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1

A successful application of the petroleum system concept in the Camamu basin, offshore Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The characterization of a major petroleum system in the Camamu basin, NE Brazil, was undertaken using a multidisciplinary approach involving geochemical, geological, geophysical and microbiostratigraphic research. This approach has greatly enhanced the level of understanding of the petroleum system concept in the area, allowing the identification of a new exploration target. The hydrocarbons sourced by the lowermost Cretaceous lacustrine fresh to brackish water black shales, started migration during the Early Cretaceous times, continuing up to now in some parts of the basin. The hydrocarbons were accumulated in Lower Cretaceous, Rio de Contas Formation lacustrine sandstone reservoirs, structured during the rifting process, and sealed by deep water lacustrine shales, or trapped in the Dom Joao Stage (Jurassic), Sergi Formation, against the footwall of major regional faults. The geochemical parameters indicate that the Camamu basin is basically oil prone. Mapping the geographic extent of the petroleum system emphasizes the association of the oil fields with the proposed pod of active source rocks. The integration of these data with a 2D-geochemical modelling allowed the prediction and characterization, in time and space, of the petroleum pathways from source to trap in the area. Two major petroleum systems were selected, as the most attractive, in the Camamu Basin: the pre-rift Morro do Barro-Sergi (!) and synrift Morro do Barro-Rio de Contas (!). This approach allowed the identification of a new exploration target, in the latter one, which, after drilling, resulted in a 157 M bbl discovery, and brought a new insight for the hydrocarbon exploration in the basin.

Mello, M.R.; Goncalves, F.T.T. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Netto, A.S.T. [Petrobras, Bahia (Brazil)

1995-08-01

2

Lot sizing and scheduling: industrial extensions and research opportunities Alistair Clark; Bernardo Almada-Lobo; Christian Almeder  

E-print Network

manufacturing. Currently, with changes in the philosophy of production planning and control, along with lean; Bernardo Almada-Lobo; Christian Almeder International Journal of Production Research, 1366-588X, Volume 49 opportunities Production planning and scheduling seeks to efficiently allocate resources while fulfilling

Clark, Alistair

3

The cenozoic aquifer system of the Lower Tagus Basin: a description of the hydrogeological situation in the Almada region (Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual hydrogeological model of the Mio-Pleistocene deposits in the Almada region, located in the Cenozoic aquifer system of the Lower Tagus Basin (Portugal), has been developed. Though numerous studies have been conducted on its geological features, there have not been enough hydrogeological investigations to define the origin, flow path and the groundwater quality and to understand the coexistence of overlapped interacting aquifers. Therefore, a study is presented here on the occurrences and features of groundwater resources in the Almada region based on an inventory in the field (wells, springs and boreholes), physical and chemical analyses, geologic setting, and tectonic and geomorphologic observations. This aquifer system has long been a source of concern because of the high level of extraction over the last few decades, as well as the progressive degradation of the water quality. Available groundwater resources have been affected by intensive agricultural and industrial activity, as a consequence of incorrect or non-existent hydrogeological knowledge.

Malhado Simões Ribeiro, Maria Manuela

2009-06-01

4

Space Radar Image of Bahia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also limited by the nearly continuous cloud cover in the region and heavy rainfall, which occurs more than 150 days each year. The ability of the shuttle radars to 'see' through the forest canopy to the cultivated cacao below -- independent of weather or sunlight conditions --will allow researchers to distinguish forest from cabruca in unprecedented detail. This SIR-C/X-SAR image was produced by assigning red to the L-band, green to the C-band and blue to the X-band. The Una Reserve is located in the middle of the image west of the coastline and slightly northwest of Comandatuba River. The reserve's primary forests are easily detected by the pink areas in the image. The intensity of red in these areas is due to the high density of forest vegetation (biomass) detected by the radar's L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) channel. Secondary forest is visible along the reserve's eastern border. The Serrado Mar mountain range is located in the top left portion of the image. Cabruca forest to the west of Una Reserve has a different texture and a yellow color. The removal of understory in cabruca forest reduces its biomass relative to primary forest, which changes the L-band and C-band penetration depth and returns, and produces a different texture and color in the image. The region along the Atlantic is mainly mangrove swamp, agricultural fields and urban areas. The high intensity of blue in this region is a result of increasing X-band return in areas covered with swamp and low vegetation. The image clearly separates the mangrove region (east of coastal Highway 001, shown in blue) from the taller and dryer forest west of the highway. The high resolution capability of SIR-C/X-SAR imaging and the sensitivity of its frequency and polarization channels to various land covers will be used for monitoring and mapping areas of importance for conservation. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, rega

1994-01-01

5

Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

Reiter, Bernd

2009-01-01

6

Anthropologies of the Urban Periphery: Salvador, Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazilian slums and squatter settlements have acquired a generally unattractive public image that often obscures differences between peripheral urban situations. Based on research in a socially stigmatised neighbourhood of the city of Salvador, Bahia, this paper begins with a broad structural view of the processes that have shaped the situations of its poor residents, from the conservative modernisation led by

Maria Gabriela Hita; John Gledhill

2009-01-01

7

BAHIA GRANDE RESTORATION PROJECT DW14945947  

EPA Science Inventory

The Bahia Grande Restoration Project is located on a 6,000+ acre shallow basin that at one time was inundated with biological resources. The basin supported large flocks of wintering and migratory waterfowl. Also, it contributed to a productive recreational and commercial fishe...

8

Extraction of Urban Morphology Parameters from Generic European Datasets: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. The response of urban societies to the evolving climate depends not only on their regional climate characteristics but also on other local factors such as the urban heat island effect. Simulation of this phenomenon with local urban climate models requires comprehensive information about the urban morphology. This study focusses on the extraction of the planar and frontal area indices from detailed 3D city models and their relationship with the European Soil Sealing Level database from the European Environment Agency. These parameters have been calculated on a 1km2 grid and compared with soil sealing values aggregated at the same spatial resolution. The optimal size of the grid is a trade-off between the level of detail and the robustness of the established relationships by reducing the scatter at small scales. Moreover, the transferability of the results to other geographical areas has been investigated. The analyses have been conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission and include the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. First results show a correlation of 70% between the planar area index and the averaged soil sealing using a linear regression model at a 1km scale. Moreover, a good correspondence has been found between the relationships for Antwerp and Berlin which is promising for urban climate modellers to reduce model complexity and analyse various climate scenarios in an effective way.

Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

2014-05-01

9

Urban Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Europe: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. For example, the summer 2003 European heat wave caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. As around 75% of Europe's population resides in urban areas, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of seasonal to decadal-scale climate variability on urban areas and their populations. This study aims at downscaling the spatially coarse resolution CMIP5 climate predictions to the local urban scale and investigating the relation between heat waves and the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect). The resulting heat stress effect is not only driven by climatic variables but also impacted by urban morphology. Moreover, the exposure varies significantly with the geographical location. All this information is coupled with relevant socio-economic datasets such as population density, age structure, etc. focussing on human health. The analyses are conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. The end-user needs have been consolidated in a climate services plan including the production of heat risk exposure maps and the analysis of various scenarios considering e.g. the uncertainty of the global climate predictions, urban expansion over time and the impact of mitigation measures such as green roofs. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for the design and management of climate resilient cities.

Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

2014-05-01

10

Sedimentology and palaeontology of the Upper Jurassic Puesto Almada Member (Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Fossati sub-basin), Patagonia Argentina: Palaeoenvironmental and climatic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six facies associations are described for the Puesto Almada Member at the Cerro Bandera locality (Fossati sub-basin). They correspond to lacustrine, palustrine, and pedogenic deposits (limestones); and subordinated alluvial fan, fluvial, aeolian, and pyroclastic deposits. The lacustrine-palustrine depositional setting consisted of carbonate alkaline shallow lakes surrounded by flooded areas in a low-lying topography. The facies associations constitute four shallowing upward successions defined by local exposure surfaces: 1) a Lacustrine-Palustrine-pedogenic facies association with a 'conchostracan'-ostracod association; 2) a Palustrine facies association representing a wetland subenvironment, and yielding 'conchostracans', body remains of insects, fish scales, ichnofossils, and palynomorphs (cheirolepidiacean species and ferns growing around water bodies, and other gymnosperms in more elevated areas); 3) an Alluvial fan facies association indicating the source of sediment supply; and 4) a Lacustrine facies association representing a second wetland episode, and yielding 'conchostracans', insect ichnofossils, and a palynoflora mainly consisting of planktonic green algae associated with hygrophile elements. The invertebrate fossil assemblage found contains the first record of fossil insect bodies (Insecta-Hemiptera and Coleoptera) for the Cañadón Asfalto Formation. The succession reflects a mainly climatic control over sedimentation. The sedimentary features of the Puesto Almada Member are in accordance with an arid climatic scenario across the Upper Jurassic, and they reflect a strong seasonality with periods of higher humidity represented by wetlands and lacustrine sediments.

Cabaleri, Nora G.; Benavente, Cecilia A.; Monferran, Mateo D.; Narváez, Paula L.; Volkheimer, Wolfgang; Gallego, Oscar F.; Do Campo, Margarita D.

2013-10-01

11

Acculturation at the La Bahia Mission and Presidio, Goliad, Texas  

E-print Network

ACCULTURATION AT THE LA BAHIA MISSION AND PRESIDIO, GOLIAD, TEXAS A Theses by DIANE KIMBERLEY KLOETZER Submrtted to the Office of Graduate Studres of Texas A&M Universrty rn partral fulfrllment of the requrrements for the degree of MASTER... OF ARTS May 2000 Major Subject: Anthropology ACCULTURATION AT THE LA BAHIA MISSION AND PRESIDIO, GOLIAD, TEXAS A Thesi. s by DIANE KIMBERLEY KLOETZER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Kloetzer, Diane Kimberley

2012-06-07

12

Amerciamysis bahia Stochastic Matrix Population Model for Laboratory Populations  

EPA Science Inventory

The population model described here is a stochastic, density-independent matrix model for integrating the effects of toxicants on survival and reproduction of the marine invertebrate, Americamysis bahia. The model was constructed using Microsoft® Excel 2003. The focus of the mode...

13

PODER JUDICIRIO TRIBUNAL DE JUSTIA DO ESTADO DA BAHIA  

E-print Network

Justiça, torna pública a convocação da candidata sub judice Mariana Ferreira Spina, inscrição nº 10007049 inscrição e nome do candidato em ordem alfabética. INSCRI��O NOME DO CANDIDATO 10007049 Mariana Ferreira Bahia e divulgado na internet, no endereço eletrônico http://www.cespe.unb.br/concursos/tj_bajuiz2012

Maier, Rudolf Richard

14

33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.771 Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico...

2010-07-01

15

Affirmative Action in Higher Education and Afro-Descendant Women in Bahia, Brazil  

E-print Network

Affirmative Action in Higher Education and Afro-Descendant Women in Bahia, Brazil In 2001, the federal government of Brazil under President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1995 - 2003) passed laws to remedy racial and socioeconomic inequality. Responding...

Aubel, Maraci G.

2011-05-31

16

EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY OF EXTRAPOLATION POPULATION MODELING TO PREDICT THE DYNAMICS OF AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA POPULATIONS IN THE LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

An age-classified projection matrix model has been developed to extrapolate the chronic (28-35d) demographic responses of Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia) to population-level response. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this model for predicting t...

17

Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract The taxonomic treatment of Begoniaceae for the state of Bahia, Brazil, led to the recognition of three new species of Begonia with narrow distributions, which are described and illustrated here: Begonia delicata Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a herb restricted to the region of the Recôncavo; Begonia elianeae Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a shrub endemic to the Atlantic forest of the southern part of the state; and Begonia paganuccii Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a subshrub known only from the type material, collected in the Piedmont of Paraguaçu. Notes on morphology, comparisons with morphologically similar species, etymology, geographic distribution, habitat and phenological data for each species are also presented. Furthermore, keys are provided as an aid to separating the new species from congeneric species that occur in their surroundings. Due to the sparse knowledge of the new species, there is as yet insufficient data to accurately assess their conservation status.

Gregório, Bernarda de Souza; Costa, Jorge Antonio Silva; Rapini, Alessandro

2015-01-01

18

Photoenhanced toxicity of weathered oil to Mysidopsis bahia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The toxicity of a water-accommodated fraction (WAF) prepared from weathered oil was assessed in a 7-day static renewal test with Mysidopsis bahia. Weathered oil was collected from the 5 x monitoring well at the Guadalupe oil field. Solar ultraviolet and visible light intensities were measured in various habitats in the vicinity of the weathered oil sample collection site, and the resultant measurements were used to produce laboratory light treatments that were representative of the on-site quality and intensity of natural solar radiation. Each of five WAF dilutions and a control without WAF was tested under three different simulated solar radiation intensities. During the test, survival and growth of the mysids, irradiance, and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in the test treatments were measured. Significant increases (P ??? 0.05) in mortality occurred among mysids exposed to 0.57 and 1.30 mg TPH/l and the effects were potentiated as irradiance increased. Seven-day LC50 (0.92-0.42 mg TPH/l) and LC20 (0.58-0.15 mg TPH/l) values decreased as the simulated solar irradiance increased. Calculated EC20 and EC50 values for mysid growth indicate that surviving mysids exposed to 0.1-1.0 mg TPH/l would incur significant reductions (P ??? 0.05) in productivity (biomass). Results of the present study indicate that effects elicited through the interaction of WAF of weathered oil and solar radiation will substantially increase the toxicity of weathered oil. Further, the photomediated effects of petroleum compounds measured as TPH on mysid survival and growth demonstrate a need to consider the interactions of ultraviolet light and contaminant to avoid under estimating toxicity that might occur in the environment. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Cleveland, L.; Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Barron, M.G.

2000-01-01

19

[Occurrence of Platynosomum illiciens in enclosured wild cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

This paper reports the occurrence of eggs of Platynosomum illiciens, found in the feces of three species of wild cats Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Leopardus tigrinus from material collected at the enclosures of the Park Zoobotânico Getúlio Vargas in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. It is the first record of this parasite in P. onca and L. tigrinus. PMID:19265585

Castro, Letícia S de; Albuquerque, George R

2008-01-01

20

Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

21

Male sleeping aggregation of multiple Eucerini bee genera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Males of some groups of bees have to find a place outside the nests to sleep, sometimes forming “male sleeping aggregations”. Here we report the first record of “dense” male sleeping aggregation of two different genera of Eucerini bees observed in Bahia, Brazil. We discuss the possible aim of this kind of aggregation as well the plant utilized on aggregate. PMID:25349523

Hipólito, Juliana; de Oliveira, Favízia F.

2014-01-01

22

INCREASED REPRODUCTION BY MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) FED WITH ENRICHED ARTEMIA SPP. NAUPLII  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to assess effects of four diets on reproduction by the mysid Mysidopsis bahia in routine culture conditions. wo experiments were performed: the first lasted under semistatic conditions and the second lasted 60 d under flow-through conditions. he objective wa...

23

Effects of the artificial sweetener sucralose on Daphnia magna and Americamysis bahia survival, growth and reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The artificial sweetener sucralose has been detected in municipal wastewater effluent and surface waters at concentrations ranging from ng\\/L to low ?g\\/L. Few chronic ecotoxicological data are available in the peer reviewed literature with respect to sucralose. To address this data gap, 21 d Daphnia magna and 28 d Americamysis bahia (mysid shrimp) studies were conducted to assess the effects

D. B. Huggett; K. I. Stoddard

2011-01-01

24

OCCURANCE OF 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' (MYSIDACEA: MYSIDAE) ON THE ATLANTIC COAST OF FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

Occurrence of Mysidopsis bahia (Mysidacea: Mysidae) is reported on the Atlantic Coast of Florida December 6, 1984. The sighting of 22 specimens (15 females, 4 males and 2 juveniles of undetermined sex) occurred at the Link Port Channel, Ft. Pierce, Florida. Dr. Thomas E. Bowman a...

25

Cabruca its agrobiodiversity potential on small farmers in Southern region of Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Bahia over 200 years ago. This system consists of planting cacao under the shade of trees in the Atlantic rain forest and has on an average 693 cacao plants and 93 trees per hectare. Even though the local community utili...

26

Batkoa apiculata (Thaxter) Humber affecting Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Una, Southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surveys for fungal pathogens affecting adult mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles were conducted in flooded and swamp-like natural breeding sites near residences in the center and suburbs of the city of Una as well as the nearby village of Outeiro in southern Bahia. Surveys of 54 mosquito breeding si...

27

Reconnaissance for radioactive rocks in the Paulo Afonso Region, Bahia, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground and air traverses were made to the northwest, north and northeast of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil, covering Precambrian crystalline rocks and sedimentary rocks of the Jatoba series of Jurassic or Cretaceous age. No important radioactivity anomalies were found; samples from the two strongest anomalies had an equivalent uranium-oxide content of 0.002 percent and 0.006 percent.

Haynes, Donald D.; Mau, Henry

1958-01-01

28

El Niño induced local extinction of coral reef bryozoan species from Northern Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1997–1998 El-Niño Southern Oscillation was the most severe on record and dramatically impacted corals worldwide. However, the effect of this event on the associated community of reef organisms has received much less attention. The composition of the bryozoan assemblage from the coral reefs of Northern Bahia, Brazil were monitored annually from 1995 to 2000, allowing the investigation of the

Francisco Kelmo; Martin J. Attrill; Rilza C. T. Gomes; Malcolm B. Jones

2004-01-01

29

Cabruca agroforests of southern Bahia Brazil: tree component, management, species conservation and sustainability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In southern Bahia, cabruca is the agroforestry system in which cocoa is cultivated under the shade of sparse native forest trees. Aiming to characterize the tree component of this system and its management practices, we conducted an inventory of the non-cocoa trees in 16 ha of cabruca and do intervi...

30

DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS IN AN ESTUARINE OPOSSUM SHRIMP, AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Americamysis bahia is a sensitive, and EPA approved, indicator of estuarine water quality. Genomic DNA, prepared from 200-300 whole adults, was cut and size selected for 400-900 nt. After addition of linkers and PCR enrichment, products were probed with biotinylated di- and tetra- nucleotide probes,...

31

ACUTE TOXICITY OF EIGHT LABORATORY-PREPARED GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute toxicity tests were conducted during August-September 1983 with eight laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (also called muds) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, Florida. Two of t...

32

CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON TWO SPECIES OF MYSID SHRIMP: 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' AND 'MYSIDOPSIS BIGELOWI'  

EPA Science Inventory

Two species of mysid shrimp, the sub-tropical Mysidopsis bahia and the northern temperate Mysidopsis bigelowi, were exposed simultaneously to cadmium (as CdC12) in a continuous-flow bioassay system to determine the effect on survival and reproductive success. Temperature and sali...

33

EFFECTS OF TRIETHYLENE GLYCOL ON 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDACEA) AND 'MENIDIA PENINSULAE' (PISCES: ATHERINIDAE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic effects of triethylene glycol (TEG), a chemical frequently used as a carrier-solvent in toxicity tests, were investigated in a 23-day life-cycle toxicity test with a mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) and in a 28-day early life-stage toxicity test with the tidewater silverside (Men...

34

Relation between denudation history and sediment supply from apatite fission track thermochronology in the northeast Brazilian Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to provide a quantitative overview of Mesozoic-Cenozoic morphotectonic evolution and sediment supply to the northeast Brazilian margin. Landscape evolution and denudation histories for the northeastern Brazilian continental margin (Sergipe, Alagoas, Bahia, and Espírito Santo states) were detailed by apatite fission track thermochronology and thermal-history modeling and related with the sedimentological record of the offshore basins of the passive margin for a comparison with their denudational history. Approximately one hundred basement samples were analyzed from the coast to the inland of the Brazilian margin. The apparent fission track ages vary from 360 to 61 Ma and confined fission track lengths vary between 10 and 14.6 µm, indicating that not all of the samples recorded the same cooling events. The results of apatite fission track ages indicate that the area has been eroded regionally since the Mesozoic (< 250 Ma) and suggest that at less 4 km of overburden has been eroded regionally since the late Cretaceous (< 120 Ma) at a rate of 120 to 15 m/Ma. Two-stage of erosion process is deduced from simulated cooling histories for each sector. The Permian-Early Jurassic exhumation is restricted to the area of the Sertaneja Depression, besides the Diamantina Plateau. During this time, denudation rates are generally <20 m My-1 and record up to 1.5 km of denudation. Pre-rift sedimentation is recorded in the Camamu-Almada, Recôncavo, and Sergipe-Alagoas basins. Samples from the Conquista and Borborema Plateaus, and Mantiqueira Range record a Cretaceous-Paleogene onset of exhumation. This timing is consistent with the offshore sedimentary record, wherein a large clastic wedge started forming in the northeastern Sergipe-Alagoas basin, which suggests Sergipe-Alagoas basin records drainage reorganization and extension of the São Francisco River catchment. Interestingly, the Camamu basin, adjacent to the section of the margin does not record syn/post-rift exhumation, does contain a 6-km thick sedimentary succession, which should thus have been derived from more distal sources. The Neogene final denudation is observed throughout the study area and show conspicuous recent exhumation. The post-rift (<40 Ma) offshore sedimentation rates are generally lower than during preceding phases. This final sedimentary succession is thinner in all basins, consistent with limited onshore erosion during this time.

Jelinek, Andrea; Chemale, Farid; Bueno, Gilmar

2014-05-01

35

The Entomophaga grylli (Fresenius) Batko species complex (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) infecting grasshoppers in Ilheus (Bahia) Brazil: notes and new records  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungi from the Entomophthoraceae (Zygomycotina; Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) belonging to the Entomophaga grylli species complex have been found in the state of Bahia, Brazil, to affect populations of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) of the species Rhammatocerus brasiliensis Bruner, Rhammatoce...

36

[Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) at Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México].  

PubMed

Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahia de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness) and higher diversity (Shannon's index). PMID:18457125

García Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez Ruiz, Migdalia

2007-03-01

37

Photogeologic mapping in central southwest Bahia, using LANDSAT-1 multispectral images. [Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interpretation of LANDSAT multispectral imagery for geologic mapping of central southwest Bahia, Brazil is described. Surface features such as drainage, topography, vegetation and land use are identified. The area is composed of low grade Precambrian rocks covered by Mezozoic and Cenozoic sediments. The principal mineral prospects of economic value are fluorite and calcareous rocks. Gold, calcite, rock crystal, copper, potassium nitrate and alumina were also identified.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Ohara, T.

1981-01-01

38

Schefflera aurata, a new species of Araliaceae from southern Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schefflera aurata, a new species of Araliaceae endemic to the restinga forests of southern Bahia, Brazil, is described and illustrated. It\\u000a is probably related toS. morototoni, but can be distinguished by leaflets with strongly coriaceous blades, cuspidate apices, goldensericeous indument of the\\u000a abaxial surfaces, partial inflorescences with 8–12 subsessile flowers, elongated ovaries, and distinctly larger fruits.

Pedro Fiaschi

2004-01-01

39

Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

de Souza, Tiago Oliveira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

2014-01-01

40

Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

2013-12-01

41

A nonbreeding concentration of Roseate and Common Terns in Bahia, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report recoveries of banded Roseate (Sterna dougallii) and Common (S. hirundo) Terns netted at Mangue Seco, Bahia, Brazil (11? 27'S, 37? 21'W). Mangue Seco is the first reported South American location where large numbers of Roseate Terns concentrate December-March, and where members of both the North American and Caribbean populations occur together during these months. A Roseate Tern recovered at Mangue Seco sets an age record of 25.6 years for the species. Recoveries at Mangue Seco of Common Terns banded in the Azores (37? -38?N, 25? -29?W) suggest there is a regular transatlantic movement by Common Terns between the two locations.

Hays, H.; Lima, P.; Monteiro, L.; DiConstanzo, J.; Cormons, G.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Saliva, J.E.; Spendelow, J.A.; Burger, J.; Pierce, J.; Gochfeld, M.

1999-01-01

42

Trypanosoma cruzi strains from triatomine collected in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Collection of triatomines in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic environments in states of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul, Northeastern and Southern Brazil respectively, and isolation of Trypanosoma cruzi strains. METHODS First, the captured triatomines were identified using insect identification keys, then their intestinal content was examined by abdominal compression, and the samples containing trypanosomatid forms were inoculated in LIT medium and Swiss mice. RESULTS Six triatomine species were collected in cities in Bahia, namely Panstrongylus geniculatus (01), Triatoma melanocephala (11), T. lenti (94), T. pseudomaculata (02), T. sherlocki (26) and T. sordida (460), and two in cities in Rio Grande do Sul, namely T. circummaculata (11) and T. rubrovaria (115). Out of the specimens examined, T. cruzi was isolated from 28 triatomine divided into four different species: T. melanocephala (one), T. lenti (one), T. rubrovaria (16) and T. sordida (10). Their index of natural infection by T. cruzi was 6.4%. CONCLUSIONS The isolation of T. cruzi strains from triatomines found in domestic and peridomestic areas shows the potential risk of transmission of Chagas disease in the studied cities. The maintenance of those T. cruzi strains in laboratory is intended to promote studies that facilitate the understanding of the parasite-vector-host relationship. PMID:24897051

Ribeiro, Aline Rimoldi; Mendonça, Vagner José; Alves, Renata Tomé; Martinez, Isabel; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; Mello, Fernanda; da Rosa, João Aristeu

2014-01-01

43

Hawksbill × loggerhead sea turtle hybrids at Bahia, Brazil: where do their offspring go?  

PubMed Central

Hybridization between hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) breeding groups is unusually common in Bahia state, Brazil. Such hybridization is possible because hawksbill and loggerhead nesting activities overlap temporally and spatially along the coast of this state. Nevertheless, the destinations of their offspring are not yet known. This study is the first to identify immature hawksbill × loggerhead hybrids (n = 4) from this rookery by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 157 immature turtles morphologically identified as hawksbills. We also compare for the first time modeled dispersal patterns of hawksbill, loggerhead, and hybrid offspring considering hatching season and oceanic phase duration of turtles. Particle movements varied according to season, with a higher proportion of particles dispersing southwards throughout loggerhead and hybrid hatching seasons, and northwards during hawksbill season. Hybrids from Bahia were not present in important hawksbill feeding grounds of Brazil, being detected only at areas more common for loggerheads. The genetic and oceanographic findings of this work indicate that these immature hybrids, which are morphologically similar to hawksbills, could be adopting behavioral traits typical of loggerheads, such as feeding in temperate waters of the western South Atlantic. Understanding the distribution, ecology, and migrations of these hybrids is essential for the development of adequate conservation and management plans. PMID:24688839

Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis F.; Marcovaldi, Maria A.; Soares, Luciano S.; Monteiro, Danielle S.; Wijeratne, Sarath; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R.

2014-01-01

44

Bioavailability and Natural Pollution of Heavy Metals in Bahia de Magdalena, Baja California, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the pristine environment of Bahia de Magdalena, Baja California, elevated concentrations of heavy metals have been reported in the biota within the bay, such as sea grasses, blue crabs, and marine turtles. While the hypothesized source of these metals has emphasized anthropogenic inputs from a local fish cannery, geologic enrichment of metals from natural ophiolite formations in the Puerto Magdalena region may be an increasingly feasible source. Total (XRF) chromium and nickel concentrations (max 4,450 ppm and 2,396 ppm, respectively) in rock and soil are orders of magnitude higher than average concentrations in the crust and the beach sands directly impacted by waste discharge from the cannery (mean Cr, 55ppm and mean Ni 17ppm at cannery). Bioavailable (HNO3 acid extracted) metals differ between rock and soil versus cannery-impacted sites. Most notably, Ni is very bioavailable (mean 70% total Ni extracted) in pristine ophiolite areas, but almost completely unavailable at cannery-impacted sites. In contrast, Zn is slightly more bioavailable at the impacted cannery site (mean 55% Zn extracted) than the ophiolite rocks (mean 45% Zn extracted). In addition, these results suggest that while metals, such as Cu, Fe, and Mn, have been previously studied in the biota of the bay, other heavy metals such as Ni and Cr should be included in future biological studies within Bahia de Magdalena.

Lee, W.; O'Shea, B.

