these organisms is sensitive to the solubility of calcium minerals. However, many other marine organisms are likely affected by...

  20. Effects of Coastal Acidification on the Life Cycle and Fitness of the Mysid Shrimp Americamysis Bahia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most studies of animal responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification focus on isolated individuals or uniformly aged and conditioned cohorts that lack the complexities typical of wild populations. These studies have become the primary data source for meta-analytic predictions abo...

  1. The relative contribution of immigration or local increase for persistence of urban schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Ronald E; Barbosa, Lúcio M; Reis, Eliana A; Carmo, Theomira M; Dos Santos, Cláudio R A; Costa, Jackson M; Aminu, Peace T; Blank, Walter A; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C; Silva, Luciano K; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2015-03-01

    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely. PMID:25775457

  2. Natural Breeding Places for Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Semiarid Region of Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sangiorgi, Bruno; Miranda, Daniel Neves; Oliveira, Diego Ferreira; Santos, Edivaldo Passos; Gomes, Fernanda Regis; Santos, Edna Oliveira; Barral, Aldina; Miranda, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Few microhabitats have been previously identified as natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies so far, and little is known about the influence of climate variables in their density. The present study was conducted in a dry region with a semiarid climate, where visceral leishmaniasis occurs in humans and dogs. The occurrence of breeding places in specific microhabitats was investigated in soil samples collected from five houses, which were also the location used for sampling of adults. All the microhabitats sampled by our study were identified as natural breeding places due to the occurrence of immature forms of sand flies. On a weekly basis, the number of adult sand flies captured was positively correlated with the mean temperature from preceding weeks. These results, in addition to promoting an advance in the knowledge of sand flies biology, may furnish a tool for optimizing the control of the sand flies, by indicating the most suitable periods and microhabitats for the application of insecticides. PMID:22529861

  3. A NEW RECORD OF THE ENTOMOPHAGA GRYLLI (FRESENIUS) BATKO SPECIES COMPLEX ON ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE IN SOUTHERN BAHIA, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An entomophthoralean fungus (Zygomycotina; Zygomycetes) from the ENTOMOPHAGA GRYLLI species complex has been found and described from Brazil, on populations of RHAMMATOCERUS BRASILIENSIS Bruner, 1904, RHAMMATOCERUS BRUNNERI Giglio Tos, 1895, ABRACRIS DILECTA Walker, 1870, ABRACRIS FLAVOLINEATA De G...

  4. Biodiversity and structure of the polychaete fauna from soft bottoms of Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Castañeda, V.; Harris, L. H.

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes diversity patterns of the polychaete fauna in Bah?´a Todos Santos (Pacific Ocean, Baja California, Mexico). Thirty-nine stations were sampled in October 1994. Measurements of depth, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, organic content and sediment particle size were made. Polychaetes constituted 64% of all invertebrate macrofauna, with 13,757 specimens in 44 families representing 203 species. The best represented families were Spionidae, Capitellidae, Paraonidae, Cirratulidae, Maldanidae, Ampharetidae and Nephtyidae. Bah?´a Todos Santos presented high species richness (species/station); values varied between 6 (near the harbor) and 67 species (next to Estero Punta Banda). Higher species richness values (48 species to 67/station) were located in the southern section of the bay. Abundances (individuals/station) were generally high (120-1434) except for some coastal stations. Nearly one-third of the stations presented H? values higher than 4.00. Diversity (H?) values ranged from 2.06 to 4.80; higher diversity values were found in the southern section of the bay. The stress-predictability modeling characterized approximately 70% of stations as presenting favorable and stable conditions. Pearson and Bray-Curtis coefficients separated stations in relation to their sediment particle size, depth and location in the bay. Principal component analysis determined that organic matter content, percentage of silt-clay, and water depth accounted for 95% of the total variance for all environmental factors measured. Correspondence analysis distinguished three groups of species: Group A species with an extensive distribution throughout the bay and relatively high abundances, Group B species abundant in the shallow areas, especially near the harbor, and Group C species present in the area of the submarine canyon. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis separated five groups of stations, depending on depth, grain size and location in the bay. Our results show that Bah?´a Todos Santos is a favorable environment for polychaete development, their distribution being strongly related to sediment characteristics. The dominant trophic group corresponds to deposit-feeders (91 species).

  5. EFFECTS OF WHOLE SEDIMENTS FROM CORPUS CHRISTI BAY ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine and marine coastlines are receiving waters for many anthropogenic substances. Concentrations of many of these contaminants have been diminished by regulatory control of effluents, but there is concern that continuing inputs (non-point sources) and contaminants contained...

  6. Relationships between invertebrate communities, litter quality and soil attributes under different cacao agroforestry systems in the south of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to understand how soil and litter attributes interact with the faunal community, this study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between soil and litter attributes to soil and litter fauna, and further to determine which of these attributes would be most significant in explaining ...

  7. A new scorpion species of genus Diplocentrus Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Diplocentridae) endemic to Islas de la Bahia, Honduras.

    PubMed

    Sagastume-Espinoza, Kevin O; Longhorn, Stuart J; Santibáñez-López, Carlos E

    2015-07-01

    Three species of genus Diplocentrus are found in north-northwestern Honduras. These species represent the southern east limits of Diplocentrus' distribution. In recent years, a broad survey of arachnids in Honduras has yielded a collection of several specimens of an undescribed species from two islands in northern Honduras. This new species represents the second species of the genus inhabiting an island. The present contribution describes this new species, and compares it against its most similar relatives. A dichotomous key for the identification of the species of Diplocentrus in Honduras is also included. PMID:26026575

  8. POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE OF THE MYSID, AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA, TO VARYING THIOBENCARB CONCENTRATIONS BASED ON AGE-STRUCTURED POPULATION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To fully understand the potential long-term ecological impacts a pollutant has on a species, population-level effects must be estimated. Since long-term field experiments are typically not feasible, vital rates such as survival, growth, and reproduction of individual organisms ar...

  9. [Inclusion of persons with disabilities in a Reference Center for STD / AIDS of a town in Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Sales, Alessandra Santos; de Oliveira, Roberto Ferreira; de Araújo, Edna Maria

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to ascertain the opinion of health professionals about the inclusion of people with disabilities in the activities of reception, prevention and treatment in a Reference Center for STD/AIDS. The data were submitted to Bardin's content analysis technique. The analysis showed that professionals conduct their service in the sense of inclusion, seeking ways of communication to reach these people as the use of LIBRAS, matching the physical structure, equality of attendance and understanding of the vulnerabilities of this population. Despite the great importance of strategies adopted in facilitating a friendly service to people with disabilities, those strategies leave mostly from isolated and individually activities. It is needed an effective link among the service managers and political actors in the construction and adaptation of materials, programs and public policies to achieve equitable and inclusion of this population. PMID:23743840

  10. Population-level Experiments for Population-level Risk Assessment: An Example Using the Opposum Shrimp Americamysis bahia (NACSETAC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  11. The Relative Contribution of Immigration or Local Increase for Persistence of Urban Schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Ronald E.; Barbosa, Lúcio M.; Reis, Eliana A.; Carmo, Theomira M.; dos Santos, Cláudio R. A.; Costa, Jackson M.; Aminu, Peace T.; Blank, Walter A.; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C.; Silva, Luciano K.; Reis, Mitermayer G.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely. PMID:25775457

  12. STORAGE DURATION AND TEMPERATURE AND THE ACUTE TOXICITIES OF ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA AND LEPTOCHEIRUS PLUMULOSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many statutory needs for sediment quality assessment exist (U.S. EPA 1996). A variety of sediment toxicity tests have been used to support the development of sediment quality guidelines and to determine the benthic impacts of dredging activities and point and non-point source tox...

  13. Carbon stock and available nutrients in soils under “cacao-cabruca” system in southeast areas of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agroecosytems, the efficient nutrient cycling is considered responsible for plant nutrition; however it is important to consider the amount of total available nutrients. Experiments were undertaken to quantify the carbon stock and available nutrients in cacao plantation grown under tree shade of ...

  14. Hepatitis C virus infection and spontaneous clearance in HTLV-1 and HIV co-infected patients in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Le Marchand, Chloe; Bahia, Fabianna; Page, Kimberly; Brites, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background While 20–40% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfection will spontaneously clear the virus, less is known regarding clearance with coinfections. HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and human T-cell lymphotrophic virus 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) coinfection occurs due to shared routes of transmission and is prevalent in Brazil. Objectives To compare the proportion of patients who have spontaneously cleared HCV in patients with HCV monoinfection to patients coinfected by HCV/HIV, or HCV/HIV/HTLV-1. Methods Using medical records from two clinics in Salvador, Brazil, including demographic data and serological markers of HCV, HIV and HTLV-I/II, cross-sectional data was obtained from 197 patients. Patients who were anti-HCV positive and HCV RNA negative, and who did not receive HCV treatment were defined as having cleared infection. Results Nineteen patients (9.5%) showed evidence of spontaneous HCV clearance; with clearance in 9 of 108 (8.3%) patients in the HCV monoinfected group, 5 of 68 (7.4%) patients with HCV/HIV, and 5 of 21 (23.8%) patients with HCV/HIV/HTLV. Demographic data were not associated with HCV clearance status. Patients coinfected with both HIV and HTLV-1 had increased odds (5.50; 95% CI 1.00, 30.17) of spontaneous clearance of HCV compared with patients who were HIV negative or of unknown HIV status. Conclusion Our study found that patients coinfected with HIV and HTLV-1 were more likely to spontaneously clear hepatitis C virus than patients with HIV/HCV or HCV alone. The effects of HTLV coinfection on the immune response of such patients may be associated with these findings. PMID:26254690

  15. Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mello, E.F.; Xavier, R.P.; McNaughton, N.J.; Hagemann, S.G.; Fletcher, I.; Snee, L.

    2006-01-01

    U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152??6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155??9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Trilhado granodiorite, and ages of 2,130??7 Ma and 2,128??8 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Teofila??ndia tonalite. The emplacement age of the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome as indicated by a 2,080??2-Ma xenotime age for a granite dyke probably marks the end of the felsic magmatism. This age shows good agreement with the Ar-Ar plateau age of 2,080??5 Ma obtained in hornblendes from an amphibolite and with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2,076??10 Ma in detrital zircon crystals from a quartzite, interpreted as the age of the peak of the metamorphism. The predominance of inherited zircons in the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome suggests that the basement of the supracrustal rocks was composed of Archaean continental crust with components of 2,937??16, 3,111??13 and 3,162??13 Ma. Ar-Ar plateau ages of 2,050??4 Ma and 2,054??2 Ma on hydrothermal muscovite samples from the Fazenda Brasileiro gold deposit are interpreted as minimum ages for gold mineralisation and close to the true age of gold deposition. The Ar-Ar data indicate that the mineralisation must have occurred less than 30 million years after the peak of the metamorphism, or episodically between 2,080 Ma and 2,050 Ma, during uplift and exhumation of the orogen. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  16. RESPONSE OF MYSID SHRIMP (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA), SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS), AND INLAND SILVERSIDE MINNOW (MENIDIA BERYLLINA) TO CHANGES IN ARTIFICIAL SEAWATER SALINITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although marine organisms are adapted to naturally high concentrations of total dissolved solids (salinity) in their environment, abnormally high or low concentrations of ions can be toxic. Toxicity can result from aberrant levels of a single ion or from shifts of the entire spec...

  17. 33 CFR 100.35T07-0297 - Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.35T07-0297 Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de... origin. All persons and vessels, except those persons and vessels participating in the high-speed boat... west back to origin. All persons and vessels except those persons and vessels enforcing the buffer...

  18. 33 CFR 100.35T07-0297 - Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.35T07-0297 Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de... origin. All persons and vessels, except those persons and vessels participating in the high-speed boat... west back to origin. All persons and vessels except those persons and vessels enforcing the buffer...

  19. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-08-07

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  20. Estimating Stage Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress Within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis bahia Using Digital Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  1. Estimating Stage-Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis Bahia Using Digital Imaging (NAC SETAC 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  2. Distribution and mineralogy of platinum-group elements in altered chromitites of the Campo Formoso layered intrusion (Bahia State, Brazil): control by magmatic and hydrothermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garuti, G.; Proenza, J. A.; Zaccarini, F.

    2007-03-01

    Polyphase, penetrative hydrothermal metasomatism in chromitites of the Campo Formoso layered intrusion produced spectacular chromite - ferrian chromite zoning and transformed the primary intercumulus silicates into a chlorite - serpentine - carbonate - talc assemblage. Alteration did not substantially modify the composition of chromite cores and the distribution of platinum-group elements (PGE) through the sequence of chromitite layers, which still are consistent with magmatic fractionation processes. Texture and composition of laurite and Os-Ir-Ru alloys included in chromite cores indicate that these PGM were not altered, and are probably magmaticin origin. In contrast, the PGM located in the intergranular chlorite matrix (laurite, Ir-Ru-Rh sulfarsenides and Pt-Pd compounds with Sb, Bi and Te) display evidence of hydrothermal reworking. These PGM are intimately intergrown with low-temperature Ni-sulfides. The paragenesis suggests that the Ni-sulfides-PGM assemblage formed at the expenses of unknown PGM precursors, which must have been originally present in the intercumulus silicate matrix. Mechanism of formation involves a sequence of dissolution-precipitation events controlled by variation of redox conditions during chromite alteration. The presence of a secondary ore mineral assemblage consisting of galena, bismuthinite, native antimony, and various Pb-Sb compounds suggests a possible contribution of fluids derived from the adjacent granite.

  3. [Unawareness of hypertension and its determinants among 'quilombolas' (inhabitants of 'quilombos' - hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) living in Southwest Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; César, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of unawareness of arterial hypertension (AH) and associated factors among the quilombola population and to describe aspects of the non-pharmacological management of AH. It involved a cross-sectional study with a sample of 358 people with AH aged 18 years or more. AH was considered systolic blood pressure (BP) ? 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ? 90 mmHg and/or reported use of antihypertensive drugs. Unawareness of AH was classified as persons answering negatively when asked if they suffered from AH. Poisson regression was then used. The prevalence of unawareness of AH was 44.1% (95% CI: 38.9-49.3). Among those who already knew the diagnosis and had drug treatment only 24.8% had controlled BP. The unawareness of AH was positively associated with the male sex and Stage 1 of AH and negatively with increasing age, overweight, negative self-perception of health and medical visits. For non-pharmacological management, low percentages of quilombola reported appropriate standard recommendations of care. Arterial hypertension is a serious public health issue among the quilombola population, revealing great vulnerability in health due to poor levels of awareness, treatment and control. PMID:25760120

  4. Local ecological knowledge of the artisanal fishers on Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822) (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) on Ilhéus coast – Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) of traditional fishermen may be the only source of information regarding the conservation of the marine ecosystem and its endangered species. One of these species is Epinephelus itajara, which can exceed 2 m in length and 400 kg weight, is classified by the IUCN as a critically endangered. In Brazil, there is currently a moratorium that prohibits the capture of this specie, and in the northeastern coast, a Marine Protected Area was recently established properly justified by the existence a one spawning aggregation. The scope of the present study was the analysis the LEK of fishers with the goal of contributing to the conservation of E. Itajara. Methods The Knowledge of 24 “experts” was recorded through semi-structured interviews with fishermen selected based on their expertise. LEK regarding some aspects of the life history of E. itajara, such as its morphology, spatial distribution, feeding, breeding and conservation, was systematized. The interviews were conducted in synchronic and diachronic situations. The data analysis followed the model of unity of the various individual skills, while the consistency of the analysis was tested using a matrix of methods employed in comparative cognitive science. Potential reproductive aggregation sites were identified by experts through projective interviews conducted based on a cartographic database and transferred to a geographic information system (GIS). Results The LEK of these specialists in relation to the biological and ecological characteristics of E. itajara showed a high level of detail and a high agreement with the scientific literature. Projective interviews are presented as a promising tool allowing spatialization of the information generated through the registration of LEK. Therefore, the visualization of information from the fishermen, as well as its analysis and comparison with other databases, is simplified, thereby contributing to the decision-making process concerning the conservation of marine ecosystem in Brazil. Conclusions Integration of LEK with scientific knowledge is an efficient strategy for the conservation of endangered species, as it provides important additional biological information that can be used in the process of participative and sustainable management of marine resources. PMID:24965849

  5. 78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El... during the transit of the Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano, a public vessel, and...

  6. Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

    2013-11-01

    The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

  7. PREDICTING THE TOXICITY OF MAJOR IONS IN SEAWATER TO MYSID SHRIMP (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA), SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS), AND INLAND SILVERSIDE MINNOW (MENIDIA BERYLLINA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although marine organisms are naturally adapted to salinities well above those of freshwater, elevated concentrations of specific ions have been shown to cause adverse effects on some saltwater species. Because some ions are also physiologically essential, a deficiency of these i...

  8. Survival and Prognostic Factors for AIDS and Non-AIDS Patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Bahia, Brazil: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Iguaracyra; Brites, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Despite the benefits of HAART, HIV-infected patients are increasingly affected by different malignancies. We compared a 5-year-period survival time and prognostic factors for HIV-1-infected individuals diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) in a nested case-control study, with non-HIV-infected individuals in Salvador, Brazil. Survival time and prognostic factors were compared to HIV-negative patients. 31 cases (versus 63 controls) had a significantly more advanced NHL at diagnosis and lower mean CD4 count (26?cells/mm3) than controls. Mean overall survival (OS) was 35.8 versus 75.4 months, for cases and controls, respectively (P < 0.001), while mean event-free survival time (EFS) was 34.5 months for cases, versus 68.8 for controls (P = 0.002). Higher IPI, increased LDH levels, bone marrow infiltration, lower absolute lymphocyte counts (<1,000?cells/mm3), and type B symptoms were associated with a shorter survival time for cases. Although patients without poorer prognostic factors at baseline had an OS comparable to controls, the mean CD4 cell count for cases was similar for patients with favorable and nonfavorable response to therapy. Our findings suggest that HIV-1 infection is significantly associated with a shorter survival time for patients with NHL, independently of other predictive factors and of disease stage. PMID:24288620

  9. K?Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar evidence for a Transamazonian age (2030-1970 Ma) for the granites and emerald-bearing K-metasomatites from Campo Formoso and Carnaíba (Bahia, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, G.; Zimmermann, J.-L.; Montigny, R.

    1994-04-01

    The Campo Formoso and Carnaíba granites belong to a suite of middle Proterozoic magmatic rocks located in the northern part of the São Francisco craton. They intrude the Archaen basement and Lower Proterozoic Jacobina volcanosedimentary series. Emerald-bearing K-metasomatites in the mining districts of Campo Formoso and Carnaíba are developed within serpentinites at the contact with granite-related pegmatitic veins. K?Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar measurements were performed on biotites and deuteric muscovites from these two granites, and phlogopites from the K-metasomatites. For the Campo Formoso granite, the biotites yield ages between 1875 ± 45 Ma and 1908 ± 47 Ma (2 ?) and the muscovites yield ages of 1897 ± 34 Ma and 2040 ± 24 Ma (2 ?). For the Carnaíba granite, the biotites and muscovites fit isochrons with ages of 1888 ± 32 and 1979 ± 28 Ma (2 ?), respectively. In contrast, phlogopites from emerald-bearing metasomatites display K?Ar ages that spread between 1900 and 2000 Ma with an isochron of 1973 ± 20 Ma (2 ?) for Carnaíba. Generally, the youngest biotite and phlogopite ages occur for specimens where these minerals are chloritized. 40Ar/ 39Ar step heating release spectra are complex but give integrated ages in good agreement with the K?Ar ages. The least disturbed spectrum permits assignment of an age of 2032 ± 10 Ma (2 ?)for the first granitic pulse of the emplacement of the Campo Formoso composite pluton. Since in Carnaíba, deuteric muscovites and chlorite-free phlogopites give similar K?Ar ages, 1979 ± 28 and 1973 ± 20 Ma (2 ?) respectively, we conclude that emerald mineralization is contemporaneous with the pervasive muscovitization of the granite. The 1979 ± 28 Ma (2 ?) age obtained by K?Ar on muscovite represents the best estimate of the Carnaíba granite cooling age. A model invoking the pervasive alteration of the upper part of the granitic cupola along the pegmatite veins and serpentinites by the muscovitizing fluids is proposed for the formation of emerald-bearing K-metasomatites. The disturbances of 40Ar/ 39Ar release spectra testify to the existence of a hydrothermal heating that overprinted the K?Ar clock of biotite and to a less extent phlogopite. This event is clearly subsequent to the Transamazonian granitization and emerald mineralization and consequently younger than 1973 ± 20 Ma. Due to the lack of structural evidences for a Braziliano event (700-500 Ma) in this region, we tentatively propose a Transamazonian age (1900 Ma) for the thermal overprint.

  10. 3.3 Ga SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of a felsic metavolcanic rock from the Mundo Novo greenstone belt in the São Francisco craton, Bahia (NE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucat, J. J.; Mascarenhas, J. F.; Barbosa, J. S. F.; de Souza, S. L.; Marinho, M. M.; Fanning, C. M.; Leite, C. M. M.

    2002-07-01

    Felsic metavolcanics associated with supracrustal rocks provide U-Pb zircon and Sm-Nd TDM ages of approximately 3.3 Ga, which establish an Archean age of the Mundo Novo greenstone belt. A granodioritic gneiss from the Mairi complex, located on the eastern boundary of the Mundo Novo greenstone belt, exhibits a zircon evaporation minimum age of 3.04 Ga and a Nd model age of 3.2 Ga. These results constrain the occurrence of at least three major geological units in this area: the Archean Mundo Novo greenstone belt, the Archean Mairi gneisses, and the adjoining Paleoproterozoic (<2.1 Ga) Jacobina sedimentary basin. The Jacobina basin follows the same trend as the Archean structure, extending southward to the Contendas-Mirante belt, in which a similar Archean-Paleoproterozoic association appears. We postulate that during the Paleoproterozoic in the eastern margin of the Gavião block, these Archean greenstone belts constituted a zone of weakness along which a late-stage orogenic sedimentary basin developed.

  11. Rescuing Tradition at the Pierre Verger Cultural Space: Teaching and Learning Afro-Brazilian Culture through Music in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junqueira, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the Pierre Verger Cultural Space (PVCS), an educational organization dedicated to teaching Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, uses music to construct a sense of Afro-Brazilian self. Located in a poverty-stricken neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the PVCS sees its mission as "rescuing" ("resgatar") an Afro-Brazilian sense…

  12. LIFE-HISTORY AND TOXICOLOGICAL COMPARISONS OF TEMPERATE AND SUBTROPICAL MYSIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory populations of the temperate mysid Mysidopsis bigelowi were compared with Mysidopsis bahia to assess the former's suitability as a test organism for toxicological studies. ysidopsis bigelowi is widely distributed and often sympatric with M. bahia, a well-esta...

  13. Rescuing Tradition at the Pierre Verger Cultural Space: Teaching and Learning Afro-Brazilian Culture through Music in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junqueira, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the Pierre Verger Cultural Space (PVCS), an educational organization dedicated to teaching Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, uses music to construct a sense of Afro-Brazilian self. Located in a poverty-stricken neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the PVCS sees its mission as "rescuing" ("resgatar") an Afro-Brazilian sense…

  14. PREDICTION OF POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE FROM MYSID TOXICITY TEST DATA USING POPULATION MODEL TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and chronic bioassay statistics are used to evaluate the toxicity and the risks of chemical stressors to mysid shrimp Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia). These include LC50 values from acute tests, chronic values (the geometric mean of the no-obsderved-effect co...

  15. Epiphytic diatoms associated with red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) prop roots in Bahía Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Siqueiros Beltrones, D A; López Fuerte, F O

    2006-06-01

    The first floristic inventory of benthic diatoms is provided for the Bahia Magdalena-Bahia Almejas lagoon system. Samplings were carried out during November of 1999. The oxydized samples were mounted permanently. Eighty six diatom taxa were identified, out of which 59 are new records for the Bahia Magdalena area, and 12 taxa are new for the Baja California peninsula. Taxa recorded previously as rare in other substrata are common or abundant on the epiphytic macroalgae of mangrove prop roots. Other species are mainly epipelic forms, while 24 are commonly found as tychoplankton in the area. Certain taxa appear to be characteristic of mangrove systems in general. PMID:18494299

  16. Self-organized critical phenomenon as a q-exponential decay - Avalanche epidemiology of dengue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, H.; Miranda, J. G. V.; Moret, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    We studied the evolution of dengue disease in the state of Bahia. The number of epidemiological dengue cases for each city follows a Self-Organized Criticality behavior (SOC). However, the analysis of the number of cases in Bahia exhibits a q-exponential distribution. To understand this different behavior, we analyzed the distribution of the power law of SOC (γ) to all cities of Bahia. Our findings show that the distribution of γ exhibits a dependence between the exponents, which may be because of migration between cities, causing the emergence of outbreaks in different cities in a correlated and asynchronous time series.

  17. WETLAND PLANT SEEDLINGS AS INDICATORS OF NEAR-COASTAL SEDIMENT QUALITY: INTERSPECIFIC VARIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicities of whole sediments collected from an urbanized Florida bayou-estuary were determined for the epibenthic mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, and the infaunal amphipod, Ampelisca abdita. In addition, the phytotoxicities of the same sediments were evaluated using rooted macrophy...

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION IN ESTUARINE MYSIDS AND LARVAL DECAPODS WITH CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of physiological functions was examined in an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) during life-cycle exposures to four classes of pesticides. Pesticide exposure initially elevated respiration rates of juveniles. These increased metabolic requirements reduced the amount of...

  19. FIELD AND LABORATORY TOXICITY TESTS WITH SHRIMP, MYSIDS, AND SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS EXPOSED TO FENTHION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors conducted a series of laboratory pulse-exposure experiments to model short-term field exposures of two representative estuarine crustaceans, Penaeus duorarum and Mysidopsis bahia, to the organophosphate insecticide fenthion. These tests established acutely lethal and ...

  20. COMPARISON OF LABORATORY TOXICITY TEST RESULTS WITH RESPONSES OF ESTUARINE ANIMALS EXPOSED TO FENTHION IN THE FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute, lethal effects of fenthion (an organophosphate insecticide) on mysids (Mysidopsis bahia), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were determined in laboratory tests and after field applications. Exp...

  1. EFFECTS OF GROUND ULV (ULTRA-LOW VOLUME) APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON ESTUARINE BIOTA. 4. LETHAL AND SUBLETHAL RESPONSES OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-level exposure to fenthion, following ground ULV application of the organsphosphate pesticide, resulted in increased mortality and sublethal growth retardation of Mysidopsis bahia. These two processes would reduce population production of this crustacean, which serves as an i...

  2. POLYCLONAL ANTISERA AGAINST ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN VITELLIN AND VITELLOGENIN: DEVELOPMENT OF AN OOGENESIS DISFUNCTION ASSAY AS AN INDICATOR OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION FROM JUVENILE HORMONE AGONIST INSECTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult female Lepidophthalmus louisianensis, Palaemonetes pugio, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, Mysidopsis bahia, and Uca panacea were collected from estuarine localities in Santa Rosa Sound, Gulf Breeze, FL during late spring and summer of 1999. Mature ovaries were dissected and homog...

  3. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS AND POPULATION CHANGES IN AN ESTUARINE MYSID DURING CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO A PESTICIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of vital life processes of an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) were examined throughout its life cycle during exposure to the thiocarbamate herbicide, thiobencarb. Initial exposure of juvenile mysids to thiobencarb resulted in elevated respiration rates. Concentrations...

  4. 78 FR 64961 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ..., 78 FR 55266-55267. The meeting will be held at the Bahia Hotel, 998 W. Mission Bay Drive, San Diego... Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Mechanisms of Sensory, Perceptual, and...

  5. KEPONE (TRADEMARK) BIOCONCENTRATION, ACCUMULATION, LOSS, AND TRANSFER THROUGH ESTUARINE FOOD CHAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulation, transfer, and loss of Kepone in estuarine organisms were studied in laboratory bioassays. Kepone was bioconcentrated by oysters (Crassostrea virginica), mysids (Mysidopsis bahia), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus), and spo...