2012-12-01

45

Measurement of acute toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia using DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} instrument and protocol  

SciTech Connect

DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} uses a fluorescent dye to permeate the cells of aquatic organisms. The technique has been used on frog embryos, fish embryos, and bovine erythrocytes. Two wavelengths of light are used to excite the fluorescent dye, Di-4-ANEPPS. The blue excitation wavelength measures the cell membrane potential while the yellow excitation wavelength measures the amount of dye loaded into the organisms. The authors applied the technique to the shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, used in marine toxicity testing. The authors used from 1 to 10 shrimp, loaded into a 3 ml spectrofluorometry plastic cuvette. The fluorescent dye, Di-4-ANEPPS, was mixed with the 3 ml of ASW in the cuvette at a final Di-4ANEPPS concentration of 10{sub {minus}6} M. After a thirty minute incubation, the fluorescence of Di-4-ANEPPS was measured in the DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} instrument. A similar protocol was used to test various concentrations of standard assay chemicals and effluents. The test chemical was mixed with ASW and Di-4-ANEPPS and incubated with the shrimp for thirty minutes. After thirty minutes, the fluorescence was measured and compared to the fluorescence of the control shrimp. The authors found that the fluorescence from a single shrimp was detectable and gave similar toxicity data as did the replicates using 10 shrimp. They conclude that the DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} assay can be successfully adapted to marine organisms, particularly Mysidopsis bahia.

Blankemeyer, J.T.; Nguyen, T.; Burks, S.L. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Dept. of Zoology

1994-12-31

46

Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot  

PubMed Central

Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

2014-01-01

47

Occurrence and distribution of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) on the north coast of the State of Bahia Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Abrolhos Bank off Brazil is considered the main breeding ground for the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae )i n the Southwest Atlantic. However, owing to an increase in the occurrence of the species along the north coast of the State of Bahia, it has been suggested that the species is reoccupying that region, which was probably utilized by the whales

Marcos R. Rossi-Santos; Elitieri S. Neto; Clare ncio G. Baracho; Se rgio R. Cipolotti; Enrico Marcovaldi; Marcia H. Engel

48

Leaf phenology and water potential of five arboreal species in gallery and montane forests in the Chapada Diamantina; Bahia; Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of water potential (?W) on the leaf phenological behaviors of five arboreal species within gallery and montane forests on the eastern slope of the Chapada Diamantina Mountain Range in Bahia State, NE Brazil, was examined to investigate the following questions: (1) Do seasonal variations in rainfall influence the water potential of these species in their natural habitats (gallery

Lia d’Afonsêca Pedreira de Miranda; Angela Pierre Vitória; Ligia Silveira Funch

2011-01-01

49

ALTERATIONS IN THE ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) AS INDICATORS OF STRESS FROM CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Various aspects of the energy metabolism of an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) were examined for different life stages during a life-cycle exposure to the organophosphate pesticide fenthion. Dose-response relationships were developed for several metabolic rate functions (oxyge...

50

ACUTE TOXICITY OF TWO GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS AND SIX ADDITIVES, ALONE AND COMBINED, TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity tests were conducted with two laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (muds) and six commonly used drilling fluid additives to determine their toxicity, alone and combined, to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). In 25 tests, the acute toxicity of combinations of one, two, or ...

51

The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

1994-01-01

52

Prospección de hongos Entomophthorales para el control natural de insectos en Bahía, Brasil [Prospecting Entomophthoralean fungi for the natural control of insects in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research on Entomophthorales fungi in southern Bahia State, Brazil, included enzootic and epizootic studies on the dynamics of entomophthoromycosis and their interrelations with insect populations of various insect orders, geographical distributions and incidence on crops, natural grasses and other ...

53

IDADE Pb-Pb E ASPECTOS PETROLÓGICOS DA MINERALIZAÇÃO EM SODALITA AZUL DO MACIÇO NEFELINA-SIENÍTICO ITARANTIM, SUL DO ESTADO DA BAHIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pb-Pb AGE AND PETROOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE BLUE SODALITE MINERALIZATION OF THE ITARANTIM NEPHELINE-SYENITE MASSIF, SOUTHERN STATE OF BAHIA The Itarantim nepheline-syenite massif (220 km 2 ) is a late proterozoic intrusion (727±30 Ma; Rb-Sr) of the southern region of the State of Bahia. It is mostly constituted by nepheline-be aring syenites, with biotite or aegirine, and by alkaline dykes.

HERBET CONCEIÇÃO; MOACIR JOSÉ BUENANO MACAMBIRA; MOACYR MOURA MARINHO; PRISGSHEIM DA CUNHA; RITA CUNHA; LEAL MENEZES

2004-01-01

54

Back pain in adults living in quilombola territories of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with back pain in adults who live in quilombola territories. METHODS A population-based survey was performed on quilombola communities of Vitória da Conquista, state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The sample (n = 750) was established via a raffle of residences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate sociodemographics and employment characteristics, lifestyle, and health conditions. The outcome was analyzed as a dichotomous variable (Poisson regression). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain was of 39.3%. Age ? 30 years and being a smoker were associated with the outcome. The employment status was not related to back pain. CONCLUSIONS The survey identified a high prevalence of back pain in adults. It is suggested to support the restructuring of the local public service in order to outline programs and access to healthy practices, assistance, diagnosis, and treatment of spine problems. PMID:25372165

Santos, Luis Rogério Cosme Silva; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Lima, Eduardo de Paula

2014-01-01

55

[Labor and health conditions of private school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

The scientific literature on teachers' health is scarce, recent, and focuses predominantly on stress and burnout. This study describes the labor conditions of private school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. Information on 250 teachers from the ten largest schools in the municipality was collected through a self-applied questionnaire. The most relevant characteristics of teachers' work, evaluated by the Job Content Questionnaire were: speed of work, creativity at work, and relations with colleagues. The most frequent complaints related to posture, mental strain, and voice problems. Prevalence of minor psychological disorders according to the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 was 41.5%, strongly associated with long periods of intense concentration on the same job and excessive work. Results suggest an association between the prevalence of minor psychological disorders and certain characteristics of teaching work, emphasizing teachers' exposure to stress. PMID:15029320

Delcor, Núria Serre; Araújo, Tania M; Reis, Eduardo J F B; Porto, Lauro A; Carvalho, Fernando M; Oliveira e Silva, Manuela; Barbalho, Leonardo; de Andrade, Jonathan Moura

2004-01-01

56

[Hygiene practices in a street market in the city of Salvador, Bahia State].  

PubMed

The main objective of this research is to understand the meaning of the practices concerning food hygiene in a street market in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State in Brazil. The ethnographic study presents two main categories for symbolic production related to hygiene practices: cleanliness as order and dirtiness as disorder. These cultural codes make correspondence with the studies of Mary Douglas and Nobert Elias. The codes present particularities to decode everyday life, in which concept and hygiene practices are aspects normalized, in daily activity, for persons who share the space of street market: vendors, consumers, street cleaners and official inspectors. The techno-scientific knowledge and sanitary legislation are strange to the symbolic system of street market vendors. The laws are ineffective and their influence is of little importance in the creation of hygiene practices. Official inspectors' attitudes are coercive and punitive and do not take into account any cultural values when enforcing new hygiene practices. PMID:20640322

Minnaert, Ana Cláudia de Sá Teles; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares

2010-06-01

57

Bahia Adair and vicinity, Sonora: modern siliciclastic-dominated arid macrotidal coastline  

SciTech Connect

The northwestern Sonoran coastline, in the vicinity of Bahia Adair, combines several important geologic features. The arid landward environments are dominated by the dunes of the Gran Desierto and the surrounding alluvial fans and ephemeral streams. The Colorado River, whose delta lies to the northwest, has been an important source of sediment until very recently. The high tidal energy of the region has profoundly influenced the distribution and geometries of coastal and shallow-marine sand bodies, and the active tectonic setting has also played a role. The Cerro Prieto splay of the San Andreas fault system has been responsible for local uplift and downwarp and resulting transgression and regression. The intertidal and supratidal zones are dominated by sand and constitute a sand-body type that has been seldom considered by petroleum explorationists or other students of ancient sand bodies, and the associated evaporites are rather different from those described from the superficially analogous Persian Gulf sabkhas.

Lock, B.E.; Sinitiere, S.M.; Williams, L.J.

1989-03-01

58

Evaluation of toxicity of polluted marine sediments from Bahia Salina Cruz, Mexico.  

PubMed

Bahia Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, Mexico is a major center of oil and refined product distribution on the Mexican Pacific coast. From the start of oil industry operations in 1979, negative effects from discharges of treated effluents in the bay have been a constant concern for local communities. We analyzed 28 surface sediment samples obtained in June, 2002 to evaluate the level of toxicity in the littoral zone, port-harbor, and La Ventosa estuary in Bahia Salina Cruz. The extractable organic matter concentration was high (1,213 to 7,505 micro g g(-1)) in 5 of 7 stations from the port and harbor, whereas it was low in 12 of 16 stations in the littoral zone (36 to 98 micro g g(-1)). The total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest (57 to 142 micro g g(-1)) in the port and harbor compared to the La Ventosa estuary and the littoral zone. Among the heavy metals analyzed, cadmium exceeded the effects range-low values associated with adverse biological effects. The geo-accumulation index of sediments was moderate to strong contamination at 5 stations in the nonlittoral and 6 stations in the littoral zone. The enrichment of lead, zinc, and cadmium at 5 stations from the littoral, port, and harbor suggest that these metals are of anthropogenic origin. Bioassay tests of elutriates of sediments on nauplii of Artemia franciscana and Artemia sp. showed that the port and harbor were more toxic than the La Ventosa estuary and the coastal zone. The Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri) did not show a similar response with the solid phase of the sediments. The results of this study indicate that the high levels of organic content and metals in the sediments of port-harbor and the La Ventosa estuary are mainly caused by anthropogenic activities. PMID:20390851

Gonzalez-Lozano, Maria Cristina; Mendez-Rodriguez, Lia C; Maeda-Martinez, Alejandro M; Murugan, Gopal; Vazquez-Botello, Alfonso

2010-01-01

59

[Species of Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) from Southern Bahia State, Brazil, with description of a new species of Paracloeodes day].  

PubMed

Based on collections in five municipalities from southern Bahia, a new species, Paracloeodes quadridentatus sp. n., is described from Brazil. It can be distinguished, among other characteristics, by the presence of three, often four, well developed denticles on the tarsal claws, a characteristic that has never been found in other species of the genus. Besides the description of the new species, the following 14 taxa of Baetidae are recorded for the first time from the State of Bahia: Americabaetis alphus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Americabaetis labiosus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Aturbina georgei Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Baetodes sp., Callibaetis sp., Camelobaetidius francischettii Salles Andrade & Da-Silva, Camelobaetidius lassance Salles & Serrão, Camelobaetidius sp. 1, Camelobaetidius sp. 2, Cloeodes cf. opacus Nieto & Richard, Cryptonympha dasilvai Salles & Francischetti, Spiritiops silvudus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Waltzoyphius fasciatus McCafferty & Lugo-Ortiz e Zelusia principalis Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty. As this is the first survey of Baetidae from Bahia, and it was restricted to the southern part of the state, sampling efforts in other areas are extremely required and should increase considerably the number of species, or even genera, reported from the state. PMID:21120380

Lima, Lucas R C; Salles, Frederico F; Pinheiro, Ulisses S; Quinto, Edilane

2010-01-01

60

Variation of nutrient and metal concentrations in aquatic macrophytes along the Rio Cachoeira in Bahia (Brazil).  

PubMed

The use of cuprous fungicides in cocoa production in the southern part of the state of Bahia (Brazil) for decades has caused an accumulation of copper in various components of the cocoa plantations, and a contamination of regional freshwater ecosystems is suspected. Urban and industrial sources are supposed to contribute to water pollution and eutrophication of the Rio Cachoeira, the main river in this region. In order to study the metal contamination and nutritional status of this freshwater ecosystem, samples of the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were collected at seven sites along the river course. The samples were analysed for their copper, aluminium, chromium, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The levels of heavy metals increased in the downstream direction, particularly in the roots of water hyacinth. A dramatic increase of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in water as well as in plant tissues was found in samples collected downstream from the city of Itabuna. Metal input and eutrophication were attributed to agricultural, industrial and urban sources in the region. Biomonitoring of the water quality using aquatic macrophytes as accumulative indicator plants is recommended in addition to chemical water analyses. PMID:12222613

Klump, Andreas; Bauer, Konrad; Franz-Gerstein, Charis; de Menezes, Max

2002-07-01

61

A new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil (Serpentes: Colubridae).  

PubMed

We describe a new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the highlands of Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all currently recognized congeners by a unique combination of states of characters on coloration, scale counts, scale ornamentation, and hemipenis. The new species closely resembles Chironius flavolineatus (Jan, 1863) in color pattern, but differs from the later taxon by the presence of two to four posterior temporal scales; cloacal shield entire; six to ten rows of keeled dorsal scales at midbody; ventral scales with posterior dark edges forming conspicuous transverse bars along almost the entire venter; conspicuous dark longitudinal stripes (in "zigzag") in the midventral portion of subcaudals; region of medial constriction of hemipenis slightly covered with spinules separating calyces of apex from spines below region of constriction; and sulcus spermaticus situated on convex face of hemipenis in lateral view. The new species is apparently restricted to Chapada Diamantina, corroborating the biological importance of this region from a conservational perspective. PMID:25543653

Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Hamdan, Breno

2014-01-01

62

[Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a semi-arid rural area in Bahia].  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in a semi-arid rural area in Bahia, motivated by the increase of impaired glucose tolerance in rural populations and the scant national data about the occurrence of MS. Total sample involved 240 adults > or = 25 years, randomly selected, 102 (42.5%) men and 138 (57.5%) women, mean age 49.5 +/- 14.9, ranging from 25 to 87 years. Diagnosis was based on the I Diretriz Brasileira de Diagnóstico e Tratamento da SM. Crude prevalence was 30.0% while the age-adjusted prevalence was 24.8%. MS frequency was higher in women (38.4%) than in men (18.6%), more elevated among individuals with age > or = 45 years (41.4%) than among those with age < 45 years (15.9%). Stratification performed according to sex and age revealed higher prevalence among women > or = 45 years (56.9%), probably associated to menopause. Presence of MS in the absence of impaired fasting glycemia and obesity, namely its best-established constituents, suggests the importance of the syndromic diagnosis, indicated by the high predictive value of some isolated metabolic alterations. High prevalence of MS requires attention for the treatment of the whole syndrome, retarding or preventing future consequences, like diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:16936986

de Oliveira, Ernesto P; de Souza, Mirabeau Levi A; de Lima, Maria das Dores A

2006-06-01

63

[Government health planning in the state of Bahia, Brazil: political actors, social interaction and institutional learning].  

PubMed

This article analyzes the process of government planning in health in the state of Bahia in the 2007-2010 period based on the formulation of the State Health Plan. The benchmark adopted involved adaptation of the theoretical model of the cycle of public policy, including analysis of context, characterization of the actors involved, operations conducted in decision making and the strategic means used. The production of information was through the analysis of documents organized in institutional portfolios and records of the planning process in the organization studied. The analysis of results reveals that the political game included "concessions" and "negotiations" regarding changes in the management and organization of the health system, highlighting the discussion on the problems facing the state management of the Unified Health System (SUS) during the period, and the search for alternatives and solutions to these problems. It also reveals the institutional learning acquired, involving managers and technicians who broadened and reinforced their capacity to analyze and formulate proposals around the government agenda. PMID:25184589

Jesus, Washington Luiz Abreu de; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes

2014-09-01

64

Orthopedics nursing patients' profile of a public hospital in Salvador-Bahia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe the profile of patients treated in the trauma and orthopedics nursing of a trauma care referral public hospital of in the state of Bahia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which data were collected from medical records of patients in the period from July to December 2008. RESULTS: The profile of the patients involved was formed by subjects mostly male young subjects, victims of trauma from accidents, especially those with motorcycles or car runover. On the other hand,the most frequent traumas associated with urban violence were perforations by gunshot and stab wounds. The primary injury presented by these individuals was exposed fracture of the femur and the most common treatment was external fixation. The most frequent in-hospital complication was wound infection, which required another surgical approach. Most inpatients were discharged and only one death was reported during this period. CONCLUSION: The results of this study corroborate those from other institutions in the country, which may contribute to elaborate public policies for accidents and violence prevention. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453666

de Castro, Renata Reis Matutino; Ribeiro, Natália Fonseca; de Andrade, Aline Mendonça; Jaques, Bruno Dórea

2013-01-01

65

Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. Methods This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests. Results We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin’s principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form (“pássaro” in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species. Conclusions The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community. PMID:25012812

2014-01-01

66

The occurrence of microdiamonds in Mesoproterozoic Chapada Diamantina intrusive rocks--Bahia/Brazil.  

PubMed

The origin of diamonds from Serra do Espinhaço in Diamantina region (State of Minas Gerais) and in Chapada Diamantina, Lençóis region (State of Bahia) remains uncertain, even taking into account the ample research carried out during the last decades. The lack of typical satellite minerals in both districts makes a kimberlitic source for these diamonds uncertain. In mid 18th century the occurrence of a metamorphosed igneous rock composed of martite, sericite and tourmaline was described in Diamantina region and named hematitic phyllite, considered by some researchers as a possible diamond source. Similar rocks were found in Lençóis and examined petrographically and their heavy mineral concentration was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Petrographic analyses indicated an igneous origin for these rocks and SEM analyses showed the discovery of microdiamonds. Geochronological studies using the Ar/Ar technique in muscovites yielded minimum ages of 1515+/-3 Ma, which may correlate with 1710+/-12 Ma from U-Pb method in igneous zircons from the hematitic phyllites. Both rock types also have the same mineral and chemical composition which leads to the conclusion that the intrusive rocks were protolith of the hematitic phyllites. This first discovery of microdiamonds in intrusive rocks opens the possibility of new investigation models for diamond mineralization in Brazilian Proterozoic terrains. PMID:17625685

Battilani, Gislaine A; Gomes, Newton S; Guerra, Wilson J

2007-06-01

67

Comparative toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia and Palaemonetes pugio.  

PubMed

Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used on agricultural crops, as well as for nurseries, golf courses, urban structural and landscaping sites, residential home and garden pest control, and mosquito abatement. Evaluation of sensitive marine and estuarine species is essential for the development of toxicity testing and risk-assessment protocols. Two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia (mysids) and Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp), were tested with the commonly used pyrethroid compounds, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin. Sensitivities of adult and larval grass shrimp and 7-day-old mysids were compared using standard 96-h LC50 bioassay protocols. Adult and larval grass shrimp were more sensitive than the mysids to all the pyrethroids tested. Larval grass shrimp were approximately 18-fold more sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin than the mysids. Larval grass shrimp were similar in sensitivity to adult grass shrimp for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin, but larvae were approximately twice as sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin as adult shrimp. Acute toxicity to estuarine crustaceans occurred at low nanogram per liter concentrations of some pyrethroids, illustrating the need for careful regulation of the use of pyrethroid compounds in the coastal zone. PMID:23364944

DeLorenzo, Marie E; Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Fulton, Michael H

2014-10-01

68

Source and Fate of Sediments in the Bahia de Anasco, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments and wastewater mix in the insular marine waters of the Bah'{i}a de Añasco near Mayag{u}ez, Puerto Rico. Trace metal concentrations in fine sediments deposited in the bay were measured to assess potential impact of the ocean outfall on the biota and habitats that include coral reefs. A Q-mode factor analysis of elemental compositions identified three sediment sources and their relative proportions in 51 core and surficial samples collected from the bay and within the coral reefs: (1) sediments discharged by the R'{i}o Grande de Añasco; (2) calcareous skeletal remains; and (3) sediments discharged by the R'{i}o Guanajibo. The nickel and chromium derived from laterite deposits provide a unique fingerprint for sediments discharged from the R'{i}o Guanajibo. Naturally occurring concentrations of these elements exceed Probable Effect Limits (PEL's: 42 mg/kg for nickel and 160 mg/kg for chromium) in sediments deposited near the river mouth. The detection of mercury at 1 mg/kg in one sample from a core recovered near the wastewater outfall was the only indication of a possible outfall source in the data set. The temporal and spatial variations in source fractions proved useful in determining relative frequencies of historic floods and steady-state circulation patterns off the west coast of Puerto Rico.

Webb, R. M.

2005-12-01

69

Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 ?m, 250-53 ?m, and <53 ?m)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

2010-02-01

70

Genetic diversity of Burkholderia (Proteobacteria) species from the Caatinga and Atlantic rainforest biomes in Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The genus Burkholderia (?-Proteobacteria) currently comprises more than 60 species, including parasites, symbionts and free-living organisms. Several new species of Burkholderia have recently been described showing a great diversity of phenotypes. We examined the diversity of Burkholderia spp in environmental samples collected from Caatinga and Atlantic rainforest biomes of Bahia, Brazil. Legume nodules were collected from five locations, and 16S rDNA and recA genes of the isolated microorganisms were analyzed. Thirty-three contigs of 16S rRNA genes and four contigs of the recA gene related to the genus Burkholderia were obtained. The genetic dissimilarity of the strains ranged from 0 to 2.5% based on 16S rDNA analysis, indicating two main branches: one distinct branch of the dendrogram for the B. cepacia complex and another branch that rendered three major groups, partially reflecting host plants and locations. A dendrogram designed with sequences of this research and those designed with sequences of Burkholderia-type strains and the first hit BLAST had similar topologies. A dendrogram similar to that constructed by analysis of 16S rDNA was obtained using sequences of the fragment of the recA gene. The 16S rDNA sequences enabled sufficient identification of relevant similarities and groupings amongst isolates and the sequences that we obtained. Only 6 of the 33 isolates analyzed via 16S rDNA sequencing showed high similarity with the B. cepacia complex. Thus, over 3/4 of the isolates have potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:23546947

Santini, A C; Santos, H R M; Gross, E; Corrêa, R X

2013-01-01

71

New geological model of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites from Bahia (Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New evidence supported by petrography (including mineral chemistry), lithogeochemistry, U-Pb geochronology by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and physicochemical study of fluid and melt inclusions by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry, point to an orogenic setting of Lagoa Real (Bahia-Brazil) involving uraniferous mineralization. Unlike the previous models in which uraniferous albitites represent Na-metasomatised 1.75 Ga anorogenic granitic rocks, it is understood here that they correspond to metamorphosed sodium-rich and quartz-free 1.9 Ga late-orogenic syenitic rocks (Na-metasyenites). These syenitic rocks are rich not only in albite, but also in U-rich titanite (source of uranium). The interpretation of geochemical data points to a petrogenetic connection between alkali-diorite (local amphibolite protolith) and sodic syenite by fractional crystallization through a transalkaline series. This magmatic differentiation occurred either before or during shear processes, which in turn led to albitite and amphibolite formation. The metamorphic reactions, which include intense recrystallization of magmatic minerals, led uraninite to precipitate at 1.87 Ga under Oxidation/Reduction control. A second population of uraninites was also generated by the reactivation of shear zones during the 0.6 Ga Brasiliano Orogeny. The geotectonic implications include the importance of the Orosirian event in the Paramirim Block during paleoproterozoic S?o Francisco Craton edification and the influence of the Brasiliano event in the Paramirim Block during the West-Gondwana assembly processes. The regional microcline-gneiss, whose protolith is a 2.0 Ga syn-collisional potassic granite, represents the albitite host rock. The microcilne-gneiss has no petrogenetic association to the syenite (albitite protolith) in magmatic evolutionary terms.

de Oliveira Chaves, Alexandre

2013-09-01

72

New geologic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies on the controversial Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit, Carajás Province, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit in the Carajás Province, Brazil, is hosted by steeply dipping metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Igarapé Bahia Group. This group consists of a low greenschist grade unit of the Archean (˜2,750 Ma) Itacaiúnas Supergroup, in which other important Cu-Au and iron ore deposits of the Carajás region are also hosted. The orebody at Igarapé Bahia is a fragmental rock unit situated between chloritized basalt, with associated hyaloclastite, banded iron formation (BIF), and chert in the footwall and mainly coarse- to fine-grained turbidites in the hanging wall. The fragmental rock unit is a nearly concordant, 2 km long and 30-250 m thick orebody made up of heterolithic, usually matrix-supported rocks composed mainly of coarse basalt, BIF, and chert clasts derived from the footwall unit. Mineralization is confined to the fine-grained matrix and comprises disseminated to massive chalcopyrite accompanied by magnetite, gold, U- and light rare earth element (LREE)-minerals, and minor other sulfides like bornite, molybdenite, cobaltite, digenite, and pyrite. Gangue minerals include siderite, chlorite, amphibole, tourmaline, quartz, stilpnomelane, epidote, and apatite. A less important mineralization style at Igarapé Bahia is represented by late quartz-chalcopyrite-calcite veins that crosscut all rocks in the deposit area. Fluid inclusions trapped in a quartz cavity in the ore unit indicate that saline aqueous fluids (5 to 45 wt% NaCl + CaCl2 equiv), together with carbonic (CO2 ± CH4) and low-salinity aqueous carbonic (6 wt% NaCl equiv) fluids, were involved in the mineralization process. Carbonates from the fragmental layer have ?13C values from -6.7 to -13.4 per mil that indicate their origin from organic and possibly also from magmatic carbon. The ?34S values for chalcopyrite range from -1.1 to 5.6 per mil with an outlier at -10.8 per mil, implying that most sulfur is magmatic or leached from magmatic rocks, whereas a limited contribution of reduced and oxydized sulfur is also evident. Oxygen isotopic ratios in magnetite, quartz, and siderite yield calculated temperatures of ˜400°C and ?18O-enriched compositions (5 to 16.5 per mil) for the ore-forming fluids that suggest a magmatic input and/or an interaction with 18O-rich, probably sedimentary rocks. The late veins of the Igarapé Bahia deposit area were formed from saline aqueous fluids (2 to 60 wt% NaCl + CaCl2 equiv) with ?18Ofluid compositions around 0 per mil that indicate contribution from meteoric fluids. With respect to geological features, Igarapé Bahia bears similarity with syngenetic, volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS)-type deposits, as indicated by the volcano-sedimentary geological context, stratabound character, and association with submarine volcanic flows, hyaloclastite, and exhalative beds such as BIF and chert. On the other hand, the highly saline ore fluids and the mineral assemblage, dominated by magnetite and chalcopyrite, with associated gold, U- and LREE-minerals and scarce pyrite, indicate that Igarapé Bahia belongs to the Fe oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) group of deposits. The available geochronologic data used to attest syngenetic or epigenetic origins for the mineralization are either imprecise or may not represent the main mineralization episode but a later, superimposed event. The C, S, and O isotopic results obtained in this study do not clearly discriminate between fluid sources. However, recent B isotope data obtained on tourmaline from the matrix of the fragmental rock ore unit (Xavier, Wiedenbeck, Dreher, Rhede, Monteiro, Araújo, Chemical and boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from Archean and Paleoproterozoic Cu-Au deposits in the Carajás Mineral Province, 1° Simpósio Brasileiro de Metalogenia, Gramado, Brazil, extended abstracts, CD-ROM, 2005) provide strong evidence of the involvement of a marine evaporitic source in the hydrothermal system of Igarapé Bahia. Evaporite-derived fluids may explain the high salinities and the low reduced sulfur mineral paragenesis observed in the deposit. Evaporite

Dreher, Ana M.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Taylor, Bruce E.; Martini, Sérgio L.