  6. Styles of extension and oceanization: Examples from the South Atlantic margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Neto Araujo, Mario; Thoaldo Romeiro, Marco; Andres Martinez, Miguel; Phipps Morgan, Jason; Ros, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Along the margins of the South Atlantic from the Camamu/Gabao to the North Santos/South Kwanza conjugate margin, rift architecture changes considerably. On the Brazilian side, from North to South, the margin width increases, syn-rift subsidence decreases and the degree of conjugate margin asymmetry varies. Here we suggest that these changes in architectonical styles can be explained with a combination of extensional modes: core-complex, wide and narrow rift modes with sequential faulting mode, which arises at the last stages of extension and accounting for conjugate margin asymmetry. The prevalence of any of these modes during extension depends on the strength of the lower crust at the start of rifting and during extension. Melting and serpentinisation are also strongly linked with lower crustal rheology, with weaker rheologies leading to less coupling between lithospheric layers and a slower mantle uplift, hence relatively less melting and serpentinisation. Here we show how likely changes in crustal strength and lithospheric configuration from the northern San Francisco craton to the southern Ribeira belt, may have led to the rich variety in extensional and oceanization styles observed in this margin sector.

  7. Antimicrobial effects of ionizing radiation on artificially and naturally contaminated cacao beans. [Aspergillus flavus; Penicillium citrinum

    SciTech Connect

    Restaino, L.; Myron, J.J.J.; Lenovich, L.M.; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.

    1984-04-01

    With an initial microbial level of ca. 10/sup 7/ microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation from a Co/sup 60/ source under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 50/sup 0/C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 x 10/sup 4/ and 1.4 x 10/sup 3/ spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D/sub 10/ values for A. flavus and P. citrinum spores on Bahia cacao beans were 0.66 and 0.88 kGy, respectively. 12 references.

  8. Modelling the Shallow Water Equations in Curvilinear Coordinates with Physical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Wingenter, S

    2005-01-12

    The goal of this project is to provide the capability for simulating fluid flow on complicated geometries, such as in the Bahia de Todos Santos. The Bahia de Todos Santos is a bay situated in the northwest corner of Mexico, off the coast of Ensenada and south of San Diego, California, USA. Figure 1.1 shows the Bahia de Todos Santos. It is part of an image taken from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on the Aqua and Terra satellites in late June and early July 2003 [8]. Roughly 200 square kilometers in size, the bay also contains two islands off the peninsula of Punta Banda. Characteristics of flow in this bay are driven by the moon tide (M2) and wind forcing [9].

  9. Paleontology, sedimentology and paleoenvironment of a new fossiliferous locality of the Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Chubut Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Oscar F.; Cabaleri, Nora G.; Armella, Claudia; Volkheimer, Wolfgang; Ballent, Sara C.; Martínez, Sergio; Monferran, Mateo D.; Silva Nieto, Diego G.; Páez, Manuel A.

    2011-02-01

    A new Late Jurassic assemblage of “conchostracans”, ostracods, bivalves and caddisfly cases from the locality “Estancia La Sin Rumbo”, Chubut Province (Patagonia, Argentina) is recorded. The fossils occur in the upper part of an outcropping 45 m thick volcaniclastic lacustrine sequence of yellowish tuffs and tuffites of the Puesto Almada Member, which is the upper member of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation with U/Pb age of 161 ± 3 Ma. The sequence represents one sedimentary cycle composed of a (lower) hemicycle of expansion and a (higher) hemicycle of contraction of the water body. The invertebrates lived in small freshwater bodies during the periods of expansion of the lake. The occurrence of a great number of small spinicaudatans, associated with mud-cracks, is evidence of dry climatic conditions and suggests several local mortality events. The spinicaudatan record of the fushunograptid-orthestheriid (component of the Eosestheriopsis dianzhongensis fauna) and the presence of Congestheriella rauhuti Gallego and Shen, suggest a Late Jurassic (Oxfordian to Tithonian) age. Caddisfly cases are recorded for the first time in the Cañadón Asfalto Basin.

  10. Relationship between Learning Problems and Attention Deficit in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…

  11. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO MARINE FISH AND A MYSID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute toxicity (96-hr LC50 of un-ionized ammonia to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and larval inland silversides (menidia beryllina) was influenced by pH and salinity in a species specific manner. ith mysids, NH3 was most toxic at pH 7.0 and less toxic pH 8.0 and 9.0. n contrast, ...

  12. Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

    1993-01-01

    Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

  13. SURVEY FOR EGG PARASITOIDS ATTACKING CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN NORTH FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the natural enemies of Cactoblastis cactorum, a cactus moth native from Argentina, has increased since its accidental introduction to Bahia Honda Key, Florida, in October 1989. In 1957, C. cactorum was introduced onto the Caribbean islands of the Greater Antilles to manage the invasive p...

  14. Academic and Diversity Consequences of Affirmative Action in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Porsha; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, Brazilian universities have been implementing affirmative-action policies to correct the racial, social and ethnic disparities in university admissions. An examination of the social-inclusion policies at three public universities in Brazil--the University of Brasilia, the Federal University of Bahia and the State University of…

  15. USE OF MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION (TIE) METHODS IN DETERMINING CAUSES OF TOXICITY TO FISH IN A MARINE AQUARIUM FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We obtained a water sample containing broken pieces of a tropical coral reef decor that was suspected of causing fish toxicity in a major aquarium. A toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) was performed using three species: a mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia; inland silvers...

  16. [12th International workshop on Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabalais, J.W.; Nordlander, P.

    1999-10-15

    The twelfth international workshop on inelastic ion surface collisions was held at the Bahia Mar Resort and Conference Center on South Padre Island, Texas (USA) from January 24-29, 1999. The workshop brought together most of the leading researchers from around the world to focus on both the theoretical and experimental aspects of particle - surface interactions and related topics.

  17. A CLOSER LOOK AT GRIFFINIA ESPIRITENSIS RAV. (AMARYLLIDACEAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Griffinia espiritensis Ravenna was described from a population near the Sooretama Biological Reserve in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. This species, which ranges north into the state of Bahia, is found only in Coastal Atlantic Rain Forest (Mata Atlântica), and is the most morphologically dive...

  18. Bibliografia Bibliotecologica Argentina [Hasta 1967] (A Bibliography of Library Science in Argentina [to 1967]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matijevic, Nicolas, Comp.

    A guide to library services, management, and organization is offered to professionals in this comprehensive bibliography, written in Spanish, of approximately 2500 items. Published by the Universidad Nacional del Sur (The National University of the South) in Bahia Blanca, Argentina, the list covers books, articles, monographs, manuals, catalogs,…

  19. CHANGES IN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measures of physiological performance and energy metabolism were made on an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) exposed throughout a life cycle to the defoliant DEF. EF concentrations > 0.246 ug/l reduced survival through release of the first brood. oung production was completely ...

  20. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A disease of the central nervous system in goats was observed in the municipalities of Juazeiro, Casa Nova and Curaça, state of Bahia, and Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The disease was produced experimentally in two goats by the administration of dry Turbina cordata mixed with...

  1. [Thomas Lindley: a traveler tells of disease and how it was handled in the early nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    O, Alarcon Agra do

    2004-01-01

    Thomas Lindley, an English businessman , was arrested for smuggling in Bahia at the beginning of the nineteenth century. He was mistaken gor a doctor and ended up serving as one while there. Upon returning to England, he published his diary. This study takes a close look at this references to how settlers back then and there experienced disease and medical treatment. PMID:15314837

  2. Academic and Diversity Consequences of Affirmative Action in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Porsha; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, Brazilian universities have been implementing affirmative-action policies to correct the racial, social and ethnic disparities in university admissions. An examination of the social-inclusion policies at three public universities in Brazil--the University of Brasilia, the Federal University of Bahia and the State University of…

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND LITTER FAUNA IN DIFFERENT COCOA AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize the density and diversity of meso and macro-fauna of soils located under cacao agrosystems of southern Bahia, Brazil. The researched areas studied were: Cacao improved with Erythrina spp. shade tree (CRE); Cacao under an improved cabruca (CRC); Cacao ...

  4. ALTERATIONS IN THE GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS AS INDICATORS OF POLLUTANT STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) has been identified as one of the most sensitive members of the estuarine community to pollutant stress (for a review see Nimmo and Hamaker, 1982). n the majority of life-cycle toxicity tests using this planktonic estuarine crustacean, sublet...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF VIRUS RESISTANT TRANSGENIC PAPAYAS EXPRESSING THE COAT PROTEIN FROM A BRAZILIAN ISOLATE OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS (PRSV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Translatable and untranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the State of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of Carica papaya L. The biolistic system was used to transform secondary soma...

  6. A Holistic Approach to Family Planning Counseling and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaves, Lushanhya Coutinho; And Others

    A family planning clinic which was part of a large public maternity hospital in Salvador Bahia, Brazil received a grant to expand its services and to evaluate a service model focusing on client counseling and education. The counseling, education, and service provision process included individual pre-consultation with a nurse, group education and…

  7. FROM ORGANISMS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA ACROSS TWO LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical step in estimating the ecological effects of a toxicant is extrapolating organism-level response data across higher levels of biological organization. In the present study, the organism-to-population link is made for the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to a range of...

  8. Unveiling the Mirror: Afro-Brazilian Identity and the Emergence of the Community School Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones de Almeida, Adjoa Florencia

    2003-01-01

    Afro-Brazilian residents of urban favelas (outlying, unincorporated slums) have established community schools in response to lack of public schools. A study of three such community schools in Salvador, Bahia, focused on social justice issues, school efforts to rescue a Black identity denied by Brazil's official "racial democracy" rhetoric,…

  9. Host specificity testing and examination for plant pathogens reveals that the gall-forming psyllid, Calophya latiforceps (Hemiptera: Calophyidae), is safe to release for biological control of Schinus terebinthifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi) is one of the worst upland exotic weeds in Florida. Foreign exploration for natural enemies led to the discovery of a pit-galling psyllid, Calophya latiforceps (Hemiptera: Calophyidae), in the state of Bahia, Brazil in 2010. Crawlers of C. latifor...

  10. EFFECT OF DIFLUBENZURON ON AN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data are reported for tests exposing a small, estuarine crustacean, Mysidopsis bahia, to diflubenzuron (Dimilin, TH-6040, (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea)) in flowing seawater. Tests were conducted in intermittent flows from a diluter or continuous flowing water i...

  11. TOXICITY AND BIOCONCENTRATION OF BHC AND LINDANE IN SELECTED ESTUARINE ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow-through, 96-hr bioassays were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of technical BHC and lindane to several estuarine animals. Test animals and their respective 96-hr lindane LC50 values were: mysid (Mysidopsis bahia), 6.3 micrograms/L; pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), 0....

  12. 40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-trichlorobenzenes shall be tested in accordance with this section. (1) Marine invertebrate acute toxicity testing—(i... toxicity of the above chlorobenzene isomers to marine invertebrates. (ii) Test standards. The marine invertebrate (mysid shrimp, Mysidopis bahia) acute toxicity testing for 1,2,3- and...

  13. 40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-trichlorobenzenes shall be tested in accordance with this section. (1) Marine invertebrate acute toxicity testing—(i... toxicity of the above chlorobenzene isomers to marine invertebrates. (ii) Test standards. The marine invertebrate (mysid shrimp, Mysidopis bahia) acute toxicity testing for 1,2,3- and...

  14. 40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-trichlorobenzenes shall be tested in accordance with this section. (1) Marine invertebrate acute toxicity testing—(i... toxicity of the above chlorobenzene isomers to marine invertebrates. (ii) Test standards. The marine invertebrate (mysid shrimp, Mysidopis bahia) acute toxicity testing for 1,2,3- and...

  15. 40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-trichlorobenzenes shall be tested in accordance with this section. (1) Marine invertebrate acute toxicity testing—(i... toxicity of the above chlorobenzene isomers to marine invertebrates. (ii) Test standards. The marine invertebrate (mysid shrimp, Mysidopis bahia) acute toxicity testing for 1,2,3- and...

  16. 75 FR 19408 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... evaluate grant applications. Place: Bahia Resort Hotel, 998 West Mission Bay Drive, San Diego, CA 92109... applications. Place: Sheraton Sand Key Hotel, 1160 Gulf Boulevard, Clearwater Beach, FL 33767. Contact Person... grant applications. Place: Hotel Palomar, 2121 P Street, NW., Washington, DC 20037. Contact Person:...

  17. 75 FR 4089 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ..., February 4, 2010, 8 a.m. to February 5, 2010, 5 p.m., Bahia Resort Hotel, 998 West Mission Bay Drive, San Diego, CA, 92109 which was published in the Federal Register on January 8, 2010, 75 FR 1066-1067. The meeting will be held at the Catamaran Resort Hotel and Spa, 3999 Mission Boulevard, San Diego, CA...

  18. Paleogeographic evolution of the central segment of the South Atlantic during Early Cretaceous times: Paleotopographic and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaboureau, Anne-Claire; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Rohais, Sébastien; Moulin, Maryline; Aslanian, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The geodynamic processes that control the opening of the central segment of the South Atlantic Ocean (between the Walvis Ridge and the Ascension FZ) are debated. In this paper, we discuss the timing of the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the Early Cretaceous rift by drawing eight paleogeographic and geodynamic maps from the Berriasian to the Middle-Late Aptian, based on a biostratigraphic (ostracodes and pollen) chart recalibrated on absolute ages (chemostratigraphy, interstratified volcanics, Re-Os dating of the organic matter). The central segment of the South Atlantic is composed of two domains, with a two phases evolution of the pre-drift ("rifting") times: a rift phase characterized by tilted blocks and growth strata, followed by a sag basin. The southern domain includes the Namibe, Santos and Campos Basins. The northern domain extends from the Espirito Santo and North Kwanza Basins, in the south, to the Sergipe-Alagoas and North Gabon Basins to the north. Extension started in the northern domain during the Late Berriasian (Congo-Camamu Basin to the Sergipe-Alagoas-North Gabon Basins) and migrated southward. At that time, the southern domain was not a subsiding domain (emplacement of the Parana-Etendeka Trapp). Extension started in this southern domain during the Early Barremian. The rift phase is shorter in the south (5-6 Ma, Barremian to base Aptian) than in the north (19 to 20 Myr, Upper Berriasian to base Aptian). The sag phase is of Middle to Late Aptian age. In the northern domain, this transition corresponds to a hiatus of Early to Middle Aptian age. From the Late Berriasian to base Aptian, the northern domain evolves from a deep lake with lateral highs to a shallower organic-rich one with no more highs. The lake migrates southward in two steps, until the Valanginian at the border between the northern and southern domains, until the Early Barremian, north of Walvis Ridge.

  19. Asymmetry and polarity of the South Atlantic conjugated margins related to the presence of cratons: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés-Martínez, Miguel; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; de Monserrat Navarro, Albert; Morgan, Jason P.

    2015-04-01

    Tectonic asymmetry of conjugated passive margins, where one margin is much narrower than the conjugate one, is commonly observed at many passive margins world-wide. Conjugate margin asymmetry has been suggested to be a consequence of lateral changes in rheology, composition, temperature gradient or geometries of the crust and lithosphere. Here we use the South Atlantic margins (from Camamu/Gabon to North Santos/South Kwanza) as a natural laboratory to understand conjugate margin asymmetry. Along this margin sector the polarity of the asymmetry changes. To the North, the Brazilian margin developed in the strong Sao Francisco craton, and this constitutes the narrow side of the conjugate pair. To the South, the Brazilian margin developed in the Ribeira fold belt, and the margin is wide. The opposite is true for the African side. We have thus numerically analysed how the relative distance between the initial location of extension and the craton influences the symmetry/asymmetry and polarity of the conjugate margin system. Our numerical model is 2D visco-elasto-plastic and has a free surface, strain weakening and shear heating. The initial set-up includes a cratonic domain, a mobile belt and a transition area between both. We have run tests with different rheologies, thickness of the lithosphere, and weak seeds at different distances from the craton. Results show asymmetric conjugated margins, where the narrower margin is generally the closest to the craton. Our models also allow us to study how the polarity is controlled by the distance between the initial weakness and the craton, and help to understand how the presence of cratonic domains affects the final architecture of the conjugated margins.

  20. Identification and characterization of a novel promoter for the human ANO1 gene regulated by the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6)

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Amelia; Gibbons, Simon J.; Bernard, Cheryl E.; Nowsheen, Somaira; Middha, Sumit; Almada, Luciana L.; Ordog, Tamas; Kendrick, Michael L.; Reid Lombardo, KMarie; Shen, K. Robert; Galietta, Luis J. V.; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2015-01-01

    Anoctamin-1 (Ano1) is a widely expressed protein responsible for endogenous Ca2+-activated Cl? currents. Ano1 is overexpressed in cancer. Differential expression of transcriptional variants is also found in other diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying regulation of Ano1 are unknown. This study identifies the Ano1 promoter and defines a mechanism for regulating its expression. Next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis in human gastric muscle found a new exon upstream of the reported exon 1 and identified a promoter proximal to this new exon. Reporter assays in human embryonic kidney 293 cells showed a 6.7 ± 2.1-fold increase in activity over empty vector. Treatment with a known regulator of Ano1 expression, IL-4, increased promoter activity by 1.6 ± 0.02-fold over untreated cells. The promoter region contained putative binding sites for multiple transcription factors including signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6), a downstream effector of IL-4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments on T84 cells, which endogenously express Ano1, showed a 2.1 ± 0.12-fold increase in binding of STAT6 to P0 after IL-4 treatment. These results were confirmed by mutagenesis, expression, and RNA interference techniques. This work allows deeper understanding of the regulation of Ano1 in physiology and as a potential therapeutic target in a variety of diseases—Mazzone, A., Gibbons, S. J., Bernard, C. E., Nowsheen, S., Middha, S., Almada, L. L., Ordog, T., Kendrick, M. L., Reid Lombardo, KM., Shen, K. R., Galietta, L. J. V., Fernandez-Zapico, M. E., and Farrugia, G. Identification and characterization of a novel promoter for the human ANO1 gene regulated by the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6). PMID:25351986

  1. Impact of El Niño/Southern Oscillation on Visceral Leishmaniasis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Carlos Roberto; Ziller, Mario; Latif, Mojib

    2002-01-01

    We used time-series analysis and linear regression to investigate the relationship between the annual Niño-3 index from 1980 to 1998 and the annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, during 1985–1999. An increase in VL incidence was observed in the post-El Niño years 1989 (+38.7%) and 1995 (+33.5%). The regression model demonstrates that the previous year’s mean Niño-3 index and the temporal trend account for approximately 50% of the variance in the annual incidence of VL in Bahia. The model shows a robust agreement with the real data, as only the influence of El Niño on the cycle of VL was analyzed. The results suggest that this relationship could be used to predict high-risk years for VL and thus help reduce health impact in susceptible regions in Brazil. PMID:12194766

  2. ['Our mulattos are more exuberant'].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Mariza

    2008-01-01

    Raimundo Nina Rodrigues (1862-1906) will still engender considerable debate in the academic world. The centennial of his death, for which this translation has been made, has merited a special editions of the prestigious Gazeta Medica da Bahia and other newspapers in the state of Bahia. Nevertheless, his books have not become any more accessible or well known. Almost all of them have been out of print, in some cases for over one hundred years. The text published here, "Miscegenation, degeneracy and crime", is especially interesting, both for the ethnography, which deserves to be revisited, and because of the author's use of genealogies and case studies, unprecedented in Brazil at that time. PMID:19824326

  3. Spelaeogammarus titan, a new troglobitic amphipod from Brazil (Amphipoda: Bogidielloidea: Artesiidae).

    PubMed

    Senna, André R; Andrade, Luiz F; Castelo-Branco, Lucas P; Ferreira, Rodrigo L

    2014-01-01

    A new troglobitic species of the amphipod family Artesiidae Holsinger, 1980 is described from a cave in the municipality of Santa Maria da Vitória, in the Brazilian state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Spelaeogammarus titan sp. nov. differs from the others in the genus by its body length, rising up to 18.3 mm, the antenna 1 with accessory flagellum 6-articulate, propodus of the first gnathopod 1.8 X longer than basis, the largest in the genus, coxa 5 with posterior lobe slightly concave, inner ramus of pleopods with 10 to 13 setae, outer ramus of uropod 3 with 22 simple setae, and telson with 1 apical plus 3 subapical stout setae in each lobe. With this study, the knowledge of Spelaeogammarus is improved to 5 species, all of them exclusive to caves in the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. A comparative table with the diagnostic characters of the species of Spelaeogammarus is provided. PMID:25543923

  4. Human bocavirus in acute gastroenteritis in children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Gubio Soares; Silva Sampaio, Madina Lyve; Menezes, Aline Dorea Luz; Tigre, Dellane Martins; Moura Costa, Lilia Ferreira; Chinalia, Fabio Alexandre; Sardi, Silvia Ines

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological surveillance for Human Bocavirus (HBoV) was conducted on 105 fecal specimens from children with acute gastroenteritis in Bahia, Brazil. Among of a total 105 stool samples, 44 samples were positive for HBoV as detected by nested-PCR. Of the 44 positive samples, co-infections with other enteric viruses (Norovirus, Adenovirus, and Rotavirus) were found in 12 pediatric patients. Mixed infections among HBoV with Norovirus were frequently observed in this population. The phylogenetic analysis identified the presence of HBoV-1, and HBoV 2A species. This study shows that HBoV is another viral pathogen in the etiology of acute gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Brazil. PMID:26059266

  5. Acute aquatic toxicity studies of Gulf of Mexico water samples collected following the Deepwater Horizon incident (May 12, 2010 to December 11, 2010).

    PubMed

    Echols, B S; Smith, A J; Gardinali, P R; Rand, G M

    2015-02-01

    The potential for the Deepwater Horizon MC-252 oil incident to affect ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) was evaluated using Americamysis bahia, Menidia beryllina and Vibrio fischeri (Microtox® assay). Organisms were exposed to GOM water samples collected in May-December 2010. Samples were collected where oil was visibly present on the water surface or the presence of hydrocarbons at depth was indicated by fluorescence data or reduced dissolved oxygen. Toxicity tests were conducted using water-accommodated fractions (WAFs), and oil-in-water dispersions (OWDs). Water samples collected from May to June 2010 were used for screening tests, with OWD samples slightly more acutely toxic than WAFs. Water samples collected in July through December 2010 were subjected to definitive acute testing with both species. In A. bahia tests, total PAH concentrations for OWD exposures ranged from non-detect to 23.0 μg L(-1), while WAF exposures ranged from non-detect to 1.88 μg L(-1). Mortality was >20% in five OWD exposures with A. bahia and three of the WAF definitive tests. Total PAH concentrations were lower for M. beryllina tests, ranging from non-detect to 0.64 μg L(-1) and non-detect to 0.17 μg L(-1) for OWD and WAF exposures, respectively. Only tests from two water samples in both the WAFs and OWDs exhibited >20% mortality to M. beryllina. Microtox® assays showed stimulatory and inhibitory responses with no relationship with PAH exposure concentrations. Most mortality in A. bahia and M. beryllina occurred in water samples collected before the well was capped in July 2010 with a clear decline in mortality associated with a decline in total PAH water concentrations. PMID:25016336

  6. Longivena, a new robber-fly genus from Brazil (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae)

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Rodrigo; Rafael, José Albertino

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Longivena gen. n. and five new species are described and illustrated from caatinga and cerrado habitats from Brazil: Longivena digitata sp. n., type–species (Maranhão, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso do Sul states), Longivena bilobata sp. n. (Maranhão state), Longivena flava sp. n. (Mato Grosso do Sul state), Longivena limeiraoliverai sp. n. (Maranhão state), Longivena spatulata sp. n. (Maranhão state). An illustrated key is also provided. PMID:25349498

  7. [Parasitism in Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) by Encarsia hispida De Santis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), in papaya, in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lourenção, André L; Fancelli, Marilene; Costa, Valmir A; Ribeiro, Nicolle C

    2007-01-01

    Infestation of Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) was observed in October 2004, in papaya plants of cultivar Sunrise Solo, under screenhouse conditions, in Cruz das Almas, State of Bahia, Brazil. In infested leaves, around 20% of parasitism on nymphs was verified. Leaves with parasitized nymphs were kept in laboratory until emergence of the parasitoid, identified as Encarsia hispida De Santis. This is the first time that this parasitoid was detected on T. variabilis nymphs in Brazil. PMID:17420874

  8. Mitochondrial DNA variability in populations of Centris aenea (Hymenoptera, Apidae), a crop-pollinating bee in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, V S; Aguiar, C M L; Oliveira, E J F; Costa, M A; Santos, G M M; Silva, J G

    2013-01-01

    Centris spp are oil-collecting solitary bees that are valuable pollinators of crops such as Brazil nut, cashew, and acerola. We investigated the genetic variability of populations of C. aenea in the northeastern region of Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from 59 individuals from 6 locations in the States of Pernambuco and Bahia and a 600-650-bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI/COII region amplified by PCR, followed by digestion with the restriction enzymes DraI and SspI. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed eight different haplotypes among the populations. Haplotype A1, revealed by DraI, was the most frequent (50%), and haplotypes A3 and A4 were exclusive to Feira de Santana, Bahia and Morro do Chapéu, Bahia, respectively. Among the haplotypes revealed by SspI, B2 was the most frequent (37%) and B3 was exclusive to Feira de Santana. This information revealing high haplotype diversity will be useful for developing management strategies for Centris, especially because of increasing interest in the rearing and/ or relocation of these bees for crop pollination. PMID:23546967

  9. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) geographical isolates from Brazil and comparison to other isolates from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Muller, Isabel C; Andrade, Thales P D; Tang-Nelson, Kathy F J; Marques, Maria R F; Lightner, Donald V

    2010-01-25

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a viral pathogen that has caused significant economic losses in shrimp farming. Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) (open reading frame [ORF] 94, 125 and 75), a large deletion (ORF 23/24) and a transposase were proposed as molecular markers for genotyping. WSSV-infected shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were collected in 2 Brazilian regions (Santa Catarina and Bahia) from 2005 to 2008. DNA was extracted and PCR of the variable regions was performed, followed by sequencing. All Santa Catarina samples showed the same number of repeats for the minisatellites analyzed. Bahia samples showed a different pattern for the regions, indicating that there are at least 2 different WSSV genotypes in Brazil. Both Brazilian isolates have an 11453 bp deletion in ORF 23/24 when compared with WSSV-TW (Taiwan), which has the full sequence for this locus. The Brazilian WSSV isolates were compared with WSSV isolates from other countries in the Americas (USA, Panama, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua); the repeat number patterns for the 3 VNTR regions analyzed were different between the Brazilian isolates and the other western-hemisphere isolates. This may be due to mutations in WSSV after its introduction into the different countries. Our results also show that WSSV found in Bahia and Santa Catarina very likely originated from different sources of contamination. PMID:20225670

  10. Taxonomy of recent Adeonidae (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from Brazil, with the description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana C S; Souza, Facelucia B C; Sanner, Joann; Vieira, Leandro M

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the taxonomy of the cheilostome genera Adeonellopsis MacGillivray, 1886 and Reptadeonella Busk, 1884 in Brazil. Of the six species previously reported in Brazilian waters, we include redescriptions of Adeonellopsis subsulcata (Smitt, 1873), Reptadeonella bipartita (Canu & Bassler, 1928) and Reptadeonella costulata (Canu & Bassler, 1928). Four new species of Reptadeonella are described: Reptadeonella aspera n. sp., Reptadeonella brasiliensis n. sp. (previously misidentified as Reptadeonella violacea), Reptadeonella cucullata n. sp. and Reptadeonella leilae n. sp. Reptadeonella aspera n. sp., from Bahia State, is characterized by rugose frontal calcification, a tubular peristome, small suboral avicularium and elliptical spiramen. Reptadeonella brasiliensis n. sp. is the commonest intertidal species in NE Brazil; it is distinguished from other Brazilian Reptadeonella in having a nodular peristome, large subperistomial areolar pore and zooids with one or two frontal pores frequently replaced by a suboral avicularium and crescentic spiramen. Reptadeonella cucullata n. sp., from Espírito Santo and Bahia states, has a hood-like peristome, large subperistomial areolar pore, suboral avicularium with curved mandible and denticulate spiramen. Reptadeonella leilae n. sp., described from Bahia State, has a frontal shield with small granules, tubular peristome, semilunar to semicircular subperistomial areolar pore and circular spiramen. Diagnostic characters of Reptadeonella species are discussed. PMID:26623902

  11. Taxonomic notes on some Brazilian species of Synalpheus Spence Bate, 1888, with new records and description of a new species (Decapoda, Alpheidae).