2008-02-01

73

Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 1: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

1991-10-01

74

Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 2: Technical report  

SciTech Connect

On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

1991-10-01

75

Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78?years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State. PMID:22449069

2012-01-01

76

[Notes on fleas (Siphonaptera) of the fox Cerdocyon thous (Canidae) from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Jacobina, Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

From July to September of 1998, 152 fleas were collected from 18 specimens of the fox Cerdocyon thous captured in the visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Jacobina, State of Bahia, Brazil. The fleas were identified as: 136 Rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi, 11 Pulex irritans, 2 Ctenocephalides canis, 1 Ctenocephalides felis felis and 2 Xenopsylla cheopis. PMID:10881126

Cerqueira, E J; Silva, E M; Monte-Alegre, A F; Sherlock, I A

2000-01-01

77

Taphonomy and time-averaging of foraminiferal assemblages in Holocene tidal flat sediments, Bahia la Choya, Sonora, Mexico (northern Gulf of California)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraminiferal reproduction and preservation have been studied in Holocene tidal flat sediments of Bahia la Choya, Sonora, Mexico (northern Gulf of California). Foraminiferal reproduction at Choya Bay tends to occur in discrete (~ a few weeks) seasonal pulses, which are then followed by periods of homogenization and dissolution of several months duration. Foraminiferal number (number of tests\\/gram sediment) increases northward

Ronald E. Martin; M. Scott Harris; W. David Liddell

1995-01-01

78

“Shark is the man!”: ethnoknowledge of Brazil’s South Bahia fishermen regarding shark behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background Fishermen’s knowledge is a source of indispensable information in decision-making processes related to efforts to stimulate the management and conservation of fishing resources, especially in developing countries. This study analyzed the knowledge of fishermen from three municipal areas of Bahia in northeast Brazil regarding the behavior repertoire of sharks and the possible influence that these perceptions may have on the inclination to preserve these animals. This is a pioneering study on the ethnobiological aspects of elasmobranchs in Brazil. Methods Open, semi-structured interviews with shark fishing specialists were conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The interviews addressed the fishermen’s profile, fishing techniques and knowledge about sharks, focusing on the behaviours exhibited by sharks. The data were analysed with quantitative approach and conducted with the use of descriptive statistical techniques. Results Sixty-five fishermen were interviewed. They descend from the rafting subculture of Brazil’s northeast, which has historically been disregarded by public policies addressing the management and conservation of fishing resources. The fishing fleet involved in shark fishing includes rafts, fishing boats and lobster boats equipped with fishing lines, gillnets, longlines and “esperas”. The informers classified sharks’ behaviour repertoire into 19 ethological categories, related especially to feeding, reproduction, and social and migratory behaviours. Because they identify sharks as predators, the detailed recognition of the behaviours exhibited is crucial both for an efficient catch and to avoid accidents. Therefore, this knowledge is doubly adaptive as it contributes to safer, more lucrative fishing. A feeling of respect for sharks predominates, since informers recognize the ecological role of these animals in marine ecosystems, attributing them the status of leader (or “the man”) in the sea. Conclusions This work demonstrates the complexity and robustness of artisanal fishermen’s ichthyological knowledge of sharks. Therefore, we suggest that such knowledge should be considered to develop public policies for the control of the fishing activity, as well as to develop and consolidate the National Action Plan for the Conservation of Shark and Ray Species (PAN - Tubarões e Raias). PMID:24994466

2014-01-01

79

Assessment of computer techniques for processing digital LANDSAT MSS data for lithological discrimination of Serra do Ramalho, State of Bahia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enhancement techniques and thematic classifications were applied to the metasediments of Bambui Super Group (Upper Proterozoic) in the Region of Serra do Ramalho, SW of the state of Bahia. Linear contrast stretch, band-ratios with contrast stretch, and color-composites allow lithological discriminations. The effects of human activities and of vegetation cover mask and limit, in several ways, the lithological discrimination with digital MSS data. Principal component images and color composite of linear contrast stretch of these products, show lithological discrimination through tonal gradations. This set of products allows the delineations of several metasedimentary sequences to a level superior to reconnaissance mapping. Supervised (maximum likelihood classifier) and nonsupervised (K-Means classifier) classification of the limestone sequence, host to fluorite mineralization show satisfactory results.

Paradella, W. R. (principal investigator); Vitorello, I.; Monteiro, M. D.

1984-01-01

80

[Conflicting situations in the reception of oral health teams from the Family Health Program in Alagoinhas, Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

The study discusses the conflicting situations that arise while receiving oral health teams in Alagoinhas, Bahia, Brazil. The main orientation for the Family Health Program is based on analyzing health care work flowcharts. The current qualitative research used semi-structured interviews and practical observation as the data collection techniques. There were 17 study subjects: group I (dentists and dental assistants - 6); group II (other health workers - 6); and group III (users - 5). Users' first contact with the family health team is in the reception, often in a tense and conflicting atmosphere, but with the potential for alternatives for change, as a privileged space for the use of low-key technologies. The therapeutic process varies: e.g. clinical consultation, emergency care, scheduled follow-up, and referral to other health services in the system. However, oral health teams conduct the reception process in different ways, depending on the practitioners' commitment and unique characteristics. PMID:17187106

Dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Assis, Marluce Maria Araújo; Rodrigues, Ana Aurea Alécio de Oliveira; do Nascimento, Maria Angela Alves; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa

2007-01-01

81

Frequency and foraging behavior of Apis mellifera in two melon hybrids in Juazeiro, state of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to verify if there are differences in foraging frequency and behavior of Apis mellifera in two melon hybrids (10:00 - 'Yellow melon' and Sancho -'Piel de Sapo') in the municipality of Juazeiro, state of Bahia, Brazil. The frequency, behavior of visitors and the floral resource foraged were registered from 5:00 am to 6:00 pm. There was a significant difference in the frequency of visits when comparing hydrids (F = 103.74, p <0.0001), floral type (F = 47.25, p <0.0001) and resource foraged (F = 239.14, p <0.0001). The flowers of Sancho were more attractive to A. mellifera when compared with hybrid 10:00, which may be correlated to the morphology and floral resources available. This could be solved with scaled planting, avoiding the overlapping of flowering of both types. PMID:25295739

Kiill, Lúcia H P; Siqueira, Kátia M M; Márcia S, Coelho; Silva, Tamires A; Gama, Diego R S; Araújo, Diego C S; Pereira Neto, Joaquim

2014-10-01

82

Magnetic anomalies in Bahia Esperanza: A window of magmatic arc intrusions and glacier erosion over the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bahia Esperanza, constituting the NE tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, is made up of Paleozoic clastic sedimentary rocks overlain by a Jurassic volcano-sedimentary series and intruded by Cretaceous gabbros and diorites. The area is located along the southern part of the Pacific Margin magnetic anomaly belt. Field magnetic researches during February 2010 contribute to determining the deep geometry of the intermediate and basic intrusive rocks. Moreover, the new field data help constrain the regional Pacific Margin Anomaly, characterized up to now only by aeromagnetic and marine data. Field magnetic susceptibility measurements of intrusive intermediate and basic rocks, responsible for magnetic anomalies, ranges from 0.5 × 10- 3 SI in diorites to values between 0.75 × 10- 3 SI and 1.3 × 10- 3 SI in gabbros. In addition, a significant remanent magnetism should also have contributed to the anomalies. The regional magnetic anomaly is characterized by a westward increase from 100 nT up to 750 nT, associated with large intrusive diorite bodies. They probably underlie most of the western slopes of Mount Flora. Gabbros in the Nobby Nunatak determine local residual rough anomalies that extend northwards and westwards, pointing to the irregular geometry of the top of the basic rocks bodies below the Pirámide Peak Glacier. However, the southern and eastern boundaries with the Buenos Aires Glacier are sharp related to deep glacier incision. As a result of the glacier dynamics, magnetic anomalies are also detected north of the Nobby Nunatak due to the extension of the anomalous body and the presence of gabbro blocks in the moraines. The Bahia Esperanza region is a key area where onshore field geological and magnetic research allows us to constrain the shape of the crustal igneous intrusions and the basement glacier geometry, providing accurate data that complete regional aeromagnetic research.

Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Ruiz-Constán, Ana; Pedrera, Antonio; Ghidella, Marta; Montes, Manuel; Nozal, Francisco; Rodríguez-Fernandez, Luis Roberto

2013-02-01

83

Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

2012-04-01

84

Hercynite–quartz-bearing granulites from Brejões Dome area, Jequié Block, Bahia, Brazil: Influence of charnockite intrusion on granulite facies metamorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we describe and discuss the geology of aluminous–magnesian granulites and associated garnet-bearing charnockitic granulite from the Brejões Dome area, located in the Jequié Block, part of the São Francisco Craton in Bahia, Brazil. Investigation of metamorphic mineral assemblages allows the evaluation of P–T conditions for the formation of these rocks, and therefore to obtain constraints for

Johildo Barbosa; Christian Nicollet; Carlson Leite; Jean-Robert Kienast; Reinhardt A. Fuck; Eron Pires Macedo

2006-01-01

85

The lipid composition, fluidity, and Mg 2+ ATPase activity of rice ( Oryza sativa L. cv. Bahia) shoot plasma membranes: effects of ABA and GA 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six-day-old rice plants (Oryza sativa L., cv Bahia) were grown for 5 days more in nutrient solution culture containing 10?5 M abscisic acid (ABA) or gibberellic acid (GA3) (treated plants). Plasma membrane (PM) vesicles were isolated from the shoots of treated or control plants, and ATPase hydrolytic\\u000a and proton-pumping activity, fluidity, and free sterol and phospholipid composition were determined. Both

C. Martínez-Cortina; R. Ros; D. T. Cooke; C. S. James; A. Sanz

1992-01-01

86

Impact of the Family Health Program on gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Northeast Brazil: an analysis of primary care-sensitive conditions  

PubMed Central

In seeking to provide universal health care through its primary care-oriented Family Health Program, Brazil has attempted to reduce hospitalization rates for preventable illnesses such as childhood gastroenteritis. We measured rates of Primary Care-sensitive Hospitalizations and evaluated the impact of the Family Health Program on pediatric gastroenteritis trends in high-poverty Northeast Brazil. We analyzed aggregated municipal-level data in time-series between years 1999-2007 from the Brazilian health system payer database and performed qualitative, in-depth key informant interviews with public health experts in municipalities in Bahia. Data were sampled for Bahia’s Salvador microregion, a population of approximately 14 million. Gastroenteritis hospitalization rates among children aged less than five years were evaluated. Declining hospitalization rates were associated with increasing coverage by the PSF (P=0.02). After multivariate adjustment for garbage collection, sanitation, and water supply, evidence of this association was no longer significant (P=0.28). Qualitative analysis confirmed these findings with a framework of health determinants, proximal causes, and health system effects. The PSF, with other public health efforts, was associated with decreasing gastroenteritis hospitalizations in children. Incentives for providers and more patient-centered health delivery may contribute to strengthening the PSF’s role in improving primary health care outcomes in Brazil. PMID:23932060

Monahan, Laura J.; Calip, Gregory S.; Novo, Patricia; Sherstinsky, Mark; Casiano, Mildred; Mota, Eduardo; Dourado, Inês

2013-01-01

87

Vtor C. Almada 20.04.195027.09.2013  

E-print Network

, he clearly felt much better on a beach, a mountain river bank or a forest. Vítor was an enthusiastic and biogeography. Scores of Portuguese stu- dents of behaviour, ecology or phylogeny (present writ- er included

88

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Raw Meats and Prepared Foods in Public Hospitals in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study investigated the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw meat and fish and foods prepared from them for patient consumption in public hospitals in Salvador, Bahia, in northeastern Brazil. A total of 114 samples of raw meat and fish (chicken, n = 30; beef, n = 30; pork, n = 24; and fish, n = 30) and 63 samples of prepared foods (made with chicken, n = 15; beef, n = 15; pork, n = 15; and fish, n = 18) were collected from the kitchens of 10 different hospitals. Of the 114 investigated raw meat and fish samples, 28.1% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 23.3% beef, 23.3% chicken, 37.5% pork, and 30% fish samples. Of the prepared foods, 9.5% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 5.6% chicken products, 6.7% pork products, and 22.2% fish products. MRSA contamination was not detected in prepared beef dishes. A statistical analysis showed no association between the presence of MRSA and the type of raw food (P > 0.05). The high prevalence of MRSA among the raw foods tested and the presence of the microorganism in prepared foods emphasizes the necessity of enforcing hygienic practices within hospital kitchens. PMID:25472504

Costa, Wellington Luis Reis; Ferreira, Jeane Dos Santos; Carvalho, Joelza Silva; Cerqueira, Ellayne Souza; Oliveira, Lucimara Cardoso; Almeida, Rogeria Comastri de Castro

2015-01-01

89

[Impact of the Water for All Program (PAT) on childhood morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in the Bahia State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the Water for All Program (PAT), launched in Bahia State, Brazil, with the objective of expanding coverage of the water supply and sanitation in areas with high vulnerability to waterborne diseases. A total of 224 municipalities (counties) with adequate vital statistics were selected. A controlled before-and-after study design was used, performing analyses with multivariate negative binomial regression with fixed effects, from 2005 to 2008. PAT coverage - as a continuous variable - was negatively associated (p < 0.01) with the under-five mortality rate. Municipalities with coverage ? 10% showed a reduction of 39% (p < 0.05) in mortality from diarrhea, under-five mortality of 14% (p < 0.01), and hospitalizations from diarrhea of 6% (p < 0.05) when compared to municipalities without PAT or with lower coverage, having adjusted for confounding. No effects were found on external causes of mortality, used as a control. When focused on highly vulnerable areas, water and sanitation programs can have an important impact in reducing health inequalities in the population. PMID:23370023

Rasella, Davide

2013-01-01

90

Opportunistic responses of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) populations following the 1997 98 El Niño event in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a seven year (1995-2001) study on the coral reefs in Bahia (Brazil), the reef invertebrate community being severely impacted by the 1997-98 El Niño Southern Oscillation event. Despite local extinction of some taxa, the urchin Diadema antillarum was the only species out of a total of 678 enumerated demonstrating a significant increase in population size following El Niño, indicating a unique response of this species to the stresses associated with these events. Other species of echinoid did not show such a response, most disappearing from the fauna during the two post-El Niño years. The increasing Diadema numbers were most likely due to movement of individuals onto the reef systems from deeper water, exploiting the conditions on the reefs caused by a reduction in competitors and, we speculate, an increase in available space on the reef allowing potential algal settlement to sustain this elevated urchin population. This increased grazing pressure may have prevented algae covering the reef, as seen in other Atlantic reef systems, allowing new coral settlement in 2001.

Attrill, Martin J.; Kelmo, Francisco

2007-06-01

91

[Breastfeeding duration, infant feeding regimes, and factors related to living conditions in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study aimed to identify breastfeeding duration, infant feeding regimes, and factors related to living conditions among 811 children under 24 months of age in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Data were statistically analyzed by survival analysis, Pearson's chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression. Median duration of exclusive, predominant, and total breastfeeding was 30.6, 73.0, and 131.5 days, respectively. Exclusive or predominant breastfeeding was discontinued in 83.6% of the subjects. Children with poor living conditions were 2.3 times more likely (95%CI: 1.09-5.01) to receive early supplementary food, whereas the figure for the very poor increased to 2.5 (95%CI: 1.20-5.34). Early exclusive or predominant breastfeeding discontinuation was associated with early pregnancy and poor living conditions of the children and their families. Programs directed towards proper breastfeeding and healthy feeding practices in childhood should consider the social factors associated with early introduction of supplementary foods in this population. PMID:16158158

de Oliveira, Lucivalda P Magalhães; Assis, Ana Marlúcia O; Gomes, Gecynalda Soares da Silva; Prado, Matildes da S; Barreto, Maurício L

2005-01-01

92

Structural variations among monocot emergent and amphibious species from lakes of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Temporary lakes are common in the semi-arid region of the State of Bahia and form water mirrors in the rainy season. In this period, various vegetal species appear having different life forms adapted to the seasonality conditions of the rainfall regime. This work surveyed the adaptive anatomical structures of some emergent and amphibious monocot species occurring in these lakes. We studied the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves and scapes of Cyperus odoratus, Oxycaryum cubense, Pycreus macrostachyos (Cyperaceae) - amphibious species; and of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae) and Habenaria repens (Orchidaceae) - emergent species. The anatomical features of the dermal, fundamental and vascular systems confirming the tendency of the adaptive convergence of these plants to temporary lacustrine the environment include: single layered epidermal cells with a thin cuticle layer in the aerial organs; the presence of air canals in all the organs; few or no supporting tissues; and less numerous conducting elements and thinner cell walls in the xylem. The reduction of the supporting tissues, the number of stomata, which can even be absent, and the number of conducting elements and the degree of cell wall lignification in the xylem of the emergent species is more accentuated than that of the amphibious species. The pattern of distribution of aerenchyma in the roots of the studied species was considered important to distinguish between amphibious and emergent life forms. PMID:22437397

Leite, K R B; França, F; Scatena, V I

2012-02-01

93

[The evolution of mortality by homicide in the State of Bahia in the period from 1996 to 2010].  

PubMed

An ecological study was conducted, the objective of which was to describe the evolution of homicide rates for residents of the State of Bahia, Brazil, and its nine health macroregions (MRS) in the period from 1996 to 2010. Crude and adjusted data from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and X85-Y09 codes of the Tenth International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) were analyzed. The number, proportion and homicide mortality rates (TMH) were analyzed. considering the characteristics of the victim and the event. The results revealed a profile of predominantly male mortality, Afro-Brazilian race/ethnicity with little education. The public highways were the main location of occurrence of deaths. There was an increase in TMH in all age groups, though the highest rates were observed in the population of 15 to 39 years of age. The TMH age-standardized rates were higher in the Far South, East, North and South. The conclusion reached was that the killings can be addressed from the loation/regional realities through strategic and planning of intersectoral actions that take into account the socioeconomic and cultural characteristics. PMID:24897488

Souza, Tiago Oliveira de; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach

2014-06-01

94

Bird-spiders (Arachnida, Mygalomorphae) as perceived by the inhabitants of the village of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

This paper deals with the conceptions, knowledge and attitudes of the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, on mygalomorph spiders locally known as 'caranguejeiras' (bird-spiders). It is launched here a new filed within ethnozoology: ethnoarachnology, which is defined as the transdisciplinary study of the relationships between human beings and bird-spiders. Data were collected from February to June 2005 by means of open-ended interviews carried out with 30 individuals, which ages ranged from 13 to 86 years old. It was recorded some traditional knowledge regarding the following items: taxonomy, biology, habitat, ecology, seasonality, and behavior. Results show that bird-spiders are classified as "insects". The most commented aspect of the interaction between bird-spiders and inhabitants of Pedra Branca is related to their dangerousness, since they said these spiders are very venomous and can cause health problems. In general, the traditional zoological knowledge of Pedra Branca's inhabitants concerning these spiders is coherent with the academic knowledge. PMID:17101055

Neto, Eraldo M Costa

2006-01-01

95

Frequency of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris) are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the parasite. A total of 272 feline serum samples (134 from feral and 138 from house cats) were subjected to an indirect fluorescent antibody test using cultured merozoites of S. neurona as antigen. Positivity was detected in 4.0% (11/272) of the tested samples, with titers ranging from 25 to 800. The feline sera were also tested for antibodies against the protozoan Neospora caninum, with an observed antibody frequency of 2.9%. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to report antibodies against S. neurona in Brazilian cats. We conclude that cats are exposed to the parasite in the region of this study. Further investigations are needed to confirm the role of cats in the transmission cycle of S. neurona in Brazil. PMID:25517534

Meneses, Iris Daniela Santos de; Andrade, Müller Ribeiro; Uzêda, Rosângela Soares; Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Lindsay, David Scott; Gondim, Luís Fernando Pita

2014-12-01

96

Cost-Effective Control of Plant Disease When Epidemiological Knowledge Is Incomplete: Modelling Bahia Bark Scaling of Citrus  

PubMed Central

A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify—the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule—are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

Neri, Franco M.; DeSimone, R. Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A.

2014-01-01

97

Parasites of three commercially exploited bivalve mollusc species of the estuarine region of the Cachoeira river (Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil).  

PubMed

This paper reports the parasites found in three commercially exploited bivalve molluscs (Mytella guyanensis, Anomalocardia brasiliana and Iphigenia brasiliana) of an estuarine region of Ilhéus, south of Bahia, Brazil (14 degrees 48'23''S; 39 degrees 02'47''W). Samples of 20 individuals of each species were collected fortnightly from August 2005 to August 2006. A total of 1480 individuals was collected and processed by standard histologic techniques; the histologic sections were stained with Harris haematoxylin and eosin and examined with light microscope. The water temperature in the study area varied from 24 to 30.5 degrees C and the salinity from 0 to 23ppt. Remarkable differences were found in the parasitic community between the three mollusc species involved in the study, which occupied different habitats in the estuarine region of the Cachoeira river. The following parasites were found: intracellular rickettsia-like colonies in digestive epithelia; intracellular gregarine Nematopsis sp. in gills, mantle, gonad, digestive gland and foot muscle; sporocysts of a Bucephalidae trematode in gonads, mantle, gills, digestive gland and foot; unidentified digenetic metacercariae in digestive gland and gonad; metacestodes of Tylocephalum sp. in connective tissue in the digestive gland and in gonad; and an unidentified metazoan in mantle and intestinal lumen. No significant temporal variation in the prevalence of any parasite was detected, which could be due to the narrow temperature range of the region and the absence of patterns of salinity and rainfall variation through the year. The infestation by sporocyst was the only pathological threat detected for the studied populations because of its potential for host castration. The low infection intensity and/or prevalence of the other parasites and the lack of obvious lesions suggest that there is no other serious pathological risk for the studied mollusc populations. PMID:19850046

Boehs, Guisla; Villalba, Antonio; Ceuta, Liliane Oliveira; Luz, Joaldo Rocha

2010-01-01

98

Population dynamics of Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) and other mites associated with coconut fruits in Una, state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Aceria guerreronis Keifer is a major coconut pest in the Americas, Africa and some Asian countries, and occurs in high population levels in northeastern Brazil. The determination of the climatic conditions that favorably affect its population growth and the prevalence and abundance of predatory mites can promote more efficient control practices. Our objective was to evaluate the pattern of occurrence and population dynamics of A. guerreronis, their associated predators and other mites during a 2 year period in a hybrid coconut plantation in the municipality of Una, state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Monthly samples of fruits were taken from June 2008 to May 2010 for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of mites. Aceria guerreronis represented 99.9 % of the mites. An average density of 1,117 mites per fruit and a maximum of 23,596 mites per fruit indicated that the level of infestation can be high in Bahia. Bdella ueckermanni Hernandes, Daud and Feres was the most abundant and frequent predator. Population increase of A. guerreronis was directly related to the temperature rise and inversely related to both the increase of air relative humidity and rainfall. The highest population densities occurred from November to March. The largest A. guerreronis populations occurred in fruits with 32 and 48 % of damaged surface. The relationship between prevailing wind direction and incidence of A. guerreronis could not be corroborated or refuted. PMID:22669276

de Souza, Izabel V; Gondim, Manoel G C; Ramos, Ana Luisa R; dos Santos, Emerson A; Ferraz, Marcelo I F; Oliveira, Anibal R

2012-11-01

99

INTERACTIONS AMONG SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, AND AGE ON GROWTH OF THE ESTUARINE MYSID MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA REARED IN THE LABORATORY THROUGH A COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE - I. BODY MASS AND AGE-SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

A broad range of salinity-temperature conditions (salinities from 3 to 31 o/oo and temperatures from 19 to 31 degrees C) significantly influenced growth rates and subsequent biomass of the estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, reared in the laboratory from the first free juvenile st...

100

Isolation, pathogenicity and disinfection of Staphylococcus aureus carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Currently, hospital infection is a serious public health problem, and several factors may influence the occurrence of these infections, including the presence of insects, which are carriers of multidrug-resistant bacterial species. The aim of this study was to isolate staphylococci carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia and to identify the resistance profile, pathogenicity and efficacy of disinfection of the premises. A total of 91 insects were collected in 21 strategic points of these hospitals, and 32 isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. Based on antibiogram and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration results, 95% of these strains were susceptible to oxacillin. These strains were also evaluated for the presence of resistance genes encoding resistance to oxacillin/methicillin by polymerase chain reaction, but the sample was negative for this gene. Pathogenicity tests were performed in vitro biofilm formation induced by glucose, where it was found that eight (27.58%) strains were classified as biofilm producers and 21 (72.4%) as stronger producers. In addition, we performed PCR for their virulence genes: Sea (enterotoxin A), SEB (B), Sec (C), PVL (Panton-Valentine Leukocidin), ClfA (clumping factor A) and Spa (protein A). Of these, Sea, Spa PVL were positive in 7 (21.8%), 2 (6.3%) and 1 (3.1%) samples, respectively. The analysis of cytokine induction in the inflammatory response of J774 macrophages by isolates from the two hospitals did not show statistical difference at the levels of IL-6, TNF-?, IL-1 and IL-10 production. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial activity of disinfecting agents on these strains, quaternary ammonium, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, Lysoform(®), 70% alcohol solution of chlorhexidine digluconate, 2% peracetic acid, and 100% vinegar. Resistance was seen in only for the following two disinfectants: 70% alcohol in 31 (96.8%) samples tested and vinegar in 30 (93.8%) samples. The study demonstrated the presence of resistant and pathogenic organisms conveyed by insects, thus suggesting improvement in efforts to control these vectors. PMID:24216155

Oliveira, Pollianna S; Souza, Simone G; Campos, Guilherme B; da Silva, Danilo C C; Sousa, Daniel S; Araújo, Suerda P F; Ferreira, Laiziane P; Santos, Verena M; Amorim, Aline T; Santos, Angelita M O G; Timenetsky, Jorge; Cruz, Mariluze P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M

2014-01-01

101

Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen’s reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40’59”S and 38°56’38”W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary - the region’s main river - at 5.5?m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size. Behaviours described were compatible with the observations made in situ and with data found in the scientific literature, confirming the importance of traditional knowledge in complementing scientific data. One behaviour mentioned by the fishermen that had no equivalence in the scientific literature was confirmed in situ and, therefore, constitutes the first record for this species. PMID:22584063

2012-01-01

102

Mineralogical and textural evidences of melt transfer in a granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In pelitic rocks, the effect of melt transfer (loss and/or gain) on phase relations can be successfully predicted via phase equilibrium modeling and more particularly using pseudosections with bulk composition as a variable (e.g. White et al., 2001). One of the most obvious effect of melt loss is the dehydration of the rock that limits further melting and favors the preservation of peak metamorphic assemblage. However, in most cases, melt loss has a limited effect that can be hardly seen mineralogically. Indeed, composition of phases like garnet, cordierite or plagioclase, that are first-order metamorphic phase, will not be affected significantly by melt loss. Therefore, evidences of melt extraction must be evidenced texturally. The goal of this contribution is to present an example where both mineralogical and textural evidences of melt extraction have been inferred. The studied sample is a pelitic granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). It is located in the city of Salvador da Bahia, next to the Farol da Bara. Structurally, it is located in a steeply deeping high strain zone that could have play a major role on the segregation and transfer of melt. The gneissic foliation is marked by a compositional banding with centimer-wide quartzo-feldspathic leucosomes in a garnet-bearing granulite. Leucosomes are almost systematically surrounded by a darker layer that is quartz-undersaturated and enriched in spinel and primatic sillimanite. This silica undersaturation is interpreted as the effect of extreme melt extraction and was modeled using phase diagram section. An interesting feature of the rock is that garnet grain size decreases and the number of garnet grains increases in the melanosome away from the leucosome. Furthermore, the type, amount and shape of inclusions in garnet, chemical composition and zoning in garnet also varies greatly and continuously across the gneissic foliation. Texturally, the presence of former melt consists on thin films along grain boundaries, melt pools that are much more abundant in the silica-undersaturated domain close to the leucosome.

Goncalves, Philippe; Santos de Souza, Jailma; Barbosa, Johildo; Bourque, Hugo; Floess, David

2014-05-01

103

Long-term Change in Eelgrass Distribution at Bahi??a San Quinti??n, Baja California, Mexico, using Satellite Imagery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seagrasses are critically important components of many marine coastal and estuarine ecosystems, but are declining worldwide. Spatial change in distribution of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., was assessed at Bahi??a San Quinti??n, Baja California, Mexico, using a map to map comparison of data interpreted from a 1987 Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre multispectral satellite image and a 2000 Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapping image. Eelgrass comprised 49% and 43% of the areal extent of the bay in 1987 and 2000, respectively. Spatial extent of eelgrass was 13% less (-321 ha) in 2000 than in 1987 with most losses occurring in subtidal areas. Over the 13-yr study period, there was a 34% loss of submerged eelgrass (-457 ha) and a 13% (+136 ha) gain of intertidal eelgrass. Within the two types of intertidal eelgrass, the patchy cover class (<85% cover) expanded (+250 ha) and continuous cover class (???85% cover) declined (-114 ha). Most eelgrass losses were likely the result of sediment loading and turbidity caused by a single flooding event in winter of 1992-1993. Recent large-scale agricultural development of adjacent uplands may have exacerbated the effects of the flood. Oyster farming was not associated with any detectable losses in eelgrass spatial extent, despite the increase in number of oyster racks from 57 to 484 over the study period.

Ward, D.H.; Morton, A.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Douglas, D.C.; Carrera-Gonzalez, E.

2003-01-01

104

Predicting the toxicity of major ions in seawater to mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside minnow (Menidia beryllina)  

SciTech Connect

Although marine organisms are naturally adapted to salinities well above those of freshwater, elevated concentrations of specific ions have been shown to cause adverse effects on some saltwater species. Because some ions are also physiologically essential, a deficiency of these ions can also cause significant effects. To provide a predictive tool to assess toxicity associated with major ions, mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside minnows (Menidia beryllina) were exposed to saline solutions containing calcium, magnesium, potassium, strontium, bicarbonate, borate, bromide, and sulfate at concentrations above and below what would be found in seawater. Solution salinity was maintained at approximately 31% by increasing or decreasing sodium and chloride concentrations. Logistic regression models were developed with both the ion molar concentrations and ion activity. Toxicity to all three species was observed when either a deficiency or an excess of potassium and calcium occurred. Significant mortality occurred in all species when exposed to excess concentrations of magnesium, bicarbonate, and borate. The response to the remaining ions varied with species. Sheepshead minnows were the most tolerant of both deficient and elevated levels of the different ions. Mysid shrimp and inland silverside minnows demonstrated similar sensitivities to several ions, but silverside minnow response was more variable. As a result, the logistic models that predict inland silverside minnow survival generally were less robust than for the other two species.

Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Caudle, D.D.; Tietge, J.E.; Evans, J.M.

2000-01-01

105

Radiometric quality and performance of TIMESAT for smoothing moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer enhanced vegetation index time series from western Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua platforms in 1999 and 2002, respectively, with temporal resolutions of 1 to 2 days opened the possibility of using a longtime series of satellite images to map land use and land cover classes from different regions of the Earth, to study vegetation phenology, and to monitor regional and global climate change, among other applications. The main objectives of this study were twofold: to analyze the radiometric quality of the time series of enhanced vegetation index (EVI) products derived from the Terra MODIS sensor in western Bahia State, Brazil, and to identify the most appropriate filter to smooth MODIS EVI time series of the study area among those available in the public domain, the TIMESAT algorithm. The 2000 to 2011 time period was considered (a total of 276 scenes). The radiometric quality was analyzed based on the pixel reliability data set available in the MOD13Q1 product. The performances of the three smoothing filters available within TIMESAT (double logistic, Savitzky-Golay, and asymmetric Gaussian) were analyzed using the Graybill's F test and Willmott statistics. Five percent of the MODIS pixels from the study area were cloud-affected, almost all of which were from the rainy season. The double logistic filter presented the best performance.

Borges, Elane F.; Sano, Edson E.; Medrado, Euzébio

2014-01-01

106

Pollen types and levels of total phenolic compounds in propolis produced by Apis mellifera L. (Apidae) in an area of the Semiarid Region of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Twenty-two propolis samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in an area of the Semiarid region the the State of Bahia (Agreste of Alagoinhas), Brazil, were palynologically analyzed and quantified regarding their levels of total phenolic compounds. These samples were processed using the acetolysis technique with the changes suggested for use with propolis. We found 59 pollen types belonging to 19 families and 36 genera. The family Fabaceae was the most representative in this study with nine pollen types, followed by the family Asteraceae with seven types. The types Mikania and Mimosa pudica occurred in all samples analyzed. The types Mimosa pudica and Eucalyptus had frequency of occurrence above 50% in at least one sample. The highest similarity index (c. 72%) occurred between the samples ER1 and ER2, belonging to the municipality of Entre Rios. Samples from the municipality of Inhambupe displayed the highest (36.78±1.52 mg/g EqAG) and lowest (7.68 ± 2.58 mg/g EqAG) levels of total phenolic compounds. Through the Spearman Correlation Coefficient we noticed that there was a negative linear correlation between the types Mimosa pudica (rs = -0.0419) and Eucalyptus (rs = -0.7090) with the profile of the levels of total phenolic compounds of the samples. PMID:24676176

Matos, Vanessa R; Alencar, Severino M; Santos, Francisco A R

2014-03-01

107

Evaluation of criteria for selecting the spectral attributes of digital LANDSAT MSS imagery for discriminating lithological units in the lower Curaca River Valley, Bahia. [Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of spectral attributes criteria was investigated, based on measures of statistical distance of separability between thematic classes in MSS digital LANDSAT imagery, in order to select the best subsets of channels in composite colors for the detection and discrimination of lithological units in the lower valley of Curaca River, State of Bahia, Brazil. Three situations were investigated: (1) selection of the three best channels, considering all of the original bands (channels 4, 5, 6, and 7); (2) selection of the three best bands, considering the six MSS band-ratios (channels 4/5, 4/6. 4/7, 5/6, 5/7, and 6/7); and (3) selection of the three best bands in a hybrid approach (the four original bands and the six ratios). A visual analysis was done on color composite images using the selected sets. Results show that the hybrid product (bands 4, 5/7, and 7 with green, blue, and red respectively) and the Normal Color Composite (bands 4, 5, and 7 with blue, green, and red colors respectively) had the best performance.

Paradella, W. R. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

108

Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).  

PubMed

This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals. PMID:22889428

De Zordo, Silvia

2012-01-01

109

Capture and commercialization of blue land crabs ("guaiamum") Cardisoma guanhumi (Lattreille, 1825) along the coast of Bahia State, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach  

PubMed Central

Background Blue Land Crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) is one of the most important crustacean species captured and commercialized in Brazil. Although this species is not considered to be threatened with extinction, populations of C. guanhumi are known to be rapidly diminishing due to heavy harvesting pressures and degradation of their natural habitats, highlighting the necessity of developing and implanting management and protection strategies for their populations. There have been no ethnozoological publications that have focused specifically on C. guanhumi, in spite of importance of this type of information for developing efficient management plans of resource utilization. So, the present work describes the ethnoecological aspects of the capture and commercialization of C. guanhumi by a fishing community in northeastern Brazil. Methods Field work was carried out in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia in Brazil, between the months of January and March/2011 through the use of open semi-structured interviews with all of the crustacean harvesters in city who acknowledged their work in capturing this species, totaling 12 interviewees. The informants were identified through the use of the "snowball" sampling technique. In addition to the interviews themselves, the "guided tour" technique and direct observations was employed. Results According all the interviewees, the C. guanhumi is popularly called "guaiamum" and is collected in "apicum" zones. They recognize sexual dimorphism in the species based on three morphological characteristics and the harvesters also pointed two stages in the reproductive cycle during the year and another phase mentioned by the interviewees was ecdysis. All of the interviewed affirmed that the size and the quantities C. guanhumi stocks in Mucuri have been diminishing. All of the interviewees agreed that the species and other mangrove resources constituted their principal source of income. The harvesters dedicated three to five days a week to collect Blue Land Crabs and the principal technique utilized for capturing is a trap called a "ratoeira" (rat-trap). Conclusions The results of the present work demonstrated that the community retains a vast and important volume of knowledge about C. guanhumi that could subsidize both scientific studies and the elaboration of viable management and conservation strategies for this species. PMID:22429762

2012-01-01

110

Tectonic fabric revealed by AARM of the proterozoic mafic dike swarm in the Salvador city (Bahia State): São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fabric and rock magnetism studies were performed on 25 unmetamorphosed mafic dikes of the Meso-Late Proterozoic (˜1.02 Ga) dike swarm from Salvador (Bahia State, NE Brazil). This area lies in the north-eastern part of the São Francisco Craton, which was dominantly formed/reworked during the Transamazonian orogeny (2.14-1.94 Ga). The dikes crop out along the beaches and in quarries around Salvador city, and cut across both amphibolite dikes and granulites. Their widths range from a few centimeters up to 30 m with an average of ˜4 m, and show two main trends N140-190 and N100-120 with vertical dips. Magnetic fabrics were determined using both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). The magnetic mineralogy was investigated by many experiments including remanent magnetization measurements at variable low temperatures (10-300 K), Mössbauer spectroscopy, high temperature magnetization curves (25-700 °C) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rock magnetism study suggests pseudo-single-domain magnetite grains carrying the bulk magnetic susceptibility and AARM fabrics. The magnetite grains found in these dikes are large and we discard the presence of single-domain grains. Its composition is close to stoichiometric with low Ti substitution, and its Verwey transition occurs around 120 K. The main AMS fabric recognized in the swarm is so-called normal, in which the Kmax- Kint plane is parallel to the dike plane and the magnetic foliation pole ( Kmin) is perpendicular to it. This fabric is interpreted as due to magma flow, and analysis of the Kmax inclination permitted to infer that approximately 80% of the dikes were fed by horizontal or sub-horizontal flows ( Kmax < 30°). This interpretation is supported by structural field evidence found in five dikes. In addition, based on the plunge of Kmax, two mantle sources could be inferred; one of them which fed about 80% of the swarm would be located in the southern part of the region, and the other underlied the Valéria quarry. However, for all dikes the AARM tensors are not coaxial with AMS fabrics and show a magnetic lineation (AARM max) oriented to N30-60E, suggesting that magnetite grains were rotated clockwise from dike plane. The orientation of AARM lineation is similar to the orientation of a system of faults in which the Salvador normal fault is the most important. These faults were formed during Cretaceous rifting in the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá assemblage that corresponds to an aborted intra-continental rift formed during the opening of the South Atlantic. Therefore, the AARM fabric found for the Salvador dikes is probably tectonic in origin and suggests that the dike swarm was affected by the important tectonic event responsible for the break-up of the Gondwanaland.

Raposo, M. Irene B.; Berquó, Thelma S.

2008-04-01

111

Gas geochemistry of a shallow submarine hydrothermal vent associated with the El Requeso??n fault zone, Bahi??a Concepcio??n, Baja California Sur, Me??xico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated hydrothermal gas venting associated with a coastal fault zone along the western margin of Bahi??a Concepcio??n, B.C.S., Me??xico. Copious discharge of geothermal liquid (??? 90 ??C) and gas is occurring in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones (to a depth of 13 m) through soft sediments and fractures in rocks along a ???750 m linear trend generally sub-parallel to an onshore fault near Punta Santa Barbara. Hydrothermal activity shows negative correlation with tidal height; temperatures in the area of hydrothermal activity were up to 11.3 ??C higher at low tide than at high tide (measured tidal range ??? 120 cm). Gas samples were collected using SCUBA and analyzed for chemical composition and stable isotope values. The main components of the gas are N2 (??? 53%; 534 mmol/mol), CO2 (??? 43%; 435 mmol/mol), and CH4 (??? 2.2%; 22 mmol/mol). The ??13C values of the CH4 (mean = - 34.3%), and the ratios of CH4 to C2H6 (mean = 89), indicate that the gas is thermogenic in origin. The carbon stable isotopes and the ??15N of the N2 in the gas (mean = 1.7%) suggest it may be partially derived from the thermal alteration of algal material in immature sedimentary organic matter. The He isotope ratios (3He/4He = 1.32 RA) indicate a significant mantle component (16.3%) in the gas. Here, we suggest the name El Requeso??n fault zone for the faults that likely formed as a result of extension in the region during the late Miocene, and are currently serving as conduits for the observed hydrothermal activity. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Forrest, M.J.; Ledesma-Vazquez, J.; Ussler, W., III; Kulongoski, J.T.; Hilton, D.R.; Greene, H. Gary

2005-01-01

112

Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along approximately 150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dendê were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches. PMID:18256899

Santos, Isaac R; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção

2009-01-01

113

Salvador Da Bahia: A "Modern" Imperial Rome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The city of Rome is situated on seven hills along the Tiber River. It developed from a series of small villages into numerous city-states, then to a Republic, and finally into an Empire, which covered several million miles. Thousands of miles away from Rome on another continent is Brazil, which measures 3,268,470 square miles in area. This article…

Hobbs, Vivian L.

2004-01-01

114

A contribution to regional stratigraphic correlations of the Afro-Brazilian depression - The Dom João Stage (Brotas Group and equivalent units - Late Jurassic) in Northeastern Brazilian sedimentary basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dom João Stage comprises an interval with variable thickness between 100 and 1200 m, composed of fluvial, eolian and lacustrine deposits of Late Jurassic age, based mainly on the lacustrine ostracod fauna (although the top deposits may extend into the Early Cretaceous). These deposits comprise the so-called Afro-Brazilian Depression, initially characterized as containing the Brotas Group of the Recôncavo Basin (which includes the Aliança and the Sergi Formations) and subsequently extended into the Tucano, Jatobá, Camamu, Almada, Sergipe, Alagoas and Araripe Basins in northeastern Brazil, encompassing the study area of this paper. The large occurrence area of the Dom João Stage gives rise to discussions about the depositional connectivity between the basins, and the real extension of sedimentation. In the first studies of this stratigraphic interval, the Dom João Stage was strictly associated with the rift phase, as an initial stage (decades of 1960-70), but subsequent analyses considered the Dom João as an intracratonic basin or pre-rift phase - without any relation to the active mechanics of a tectonic syn-rift phase (decades of 1980-2000). The present work developed an evolutionary stratigraphic and tectonic model, based on the characterization of depositional sequences, internal flooding surfaces, depositional systems arrangement and paleoflow directions. Several outcrops on the onshore basins were used to build composite sections of each basin, comprising facies, architectural elements, depositional systems, stratigraphic and lithostratigraphic frameworks, and paleocurrents. In addition to that, over a hundred onshore and offshore exploration wells were used (only 21 of which are showed) to map the depositional sequences and generate correlation sections. These show the characteristics and relations of the Dom João Stage in each studied basin, and they were also extended to the Gabon Basin. The results indicate that there were two main phases during the Dom João Stage, in which distinctive sedimentary environments were developed, reflecting depositional system arrangements, paleoflow directions were diverse, and continuous or compartmented basins were developed.

Kuchle, Juliano; Scherer, Claiton Marlon dos Santos; Born, Christian Correa; Alvarenga, Renata dos Santos; Adegas, Felipe

2011-04-01

115

[Health survey in Quilombola communities (descendants of Afro-Brazilian slaves who escaped from slave plantations that existed in Brazil until abolition in 1888) in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia (COMQUISTA Project), Brazil: methodological aspects and descriptive analysis].  

PubMed

The scope of this article was to present the methodology, preliminary descriptive results and the reliability of the instruments used in the COMQUISTA Project. It involved a cross-sectional study with adults (>18 years) and children (up to 5 years old) of Quilombola communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia. Data collection consisted of individual and household interviews, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. A semi-structured questionnaire adapted from the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS) was used and the interviews were conducted using handheld computers. 397 housing units were visited and 797 adults and 130 children were interviewed. The demographic profile of the Quilombolas was similar to the Brazilian population with respect to sex and age, however, they had precarious access to basic sanitation and a low socioeconomic status. The analysis of reliability revealed the adequacy of strategies adopted for quality assurance and control in the study. The methodology used was considered adequate to achieve the objectives and can be used in other populations. The results indicate the need for implementing strategies to improve the quality of life and reduce the degree of vulnerability of the Quilombolas. PMID:24897483

Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Medeiros, Danielle Souto de; Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Souzas, Raquel; Giatti, Luana; Steffens, Ana Paula; Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Souza, Cláudio Lima; Moura, Cristiano Soares de; Soares, Daniela Arruda; Santos, Luis Rogério Cosme Silva; Cardoso, Luiz Gustavo Vieira; Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos de; Martins, Poliana Cardoso; Neves, Orlando Sílvio Caires; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

2014-06-01

116

Palaeogeographic evolution of the central segment of the South Atlantic during Early Cretaceous times: palaeotopographic and geodynamic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Early Cretaceous rift of the central segment of the South Atlantic Ocean is debated. Our objective is to better constraint the timing of its evolution by drawing palaeogeographic and deformation maps. Eight palaeogeographic and deformations maps were drawn from the Berriasian to the Middle-Late Aptian, based on a biostratigraphic (ostracodes and pollens) chart recalibrated on absolute ages (chemostratigraphy, interstratified volcanics, Re-Os dating of the organic matter). The central segment of the South Atlantic is composed of two domains that have a different history in terms of deformation and palaeogeography. The southern domain includes Namibe, Santos and Campos Basins. The northern domain extends from Espirito Santo and North Kwanza Basins, in the South, to Sergipe-Alagoas and North Gabon Basins to the North. Extension started in the northern domain during Late Berriasian (Congo-Camamu Basin to Sergipe-Alagoas-North Gabon Basins) and migrated southward. At that time, the southern domain was not a subsiding domain. This is time of emplacement of the Parana-Etendeka Trapp (Late Hauterivian-Early Barremian). Extension started in this southern domain during Early Barremian. The brittle extensional period is shorter in the South (5-6 Ma, Barremian to base Aptian) than in the North (19 to 20 Myr, Upper Berriasian to Base Aptian). From Late Berriasian to base Aptian, the northern domain evolves from a deep lake with lateral highs to a shallower one, organic-rich with no more highs. The lake migrates southward in two steps, until Valanginian at the border between the northern and southern domains, until Early Barremian, North of Walvis Ridge. The Sag phase is of Middle to Late Aptian age. In the southern domain, the transition between the brittle rift and the sag phase is continuous. In the northern domain, this transition corresponds to a hiatus of Early to Middle Aptian age, possible period of mantle exhumation. Marine influences were clearly occurring since the Early Aptian in the Northern domain and the Campos Basin. They seem sharp, brief flooding coming from the North, i.e. from the Tethys-Central Atlantic, trough a seaway crossing South America from Sao Luis, Parnaiba, Araripe and Almada basins (Arai, 1989). In the absence of data, the importance of those marine flooding during the Middle Aptian in the Santos Basin is still discussed. Keywords: South Atlantic Ocean, Early Cretaceous, Rift, Palaeogeography, Geodynamic

Chaboureau, A. C.; Guillocheau, F.; Robin, C.; Rohais, S.; Moulin, M.; Aslanian, D.

2012-04-01

117

PODER JUDICIRIO TRIBUNAL DE JUSTIA DO ESTADO DA BAHIA  

E-print Network

N.º DE FILHOS DESTRO CANHOTO RELIGI�O PASSAPORTE N.º CPF - TÍTULO DE ELEITOR ZONA SE��O UF SITUA��O. UF CPF - IRM�(O) IDENTIDADE (RG) �RG. EXP. UF CPF - IRM�(O) IDENTIDADE (RG) �RG. EXP. UF CPF - IRM�(O) IDENTIDADE (RG) �RG. EXP. UF CPF - IRM�(O) IDENTIDADE (RG) �RG. EXP. UF CPF - CUNHADO(A) IDENTIDADE (RG) �RG

Maier, Rudolf Richard

118

78 FR 28167 - Special Local Regulation, Cruce a Nado Internacional de la Bahia de Ponce Puerto Rico, Bahia de...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 [Docket Number USCG-2013-0296...Ponce Puerto Rico, a swimming event. The event is scheduled...2013. Approximately 100 swimmers are anticipated...Ponce Puerto Rico, a swimming event. The event will...Puerto Rico. Approximately 100 swimmers are...

2013-05-14

119

Structural And Depositional Style Of The Syn-Rift Systems Of The West African And Brazilian Continental Margins: Regional Subsidence Independent Of Brittle Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West African and Brazilian passive continental margins are characterized by the regional distribution of syn-rift and post-rift sediment assemblages that are inconsistent with the minor amounts of brittle deformation interpreted from seismic sections across the margin or from field mapping of exposed rift systems. Fundamentally, the rift phase of West Africa and Brazil consists of a series of stacked sag basins. Ostracod data from the West African margin indicate that the distal syn-rift sag basins, where dated, are Neocomian to Aptian in age and are contemporaneous with proximal syn-rift deposits developed inboard of a major hinge zone, the Atlantic Hinge zone. Despite being syn-rift deposits (by virtue of their age), the sag basins exhibit none of the diagnostic characteristics of brittle deformation, such as the existence of normal faults, the rotation of crustal blocks, the existence of prominent rift onset unconformities (onlap surfaces), and the generation of sediment wedges. Seismic sections across the Camamu-Almada margin of Brazil indicate that the regional generation of space is essentially independent of faulting, as indicated by an absence of stratigraphic growth across normal faults and a regional seaward dip of the entire syn-rift stratigraphic package. The late syn-rift history of the West African and Brazilian margins is dominated by the creation of regional but shallow depositional environments that allowed the accumulation of the Loeme and Ezanga evaporites of West Africa and the Ibura, Taipus Mirim, and Mariricu evaporites of Brazil. Following break-up, the margins underwent significant post-rift subsidence allowing the deposition of the late Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene sedimentary packages. The development of significant post-rift accommodation in the same region characterized by minor syn-rift faulting and shallow depositional environments is the crucial observation requiring an explanation in terms of extensional strain partitioning through the lithosphere, lower crustal flow, major dyking of the lower crust during the extension process, and the thermal effects of mantle plumes. This presentation will show seismic and drilling data for the West African and Brazilian margins that clearly demonstrates the structural and depositional style of syn-rift systems: the stacking of syn-rift sag sequences showing subtle stratal relationships rather than the more familiar (and expected) characteristics of brittle deformation. Driscoll and Karner (1998) have suggested that the formation of syn-rift sag basins requires partitioning of extension across a mid-crustal decoupling zone separating upper crust (the upper plate) from a ductile-deforming lower crust and lithospheric mantle (the lower plate). The obvious problem with this hypothesis is that extension within the upper and lower plate needs to be laterally balance. The exact form and location of the counterbalancing upper plate extension presumably exists in the vicinity of the ocean-continent transition zone where the extensional balance through the upper crust probably occurs by a combination of thinned and "rafted" crustal blocks and exposed continental mantle. Nevertheless, it remains to be shown that this strain balance actually exists in addition to exploring alternative mechanisms that can augment syn-rift and post-rift subsidence without upper crustal brittle deformation.

Karner, G. D.

2004-05-01

120

Complex Population Responses to Food Resources in the Marine Crustacean Americamysis Bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

121

TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF A JUVENILE HORMONE MIMIC ON THE ESTUARINE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDACEA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Fenoxycarb is a juvenile hormone (JH) mimic used to control insect pests by interfering with reproductive and developmental processes mediated by JH. Crustaceans are ideal organisms to monitor environmental effects of these endocrine disruptors, since they are dominant aquatic ar...

122

Sedimentation Dynamics in Bahia de Banderas Nayarit, from Ameca River to Bucerias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At last years different actions had made it on the coast in Banderas Bay modifying its dynamics, sand process extractions in Ameca River, deforestation in the zone of estuary and extensions in urban zone affects the beach and coastal dunes. Keeping a lot of sand in circulation which has made changes in erosion process and triggering retrocession in coastline as hazard because an increment of sea level affects edifications near to the beach and estuaries. We present analysis of sedimentation dynamics in an extension approximately, 10 km from the north of the end in Ameca River until Bucerias, Nayarit. For that reason we have made topographic and bathymetric studies with total station and GPS in four zones using technics at the edge of the beach every 109.3613 yards and transversals transect and longitudinal, every 3 months starting in august 2012 and ending in march 2013;

Pedroza Ruciles, S.; Cupul Magaña, A.; Escudero Ayala, C.

2013-05-01

123

URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

124

Effects of Coastal Acidification on the Life Cycle and Fitness of the Mysid Shrimp Americamysis Bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most studies of animal responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification focus on isolated individuals or uniformly aged and conditioned cohorts that lack the complexities typical of wild populations. These studies have become the primary data source for meta-analytic predictions abo...

125

Inverse Demographic Analysis of Compensatory Responses to Resource Limitation in the Mysid Crustacean Americamysis bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

126

Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Life Cycle and Fitness of the Mysid Shrimp Americamysis Bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most concern about effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification focuses on mollusks, corals, and coccolithophores because skeletal and shell formation by these organisms is sensitive to the solubility of calcium minerals. However, many other marine organisms are likely affected by...

127

Risk Factors for Asthma in a Helminth Endemic Area in Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Protective factors associated with atopy or asthma in rural areas include socioeconomic level, overcrowding, and helminth infection. However, little epidemiological information was originated from schistosomiasis areas. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with asthma in a schistosomiasis endemic area. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, socioeconomic, and environmental features. The ISAAC questionnaire was used to identify individuals with asthma. Parasitological exam was done in all participants and skin prick test to aeroallergens in all asthmatics. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 57.4% and Ascaris lumbricoides, 30.8%. Asthma was found in 13.1% of the population, and 35.1% of them had a positive SPT. Active and passive smoking was positively associated with asthma, whereas A. lumbricoides was negatively associated. In a schistosomiasis hyperendemic region, current infection with A. lumbricoides is protective against asthma. However, we cannot rule out the involvement of S. mansoni infection in this process. PMID:22970348

Cardoso, Luciana S.; Costa, Daniela M.; Almeida, Maria Cecília F.; Souza, Robson P.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Oliveira, Ricardo R.

2012-01-01

128

Teorias do Capital Social e Desenvolvimento Local: lições a partir da experiência de Pintadas (Bahia, Brasil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literatura acadêmica e os relatórios de agências internacionais que tratam do tema do capital social partem, de modo quase generalizado, da constatação de que as variáveis econômicas não são suficientes para produzir desenvolvimento socialmente justo e ambientalmente sustentável. Afirmam que o crescimento econômico não produz, necessária e diretamente, o desenvolvimento social; relembram que as instituições e o sistema social

Carlos Milani

2005-01-01

129

Origin of sulfide and phosphate deposits in Upper Proterozoic carbonate strata, Irece basin, Bahia, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Carbonate strata of the Una Group represent late Proterozoic platform sedimentation in the Irece basin of north-central Brazil. Stratabound sulfide- and phosphate-rich units occur within a 50-m thick tidal flat sequence of dolomitic limestone and cherty dolomite. Three types of primary phosphate concentrations are present: columnar stromatolitic, laminar stromatolitic, and intraclastic. Resedimented phosphate clasts and phosphatic units interbedded with non phosphatic dolomites suggest early diagenetic replacement of algal carbonate units. Local stratabound Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide concentrations at the Tres Irmas prospect occur within silty dolomite with shallow water sedimentary structures and local disturbed laminae, synsedimentary faults, and breccias. Sulfide minerals include pyrite, sphalerite, galena, marcasite, jordanite, tetrahedrite, and covellite. Pyrite crystal aggregates commonly show bladed forms. Nodular aggregates of length-slow quartz are locally associated with sulfides. Sulfur isotope analyses indicate relatively uniform heavy {delta}{sup 34}S values. Barite shows a {delta}{sup 34}S range from +25.2 to +29.6{per thousand}, CDT. Pyrite and sphalerite representative of a variety of textural types have a {delta}{sup 34}S range of +20.2 to +22.6{per thousand}. Late Proterozoic evaporite sulfates show a wide range of {delta}{sup 34} S values from about +10 to +28{per thousand}. Thus, the {delta}{sup 34}S values for Irece barite could reflect original seawater sulfate values. However, the relatively heavy {delta}{sup 34}S values of the associated sulfides suggests that the original seawater sulfate was modified by bacterial sulfate reduction processes in shallow sea floor sediments. Textural and {delta}{sup 34}S evidence suggests that a later stage of metallic mineralization scavenged sulfur from preexisting sulfides or from direct reduction of evaporitic sulfate minerals.

Kyle, J.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)); Misi, A. (Univ. Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil))

1991-03-01

130

An applied paleoecology case study: Bahia Grande, Texas prior to construction of the Brownsville Ship Channel  

E-print Network

lateralis and Anomalocardia auberiana, are tolerant at high salinities. In contrast, species that are tolerant to brackish or low salinity water, such as Nuculana acuta, Rangia cuneata, and Macoma mitchelli, are found primarily in the northern areas... that this community is found in lower salinity water due the inflow of fresh water from Arroyo Colorado and is dominated by suspension feeders. And, finally, in Baffin Bay and the northern portions of Laguna Madre, Anomalocardia auberiana-Mulinia lateralis...