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Pachelle, Paulo P G

    2014-01-01

    The present report deals with several western Atlantic species of the snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus Spence Bate, 1888 occurring in Brazilian territorial waters. Two species, Synalpheus cf. ruetzleri Macdonald & Duffy, 2006 and Synalpheus yano (Ríos & Duffy, 2007), are recorded from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and Brazil (Ceará) for the first time; S. yano is also newly reported from the eastern Gulf of Mexico and USA (Florida). Synalpheus androsi Coutière, 1909, a distinctive species previously known in Brazil only from a single unconfirmed record, is confirmed to be present in Brazilian waters based on material from Bahia and Espírito Santo. Synalpheus tenuispina Coutière, 1909, a poorly known species from southern Brazil, is redescribed. Synalpheus ul (Ríos & Duffy, 2007), previously known from Bahia and Alagoas, is reported from Pernambuco based on older "Calypso" material misidentified as Synalpheus longicarpus (Herrick, 1891). A new species from the Synalpheus paraneptunus Coutière, 1909 complex is described as Synalpheus maxillispinus sp. nov. based on three specimens dredged from moderate depths (15-55 m) off southern Bahia and Espírito Santo, eastern Brazil. Finally, an incomplete specimen that appears to belong to a species presently unknown in Brazil is preliminarily reported as Synalpheus sp. gambarelloides group. Illustrations are provided for all reported taxa except for S. ul. PMID:24943610

  12. Production of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Inoculum in Aeroponic Culture †

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ling-Ling L.; Sylvia, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) and industrial sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) colonized by Glomus deserticola, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices were grown in aeroponic cultures. After 12 to 14 weeks, all roots were colonized by the inoculated vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Abundant vesicles and arbuscules formed in the roots, and profuse sporulation was detected intra-and extraradically. Within each fungal species, industrial sweet potato contained significantly more roots and spores per plant than bahia grass did, although the percent root colonization was similar for both hosts. Mean percent root colonization and sporulation per centimeter of colonized root generally increased with time, although with some treatments colonization declined by week 14. Spore production ranged from 4 spores per cm of colonized root for G. etunicatum to 51 spores per cm for G. intraradices. Infectivity trials with root inocula resulted in a mean of 38, 45, and 28% of bahia grass roots colonized by G. deserticola, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices, respectively. The germination rate of G. etunicatum spores produced in soil was significantly higher than that produced in aeroponic cultures (64% versus 46%) after a 2-week incubation at 28°C. However, infectivity studies comparing G. etunicatum spores from soil and aeroponic culture indicated no biological differences between the spore sources. Aeroponically produced G. deserticola and G. etunicatum inocula retained their infectivity after cold storage (4°C) in either sterile water or moist vermiculite for at least 4 and 9 months, respectively. PMID:16347548

  13. Response of Urban Systems to Climate Change in Europe: Heat Stress Exposure and the Effect on Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart; Grommen, Mart

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heavy rain- and windstorms, floods, drought, heat waves, etc. The summer 2003 European heat wave was the hottest summer on record in Europe over the past centuries leading to health crises in several countries like France and caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. The main risks induced by global climate change in urbanised areas are considered to be overheating and resulting health effects, increased exposure to flood events, increased damage losses from extreme weather conditions but also shortages in the provision of life-sustaining services. Moreover, the cities themselves create specific or inherent risks and urban adaptation is often very demanding. As most of Europe's inhabitants live in cities, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of climate variability on urban areas and their populations. The present study focusses on the identification of heat stress variables related to human health and the extraction of this information by processing daily temperature statistics of local urban climate simulations over multiple timeframes of 20 years and three different European cities based on recent, near future and far future global climate predictions. The analyses have been conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (Belgium), Berlin (Germany) and Almada (Portugal) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. Apart from the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect), additional heat stress parameters such as the average number of heat wave days together with their duration and intensities have been covered during this research. In a subsequent step, the heat stress variables are superposed on relevant socio-economic datasets targeting total population and its distribution per age class as well as vulnerable institutions such as hospitals, schools, rest homes and child/day care facilities in order to generate heat stress exposure maps for each use case city and various climate, urban planning and mitigation scenarios. The specifications and requirements for the various scenarios have been consolidated in close collaboration with the local stakeholders during dedicated end-users workshops. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for evolving towards sustainable and climate resilient cities.

  14. Interaction between Cities and Climate Change: Modelling Urban Morphology and Local Urban Planning Scenarios from Open Datasets across European Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Bart; Stevens, Catherine; Grommen, Mart

    2015-04-01

    Cities are characterised by a large spatiotemporal diversity of local climates induced by a superposition of various factors and processes interacting at global and regional scales but also at the micro level such as the urban heat island effect. As urban areas are known as 'hot spots' prone to climate and its variability over time leading to changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves, it is of crucial importance to capture the spatial heterogeneity resulting from variations in land use land cover (LULC) and urban morphology in an effective way to drive local urban climate simulations. The first part of the study conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission focusses on the extraction of land surface parameters linked to urban morphology characteristics from detailed 3D city models and their relationship with openly accessible European datasets such as the degree of soil sealing and disaggregated population densities from the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC). While it has been demonstrated that good correlations can be found between those datasets and the planar and frontal area indices, the present work has expanded the research to other urban morphology parameters including the average and variation of the building height and the sky view factor. Correlations up to 80% have been achieved depending on the considered parameter and the specific urban area including the cities of Antwerp (Belgium), Berlin (Germany) and Almada (Portugal) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. Moreover, the transferability of the established relations has been investigated across the various cities. Secondly, a flexible and scalable approach as a function of the required the level of detail has been elaborated to update the various morphology parameters in case of integration with urban planning data to analyse the local impact of future land use scenarios, climate adaptation strategies and mitigation measures in an effective way by comparing the future occupation of the soil against metrics derived from existing soil sealing data from the EEA.

  15. The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Danielle de Oliveira; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira de Siqueira, Marinez; Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2014-01-01

    The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

  16. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The Distributional Ecology of the Maned Sloth: Environmental Influences on Its Distribution and Gaps in Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2014-01-01

    The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

  18. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. A new species of Scolopocryptops Newport: a troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede from a remarkable siliciclastic area of eastern Brazil (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopocryptopidae, Scolopocryptopinae)

    PubMed Central

    Chagas-Jr, Amazonas; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus sp. n., a new troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede species. The species was found in a remarkable siliciclastic karst area of Eastern Brazil, in three caves of the Chapada da Diamantina, in the state of Bahia. Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus sp. n. is close to Scolopocryptops miersii Newport, 1845 and Scolopocryptops ferrugineus macrodon (Kraepelin, 1903) but differs from them by troglomorphic features, such as depigmentation, long appendages and a thin cuticle. This new species is the second troglobitic scolopocryptopine described and is the first discovered in Brazil. PMID:25829851

  20. Tracing coastal and estuarine groundwater discharge sources in a complex faulted and fractured karst aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagomasino, D.; Price, R. M.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater discharge can be an important input of water, nutrients and other constituents to coastal wetlands and adjacent marine areas, particularly in karst regions with little to no surface water flow. A combination of natural processes (e.g., sea-level rise and climate change) and anthropogenic pressures (e.g., urban growth and development) can alter the subterranean water flow to the coastline. For water management practices and environmental preservation to be better suited for the natural and human environment, a better understanding is needed of the hydrogeologic connectivity between the areas of fresh groundwater recharge and the coastal zone. The Yucatan peninsula has a unique tectonic and geologic history consisting of a Cretaceous impact crater, Miocene and Eocene tectonic plate movements, and multiple sea-level stands. These events have shaped many complex geologic formations and structures. The Sian Káan Biosphere Reserve (SKBR), a UNESCO World Heritage Site located along the Atlantic Ocean, overlaps two distinct hydrogeologic regions: the evaporate region to the south and south west, and the Holbox Fracture Zone to the north. These two regions create a complex network of layered, perched and fractured aquifers and an extensive groundwater cave network. The two regions are distinguished by bedrock mineralogical differences that can be used to trace shallow subsurface water from interior portions of the peninsula to the Bahia de la Ascension in the SKBR. The objective of this research was to use naturally occurring geochemical tracers (eg., Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, K+, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen) to decipher the sources of groundwater flow through the coastal wetlands of the SKBR and into the Bahia de la Ascension. Surface water and groundwater samples were collected during two field campaigns in 2010 and 2012 within the coastal and estuarine waters of the SKBR. Additional water samples were collected at select cenotes along the western boundary of the reserve. Fresh groundwater and surface water from the southern evaporate region was characterized as a calcium sulfate water that was identified to contribute the southern portions of the Bahia de la Ascension. In the northern portions of the Bahia, surface and shallow groundwater chemistry was characterized as a more calcium bicarbonate-type water from the north that was undersaturated with respect to calcite. The implications from this preliminary study address the complex nature of the karst aquifer and help define groundwater flow pathways from the interior of the Yucatan peninsula to the coastal wetlands. Further investigation in the area will increase our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of shallow groundwater; and identify areas of coastal brackish groundwater discharge from the mixing of fresh groundwater and seawater.

  1. Amphibious Shelter-Builder Oniscidea Species from the New World with Description of a New Subfamily, a New Genus and a New Species from Brazilian Cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed. PMID:25992909

  2. The electric power rationing program through the energy quota system; A utility's experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bastos, A.C.F. )

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, an energy quota is defined as the maximum kWh that can be used by individual customers during the rationing period. This quota is assigned by the utility and calculated on the basis of average energy consumption during the previous year. This rationing system was used by utilities in northeastern Brazil when a severe water shortage occurred in 1987. Although it is democratic and participative, this method requires balanced quota assignment criteria, efficient management and effective communication with customers to be viable. The utility's experience in the state of Bahia, Brazil, was satisfactory and played a vital role in overcoming the 1987 electric power shortage.

  3. A new species of Margaromantis Piza, 1982 (Insecta: Mantodea) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A second species of the Neotropical mantid genus Margaromantis Piza, 1982, Margaromantis nigrolineata sp. n. is described from Bahia, Brazil. This new species can be recognized by the presence of a transverse black strip between compound eyes in the vertex; fore femora exhibiting black calluses on the inner face; lacking yellowish strips over the transverse veins on the metathoracic wings; left dorsal phallomere with rectangular ventral lamina, elongated and grooved lateral process, and a flattened, but not twisted apical process that is upwardly recurved. PMID:25698900

  4. A new species of Scolopocryptops Newport: a troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede from a remarkable siliciclastic area of eastern Brazil (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopocryptopidae, Scolopocryptopinae).

    PubMed

    Chagas-Jr, Amazonas; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    We describe Scolopocryptopstroglocaudatus sp. n., a new troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede species. The species was found in a remarkable siliciclastic karst area of Eastern Brazil, in three caves of the Chapada da Diamantina, in the state of Bahia. Scolopocryptopstroglocaudatus sp. n. is close to Scolopocryptopsmiersii Newport, 1845 and Scolopocryptopsferrugineusmacrodon (Kraepelin, 1903) but differs from them by troglomorphic features, such as depigmentation, long appendages and a thin cuticle. This new species is the second troglobitic scolopocryptopine described and is the first discovered in Brazil. PMID:25829851

  5. Natural hybridization between Gossypium mustelinum and exotic allotetraploid cotton species.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, I P P; da Silva, J O; Malafaia, G; Silveira, R D D; Barroso, P A V

    2015-01-01

    Cotton has been collected in Brazil for decades for its conservation, evaluation, and the use of its genetic resources. Gossypium mustelinum is an allotetraploid cotton species that only occurs in Brazil, and little is known about its genetic potential for improvement. However, the species is threatened by habitat fragmentation and interspecific hybridization with exotic species of cotton. In this study, we investigated the rate of natural hybridization in two populations of G. mustelinum in Bahia, Brazil, with G. hirsutum and G. barbadense using a set of microsatellite markers. PMID:26535735

  6. Cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebende, G. F.; Filho, A. Machado

    2009-12-01

    We study in this paper a cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers collected in the ferry-boat system (sea route that connects the city of Salvador and Itaparica island, Bahia, Brazil), this study is based on the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method. The DCCA method is designed to investigate power-law cross correlations between different simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity. Here in this paper we show that is possible to discriminate cross-correlation between vehicles and passengers and also identify seasonal components.

  7. First record of Parakosa flexipes (Acari: Chirodiscidae) parasitizing a free-tailed bat (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Luiz Antonio Costa; Silva, Roberta Mariano; Melo, Vanessa Lazaro

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the occurrence of Parakosa flexipes (Pinichpongse) (Chirodiscidae) for the first time in Brazil, along with its infection sites on Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy. Thirty-eight bats were caught using mist nets that were placed near a house at the Mars Center for Cocoa Science in the state of Bahia, of which 14 (37%) were parasitized by P. flexipes. Parakosa flexipes was observed parasitizing M. rufus on hairs that were evidently longer than others distributed over the bat's body, where up to three parasites could be spotted on a single hair. PMID:23184323

  8. Amphibious shelter-builder Oniscidea species from the New World with description of a new subfamily, a new genus and a new species from Brazilian cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae).

    PubMed

    Souza, Leila A; Ferreira, Rodrigo L; Senna, André R

    2015-01-01

    The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed. PMID:25992909

  9. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest)--ghost and blue mud shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hornig, S.; Sterling, A.; Smith, S.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic range: The ghost shrimp is found in intertidal areas along the west coast of North America from Mutiny Bay, Alaska, to the mouth of the Tijuana River, San Diego County, California; MacGinitie (1934) and Ricketts and Calvin (1968) reported finding specimens as far south as El Estuario de Punto Banda, Baja California Norte, Mexico. The blue mud shrimp is found from southeastern Alaska to San Quentin Bay (Bahia de San Quentin) in Baja California Norte. The general distribution of the two species in the Pacific Northwest is identical (Figure 3).

  10. Three new species of Eurypon Gray, 1867 from Northeastern Brazil (Poecilosclerida; Demospongiae; Porifera).

    PubMed

    Santos, George Garcia; França, Fernando; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of Eurypon from Northeastern Brazil are described: Eurypon clavilectuarium sp. nov.; Eurypon suassunai sp. nov. and Eurypon distyli sp. nov. Samples were collected from the continental shelf of Rio Grande do Norte, Bahia and Paraíba States. While the majority of Atlantic Eurypon species have been described from deep water, two of three new species described in this study were collected from shallow depths. The three new species from Brazil were compared with all other eighteen Eurypon species described from the Atlantic.  PMID:25543569

  11. Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae): a New Potential Pest of Eucalyptus and Species Used for Atlantic Rainforest Restoration.

    PubMed

    Mafia, R G; da Silva, J B; Ramos, J F; Mafia, G V; Rosado-Neto, G H; Ferronatto, E M O

    2015-02-01

    Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a new pest of forest species, including eucalyptus (hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis), Joannesia princeps, Mimosa artemisiana, Croton urucurana, Croton floribundus, and Senna multijuga is recorded. The insect attack in clonal eucalyptus plantations and in forest restoration areas between 2010 and 2013 in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brasil, was observed for the first time. The outbreaks generally occurred from September to March. This new potential pest can affect the growth, productivity, and quality of the trees. We recommended monitoring this leaf-eating beetle especially during the critical period of its occurrence. PMID:26013018

  12. A new genus in the family Ptiloneuridae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocomorpha: Epipsocetae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2015-01-01

    A new ptiloneurid genus from Brazil, Brasineura n. gen., is described and illustrated. It includes two species, both known only from males, one from the Chapada Diamantina (State of Bahia), and one troglophilic species from the State of Pará. It differs from all other known ptiloneurid genera, in which the males are known, by the unique structure of the phallosome, and by having a uniquely shaped hypandrium of a single sclerite. An updated identification key to the genera of Ptiloneuridae is presented and the synonymy between Brisacia and Loneura is proposed.  PMID:25661938

  13. Lead and cadmium concentrations in the hair of fishermen from the Subae River basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F.; Tavares, T.M.; Souza, S.P.; Linhares, P.S.

    1984-04-01

    Previous studies have shown heavy pollution by lead and cadmium in the Subae River basin, State of Bahia, Brazil, caused by a lead smelter. Concentrations of these metals were determined in scalp hair of fishermen from three riverside towns and from a reference town. Increased levels for both metals were associated with increasing proximity to the smelter. Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were higher among fishermen with straight hair than among those with curly hair. The effects of hair washing, hair type, and color and age on metal concentrations in fishermen's hair were studied.

  14. Open-path FTIR air quality measurements at a petrochemical complex in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Kagann, R.H.; Neves, N.; Villas Boas, F.

    1994-12-31

    An open-path FTIR sensor was used to determine the characteristic air pollutants at ten different locations in a large petrochemical complex in Bahia, Brazil. These measurements were part of an initial survey in preparation for a measurement program which will use both open path FTIR and GC/MS analysis of collected air samples to characterize the air quality within the complex and to obtain emission rates of the individual sources. In this initial survey, a total 17 different compounds were measured with the FTIR sensor, including the polar species, ammonia and acrylonitrile.

  15. Dispersed oil toxicity tests with biological species indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fucik, K.W.; Carr, K.A.; Balcom, B.J.

    1994-08-01

    Static and flowthrough aquatic acute toxicity testing protocols were utilized on eggs and larvae of seven commercially important invertebrates and fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. Test organisms were exposed to Central and Western Gulf oils, dispersed oil, and Corexit 9527. Species included brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), inland silverside (Menidia berylina), and spot (Leiosomus xanthurus). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) was also tested because gulf menhaden were not available. Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) were evaluated as part of a chronic toxicity assessment.

  16. [Youth and health: discourse analysis on supply and access to public facilities].

    PubMed

    Souza, Cinoélia Leal; Souzas, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    From the standpoint of sociodemographic, teens today represent an important portion of the Brazilian population. In 2005 the Brazilian government published the National Youth Policy. Despite of this, many teens still find difficulties in accessing public services, especially the ones involving health. This study aimed to analyze young students' speeches about the conditions of access to public services and health through qualitative research. The students inquired live in rural and urban areas of the city of Vitória da Conquista - Bahia. The method used was the content analysis proposed by Bardin (1979) and Minayo (2006), and the technique of discussion groups for youth proposed by Weller (2006). PMID:23559169

  17. Tadpole of Leptodactylus oreomantis Carvalho, Leite & Pezzuti 2013 (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Mercês, Ednei De Almeida; Magalhães, Felipe De Medeiros; Amado, Talita Ferreira; Juncá, Flora Acuña; Garda, Adrian Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Leptodactylus oreomantis, a member of Leptodactylus fuscus species group (sensu Heyer 1978), is a leptodactylid frog endemic to the montane rocky fields of Chapada Diamantina (the northern portion of the Espinhaço mountain range), Bahia State, Brazil (Carvalho et al. 2013). Although tadpole morphology provides relevant information for anuran taxonomy and systematics (see Langone & de Sá 2005; Miranda et al. 2014), only calls and adult morphology were evaluated in the description of this species. Herein, we describe and illustrate the external morphology and internal oral anatomy of L. oreomantis tadpoles and compare it with tadpoles of related species.  PMID:25661633

  18. Agrarian Social Movements and the Making of Agrodiesel Moral Territories in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, Maya

    In response to widespread concerns about the socio-ecological impacts of agrofuel production and development, particularly for food security, efforts have been made internationally to implement more sustainable forms of producing agrofuels. Brazil's National Program for the Production and Use of Agrodiesel (PNPB), launched in 2004, is one such attempt. Promoted as a socially and environmentally responsible program, the PNPB was made possible through unprecedented alliances between the 'postneoliberal' Brazilian state, the agribusiness sector, and social movements such as the Rural Trade Union's Movement (MSTTR) and the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST). In this research, I critically analyze the unexpected engagement of social movements in the making of agrodiesel territories in semi-arid Bahia, Northeastern Brazil by examining the territorial and moral processes and practices that underlie the production of castor bean (mamona) for agrodiesel. The methodology adopted comprised participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews (n=74) with leaders and members of the MST and the MSTTR in the territories of the Chapada Diamantina and Irece, in central Bahia. Interviews were also conducted with representatives of family farming cooperatives, government institutions, and agrodiesel companies (Petrobras) in the two study areas and in Salvador, capital of Bahia. Research methods also included the collection and critical discourse analysis of archival and other secondary data sources from public and private institutions. Drawing mainly from cultural geography and political ecology literatures, I argue that social movement leaders enable the making of agrodiesel territories mainly through their role as 'agrodiesel gatekeepers'---as legal interveners, managers, and caregivers. Family farmers tend to enable agrodiesel territorial expansion and to disrupt agrodiesel territorial management by not complying with moral prescriptions of loyalty. I see farmers' disloyalty towards their cooperatives as an everyday form of resistance against agrodiesel oppressive and exploitative practices. I suggest that the making of agrodiesel territories (re)produces gendered and racialized '(im)moral' peasants and serves to better contain peasants' movements. By critically analyzing how agrodiesel practices reproduce, homogenize and differentiate certain subjects, natures, and territories, I hope that this research contributes to politicize the moral geographies of agrodiesel development in semiarid Bahia.

  19. Hillary Clinton visits Pathfinder projects in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In October 1995, US First Lady Hillary Clinton visited a maternity hospital in Salvador, Brazil, in which a family planning (FP)/reproductive health program has been administered by Pathfinder International since 1981 with funding from USAID. During her tour of the facility, Clinton learned about the high degree of unmet need for FP in the region which results from a lack of sufficient resources to meet demand. Clinton, in turn, praised the state of Bahia for its emphasis on FP in low-income areas. PMID:12179683

  20. PCB contamination in surface sediments in the coastal waters of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Spongberg, Alison L

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the initial investigation of PCB concentrations in four geographical regions (three on the Pacific and one in the Caribbean) of coastal Costa Rica: Bahia Culebra, Golfo Dulce, Golfo de Nicoya, and Limón. Overall total concentrations of PCB were low in all areas except around the port of Golfito (Golfo Dulce). Overall average concentration is 2.80 ng/g dw, with a standard deviation of 2.75. The low concentration could be due to lack of contamination or the subsequent degradation in the warm climate, or the low sorptive capacity of the sediment. Further investigation is ongoing. PMID:17469231

  1. Asian genotypes of dengue virus 4 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinho, A C O; Sardi, S I; Paula, F L; Peixoto, I B; Brandão, C J; Fernandez, F M C; Campos, G S

    2015-10-01

    Dengue virus, commonly transmitted by mosquitoes, causes a human disease of significant social impact and presents a serious public health problem in Brazil. This report describes the unusual emergence of DENV-4 in northern Brazil after a nearly 30-year-long absence. DENV-4 genotype I is of Asian origin and was identified in the serum of patients receiving treatment at a hospital serving the Salvador area (Brazilian state of Bahia). The identification of dengue virus serotypes through molecular and phylogenetic analysis is essential for predicting disease severity or fatal illness, principally in endemic countries such as Brazil. PMID:25703810

  2. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salino, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains. PMID:25829857

  3. Leishmaniasis in Brazil: XVIII. Further evidence incriminating the fox Cerdocyon thous (L) as a reservoir of Amazonian visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Silveira, F T; Lainson, R; Shaw, J J; Póvoa, M M

    1982-01-01

    Major endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil are located in the drier, poorly forested regions, principally in the northeastern States such as Ceará and Bahia. Cases of the human disease in the Amazon Region are rare, very sporadic, and seldom present opportunities for epidemiological study. Following the report of a fatal case near Salvaterra, the Island of Marajó, Pará State, a preliminary investigation has resulted in the isolation of a parasite regarded as Leishmania donovani chagasi from the viscera and skin of an apparently healthy fox, Cerdocyon thous, captured in the same locality. This represents the third recorded isolation of the parasite from this species of fox in the Amazon Region. The inapparent nature of the infections supports the suggestion that this canid may represent the primitive natural host of L. d. chagasi. C. thous is commonly associated with forested or wooded areas, and enzymic profiles for the enzymes ASAT, ALAT, PGM, GPI, MDH, MPI, G6PD, PEP and ACP failed to distinguish an isolate of L. d. chagasi from this animal in Pará from others obtained from cases of human visceral leishmaniasis in the neighbouring States of Maranhão, Ceará and Bahia. This suggests that the major, present-day endemics may have originated from a primary silvatic enzootic. PMID:7164150

  4. In vitro cultivation and morphological characterization of phloemic trypanosomatids isolated from coconut trees.

    PubMed

    Keller, Darlí G; Miguens, Flávio C

    2010-01-01

    Plant trypanosomatids cause lethal vascular wilting in palms of the Arecaceae family. Infections, affecting plants in South and Central America, can result in significant economic loss. The study of trypanosomatids that cause these diseases has been complicated due to the inability to culture these organisms for in vitro analyses. To develop a protocol that would facilitate studies of trypanosomatids, continuous in vitro cultures of phloemic trypanosomatids were established from apical stems of diseased coconut trees collected in endemic and non-endemic regions of Brazil (the states of Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, respectively). Although attempts at establishing axenic cultures were unsuccessful, it was found that trypanosomatid co-cultures could be successfully established and maintained. The procedure was to preculture media with 10(4)Aedes albopictus cells in Grace's medium supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (without antibiotics or fungicides) for 3 d before adding 10(6) trypanosomatids/ml harvested from either fresh apical stem extracts or with 2 mm(3) fragments of coconut apical stems. By day 7 under these conditions the parasites grew exponentially. Using this strategy, two isolates were identified and have been maintained in our laboratory for over 400 passages, demonstrating the efficacy of this culturing procedure. In situ the organisms were observed in vascular bundles and inside sieve elements of the phloem of diseased palms. In vitro parasites retained their mobility. Morphometric analysis revealed differences between Bahia and Rio de Janeiro isolates. PMID:20002871

  5. Rock magnetic properties and paleomagnetic behavior of Neogene marine sediments from northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia, Claudio A.; Wilson, Gary S.

    2014-11-01

    sediments from La Portada and Bahia Inglesa formations located at Mejillones Peninsula and Caldera Port, northern Chile carry multicomponent magnetizations, which can lead to misidentification of the characteristic paleomagnetic vector and consequently, errors in chronostratigraphic and structural interpretation of the strata. Here we present a complete rock magnetic and paleomagnetic behavior study of Neogene sediments from La Portada and Bahia Inglesa formations. Isothermal remanent magnetization, thermal-magnetic susceptibility, magnetic hysteresis, and X-ray diffractometer experiments are combined with paleomagnetic, alternating field, and thermal demagnetization data to determine magnetization history. Remanent magnetizations generally comprises three components: a low blocking temperature (Tb) component, below 150°C, close to the present-day field in direction, interpreted as a thermoviscous component; an intermediate Tb component, between 150°C and 290°C, overprinted by the low and the high Tb components, considered as the survival of the characteristic detrital magnetization; and a high Tb component, above 290°C, thought to be of diagenetic origin. Detrital magnetite, titanomagnetite, and low titanium maghemite are identified as the main carrier of the magnetic remanence. Rock magnetic results of a minor group of samples at both locations detected the presence of a high-coercivity mineral, possibly hematite, interpreted to carry the high Tb component and to represent oxidation of minerals in postdepositional processes.

  6. Paralytic shellfish toxins in the chocolata clam, Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae), in Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Gárate-Lizárraga, I; Bustillos-Guzmán, J J; Erler, K; Muñetón-Gómez, M S; Luckas, B; Tripp-Quezada, A

    2004-09-01

    Occurrence and toxic profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in the chocolata clam Megapitaria squalida were investigated. From December 2001 to December 2002, 25 clams were obtained monthly from Bahia de La Paz, Gulf of California. Additionally, net (20 microm) and bottle phytoplankton samples were also collected to identify toxic species. Toxins were analyzed by HPLC with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection. Toxicity in the clam was low and varied from 0.14 to 5.46 microg/STXeq/100 g. Toxicity was detected in December, March, April, June, and August. Toxin profile was composed mainly by STX, GTX2, GTX3, dcGTX2, dcGTX3, C2, dcSTX and B1. Gymnodinium catenatum was the only PST-producing dinoflagellate identified in the phytoplankton samples throughout the study period. G. catenatum was observed mainly in net samples from December 2001 to December 2002; however, in bottle samples, G. catenatum was only observed in five months. Highest abundance (2600 cells l(-1)) was observed in March and the lowest (160 cells l(-1)) in June. G. catenatum mainly formed two-cell chains and rarely four or eight. The presence of PST in net phytoplankton samples support the fact that G. catenatum is the main source of PST in the clams. This study represents the first report of PST toxins in the chocolata clam from Bahia de La Paz. PMID:17465127

  7. Composition and source of salinity of ore-bearing fluids in Cu-Au systems of the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xavier, Roberto; Rusk, Brian; Emsbo, Poul; Monteiro, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The composition and Cl/Br – NaCl ratios of highly saline aqueous inclusions from large tonnage (> 100 t) IOCG deposits (Sossego, Alvo 118, and Igarapé Bahia) and a Paleoproterozoic intrusion-related Cu-Au-(Mo-W-Bi-Sn) deposit (Breves; < 50 Mt)) in the Carajás Mineral Province have been analysed by LA-ICP-MS and ion chromatography. In both Cu-Au systems, brine inclusions are Ca-dominated (5 to 10 times more than in porphyry Cu-Au fluids), and contain percent level concentrations of Na and K. IOCG inclusion fluids, however, contain higher Sr, Ba, Pb, and Zn concentrations, but significantly less Bi, than the intrusion-related Breves inclusion fluids. Cu is consistently below detection limits in brine inclusions from the IOCG and intrusion-related systems and Fe was not detected in the latter. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the IOCG inclusion fluids range from entirely evaporative brines (bittern fluids; e.g. Igarapé Bahia and Alvo 118) to values that indicate mixing with magma-derived brines. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the Breves inclusion fluids strongly suggest the involvement of magmatic brines, but that possibly also incorporated bittern fluids. Collectively, these data demonstrate that residual evaporative and magmatic brines were important components of the fluid regime involved in the formation of Cu-Au systems in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  8. Evaluation of the ecological relevance of mysid toxicity tests using population modeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn-Hines, A.; Munns, W.R. Jr.; Lussier, S.; Champlin, D.; Poucher, S.

    1995-12-31

    A number of acute and chronic bioassay statistics are used to evaluate the toxicity and risks of chemical stressors to the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia. These include LC{sub 50}S from acute tests, NOECs from 7-day and life-cycle tests, and the US EPA Water Quality Criteria Criterion Continuous Concentrations (CCC). Because these statistics are generated from endpoints which focus upon the responses of individual organisms, their relationships to significant effects at higher levels of ecological organization are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the quantitative relationships between toxicity test statistics and a concentration-based statistic derived from exposure-response models describing population growth rate ({lambda}) to stressor concentration. This statistic, C{sup {sm_bullet}} (concentration where {lambda} = I, zero population growth) describes the concentration above which mysid populations are projected to decline in abundance as determined using population modeling techniques. An analysis of M. bahia responses to 9 metals and 9 organic contaminants indicated the NOEC from life-cycle tests to be the best predictor of C{sup {sm_bullet}}, although the acute LC{sub 50} predicted population-level response surprisingly well. These analyses provide useful information regarding uncertainties of extrapolation among test statistics in assessments of ecological risk.

  9. Molecular evidence confirms that Proctoeces humboldti and Proctoeces chilensis (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) are the same species.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, I M; Cardenas, L; Gonzalez, K; Jofré, D; George-Nascimento, M; Guiñez, R; Oliva, M E

    2010-12-01

    Two species of Proctoeces Odhner, 1911 have been described in marine organisms from Chile: P. humboldti George-Nascimento & Quiroga (1983), parasitizing the gonads of keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.), and P. chilensis Oliva (1984), an intestinal parasite of Sicyases sanguineus (Teleostei); both species were subsequently considered as P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960). To assist in the resolution of the taxonomic identification of Proctoeces species in marine organisms from Chile, phylogenetic studies using DNA sequences from the V4 region of the SSU rRNA gene were performed. Several specimens of P. lintoni were isolated from keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.) and clingfish (S. sanguineus) from Bahia San Jorge (23°40'S) and Bahia Concepción (36°50'S). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using three different approaches: a neighbour-joining (NJ), a maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). The phylogenetic analysis confirms that specimens of Proctoeces obtained from keyhole limpets and those specimens from the clingfish are in fact the same species. We prefer to consider our specimens as Proctoeces cf. lintoni, as the morphology of Proctoeces appears to be of doubtful value and genetic information about P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960) is not available. In addition, our results strongly suggest that there are at least three species in this genus. PMID:20078901

  10. Taxonomic guide and historical review of starfishes in northeastern Brazil (Echinodermata, Asteroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Anne Isabelley; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; Pereira Dias, Thelma Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Presently more than 1900 species of sea stars are recognized, of which 77 are recorded for the coast of Brazil. Although the first starfish record in Brazil was published 363 years ago, our knowledge of this fauna remains unsatisfactory from a systematic and ecological point of view, particularly in the north and northeastern regions of the country. This study provides the first annotated list of sea stars from northeastern Brazil. Material described herein is housed at the collections of the Federal University of Paraíba, Federal University of Sergipe, and the Federal University of Bahia, Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo and Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Twenty-one species were identified, belonging to 12 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders. Descriptions of species are provided. Three new occurrences were recorded for northeast Brazil: Astropecten alligator, Luidia ludwigi scotti, and Mithrodia clavigera. Highest diversities of Asteroidea were encountered for the states of Bahia (n = 14 spp), Paraíba (n = 12 spp) and Pernambuco (n = 9 spp). No species were recorded for the states of Maranhão and Sergipe. Sandy substrates and depths below 10 m were the least sampled areas over the continental shelf. Herein we provide a first panorama on the fauna of Asteroidea occurring in the northeast region of Brazil, hopefully to function as a basic reference for biodiversity studies in this poorly studied area. PMID:25408612

  11. Shallow-water stenopodidean and caridean shrimps from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil: new records and updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Soledade, Guidomar O; Fonseca, Mytalle S; Almeida, Alexandre O

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with a recent collection of stenopodidean and caridean shrimps made in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil, in July and August 2013. Sampling was carried out in the vicinity of Ilha de Santa Bárbara (17°57'49"S 38°41'53"W). Specimens were obtained by hand or using small hand nets in tide pools or under rocks in the intertidal zone. Part of the material was collected by scuba diving in the shallow subtidal, to a maximum depth of 11 m. We obtained a total of 18 species, 12 of which are reported for the first time for the Abrolhos and 4 as new records for the state of Bahia. The distributions of Microprosthema semilaeve (von Martens, 1872), Typton gnathophylloides Holthuis, 1951, Alpheus verrilli (Schmitt, 1924) and Alpheopsis cf. trigona (Rathbun, 1901) are extended from their previously known ranges. The occurrence of Automate cf. rectifrons Chace, 1972 on the Brazilian coast is confirmed. We thus provide an updated checklist of stenopodidean (2 species) and caridean (29 species) shrimps from the Abrolhos Archipelago, incorporating and critically evaluating previous records.  PMID:25661021

  12. Development of a toxicity identification evaluation procedure for characterizing metal toxicity in marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Cook, H.F.; Kuhn, A.

    2000-04-01

    A multiagency effort is underway to develop whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites and in the conduct of environmental risk assessments. The research approach is based on the predominance of three classes of toxicants in sediments: ammonia, nonpolar organic chemicals, and metals. Here the authors describe a procedure for characterizing acute toxicity caused by metals in whole marine sediments. The procedure involves adding a chelating resin to sediments, resulting in the sequestration of bioavailable metal while not stressing testing organisms. Within the testing chambers, the presence of resin resulted in statistically significant reductions in the overlying and interstitial water concentrations of five metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc) generally by factors of 40 and 200. Toxicity to both the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and mysid Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia) of sediments spiked with the five metals was decreased by approximately a factor of four when resin was present. While very effective at reducing the concentrations and toxicity of metals, the resin has only minor ameliorative effects on the toxicity of ammonia and a representative nonpolar toxicant (Endosulfan). Resin and accumulated metal were easily isolated from the testing system following exposures allowing for the initiation of phase II TIE (identification) procedures. This procedure using the addition of a chelating resin provides an approach for determining the importance of metals to the toxicity of marine sediments. Work is continuing to validate the method with environmentally contaminated sediments.

  13. Evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated wastewater and groundwater. Volume 3. Old O-field groundwater. Final report, July 1990-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Turley, S.D.

    1992-03-01

    The toxicity of contaminated Old O-Field (Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground) groundwater and the reduction and/or elimination of toxicity by various treatment processes were evaluated. The study was divided into a bench scale and pilot scale study. The bench scale studies consisted of 48-h definitive acute toxicity tests run with daphnid neonates (Daphnia magna) and juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to untreated Old O-Field groundwater and groundwater treated by metals precipitation, UV oxidation (H 2O2 ), carbon adsorption, and carbon adsorption/biological sludge. The pilot scale studies consisted of several 96-h definitive acute toxicity tests run with two freshwater and two saltwater invertebrates and fish and Ames mutagenicity assays. Acute toxicity tests were run on untreated Old O-Field groundwater and groundwater treated by metals precipitation, UV oxidation (H2O2), air stripping, and carbon adsorption during the pilot scale study. The freshwater invertebrate and fish used in the study were daphnid neonates and juvenile fathead minnows, respectively. The saltwater invertebrate and fish were juvenile mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and juvenile sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Ames tests were run on untreated groundwater, UV oxidation-treated groundwater, and carbon-treated groundwater.... Groundwater, Aquatic, Toxicity, Daphnia, Daphnia magna, Fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, Mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, Sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus.

  14. Fibropapillomatosis in green turtles Chelonia mydas in Brazil: characteristics of tumors and virus.

    PubMed

    Rodenbusch, C R; Baptistotte, C; Werneck, M R; Pires, T T; Melo, M T D; de Ataíde, M W; Testa, P; Alieve, M M; Canal, C W

    2014-10-16

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a benign neoplasia that affects physiological functions of sea turtles and may lead to death. High prevalence of FP in sea turtle populations has prompted several research groups to study the disease and the associated herpesvirus, chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5). The present study detected and quantified ChHV5 in 153 fibropapilloma samples collected from green turtles Chelonia mydas on the Brazilian coast between 2009 and 2010 to characterize the relationship between viral load and tumor characteristics. Of the tumor samples collected, 73 and 87% were positive for ChHV5 in conventional PCR and real-time PCR, respectively, and viral loads ranged between 1 and 118.62 copies cell?¹. Thirty-three percent of turtles were mildly, 28% were moderately and 39% were severely affected with FP. Skin samples were used as negative control. High viral loads correlated positively with increasing FP severity in turtles sampled on the Brazilian coast and with samples from turtles found dead in the states of São Paulo and Bahia. Six viral variants were detected in tumor samples, 4 of which were similar to the Atlantic phylogenetic group. Two variants were similar to the western Atlantic/eastern Caribbean phylogenetic group. Co-infection in turtles with more than one variant was observed in the states of São Paulo and Bahia. PMID:25320033

  15. Reduced genetic diversity in endemic Brazilian Lymania spp (Bromeliaceae) populations and implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Pamponét, V C C; Alves, T F; Martinez, R A; Corrêa, R X; Gaiotto, F A

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of two sympatric species of Lymania (Bromeliaceae), both endemic to the Atlantic rainforest of southern Bahia (Brazil). Lymania azurea has a restricted occurrence, while Lymania smithii has a wider distribution. Our aim was to provide genetic data to contribute to the design of more efficient conservation strategies for these bromeliads, possibly justifying inclusion in the official Brazilian list of Endangered Species. Up to now, L. azurea has been classified by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment as "data deficient". We sampled four populations of L. azurea throughout its distribution area in southern Bahia and two populations of L. smithii in the same region. Genotyping was performed with 48 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Based on the Jaccard genetic similarity index, L. smithii has greater diversity than L. azurea. An analysis of molecular variation showed greater genetic variance within than between populations for both species. L. azurea was found to have 20% inbreeding, probably due to population fragmentation, with L. smithii showing only 10%. When we analyzed pairs of populations of L. azurea within a conservation unit, we found low population structure (?ST = 0.098), apparently due to a large degree of gene flow between them. In disturbed areas, we found a higher ?ST (0.372). We found low genetic variability for L. azurea, probably as a consequence of habitat fragmentation, supporting the need for its inclusion in the Brazilian list of endangered flora. PMID:24222215

  16. DGGE and multivariate analysis of a yeast community in spontaneous cocoa fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A C R; Marques, E L S; Dias, J C T; Rezende, R P

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa bean is the main raw material used in the production of chocolate. In southern Bahia, Brazil, cocoa farming and processing is an important economic activity. The fermentation of cocoa is the processing stage that yields important chocolate flavor precursors and complex microbial involvement is essential for this process. In this study, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoreses (DGGE) was used to investigate the diversity of yeasts present during the spontaneous fermentation of cocoa in southern Bahia. The DGGE analysis revealed a richness of 8 to 13 distinct bands of varied intensities among the samples; and samples taken at 24, 36, and 48 h into the fermentation process were found to group with 70% similarity and showed the greatest diversity of bands. Hierarchical clustering showed that all samples had common operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the highest number of OTUs was found in the 48 h sample. Variations in pH and temperature observed within the fermenting mass over time possibly had direct effects on the composition of the existing microbial community. The findings reported here indicate that a heterogeneous yeast community is involved in the complex cocoa fermentation process, which is known to involve a succession of specialized microorganisms. PMID:26782494

  17. Seismic expression of Late Quaternary Banda submarine canyon and fan offshore northern Baja California

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles obtained throughout the inner California continental borderland offshore northwestern Baja California, Mexico, show the presence of numerous modern submarine canyons and associated fans. One set of these, the Banda submarine canyon/fan, is of relatively recent origin, as demonstrated by onlap of the basal fan sediments against an acoustically transparent, presumably hemipelagic deposit. Late Quaternary sedimentation rates inferred from isotopically dated piston core samples place the age of the postulated hemipelagic unit at approximately 650,000 years ago. The Banda submarine canyon heads within the Bahia Todos Santo and passes through a narrow gorge between Punta Banda and Islas Todos Santos. It is proposed that this submarine canyon and fan system formed entirely during late Quaternary time, following the breach of the Punta Banda ridge during a late Pleistocene high sea level stand. The presence of an ancient, buried channel exiting to the north out of Bahia Todos Santos probably marks the head of an earlier submarine canyon which acted as the conduit of clastic sediments from Valle Maneadero to the deep borderland basins. The now active Banda submarine canyon pirated the supply of terrigenous clastics from this older canyon. The active Agua Blanca fault zone cuts across the head of Banda submarine canyon, suggesting that tectonic movements may have played a role in the development of the Banda submarine canyon and fan system.

  18. Dredging impact on an urbanized Florida bayou: effects on benthos and algal-periphyton.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; Weber, D E; Stanley, R S; Moore, J C

    2001-01-01

    Environmental effects of dredging events have been uncommonly reported for shallow, residential estuaries characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic dredging on an urbanized estuary. Physicochemical quality, benthic community composition, whole sediment toxicity, periphytic algal community composition and trace metal tissue quality were determined prior to and after dredging. The effects on surface water pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature were negligible but photosynthetically active radiation was decreased at several stations. Dredging significantly reduced benthic diversity and density (P < 0.05). However, the sediments were not acutely toxic to the epibenthic, Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia); survival averaged 93% (post-dredging) and to 98% (pre-dredging). There were several post-dredging taxonomic structural changes in the diatom-dominated, periphyton community but differences in mean density and three diversity indices were not significant. Trace metal concentration in periphyton after dredging were reduced from an average of 4-65% and significantly for mercury, zinc and chromium in several areas. It was concluded that the environmental impact of small-scale dredging events in urbanized near-coastal areas, based on the selected parameters, are likely to be localized and of short-term environmental consequence. The choice of the target biota, response parameters and chemical analysis are important considerations in the environmental impact assessment of these periodic episodic events. PMID:11706789

  19. Official crime data versus collaborative crime mapping at a Brazilian city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, P. L.; Jesus, E. G. V.; Sant'Ana, R. M. S.; Martins, C.; Delgado, J. P. M.; Fernandes, V. O.

    2014-11-01

    In July of 2013 a group of undergraduate students from the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, published a collaborative web map called "Where I Was Robbed". Their initial efforts in publicizing their web map were restricted to announce it at a local radio as a tool of social interest. In two months the map had almost 10.000 reports, 155 reports per day and people from more the 350 cities had already reported a crime. The present study consists in an investigation about this collaborative web map spatial correlation to official robbery data registered at the Secretary of Public Safety database, for the city of Salvador, Bahia. Kernel density estimator combined with map algebra was used to the investigation. Spatial correlations with official robbery data for the city of Salvador were not found initially, but after standardizing collaborative data and mining official registers, both data pointed at very similar areas as the main hot spots for pedestrian robbery. Both areas are located at two of the most economical active areas of the city, although web map crimes reports were more concentrated in an area with higher income population. This results and discussions indicates that this collaborative application is been used mainly by mid class and upper class parcel of the city population, but can still provide significant information on public safety priority areas. Therefore, extended divulgation, on local papers, radio and TV, of the collaborative crime map application and partnership with official agencies are strongly recommended.

  20. Deaths from homicides: a historical series1

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Flávia Azevedo de Mattos Moura; da Trindade, Ruth França Cizino; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe mortality from homicides in Itabuna, in the State of Bahia. METHOD: study with hybrid, ecological and time-trend design. The mortality coefficients per 1,000 inhabitants, adjusted by the direct technique, proportional mortality by sex and age range, and Potential Years of Life Lost were all calculated. RESULTS: since 2005, the external causes have moved from third to second most-common cause of death, with homicides being responsible for the increase. In the 13 years analyzed, homicides have risen 203%, with 94% of these deaths occurring among the male population. Within this group, the growth occurred mainly in the age range from 15 to 29 years of age. It was ascertained that 83% of the deaths were caused by firearms; 57.2% occurred in public thoroughfares; and 98.4% in the urban zone. In 2012, the 173 homicides resulted in 7,837 potential years of life lost, with each death causing, on average, the loss of 45.3 years. CONCLUSIONS: mortality by homicide in a medium-sized city in Bahia reaches levels observed in the big cities of Brazil in the 1980s, evidencing that the phenomenon of criminality - formerly predominant only in the big urban centers - is advancing into the rural area of Brazil, causing changes in the map of violent homicide in Brazil. PMID:25591098

  1. Use of porewater extracts to identify the cause of toxicity in marine and estuarine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, W.S.

    1994-12-31

    Amphipod toxicity tests in the evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal has come under increased scrutiny by the regulated community in the Port of NY/NJ. In recent large-scale assessments of sediment quality in the harbor, the vast majority of locations were deemed highly contaminated when tested with Ampelisca abdita. Toxicity tests, by themselves, do not provide data regarding the cause of toxicity of these sediments. The enormous potential costs associated with most proposed alternatives to ocean disposal of dredged sediments has prompted the investigation of the causative agents of toxicity in sediments of the NY/NJ Harbor. Sediment from five locations in the harbor, selected in consultation with local regulatory agencies to represent diverse potential contamination scenarios, was collected and tested for toxicity to the amphipods Ampelisca abdita, Leptocheirus plumulosus, Eohaustorius estuadus, Rhepoxynius abronius, and the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, using 10-day static bioassays. Porewater from each of the five sediments was extracted under centrifugation and used in water-only toxicity tests with A. abdita, L. plumulosus, R. abronius, E. estuadus, M. bahia, M. beryllina, and Microtox. A Phase 1 Toxicity Identification Evaluation of the three most toxic porewater samples was conducted using several of the species tested. Results from the preliminary investigations and the ongoing TIE`s will be presented. Species selection, porewater toxicity test procedures, and Phase 1, 2, and 3 paradigms will be discussed.

  2. Identification of acute toxicants in New Bedford Harbor sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; McKinney, R.A.; Kuhn, A.; Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH) is a marine Superfund site contaminated with high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. Experiments were conducted to determine the causal toxic agent(s) in pore waters from New Bedford Harbor sediments to amphipods and mysid shrimp. Chemical manipulations to characterize toxicity revealed that pore-water toxicity was organic in nature. Fractionation and subsequent mass spectral identification of peaks in the toxic fraction indicated that PCBs. PAHs, and unknown compounds were present. Comparisons of PAH LC50s and PAH concentrations in this fraction indicated that the toxicity was not due to PAHs because the PAH concentrations were much lower than the reported PAH LC50s. One unknown peak was positively identified as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and the other tentatively identified as pyrazole. Toxicity tests and comparison of toxicity in the blank and toxic fractions eliminated the two unknowns as toxic causal agents. The authors determined the range of PCB LC50s to fall between 10 and 110 ppb for Mysidopsis bahia and Ampelisca abdita. Concentrations of PCBs for the toxic fractions ranged from 12 to 27 ppb. This range falls within the observed PCB LC50s for M. bahia and A. abdita. Based upon these PCB concentrations, they concluded that PCBs were the acute toxic agents in NBH pore waters. Other compounds in the toxic fractions, or compounds that coeluted and were undistinguished from PCBs had minor contributions to the measured toxicity.

  3. Development of marine toxicity data for ordnance compounds.

    PubMed

    Nipper, M; Carr, R S; Biedenbach, J M; Hooten, R L; Miller, K; Saepoff, S

    2001-10-01

    A toxicity database for ordnance compounds was generated using eight compounds of concern and marine toxicity tests with five species from different phyla. Toxicity tests and endpoints included fertilization success and embryological development with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata; zoospore germination, germling length, and cell number with the green macroalga Ulva fasciata; survival and reproductive success of the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus; larvae hatching and survival with the redfish Sciaenops ocellatus; and survival of juveniles of the opossum shrimp Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia). The studied ordnance compounds were 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl), 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The most sensitive toxicity test endpoints overall were the macroalga zoospore germination and the polychaete reproduction tests. The most toxic ordnance compounds overall were tetryl and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene. These were also the most degradable compounds, often being reduced to very low or below-detection levels at the end of the test exposure. Among the dinitro- and trinitrotoluenes and benzenes, toxicity tended to increase with the level of nitrogenation. Picric acid and RDX were the least toxic chemicals tested overall. PMID:11503067

  4. Conservation status and spatial patterns of AGRRA vitality indices in Southwestern Atlantic reefs.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Ruy K P; Leão, Zelinda M A N; Oliveira, Marília D M

    2010-05-01

    Coral reefs along the Eastern Brazilian coast extend for a distance of 800 km from 12 degrees to 18 degrees S. They are the largest and the richest reefs of Brazil coasts, and represent the Southernmost coral reefs of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Few reef surveys were performed in the 90's in reef areas of Bahia State, particularly in the Abrolhos reef complex, in the Southernmost side of the state. A monitoring program applying the Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) protocol was initiated in 2000, in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, after the creation of the South Tropical America (STA) Regional Node of the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) by the end of 1999. From that time up to 2005, nine reef surveys were conducted along the coast of the State of Bahia, including 26 reefs, with 95 benthic sites, 280 benthic transects, 2025 quadrats and 3537 stony corals. Eighteen of the 26 investigated reefs were assessed once and eight reefs of Abrolhos were surveyed twice to four times. The MDS ordination, analysis of similarity (ANOSIM, one way and two-way nested layouts) and similarity percentages (SIMPER) tests were applied to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of reef vitality. Four indicators of the coral vitality: live coral cover, the density of the larger corals (colonics > 20cm per reef site) and of the coral recruits (colonies < 2cm per square meter), and the percentage of macroalgae indicate that the nearshore reefs, which are located less than 5 km from the coast, are in poorer condition than the reefs located more than 5 km off the coast. A higher density of coral colonies, lower macroalgal index, higher relative percent of turf algae and higher density of coral recruits in offshore reefs compared to the nearshore reefs are the conditions that contribute more than 80% to the dissimilarity between them. The offshore reefs are in better vital condition than the nearshore reefs and have a set of vitality indices more closely related to the Northwestern Atlantic reefs than the nearshore reef. These have been most severely impacted by the effects of direct human activities such as cuthrophic waters associated with sewage pollution, higher sedimentation rates and water turbidity, inadequate use of the reefs and over exploitation of their resources. The implementation of a more effective coral reef monitoring program in Bahia is mandatory, in order to improve the strategies for protection and management efforts of the reefs. PMID:20873038

  5. SAR measurements of coastal features in the NW Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Martinez Benjamin, Juan Jose; Diez, Margarita; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar

    2013-04-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a useful tool to study both marine water dynamics and its pollution, this is relevant near the coastline, where river pollution may be also important. Oil spills and natural slicks are detected with SAR [1-3] to reveal river and vessel pollution as well as the complex eddy and current interaction in the ocean surface near the coastline. In the framework of the ESA and European Union contracts, more than 1000 SAR images of the North-west Mediterranean Sea area taken between December 1996 and December 2008 are presented using self-similar traces that may be used to parametrize mixing at both limits of the Rossby Deformation Radius scale. Results show the ability to identify different SAR signatures and at the same time provide calibrations for the different local configurations of vortices, spirals, oil spills and tensioactive slicks that eventually allow predicting the behaviour of different tracers and pollutants in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to different polarization and intensity levels in satellite imagery can be used to distinguish between natural and man-made sea surface features due to their distinct self-similar as a function of spill parameters, environmental conditions and history of both oil release and weather conditions. (Environmental factors determine [4] spreading, drift and weathering of oil on the sea surface - see: Behaviour oil at sea). Detecting the low contrast patches depends also on the speckle noise which always presents in the image. Application of different filters (available for example in several image processing software (Matlab, Envi, IDL) to the radar data decreases noise level and improves the feature detecting in the image [1] Bezerra, M.O., Diez, M., Medeiros, C., Rodriguez, A., Bahia, E., Sanchez-Arcilla, A. and Redondo, J.M. 1998. Study on the influence of waves on coastal diffusion using image analysis. Applied Scientific Research 59, pp.191-204. [2] Carrillo, A., A., Sanchez,, M.A., Platonov, A., Redondo, J.M. 2001. Coastal and Interfacial Mixing. Laboratory Experiments and Satellite Observations. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, v. B, 26/4. pp. 305-311. [3]Redondo J., Rodriguez A., Bahia E., Falqués A., Gracia V., Sánchez Arcilla A. and Stive M.J.F. (1994). Image Analysis of Surf-Zone Hydrodynamics. Coastal Dynamics'94, ASCE. [4]Rodriguez A., Sánchez-Arcilla A., Redondo, J.M., Bahia E. and Sierra, J.P. (1995): Measurements and modelling of pollutant dispersion in the nearshore region, Water Science and Technology, IAWQ, 32, 10-19.

  6. Identification and distribution of New World Leishmania species characterized by serodeme analysis using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, G; David, J R; McMahon-Pratt, D

    1987-03-01

    Five hundred thirty stocks of Leishmania isolated from human and domestic and wild reservoir hosts, representing a wide geographic distribution of endemic foci of American cutaneous (ACL) and visceral leishmaniases (AVL) were characterized and identified at species and/or subspecies levels based on their reactivity to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay. This study confirms and extends our preliminary results on the high specificity of some of these monoclonals for the L. braziliensis, L. mexicana, and L. donovani complexes. This study also demonstrates the relative stability of these molecular markers and the general usefulness of the method for parasite identification. Two hundred ninety-two of 420 isolates of ACL were classified as members of the L. braziliensis complex. Two hundred twenty-seven were L. b. braziliensis; these showed the widest geographical distribution (Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo; Honduras: Santa Barbara and Yoko; Peru: Ancash, Piura, and Ucayali; and Venezuela: Cojedes, Distrito Federal, Lara, Portuguesa, Vale Hondo, Yaracuy, and Zulia). Forty-one stocks were identified as L. b. guyanensis (from North Brazil: Amazonas, Amapa, Para, and Rondonia). Twenty-one stocks were identified as L. b. panamensis (from Costa Rica: Alajuela, Guanacasten, Limon, Puntarenas, and San Jose; and Honduras: El Paraiso, and Olancho). Out of 128 isolates classified as members of the L. mexicana complex, 74 were differentiated as L. m. amazonensis (from Bolivia; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso do Norte, and Para; Peru: Pasco Forest and Van Humboldt; and Venezuela: Carabobo, Guarico, and Merida). Forty-four stocks were identified as L. m. venezuelensis (from Venezuela: Lara). Six stocks were L. m. mexicana (from Belize; and Mexico: Campeche [corrected] and Quintana Roo, Yucatan). One hundred ten isolates from AVL were identified as L. donovani chagasi (from Brazil: Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, and Sergipe; and Honduras: Valle). The implications of these results with respect to both the clinical and epidemiological data (including the detection of seven unusual characterized stocks) are discussed. PMID:3826486

  7. New distributional data on aquatic and semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha & Nepomorpha) from South America

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Isabelle R S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Water bugs in general play an important role in freshwater ecosystems, and knowledge about them is essential for the study of water biology and the proper management of aquatic habitats. The Neotropical fauna is relatively well known, but the existence of large under-collected areas makes taxonomic and faunistic studies concerning the aquatic and semiaquatic bugs from tropical America urgent. New information Distributional information is presented for thirty-eight species of Gerromorpha and five Nepomorpha, including first records from the Brazilian states of Bahia (Mesovelia amoena), Ceará (Limnogonus profugus and Rhagovelia whitei), Espírito Santo (R. lucida), Goiás (Halobatopsis platensis and R. zela), Mato Grosso (Rheumatobates bonariensis), Pará (Nerthra terrestris), Paraná (H. spiniventris, Hydrometra fruhstorferi and R. janeira), Piauí (Microvelia ayacuchana, M. pulchella, Neogerris lubricus and Platyvelia brachialis), Rio de Janeiro (Martarega bentoi) and São Paulo (Rheumatobates minutus flavidus); and the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios (Rhagovelia fontanalis). PMID:25892925

  8. Two new South American species of Solanum section Crinitum (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Farruggia, Frank T.; Bohs, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Solanum section Crinitum are described here. Solanum falciforme Farruggia, sp. nov., closely resembles Solanum crinitum and Solanum lycocarpum, but differs by the presence of falcate trichomes on the young growth. It is endemic to the cerrado and adjacent woodlands of Distrito Federal, Bahia, Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The other species, Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia, sp.nov., has close affinities to Solanum sycophanta butdiffers from the latter in having prominent long-stalked stellate hairs along the stem, calyx, petiole and the adaxial surface of the leaf, in contrast to Solanum sycophanta which is glabrous or pubescent with sessile to short-stalked multangulate hairs. This species is narrowly distributed in tropical montane forests of northern Peru and southern Ecuador. PMID:22171169

  9. Angiosperms and the Linnean shortfall: three new species from three lineages of Melastomataceae at one spot at the Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Michelangeli, Fabián A.; Aona, Lidyanne Y.S.; Amorim, André M.