Lichlyter, Stephen Alvah

2006-08-16

131

Distribution of organic C oxidizable fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic material to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measuremen...

132

Limited evidence of HCV transmission in stable heterosexual couples from Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

HCV infected patients frequently ask their physician about the risk of transmission to their partners. Although it is easy to answer that the risk does exist, it is difficult to quantify. We studied the transmission of HCV infection in stable heterosexual couples: anti-HCV positive patients in hemodialytic therapy and their partners. Thirty-four couples were tested by third generation ELISA and RIBA. Blood samples of anti-HCV positive patients were evaluated by RT-PCR and detected sequences were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Concordance of infection was observed in only one couple in which both subjects were in dialytic therapy. One other partner had two positive ELISA tests and an indeterminate RIBA, with negative RT-PCR, which may suggest a false positive or a previous resolved infection. Either sexual relations, sharing of personal items and history of parenteral exposure (hemodialysis, blood transfusion) could explain transmission in the only couple with concordant infection. We observed, in accordance with previous reports, that this risk is minimal or negligible in stable heterosexual couples. PMID:20231987

Bessa, Márcia; Rodart, Itatiana Ferreira; Menezes, Gisele Barreto Lopes; Carmo, Theomira Mauadi de Azevedo; Athanazio, Daniel A; Reis, Mitermayer G

2009-08-01

133

Evaluation of soil quality in areas of cocoa cabruca, forest and multicropping in southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Atlantic Rain Forest is one of the most complex natural environments of the earth and, linked with this ecosystem, the cacao-cabruca system is agroforestry cultivation with an arrangement including a range of environmental, social and economical benefits and can protect many features of the biod...

134

Environmental effects on the gills and blood of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to rivers of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Through the integration of chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses, this study investigated the effects of multiple pollutants on environmental biomarkers, such as gill histopathological changes and hematological and biochemical parameters, in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to four sites in the Jacuipe and Subaé rivers over seven days. Sediment analyses identified Sapelba as the most contaminated site, followed by Oliveira de Campinhos, Santo Amaro and Jacuípe. Water analyses revealed aluminum, iron and manganese at all sites. Aluminum and other metal were also detected in the gills of fishes. Fish exposed to the Sapelba site exhibited significant necrosis formation, as well as higher hematological parameters and trend to increase of cortisol levels. However, filament epithelium proliferation was higher at the Oliveira de Campinhos and Santo Amaro sites, at which the lowest levels of the hematological variables were observed. Multivariate analysis grouped some gill histopathological changes together, such as epithelial detachment with edema and lamellar epithelial proliferation with the lamellar fusion of adjacent filaments, revealing relationships among them. Positive associations were identified between sediment contamination and necrosis and cortisol, while water contamination was related with filament epithelium proliferation, aneurism, lamellar fusion and several hematological parameters. Furthermore, relationships between blood parameters and gill histopathological changes demonstrated a joint physiological response that may have resulted from environmental variables such as dissolved oxygen. The results exhibited the direct influence of xenobiotics on these biomarkers but also highlighted the need to consider the complexity of environmental factors to optimize the adoption of these environmental predictive tools. PMID:25450911

Cruz, André Luis da; Prado, Thiago Matos; Maciel, Letícia Aguilar da Silva; Couto, Ricardo David

2015-01-01

135

Spatial analysis of migrating Apis mellifera colonies in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beekeeping in Brazil is growing but also associated with an increase in the number of human and animal acci- dents involved. In particular, bees of the Apis mellifera species (Africanized bees) are known for their aggressive behav- iour and frequent swarming activity due to their poor adaptation to the human environment. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of occurrences of

Renato L. Jr; Cláudia L. Oliveira; Edvana S. Ferreira; Emersom Cruiff; Antonio C. B. Santos; Carlos R. Franke; Maria E. Bavia

2009-01-01

136

Analysis of the risk of karst collapse in Lapão, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 2008, the large extent of dissolution of limestone in the Irecê Basin resulted in the occurrence of minor ground shakes and the enhancement of fractures along the surface of the ground and on the walls of buildings in the urban and periurban area of the city of Lapão. After preliminary geological and geotechnical studies to analyse the danger of collapse of underground caves, we have carried out gravity and electro-resistivity profiles in order to map the concealed caves and to help the determination of the level of groundwater within them. The interpretation of the results provided useful information both for the immediate safety of the population and for subsequent hydrological and geotechnical work. We have defined five risk areas based on the variations of the Bouguer and of the electrical resistivity data, by correlating the distribution of gravity lows with the presence of caves and the less resistive zones with the presence of brine water underground.

dos Santos, Emerson S. M.; Silva, Raymundo W. S.; Sampaio, Edson E. S.

2012-05-01

137

Shallow Miocene basaltic magma reservoirs in the Bahia de Los Angeles basin, Baja California, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basement in the Bah?´a de Los Angeles basin consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Cretaceous granitoids. The Neogene stratigraphy overlying the basement is formed, from the base to the top, by andesitic lava flows and plugs, sandstone and conglomeratic horizons, and Miocene pyroclastic flow units and basaltic flows. Basaltic dikes also intrude the whole section. To further define its structure, a detailed gravimetric survey was conducted across the basin about 1 km north of the Sierra Las Flores. In spite of the rough and lineal topography along the foothills of the Sierra La Libertad, we found no evidence for large-scale faulting. Gravity data indicates that the basin has a maximum depth of 120 m in the Valle Las Tinajas and averages 75 m along the gravimetric profile. High density bodies below the northern part of the Sierra Las Flores and Valle Las Tinajas are interpreted to be part of basaltic dikes. The intrusive body located north of the Sierra Las Flores is 2.5 km wide and its top is about 500 m deep. The lava flows of the top of the Sierra Las Flores, together with the distribution of basaltic activity north of this sierra, suggests that this intrusive body continues for 20 km along a NNW-trending strike. Between the sierras Las Flores and Las Animas, a 0.5-km-wide, 300-m-thick intrusive body is interpreted at a depth of about 100 m. This dike could be part of the basaltic activity of the Cerro Las Tinajas and the small mounds along the foothills of western Sierra Las Animas. The observed local normal faulting in the basin is inferred to be mostly associated with the emplacement of the shallow magma reservoirs below Las Flores and Las Tinajas.

Delgado-Argote, Luis A.; García-Abdeslem, Juan

1999-01-01

138

Carbon storage in soil-size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shaded-perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively higher quantities of soil carbon (C) because of continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the amount of C sequestered in the soil will vary depending on the turnover time and the extent of physical protection of different soil organic ...

139

Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

140

Paleoproterozoic potassic–ultrapotassic magmatism: Morro do Afonso Syenite Pluton, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Morro do Afonso Syenitic Pluton (MASP) is a small, bimodal suite of lamprophyric and syenitic rocks, located in the Serrinha Nucleus, São Francisco Craton, northeastern Brazil. The unit consists predominantly of alkali feldspar syenite with numerous mafic xenoliths and dykes that are predominantly lamprophyric.The syenite shows geochemical and isotopic features typical of the Roman potassic magmas, i.e. low TiO2

D. C. Rios; H. Conceição; D. W. Davis; J. Plá Cid; M. L. S. Rosa; M. J. B. Macambira; I. McReath; M. M. Marinho; W. J. Davis

2007-01-01

141

EFFECTS OF CORPUS CHRISTI BAY SEDIMENTS ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The study described here examined effects on mortality, growth, reproduction, and behavior of Americamysis bahi exposed under extended static conditions to bedded sediments from Corpus Christi Bay. ...

142

Americamysis bahia: A New Laboratory Model for Conservation Genetics in a Changing Environment (AGA09)  

EPA Science Inventory

Levels of population genetic diversity are expected to play an important role in species persistence during periods of environmental change, yet our understanding of how to quantify relevant aspects of this diversity is not well developed. We are conducting a long-term study wit...

143

Combating Educational Inequalities: Afro-Brazilian Youth & the Bahia Street Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In her article entitled “Inequity and Human Rights of African Descendants in Brazil,” Lucila Beato insists that Afro-Brazilian rights are violated everyday. Those who experience this violation the most are Afro-Brazilian, or Black, women who are considered to be at the bottom of the social hierarchy. These women are a double minority who are condemned for being both Black and

Kimberly Menendez

2008-01-01

144

Genetic characterisation of Langerin gene in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected women from Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Studies on human genetic variations are a useful source of knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. The Langerin protein, found at the surface of Langerhans cells, has an important protective role in HIV-1 infection. Differences in Langerin function due to host genetic factors could influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. To verify the frequency of mutations in the Langerin gene, 118 samples from HIV-1-infected women and 99 samples from HIV-1-uninfected individuals were selected for sequencing of the promoter and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD)-encoding regions of the Langerin gene. Langerin promoter analysis revealed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one mutation in both studied groups, which created new binding sites for certain transcription factors, such as NFAT5, HOXB9.01 and STAT6.01, according to MatInspector software analysis. Three SNPs were observed in the CRD-encoding region in HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals: p.K313I, c.941C>T and c.983C>T. This study shows that mutations in the Langerin gene are present in the analysed populations at different genotypic and allelic frequencies. Further studies should be conducted to verify the role of these mutations in HIV-1 susceptibility. PMID:24676666

Costa, Giselle Calasans de Souza; Jesus, Jaqueline Goes; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Santos, Edson Souza; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Gonçalves, Marilda de Souza; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Júnior

2014-04-01

145

Genetic characterisation of Langerin gene in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected women from Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Studies on human genetic variations are a useful source of knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. The Langerin protein, found at the surface of Langerhans cells, has an important protective role in HIV-1 infection. Differences in Langerin function due to host genetic factors could influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. To verify the frequency of mutations in the Langerin gene, 118 samples from HIV-1-infected women and 99 samples from HIV-1-uninfected individuals were selected for sequencing of the promoter and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD)-encoding regions of the Langerin gene. Langerin promoter analysis revealed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one mutation in both studied groups, which created new binding sites for certain transcription factors, such as NFAT5, HOXB9.01 and STAT6.01, according to MatInspector software analysis. Three SNPs were observed in the CRD-encoding region in HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals: p.K313I, c.941C>T and c.983C>T. This study shows that mutations in the Langerin gene are present in the analysed populations at different genotypic and allelic frequencies. Further studies should be conducted to verify the role of these mutations in HIV-1 susceptibility. PMID:24676666

Costa, Giselle Calasans de Souza; Jesus, Jaqueline Goes; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Santos, Edson Souza; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Gonçalves, Marilda de Souza; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Júnior

2014-01-01

146

Prevalência e intensidade da infecção por parasitas intestinais em crianças na idade escolar na Cidade de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil) Prevalence and intensity of infection by intestinal parasites in school-aged children in the City of Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Resumo Como parte de um estudo para avaliar as relações entre mudanças ambientais e ocorrência de infecções, estudou-se a prevalência e intensidade de parasitas intestinais em uma amostra de crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Salvador. A prevalência de infectados por pelo menos um protozoário\\/helminto foi 66,1%. A prevalência da infecção por helmintos, se eleva com o aumento da

Maurício L. Barreto; Agostino Strina; João Augusto; S. Faria; Aline A. Nobre; Sandra R. Jesus

147

Relationships between invertebrate communities, litter quality and soil attributes under different cacao agroforestry systems in the south of Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to understand how soil and litter attributes interact with the faunal community, this study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between soil and litter attributes to soil and litter fauna, and further to determine which of these attributes would be most significant in explaining ...

148

STUDIES ON CONTROL OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS: IMPACT OF DOG CONTROL ON CANINE AND HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN JACOBINA, BAHIA, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effect of removing leishmania-infected dogs on the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis, a controlled intervention study was performed in northeast Brazil. The attempted elimination of seropositive dogs resulted in an initial significant decrease in the annual incidence of seroconversion among dogs from 36% to 6% over the first two years. In the following two years, the incidence increased

DAVID A. ASHFORD; JOHN R. DAVID; MIRALBA FREIRE; ROBERTA DAVID; ITALO SHERLOCK

149

Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152??6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155??9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Trilhado granodiorite, and ages of 2,130??7 Ma and 2,128??8 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Teofila??ndia tonalite. The emplacement age of the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome as indicated by a 2,080??2-Ma xenotime age for a granite dyke probably marks the end of the felsic magmatism. This age shows good agreement with the Ar-Ar plateau age of 2,080??5 Ma obtained in hornblendes from an amphibolite and with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2,076??10 Ma in detrital zircon crystals from a quartzite, interpreted as the age of the peak of the metamorphism. The predominance of inherited zircons in the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome suggests that the basement of the supracrustal rocks was composed of Archaean continental crust with components of 2,937??16, 3,111??13 and 3,162??13 Ma. Ar-Ar plateau ages of 2,050??4 Ma and 2,054??2 Ma on hydrothermal muscovite samples from the Fazenda Brasileiro gold deposit are interpreted as minimum ages for gold mineralisation and close to the true age of gold deposition. The Ar-Ar data indicate that the mineralisation must have occurred less than 30 million years after the peak of the metamorphism, or episodically between 2,080 Ma and 2,050 Ma, during uplift and exhumation of the orogen. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

Mello, E.F.; Xavier, R.P.; McNaughton, N.J.; Hagemann, S.G.; Fletcher, I.; Snee, L.

2006-01-01

150

POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE OF THE MYSID, AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA, TO VARYING THIOBENCARB CONCENTRATIONS BASED ON AGE-STRUCTURED POPULATION MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

To fully understand the potential long-term ecological impacts a pollutant has on a species, population-level effects must be estimated. Since long-term field experiments are typically not feasible, vital rates such as survival, growth, and reproduction of individual organisms ar...

151

Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

2013-11-01

152

Two new species of Lachesilla in the andra group, from the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae).  

PubMed

Two new species of Lachesilla in the andra group are described from Brazil, where the group was previously unknown. They raise to five the number of species in the group known in South America. An identification key for females of the andra group in South America is included. PMID:25112638

Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira

2013-01-01

153

Hercynitequartz-bearing granulites from Brejes Dome area, Jequi Block, Bahia, Brazil: Influence of charnockite intrusion on  

E-print Network

Leite c , Jean-Robert Kienast d , Reinhardt A. Fuck e , Eron Pires Macedo a a CPGG-Centro de Geologia e. Leite), jrk@ccr.jussieu.fr (J.-R. Kienast), reinhardt@unb.br (R.A. Fuck), eron@cpgg.ufba.br (E.P. Macedo), Madagascar (e.g. Nicollet, 1990), Algeria (e.g. Ouzegane and Boumaza, 1996), and Brazil (Moraes and Fuck

Nicollet, Christian

154

Local ecological knowledge of the artisanal fishers on Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822) (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) on Ilhéus coast – Bahia State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) of traditional fishermen may be the only source of information regarding the conservation of the marine ecosystem and its endangered species. One of these species is Epinephelus itajara, which can exceed 2 m in length and 400 kg weight, is classified by the IUCN as a critically endangered. In Brazil, there is currently a moratorium that prohibits the capture of this specie, and in the northeastern coast, a Marine Protected Area was recently established properly justified by the existence a one spawning aggregation. The scope of the present study was the analysis the LEK of fishers with the goal of contributing to the conservation of E. Itajara. Methods The Knowledge of 24 “experts” was recorded through semi-structured interviews with fishermen selected based on their expertise. LEK regarding some aspects of the life history of E. itajara, such as its morphology, spatial distribution, feeding, breeding and conservation, was systematized. The interviews were conducted in synchronic and diachronic situations. The data analysis followed the model of unity of the various individual skills, while the consistency of the analysis was tested using a matrix of methods employed in comparative cognitive science. Potential reproductive aggregation sites were identified by experts through projective interviews conducted based on a cartographic database and transferred to a geographic information system (GIS). Results The LEK of these specialists in relation to the biological and ecological characteristics of E. itajara showed a high level of detail and a high agreement with the scientific literature. Projective interviews are presented as a promising tool allowing spatialization of the information generated through the registration of LEK. Therefore, the visualization of information from the fishermen, as well as its analysis and comparison with other databases, is simplified, thereby contributing to the decision-making process concerning the conservation of marine ecosystem in Brazil. Conclusions Integration of LEK with scientific knowledge is an efficient strategy for the conservation of endangered species, as it provides important additional biological information that can be used in the process of participative and sustainable management of marine resources. PMID:24965849

2014-01-01

155

Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in goats, sheep, cattle and water buffaloes in Bahia State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples from 439 goats, 240 sheep, 194 cattle and 104 water buffaloes were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by a latex agglutination test. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 28.93% of goats, 18.75% of sheep, 1.03% of cattle and 3.85% of water buffaloes, at a dilution of ?1:64. The highest titres observed in goats, sheep, cattle and

L. F. Pita Gondim; H. V. Barbosa; C. H. A. Ribeiro Filho; H. Saeki

1999-01-01

156

Population-level Experiments for Population-level Risk Assessment: An Example Using the Opposum Shrimp Americamysis bahia (NACSETAC)  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

157

A NEW RECORD OF THE ENTOMOPHAGA GRYLLI (FRESENIUS) BATKO SPECIES COMPLEX ON ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE IN SOUTHERN BAHIA, BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An entomophthoralean fungus (Zygomycotina; Zygomycetes) from the ENTOMOPHAGA GRYLLI species complex has been found and described from Brazil, on populations of RHAMMATOCERUS BRASILIENSIS Bruner, 1904, RHAMMATOCERUS BRUNNERI Giglio Tos, 1895, ABRACRIS DILECTA Walker, 1870, ABRACRIS FLAVOLINEATA De G...

158

Biodiversity and structure of the polychaete fauna from soft bottoms of Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes diversity patterns of the polychaete fauna in Bah?´a Todos Santos (Pacific Ocean, Baja California, Mexico). Thirty-nine stations were sampled in October 1994. Measurements of depth, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, organic content and sediment particle size were made. Polychaetes constituted 64% of all invertebrate macrofauna, with 13,757 specimens in 44 families representing 203 species. The best represented families were Spionidae, Capitellidae, Paraonidae, Cirratulidae, Maldanidae, Ampharetidae and Nephtyidae. Bah?´a Todos Santos presented high species richness (species/station); values varied between 6 (near the harbor) and 67 species (next to Estero Punta Banda). Higher species richness values (48 species to 67/station) were located in the southern section of the bay. Abundances (individuals/station) were generally high (120-1434) except for some coastal stations. Nearly one-third of the stations presented H' values higher than 4.00. Diversity ( H') values ranged from 2.06 to 4.80; higher diversity values were found in the southern section of the bay. The stress-predictability modeling characterized approximately 70% of stations as presenting favorable and stable conditions. Pearson and Bray-Curtis coefficients separated stations in relation to their sediment particle size, depth and location in the bay. Principal component analysis determined that organic matter content, percentage of silt-clay, and water depth accounted for 95% of the total variance for all environmental factors measured. Correspondence analysis distinguished three groups of species: Group A species with an extensive distribution throughout the bay and relatively high abundances, Group B species abundant in the shallow areas, especially near the harbor, and Group C species present in the area of the submarine canyon. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis separated five groups of stations, depending on depth, grain size and location in the bay. Our results show that Bah?´a Todos Santos is a favorable environment for polychaete development, their distribution being strongly related to sediment characteristics. The dominant trophic group corresponds to deposit-feeders (91 species).

Díaz-Castañeda, V.; Harris, L. H.

2004-03-01

159

Carbon, nitrogen, organic phosphorus, microbial biomass and N mineralization in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the soil organic P cycle is important to improve the P fertilization management in low-input tropical agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate organic P (Po) content by Bowman extraction method and labile P fractions by NaHCO3 extraction in soil profiles under cacao ...

160

EFFECTS OF WHOLE SEDIMENTS FROM CORPUS CHRISTI BAY ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuarine and marine coastlines are receiving waters for many anthropogenic substances. Concentrations of many of these contaminants have been diminished by regulatory control of effluents, but there is concern that continuing inputs (non-point sources) and contaminants contained...

161

Diversity of plant uses in two Caiçara communities from the Atlantic Forest coast, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caiçaras are native inhabitants of the Atlantic coast on southeastern Brazil, whose subsistence is based especially on agriculture and artisanal fishing. Because of their knowledge about the environment acquired through generations, Caiçara people can play an important role in Atlantic Forest conservation. An ethnobotanical study was conducted within two Caiçara communities (Ponta do Almada and Camburí beach, São Paulo State,

Natalia Hanazaki; Jorge Y. Tamashiro; Hermógenes F. Leitão-Filho; Alpina Begossi

2000-01-01

162

Congresso internacional comemorativo do 1Centenrio do nascimento de Jean Piaget  

E-print Network

- 1 - Congresso internacional comemorativo do 1°Centenàrio do nascimento de Jean Piaget Instituto Piaget (Almada ­ Portugal) (Lisbonne, 19-23 Novembre 1996) Hervé Larroze-Marracq Université Toulouse Le construction des connaissances de Piaget à Vygotsky. Nous l'avons constaté au cours des interventions de ce

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

The outcome of malemale encounters affects subsequent sound production during courtship in the cichlid  

E-print Network

The outcome of male­male encounters affects subsequent sound production during courtship in the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus M. CLARA P. AMORIM & VITOR C. ALMADA Unidade de Investigac¸a~o em Eco of courtship sounds in male Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, in the absence of dominant males. We

164

Anim. Behav., 1995, 49, 11251127 Courting females: ecological constraints affect sex roles in a natural  

E-print Network

in a natural population of the blenniid fish Salaria pavo VITOR C. ALMADA, EMANUEL J. GONÃ?ALVES, RUI F-sexual competition, active courtship and more developed epigamic characters in males (Trivers 1985). In some species; birds: Petrie 1983; Reynolds et al. 1986; Colwell & Oring 1988; pipefish: Berglund et al. 1989; Berglund

165

LINGUA ESTRANGEIRA Materiais Didticos  

E-print Network

Fabricio Doutora em Lingüística - Professora da Faculdade de Letras da UFRJ) Claudia Almada Gavina da Cruz Sepetiba ­ Magé. Maria Rita Pedrosa de Souza CE Parque Amorim ­ Belford Roxo - RJ #12;Mariana Ferreira da

Liu, I-Shih

166

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39 (2006) 282287 www.elsevier.com/locate/ympev  

E-print Network

, Vitor Almada b a IMAR/DOP, University of the Azores, Cais Sta Cruz--9901-862 Horta, Azores, Portugal b from Azores, Portugal mainland, and France, the number of cephalic pores in the nasal area has also and Plymouth), mainland Portugal (Gelfa, Avencas, Amoreira, and Lagos), and two Atlantic islands: Azores (Salão

Domingues, Vera S.

167

BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS Molecular data confirm the validity of the Portuguese  

E-print Network

e Pescas, Universidade dos Acxores, 9901-862 Horta, Azores, Portugal, §Faculdade de Cie^ncias da Sau speciation of P. ruber at the Azores and subsequent transport of larvae to Europe, a process that may of the Azores (Santos, 1987; Azevedo & Homem, 2002). Almada et al. (2005) showed, based on molecular data

Domingues, Vera S.

168

Short Communication Phylogeography and demography of the Blenniid Parablennius  

E-print Network

at the Azores region were esti- mated to be 2­3°C lower than present day values (CLI- MAP, 1976; Crowley, 1981., 2001). Santos et al. (1995a) mentioned that the drop in SST at the Azores, might have been enough-glacial colonization of the Azores. Almada et al. (2001) argued that the warmer water fish of the Atlanto

Domingues, Vera S.

169

All that glitters is not gold : unexpected lessons from a slum upgrading program in Brazil  

E-print Network

This paper looks at the Ribeira Azul Slum Upgrading Program in Salvador de Bahia Brazil, implemented by the development agency of the state of Bahia, CONDER, and the Italian NGO Associazione Volontari per il Servizio ...

Zuin, Valentina

2005-01-01

170

Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

Pereira, Wagner de S [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios, Caixa Postal 961, CEP 37701-970, Pocos de Caldas, MG, BR Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha (Brazil); Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental, Instituto de Geociencias, av. Litoranea s/no, Boa Viagem, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ Caixa Postal 107.092, CEP 24360-970, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio. Caixa Postal 7, CEP 46.400-000 Caetite, Bahia, Brasil Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil)

2008-08-07

171

Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 ?Gy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 ?Gy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

2008-08-01

172

Realidade e ficção em Ilhéus - Bahia: o legado artístico de Jorge Amado na perspectiva dos Cursos Superiores de Turismo do seu entorno  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dialogue forms between the academy and the society determine the value that it has to the knowledge and its own social function. In this perspective, this paper search to diagnosis the problematic question about the tourism use the cultural goods as a estimated date for the valuation and promotion of a regional identity, focrising a study trying to identify

Astor Vieira Júnior; Urbano Cavalcante Filho; Wolney Gomes Almeida; Henrique da Costa Mata

173

Effects of boat traffic on the behavior of gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus, in Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico: a bioacoustic assessment  

E-print Network

is between Isla Margarita and Isla Magdalena known as Boca La Entrada (BLE) (Norris et al. 1983). BLE is 5. 4 km wide, but submerged shoals narrow the entrance to 3. 3 km with an average depth of 18 m (Norris et al. 1983). LSI has been divided into three..., bycatch, hunting, and possible habitat loss throughout the range of these animals must be considered. Additionally to the large port of San Carlos, a thermoelectric plant that began operation in 1992, a naval base off Isla Margarita (Puerto Cortez...

Ollervides, Francisco

1997-01-01

174

People helping turtles, turtles helping people: Understanding resident attitudes towards sea turtle conservation and opportunities for enhanced community participation in Bahia Magdalena, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pacific Mexico, all five sea turtle species have declined over the past century due to intense overexploitation of meat and eggs, fisheries bycatch, and degradation of marine and nesting habitats. One of the most heavily impacted areas has been the Baja California peninsula, where sea turtle populations remain historically low despite existing conservation measures that include a complete moratorium

Jesse Senko; Andrew J. Schneller; Julio Solis; Francisco Ollervides; Wallace J. Nichols

2011-01-01

175

Distribution and abundance of fish larvae in Bahia De La Paz (Gulf of California) and their relation to hydrographic variability during summer (1997 1998)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bahía de La Paz, the largest coastal bay in the Gulf of California, is characterized by high diversity of fish species, mainly during summer and autumn. Distributions and abundances of fish larvae in the bay were analyzed and compared with zooplankton, CTD, current and satellite data obtained in July 1997 and August 1998. Larval abundance (>4000 larvae per 100 m 3) and number of species (>90 species) were high during both cruises. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index was used to define three station groups. The "Coastal" group, with the highest abundance and number of species, was located mainly in the shallow basin of the bay (<30 m depth). Larval Gerreidae (e.g. Eucinostomus gracilis, E. dowii, and Diapterus peruvianus) and Pomacentridae ( Abudefduf troschelii and Stegastes rectifraenum) were the most abundant taxa in this station group, but larval Mullidae ( Mulloidichthys dentatus) also were abundant in August 1998. This station group was associated with the highest zooplankton biomass and lowest sea-surface temperature as a result of mixing by the winds and tidal currents that affect this shallow zone. The "Central-A" station group, located in the central bay, and the "Central B" group situated nearby, had low larval abundance and number of species. These station groups coincided with the lowest zooplankton biomass and highest sea-surface temperature in both summers, and with the location of a cold gyre at 50 m depth in July 1997. These conditions are influenced by the water entering from the Gulf of California through the main mouth of the bay (>100 m), resulting in a wide central zone with low larval abundance during both summers.

Sánchez-Velasco, Laura; Jiménez-Rosenberg, Sylvia Patricia A.; Shirasago, Bernardo; Obeso-Nieblas, Maclovio

2004-03-01

176

PREDICTING THE TOXICITY OF MAJOR IONS IN SEAWATER TO MYSID SHRIMP (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA), SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS), AND INLAND SILVERSIDE MINNOW (MENIDIA BERYLLINA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Although marine organisms are naturally adapted to salinities well above those of freshwater, elevated concentrations of specific ions have been shown to cause adverse effects on some saltwater species. Because some ions are also physiologically essential, a deficiency of these i...