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Angiosperms have been found in four short collection trips to the same protected reserve—“Estação Ecológica Estadual de Wenceslau Guimarães”—and neighboring areas in the Atlantic Forest in the south of the Brazilian state of Bahia. These new species belong to three genera from three distinct lineages in the family Melastomataceae: Huberia, Meriania and Physeterostemon. The description of these species represent a good example of a Linnean shortfall, i.e., the absence of basic knowledge about the biodiversity in the area, as well as in tropical forests as a whole. The description of these probably endemic species per se is a signal that this area deserves more attention regarding research and policies, but its consequences go farther: this area has a relevant role as a phylogenetic (both genetic and morphological) stock, and thus is also valuable as a phylogenetic conservation priority.

  10. [Groundwater].

    PubMed

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with. PMID:24294719

  11. Use of passive samplers for improving oil toxicity and spill effects assessment.

    PubMed

    Letinski, Daniel; Parkerton, Thomas; Redman, Aaron; Manning, Ryan; Bragin, Gail; Febbo, Eric; Palandro, David; Nedwed, Tim

    2014-09-15

    Methods that quantify dissolved hydrocarbons are needed to link oil exposures to toxicity. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers can serve this purpose. If fibers are equilibrated with oiled water, dissolved hydrocarbons partition to and are concentrated on the fiber. The absorbed concentration (Cpolymer) can be quantified by thermal desorption using GC/FID. Further, given that the site of toxic action is hypothesized as biota lipid and partitioning of hydrocarbons to lipid and fibers is well correlated, Cpolymer is hypothesized to be a surrogate for toxicity prediction. To test this method, toxicity data for physically and chemically dispersed oils were generated for shrimp, Americamysis bahia, and compared to test exposures characterized by Cpolymer. Results indicated that Cpolymer reliably predicted toxicity across oils and dispersions. To illustrate field application, SPME results are reported for oil spills at the Ohmsett facility. SPME fibers provide a practical tool to improve characterization of oil exposures and predict effects in future lab and field studies. PMID:25096583

  12. Influence of proximity to an urban center in the pattern of contamination by marine debris.

    PubMed

    Leite, A S; Santos, L L; Costa, Y; Hatje, V

    2014-04-15

    In order to test the relationship between the occurrence of marine debris and the distance from urban areas, nine beaches in the metropolitan area of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil and the adjacent northern coast were studied. Marine debris were collected, sorted in several categories and weighed. It was observed that plastics were numerically the most abundant component of the collected debris. As expected, the beaches closest to Salvador presented the largest density of debris, with the exception of the Porto da Barra beach, which has an efficient public cleaning system and does not have any vegetation, making it difficult to accumulate solid waste. Linear regression analyses showed significant relationships between the distance from the urban center (Salvador) and the number of marine debris per m(2), the total number of debris per beach (abundance), and the diversity of debris types (richness). The results showed that proximity to urban regions was a key factor in the marine debris distribution along the coast. PMID:24530003

  13. Relationship of physical factors and salinity with indicator bacteria in Bahía Blanca estuary waters, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cabezali, C B; Baldini, M D; Burgos, M A; Arango, J M

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between the number of Escherichia coli, terrestrial and marine heterotrophic bacteria, with certain physical and chemical parameters in Bahia Blanca estuary waters, were investigated by means of a statistical analysis of multiple linear regression. The samples were taken during a period of 16 months. Although distance from the sewage outlet seems to be the factor having the greatest effect on the number of alien bacteria, the models obtained for E. coli are inappropriate to predict bacterial behaviour in this particular natural habitat, while for heterotrophic bacteria descriptive models were selected. The results of this study suggest that many factors affect bacterial population densities in this estuarine ecosystem. This should be taken into account trying to solve the problem in order to avoid progressive degradation. PMID:7938503

  14. Investigation of an outbreak of endemic coccidioidomycosis in Brazil's northeastern state of Piauí with a review of the occurrence and distribution of Coccidioides immitis in three other Brazilian states.

    PubMed

    Wanke, B; Lazera, M; Monteiro, P C; Lima, F C; Leal, M J; Ferreira Filho, P L; Kaufman, L; Pinner, R W; Ajello, L

    1999-11-01

    An outbreak of coccidioidomycosis is described that involved three individuals and eight of their dogs, who had engaged in a successful hunt for nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the environs of Oeiras, a community in Brazil's north eastern state of Piauí. Diagnosis was based on clinical, serological and cultural findings. Four of 24 soil samples collected in and around the burrow of an armadillo yielded cultures of Coccidioides immitis, thus establishing the endemicity of that mould in the state of Piauí. A literature review revealed that C. immitis, aside from that state, is endemic in three other Brazilian states--Bahia, Ceará and Maranhão. These four contiguous states have semi-arid regions where climatic conditions and their flora are similar to those that exist in C. immitis's endemic regions in North, Central and South America. PMID:11220226

  15. Chapman Conference on Sediment Transport Processes in Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Lavelle, J. William

    During the week of June 13-17, 1988, 72 sediment transport researchers “aggregated” at the Universidad Nacional del Sur in Bahfa Blanca, Argentina, to participate in an AGU Chapman Conference on Sediment Transport Processes in Estuaries. The main goals of the meeting were to discuss recent advances in estuarine science, to appraise promising future research directions, and to develop contacts and establish working relationships between Latin American and non-Latin- American estuarine researchers. The meeting drew participants from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Venezuela, the U.S., Canada, Britain, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, The Netherlands, and South Africa. Meeting cosponsors were UNESCO, Secretaria de Ciencía y Técnica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Universidad del Sur, Municipalidad de Bahia Blanca, Asociaciôn Argentina de Geofisicos y Geodestas (AGU sister organization), and the Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia (IADO).

  16. Being Yoruba in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sandra Lauderdale

    2011-01-01

    Through the experiences of two West Africans shipped to Bahia as slaves, probably in the 1840s, then sold south to Rio de Janeiro where they met, became lovers, bought their freedom, married, and divorced, I comment on an ongoing debate over the refashioning or transfer of African ethnic identities in American slave societies. The sources in this Brazilian case suggest that previous identities were not suddenly erased, but rather, new layers of understanding and ways of responding were added. Whatever the dynamic of cultural formation, it was memory that crucially bridged the distance between the past they carried with them and the present into which they were thrust; and so it becomes illuminating to reconstruct the plausibly remembered African pasts on which this couple drew to make sense of an unfamiliar Brazilian present. PMID:21574280

  17. Toxicity of sediment-incorporated drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.R.; Patrick, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The 24, 96, or 168-h LC50s of four used drilling fluids or barite incorporated into sediment were determined in toxicity tests with lancelets (Branchiostoma caribaeum), a benthic chordate. The number of lancelets that did not burrow into contaminated sediments was used to calculate EC50s at the same times that LC50s were determined. Observations of the burrowing behavior allowed quantitation of effects after 24-h exposures to each of the drilling fluids whereas lancelet mortality was sufficient to calculate 24-h LC50s for only one drilling fluid. Drilling fluids were less toxic to lancelets when incorporated into sediments than to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) or benthic invertebrate communities in water-column exposures.

  18. Effluents of Shrimp Farms and Its Influence on the Coastal Ecosystems of Bahía de Kino, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón H.; Arreola-Lizárraga, José A.; López-Torres, Marco A.; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Magallón-Barrajas, Francisco; Ibarra-Gámez, Cuauhtemoc

    2013-01-01

    The impact on coastal ecosystems of suspended solids, organic matter, and bacteria in shrimp farm effluents is presented. Sites around Bahía de Kino were selected for comparative evaluation. Effluent entering Bahia Kino (1) enters Laguna La Cruz (2). A control site (3) was outside the influence of effluents. Water quality samples were collected every two weeks during the shrimp culture period. Our data show that the material load in shrimp farm effluents changes biogeochemical processes and aquatic health of the coastal ecosystem. Specifically, the suspended solids, particulate organic matter, chlorophyll a, viable heterotrophic bacteria, and Vibrio-like bacteria in the bay and lagoon were two- to three-fold higher than the control site. This can be mitigated by improvements in the management of aquaculture systems. PMID:23861653

  19. Minor planets discoveries at the GPO, ESO-La Silla - Dependences of stars for catalogue improvement and future perturbation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debehogne, H.

    1982-09-01

    In August and September 1981, we have observed with the Grand Prism Objective (GPO) at the ESO-La Silla some Minor Planets. Parts of them were reduced at Uppsala, Turin, Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ = Universidade Federal do Rio de J. = Observatorio de Valongo; Observatorio Nacional), ESO Center at Garching, Feira de Santana (Bahia-Brasil). Here, we give those that we have computed at Uccle on our UNIVAC Computer. The great number of positions is attained owing to the automatic means we have developed at Uccle for more than 15 years and based on more than 70 years of experience. But the measurements remain very long when performed (for the sake of uniformity) by a single person as in this present publication (1614 observations).

  20. The Orbiniidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) of Pacific Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dean, Harlan K; Blake, James A

    2015-01-01

    Seven species of Orbiniidae are described from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica including two new species. Leodamas hamatus n. sp., a commonly occurring species on the coast of Pacific Costa Rica, is described from 11?18 m in the Gulf of Nicoya and Bahia Culebra. This species is unusual in that the neuropodial uncini differ morphologically from anterior to posterior in the thorax. Scoloplos cryptospinigerus n. sp. is described from 18-22 m in the Gulf of Nicoya and has only a few short, toothed spines amidst numerous capillary setae in most of the thoracic neuropodia. This arrangement of thoracic neurosetae is unusual and has been seen only in one other described species of Scoloplos from Australia. PMID:26248913

  1. Water quality of runoff from revegetated mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Trouart, J E; Knight, R W

    1985-03-01

    Permanent vegetation plots were established on mixed overburden and topsoiled overburden on a lignite test pit in eastern Texas in 1982. Vegetative treatments included two grass-legume treatments [switchgrass (panicum virgattun) - sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) - subterrancan elover (Trifolitun subterranean) and litte bluestem (Schizachyriun scoparium) - sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) - Illinois hundleflower (Dessmanthus illinoiensis)] and three monocultures [Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), bahia grass (paspalum notatum) and yellow Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans)]. Water was applied to the 0.5m(2) plots using a sprinklertype rainfall simulator and quality of runoff was determined for each plot. Parameters analyzed included: settleable solids, total filterable solids, sediment production, infiltration rate, nitrites, nitrates, total iron and total manganese. Topsoiling significantly increased inliltration and significantly decreased filterable sediments, sediment production and settleable solids. The hydrologie qualities of the switchgrass-sideoats grama-subterranean elover mixture coincided closely with those of the Coastal bermudagrass monoculture. PMID:24221679

  2. Outbreak of aggressions and transmission of rabies in human beings by vampire bats in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Marcio A S; Sá-Neto, Raymundo J; Brazil, Tania K

    2002-01-01

    Outbreaks of attacks upon human beings by vampire bats seems to be a common phenomenon in several regions of Latin America, but the occurrence of rabies infection among humans bled by vampires, is relatively low. In the present study, two outbreaks of human rabies transmitted by common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are described from Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil, in 1991 and 1992. The first was recorded in Aporá where 308 people were bled by vampires bats and three of these die from this zoonosis. The 2nd outbreak occurred in Conde where only five people were bled by vampires, and two deaths by rabies were registered. Our data suggest that rabies transmitted by bats basically depends on the presence of virus in the vampire bat population and not on the number of humans bled by them. PMID:12621664

  3. Taxonomic distinctness and conservation of a new high biodiversity subterranean area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallão, Jonas E; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-03-01

    Subterranean environments, even though they do not possess a primary production (photosynthesis), may present high biodiversity, faunistic originality, endemism, phylogenetic isolations and unique ecological and/or evolution events, in addition to rare taxa. Studies investigating the biological diversity in Neotropical caves are relatively rare and recent, and most of them have been conducted in Brazil. We sampled caves from the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, and through sampling sufficiency tests and richness estimators, we demonstrate that the normatization for the Brazilian cave laws is not adequate for its conservation and that only α diversity index is not enough to verify faunistic patterns. We suggest that a phylogenetic diversity index be more robust and accurate for conservation purposes, particularly the Taxonomic Distinctness index. Moreover, we propose that the sandstone complex caves from Chapada Diamantina National Park need to be classified as being of high subterranean biodiversity in a global scope. PMID:25673471

  4. The relationship between mental disorders and types of crime in inmates in a Brazilian prison.

    PubMed

    Pondé, Milena P; Caron, Jean; Mendonça, Milena S S; Freire, Antônio C C; Moreau, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    This cross-sectional study conducted in prisons in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, investigated the association between the presence of psychiatric disorders in 462 prisoners and the types of crimes committed by them. Psychiatric diagnosis was obtained by means of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A statistically significant association was found between some psychiatric disorders and specific groups of crime: lifelong substance addiction with sex crimes and homicide; antisocial personality disorder with robbery and with kidnapping and extortion; borderline personality disorder with sex crimes; and lifelong alcohol addiction with fraud and conspiracy and with armed robbery and murder. It was concluded that the mental disorders considered more severe (psychosis and bipolar disorder) were not associated with violent crimes, suggesting that the severity of the psychotic disorder may be the factor that has caused psychosis to be associated with violent crimes in previous studies. PMID:24712866

  5. Ultrastructural analysis and polymorphisms in Coarazuphium caatinga (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Zuphiini), a new Brazilian troglobitic beetle.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Thais Giovannini; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Coarazuphium caatinga sp. n. occurs in limestone caves located in Campo Formoso municipality, in the Brazilian Caatinga (Bahia, Brazil). The new species is close to C. formoso although they are morphologically distinct by the elytra sinuosity, which is more pronounced in C. caatinga; the aedeagus is more tapered at the tip in this last species. Important traits found in C. caatinga are the variable size presented by the eyes, and the remarkable variability of body pigmentation among specimens; both traits do not seem to be correlated. Coarazuphium Gnaspini, P., Vanin, S.A. & Godoy, N.M., 1998, species exhibit advanced troglomorphic characters in comparison to other Brazilian cave beetles, as are increased extra-optic sensory structures, presence of particular sensilla, and sensory and gustatory receptors. These characters are not detected under routine microscopy and thus require ultrastructural methods for their study. PMID:24870919

  6. [Factors associated with work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector].

    PubMed

    Rios, Marcela Andrade; Nery, Adriana Alves; Rios, Polianna Alves Andrade; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Cardoso, Jefferson Paixão

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incidence of non-fatal work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector and analyze associated socio-demographic, occupational, workplace, and health factors, in a cross-sectional survey of 434 workers in the business district of Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2013. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with accidents. Incidence of accidents in the previous 12 months was estimated at 32.3%, and multivariate analysis showed higher odds of accidents in male sex workers (OR = 1.61), young individuals (OR = 4.62), meat or poultry workers (OR = 9.55), and workers performing heavy physical work (OR = 1.71). The results show the need for public policies to prevent accidents in the informal commercial sector. PMID:26200368

  7. Two new species of cheilostome bryozoans from the South Atlantic Ocean .

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana Carolina S; Souza, Facelucia B C

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of cheilostome bryozoans are described from Bahia and Espírito Santo States, Brazil-Calyptooecia conuma n. sp. and Hippotrema fissurata n. sp. Both genera are registered for the first time in the South Atlantic Ocean. Inter alia, Calyptooecia conuma n. sp. is characterized by the presence of dimorphic brooding zooids with relatively small orifices and no perioral tubercles, contrasting with bigger non-brooding zooids having larger orifices surrounded by perioral tubercles. Hippotrema fissurata n. sp. differs from congeners in colony morphology and colour, in details of the ooecium and in zooidal metrics. Specimens were collected on varied substrata, commonly calcareous nodules and shells as well as other bryozoans and sponges.  PMID:24872298

  8. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation among kindergarten children in Bahía Blanca city, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; González, Jorge Werdin; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Serralunga, Gabriela; Yañez, Loreto; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2012-09-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is a worldwide public health concern. This human obligate ectoparasite usually infests school age children. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of head lice in kindergarten children from Bahia Blanca. In addition, the influence of risk factors for pediculosis infestation, such as gender, hair characteristics, and socioeconomic class, was studied in relation to the prevalence of this ectoparasite. From a total of 220 pupils examined (125 girls and 95 boys), 94 showed pediculosis. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 42.7 %. Pediculosis was more frequent in girls (53.6 %) than in boys (28.4 %) and in medium, long, and very long hairs. No differences were found between socioeconomic classes. This indicated that head lice are relatively common in kindergarten children from Bahía Blanca. PMID:22752696

  9. Genetic variability in wild genotypes of Passiflora cincinnata based on RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Conceição, L D H C S; Santos, E S L; Cardoso-Silva, C B; Pereira, A S; Oliveira, A C; Corrêa, R X

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity and characteristics of commercial interest of Passiflora species make it useful to characterize wild germplasm, because of their potential use for fruit, ornamental and medicinal purposes. We evaluated genetic diversity, using RAPD markers, of 32 genotypes of Passiflora cincinnata collected from the wild in the region of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. Thirteen primers generated 95 polymorphic markers and only one monomorphic marker. The mean genetic distance between the genotypes estimated by the complement of the Dice index was 0.51 (ranging from 0.20-0.85), and genotype grouping based on the UPGMA algorithm showed wide variability among the genotypes. This type of information contributes to identification and conservation of the biodiversity of this species and for the identification of pairs of divergent individuals for maximum exploitation of existing variability. PMID:21174261

  10. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species. PMID:25878553

  11. Mass Spectrometry of Flavonoid Vicenin-2, Based Sunlight Barriers in Lychnophora species

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Brentan; Turatti, Izabel Cristina Casanova; Gouveia, Dayana Rubio; Ernst, Madeleine; Teixeira, Simone Pádua; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

    2014-01-01

    Lychnophora salicifolia plants collected from four different places in Brazil (three states: Goias, Minas Gerais and Bahia) revealed a conserved accumulation of vicenin-2, a di-C-glycosyl flavonoid. Quantitative studies by UPLC-MS/MS showed high concentration of vicenin-2 in leaves from sixty specimens of six Lychnophora species. So the tissue distributions of vicenin-2 were evaluated in wild Lychnophora leaves (Asteraceae) by laser based imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to propose its distributions and possible functions for the species analyzed. Mass spectrometric imaging revealed that vicenin-2, unlike other flavonoids, was produced at the top of the leaves. The combination of localization and UV absorption properties of vicenin-2 suggests that it could act as a UV light barrier to protect the plants, since plants are sessile organisms that have to protect themselves from harsh external conditions such as intense sunlight. PMID:24603617

  12. A C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism and G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene of sickle cell anemia patients from Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Couto, Fábio David; Boas, Wendell Vilas; Lyra, Isa; Zanette, Angela; Dupuit, Marie France; Almeida, Mari Ney Tavares; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

    2004-08-01

    The C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and the G20210A mutation at the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the prothrombin gene may be considered to be genetic risk factors that contribute to the clinical heterogeneity in sickle cell disease. The current study investigated a group of sickle cell (SS) patients from Salvador-Bahia, Northeast Brazil in order to determine the prevalence of these polymorphisms, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphim (RFLP) techniques. Out of 69 SS patients diagnosed with the C677T MTHFR gene polymorphism, 13 (18.6%) were heterozygous and four (5.7%) homozygous. The G20210A mutation was not found in 50 SS patients investigated. These results became important once the C677T MTHFR gene polymorphism was found to be an independent risk factor for vascular disease, a common clinical event in sickle cell disease. PMID:15481892

  13. Potential assessed in Argentina's association contract areas

    SciTech Connect

    Pucci, J.C. , Buenos Aires )

    1994-06-20

    The majority of the Austral basin fields discovered are mainly associated with structural and combination traps. Except for El Condor, La Sara, and San Sebastian fields, most of the oil reserves of limited size. This is due to several factors: small areal extent (5--50 sq km), variability of the Springhill thickness which frequently wedges out over the top of structures, facies changes and related complex reservoir distributions, and lack of hydrocarbons. Until 1985, all the commercial discoveries have been made in the area of the platform mostly in the Springhill reservoir and to a lesser extent on top of the volcanic Bahia Laura group (equivalent Lemaire or Tobifera formations). However, the Tertiary discoveries in Campo Boleadoras and Puesto Peter fields opened a zone, named Intermediate'' by YPF's geologists, located to the west of the known producing areas. In this zone, the lower member of the Magallanes group has yielded production. Reservoir characteristics are discussed.

  14. Xenotime in the Lower Buntsandstein of Central Europe: Evidence from cathodoluminescence investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Detlev K.; Krampitz, Holger; Görgen, Peter; Götte, Thomas; Neuser, Rolf D.

    2006-01-01

    Xenotime and zircon in heavy mineral separates of siliciclastic sediments can easily be distinguished by means of cathodoluminescence (CL). All shades of bright blue, yellow and grey to white colours have been reported for zircon while only bottle green to greenish yellow colours have been found in xenotime in heavy mineral separates of Lower Buntsandstein samples as well as in two samples from crystalline rocks from Bahia (Brazil) and the Karpaty Mts. (Slovakia). The CL-spectra of both minerals are commonly dominated by narrow emission bands of rare earth elements, especially Dy 3+. The two different crystal lattices induce differences in the intensity ratios of the emission lines that are thought to be the reason for the different CL-colours. Additionally, intrinsic broad bands that may occur in the CL-spectra of zircon are missing in the xenotime spectra. The possibility to distinguish minerals with similar optical properties underlines the large potential of cathodoluminescence in sedimentary petrology.

  15. [Identification and treatment of pain in the premature newborn in the intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Santos, Luciano Marques dos; Ribeiro, Isabelle Santos; Santana, Rosana Castelo Branco de

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the parameters used by the nursing staff of a public hospital in Bahia for pain assessment in premature newborns and to describe the interventions used to relieve the pain. This is a qualitative descriptive study that was carried out through semi-structured interviews with ten participants, in the period from December 2008 to January 2009. The data were analyzed through content analysis. The results showed the use of crying and facial expression as the clinical indications of pain premature newborns and that the interviewed participants use, on a non-systematic basis, non-pharmacological measures in order to ease this process. We suggest the introduction of pain as the fifth vital sign to be evaluated and the use of scales, contributing to excellence and humane care. PMID:22911409

  16. Natural efficiency of parasitism by Billaea rhynchophorae (Blanchard) (Diptera: Tachinidae) for the control of Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Moura, José Inacio L; Toma, Ronaldo; Sgrillo, Ricardo B; Delabie, Jacques H C

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of the tachinid parasitoid Billaea rhynchophorae (Blanchard) on larvae of the palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) was evaluated in plantations of piassava palm (Attalea funifera Mart.) and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin), in southeastern Bahia, Brazil. The monthly percentages of parasitism were evaluated during 13 months, from November 2000 to November 2001, based on the comparison between the number of parasitized and non-parasitized cocoons of R. palmarum. Mean parasitism was 40% and ranged from 50% in November 2000 to 18% in July 2001. While there is no method of mass reproduction of the parasitoid, a simple management practice is recommended, in order to preserve its beneficial effects in palm plantations. PMID:17348142

  17. The endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a potential vector of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. PMID:24895865

  18. [Factorial analysis of correspondence of the social representations about nurse nocturnal work].

    PubMed

    Veiga, Kátia Conceição Guimarães; Fernandes, Josicelia Dumet; Paiva, Mirian Santos

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to apprehend the Social Representations of nurses on nocturnal work. It was based on the Theory of Social Representations with qualitative and quantitative approaches. The free evocations of 25 nurses in a public hospital in Salvador-Bahia were collected, that underwent the Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC). The FAC revealed on the opposition game demonstrated, in Factor 1, opposition between shifts service and, in Factor 2, age x length of service. Seized on the semantic universe of nurses the nocturnal work is a Responsibility Work, Hard Work, Initiative Work and Financial Need. The nurses refer to the nocturnal work through representations that give normative character, prescribing attitudes and behaviors socially constructed and accepted as from the category itself, emphasizing the historical development of the profession. Those results indicate the need for strategies that contribute to the development of policies for managing people, considering the specificity, subjectivity and complexity of nocturnal work. PMID:23681374

  19. Application of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for detection of bacterial and yeast communities along a salinity gradient in the estuary of the Cachoeira River in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, C S P; Souza, S S; Rezende, R P; Silva, A; Andrioli, J L; Costa, H; Fontana, R; Dias, J C T

    2013-01-01

    An estuary is a transition zone between freshwater and marine ecosystems, resulting in dilution of seawater. Estuaries are also considered environments of intense biological activity related to the processes of nutrient cycling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial community composition along a salinity gradient in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, located in southern Bahia, Brazil. The analysis of bacterial and yeast communities was performed by determining the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis band richness. Formation of zones with similar profiles of bands was observed, and the increasing richness at the intermediate zone demonstrated a clear spatial distinction of communities depending on salinity. In addition, the dissolved oxygen content, temperature, pH, salinity, and dissolved inorganic nutrient contents (NH3(+), NO2(-), NO3(-), PO4(-)) were determined. Nutrients were distributed in similar patterns, with decreasing concentrations as the salinity increases. PMID:23765981

  20. Redescription of the advertisement call of Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Pederassi, Jonas; Lima, Mauro Sérgio Cruz Souza; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Souza, Patrícia Dos Santos; Santos, Mayra Caroliny De Oliveira; Silva, Islaíane Costa

    2015-01-01

    The genus Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 is composed by 46 species occuring from north to southern South America, east of the Andes (Frost 2015). Physalaemus albifrons is morphologically differentiated from the other species mainly due to the presence of a second tarsal tubercle located nearly the tibio-tarsal articulation (Bokermann 1966). Physalaemus albifrons occurs in Brazil from north of the State of Maranhão through the states of Piauí, Ceará, Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas, being its more austral occurrence in the State of Minas Gerais (Frost 2015). The advertisement call of P. albifrons was described by Bokermann (1966); however, the description needs improvement by applying new technologies, which we provide herein. PMID:26250286

  1. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 4 January - 21 March 1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, Alex

    2005-06-30

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Maurice Ewing cruise in the South Atlantic Ocean on the A17 WOCE section. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), this cruise was also a part of the French WOCE program consisting of three expeditions (CITHER 1, 2, and 3) focused on the South Atlantic Ocean. The A17 section was occupied during the CITHER 2 expedition, which began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 4, 1994 and finished in Cayenne, French Guyana, on March 21, 1994. During this period the ship stopped in Salvador de Bahia and Recife, Brazil, to take on supplies and exchange personnel. Upon completion of the cruise the ship transited to Fort de France, Martinique. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  2. [Use of personal protective equipment for motorcycle taxi drivers: perception of risks and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Santos, Ninalva de Andrade; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Santos, Ramon Araújo dos; Mota, Tilson Nunes

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the practices and perceptions of motorcycle taxi drivers concerning the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), based on field research and an exploratory and descriptive qualitative approach. Thirty motorcycle taxi drivers from Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, were interviewed. Data collection used a semi-structured interview and questionnaire. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The results showed: Category 1 - risk perception, subcategory conditioning/determinant factors for the use of PPE; Category 2 - adherence, subcategory adherence to the use of personal protective equipment; Category 3 - PPE as a protective factor against traffic accidents, subcategories 1 - work-related accidents, 2 - use of PPE at the time of the accident, 3 - non-use of PPE at the time of the accident. Finally, motorcycle taxi drivers clearly have some knowledge of personal protective equipment and even acknowledge the importance of its use, despite not always using it properly. PMID:24896065

  3. Learning in the informal spaces and re-signification of the existence of undergraduate students of nursing

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Isabel Silva; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Andrade, Luana Machado

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe the perception of lecturers and undergraduate nursing students regarding the dialogic experience in the informal spaces and its relationship with training in health. METHOD: experiential descriptions were collected in the context of a public university in the non-metropolitan region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using open interviews. These descriptions were analyzed according to the principles of the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. RESULTS: it was revealed that the informal spaces contribute significantly to the construction of knowledge and professional training strengthening teaching and promoting the re-signification of the subjects' experience. CONCLUSION: it is evidenced that the dialogic experience has relevancy for rethinking the teaching-learning process in the university, such that the informal spaces should be included and valued as producers of meanings for the personal and academic life of lecturers and students, with the ability to re-signify existence. PMID:25493667

  4. [The sugar cane blight of the 1860s: science applied to agriculture].

    PubMed

    Bediaga, Begonha

    2012-12-01

    The Imperial Instituto Fluminense de Cultura (Fluminense Imperial Institute of Agriculture) encouraged debate with a view to eradicating the blight that devastated sugar cane plantations in the State of Bahia. Rural landowners, government officials and men of science participated in the discussions. The article presents the context of the sciences applied to agriculture, especially agricultural chemistry and the repercussions of the 'discoveries' of Justus Liebig in Brazil. The debate at the Imperial Instituto about the sugar cane blight was analyzed, together with the ideas espoused there and the characters involved in the issue. The procedures and solutions presented are studied, as well as the formation of knowledge networks around the agricultural sciences, which was in the process of institutionalization at the time. PMID:23184239

  5. Sandy beaches contamination by arsenic, a result of nearshore sediment diagenesis and transport (Brazilian coastline)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirlean, N.; Garcia, F.; Baisch, P.; Quintana, G. C.; Agnes, F.

    2013-12-01

    We studied the distribution of As, Fe, Ca and Al in beach sands and near-shore surface sediments along the Brazilian coast from the equatorial zone to Rio de Janeiro state. High concentrations of As (up to 120 mg kg-1) exceeding the environmentally acceptable thresholds were found in the beach sands and near-shore surface sediment in several segments of the studied coast. That increased from north to south. The significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.58) between As and calcium carbonate in the beach sands corroborated the hypothesis that calcareous bioclasts participate in metalloid retention and its accumulation in beach sediments. Most likely, enrichment of As occurs in the oxic horizon of sediments caused by the diagenetic redistribution of various elements. Enrichment of As in beach sands occurs in the coast of Bahia and Espirito Santo states. That is facilitated by clastic material of calcareous algae.

  6. Argentina set for privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1992-12-09

    Buyers are lining up for Argentina's two big state-controlled petrochemical groups, Buenos Aires-based Petroquimica General Mosconi (PGM) and Petroquimica Bahia Blance (PBB). However, feedstock supply contracts with government-owned oil group Yacientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPG) and gas group Gas del Estado hold the key to both sales. Shell Compania Argentina Petroleo SA (CAPSA), Perez Companc, and Global Petroleum have already bought PGM tender documentation. Shell says it will bid for PGM if the feedstock contract with YPF is acceptable. In addition to price and volume, Shell says the length is critical; it wants a 15-year deal, but would settle for 11. YPF initially sought a five-year contract. PGM, which produces 300,000 m.t./year of aromatics, plus oxo alcohols, methanol, and methyl tert-butyl ether, has sales of $150 million/year.

  7. [Voluntary abortion and domestic violence among women attended at a public maternity hospital of Salvador-BA].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Gesteira, Solange Maria Dos Anjos; Lopes, Regina Lúcia Mendonça; Santos Mota, Rosana; Pérez, Bárbara Angélica Gómez; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative study in order to study domestic violence in women with induced abortion. Interviews were conducted with 147 women hospitalized for induced abortion in a public maternity hospital in Salvador, Bahia. The subjects are characterized by mostly women, black, poorly educated, economically dependent on spouses, experienced psychological abuse, physical and sexual abuse committed by their spouses. Almost half of the women were victims of domestic violence during the current pregnancy, and that was the reason for inducing abortion for 67% of them. The study reveals an association between experience of domestic violence and induced abortion. As mental health consequences, they developed symptoms of post trauma stress disorder. It is necessary that the health professionals consider the cues to identify domestic violence as a health problem associated with induced abortion, which requires a transformation on the training model, including domestic violence as a health issue. PMID:22664597

  8. A new species of Spelaeogammarus (Amphipoda: Bogidielloidea: Artesiidae) with an identification key for the genus.

    PubMed

    Bastos-Pereira, Rafaela; Ferreira, Rodrigo L

    2015-01-01

    There are five described species of the cave-dwelling amphipods of the genus Spelaeogammarus, all of them inhabiting caves on the Brazilian state of Bahia. A new species of this genus is here described, which is closely related to the already known species S. santanensis and S. titan. Spelaeogammarus sanctus sp. nov. differs from its congeneric species basically by the presence of more than 18 bifid setae on the dorsal margin of uropod 3 outer ramus and telson with one apical and two subapical stout setae, while the other species generally present less setae on the third uropod and more setae on telson. An identification key and an updated table of the Spelaeogammarus species diagnosis are provided, as well as a multivariate statistical approach of morphological variations among the species. PMID:26624139

  9. Biology and External Morphology of Immatures of O psiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Neves, D A; Paluch, M

    2016-02-01

    The genus Opsiphanes Doubleday occurs in the Neotropics. Adults belong to the guild of frugivorous butterflies and use as host plants some genera of Arecaceae and Musaceae. The present study provides information on the biology and describes the external morphology of immatures of the species Opsiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger obtained from females collected in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. The development of immatures was monitored and photographed in the laboratory. The larvae were fed with leaves of Dypsis lutescens (Arecaceae), an ornamental plant. The egg stage lasted, on average, 7.2 days. The larval stage had five instars, with an average duration of 48.5 days. The pupal stage lasted 16.5 days. The average growth rate of the head capsule was 1.5 mm. PMID:26341197

  10. Mass Spectrometry of Flavonoid Vicenin-2, Based Sunlight Barriers in Lychnophora species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Denise Brentan; Turatti, Izabel Cristina Casanova; Gouveia, Dayana Rubio; Ernst, Madeleine; Teixeira, Simone Pádua; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

    2014-03-01

    Lychnophora salicifolia plants collected from four different places in Brazil (three states: Goias, Minas Gerais and Bahia) revealed a conserved accumulation of vicenin-2, a di-C-glycosyl flavonoid. Quantitative studies by UPLC-MS/MS showed high concentration of vicenin-2 in leaves from sixty specimens of six Lychnophora species. So the tissue distributions of vicenin-2 were evaluated in wild Lychnophora leaves (Asteraceae) by laser based imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to propose its distributions and possible functions for the species analyzed. Mass spectrometric imaging revealed that vicenin-2, unlike other flavonoids, was produced at the top of the leaves. The combination of localization and UV absorption properties of vicenin-2 suggests that it could act as a UV light barrier to protect the plants, since plants are sessile organisms that have to protect themselves from harsh external conditions such as intense sunlight.

  11. Proposed biological testing methods for the United States incineration-at-sea research program

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Gentile, J.H.; Schimmel, S.C.; Carr, R.S.; Williams, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration-at-Sea research program, a suite of toxicity tests has been selected for assessing the toxicity of incinerator emissions generated during the combustion of chlorinated wastes. The test organisms for the five short-term chronic tests are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, the myside Mysidopsis bahia, the red macroalga Champia parvula, the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus, and gametes from the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. The durations of individual tests range from 2 hours to 7 days. The endpoints include survival, growth and reproductive effects. The results have demonstrated that the proposed methodologies can be used to test the toxicity of gaseous emissions, and that there appears to be no significant toxicity associated with the combustion products of a carrier fuel oil.

  12. In search of plumes: a GPR odyssey in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrych, T.J.; Lima, O.A.L. de; Sampaio, E.E.S.

    1994-12-31

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and geoelectrical surveys have been combined to outline underground contaminant plumes of industrial origin within a petrochemical center in Bahia, Brazil. Such plumes are invading the upper phreatic layers of a regional aquifer system which is being exploited for supplying cities and villages in the region, for industrial activities and even for the population of Salvador, the third largest city in Brazil. Three case studies are presented: two are related to conductive plumes localized beneath a metallurgical plant and an effluent treatment plant and another, a DNAPL plume below a dirt petrochemical unit. Resistivity soundings and transverse profiling were useful for a gross delineation of the aquifer structure and the extent of the contamination. GPR processed sections were employed for refining the subsurface stratigraphy and petrophysics as well as for a more precise mapping of the plume boundaries.

  13. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Farias, Solange Gomes; Rissino, Jorge Dores; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará). Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern). Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of Rhinophylla pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to Rhinophylla pumilio (pair 15). However, two chromosomes of Mimon crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes described for Rhinophylla pumilio. PMID:24260663

  14. [Spatial and biogeographic characterization of macroalgal assemblages from Bahía del Rincón, Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Riosmena-Rodríguez, R; Hinojosa-Arango, G; López-Vivas, J M; León-Cisneros, K; Holguin-Acosta, E

    2005-01-01

    Macroalgal studies in Baja California Sur have dealt mainly with occurrence and seasonality, but some areas are poorly known even for these basic data. Bahia del Rincón-La Rivera is an important high-productivity fisheries area where coastal infrastructure development is under way. A spatial characterization of the marine flora from Bahia del Rincón-La Rivera was done by intensive sampling at different depths and localities with skin and SCUBA diving. At least 500 m2 were surveyed in each site. Additionally. quantitative sampling was done in ten random 25 cm2 quadrates per site. In the intertidal section, density and cover estimates were used. We also investigated the historical records and geographical affinities. A total of 72 species were identified (most were red algae: 62%). We found no general trend in the biogeographical affinities, which varied with each taxonomic group. Most brown algae species were tropical-endemic; red algae temperate-cosmopolite and green algae tropical-cosmopolite. In the spatial assemblage structure we found a high similarity between the intertidal areas, but a low similarity in shallow or deeper areas (3-5 m). This pattern was the same when we compared the abundance of the main species. We suggest that there are significant spatial differences in recruitment and development of the assemblages in relation to vertical distribution (depth) and position along the shore. There is a clear-cut Gelidium-Jania belt in the intertidal zone and a Padina-Dictyota belt below the low tide. Sporadic and year-round species occur in the intertidal zone, annual and perennial species below the low tide line. Sites differ in recruitment and this affects the abundance of other species (such as coraline and Caulerpa species). Temperature and sedimentation affect seasonality, but community structure is relatively constant throughout the year. PMID:17354423

  15. Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land.

    PubMed

    Xia, H P

    2004-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucumxP. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96% and 91%, respectively, whereas bana had the lowest survival rate of 62%. The coverage and biomass of vetiver were also the highest after 6-month planting. Fertilizer application significantly increased biomass and tiller number of the four grasses, of which St. Augustine was promoted most, up to 70% for biomass, while vetiver was promoted least, only 27% for biomass. Two heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) tested in this trial had different concentrations in the oil shale residue, and also had different contents and distributions in the four grass species. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the four grasses presented a disparity of only 1.6-3.8 times, but their uptake amounts to the two metals were apart up to 27.5-35.5 times, which was chiefly due to the significantly different biomasses among them. Fertilizer application could abate the ability of the four species to accumulate heavy metals, namely concentration of heavy metals in plants decreased as fertilizer was applied. The total amount of metals accumulated by each plant under the condition of fertilization did not decrease due to an increase of biomass. In summary, vetiver may be the best species used for vegetation rehabilitation in oil shale disposal piles. PMID:14575747

  16. [The fisheries and growth of Ark Clams (Arcoida: Arcidae) Anadara tuberculosa in Málaga Bay, Colombian Pacific, 2005-2007].

    PubMed

    Lucero, Carlos; Cantera, Jaime; Neira, Raúl

    2012-03-01

    A. tuberculosa, is the most important bivalve species under exploitation in Colombia. Here, this species is found from Cabo Corrientes (Chocó) to the Ecuador border, in muddy substrates of mangrove forests. In order to determine the growth and the state of fisheries of A. tuberculosa, between December 2005 and April 2007, both, biological (in situ) and commercial studies were performed at Bahia Malaga (Colombian Pacific). The growth was estimated using the general equation of von Bertalanffy, with prior application of the methods of Bhattacharya and Powell-Wetherall. Mortality and exploitation rate were determined using the inverse model of von Bertalanffy. For the biological samplings, a total of 446 individuals of A. tuberculosa (0.64 +/- 0.13 individuals/m2) and 53 individuals (0.05 +/- 0.049 individuals/m2) of Anadara similis were collected. 79% of the catch was below 51mm. In the commercial samplings, 836 individuals of A. tuberculosa (size range: 31.1-92.2mm) were measured, but no A. similis samples were available for this. Recruitment of A. tuberculosa was higher during March, May, July and November. According to the data, A. tuberculosa might be reproducing during December, February, April and August. The data gathered with the biological samples were more reliable on explaining the growth of A. tuberculosa (K=0.332 per year, L(infinity)=88.256mm, t0=0.0556 years) than the one taken from market samples (K=0.256 per year, L(infinity)=89.77mm, t0=0733 years). The high exploitation rate (77%), the low density and the high mortality suggest that A. tuberculosa is in overexploitation state in Bahia Malaga and management strategies are urgently required. PMID:22458219

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Marcetia DC species (Melastomataceae) and analysis of its flavonoids by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Tonny Cley Campos; de Sena, Amanda Reges; dos Santos Silva, Tânia Regina; dos Santos, Andrea Karla Almeida; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Branco, Alexsandro

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marcetia genera currently comprises 29 species, with approximately 90% inhabiting Bahia (Brazil), and most are endemic to the highlands of the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia). Among the species, only M. taxifolia (A.St.-Hil.) DC. populates Brazil (state of Roraima to Paraná) and also Venezuela, Colombia, and Guyana. Objective: This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of three species of Marcetia (Marcetia canescens Naud., M. macrophylla Wurdack, and M. taxifolia A.StHil) against several microorganism. In addition, the flavonoids were analyzed in extracts by HPLC-DAD. Materials and methods: The tests were made using Gram-positive (three strains of Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (two strains of Escherichia coli, a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another of Salmonella choleraesius) bacteria resistant and nonresistant to antibiotics and yeasts (two strains of Candida albicans and one of C. parapsilosis) by the disk diffusion method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed on the above extracts to isolate flavonoids, which were subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results: Results showed that extracts inhibited the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. The hexane extracts possessed the lowest activity, while the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts were more active. Conclusion: Marcetia taxifolia was more effective (active against 10 microorganisms studied), and only its methanol extract inhibited Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesius). SPE and HPLC-DAD analysis showed that M. canescens and M. macrophylla contain glycosylated flavonoids, while the majority of extracts from M. taxifolia were aglycone flavonoids. PMID:23060695

  18. Comparative toxicity of eight oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC to two aquatic test species.

    PubMed

    Hemmer, Michael J; Barron, Mace G; Greene, Richard M

    2011-10-01

    The present study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, South Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach used consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispersants, including Corexit 9500A, the predominant dispersant applied during the DeepWater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Static acute toxicity tests were performed using two Gulf of Mexico estuarine test species, the mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia) and the inland silversides (Menidia beryllina). Dispersant-only test solutions were prepared with high-energy mixing, whereas water-accommodated fractions of LSC and chemically dispersed LSC were prepared with moderate energy followed by settling and testing of the aqueous phase. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values for the dispersant-only tests were calculated using nominal concentrations, whereas tests conducted with LSC alone and dispersed LSC were based on measured total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. For all eight dispersants in both test species, the dispersants alone were less toxic (LC50s: 2.9 to >5,600 µl/L) than the dispersant-LSC mixtures (0.4-13 mg TPH/L). Louisiana sweet crude oil alone had generally similar toxicity to A. bahia (LC50: 2.7 mg TPH/L) and M. beryllina (LC50: 3.5 mg TPH/L) as the dispersant-LSC mixtures. The results of the present study indicate that Corexit 9500A had generally similar toxicity to other available dispersants when tested alone but was generally less toxic as a mixture with LSC. PMID:21766318

  19. Comparative toxicity of oil, dispersant, and oil plus dispersant to several marine species.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Chris; Bonner, James; Page, Cheryl; Ernest, Andrew; McDonald, Thomas; McDonald, Susanne

    2004-12-01

    Dispersants are a preapproved chemical response agent for oil spills off portions of the U.S. coastline, including the Texas-Louisiana coast. However, questions persist regarding potential environmental risks of dispersant applications in nearshore regions (within three nautical miles of the shoreline) that support dense populations of marine organisms and are prone to spills resulting from human activities. To address these questions, a study was conducted to evaluate the relative toxicity of test media prepared with dispersant, weathered crude oil, and weathered crude oil plus dispersant. Two fish species, Cyprinodon variegatus and Menidia beryllina, and one shrimp species, Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia), were used to evaluate the relative toxicity of the different media under declining and continuous exposure regimes. Microbial toxicity was evaluated using the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fisheri. The data suggested that oil media prepared with a chemical dispersant was equal to or less toxic than the oil-only test medium. Data also indicated that continuous exposures to the test media were generally more toxic than declining exposures. The toxicity of unweathered crude oil with and without dispersant was also evaluated using Menidia beryllina under declining exposure conditions. Unweathered oil-only media were dominated by soluble hydrocarbon fractions and found to be more toxic than weathered oil-only media in which colloidal oil fractions dominated. Total concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in oil-plus-dispersant media prepared with weathered and unweathered crude oil were both dominated by colloidal oil and showed no significant difference in toxicity. Analysis of the toxicity data suggests that the observed toxicity was a function of the soluble crude oil components and not the colloidal oil. PMID:15648769

  20. Perceptions of environmental changes and Lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Methods Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters) were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. Results According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. Conclusions The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural resource conservation. PMID:22087532

  1. Recurrent and persistent cytomegalovirus infection in a kidney recipient caused by the L595S mutation in UL97 phosphotransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Maíra; Mascarenhas, Lays; Cunha, André; Dutra, Margarida; Miranda, Eva; Silva, Ivo; Costa, Sandra; Galvão, Bernardo; Cunha, Andréa

    2012-01-01

    Ganciclovir (GCV) is the first therapeutic choice for prevention and treatment of active cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in solid organ transplant recipients in Bahia state, Brazil. Prolonged and repeated GCV therapy may result in drug-resistant virus, associated with progressive and disseminated disease. We present a case report of a young male kidney recipient, who was CMV-seronegative with a CMV-seropositive donor (D(+)/R(-)), and who developed clinical GCV resistance, confirmed by mutation in viral UL97 phosphotransferase responsible for GCV activation. Under prophylactic therapy with intravenous GCV for 6 weeks post-transplantation, he developed severe anaemia and hepatic enzyme increases, probably due to drug side effects. At this moment, the drug was discontinued and he started to be monitored by pp65 antigen test. At week 10 post-transplantation, he presented fever, myalgia, thrombocytopenia and neutropaenia, with a positive CMV antigen test. During treatment with intravenous GCV, antigenaemia assay demonstrated a higher number of positive cells, requiring GCV at higher doses. Pre-emptive therapy lasted for 31 days and he started the maintenance therapy with oral GCV. However, antigenaemia assay demonstrated an extremely high number of positive cells, and he was rehospitalized and prescribed intravenous GCV. Severe leukopaenia led to GCV interruption, but immunosuppressive dose reduction helped to control the active CMV infection. GCV-resistant CMV infection resulted in increased morbidity, rehospitalization episodes and increased costs; therefore, implementation of resistance diagnostic tests in the transplantation routine is of great importance. We documented the first case of GCV-resistant CMV infection due to the L595S mutation in UL97 phosphotransferase gene in a kidney recipient from Bahia state, Brazil. PMID:22293247

  2. Mapping Large-Scale Mechanized Agriculture Across the Brazilian Cerrado Between 2001-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, S. A.; Mustard, J. F.; VanWey, L.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is a global commodities powerhouse. Over the last decade, dynamic changes in agricultural development and land transformations occurred within Brazil's tropical savanna region, the cerrado. This interdisciplinary study uses remote sensing tools to map land cover across more than 3.6 million km2 of cerrado and statistical methods to characterize drivers of this land-cover change. We use the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index 16-day data product and a decision-tree algorithm, proven highly accurate in Mato Grosso (Spera et al. 2014) and here modified for the broader cerrado region, to characterize crop type, cropping frequency, expansion, and abandonment of large-scale mechanized agriculture during the 2001-2013 period. The algorithm exploits phenological differences between forest, pasture and cerrado, and mechanized agriculture. It is parameterized to distinguish between crop rotations in Mato Grosso, Goias, and the new agricultural frontier spanning Maranhao, Tocantins, Piaui, and Bahia (MaToPiBa). Training and validation data were collected using Google's Earth Engine. We map single-cropped soy, corn, and cotton; double-cropped soy/corn and soy/cotton rotations; and irrigated agriculture across these six Brazilian cerrado states. We find that while double cropping dominates in Mato Grosso and Goias, single cropping is still the dominant form of mechanized agriculture in the burgeoning MaToPiBa region. In western Bahia alone, preliminary results show agriculture has expanded by almost 350,000 ha and double cropping has increased by almost 40,000 ha. With MaToPiBa touted as Brazil's latest and last agricultural frontier, we predict that the region will experience a transition similar to that of Mato Grosso during the 2000s—an expansion and intensification of agriculture—which may beget unprecedented ramifications on regional climate processes that can then affect ecosystem health and the economic feasibility of cultivating rain-fed export crops.

  3. Intensive Eucalyptus plantation management in Brazil: Long-term effects on soil carbon dynamics across 300 sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, R. L.; Stape, J.; Binkley, D.

    2011-12-01

    Intensively managed forest plantations now cover more than 6 million hectares in Brazil, and another 20 million hectares in other tropical regions. Although aboveground biomass, and therefore carbon, is well monitored due to commercial interest, the belowground carbon dynamics and site sustainability remain poorly understood. So, how does intensive silviculture change the storage of carbon in soils? Trends in soil organic carbon from land-use change indicate that conversion from pastures to Eucalyptus plantations should maintain soil carbon stocks. However, comprehensive, long-term studies are needed to understand the variability in these trends to better manage these systems for sustainable productivity across a highly variable landscape, as well as to understand the role that soils may play in sequestering carbon for climate change mitigation. In this unique, long-term soil study, soil samples were collected in the 1980s/90s, 2001, and 2010 across 300 intensively managed Eucalyptus plantation sites located in the states of Bahia, Espirito Santo, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. Natural ecosystems for these states include Savannah-Dry Forest, Atlantic Forest, and Savanna, respectively. The sampling covered at least three complete rotations of Eucalyptus at each site; climate, past land use, productivity, and soil characteristics vary across this geographic gradient. Across the two periods, both Espirito Santo (P<0.001) and Bahia (P=0.05) showed a decrease in soil carbon concentrations, while Sao Paulo saw no change over time. For the 0-30 cm layer, plantations in Espirito Santo state had the largest decrease in soil carbon concentration up to 2001, decreasing soil carbon stocks at an average rate of 1.3 Mg C ha-1 year-1. This, however, was followed by no significant change from 2001 to 2010 which may indicate stabilization of soil carbon stocks under the new land use. The Eucalyptus in Bahia created no change in the first sampling period, but saw a decline of 0.35 Mg C ha-1year-1 in soil carbon in the second sampling period from 2001-2010. Initial results show that, across the regions, sites that had higher soil carbon stocks tended to lose more soil carbon under intensive silviculture. In all three regions, clay content related strongly to soil carbon concentrations. However, the clay did not have a consistent relationship with the rates of change in soil carbon concentration, varying among regions, with negative, positive, and no relationship for the 2001-2010 time period. Further investigation will determine relationships with temperature and precipitation, past land use history, and Eucalyptus productivity. These results will be essential in evaluating the effects on soil organic carbon dynamics due to conversion to short-rotation Eucalyptus plantations in the tropics across a broad and variable landscape.

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazil: report of a national survey (Florianópolis, SC, 1995).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, C S; Pereira, F E; Gayotto, L C

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate epidemiological aspects of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Brazil, basic informations about cases diagnosed from January 1992 to December 1994 were requested to several medical centers of different Brazilian States. A simple questionnaire included age, sex, alcohol abuse (over 80g/day), associated liver cirrhosis, persistent HBV infection (HBsAg), HCV infection (anti-HCV) and serum levels of alpha fetoprotein. 287 cases, over 16 years old, from 19 medical centers of 8 States (Pará, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul) were analysed. The results showed: (a) Mean age was 56.3 +/- 14.4 for men and 54.7 +/- 16.8 yr for women and the male/female ratio was 3.4:1. (b) 69.6% were caucasians, 21.8% mullatoes, 4.8% orientals and 3.7% blacks. (c) HBsAg (+) in 77/236 cases (41.6%) without differences between males and females. (d) Anti-HCV (+) in 52/193 cases (26.9%). (e) 7/180 cases were positive both for HBsAg and anti-HCV (3.8%). (f) There was chronic alcoholism in 88/235 cases (37%). (g) HCC was found in cirrhotic livers in 71.2% of 202 cases in which the presence or absence of cirrhosis was reported. (h) Alpha-fetoprotein above 20 ng/ml was found in 124/172 cases (72%) and above 500 ng/ml only in 40 cases (23.2%). These results showed that the HCC in Brazil has an intermediate epidemiological pattern as compared to those from areas of low and high incidence of the tumor. In spite of the high frequency of the association of HCC with the HBV and/or HCV infections, 42% of 180 cases were negative both for HBsAg and anti-HCV, indicating the possible role of other etiological factors. The comparison of data from different States showed some regional differences: higher frequency of associated HBsAg in Pará, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, higher frequency of associated HCV infection in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and States of the Southern region and low frequency of associated liver cirrhosis in Salvador and Rio de Janeiro (55.5 and 50% respectively). Further investigation will be necessary to study the presence of other possible etiological factors as aflatoxins, suggested by the favourable climatic conditions for food contamination by fungi in the majority Brazilian regions. PMID:9460258

  5. A relic coral fauna threatened by global changes and human activities, Eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leão, Zelinda M A N; Kikuchi, Ruy K P

    2005-01-01

    Coral species composition of drilled cores from emergent bank reefs, and coral cover of the surface of old and living reefs located along the coast of the state of Bahia, Eastern Brazil, revealed that there is a marked change in the occurrence of the major building coral species in different time intervals of the reef structure, as well as in the living surface of reefs located in two different geographical sites. Holocene core sections from two reef areas (12 degrees 40'S-38 degrees 00'W and 18 degrees 00'S-39 degrees 00'W) have as major reef builders, on its topmost core interval (3 to 4 ky old), the endemic coral Mussismilia braziliensis Verrill, 1868, which also dominate on the 2.5-3.5 ky old surfaces of truncated reef tops. At the base of the cores (the 2m lower interval, older than 4 ky BP), another endemic coral Mussismilia harttii Verrill, 1868 is the dominant reef component. The relative abundance of M. braziliensis on the living surfaces of shallow reefs from both areas, shows that in the southern area, it is up to 98% on reefs located 60 km off the coast, in depths between 3 and 4m, but do not exceed 1.3% on the surface of the northern reefs located 1-2 km off the coast in depths 4-5m. The Holocene falling sea level that occurred along the coast of Brazil since 5.1 ky BP, causes an increasing runoff into the area of coastal reefs. This phenomenon may have affected the nearshore reef building fauna, replacing a more susceptive coral fauna with one better adapted to low light levels and higher sediment influx. The high turbidity associated with early Holocene shelf flooding, should also be responsible for the absence of M. braziliensis during the initial stages of reef buildup in Brazil. At the present time, the rapidly increasing human pressure, due to changes in land uses of the coastal zone (increasing sedimentation rate, nutrification of coastal waters, industrial pollution) and underwater practices, such as overfishing and an intense tourism, is aggravating the recovery capacity of this already naturally threatened coral community. If this situation coupled with increasing sea surface temperature persists, modern coral reef growth, in Brazil cannot be maintained and the major reef building coral species of the reefs in Bahia, a remnant endemic coral fauna will very soon appear in the list of endangered species. PMID:15913660

  6. Zero Tillage cotton systems and soil quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landers, J. N.; de Freitas, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity. Cotton is a deep tap-rooted crop, sensitive to physical and chemical impediments to root development; this has engendered a paradigm of heavy soil preparation operations to remove these. But, ZT can overcome such obstacles, allowing the cotton crop to benefit from cost reductions and a number of other benefits, especially erosion control.. Soil quality has three principal dimensions. Maximum yields only occur when soil fertility, structure and biological activity are in balance. Under Zero Tillage management of Brazilian soils, the processes of nutrient availability, nutrient cycling and efficiency result from increasing SOM and higher CEC. ZT system fertility is also strongly influenced by total annual aerial and root biomass generation; C:N ratios of the biomass, changes in aeration in residue breakdown processes (for roots, dependent on internal drainage), reduced fixation of Phosphorus fertilizers, the possibility of surface application of P and K, use of deep-rooted cover crops to re-cycle nutrients and deleterious effects of over-liming. Soil physical parameters undergo a transformation : greater water holding capacity, a small increase in bulk density (ameliorated by a reversal of soil aggregate breakdown inherent to conventional tillage by the binding action of root exudates and fungal hyphae), enhanced particle aggregate size protects SOM from oxidation; old root holes create semi-permanent macro-pores which facilitate rooting, aeration and rainfall infiltration.. Soil life of all types benefits from ZT management and contributes to soil fertility and structural improvements, plus enhancing certain biological controls of pathogenic organisms and allelopathic control of weeds by root exudates and residue breakdown products. Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity.