177

The role of low soil moisture in mitigation of Water and Carbon exchange at a Bahia Grass (Paspalum notatum) Pasture in Central Florida.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat fluxes (June 2000-February 2004) and carbon exchange (February 2003-February 2004) were made to determine the role soil water content (SWC) plays in water and carbon exchange over a pasture in central Florida. Maximum evapotranspiration rates (ET) were > 5 mm day-1 and occurred during the wet season (June to September) of each year. Average SWC in the rooting zone varied between 0.065 and 0.5 m3 m-3 and was shown to be an important determinant of energy partitioning and carbon exchange. Bowen ratio values (H/LE) were below 1 at high SWC but increased sharply to above 2 when SWC decreased below a critical value of 0.15 m3 m-3. The decoupling coefficient (? ) was calculated to assess the degree to which physical (radiation) versus biological (surface conductance) controls regulate ET. When SWC was relatively high, ? generally exceeded 0.5 and ET was predominantly driven by radiation. During the driest periods of each year when SWC fell below 0.15, ? ranged between 0.15 and 0.3, indicating that ET was strongly controlled by surface conductance. Peaks of maximum daily net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) (4.8 to 6.2 g C m-2) were a carbon gain and occurred between June and July 2003. This ecosystem behaved as a carbon source during periods of low SWC. Carbon loss from ecosystem respiration (Re) increased with air temperature (Ta) since end of February until May and then generally remained constant at approximately 11 g C m-2day^{-1}) until September 2003. However, daily values of gross primary productivity (GPP) increased continuously from 4 g C m^{-2}) in February to 14 g C m^{-2}) in August 2003 when both SWC and leaf area index where near an annual maxi?m. The ecosystem was a net carbon sink during the year of carbon exchange measurements, accumulating a total of about 260 g C m^{-2}$. Although Florida has a subtropical climate, changes in soil moisture play an important role in regulating plant production and energy partitioning in these pastures.

Bracho, R. G.; Sumner, D. M.; Powell, T. L.; Hinkle, C. R.; Drake, B. G.

2004-12-01

178

differentiation among island populations of two Norops lizards (Reptilia: Sauria: Polychrotidae) on independently colonized islands of the Islas de Bahia (Honduras)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Anole lizards (Reptilia: Sauria: Polychrotidae) display remarkable morphological and genetic differentiation between island populations. Morphological differences between islands are probably due to both adaptive (e.g. differential resource exploitation and intra- or interspecific competition) and non-adaptive differentiation in allopatry. Anoles are well known for their extreme diversity and rapid adaptive speciation on islands. The main aim of this study was

C. F. C. Klutsch; B. Misof; W.-R. Grosse; R. F. A. Moritz

179

Estimating Stage Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress Within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis bahia Using Digital Imaging  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

180

Estimating Stage-Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis Bahia Using Digital Imaging (NAC SETAC 2011)  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

181

78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and to protect the high ranking officials...the Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian...the Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian...transiting in with high ranking officials...rule is to protect high ranking officials...the Spanish Navy School Ship San...

2013-03-29

182

Spatial and temporal hydrochemical variation of a third order river network in a quasi pristine coastal watershed, at Southern Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Rio da Serra watershed presents well preserved fragments of rain forest at the headwaters and small farms at middle and final stretches. These features allowed the study of fluvial hydrochemistry, under quasi pristine conditions. Sampling stations were established in order to represent the basin, and visited during dry, intermediate and wet periods. Obtained results are: temperature (22.1-28.6 °C); electric conductivity (34-52 µS/cm); dissolved oxygen (35-110%); pH (3.8-7.7); total suspended solids (1.1-20 mg/L); chlorophyll (1.0-9.2 µg/L); total N (74-580 µmol/L); particulate N (60-550 µmol/L); N-NO? (0.1-9.3 µmol/L); dissolved organic N (4-0 µmol/L); total phosphorous (5.3-47 µmol/L); particulate P (4.4-59 µmol/L); P-PO? (0.1-0.7 µmol/L); dissolved organic P (0.01-2.0 µmol/L); silicate (30-90 µmol/L); fecal coliforms (80-700 CFU/100mL). In seasonal terms dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, nitrate and silicate concentrations were higher during the dry, whereas TSS was higher during the wet period. Seasonal differences of dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and nitrate were also detected near wetlands areas. Along the basin results showed a distinction between headwaters and other sections, revealing a control of fluvial hydrochemistry by the preserved area, mostly for the dissolved organic N and P species and phosphate. PMID:24270838

Souza, Elly R S de; Paula, Francisco C F de

2013-01-01

183

The Effects of Protein and Amino Acid Supplementation on Performance and Training Adaptations During Ten Weeks of Resistance Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kerksick, C.M., C.J. Rasmussen, S.L. Lancaster, B. Magu, P. Smith, C. Melton, M. Greenwood, A.L. Almada, C.P. Earnest, and R.B. Kreider. The effects of protein and amino acid supplementation on performance and training adaptations dur- ing ten weeks of resistance training. J. Strength Cond. Res. 20(3):643-653. 2006.—The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation

Chad M. Kerksick; Christopher J. Rasmussen; Stacy L. Lancaster; Bharat Magu; Penney Smith; Charles Melton; Michael Greenwood; Anthony L. Almada; Conrad P. Earnest; Richard B. Kreider

2006-01-01

184

3D depth-to-basement and density contrast estimates using gravity and borehole data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a gravity inversion method for simultaneously estimating the 3D basement relief of a sedimentary basin and the parameters defining the parabolic decay of the density contrast with depth in a sedimentary pack assuming the prior knowledge about the basement depth at a few points. The sedimentary pack is approximated by a grid of 3D vertical prisms juxtaposed in both horizontal directions, x and y, of a right-handed coordinate system. The prisms' thicknesses represent the depths to the basement and are the parameters to be estimated from the gravity data. To produce stable depth-to-basement estimates we impose smoothness on the basement depths through minimization of the spatial derivatives of the parameters in the x and y directions. To estimate the parameters defining the parabolic decay of the density contrast with depth we mapped a functional containing prior information about the basement depths at a few points. We apply our method to synthetic data from a simulated complex 3D basement relief with two sedimentary sections having distinct parabolic laws describing the density contrast variation with depth. Our method retrieves the true parameters of the parabolic law of density contrast decay with depth and produces good estimates of the basement relief if the number and the distribution of boreholes are sufficient. We also applied our method to real gravity data from the onshore and part of the shallow offshore Almada Basin, on Brazil's northeastern coast. The estimated 3D Almada's basement shows geologic structures that cannot be easily inferred just from the inspection of the gravity anomaly. The estimated Almada relief presents steep borders evidencing the presence of gravity faults. Also, we note the existence of three terraces separating two local subbasins. These geologic features are consistent with Almada's geodynamic origin (the Mesozoic breakup of Gondwana and the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean) and they are important in understanding the basin evolution and in detecting structural oil traps.

Barbosa, V. C.; Martins, C. M.; Silva, J. B.

2009-05-01

185

40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...with this section. (1) Marine invertebrate acute toxicity testing —(i) Required...above chlorobenzene isomers to marine invertebrates. (ii) Test standards. The marine invertebrate (mysid shrimp, Mysidopis bahia...

2014-07-01

186

40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...with this section. (1) Marine invertebrate acute toxicity testing —(i) Required...above chlorobenzene isomers to marine invertebrates. (ii) Test standards. The marine invertebrate (mysid shrimp, Mysidopis bahia...

2011-07-01

187

40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with this section. (1) Marine invertebrate acute toxicity testing —(i) Required...above chlorobenzene isomers to marine invertebrates. (ii) Test standards. The marine invertebrate (mysid shrimp, Mysidopis bahia...

2013-07-01

188

40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...with this section. (1) Marine invertebrate acute toxicity testing —(i) Required...above chlorobenzene isomers to marine invertebrates. (ii) Test standards. The marine invertebrate (mysid shrimp, Mysidopis bahia...

2012-07-01

189

40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with this section. (1) Marine invertebrate acute toxicity testing —(i) Required...above chlorobenzene isomers to marine invertebrates. (ii) Test standards. The marine invertebrate (mysid shrimp, Mysidopis bahia...

2010-07-01

190

Advances in breath odor research: re-evaluation and newly-arising sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The articles in this special section describe the most recent advances in halitosis research presented at the Ninth International Conference on Breath Odor Research, a joint conference with the XXIV CONBRAPE (Brazilian Congress of Periodontology) held at Bahia Othon Palace Hotel in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil on 25–28 May 2011. It has been almost half a century since Joseph Tonzetich of

Ken Yaegaki

2012-01-01

191

The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on wood production  

E-print Network

The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand, Brazil f Veracel Celulose, Eunapolis, Bahia, Brazil g International Paper do Brasil, Mogi Guacu, Sao Paulo, Brazil h Suzano Papel e Celulose, Teixeira de Freitas, Bahia, Brazil i CENIBRA, Ipatinga, Minas

Binkley, Dan

192

Comparison of two hyperspectral imaging and two laser-induced fluorescence instruments for the detection of zinc stress and  

E-print Network

Abstract Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum Flugge.) plants were grown in silica sand and irrigated daily on the growth and development of plant canopies. Healthy and stressed plants were measured with two capable of detecting plant stress and measuring canopy chlorophyll levels in bahia grass. Symptoms

Schuerger, Andrew C.

193

PREDICTION OF POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE FROM MYSID TOXICITY TEST DATA USING POPULATION MODEL TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute and chronic bioassay statistics are used to evaluate the toxicity and the risks of chemical stressors to mysid shrimp Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia). These include LC50 values from acute tests, chronic values (the geometric mean of the no-obsderved-effect co...

194

LIFE-HISTORY AND TOXICOLOGICAL COMPARISONS OF TEMPERATE AND SUBTROPICAL MYSIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory populations of the temperate mysid Mysidopsis bigelowi were compared with Mysidopsis bahia to assess the former's suitability as a test organism for toxicological studies. ysidopsis bigelowi is widely distributed and often sympatric with M. bahia, a well-esta...

195

Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucum×P. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine,

H. P. Xia

2004-01-01

196

7th WESTERN SANDPIPER WORKSHOP Jan 17-19 Simon Fraser University,  

E-print Network

by studying movements of radio-marked dunlin (Calidris alpina) and focal sampling the most used roosts and habitat use of Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) were investigated during the nonbreeding season at Bahia

197

The point of Corumbau : a case study in emerging market (Brazil) real estate development feasibility analysis  

E-print Network

In 2003, Renata Oliveira, a young Portuguese architect, has re-discovered the Point of Corumbau in Bahia, Brazil, and, like the Portuguese adventurers who had discovered Brazil 500 years earlier in the same location, found ...

Clayton, Paul B., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

198

COMPARISON OF LABORATORY TOXICITY TEST RESULTS WITH RESPONSES OF ESTUARINE ANIMALS EXPOSED TO FENTHION IN THE FIELD  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute, lethal effects of fenthion (an organophosphate insecticide) on mysids (Mysidopsis bahia), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were determined in laboratory tests and after field applications. Exp...

199

Is Salinity Variability a Benthic Disturbance?  

E-print Network

-Colorado Guadalupe Mission-Aransas Nueces Guadalupe 47.28 Cyclaspis varians Axiothella mucosa Pyramidella crenulata Mission-Aransas 49.74 Sphaerosyllis species. A Streblospio benedicti Mysidopsis bahia 51.89 Neanthes succinea Rictaxis...

Van Diggelen, Amanda

2014-05-07

200

Pharmacological Characterization, Structural Studies, and In Vivo Activities of Anti-Chagas Disease Lead Compounds Derived from  

E-print Network

Lead Compounds Derived from Tipifarnib Frederick S. Buckner,a Maria Terezinha Bahia,b Praveen Kumar of Biochemistry,f University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Federal

Gelb, Michael

201

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS AND POPULATION CHANGES IN AN ESTUARINE MYSID DURING CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO A PESTICIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of vital life processes of an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) were examined throughout its life cycle during exposure to the thiocarbamate herbicide, thiobencarb. Initial exposure of juvenile mysids to thiobencarb resulted in elevated respiration rates. Concentrations...

202

UNIVERSIT DE Universit Joseph Fourier / Universit Pierre Mends France /  

E-print Network

, Président Mme Kamilia BAHIA Professeur, FSEG de Tunis, Rapporteur Mme Véronique COVA Professeur, IAE Aix recherches. Mes remerciements vont également au Professeur Véronique COVA et à Madame Hamida SKANDRANI pour

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

203

EFFECTS OF GROUND ULV (ULTRA-LOW VOLUME) APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON ESTUARINE BIOTA. 4. LETHAL AND SUBLETHAL RESPONSES OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

Low-level exposure to fenthion, following ground ULV application of the organsphosphate pesticide, resulted in increased mortality and sublethal growth retardation of Mysidopsis bahia. These two processes would reduce population production of this crustacean, which serves as an i...

204

POLYCLONAL ANTISERA AGAINST ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN VITELLIN AND VITELLOGENIN: DEVELOPMENT OF AN OOGENESIS DISFUNCTION ASSAY AS AN INDICATOR OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION FROM JUVENILE HORMONE AGONIST INSECTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

Adult female Lepidophthalmus louisianensis, Palaemonetes pugio, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, Mysidopsis bahia, and Uca panacea were collected from estuarine localities in Santa Rosa Sound, Gulf Breeze, FL during late spring and summer of 1999. Mature ovaries were dissected and homog...

205

ESTIMATION OF TOXICITY TO MARINE SPECIES WITH STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY MODELS DEVELOPED TO ESTIMATE TOXICITY TO FRESHWATER FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

Structure-activity models which were developed to estimate toxicity of chemicals to freshwater fish were tested for use with an estuarine fish (Cyprinodon variegatus) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). Significant linear and polunomial relationships that correlated well existed betwe...

206

A political boss and the press: The impact on democracy of two Brazilian newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Brazil’s then-president, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, was implicated in a bribery scandal in 2005, Senator Antônio Carlos Magalhães from the state of Bahia emerged as one of the president’s most vocal critics. This study relied on a content analysis of scandal coverage in two competing Bahia newspapers: A Tarde, which had no overt political ties, and Correio da

Summer Harlow

2012-01-01

207

Nome do aluno(a) Curso do aluno Evento Cidade/Estado Joo Paulo Porto Dias Artes Cnicas Seminrio Internacional Campinas/SP  

E-print Network

Eletrônica PAHCE 2011 Rio de Janeiro/RJ Angela Maria Morais Dantas Quimica Simpósio Latino Americano Bahia/BA Fabiula Sousa Amorim Quimica Simpósio Latino Americano Bahia/BA Luiz Antonio Ribeiro Junior Fisica/SP Rosana Françozo de Melo Quimica Simpósio Latino Americano Salvador/BA Luan Felipe Rodrigues Costa

Lucero, Jorge Carlos

208

Use of digital multispectral videography to assess seagrass distribution in San Quinti??n Bay, Baja California, Mexico [Uso de videografi??a multiespectral digital para evaluar la distributio??n del pasto marino en Bahi??a San Quinti??n, Baja California, Me??xico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Apparent threats to the spatial distribution of seagrass in San Quinti??n Bay prompted us to make a detailed assessment of habitats in the bay. Six coastal habitats and three seagrass subclasses were delineated using airborne digital multispectral videography (DMSV), Eelgrass, Zostera marina, was the predominant seagrass and covered 40% (1949 ha) of the areal extent of the bay in 1999. Eelgrass grew over a wide range of tidal depths from about -3.0 in mean lower low water (MLLW) to about 1.0 m MLLW, but greatest spatial extent occurred in intertidal areas -0.6 m to 1.0 m MLLW. Exposed-continuous (i.e., high density) eelgrass was the most abundant habitat in the bay. Widgeongrass, Ruppia maritima, was the only other seagrass present and covered 3% (136 ha) of the areal extent of the entire bay. Widgeongrass grew in single species stands in the upper intertidal (??? 0.4 MLLW) and intermixed with eelgrass at lower tidal depths. Overall accuracy of the six habitat classes and three subclasses in the DMSV map was relatively high at 84%. Our detailed map of San Quintin Bay can be used in future change detection analyses to monitor the health of seagrasses in the bay.

Ward, D.H.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Morton, A.; Carrera-Gonzalez, E.; Kempka, R.

2004-01-01

209

Antimicrobial effects of ionizing radiation on artificially and naturally contaminated cacao beans. [Aspergillus flavus; Penicillium citrinum  

SciTech Connect

With an initial microbial level of ca. 10/sup 7/ microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation from a Co/sup 60/ source under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 50/sup 0/C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 x 10/sup 4/ and 1.4 x 10/sup 3/ spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D/sub 10/ values for A. flavus and P. citrinum spores on Bahia cacao beans were 0.66 and 0.88 kGy, respectively. 12 references.

Restaino, L.; Myron, J.J.J.; Lenovich, L.M.; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.

1984-04-01

210

Modelling the Shallow Water Equations in Curvilinear Coordinates with Physical Application  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to provide the capability for simulating fluid flow on complicated geometries, such as in the Bahia de Todos Santos. The Bahia de Todos Santos is a bay situated in the northwest corner of Mexico, off the coast of Ensenada and south of San Diego, California, USA. Figure 1.1 shows the Bahia de Todos Santos. It is part of an image taken from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on the Aqua and Terra satellites in late June and early July 2003 [8]. Roughly 200 square kilometers in size, the bay also contains two islands off the peninsula of Punta Banda. Characteristics of flow in this bay are driven by the moon tide (M2) and wind forcing [9].

Wingenter, S

2005-01-12

211

Genetic diversity in different populations of sloths assessed by DNA fingerprinting.  

PubMed

In this study we analyzed a population of Bradypus torquatus with individuals originally distributed in different localities of Bahia, and two populations of B. variegatus with individuals from Bahia and São Paulo States. Using the DNA fingerprinting method, we assessed the genetic variability within and between populations. Analysis of the DNA profiles revealed genetic similarity indices ranging from 0.34 +/- 0.07 to 0.87 +/- 0.04. Similar low levels of genetic variability were found only in isolated mammalian populations or among related individuals. This study presents the first analyses of genetic diversity in sloth populations. PMID:12530188

Moraes, N; Morgante, J S; Miyaki, C Y

2002-08-01

212

Phylogeographic Patterns of the Intertidal Isopods Excirolana braziliensis and Excirolana mayana (Isopoda: Cirolanidae)  

E-print Network

, samples from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South and Central America, and from several Caribbean islands, were included in the analyzes. 6 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1 Samples I used Excirolana specimens from 32 localities from Baja... in the southern half of the Baja peninsula, mainly in the Baja Cape region, except for a single mainland locality (Topolobampo). Clade B (100 BS and PP) was found mainly in Bahia La Paz, in the Baja Cape region, in one locality further north (Armenta, Bahia...

Liu, Shuang

2013-04-12

213

USE OF MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION (TIE) METHODS IN DETERMINING CAUSES OF TOXICITY TO FISH IN A MARINE AQUARIUM FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

We obtained a water sample containing broken pieces of a tropical coral reef decor that was suspected of causing fish toxicity in a major aquarium. A toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) was performed using three species: a mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia; inland silvers...

214

Colonization of cacao seedlings by Trichoderma stromaticum, a mycoparasite of the witches’ broom pathogen, and its influence on plant growth and resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma stromaticum, a mycoparasite of the cacao witches‘ broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa, is being used in Bahia, Brazil to control the disease under field conditions. The endophytic potential of this biocontrol agent was studied in both shoot and root tissues of sterile and nonsterile cacao and bean seedlings. Agar plate and light and electron microscopy studies showed that T. stromaticum

J. T. De Souza; B. A. Bailey; A. W. V. Pomella; E. F. Erbe; C. A. Murphy; H. Bae; P. K. Hebbar

2008-01-01

215

AN OVERVIEW OF THE ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECTS OF FIRST AND SECOND GENERATION PESTICIDES ON AN ESTUARINE MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

Results are reported for laboratory experiments using the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, as a practical test species for life-cycle studies to determine subtle effects of toxicants. Ratios of the acute 96-hour lethal concentrations to the maximum acceptable toxicant concentratio...

216

Extensive hybridization in hawksbill turtles ( Eretmochelys imbricata ) nesting in Brazil revealed by mtDNA analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bahia state hosts over 90% of hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) nests registered in the main nesting sites monitored by Projeto Tamar-IBAMA in Brazil. The genetic diversity of this hawksbill population (n=119) was assayed through the analyses of 752 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region in nesting females. Seven distinct haplotypes, defined by 125 polymorphic sites, were found. Most of the individuals

P. Lara-Ruiz; G. G. Lopez; F. R. Santos; L. S. Soares

2006-01-01

217

Foreign Fishery Developments New Brazilian Lobster  

E-print Network

Foreign Fishery Developments New Brazilian Lobster Grounds Harvested Brazilian fishermen have begun to fish new lobster grounds along the coast of the state of Bahia. The grounds are reportedly located that they can catch as much lobster during I day on the new grounds as they previously caught during an entire

218

Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A disease of the central nervous system in goats was observed in the municipalities of Juazeiro, Casa Nova and Curaça, state of Bahia, and Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The disease was produced experimentally in two goats by the administration of dry Turbina cordata mixed with...

219

Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Pteridophyte Diversity in a Tropical Rain Forest in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of forest fragmentation on the pteridophyte communities of the Una region of Bahia, Brazil, were investigated by comparing species richness and ensemble diversity among areas of large forest fragments (>900 ha), small forest fragments (capoeiras (initial stages of forest regeneration) and cabrucas (cocoa plantations). All ferns were collected following the plot method (plots of 120×10 m, each). Sampling units were

Mateus Luís Barradas Paciencia; Jefferson Prado

2005-01-01

220

Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

1993-01-01

221

Michanthidium almeidai, a new species from northeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Megachilinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Michanthidium Urban (Hymenoptera, Megachilinae)is described and figured from Sergipe and Bahia States, northeastern Brazil. An identification key, illustrations, and a distribution map for the three species of the genus are presented. The male genitalia of Michanthidium almeidai sp. n. and Michanthidium albitarse are illustrated and compared for the first time. PMID:22140334

Urban, Danúncia; Parizotto, Daniele Regina

2011-01-01

222

A CLOSER LOOK AT GRIFFINIA ESPIRITENSIS RAV. (AMARYLLIDACEAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Griffinia espiritensis Ravenna was described from a population near the Sooretama Biological Reserve in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. This species, which ranges north into the state of Bahia, is found only in Coastal Atlantic Rain Forest (Mata Atlântica), and is the most morphologically dive...

223

ALTERATIONS IN THE GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS AS INDICATORS OF POLLUTANT STRESS  

EPA Science Inventory

An estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) has been identified as one of the most sensitive members of the estuarine community to pollutant stress (for a review see Nimmo and Hamaker, 1982). n the majority of life-cycle toxicity tests using this planktonic estuarine crustacean, sublet...

224

THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATURE TOURISM: A CASE STUDY FROM  

E-print Network

THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATURE TOURISM: A CASE STUDY FROM BAHIA Management Title of Thesis: The influence of social capital on the development of nature tourism: A case conducive to nature-based tourism development. Keywords: Social capital, Nature tourism, Whale

225

CHANGES IN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

Measures of physiological performance and energy metabolism were made on an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) exposed throughout a life cycle to the defoliant DEF. EF concentrations > 0.246 ug/l reduced survival through release of the first brood. oung production was completely ...

226

Aquatic Ecology of the Tropics EEES4980-008 Justin Burdine  

E-print Network

features of Lake Titicaca (Peru and Bolivia) and to further investigate the implications of transboundary management and water quality in the Bahia de Puno. Introduction: Lake Titicaca is located 3800 meters above are the three main problems in managing Lake Titicaca (Rieckermann, 2006). Lake Titicaca is central to many

Gottgens, Hans

227

Brazil 1 Buzius and Salvador Brazil is one of those countries that have a very distinctive feel and a vivid image. Each one  

E-print Network

­ a mixture of native Americans, Africans and Europeans, African rituals, Rio- Copacabana-Ipanema-Corcovado- poverty-favelas, Salvador-Bahia-Dona Flor-Jorge Amado, sensual food, amazing variety of tropical fruits, the poverty, the rhythm­ still manages to amaze even the well- informed traveler. There's nothing mild here

Beimel, Amos

228

Estimates of sea turtle mortality from poaching and bycatch in Bahía Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bahia Magdalena on the Pacific coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico, is an important feeding and nursery ground for black turtles Chelonia mydas, loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta, olive ridley turtles Lepidochelys olivacea, and hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata. Despite international and national protection, sea turtles continue to be caught incidentally and hunted for consumption in large numbers. This study examines the

Volker Koch; Wallace J. Nichols; Hoyt Peckham; Victor de la Toba

2006-01-01

229

The Power of Creation Through Cultural Education: Identity and Musical Agency Within the Educational and Cultural Association Didá  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative research study explores the notions of identity and musical agency within the Educational and Cultural Association Didá in the city of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. The organization consists of a school of music for underprivileged women and children within the poor neighborhoods of the city. It is a social project existing in one of the poorest and most

Margaret Janice Flood

2007-01-01

230

Household Survival in the Face of Poverty in Salvador, Brazil: Towards an Integrated Model of Household Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the survival strategies of low-income urban households in a squatter settlement in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil with those of such households in other regions. Suggests, uses, and criticizes a simple additive model of survival household activities. Identifies important factors that emerge, and suggests issues for further research. (Author/BJV)

Norris, William P.

1988-01-01

231

EFFECT OF DIFLUBENZURON ON AN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Data are reported for tests exposing a small, estuarine crustacean, Mysidopsis bahia, to diflubenzuron (Dimilin, TH-6040, (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea)) in flowing seawater. Tests were conducted in intermittent flows from a diluter or continuous flowing water i...

232

The cacao agroforests of the Brazilian Atlantic forest as habitat for the endangered maned sloth Bradypus torquatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sloths are arboreal mammals strictly dependent upon forested habitats. The southern part of the state of Bahia in northeastern Brazil harbors important forest remnants and the highest genetic diversity known for the maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus), an endangered species endemic to the Atlantic forest. Large extents of cacao agroforests (cabrucas) connected to forest patches mitigate the effects of fragmentation in

Camila Righetto Cassano; Maria Cecília Martins Kierulff; Adriano G. Chiarello

2011-01-01

233

Extreme population divergence and conservation implications for the rare endangered Atlantic Forest sloth, Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa: Bradypodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus) is an endangered species endemic to the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil. This biome has been reduced to 7% of its original extent and the remaining forests are highly fragmented. We analyzed 70 samples from the largest remnant populations in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro to characterize their geographic structure

Paula Lara-Ruiz; Adriano G. Chiarello; Fabrício R. Santos

2008-01-01

234

Tmesiphantes hypogeus sp. nov. (Araneae, Theraphosidae), the first troglobitic tarantula from Brazil.  

PubMed

A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892, is described from sandstone/quartizitic caves of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. This is the fifth species of the genus and the first record of a troglobitic mygalomorph in Brazil. A key is presented for all Tmesiphantes species. PMID:23460434

Bertani, Rogério; Bichuette, Maria Elina; Pedroso, Denis R

2013-03-01

235

SPRU Wednesday Seminar Date 21 November 2012  

E-print Network

at Federal University of Bahia and Health Management Analyst at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation - Brazil) Title to the vaccine sector, the dynamics of collaboration between academia and industry in the R&D process, as well diseases in terms of morbidity and mortality. Dengue is the second most deadly mosquito-borne disease

Sussex, University of

236

Agronomy Notes Dec 2011 Volume 35:12  

E-print Network

of several fertilizer materials on wheat, oats and rye in combination with: 1. Ammonium nitrate (34-0-0) 2..........................................................................Page 2 Small Grain Germination as Impacted by Days Mixed with Fertilizer in April. Wheat yield planted with a no-till drill behind soybean, bahia , and bermuda grass was 36, 21

Watson, Craig A.