  7. Size-selective harvesting alters life histories of a temperate sex-changing fish.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Scott L; Caselle, Jennifer E; Standish, Julie D; Schroeder, Donna M; Love, Milton S; Rosales-Casian, Jorge A; Sosa-Nishizaki, Oscar

    2007-12-01

    Selective mortality, whether caused naturally by predation or through the influence of harvest practices, initiates changes within populations when individuals possessing certain heritable traits have increased fitness. Theory predicts that increased mortality rates will select for changes in a number of different life history characteristics. For example, fishing often targets larger individuals and has been shown repeatedly to alter population size structure and growth rates, and the timing of maturation. For sex-changing species, selective fishing practices can affect additional traits such as the mature population sex ratio and the timing of sexual transformation. Using historical comparisons, we examined the effects of exploitation on life history characteristics of California sheephead, Semicossyphus pulcher, a temperate protogynous (female-male sex changer) labrid that inhabits nearshore rocky environments from central California, USA, to southern Baja California, Mexico. Recreational fishing intensified and an unregulated commercial live-fish fishery developed rapidly in southern California between the historical and current studies. Collections of S. pulcher from three locations (Bahia Tortugas, Catalina Island, and San Nicolas Island) in 1998 were compared with data collected 20-30 years previously to ascertain fishery-induced changes in life history traits. At Bahia Tortugas, where fishing by the artisanal community remained light and annual survivorship stayed high, we observed no changes in size structure or shifts in the timing of maturation or the timing of sex change. In contrast, where recreational (Catalina) and commercial (San Nicolas) fishing intensified and annual survivorship correspondingly declined, males and females shifted significantly to smaller body sizes, females matured earlier and changed sex into males at both smaller sizes and younger ages and appeared to have a reduced maximum lifespan. Mature sex ratios (female:male) increased at San Nicolas, despite a twofold reduction in the mean time spent as a mature female. Proper fisheries management requires measures to prevent sex ratio skew, sperm limitation, and reproductive failure because populations of sequential hermaphrodites are more sensitive to size-selective harvest than separate-sex species. This is especially true for S. pulcher, where different segments of the fishery (commercial vs. recreational) selectively target distinct sizes and therefore sexes in different locations. PMID:18213967

  8. The Genus Cerion (Gastropoda: Cerionidae) in the Florida Keys

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The systematic relationships and phylogeography of Cerion incanum, the only species of Cerion native to the Florida Keys, are reviewed based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes derived from 18 populations spanning the range of this species and including the type localities of all four described subspecies. Our samples included specimens of Cerion casablancae, a species introduced to Indian Key in 1912, and a population of C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrids descended from a population of C. casablancae introduced onto Bahia Honda Key in the same year. Molecular data did not support the partition of C. incanum into subspecies, nor could populations be apportioned reliably into subspecies based on morphological features used to define the subspecies. Phylogenetic analyses affirmed the derived relationship of C. incanum relative to other cerionids, and indicated a Bahamian origin for the Cerion fauna of southern Florida. Relationships among the populations throughout the Keys indicate that the northernmost populations, closest to the Tomeu paleoislands that had been inhabited by Cerion petuchi during the Calabrian Pleistocene, are the oldest. The range of Cerion incanum expanded as the archipelago that is the Florida Keys was formed since the lower Tarantian Pleistocene by extension from the northeast to the southwest, with new islands populated as they were formed. The faunas of the High Coral Keys in the northeast and the Oölite Keys in the southwest, both with large islands that host multiple discontinuous populations of Cerion, are each composed of well supported clades that are characterized by distinctive haplotypes. In contrast, the fauna of the intervening Low Coral Keys consist of a heterogeneous series of populations, some with haplotypes derived from the High Coral Keys, others from the Oölite Keys. Individuals from the C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrid population inhabiting the southeastern coast of Bahia Honda Key were readily segregated based on their mitogenome lineage, grouping either with C. incanum or with C. casablancae from Indian Key. Hybrids with C. casablancae mitogenomes had haplotypes that were more divergent from their parent mitogenome than were hybrids with C. incanum mitogenomes. PMID:26378443

  9. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations. PMID:19197503

  10. Evaluation of Mobility, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Pb and Cd in Contaminated Soil Using TCLP, BCR and Earthworms

    PubMed Central

    Kede, Maria Luiza F. M.; Correia, Fabio V.; Conceição, Paulo F.; Salles Junior, Sidney F.; Marques, Marcia; Moreira, Josino C.; Pérez, Daniel V.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the reduction of mobility, availability and toxicity found in soil contaminated with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) from Santo Amaro Municipality, Bahia, Brazil using two combined methods, commonly tested separately according to the literature: metal mobilization with phosphates and phytoextraction. The strategy applied was the treatment with two sources of phosphates (separately and mixed) followed by phytoremediation with vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)). The treatments applied (in triplicates) were: T1—potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4); T2—reactive natural phosphate fertilizer (NRP) and; T3—a mixture 1:1 of KH2PO4 and NRP. After this step, untreated and treated soils were planted with vetiver grass. The extraction procedures and assays applied to contaminated soil before and after the treatments included metal mobility test (TCLP); sequential extraction with BCR method; toxicity assays with Eisenia andrei. The soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) for Pb and Cd were estimated in all cases. All treatments with phosphates followed by phytoremediation reduced the mobility and availability of Pb and Cd, being KH2PO4 (T1) plus phytoremediation the most effective one. Soil toxicity however, remained high after all treatments. PMID:25386955

  11. Lactic acid bacteria dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of cocoa beans verified by culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Santos, T F; Santana, L K A; Santos, A C F; Silva, G S; Romano, C C; Dias, J C T; Rezende, R P

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa is naturally fermented in the field before the cocoa seeds are removed for processing. We assessed the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria during cocoa fermentation in Bahia, Brazil. During five days of fermentation, temperature and pH were measured and beans were collected for genomic DNA extraction every 12 h. The DNA was used as a template for amplification with Lac1-Lac2 and Lac3-Lac2 for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses. pH values ranged from 3.34 to 4.98, while the temperature varied from 23° to 50°C. Lac1-Lac2 primers permitted detection of 11 operational taxonomic units. Twenty-eight operational taxonomic units were obtained with the primer pair Lac3-Lac2. It was observed that there were variations between the numbers of operational taxonomic units throughout the process, probably because of changes in pH and temperature. The greatest similarity in amplified samples was obtained with the primers Lac3-Lac2. PMID:22095596

  12. Ochratoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin A in cocoa during farm processing.

    PubMed

    Copetti, Marina V; Pereira, José Luís; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2010-09-30

    This study investigated the occurrence of fungi with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA), and the occurrence of OTA, in Brazilian cocoa beans. Two hundred and twenty two samples of cocoa were evaluated, taken at various stages of fermentation, drying and storage. Samples were collected from Bahia, the main cocoa producing region in Brazil. Fungi with the potential to produce OTA were isolated by direct plating of cocoa beans on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar after surface disinfection, and identified by standard techniques. The ability of the fungi to produce OTA was estimated using the agar plug technique and TLC. The presence of OTA in cocoa samples was determined by HPLC after immunoaffinity column clean up. The most common ochratoxigenic species found were Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger aggregate, with lower numbers of A. melleus, A. westerdijkiae and Av. ochraceus. A considerable increase in the numbers of these species was observed during drying and storage. OTA was found at all stages of cocoa processing, with the major incidence during drying and storage. The OTA levels found were in general low and there was a strong positive correlation between the presence of A. carbonarius and OTA contamination in the beans. PMID:20709419

  13. Acute toxicity of saline produced waters to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Evans, J.M.; DuFresne, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of to osmotic specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow, (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silvemide (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  14. Toxicity of common ions to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Evans, J.

    1995-12-31

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and these may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due to osmotic imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnetsium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that the salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to the produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in a produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  15. Morphology of the eyeball from the Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Fernanda M; Silva, Fernanda M O; Trompieri-Silveira, Ana Carolina; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Guimarães, Juliana P

    2014-05-01

    Aquatic mammals underwent morphological and physiological adaptations due to the transition from terrestrial to aquatic environment. One of the morphological changes regards their vision since cetaceans' eyes are able to withstand mechanical, chemical, osmotic, and optical water conditions. Due to insufficient information about these animals, especially regarding their sense organs, this study aimed to describe the morphology of the Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) eyeball. Three newborn females, stranded dead on the coast of Sergipe and Bahia, Brazil, were used. Samples were fixed in a 10% formalin solution, dissected, photographed, collected, and evaluated through light and electron microscopy techniques. The Humpback whale sclera was thick and had an irregular surface with mechanoreceptors in its lamina propria. Lens was dense, transparent, and ellipsoidal, consisting of three layers, and the vascularized choroid contains melanocytes, mechanoreceptors, and a fibrous tapetum lucidum. The Humpback whale eyeball is similar to other cetaceans and suggests an adaptation to diving and migration, contributing to the perception of differences in temperature, pressure, and lighting. PMID:24644104

  16. Patient’s Perception About Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Kelminda Maria Bulhões; de Andrade, Tarcisio Matos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The diagnosis of coronary artery disease referred for heart surgery has an important psychological component. The purpose of this study was to access the difficulties experienced by individuals awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting and to determine strategies that facilitate adaptation to a new lifestyle, modified by the disease. METHODS A qualitative, exploratory study involving patients admitted to a university teaching hospital in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting. Semi-structured interviews were performed in accordance with a previously defined script based on the study objective. Each transcription was read in its entirety to verify the representativeness, homogeneity and pertinence of the data obtained (pre-analysis), followed by separation of categories of analysis. RESULTS The descriptions of this study show that patients admitted to the completion of coronary artery bypass grafting experience a wide range of psychological difficulties, considering that surgery acquires interpretations that vary according to individuals' subjectivity. The patients recognized the benefit of being able to discuss their feelings as a means of diminishing their fear and anxiety. CONCLUSION Helping patients find resources to confront more positively the daily hospitalization is an important aspect for the health care professionals who assist them. This goal can be achieved through modification of the biomedical model of care for a biopsychosocial view. The investment of time and attention is of fundamental importance and aims to overcome existing deficiencies that interfere with the outcome of patients after cardiac surgery. PMID:26735601

  17. The genus Paravelia Breddin, 1898 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) in Brazil, with descriptions of eight new species.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Higor D D; Moreira, Felipe F F; Nieser, Nico; Chen, Ping Ping; Melo, Alan L; Dias-Silva, Karina; Giehl, Nubia F S

    2014-01-01

    Eight new species of Paravelia Breddin, 1898 from Brazil are described and illustrated: P. amapaensis sp. nov. from Amapá State, P. bipunctata sp. nov. from Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul States, P. bilobata sp. nov. and P. polhemusi sp. nov. from Mato Grosso State, P. bahiana sp. nov. from Bahia State, P. lacrymosa sp. nov. from Minas Gerais State, P. micromaculata sp. nov. from Maranhão State, and P. ornata sp. nov. from Amazonas State. The genus is redescribed, with photos of the dorsal view for nineteen species: P. basalis (Spinola), P. biae Spangler, P. boliviana Breddin, P. bullialata Polhemus & Polhemus, P. capillata (Drake& Harris), P. capixaba Moreira, Nessimian & Rúdio, P. conata (Hungerford), P. dilatata Polhemus & Polhemus, P. foveata Polhemus & Polhemus, P. itatiayana (Drake), P. lanemeloi Moreira & Barbosa, P. manausana Polhemus & Polhemus, P. nieseri Moreira & Barbosa, P. platensis (Berg), P. recens (Drake & Harris), P. rotundanotata (Hungerford), P. spinifera Polhemus & Polhemus, P. splendoris (Drake & Harris) and P. williamsi (Hungerford). Three of these species are recorded for the first time from Brazil: P. platensis, P. spinifera and P. williamsi. Also, the macropterous forms of P. capixaba and P. dilatata are described. Lastly, an identification key to the 36 species of Paravelia recorded from Brazil and a checklist of described species are presented. PMID:24872030

  18. Clinical profile of 93 cases of 46, XY disorders of sexual development in a referral center.

    PubMed

    Mota, Bianca Costa; Oliveira, Luciana Mattos Barros; Lago, Renata; Brito, Paula; Canguçú-Campinho, Ana Karina; Barroso, Ubirajara; Toralles, Maria Betânia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    The term DSD refers to disorders that affect the normal process of sexual development causing disagreement between chromosomal, gonadal and phenotypic sex, and this study aimed to describe the clinical profile of a group with DSD 46, XY joined on DSD Clinic of Hospital of Salvador, Bahia Clinics. It was a retrospective study of medical records of survey data of 93 patients with DSD 46, XY. Among the patients studied 50.5% had no defined etiology and 20.4% had androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), 63.4% had been initially recorded in males, 31 (33.3%) in females, being that in two it was necessary to reassignment. All patients with complete AIS pure gonadal dysgenesis and had female genitalia. Others have been diagnosed with genital ambiguity or severe hypospadias and cryptorchidism. The gonads were palpable at the first consultation in 75.3% of patients. It is important to establish an active surveillance program for these patients. The first assessment took place before the age of ten in more than 50% of cases, which shows that much needs to be done for medical education and community about the DSD. Because the phenotypic variability of sexual development disorders was noted that the clinical profile of patients studied ranged between different etiologies, including hindering the diagnostic conclusion of these individuals. PMID:26689524

  19. High natural radiation in Brazilian sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, M. A. G.; Medina, N. H.; Pereira, B. R.; Aguiar, V. A. P.

    2012-02-01

    The present work investigated Brazilian beach sands in order to analyze the total external natural radiation dose using a gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The activities from the radionuclides 40K and the elements from the series of 238U and 232Th were measured. The sand samples from Morro Branco beach, Ceará, and Itacaré beach, Bahia, presented different colors and grain size than the beaches from São Paulo. A sample collected in Itacaré beach showed an effective dose of 2.5 (1) mSv/yr. This value is outside the annual typical range (0.3-0.6 mSv) indicated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The high effective dose found in Itacaré beach is mainly due to the presence of a large amount of 232Th and 238U. All the other samples collected in Ceará and São Paulo States are inside the annual typical range. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis showed that this high external radiation is related to the presence of zircon and monazite, which commonly carry traces of uranium and thorium.

  20. Spatio-temporal variation in the incubation duration and sex ratio of hawksbill hatchlings: implication for future management.

    PubMed

    dei Marcovaldi, Maria A G; Santos, Armando J B; Santos, Alexsandro S; Soares, Luciano S; Lopez, Gustave G; Godfrey, Matthew H; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Fuentes, Mariana M P B

    2014-08-01

    Climate change poses a unique threat to species with temperature dependent sex determination (TSD), such as marine turtles, where increases in temperature can result in extreme sex ratio biases. Knowledge of the primary sex ratio of populations with TSD is key for providing a baseline to inform management strategies and to accurately predict how future climate changes may affect turtle populations. However, there is a lack of robust data on offspring sex ratio at appropriate temporal and spatial scales to inform management decisions. To address this, we estimate the primary sex ratio of hawksbill hatchlings, Eretmochelys imbricata, from incubation duration of 5514 in situ nests from 10 nesting beaches from two regions in Brazil over the last 27 years. A strong female bias was estimated in all beaches, with 96% and 89% average female sex ratios produced in Bahia (BA) and Rio Grande do Norte (RN). Both inter-annual (BA, 88 to 99%; RN, 75 to 96% female) and inter-beach (BA, 92% to 97%; RN, 81% to 92% female) variability in mean offspring sex ratio was observed. These findings will guide management decisions in Brazil and provide further evidence of highly female-skew sex ratios in hawksbill turtles. PMID:25086976

  1. Rubbish index and diarrhoea in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rego, Rita Franco; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Santos, Robert; de Oliveira, Nelson Fernandes; Oliveira, Sandro

    2007-07-01

    Urban solid waste (USW) is a public health problem worldwide that has not yet been completely evaluated in relation to childhood health. The main purpose of this study was to investigate associations between diarrhoea and exposure to USW among preschool children. A longitudinal study was carried out with 922 under-threes living in Salvador, Bahia, between 2000 and 2001. Both community and individual/home levels (strata) were evaluated by questionnaire and direct observation. The multilevel model, using Poisson regression with overdispersion, evaluated their contribution to the occurrence of diarrhoea. The children presented a mean longitudinal prevalence of 2.7% of days with diarrhoea during a mean period of 23 follow-up weeks. The main factors associated with diarrhoea were rubbish-in-street index [prevalence ratio (PR)=1.30; 95% CI 1.02-1.66] and intrahome rubbish packaging (PR=3.59; 95% CI 2.01-6.42). Other important variables were water-in-street index, child age, hygiene and cleanliness near the house, number of people per house, and drainage problems. The variables measured at the community level explained 4.77% of the variability of the children's number of days with diarrhoea. PMID:17416394

  2. [What is garbage, anyway? The opinions of women from an outlying neighborhood in a large Brazilian city].

    PubMed

    Rêgo, Rita de Cássia Franco; Barreto, Maurício L; Killinger, Cristina Larrea

    2002-01-01

    Domestic solid waste is cause for current environmental concern in large cities around the world. Little is known about the human health consequences of solid waste disposal in open-air dumps. In addition, there are few studies on people's health practices in relation to solid waste. As the initial step in epidemiological research on the relationship between solid waste and diarrhea, this study describes women's perception of the definition of garbage and the popular understanding of the relationships between garbage and disease, and between garbage and the environment. The study used a qualitative approach in a slum neighborhood in Salvador, Bahia. A total of 13 women were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire in 1999. The FileMaker "diaricamp" application was used for data analysis. Interviewees defined garbage as anything useless and considered it a problem whenever it accumulated in the surroundings producing a bad smell or visual pollution, attracted animals, caused disease in children or adults, or was shifted from the individual to the collective/institutional sphere of action to solve the problem. PMID:12488885

  3. The Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Ulcerative Colitis in a Northeast Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Bruno César; Lyra, Andre Castro; Mendes, Carlos Maurício Cardeal; Ribeiro, Camila Paula Oliveira; Lisboa, Sonyara Rauedys Oliveira; de Souza, Mariana Tinoco Lordello; Portela, Renata Cavalcanti; Santana, Genoile Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of UC in Bahia, a Brazilian state, and to identify the variables associated with extensive colitis, steroid therapy, immunosuppression, and colectomy. Methods. In this cross-sectional study UC patients were interviewed, and additional information was collected from the medical records. Descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson regression analysis were used. Results. This study included 267 individuals, the mean age of whom was 39.4 years at diagnosis. There was a predominance of females and left-side colitis. Extensive colitis was positively associated with male gender, diarrhea, weight loss, and a younger age at diagnosis. In contrast, active smoking and a family history of IBD were negatively associated with extensive colitis. Positive associations were observed between steroid therapy and diarrhea, weight loss, urban patients, extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs), and hospitalization. Younger age and weight loss at diagnosis, a family history of IBD, extensive colitis, EIMs, hospitalization, and steroid therapy were all positively associated with immunosuppression. In contrast, Caucasian individuals, smokers, patients with rectal bleeding, and rural patients areas were all observed to have a decreased likelihood of immunosuppression. Conclusions. Our results corroborate the association between higher prevalence of extensive colitis and younger age at diagnosis. An association between steroid therapy and clinical presentation at diagnosis was observed. The observation that white individuals and rural patients use less immunosuppressive drugs highlights the need to study the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the behavior of UC in this population. PMID:26509150

  4. Effects of ionic strength, particle size, flow rate, and vegetation type on colloid transport through a dense vegetation saturated soil system: Experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Congrong; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Gao, Bin; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2013-08-01

    Colloids are widely distributed in agricultural runoff, especially from croplands with manure applications. Dense vegetation has been suggested to be effective to reduce surface runoff contaminants, including colloidal particles. In this work, small scale laboratory experiments were used to determine the influence of physical and chemical factors (i.e. solution ionic strength, particle size, surface flow rate, and vegetation type) on the surface transport and removal of colloids in a dense vegetation system without drainage. Conservative tracer studies of bromide were conducted as a control to quantify the deposition of colloids onto grass surfaces and the mass exchange of colloids between the overland flow and soil underneath under various experimental conditions. The deposition of colloids enhanced with increases in solution ionic strength and particle size, and with decreases in flow rate. We also found vegetation type played an important role on colloid transport with more deposition onto Ryegrass than onto Bahia grass under the same experimental conditions. A mathematical model combining overland flow, convection-dispersion equations and exchange layer theory was developed to simulate the transport of colloids in overland flow through the dense vegetation. Simulations of the model fitted the experimental data well and helped to understand the effect of ionic strength, particle size, flow rate, and vegetation type on colloid transport and removal in dense vegetation. Although additional investigations are still needed, findings from this study can inform the installation and maintenance of dense vegetation systems, such as vegetative filter strips, to reduce the loading of colloids in surface runoff.

  5. Microbial genotoxicity as an environmental indicator for near-coastal sediment pore waters.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael A; Daniels, Carol B; Chancy, Cynthia A

    2006-06-01

    The genotoxic potential of sediment pore water collected from coastal areas in the Gulf of Mexico has not been reported frequently in the literature. This report summarizes a study of the microbial mutagenicity of 31 pore water samples obtained from sediment affected by non-point source runoff and compares the results with those for more traditional chemical and biological indicators of sediment quality. Genotoxicity was determined pre- and post-enzyme activation using a proprietary short-term microbial assay for pore water centrifuged from sediment collected adjacent to a Florida coastal golf complex and from an urbanized bayou-estuary. Sediment and the associated pore water also were analyzed for acute toxicity to Hyallela azteca, Palaemonetes pugio, or Americamysis bahia and for benthic macroinvertebrate diversity (sediment only). Genotoxicity (direct and enzyme-activated) was detected in 4 of 17 (golf complex) and in 10 of 14 (urbanized bayou) pore water samples. The lowest toxic pore water concentrations were between 1.8% and 44.4% (direct) and between 2.6% and 25% (enzyme-activated). The results of the genotoxic assay paralleled those based on exceedance of proposed sediment quality guidelines, pore water acute toxicity and Shannon-Wiener diversity index values for 81%, 58%, and 65% of the comparisons, respectively. PMID:16646015

  6. Canine ehrlichiosis: prevalence and epidemiology in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Paula Elisa Brandão; Oliveira, Thais Nascimento de Andrade; Carvalho, Fábio Santos; Carlos, Renata Santiago Alberto; Albuquerque, George Rego; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias; Wenceslau, Amauri Arias; Silva, Fabiana Lessa

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichiosis is a zoonotic disease that is caused by bacteria of the genus Ehrlichia. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of Ehrlichia spp. in the blood of dogs in Ituberá, Bahia, and to compare the sensitivities and specificities of blood smear, serological, and molecular examinations. Furthermore, this study identified factors associated with exposure to the agent in dogs in this locality. Blood samples were collected from 379 dogs and submitted for indirect immunofluorescent assay and polymerase chain reaction testing for the detection of Ehrlichia spp. antibodies and DNA, respectively. Additionally, a peripheral blood smear was obtained from the ear tip for parasite identification. Of the 379 animals, 12.4%, 32.7%, and 25.6% were identified as positive on the blood smear, serological, and molecular tests, respectively. The dogs positive in one of the three techniques were considered exposed (46.9%). Younger dogs and rural habitat were protective factors and presence of ticks and contact with other dogs were the risk factors associated with exposure to the agent. It was concluded that dogs of Ituberá have high positivity for Ehrlichia spp. and that the diagnostic methods used for detection are complementary. PMID:26083691

  7. Use of marine TIE methods in determining causes of toxicity to fish in a public marine aquarium

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; Burgess, R.M.; Pelletier, M.; Charles, J.

    1995-12-31

    Aquarium personnel observed that a number of organisms in the coral reef tank were succumbing to fungal and other diseases. It was suspected that organisms were compromised due to a common environmental stressor because many types of fish were affected. One possible stressor was the home-made painted coral decor in the tank. The coral reef decor was crumbling in several sections of the display and release of toxic agents was suspected. A water sample containing broken pieces of the decor was shipped to the lab and a TIE performed. Phase 1 TIE results indicated that toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia (mysid shrimp) was removed after EDTA addition and to some extent after cation exchange column treatment.None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange column treatment. None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange columns will be presented. This study demonstrates a unique application of TIE methods.

  8. Development of aquatic toxicity benchmarks for oil products using species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mace G; Hemmer, Michael J; Jackson, Crystal R

    2013-10-01

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to spilled oil and chemically dispersed oil continues to be a significant challenge in spill response and impact assessment. We used standardized tests from the literature to develop species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) of acute aquatic toxicity values for several petroleum products and 2 Corexit oil dispersants. Fifth percentile hazard concentrations (HC5s) were computed from the SSDs and used to assess relative oil product toxicity and in evaluating the feasibility of establishing toxicity benchmarks for a community of species. The sensitivity of mysids (Americamysis bahia) and silversides (Menidia beryllina) were evaluated within the SSDs to determine if these common test species were appropriate surrogates for a broader range of species. In general, SSD development was limited by the availability of acute toxicity values that met standardization criteria for a diversity of species. Pooled SSDs were also developed for crude oil and Corexit dispersants because there was only small variability in the HC5s among the individual oil or dispersant products. The sensitivity of mysids and silversides varied across the oil and dispersant products, with the majority of toxicity values greater than the HC5. Application of SSDs appears to be a reasonable approach to developing oil product toxicity benchmarks, but additional toxicity data are needed for a larger range of species conducted under standardized test conditions. PMID:23554001

  9. Reliability of Bolton analysis evaluation in tridimensional virtual models

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Marianna Mendonca; Sobral, Marcio Costal; Vogel, Carlos Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at evaluating the reliability of Bolton analysis in tridimensional virtual models, comparing it with the manual method carried out with dental casts. Methods: The present investigation was performed using 56 pairs of dental casts produced from the dental arches of patients in perfect conditions and randomly selected from Universidade Federal da Bahia, School of Dentistry, Orthodontics Postgraduate Program. Manual measurements were obtained with the aid of a digital Cen-Tech 4"(r) caliper (Harpor Freight Tools, Calabasas, CA, USA). Subsequently, samples were digitized on 3Shape(r) R-700T scanner (Copenhagen, Denmark) and digital measures were obtained by Ortho Analyzer software. Results: Data were subject to statistical analysis and results revealed that there were no statistically significant differences between measurements with p-values equal to p = 0.173 and p= 0.239 for total and anterior proportions, respectively. Conclusion: Based on these findings, it is possible to deduce that Bolton analysis performed on tridimensional virtual models is as reliable as measurements obtained from dental casts with satisfactory agreement. PMID:26560824

  10. Dietary Patterns and Wheezing in the Midst of Nutritional Transition: A Study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Cruz, Alvaro Augusto; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; DInnocenzo, Silvana; Barreto, Maurício Lima; da Silva, Luce Alves; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria

    2013-01-01

    To assess the influence of dietary patterns on the prevalence of wheezing in the child and adolescent population in Northeastern Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of male and female students, 6–12 years old, from the public elementary schools of São Francisco do Conde, Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The report of wheezing in the past 12 months was collected using a questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Program phase III, adapted to Portuguese. Consumption patterns were derived from principal component analysis based on the frequency of consumption of 97 food items by the food frequency questionnaire. We also obtained the anthropometric status, level of physical activity, pubertal development, and socioeconomic information, for each participant. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations of interest. Of the children surveyed, 10.6% reported having wheezing. We identified 2 dietary patterns named Western and Prudent. We found a positive statistically significant association of the Western pattern with wheeze (odds ratio=1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.10–2.84) after adjustment for total energy intake and controlling for potential confounders. The results showed that the Western dietary pattern was associated with wheezing. Our result is according with previous findings reported in several other studies. PMID:23555072

  11. Xylocopa bees in tropical coastal sand dunes: use of resources and their floral syndromes.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, N; Gimenes, M; de Miranda, M D; Oliveira-Rebouças, P

    2013-06-01

    Large bees such as species from Xylocopa Latreille are usually associated with pollination in tropical sand dune areas, which frequently present shrubby herbaceous vegetation adapted to conditions of high salinity, high solar radiation and strong winds. We report on the diversity of Xylocopa and the plants they visited to collect nectar and pollen, focusing on the floral syndromes they present in these plants and on the breadth of the trophic niche in a tropical sand dune fragment over the year. The field work was carried out monthly in Baixio (Bahia, Brazil; Northern Coast Environmental Protection Area) from April 2008 to March 2009, over two consecutive days, from 06:30?AM to 05:00?PM. The medium-large body sized Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) cearensis Ducke and Xylocopa (Schonnherria) subcyanea Pérez were noticeable for their frequency, constancy on the flowers and sharing of plant species. Xylocopa spp. visited plants with flowers of different shapes, colors, inflorescence arrangement and syndromes. However, their resource collections were mainly concentrated on Cuphea brachiata, Waltheria cinerascens, Croton sellowii and Chamaecrista ramosa, which may be considered key species for Xylocopa spp. maintenance in coastal sand dune and restinga environments in Northeast Brazil. PMID:23949807

  12. Thermoluminescence dating of Brazilian indigenous ceramics.

    PubMed

    Farias, T M B; Gennari, R F; Etchevarne, C; Watanabe, S

    2009-08-01

    Two indigenous ceramics fragments, one from Lagoa Queimada (LQ) and another from Barra dos Negros (BN), both sites located on Bahia state (Brazil), were dated by thermoluminescence (TL) method. Each fragment was physically prepared and divided into two fractions, one was used for TL measurement and the other for annual dose determination. The TL fraction was chemically treated, divided in sub samples and irradiated with several doses. The plot extrapolation from TL intensities as function of radiation dose enabled the determination of the accumulated dose (D(ac)), 3.99 Gy and 1.88 Gy for LQ and BN, respectively. The annual dose was obtained through the uranium, thorium and potassium determination by ICP-MS. The annual doses (D(an)) obtained were 2.86 and 2.26 mGy/year. The estimated ages were approximately 1375 and 709 y for BN and LQ ceramics, respectively. The ages agreed with the archaeologists' estimation for the Aratu and Tupi tradition periods, respectively. PMID:19617598

  13. Comparative animal and plant toxicities of 10 treated effluents discharged to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Weber, D.E.; Stanley, R.S.