237

Are seismic surveys responsible for cetacean strandings? An unusual mortality of adult Humpback Whales in Abrolhos Bank, Northeastern coast of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) aggregate at Abrolhos Bank, Bahia and Espírito Santo States, during spring-winter season for breeding and calving. The Instituto Baleia Jubarte\\/Humpback Whale Institute - Brazil maintains a permanent marine mammal rescue program along the coast adjacent to the Abrolhos Bank, aiming to register the strandings of humpback whales and to identify their probable cause of death. Since

MÁRCIA H. ENGEL; MILTON C. C. MARCONDES; FABIA O LUNA; REGIS P. LIMA; ALEXANDRE CAMPOS

238

Iospilidae from the eastern Brazilian coastLat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., 41(2): 323-334, 2013 "Proceedings of the 3rd  

E-print Network

of Iospilidae (Annelida) along the eastern Brazilian coast (from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro) Bruna Tovar-Faro1 Iospilidae (Annelida, Polychaeta), along part of the eastern Brazilian coast, and its relation Iospilidae (Annelida) a lo largo de la costa oriental brasileña (de Bahía a Río de Janeiro) RESUMEN. Se

Paiva, Paulo Cesar de

239

A EXTENSÃO OFICIAL NO BRASIL: UMA AVALIAÇÃO DIAGNÓSTICA. O CASO DO NORDESTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabalho é resultado de uma investigação sobre a ação dos órgãos oficiais de Assistência Técnica e Extensão rural (ATER) no nordeste brasileiro, com o objetivo avaliar as ações dos mesmos visando a implementação da nova Política Nacional de ATER (PNATER), na região como referência para o país. Ela contemplou os Estados de Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte,

José Ribamar; Furtado de Souza

240

Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disease of the central nervous system in goats was observed in the municipalities of Juazeiro, Casa Nova and Curaça, state of Bahia, and Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The disease was produced experimentally in two goats by the administration of dry Turbina cordata mixed with grain. Clinical signs were observed after the ingestion of 62 and 106g\\/kg body

A. F. M. Dantas; F. Riet-Correa; D. R. Gardner; R. M. T. Medeiros; S. S. Barros; B. L. Anjos; R. B. Lucena

2007-01-01

241

Sensibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias aeróbicas isoladas de úlceras leishmanióticas, em Corte de Pedra, BA  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Um estudo prospectivo, sobre a sensibilidade antimicrobiana da flora bacteriana em úlceras cutâneas leishmanióticas, foi realizado em pacientes portadores de leishmaniose tegumentar, em Corte de Pedra, Bahia. Foram estudados 84 pacientes, principalmente adolescentes e adultos dedicados à lavoura, apresentando lesão cutânea única. Staphylococcus aureus predominou (83%) nas culturas, sendo sensível à maioria dos antibióticos testados. Flora bacteriana mista esteve

Luis Angel Vera; Jefferson Lessa Soares de Macedo; Isolina Allen Ciuffo; Conceição Guerra Santos; João Barberino Santos

2006-01-01

242

TOXICITY AND BIOCONCENTRATION OF BHC AND LINDANE IN SELECTED ESTUARINE ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through, 96-hr bioassays were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of technical BHC and lindane to several estuarine animals. Test animals and their respective 96-hr lindane LC50 values were: mysid (Mysidopsis bahia), 6.3 micrograms/L; pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), 0....

243

Locational dynamics of Brazilian winegrowing: new regions in Rio Grande do Sul and in the São Francisco River Valley area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the research is to identify the locational factors that influenced the decision to expand winemaking activity into other regions of Brazil. In recent years, winemaking has expanded into new regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Serra do Sudeste and Campanha) and into the São Francisco River Valley (states of Bahia and Pernambuco) - regions

Márcia Azanha; Ferraz Dias de Moraes

244

RADIOCARBON DATING SITES OF ITAPARICA DAM, SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER VALLEY, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports radiocarbon dates of samples from archaeological sites in the Itaparica Dam region of the São Francisco River (Brazil). This region is important due to the evidence of its use by several prehistoric groups of hunter- gatherers. In the 1980s, a Brazilian state hydroelectric company (CHESF) engaged the federal universities of Bahia and Per- nambuco to perform an

L R P de Andrade Lima

245

Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil), a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997) and rainy (March, 1998) periods. The dominant groups found were

M. Callisto; M. Goulart; F. A. R. Barbosa; O. Rocha

2005-01-01

246

SURVEY FOR EGG PARASITOIDS ATTACKING CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN NORTH FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in the natural enemies of Cactoblastis cactorum, a cactus moth native from Argentina, has increased since its accidental introduction to Bahia Honda Key, Florida, in October 1989. In 1957, C. cactorum was introduced onto the Caribbean islands of the Greater Antilles to manage the invasive p...

247

Colonization of cacao seedlings by Trichoderma stromaticum, a mycoparasite of the witches’ broom pathogen, and its influence on plant growth and resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trichoderma stromaticum is a mycoparasite of the cacao witches' broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa. This beneficial fungus is being used in Bahia, Brazil to control the witches' broom disease under field conditions. The endophytic potential of this biocontrol agent was studied in both sterile ...

248

CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND LITTER FAUNA IN DIFFERENT COCOA AGROECOSYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to characterize the density and diversity of meso and macro-fauna of soils located under cacao agrosystems of southern Bahia, Brazil. The researched areas studied were: Cacao improved with Erythrina spp. shade tree (CRE); Cacao under an improved cabruca (CRC); Cacao ...

249

Exotic accessory minerals in layered chromities of the Campo Formoso complex (Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Campo Formoso stratiform intrusive complex, in Bahia State, Brazil, considered to be of Paleoproterozoic age, consists of a tabular body of ultramafic rocks about 40 km long and 100-1100 m wide. Thick horizons of chromitite are exploited and the deposits are the richest in Brazil. The complex was intruded by the Campo Formoso calc-alkaline batholith, emplaced by the result

Federica Zaccarini; Giorgio Garuti; Robert Martin

2006-01-01

250

Implementation of cleaner production practices with the support of a diploma course  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the initial proposal of a cleaner technologies network in the state of Bahia, in the northeast section of Brazil. This network intends to bring together industry, universities, and government to discuss the relationship between production and the environment. Its main objective is to support a change in the way this relationship is nowadays perceived, in order to

Asher Kiperstok

2000-01-01

251

ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO MARINE FISH AND A MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

The acute toxicity (96-hr LC50 of un-ionized ammonia to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and larval inland silversides (menidia beryllina) was influenced by pH and salinity in a species specific manner. ith mysids, NH3 was most toxic at pH 7.0 and less toxic pH 8.0 and 9.0. n contrast, ...

252

Paleogeographic evolution of the central segment of the South Atlantic during Early Cretaceous times: Paleotopographic and geodynamic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geodynamic processes that control the opening of the central segment of the South Atlantic Ocean (between the Walvis Ridge and the Ascension FZ) are debated. In this paper, we discuss the timing of the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the Early Cretaceous rift by drawing eight paleogeographic and geodynamic maps from the Berriasian to the Middle-Late Aptian, based on a biostratigraphic (ostracodes and pollen) chart recalibrated on absolute ages (chemostratigraphy, interstratified volcanics, Re-Os dating of the organic matter). The central segment of the South Atlantic is composed of two domains, with a two phases evolution of the pre-drift ("rifting") times: a rift phase characterized by tilted blocks and growth strata, followed by a sag basin. The southern domain includes the Namibe, Santos and Campos Basins. The northern domain extends from the Espirito Santo and North Kwanza Basins, in the south, to the Sergipe-Alagoas and North Gabon Basins to the north. Extension started in the northern domain during the Late Berriasian (Congo-Camamu Basin to the Sergipe-Alagoas-North Gabon Basins) and migrated southward. At that time, the southern domain was not a subsiding domain (emplacement of the Parana-Etendeka Trapp). Extension started in this southern domain during the Early Barremian. The rift phase is shorter in the south (5-6 Ma, Barremian to base Aptian) than in the north (19 to 20 Myr, Upper Berriasian to base Aptian). The sag phase is of Middle to Late Aptian age. In the northern domain, this transition corresponds to a hiatus of Early to Middle Aptian age. From the Late Berriasian to base Aptian, the northern domain evolves from a deep lake with lateral highs to a shallower organic-rich one with no more highs. The lake migrates southward in two steps, until the Valanginian at the border between the northern and southern domains, until the Early Barremian, north of Walvis Ridge.

Chaboureau, Anne-Claire; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Rohais, Sébastien; Moulin, Maryline; Aslanian, Daniel

2013-09-01

253

Magnetic Basement Depth Inversion in the Space Domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a total-field anomaly inversion method to determine both the basement relief and the magnetization direction (inclination and declination) of a 2D sedimentary basin presuming negligible sediment magnetization. Our method assumes that the magnetic intensity contrast is constant and known. We use a nonspectral approach based on approximating the vertical cross section of the sedimentary basin by a polygon, whose uppermost vertices are forced to coincide with the basin outcrop, which are presumably known. For fixed values of the x coordinates our method estimates the z coordinates of the unknown polygon vertices. To obtain the magnetization direction we assume that besides the total-field anomaly, information about the basement’s outcrops at the basin borders and the basement depths at a few points is available. To obtain stable depth-to-basement estimates we impose overall smoothness and positivity constraints on the parameter estimates. Tests on synthetic data showed that the simultaneous estimation of the irregular basement relief and the magnetization direction yields good estimates for the relief despite the mild instability in the magnetization direction. The inversion of aeromagnetic data from the onshore Almada Basin, Brazil, revealed a shallow, eastward-dipping basement basin.

Nunes, Tiago Mane; Barbosa, Valéria Cristina F.; Silva, João Batista C.

2008-10-01

254

Paleontology, sedimentology and paleoenvironment of a new fossiliferous locality of the Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Chubut Province, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Late Jurassic assemblage of “conchostracans”, ostracods, bivalves and caddisfly cases from the locality “Estancia La Sin Rumbo”, Chubut Province (Patagonia, Argentina) is recorded. The fossils occur in the upper part of an outcropping 45 m thick volcaniclastic lacustrine sequence of yellowish tuffs and tuffites of the Puesto Almada Member, which is the upper member of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation with U/Pb age of 161 ± 3 Ma. The sequence represents one sedimentary cycle composed of a (lower) hemicycle of expansion and a (higher) hemicycle of contraction of the water body. The invertebrates lived in small freshwater bodies during the periods of expansion of the lake. The occurrence of a great number of small spinicaudatans, associated with mud-cracks, is evidence of dry climatic conditions and suggests several local mortality events. The spinicaudatan record of the fushunograptid-orthestheriid (component of the Eosestheriopsis dianzhongensis fauna) and the presence of Congestheriella rauhuti Gallego and Shen, suggest a Late Jurassic (Oxfordian to Tithonian) age. Caddisfly cases are recorded for the first time in the Cañadón Asfalto Basin.

Gallego, Oscar F.; Cabaleri, Nora G.; Armella, Claudia; Volkheimer, Wolfgang; Ballent, Sara C.; Martínez, Sergio; Monferran, Mateo D.; Silva Nieto, Diego G.; Páez, Manuel A.

2011-02-01

255

Cyanobacterial diversity in extreme environments in Baja California, Mexico: a polyphasic study.  

PubMed

Cyanobacterial diversity from two geographical areas of Baja California Sur, Mexico, were studied: Bahia Concepcion, and Ensenada de Aripez. The sites included hypersaline ecosystems, sea bottom, hydrothermal springs, and a shrimp farm. In this report we describe four new morphotypes, two are marine epilithic from Bahia Concepcion, Dermocarpa sp. and Hyella sp. The third, Geitlerinema sp., occurs in thermal springs and in shrimp ponds, and the fourth, Tychonema sp., is from a shrimp pond. The partial sequences of the 16S rRNA genes and the phylogenetic relationship of four cyanobacterial strains (Synechococcus cf. elongatus, Leptolyngbya cf. thermalis, Leptolyngbya sp., and Geitlerinema sp.) are also presented. Polyphasic studies that include the combination of light microscopy, cultures and the comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences provide the most powerful approach currently available to establish the diversity of these oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms in culture and in nature. PMID:12051567

López-Cortés, A; García-Pichel, F; Nübel, U; Vázquez-Juárez, R

2001-12-01

256

Spelaeogammarus titan, a new troglobitic amphipod from Brazil (Amphipoda: Bogidielloidea: Artesiidae).  

PubMed

A new troglobitic species of the amphipod family Artesiidae Holsinger, 1980 is described from a cave in the municipality of Santa Maria da Vitória, in the Brazilian state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Spelaeogammarus titan sp. nov. differs from the others in the genus by its body length, rising up to 18.3 mm, the antenna 1 with accessory flagellum 6-articulate, propodus of the first gnathopod 1.8 X longer than basis, the largest in the genus, coxa 5 with posterior lobe slightly concave, inner ramus of pleopods with 10 to 13 setae, outer ramus of uropod 3 with 22 simple setae, and telson with 1 apical plus 3 subapical stout setae in each lobe. With this study, the knowledge of Spelaeogammarus is improved to 5 species, all of them exclusive to caves in the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. A comparative table with the diagnostic characters of the species of Spelaeogammarus is provided. PMID:25543923

Senna, André R; Andrade, Luiz F; Castelo-Branco, Lucas P; Ferreira, Rodrigo L

2014-01-01

257

The role of shoshonitic and calc-alkaline suites in the tectonic evolution of the Carajás District, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Carajás District, the Bahia Prospect and Grão Pará volcanosedimentary sequences, both of Archean age, have been the object of extensive petrochemical studies for major, trace, and rare earth elements. In spite of the widespread spilitization that affected the volcanic mafic rocks, the petrochemical nature of the mafic volcanism may still be assessed on the basis of the less mobile elements like P, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ti, and REE. The Bahia Prospect basalts have a petrochemical affinity with Phanerozoic island-arc calc-alkaline basalts. The Grão Pará basalts and basaltic andesites, on the other hand, have a petrochemical affinity with Phanerozoic basalts of a mature island arc environment. The petrochemical data presented here lead to a new geotectonic interpretation of the area, where the volcanic sequences are genetically linked to Archean subduction processes.

Dardenne, M. A.; Ferreira Filho, C. F.; Meirelles, M. R.

258

Endecous apterus: a new species of cave cricket from northeast Brazil, with comments on the use of subterranean habitats by Luzarinae crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae: Luzarinae).  

PubMed

In this study we describe the first apterous species of Endecous Saussure (1878), collected in two caves at Ituaçu, Bahia State, Brazil. In Brazil, Endecous is the most widespread cricket in hypogean environments and its species can colonize caves and inhabit the entrance and the aphotic zones; Endecous species can also be found in the litter, rock gullies, crevices, burrows, and any natural cavities. The use of subterranean habitat by Endecous crickets and its related genera are discussed. PMID:24872041

Souza-Dias, Pedro G B; Bolfarini, Márcio P; Nihei, Silvio S; De Mello, Francisco A G

2014-01-01

259

Menstruations, dons de sang et quilibre corporel  

E-print Network

#12;3 Pourquoi saigner ?* Menstruations, dons de sang et équilibre corporel (Salvador de Bahia menstruation était un phénomène superlu et, dans certains cas, nocif. Le médecin brésilien Elsimar Coutinho menstruation de «perte de sang inutile1 ». La genèse de cette idée est complexe, quoiqu'en grande partie

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

Invasion of ancient Lake Titicaca by the globally invasive Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygrophila)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vital population of Physa acuta, a globally invasive species of freshwater gastropods was dicovered in ancient Lake Titicaca in April 2007. The population\\u000a was found near Chucuito (Bahia de Puno) on the Peruvian side in close proximity to a boat landing of the aquaculture facility\\u000a of the University of Puno. Physids occured in great abundances at this site on

Christian Albrecht; Oliver Kroll; Edmundo Moreno Terrazas; Thomas Wilke

2009-01-01

261

View of 'Bottomless Bay' on Rim of 'Victoria'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a section of the scalloped rim called 'Bottomless Bay' (or 'Bahia sin Fondo'). This view shows the northeastern side of Bottomless Bay as seen from the southwest. The exposures combined into this mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera through a 750-nanometer filter during the 1,019th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Dec. 5, 2006).

2006-01-01

262

Marine turtles of Brazil:the history and structure of Projeto TAMAR-IBAMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projeto TAMAR-IBAMA, jointly administered by the Government of Brazil and the non-governmental organization Fundação Pró-TAMAR, has established 18 conservation stations which cover 1100 km of the Brazilian mainland coast (in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Esp??rito Santo, Bahia, Sergipe, and Ceará). In the oceanic islands of Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, and Trindade, only the first

Maria Ângela Marcovaldi; Guy Guagni dei Marcovaldi

1999-01-01

263

Predation on the southwestern Atlantic fiddler crab ( Uca uruguayensis ) by migratory shorebirds ( pluvialis dominica, P. squatarola, arenaria interpres , and numenius phaeopus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Bahia Samborombon (SW Atlantic; 35°30?–36°22?S; 56°45?–57°23?W) migratory American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-billed plover (P. squatarola), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) forage on fiddler crabs (Uca uruguayensis). These shorebirds have distinct patterns of feeding behavior and capture different proportions of each sex and size. P. dominica made short runs, capturing mostly juvenile crabs, which are eaten

Oscar O. Iribarne; Mariano M. Martinez

1999-01-01

264

Mass mortality of coral reef ascidians following the 1997\\/1998 El NiñO event  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April\\/May each year from 1995 to 2000, ascidians were sampled randomly with 35 1m2quadrats from three different reef habitats (intertidal reef tops, coastal reef walls and shallow-bank reefs) at four replicate localities (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) in northern Bahia (Brazil). As the sampling period included the 1997\\/1998 El Ni? o event, the most severe on record,

Francisco Kelmo; Martin J. Attrill; Malcolm B. Jones

265

Mass Mortality of Coral Reef Ascidians Following the 1997\\/1998 El Niño Event  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April\\/May each year from 1995 to 2000, ascidians were sampled randomly with 35 1m2 quadrats from three different reef habitats (intertidal reef tops, coastal reef walls and shallow-bank reefs) at four replicate\\u000a localities (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) in northern Bahia (Brazil). As the sampling period included the\\u000a 1997\\/1998 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for

Francisco Kelmo; Martin J. Attrill; Malcolm B. Jones

2006-01-01

266

Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition,\\u000a quantities and distribution of marine debris along ?150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia,\\u000a Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations\\u000a were observed. Plastics accounted for

Isaac R. Santos; Ana Cláudia Friedrich; Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul

2009-01-01

267

Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important\\u000a sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped\\u000a beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed\\u000a beaches, where cigarette butts,

Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul; Isaac R. Santos; Ana Cláudia Friedrich; Alexandre Matthiensen; Gilberto Fillmann

2011-01-01

268

Longivena, a new robber-fly genus from Brazil (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Longivena gen. n. and five new species are described and illustrated from caatinga and cerrado habitats from Brazil: Longivena digitata sp. n., type–species (Maranhão, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso do Sul states), Longivena bilobata sp. n. (Maranhão state), Longivena flava sp. n. (Mato Grosso do Sul state), Longivena limeiraoliverai sp. n. (Maranhão state), Longivena spatulata sp. n. (Maranhão state). An illustrated key is also provided. PMID:25349498

Vieira, Rodrigo; Rafael, José Albertino

2014-01-01

269

The aesthetic escape hatch: carnaval, blocos afro and the mutations of baianidade under the signs of globalisation and re-Africanisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Bahian carnavalThe carnaval of Salvador, capital of Bahia State in Brazil, has grown immensely in popularity in recent years, so that it now rivals the more famous Rio carnaval in terms of numbers of visitors. Carnaval culture—music, dance, consumption and consequent entrepreneurial opportunities—has spread to the whole calendar of annual and weekly festivities, religious and secular, and has transformed

Piers Armstrong

1999-01-01

270

Production of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus inoculum in aeroponic culture.  

PubMed

Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) and industrial sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) colonized by Glomus deserticola, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices were grown in aeroponic cultures. After 12 to 14 weeks, all roots were colonized by the inoculated vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Abundant vesicles and arbuscules formed in the roots, and profuse sporulation was detected intra-and extraradically. Within each fungal species, industrial sweet potato contained significantly more roots and spores per plant than bahia grass did, although the percent root colonization was similar for both hosts. Mean percent root colonization and sporulation per centimeter of colonized root generally increased with time, although with some treatments colonization declined by week 14. Spore production ranged from 4 spores per cm of colonized root for G. etunicatum to 51 spores per cm for G. intraradices. Infectivity trials with root inocula resulted in a mean of 38, 45, and 28% of bahia grass roots colonized by G. deserticola, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices, respectively. The germination rate of G. etunicatum spores produced in soil was significantly higher than that produced in aeroponic cultures (64% versus 46%) after a 2-week incubation at 28 degrees C. However, infectivity studies comparing G. etunicatum spores from soil and aeroponic culture indicated no biological differences between the spore sources. Aeroponically produced G. deserticola and G. etunicatum inocula retained their infectivity after cold storage (4 degrees C) in either sterile water or moist vermiculite for at least 4 and 9 months, respectively. PMID:16347548

Hung, L L; Sylvia, D M

1988-02-01

271

The Distributional Ecology of the Maned Sloth: Environmental Influences on Its Distribution and Gaps in Knowledge  

PubMed Central

The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

2014-01-01

272

The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.  

PubMed

The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

Moreira, Danielle de Oliveira; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira de Siqueira, Marinez; Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

2014-01-01

273

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1997-01-01

274

Intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil.  

PubMed

The Brazilian planorbidical chart is slowly but progressively been increased by new data. Distribution of vector species of Schistosoma mansoni, according to Paraense, 1986, may be thus resumed: Biomphalaria glabrata--delimited by parallels 13 and 21 degrees S and meridians 39 and 45 degrees W, area of greater dominance (Southeast Bahia, oriental hal of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). It is observed along the coast line of the states of Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte. Starting from there, it is found towards the southwest, in the direction to the São Francisco River and South-Center of Minas Gerais. Isolated population may be observed in other states. Its presence is probably, associated to the transmission of schistosomiasis in all areas where it occurs. B. tenagophila--extends it self through a wide strip of coast-line from the South of Bahia (17 degrees 45'S; 39 degrees 15'W), RS (33 degrees 41'S, 53 degrees 27'W). In São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul states it is found further inland. It is important in schistosomiasis transmission in the Paraiba valley (SP). Isolated populations are observed in the Federal District and Minas Gerais state. B. straminea--better adapter species to climatic variation, having a more dense distribution in the northeast (41 degrees W and 110 degrees S), south of Bahia and northeast of Minas Gerais (150 and 180 degrees S, 400 and 440 degrees W). It is less susceptible than the B. glabrata, being however, the most important responsible for the transmission of S. mansoni in the northeast, chiefly in the northeastern dry area, where it is almost the only transmissive species. PMID:1343914

Carvalho, O de D

1992-01-01

275

Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions  

PubMed Central

Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne) were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma. PMID:22409901

2012-01-01

276

Tracing coastal and estuarine groundwater discharge sources in a complex faulted and fractured karst aquifer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater discharge can be an important input of water, nutrients and other constituents to coastal wetlands and adjacent marine areas, particularly in karst regions with little to no surface water flow. A combination of natural processes (e.g., sea-level rise and climate change) and anthropogenic pressures (e.g., urban growth and development) can alter the subterranean water flow to the coastline. For water management practices and environmental preservation to be better suited for the natural and human environment, a better understanding is needed of the hydrogeologic connectivity between the areas of fresh groundwater recharge and the coastal zone. The Yucatan peninsula has a unique tectonic and geologic history consisting of a Cretaceous impact crater, Miocene and Eocene tectonic plate movements, and multiple sea-level stands. These events have shaped many complex geologic formations and structures. The Sian Káan Biosphere Reserve (SKBR), a UNESCO World Heritage Site located along the Atlantic Ocean, overlaps two distinct hydrogeologic regions: the evaporate region to the south and south west, and the Holbox Fracture Zone to the north. These two regions create a complex network of layered, perched and fractured aquifers and an extensive groundwater cave network. The two regions are distinguished by bedrock mineralogical differences that can be used to trace shallow subsurface water from interior portions of the peninsula to the Bahia de la Ascension in the SKBR. The objective of this research was to use naturally occurring geochemical tracers (eg., Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, K+, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen) to decipher the sources of groundwater flow through the coastal wetlands of the SKBR and into the Bahia de la Ascension. Surface water and groundwater samples were collected during two field campaigns in 2010 and 2012 within the coastal and estuarine waters of the SKBR. Additional water samples were collected at select cenotes along the western boundary of the reserve. Fresh groundwater and surface water from the southern evaporate region was characterized as a calcium sulfate water that was identified to contribute the southern portions of the Bahia de la Ascension. In the northern portions of the Bahia, surface and shallow groundwater chemistry was characterized as a more calcium bicarbonate-type water from the north that was undersaturated with respect to calcite. The implications from this preliminary study address the complex nature of the karst aquifer and help define groundwater flow pathways from the interior of the Yucatan peninsula to the coastal wetlands. Further investigation in the area will increase our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of shallow groundwater; and identify areas of coastal brackish groundwater discharge from the mixing of fresh groundwater and seawater.

Lagomasino, D.; Price, R. M.

2013-05-01

277

New records, threatens and conservation status for Dichotomius schiffleri Vaz-de-Mello, Louzada & Gavino (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): an endangered dung beetle species from Brazilian atlantic forest ecosystems.  

PubMed

Dichotomius schiffleri Vaz-de-Mello et al is often cited as endemic to the preserved coastal sandy-dune vegetation (restinga) of Guriri Island, Espírito Santo state, and is included in the Brazilian List of Endangered Fauna as "critically endangered" (CR). However, we recorded its occurrence in twelve additional sites along the coasts of Espírito Santo, Bahia, Sergipe and Pernambuco. The geographic distribution of D. schiffleri is limited to the coastal Atlantic Forest domain, mainly in preserved restinga patches. We recommend that D. schiffleri remains in the List of Endangered species, but in the "endangered" (EN) category, according to the IUCN criteria. PMID:21584413

Vieira, L; Louzada, J; Vaz-de-Mello, F Z; Lopes, P P; Silva, F A B

2011-01-01

278

[Smallpox immunization in 19th century Brazil: inoculation, variolization, vaccine, and revaccination].  

PubMed

A product of the fear stirred by variola and the need to avoid contagion and spread of the disease, smallpox immunization has been a longstanding practice around the world, applied in different forms in different societies. Three methods have been used in Brazil-'variolization', Jennerian vaccination, and animal vaccination- prompting profound discord within the national medical community. The article endeavors to identify the main points of these debates, as found in the Gazeta Médica da Bahia and the Gazeta Médica do Rio de Janeiro, periodicals of note at the time and important spaces where those wielding medical knowledge and power sought legitimacy. PMID:14959727

Fernandes, Tania M

2003-01-01

279

A new species of Margaromantis Piza, 1982 (Insecta: Mantodea) from Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract A second species of the Neotropical mantid genus Margaromantis Piza, 1982, Margaromantis nigrolineata sp. n. is described from Bahia, Brazil. This new species can be recognized by the presence of a transverse black strip between compound eyes in the vertex; fore femora exhibiting black calluses on the inner face; lacking yellowish strips over the transverse veins on the metathoracic wings; left dorsal phallomere with rectangular ventral lamina, elongated and grooved lateral process, and a flattened, but not twisted apical process that is upwardly recurved.

Bravo, Freddy

2015-01-01

280

La variedad linguistica de la mujer del Area Metropolitana de San Juan, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

semiautorizado con las Islas Canarias. Cuando la produccion de azucar empez6 a crecer, se aumento la necesidad de obtener esdavos, con quienes se sustentaba la tierra. Desde 1513, Puerto Rico empez6 la importaci6n de esciavos aflicanos, quienes llegaron a... siendo centros importantes de la produccion de ron, siendo la Planta de Ron de Bacardi de la bahia de San Juan la mas grande del mundo, distilando cien mil 12 galones de ron al dia. Otros centros de gran importancia en el krea metropolitana son la...

Pratt-Panford, Comfort

1997-01-01

281

Three new species of Eurypon Gray, 1867 from Northeastern Brazil (Poecilosclerida; Demospongiae; Porifera).  