    1998-09-01

    The chemical quality and acute and chronic toxicities of 10 effluents discharged to near-coastal areas in Northwest Florida were determined using standard and nonstandard toxicity tests. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate and compare the toxicities of different types of effluents and to assess the ability of a variety of toxicity tests to differentiate effluent-specific effects. Focus was placed on animal-plant sensitivity comparisons because phytotoxicity is rarely determined for effluents discharged to coastal estuaries. The standard toxicity test organisms included two algae, two invertebrates, and two fish. In addition, effluent toxicity was evaluated using three rapid bioassays and an early-seedling-growth toxicity test. Most concentrations of potentially toxic inorganic and organic contaminants in the effluents were low, a finding that contrasted with the sometimes elevated biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient concentrations. With the exception of their effects on algae, the toxicities of most effluents were considered moderate. Chronic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia and Mysidopsis bahia were observed consistently for five effluents; the lowest first-effect levels were typically 35 or 71% effluent. Inhibitory effects on fish and macrophyte seedling growth were infrequent, as were those determined using the three rapid bioassays. Nine of the ten effluents were either phytotoxic or phytostimulatory to algae; first effects were noted in some cases at effluent concentrations less than 6%.

  14. Semiotic regulation through inhibitor signs: creating a cycle of rigid meanings.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, Elsa; Chaves, Antônio Marcos

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to analyze the process of semiotic regulation in youth transition to adulthood from the perspectives of cultural developmental psychology and dialogical self theory. The focus is on the transformations that occur in youth's self-system configurations during a critical developmental period. In this paper, we will advance the idea that semiotic regulation may lead to the construction of strong signs (i.e. those signs that bring rigidity to personal meaning systems)-and more specifically, of strong inhibitor signs-that block the emergence of alternative meanings, leading to rigidity in the self-system. We present a longitudinal case study of a young man who participated in a social project in Salvador, Bahia to illustrate the process. Data was collected through two rounds of in-depth interviews at ages 18 (1st round) and 21 (2nd round) years. Analysis followed a mapping of positions and counter-positions, as well as emerging tensions and their resolution over time and in different spheres of life (i.e. work, school, and family life). The idea is to show how negotiations of self-positions evolve and activate a mechanism of inhibition of hierarchical integration and construction of alternative future meanings, in which rigid meanings are created and do not allow for emergence of alternative life trajectories. PMID:23188720

  15. A test for evaluating the toxicity of oils, dispersants, and oil biodegradation products to embryos of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio)

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, S.S.; Fisher, W.S.; Chapman, P.J.; Shelton, M.

    1994-12-31

    A test has been developed to determine the toxicity of oil, commercial oil dispersants, and oil biodegradation products to embryos of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. The system has several advantages over traditional toxicity tests: Embryos are exposed separately in glass tubes eliminating interaction between individuals, they do not require feeding, are easily examined, and require low volumes of test toxicant. Additionally, tests can be performed using artificial sea salts and adult P. pugio can be maintained and cultured year round in the laboratory. Toxicity tests demonstrated that oil dispersants increased the toxicity of the water-soluble fraction of No. 2 Fuel Oil with estimated LC50 values approximating those obtained with the 7d chronic tests using Mysidopsis bahia. Embryos exposed to neutral fractions derived by microbial degradation of weathered Prudhoe Bay crude oil showed toxicity of metabolic products at relatively low concentrations and cause virtually 100% mortality within a narrow time interval. P. pugio embryos were especially responsive to oil metabolites, exhibiting high sensitivity and low variability. All tests showed a consistently high survival (90--100%) of control embryos to hatch under a variety of temperatures and salinities; embryos at any given test condition usually hatched within 24h of one another.

  16. Phototoxicity of petroleum products to marine invertebrate larvae and niles

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.; Ho, K.; Kuhn, A; McKinney, R.; Ryba, S.

    1995-12-31

    Ultraviolet light can activate certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), inducing the production of free radicals. In biological organisms these free radicals destroy tissues, causing up to a 4,000 fold increase in toxicity. This dramatic response is a potential marker for PAH contamination in environmental samples. Ultraviolet enhancement of toxicity has ecological relevance as well. An oil spill can release large amounts of PAHs into the marine environment. Oil spill assessments to date have not included observations of any phototoxic effect on pelagic larvae or juveniles of benthic or epibenthic invertebrates. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia were exposed to individual PAHs, as well as the water accommodated fractions of several petroleum products to verify the ability of this method to detect PAHs in environmental samples, and to determine if phototoxicity is a concern during and after an oil spill. Significant phototoxicity was seen in both single chemical and petroleum product exposures. Swartz`s EPAH model was not applicable to the authors` results. They hoped to show causality but were not fully successful due to the need to further develop the model with their species and expand the number of PAH analyzed.

  17. Effects of habitat structure on the epifaunal community in Mussismilia corals: does coral morphology influence the richness and abundance of associated crustacean fauna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Marcos M.; Neves, Elizabeth; Johnsson, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    Coral habitat structures increase abundance and richness of organisms by providing niches, easy access to resources and refuge from predators. Corals harbor a great variety of animals; the variation in coral species morphology contributes to the heterogeneity and complexity of habitat types. In this report, we studied the richness and abundance of crustaceans (Decapoda, Copepoda, Peracarida and Ostracoda) associated with three species of Mussismilia exhibiting different growth morphologies, in two different coral reefs of the Bahia state (Caramuanas and Boipeba-Moreré, Brazil). Mussismilia hispida is a massive coral; M. braziliensis also has a massive growth pattern, but forms a crevice in the basal area of the corallum; M. harttii has a meandroid pattern. PERMANOVA analysis suggests significant differences in associated fauna richness among Mussismilia species, with higher values for M. harttii, followed by M. braziliensis and later by M. hispida. The same trend was observed for density, except that the comparison of M. braziliensis and M. hispida did not show differences. Redundancy and canonical correspondence analysis indicated that almost all of the crustacean species were more associated with the M. harttii colonies that formed a group clearly separated from colonies of M. braziliensis and M. hispida. We also found that the internal volume of interpolyp space, only present in M. harttii, was the most important factor influencing richness and abundance of all analyzed orders of crustaceans.

  18. Environmental control in the uranium mine Lagoa Real, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferro, F S; Fernandes, E A; Sarriés, G A

    1999-01-01

    Uranium production in Brazil will be restarted in the year 2000, through exploration of the Jazida da Cachoeira, located in the uraniferous region of Lagoa Real, Bahia State, northeast Brazil. Because of the mining operations, an open cast mine of approximately 27 x 10(4) m2 will be produced and the material removed will constitute approximately 14 x 10(6) tons, occupying an estimated area of 50 x 10(4) m2. Currently, there is a new concept about project developing, where the impact assessment is addressed during the initial phases. Beside this, legislation requires an environmental impact assessment before starting mining activities. In this context purpose, it is the purpose of this work to evaluate the chemical composition of the future waste; thus, samples were collected from the rocks that surround the mineral deposits. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the elemental quantification, the mean elemental concentrations were calculated, and the ratios were normalized using North American Shale Composite (NASC). In the raw material eight main mineral structures exist whose elementary composition were compared using the statistical techniques of analysis of variance, ranking ANOVA, and multivariate ANOVA. PMID:10676504

  19. Accumulation of chromium in root tissues of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. in Cachoeira river—Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangabeira, P. A. O.; Labejof, L.; Lamperti, A.; de Almeida, A.-A. F.; Oliveira, A. H.; Escaig, F.; Severo, M. I. G.; Silva, D. da C.; Saloes, M.; Mielke, M. S.; Lucena, E. R.; Martins, M. C.; Santana, K. B.; Gavrilov, K. L.; Galle, P.; Levi-Setti, R.

    2004-06-01

    Heavy metals are not biodegradable and enter the food chain through a number of pathways causing progressive toxic actions due to the accumulation in different organs during a life span and long-term exposure to contaminated environments. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to localize chromium in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. ICP-MS was used for the determination of Cr concentrations in water, sediments and plant samples in the Cachoeira basin, Bahia, Brazil. The results obtained by ICP-MS shows abnormally high values of Cr concentrations in water samples (0.38 μg/l), in soil samples (63 μg/g) and 70 μg/g in plant tissue. SIMS results show increased levels of Cr in the root cell wall and xylem vessel, these sites show high Cr accumulation. The ICP-MS data confirm E. crassipes like bioindicator plant. Chemical analysis using ICP-MS, confirms SIMS analysis on the presence of Cr in roots xylem cell walls. The use of ICP-MS, to investigate the same organs as the ones investigated by SIMS, provided complementary results on chromium study.

  20. Characterizing solid phase ammonia toxicity in marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M.; Kuhn, A.

    1994-12-31

    The presence and toxicity of ammonia in sediments represents an interesting scientific and regulatory concern. From a scientific perspective, ammonia toxicity is largely pH dependent and easily detected under special exposure conditions. Regulating the concentration of ammonia is difficult because ammonia concentrations may be elevated by naturally occurring anaerobic sediment bacteria; however, these bacteria may be enhanced by excessive carbon inputs into a system. This presentation will demonstrate progress toward characterizing ammonia toxicity.in solid phase exposure. Toxicity tests were conducted using the mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) and the amphipod (Ampelisca abdita). Results from ammonia spiked and ammonia induced whole marine sediments demonstrate pH dependent toxicity under a graduated pH (7, 8 and 9) testing regime. Several metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) tested under the graduated pH testing regime showed varying toxicity patterns also as a function of pH. Other compounds, the toxicity of which are pH dependent will be discussed. In addition the results of testing with complex environmental sediments containing high ammonia concentrations and other contaminants will be reported.

  1. Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

    2014-01-01

    The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging. PMID:24615028

  2. Laboratory Scale X-ray Fluorescence Tomography: Instrument Characterization and Application in Earth and Environmental Science.

    PubMed

    Laforce, Brecht; Vermeulen, Bram; Garrevoet, Jan; Vekemans, Bart; Hoorebeke, Luc Van; Janssen, Colin; Vincze, Laszlo

    2016-03-15

    A new laboratory scale X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging instrument, based on an X-ray microfocus tube equipped with a monocapillary optic, has been developed to perform XRF computed tomography experiments with both higher spatial resolution (20 μm) and a better energy resolution (130 eV @Mn-Kα) than has been achieved up-to-now. This instrument opens a new range of possible applications for XRF-CT. Next to the analytical characterization of the setup by using well-defined model/reference samples, demonstrating its capabilities for tomographic imaging, the XRF-CT microprobe has been used to image the interior of an ecotoxicological model organism, Americamysis bahia. This had been exposed to elevated metal (Cu and Ni) concentrations. The technique allowed the visualization of the accumulation sites of copper, clearly indicating the affected organs, i.e. either the gastric system or the hepatopancreas. As another illustrative application, the scanner has been employed to investigate goethite spherules from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, revealing the internal elemental distribution of these valuable distal ejecta layer particles. PMID:26891032

  3. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  4. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  5. Impact of Neuropathic Pain at the Population Level

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Ana Shirley Maranhao; Baptista, Abrahao Fontes; Mendes, Livia; Silva, Kamilla Soares; Gois, Sharize Cristine de Araujo; Lima, Flavia Manoela de Almeida; Souza, Israel; Sa, Katia Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the chief complaints of individuals who frequent the Family Health Units is chronic pain which, in Salvador, affects over 40% of the population. However, little is known about the type of pain and its impact on quality of life (QoL) at population level. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of neuropathic pain on QoL in a community. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from March to October 2012, in a Family Health Unit, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The DN-4 (type of pain), body map (location), VAS (intensity) and SF-36 (QoL) instruments were applied. The Chi-square (univariate analysis) and logistic regression (multivariate) tests were used, with IC 95% and P < 0.05. Results In a sample of 191 individuals with chronic pain, predominantly women (86.4%), single (48.7%), nonwhite (93.2%), low educational (46.6%) and low economic (100%) level. The most affected locations of the body were knees, lumbar region and head. In 60.2% of interviewees, neuropathic pain, of high intensity (VAS = 7.09 ± 3.0) predominated, with duration of 8.53 ± 8.8 years and mean QoL was reduced in 47.13%. Conclusions Intense pain in the dorsal region and type of neuropathy are independent predictors for greater compromise of QoL. PMID:24578752

  6. [Sexual violence and co-occurrences suffered by children and adolescents: study of incidents over a decade].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Jacqueline Reiter; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Santos, Clarice Alves; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; do Nascimento, Ohana Cunha

    2014-03-01

    The study analyzes the evolution of the incidence of sexual violence (SV) and co-occurrences between 2001 and 2010. The records of the Guardianship Councils in Feira de Santana, State of Bahia, Brazil were used and the incidence rates and graphs of the events during the period were calculated. Of the total of the different types of violence, 21.8 % involved co-occurrences, the majority being female, most frequently during adolescence. There was a high proportion of abuse in male children, with most offenders bring family members or acquaintances. The incidence of SV revealed an increasing trend in both sexes during the decade, more significantly in females in 2002 and 2009. The age groups indicated the same trend, with a higher proportion of cases in adolescence. The record of co-occurrences with SV was more pronounced in the second half of the decade, namely psychological violence in 2008, neglect in 2008 and physical violence in 2009. The conclusion is that the increase in the coefficients of sexual violence and co-occurrences may indicate an improvement of the reporting system of instances in reference, as well as greater citizen participation through the Dial 100 complaint hotline. The indicators help to prevent and control violence against children. PMID:24714891

  7. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence1

    PubMed Central

    Paixão, Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Lira, Margaret Ollinda de Souza Carvalho e; Carvalho, Milca Ramaiane da Silva; da Silva, Rudval Souza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence. Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011). Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence. Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon. PMID:26487137

  8. Production, extraction and characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by the native Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides R2 strain.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Elinalva M; Boffo, Elisangela F; Branco, Alexsandro; Valente, Angela M M P; Melo, Itamar S; Ferreira, Antonio G; Roque, Milton R A; Assis, Sandra A de

    2012-06-01

    The genus Leuconostoc belongs to a group of lactic acid bacteria usually isolated from fermented vegetables, which includes species involved in the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS). These biopolymers possess considerable commercial potential. Because of the wide variety of industrial applications of EPS, this study aimed to produce and characterize the native exopolysaccharide strain Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides R2, which was isolated from cabbage collected in a semi-arid region of Bahia. We employed the following conditions for the production of EPS: 10.7% sucrose, pH 8.2, without agitation and incubation at 28ºC for 30 hours. The fermentation broth was treated with ethanol and generated two types of polysaccharide substances (EPS I and EPS II). The identification of EPS I and EPS II was conducted using FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C and DEPT-135 NMR spectra. The two substances were identified as linear dextran ? polysaccharides (1 ? 6) which indicated different characteristics with respect to thermal analysis and density of free packaging, viscosity and time of solubilization. Both dextrans are of low density, possess high thermal stability and exhibited the behavior characteristic of pseudoplastic polymers. PMID:22652760

  9. Microsatellite markers for an endemic Atlantic Forest tree, Manilkara multifida (Sapotaceae).

    PubMed

    Moraes, Ramiris C S; Vivas, Caio V; Oliveira, Fernanda A; Menezes, Ivandilson P P; van den Berg, Cassio; Gaiotto, Fernanda A

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara multifida is a tropical tree that is endemic to the Atlantic forests of southern Bahia, Brazil. Currently, populations of this species are restricted to fragmented landscapes that are susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. Considering this issue, and that there is no genetic information available for this endangered species, we developed microsatellite markers for M. multifida to provide resources for future conservation genetics studies. Using an enriched genomic library, we isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite loci and optimized the amplification conditions for M. multifida. For each locus, we estimated the number of alleles, H E and H O, paternity exclusion Q, individual identity I and fixation index F, and examined the presence of null alleles. The mean number of alleles was 11.9, and the heterozygosity was high at all loci (average H E = 0.809 and H O = 0.777). The combined values for both paternity exclusion and individual identity were Q = 0.9959 and I = 5.45 × 10(-11), respectively. No evidence of null alleles was detected. The results of our analysis indicated that all eight microsatellites are promising for assessing questions involving inbreeding, gene flow, co-ancestry and mating patterns in M. multifida. PMID:23487575

  10. Characterization saprobic fungi on leaf litter of two species of trees in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Loise Araujo; Gusmão, Luís Fernando Pascholati

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the composition and structure of fungal communities associated with leaf litter generated by Clusia nemorosa and Vismia guianensis that belong to phylogenetically-related botanical families and exist together in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted during wet (June 2011) and dry (January 2013) seasons in Serra da Jibóia. The fungi were isolated using particle filtration and the 1,832 isolates represented 92 taxa. The wet season yielded the largest number of isolates (1,141) and taxa (76) compared with the dry season (641 isolates and 37 taxa). The richness and diversity of fungal species associated with C. nemorosa (64 taxa, Simpson=0.95)were higher compared with those of V.guianensis (59 taxa, Simpson =0.90). Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) revealed significant variations in the composition and community structure of fungi isolated from the two plants as a function of seasons. In contrast, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis show that the seasonality was an important influence on the distribution of fungal species. However, the populations of the saprobic fungal communities were dynamic, and several factors may influence such communities in the Atlantic Forest. PMID:26691460

  11. Carry-over effects of winter location contribute to variation in timing of nest initiation and clutch size in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, Jason L.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed carry-over effects from winter location on timing of nest initiation and clutch size of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) using observations of individually marked brant breeding at the Tutakoke River colony in Alaska, and wintering along a latitudinal gradient at three areas on the Pacific coast of Baja California: northernmost Bahia San Quintin (BSQ), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and southernmost Laguna San Ignacio (LSI). Black Brant initiated nests according to a north—south trend in winter location, although year was a stronger predictor of initiation date than was wintering site. Female Black Brant that wintered at BSQ initiated nests 2.2 days earlier than females from LSI. Conversely, Black Brant showed only a weak south—north trend in clutch size; individuals from LSI laid slightly larger clutches than individuals from BSQ, probably because a smaller proportion of only high-quality females from the southernmost wintering area in Baja California were able to attain the nutritional condition necessary to breed. These results indicate that winter location can influence individual reproductive performance and, potentially, limit population growth of southern segments of the wintering Black Brant population.

  12. Review on the Precambrian geotectonics of the Brazilian Shield and its correlations within West Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordani, U. G.

    2003-04-01

    Within the Brazilian Shield, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic rocks are widespread in the large Amazonian Craton, as well as in the São Francisco, São Luiz, Rio de La Plata and other smaller cratonic fragments. Archean nuclei are present as granite-greenstone terrains in the Carajás region and in Central Bahia, and as medium to high-grade crustal fragments within younger belts. The Neoproterozoic tectonic provinces of Borborema, Tocantins and Mantiqueira, that include several orogenic belts active between 950 and 520 Ma, are associated to the process of agglutination of West Gondwana. Their correlative tectonic units in West and South-West Africa are the Trans-Saharan, West Congo, Damara, Gariep and Saldania belts. Juvenile, mantle derived, intra-oceanic magmatic arcs are found within the Tocantins province and the Trans-Saharan belt. They are associated to the Transbrasiliano lineament in South America, and indicate the existence of a large oceanic domain separating Amazonia and West-Africa from the São Francisco-Congo craton in the Neoproterozoic. On the other hand, the crustal signature of granitoid rocks suggests that the Neoproterozoic Adamastor ocean may not have been very large, and that the Rio de La Plata and Kalahari cratons were always relatively close together and to the São Francisco-Congo.

  13. [Speech-language pathology formation in the city of Salvador and the consolidation of SUS].

    PubMed

    Lemos, Marcio; Bazzo, Leda Maria Fonseca

    2010-08-01

    The Human Resources in Health (HRH) academic field is recognized as a critical area, which is part of the reorientation process in the health sector. The elaboration of the Unified Health System (SUS) represents challenges to the academic field process, especially regarding new careers such as speech-language pathology. This is related with the lack of awareness regarding collective health and the past history that strengthened the public health policies in Brazil. Yet, the powerful influence of the service model to the spontaneous demand and reabilitation therapy plays another key role in the aspect. The aim was to analyze the academic field of the speech-language pathology profile in the city of Salvador, Bahia State. Documental analysis and coordinator interviews were used to investigate how the public area is characterized in 3 modules. It was noticed little adhesion of the upper level institutions to the legislation of the field; lack of contact between graduating students and collective health, and a teaching-service disconnection. The graduation of the speech therapist was shown incipient regarding SUS's consolidation. Identifying challenges and opportunities of changes in HRH formation in upper level institutions may lead to better levels of aid to the population, quality of education and expansion of theoretical and practical models of knowledge. PMID:20802888

  14. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Costa, Ana L. S.; Conceição, Adilva S.; Moura, Flávia de B. Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426?mg/L and LC50 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94?mg/L, LC50 13.51?mg/L, and LC50 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

  15. Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A.

    2009-01-15

    Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

  16. Microbiological quality and bacterial diversity of the tropical oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in a monitored farming system and from natural stocks.

    PubMed

    Silva Neta, M T; Maciel, B M; Lopes, A T S; Marques, E L S; Rezende, R P; Boehs, G

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological evaluation is one of the most important parameters for analyzing the viability of an oyster farming system, which addresses public health and ecological concerns. Here, the microbiological quality of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae cultivated in a monitored environment and from natural beds in Bahia, northeastern Brazil, was determined. Bacterial diversity in oysters was measured by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Sequence analysis revealed that most bacterial species showed similarity with uncultured or unidentified bacteria from environmental samples, and were clustered into the phylum Proteobacteria. Diverse bacteria from cultivated (monitored) oyster samples were grouped in the same cluster with a high similarity index (above 79%). Microbiological analyses revealed that these oysters did not contain pathogens. These results reflect the natural balance of the microbial communities essential to the maintenance of health and in inhibiting pathogen colonization in the oyster. On the other hand, bacterial diversity of samples from native stocks in extractive areas displayed a similarity index varying between 55 and 77%, and all samples were clustered separately from each other and from the cluster of samples derived from the cultivation area. Microbiological analyses showed that oysters from the extractive area were not fit for human consumption. This reflected a different composition of the microbial community in this area, probably resulting from anthropic impact. Our study also demonstrated that low temperatures and high rainfall limits the bacterial concentration in tropical oysters. This is the first study analyzing the total bacterial community profiles of the oyster C. rhizophorae. PMID:26634543

  17. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina

    2006-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies. PMID:17010204

  18. Biomass, decomposition and nutrient cycling in a SW Atlantic Sarcocornia perennis marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrin, Vanesa L.; Pratolongo, Paula D.; de Villalobos, Ana E.; Botté, Sandra E.; Marcovecchio, Jorge E.

    2015-03-01

    Biomass dynamics, decomposition and nutrient cycling were studied in a Sarcocornia perennis salt marsh in the Bahia Blanca estuary (Argentina) to achieve a better understanding of these processes and provide information about a species and a region underrepresented in the literature. Above and belowground biomass stocks and carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration in plant tissues were monitored every 2 months during a year. The decomposition rate and the concentration of C, N and P during the process were also estimated in above and belowground tissues. Biomass values were low (mean of 363 ± 43 and 242 ± 27 g m- 2 for aboveground and belowground tissues, respectively), presumably associated with the high salinity of this estuary. The general trend of higher values for aboveground biomass is in agreement with other reports for this species and has an effect on nutrients pools, which are higher for aboveground tissues for C and N. Above and belowground decomposition rates were high (64 and 70% after a year, respectively), meaning this process plays a significant role in the cycling of organic matter. C/N and C/P ratios changed during decomposition, but final ratios were usually higher, suggesting a net release of nutrients. Our results indicate that significant amounts of C, N and P are recycled by S. perennis, highlighting the role of this species and suggesting important consequences of its lost in the study area.

  19. Geographical and socioeconomic factors relating to the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection in an urban area of north-east Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    A study was carried out in Santo Antonio de Jesus, a town in Bahia State, north-east Brazil, to determine the relationship between various biological, socioeconomic, behavioural, and geographical factors and the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The town's population was around 45,000 and the study was targeted at all children born in 1970-71 who were living in the town at the time of the survey (August-November 1984). An extensive questionnaire was used to collect information on each child and on family and household conditions; samples of stools were also taken for examination (Kato-Katz method). A survey of water snails was also carried out and information on the distribution of their breeding sites was plotted on a map of the area. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 31.0%. Several variables that reflected different aspects of the population's way of life were strongly associated with the prevalence and the intensity of infection. Some of the findings are valuable for understanding the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of schistosomiasis and its distribution in urban locations as well as for defining high-risk groups, all of which are important for planning control strategies. PMID:1905208

  20. Infestation dynamics of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in citrus orchards as affected by edaphic and climatic variables.

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, Francisco Ferraz; Silva, Suely Xavier de Brito; de Andrade, Eduardo Chumbinho; Almeida, Décio de Oliveira; da Silva, Tibério Santos Martins; Soares, Ana Cristina Fermino; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2015-08-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is a cosmopolitan and polyphagous mite that transmits important phytoviruses, such as coffee ringspot virus, passion fruit green spot virus and Citrus leprosis virus C. To characterise the dynamics of the probability and the rate of B. phoenicis infestation in response to edaphic and climatic factors, monthly inspections were performed in nine orchards in a citrus region of the State of Bahia, Brazil, for 35 months. Three fruits per plant were examined using a magnifying glass (10×) on 21 plants distributed along a "W"-shaped path in each orchard. Meteorological data were collected from a conventional station. To determine the correlations among the climatic variables, the data were analysed using Spearman correlations. Variables were selected by principal component analysis, and those that contributed the most to differentiate the groups were evaluated via a Mann-Whitney test. Using the quantile-quantile method, the limit values for the following climatic variables were determined: temperature (24.5 °C), photoperiod (12 h), relative humidity (83%), evapotranspiration (71 mm) and rainy days (14 days). The combination of longer days, higher temperatures, lower relative humidity levels and lower evapotranspiration increased the probability of B. phoenicis infestation, whereas successive rain events decreased that risk. Infestation rates were negatively affected by relative humidity levels above 83% and were positively affected by a decreasing available soil-water fraction and increasing insolation and photoperiod. PMID:26021609