PubMed

Three new species of Eurypon from Northeastern Brazil are described: Eurypon clavilectuarium sp. nov.; Eurypon suassunai sp. nov. and Eurypon distyli sp. nov. Samples were collected from the continental shelf of Rio Grande do Norte, Bahia and Paraíba States. While the majority of Atlantic Eurypon species have been described from deep water, two of three new species described in this study were collected from shallow depths. The three new species from Brazil were compared with all other eighteen Eurypon species described from the Atlantic.  PMID:25543569

Santos, George Garcia; França, Fernando; Pinheiro, Ulisses

2014-01-01

282

View of 'Bottomless Bay' on Rim of 'Victoria' (Altered Contrast)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a section of the scalloped rim called 'Bottomless Bay' (or 'Bahia sin Fondo'). This view shows the northeastern side of Bottomless Bay as seen from the southwest. The exposures combined into this mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera through a 750-nanometer filter during the 1,019th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Dec. 5, 2006). Contrast has been altered to improve the visibility of details in shadowed areas.

2006-01-01

283

Agrarian Social Movements and the Making of Agrodiesel Moral Territories in Northeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to widespread concerns about the socio-ecological impacts of agrofuel production and development, particularly for food security, efforts have been made internationally to implement more sustainable forms of producing agrofuels. Brazil's National Program for the Production and Use of Agrodiesel (PNPB), launched in 2004, is one such attempt. Promoted as a socially and environmentally responsible program, the PNPB was made possible through unprecedented alliances between the 'postneoliberal' Brazilian state, the agribusiness sector, and social movements such as the Rural Trade Union's Movement (MSTTR) and the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST). In this research, I critically analyze the unexpected engagement of social movements in the making of agrodiesel territories in semi-arid Bahia, Northeastern Brazil by examining the territorial and moral processes and practices that underlie the production of castor bean (mamona) for agrodiesel. The methodology adopted comprised participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews (n=74) with leaders and members of the MST and the MSTTR in the territories of the Chapada Diamantina and Irece, in central Bahia. Interviews were also conducted with representatives of family farming cooperatives, government institutions, and agrodiesel companies (Petrobras) in the two study areas and in Salvador, capital of Bahia. Research methods also included the collection and critical discourse analysis of archival and other secondary data sources from public and private institutions. Drawing mainly from cultural geography and political ecology literatures, I argue that social movement leaders enable the making of agrodiesel territories mainly through their role as 'agrodiesel gatekeepers'---as legal interveners, managers, and caregivers. Family farmers tend to enable agrodiesel territorial expansion and to disrupt agrodiesel territorial management by not complying with moral prescriptions of loyalty. I see farmers' disloyalty towards their cooperatives as an everyday form of resistance against agrodiesel oppressive and exploitative practices. I suggest that the making of agrodiesel territories (re)produces gendered and racialized '(im)moral' peasants and serves to better contain peasants' movements. By critically analyzing how agrodiesel practices reproduce, homogenize and differentiate certain subjects, natures, and territories, I hope that this research contributes to politicize the moral geographies of agrodiesel development in semiarid Bahia.

Manzi, Maya

284

Petroleum systems in the Brazilian sedimentary basins  

SciTech Connect

The application of a multidisciplinary approach involving geochemical, sedimentological, geophysical, and paleontological research has greatly enhanced the level of understanding of some of the most representative petroleum systems in the Brazilian sedimentary basins. The integration of the data allowed the characterization of the petroleum systems were selected as representative case studies: (1) the intracratonic Paleozoic Solimoes system, in the Amazon region; (2) the rift lower Cretaceous Reconcavo system, in Bahia, northeast Brazil; (3) the proto-marine evaporitic Aptian system, in Sergipe, northeast Brazil; and, (4) the Cretaceous-Paleogene marginal, deep-water Campos system, offshore Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil.

Bacoccoli, G.; Mello, M.R.; Mohriak, W.U.; Koutsoukos, E.A.M. (Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1991-03-01

285

Short-term methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving water to marine and estuarine organisms. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This manual describes six short-term (one hour to nine days) estuarine and marine methods for measuring the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to five species; the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina; the mysid, Mysidopsis bahia; the sea urchin, Arbacia punctualata; and the red macroalga, Champia parvula. The methods include single and multiple concentration static renewal and static nonrenewal toxicity tests for effluents and receiving waters. Also included are guidelines on laboratory safety, quality assurance, facilities, and equipment and supplies; dilution water; effluent and receiving water sample collection, preservation, shipping, and holding; test conditions; toxicity test data analysis; report preparation; and organism culturing, holding, and handling.

Klemm, D.J.; Morrison, G.E.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Peltier, W.H.; Heber, M.A.

1994-07-01

286

Dispersed oil toxicity tests with biological species indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Static and flowthrough aquatic acute toxicity testing protocols were utilized on eggs and larvae of seven commercially important invertebrates and fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. Test organisms were exposed to Central and Western Gulf oils, dispersed oil, and Corexit 9527. Species included brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), inland silverside (Menidia berylina), and spot (Leiosomus xanthurus). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) was also tested because gulf menhaden were not available. Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) were evaluated as part of a chronic toxicity assessment.

Fucik, K.W.; Carr, K.A.; Balcom, B.J.

1994-08-01

287

Tadpole of Leptodactylus oreomantis Carvalho, Leite & Pezzuti 2013 (Anura, Leptodactylidae).  

PubMed

Leptodactylus oreomantis, a member of Leptodactylus fuscus species group (sensu Heyer 1978), is a leptodactylid frog endemic to the montane rocky fields of Chapada Diamantina (the northern portion of the Espinhaço mountain range), Bahia State, Brazil (Carvalho et al. 2013). Although tadpole morphology provides relevant information for anuran taxonomy and systematics (see Langone & de Sá 2005; Miranda et al. 2014), only calls and adult morphology were evaluated in the description of this species. Herein, we describe and illustrate the external morphology and internal oral anatomy of L. oreomantis tadpoles and compare it with tadpoles of related species.  PMID:25661633

Mercês, Ednei De Almeida; Magalhães, Felipe De Medeiros; Amado, Talita Ferreira; Juncá, Flora Acuña; Garda, Adrian Antonio

2015-01-01

288

Identification and genetic characterization of a new Brazilian genotype of Toxoplasma gondii from sheep intended for human consumption.  

PubMed

Recent studies have demonstrated that strains of Toxoplasma gondii in Brazil are frequently different from those detected in other countries, thus making an accurate phylogenetic analysis difficult. The aim of this study was to genetically characterize T. gondii samples from sheep raised in southern Bahia and intended for human consumption, by means of PCR-RFLP and sequencing techniques. Experimental samples were obtained from 200 sheep brains purchased at butcher's shops in Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil. In total, three samples (#54, #124 and #127) were T. gondii-positive. The application of multilocus PCR-RFLP using ten molecular markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c22-8, PK1, GRA6, L358, c-29-2 and Apico) revealed a single genotype common to all samples of this study, which differed from any other published T. gondii genotypes. An atypical allele was detected in the L358 genetic marker; this has not previously been shown in any other South American T. gondii isolates. Phylogenetic analysis on the sequences from multilocus PCR sequencing revealed that these three samples were classified into the same lineage. Extensive indel regions were detected in the Apico genetic marker. Together, our findings revealed a new Brazilian T. gondii genotype. Further research should be conducted to enrich the database of Brazilian T. gondii genotypes from different regions. This will make it possible to understand the phylogenetic relationship between isolates. PMID:24631791

Maciel, B M; Moura, R L S; Carvalho, F S; Costa, E A; Albuquerque, G R

2014-06-01

289

Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian Campo Rupestre Vegetation, with Special Reference to Crepuscular Bees  

PubMed Central

Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome. PMID:22208813

Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam

2011-01-01

290

Risk factors associated with Chlamydia psittaci infection in psittacine birds.  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci is the aetiological agent of chlamydiosis in birds, especially Psittaciformes. The objective of the present study was to detect C. psittaci by means of semi-nested PCR among psittacine birds sold at pet markets and kept as pet birds in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Questionnaires were used to identify risk factors involved in the epidemiology of the disease. In addition, the management of birds and cages was observed at each location studied. The frequency of C. psittaci infection was 10.6% (33/311) in the psittacine birds studied. Birds kept in households were less frequently positive (3.4%; 5/148) than those at pet markets (17.2%; 28/163). Among the several factors analysed in the epidemiology of the disease, only population density (P = 0.001) and cage hygiene (P = 0.041) in birds at pet markets were significantly associated with C. psittaci infection. These results demonstrate the presence of C. psittaci infection in Psittaciformes kept as pets and held at pet markets in Salvador, Bahia, showing that this micro-organism is a public health concern. Control measures should be encouraged to prevent the spread of the agent among birds, as well as among employees and customers. PMID:24430249

Santos, F; Leal, D C; Raso, T F; Souza, B M P S; Cunha, R M; Martinez, V H R; Barrouin-Melo, S M; Franke, C R

2014-03-01

291

Seismic expression of Late Quaternary Banda submarine canyon and fan offshore northern Baja California  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution seismic reflection profiles obtained throughout the inner California continental borderland offshore northwestern Baja California, Mexico, show the presence of numerous modern submarine canyons and associated fans. One set of these, the Banda submarine canyon/fan, is of relatively recent origin, as demonstrated by onlap of the basal fan sediments against an acoustically transparent, presumably hemipelagic deposit. Late Quaternary sedimentation rates inferred from isotopically dated piston core samples place the age of the postulated hemipelagic unit at approximately 650,000 years ago. The Banda submarine canyon heads within the Bahia Todos Santo and passes through a narrow gorge between Punta Banda and Islas Todos Santos. It is proposed that this submarine canyon and fan system formed entirely during late Quaternary time, following the breach of the Punta Banda ridge during a late Pleistocene high sea level stand. The presence of an ancient, buried channel exiting to the north out of Bahia Todos Santos probably marks the head of an earlier submarine canyon which acted as the conduit of clastic sediments from Valle Maneadero to the deep borderland basins. The now active Banda submarine canyon pirated the supply of terrigenous clastics from this older canyon. The active Agua Blanca fault zone cuts across the head of Banda submarine canyon, suggesting that tectonic movements may have played a role in the development of the Banda submarine canyon and fan system.

Legg, M.R.

1987-05-01

292

Detection and genetic diversity of a heliothine invader (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from north and northeast of Brazil.  

PubMed

The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was recently introduced in Brazil. During the 2012-2013 harvest, producers reported reduced yields up to 35% on major crops. The economic losses reached US$ 1 billion only in western Bahia, triggering a phytosanitary crisis. The deficiencies in existing taxonomic keys to deal with the morphologically indistinct larvae of H. armigera and the native Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) constrained the detection of new incursions of this heliothine invader. This study explored the identity of heliothine larvae that were found infesting soybean- and corn-growing areas from Roraima state, northern Brazil, through sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. The inter- and intraspecies sequence variations of DNA barcodes in H. armigera and H. zea were analyzed. The genetic diversity and population structure of the specimens from Roraima and two populations from Piauí and Bahia states, northeastern Brazil, were assessed by adding the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene to the analysis. Owing to the lack of studies on genetic introgression for the two species, the suitability of using three different nuclear genes to distinguish the two species was also investigated. The results showed strong evidence that the heliothine larvae from north and northeast of Brazil are conspecific with H. armigera, suggesting that this invasive moth has already crossed the Amazon basin. Surveys in the north of South America should start as soon as possible to monitor the entry or spread of this moth in the Caribbean, Central America, and the United States. PMID:25026655

Mastrangelo, T; Paulo, D F; Bergamo, L W; Morais, E G F; Silva, M; Bezerra-Silva, G; Azeredo-Espin, A M L

2014-06-01

293

Shallow-water stenopodidean and caridean shrimps from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil: new records and updated checklist.  

PubMed

This study deals with a recent collection of stenopodidean and caridean shrimps made in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil, in July and August 2013. Sampling was carried out in the vicinity of Ilha de Santa Bárbara (17°57'49"S 38°41'53"W). Specimens were obtained by hand or using small hand nets in tide pools or under rocks in the intertidal zone. Part of the material was collected by scuba diving in the shallow subtidal, to a maximum depth of 11 m. We obtained a total of 18 species, 12 of which are reported for the first time for the Abrolhos and 4 as new records for the state of Bahia. The distributions of Microprosthema semilaeve (von Martens, 1872), Typton gnathophylloides Holthuis, 1951, Alpheus verrilli (Schmitt, 1924) and Alpheopsis cf. trigona (Rathbun, 1901) are extended from their previously known ranges. The occurrence of Automate cf. rectifrons Chace, 1972 on the Brazilian coast is confirmed. We thus provide an updated checklist of stenopodidean (2 species) and caridean (29 species) shrimps from the Abrolhos Archipelago, incorporating and critically evaluating previous records.  PMID:25661021

Soledade, Guidomar O; Fonseca, Mytalle S; Almeida, Alexandre O

2015-01-01

294

RAPD and mitochondrial DNA analysis of the soybean stalk weevil, Sternechus subsignatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

Sternechus subsignatus Boheman (Curculionidae: Sternechini) is one of the primary Curculionidae species that reduces soybean yield in Brazil. Initially, outbreaks were reported in southern Brazil in 1973; but, more recent, outbreaks were reported in Bahia (summer 1997-1998) and Maranhão (summer 2003-2004), two states in northeastern Brazil. A putative related species, S. pinguis (Fabricius), was first detected in Salta Province, Argentina. The objective of this study was to evaluate intraspecific molecular polymorphisms of geographically distinct Sternechus populations. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles and partial mitochondrial cytochrome B (CytB) gene sequences were used to determine whether individual soybean stalk weevils were one of two different species and to infer pest invasion pattern. Putative S. pinguis and S. subsignatus populations were collected in San Agustin (Cruz Alta, Tucumán Province, Argentina) and different sampling sites in the Brazilian states of Paraná, Bahia and Maranhão. Polymorphic bands were obtained by RAPD and analyzed by Dice coefficients. Populations from southern Brazil were more closely related genetically to an Argentinean group than the populations sampled in northeastern Brazil. The Londrina Co., Brazil population displayed the highest intra-population genetic similarity. Most of the soybean stalk weevils collected from San Agustin, Tucumán, Argentina were divergent from those collected in Brazil. Sequencing and parsimony analysis of CytB did not differentiate specimens collected in Argentina and Brazil. Thus, our data show that soybean stalk weevil outbreaks and population increases in northeastern Brazil involved local genotypes. PMID:18826663

Sosa-Gomez, D R; Coronel, N; Binneck, E; Zucchi, M I; Rosado-Neto, G

2008-10-01

295

Endemic and threatened tetrapods in the restingas of the biodiversity corridors of Serra do Mar and of the Central da Mata Atlântica in eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Biodiversity corridors comprise a mosaic of land uses connecting fragments of natural forest across a landscape. Two such corridors have been established along the eastern coast of Brazil: the Serra do Mar and the Central da Mata Atlântica corridors, along which most of the coastal plains are restinga areas. In this study, we analyze the present status of the endemic and endangered terrestrial vertebrates of both corridors. We sampled 10 restingas in both corridors, recording species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Some restingas harbor a relatively large number of endemic species,and two main regions of endemism can be identified along the restingas of both corridors: the coastal restingas from northern Espirito Santo State to southern Bahia State (between Linhares, ES, and Tarancoso, BA), and the coastal region between the restingas of Maricá and Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State. Six species of terrestrial vertebrates considered threatened with extinction are found in the restingas of Serra do Mar and Central da Mata Atlântica biodiversity corridors (Liolaemus lutzae, Formicivora littoralis, Mimus gilvus, Schistochlamys melanopis, and Trinomys eliasi). The region located between the restinga of Maricá and that of Jurubatiba is of special relevance for the conservation of vertebrate species of the restingas of the corridors because a considerable number of threatened species of terrestrial vertebrates are found there. We strongly recommend efforts to develop checklists of threatened faunas for the States of Espirito Santo and Bahia. PMID:16025914

Rocha, C F D; Van Sluys, M; Bergallo, H G; Alves, M A S

2005-02-01

296

Deaths from homicides: a historical series1  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: to describe mortality from homicides in Itabuna, in the State of Bahia. METHOD: study with hybrid, ecological and time-trend design. The mortality coefficients per 1,000 inhabitants, adjusted by the direct technique, proportional mortality by sex and age range, and Potential Years of Life Lost were all calculated. RESULTS: since 2005, the external causes have moved from third to second most-common cause of death, with homicides being responsible for the increase. In the 13 years analyzed, homicides have risen 203%, with 94% of these deaths occurring among the male population. Within this group, the growth occurred mainly in the age range from 15 to 29 years of age. It was ascertained that 83% of the deaths were caused by firearms; 57.2% occurred in public thoroughfares; and 98.4% in the urban zone. In 2012, the 173 homicides resulted in 7,837 potential years of life lost, with each death causing, on average, the loss of 45.3 years. CONCLUSIONS: mortality by homicide in a medium-sized city in Bahia reaches levels observed in the big cities of Brazil in the 1980s, evidencing that the phenomenon of criminality - formerly predominant only in the big urban centers - is advancing into the rural area of Brazil, causing changes in the map of violent homicide in Brazil. PMID:25591098

Costa, Flávia Azevedo de Mattos Moura; da Trindade, Ruth França Cizino; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

2014-01-01

297

Official crime data versus collaborative crime mapping at a Brazilian city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July of 2013 a group of undergraduate students from the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, published a collaborative web map called "Where I Was Robbed". Their initial efforts in publicizing their web map were restricted to announce it at a local radio as a tool of social interest. In two months the map had almost 10.000 reports, 155 reports per day and people from more the 350 cities had already reported a crime. The present study consists in an investigation about this collaborative web map spatial correlation to official robbery data registered at the Secretary of Public Safety database, for the city of Salvador, Bahia. Kernel density estimator combined with map algebra was used to the investigation. Spatial correlations with official robbery data for the city of Salvador were not found initially, but after standardizing collaborative data and mining official registers, both data pointed at very similar areas as the main hot spots for pedestrian robbery. Both areas are located at two of the most economical active areas of the city, although web map crimes reports were more concentrated in an area with higher income population. This results and discussions indicates that this collaborative application is been used mainly by mid class and upper class parcel of the city population, but can still provide significant information on public safety priority areas. Therefore, extended divulgation, on local papers, radio and TV, of the collaborative crime map application and partnership with official agencies are strongly recommended.

Brito, P. L.; Jesus, E. G. V.; Sant'Ana, R. M. S.; Martins, C.; Delgado, J. P. M.; Fernandes, V. O.

2014-11-01

298

Fibropapillomatosis in green turtles Chelonia mydas in Brazil: characteristics of tumors and virus.  

PubMed

Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a benign neoplasia that affects physiological functions of sea turtles and may lead to death. High prevalence of FP in sea turtle populations has prompted several research groups to study the disease and the associated herpesvirus, chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5). The present study detected and quantified ChHV5 in 153 fibropapilloma samples collected from green turtles Chelonia mydas on the Brazilian coast between 2009 and 2010 to characterize the relationship between viral load and tumor characteristics. Of the tumor samples collected, 73 and 87% were positive for ChHV5 in conventional PCR and real-time PCR, respectively, and viral loads ranged between 1 and 118.62 copies cell?¹. Thirty-three percent of turtles were mildly, 28% were moderately and 39% were severely affected with FP. Skin samples were used as negative control. High viral loads correlated positively with increasing FP severity in turtles sampled on the Brazilian coast and with samples from turtles found dead in the states of São Paulo and Bahia. Six viral variants were detected in tumor samples, 4 of which were similar to the Atlantic phylogenetic group. Two variants were similar to the western Atlantic/eastern Caribbean phylogenetic group. Co-infection in turtles with more than one variant was observed in the states of São Paulo and Bahia. PMID:25320033

Rodenbusch, C R; Baptistotte, C; Werneck, M R; Pires, T T; Melo, M T D; de Ataíde, M W; Testa, P; Alieve, M M; Canal, C W

2014-10-16

299

Effects observed in the Latin American sector ionospheric F region during the intense geomagnetic disturbances in the early part of November 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun was very active in the early part of November 2004. During the period of 8-10 November 2004, intense geomagnetic disturbances with two superstorms were observed. In this paper, we have investigated the generation and suppression of equatorial ionospheric irregularities and the daytime changes in the F region electron density in the Latin American sector during the period of intense geomagnetic disturbances. We present the ionospheric sounding observations carried out at Manaus and Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, during this geomagnetically disturbed period. Also, GPS observations obtained from several stations in Brazil, Argentina, and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the disturbed period are presented. During the main phase of the first superstorm, around the prereversal enhancement time (night of 7-8 November), prompt penetration of electric field was observed and the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities was detected from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (in the northern hemisphere) to Bahia Blanca, Argentina (in the southern hemisphere). The ionospheric sounding observations at Manaus indicate inhibition of prereversal enhancement on the nights of 9-10 and 10-11 November, possibly due to the disturbed thermospheric winds or disturbance electric fields. Virtually no phase fluctuations on the nights of 9-10 and 10-11 November were observed in the Latin American sector. During the daytime on 8 November, the vertical total electron content (VTEC) observations show a negative storm phase at Porto Alegre (Brazil) and Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Again during the daytime on 10 November, the VTEC observations show a negative storm phase from Brasilia (Brazil) to Bahia Blanca. These negative storm phases are associated with a decrease in the O/N2 ratio. During the daytime on 9 November, the VTEC observations show a positive storm phase extending from St. Croix to Porto Alegre, and again on 10 November, VTEC observations show a positive storm phase. These positive storm phases observed are possibly due to changes in large-scale wind circulation and an increase in the O/N2 ratio.

Sahai, Y.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Brunini, C.; Gende, M.; Ferreira, A. S.; Lima, N. S.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Pillat, V. G.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Candido, C. M. N.

2009-03-01

300

SAR measurements of coastal features in the NW Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a useful tool to study both marine water dynamics and its pollution, this is relevant near the coastline, where river pollution may be also important. Oil spills and natural slicks are detected with SAR [1-3] to reveal river and vessel pollution as well as the complex eddy and current interaction in the ocean surface near the coastline. In the framework of the ESA and European Union contracts, more than 1000 SAR images of the North-west Mediterranean Sea area taken between December 1996 and December 2008 are presented using self-similar traces that may be used to parametrize mixing at both limits of the Rossby Deformation Radius scale. Results show the ability to identify different SAR signatures and at the same time provide calibrations for the different local configurations of vortices, spirals, oil spills and tensioactive slicks that eventually allow predicting the behaviour of different tracers and pollutants in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to different polarization and intensity levels in satellite imagery can be used to distinguish between natural and man-made sea surface features due to their distinct self-similar as a function of spill parameters, environmental conditions and history of both oil release and weather conditions. (Environmental factors determine [4] spreading, drift and weathering of oil on the sea surface - see: Behaviour oil at sea). Detecting the low contrast patches depends also on the speckle noise which always presents in the image. Application of different filters (available for example in several image processing software (Matlab, Envi, IDL) to the radar data decreases noise level and improves the feature detecting in the image [1] Bezerra, M.O., Diez, M., Medeiros, C., Rodriguez, A., Bahia, E., Sanchez-Arcilla, A. and Redondo, J.M. 1998. Study on the influence of waves on coastal diffusion using image analysis. Applied Scientific Research 59, pp.191-204. [2] Carrillo, A., A., Sanchez,, M.A., Platonov, A., Redondo, J.M. 2001. Coastal and Interfacial Mixing. Laboratory Experiments and Satellite Observations. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, v. B, 26/4. pp. 305-311. [3]Redondo J., Rodriguez A., Bahia E., Falqués A., Gracia V., Sánchez Arcilla A. and Stive M.J.F. (1994). Image Analysis of Surf-Zone Hydrodynamics. Coastal Dynamics'94, ASCE. [4]Rodriguez A., Sánchez-Arcilla A., Redondo, J.M., Bahia E. and Sierra, J.P. (1995): Measurements and modelling of pollutant dispersion in the nearshore region, Water Science and Technology, IAWQ, 32, 10-19.

Redondo, Jose M.; Martinez Benjamin, Juan Jose; Diez, Margarita; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar

2013-04-01

301

Identification and distribution of New World Leishmania species characterized by serodeme analysis using monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Five hundred thirty stocks of Leishmania isolated from human and domestic and wild reservoir hosts, representing a wide geographic distribution of endemic foci of American cutaneous (ACL) and visceral leishmaniases (AVL) were characterized and identified at species and/or subspecies levels based on their reactivity to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay. This study confirms and extends our preliminary results on the high specificity of some of these monoclonals for the L. braziliensis, L. mexicana, and L. donovani complexes. This study also demonstrates the relative stability of these molecular markers and the general usefulness of the method for parasite identification. Two hundred ninety-two of 420 isolates of ACL were classified as members of the L. braziliensis complex. Two hundred twenty-seven were L. b. braziliensis; these showed the widest geographical distribution (Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo; Honduras: Santa Barbara and Yoko; Peru: Ancash, Piura, and Ucayali; and Venezuela: Cojedes, Distrito Federal, Lara, Portuguesa, Vale Hondo, Yaracuy, and Zulia). Forty-one stocks were identified as L. b. guyanensis (from North Brazil: Amazonas, Amapa, Para, and Rondonia). Twenty-one stocks were identified as L. b. panamensis (from Costa Rica: Alajuela, Guanacasten, Limon, Puntarenas, and San Jose; and Honduras: El Paraiso, and Olancho). Out of 128 isolates classified as members of the L. mexicana complex, 74 were differentiated as L. m. amazonensis (from Bolivia; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso do Norte, and Para; Peru: Pasco Forest and Van Humboldt; and Venezuela: Carabobo, Guarico, and Merida). Forty-four stocks were identified as L. m. venezuelensis (from Venezuela: Lara). Six stocks were L. m. mexicana (from Belize; and Mexico: Campeche [corrected] and Quintana Roo, Yucatan). One hundred ten isolates from AVL were identified as L. donovani chagasi (from Brazil: Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, and Sergipe; and Honduras: Valle). The implications of these results with respect to both the clinical and epidemiological data (including the detection of seven unusual characterized stocks) are discussed. PMID:3826486

Grimaldi, G; David, J R; McMahon-Pratt, D

1987-03-01

302

Mass Spectrometry of Flavonoid Vicenin-2, Based Sunlight Barriers in Lychnophora species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lychnophora salicifolia plants collected from four different places in Brazil (three states: Goias, Minas Gerais and Bahia) revealed a conserved accumulation of vicenin-2, a di-C-glycosyl flavonoid. Quantitative studies by UPLC-MS/MS showed high concentration of vicenin-2 in leaves from sixty specimens of six Lychnophora species. So the tissue distributions of vicenin-2 were evaluated in wild Lychnophora leaves (Asteraceae) by laser based imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to propose its distributions and possible functions for the species analyzed. Mass spectrometric imaging revealed that vicenin-2, unlike other flavonoids, was produced at the top of the leaves. The combination of localization and UV absorption properties of vicenin-2 suggests that it could act as a UV light barrier to protect the plants, since plants are sessile organisms that have to protect themselves from harsh external conditions such as intense sunlight.

Silva, Denise Brentan; Turatti, Izabel Cristina Casanova; Gouveia, Dayana Rubio; Ernst, Madeleine; Teixeira, Simone Pádua; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

2014-03-01

303

Sandy beaches contamination by arsenic, a result of nearshore sediment diagenesis and transport (Brazilian coastline)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the distribution of As, Fe, Ca and Al in beach sands and near-shore surface sediments along the Brazilian coast from the equatorial zone to Rio de Janeiro state. High concentrations of As (up to 120 mg kg-1) exceeding the environmentally acceptable thresholds were found in the beach sands and near-shore surface sediment in several segments of the studied coast. That increased from north to south. The significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.58) between As and calcium carbonate in the beach sands corroborated the hypothesis that calcareous bioclasts participate in metalloid retention and its accumulation in beach sediments. Most likely, enrichment of As occurs in the oxic horizon of sediments caused by the diagenetic redistribution of various elements. Enrichment of As in beach sands occurs in the coast of Bahia and Espirito Santo states. That is facilitated by clastic material of calcareous algae.

Mirlean, N.; Garcia, F.; Baisch, P.; Quintana, G. C.; Agnes, F.

2013-12-01

304

New records of Anopheles homunculus in central and Serra do Mar biodiversity corridors of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.  

PubMed

Two new records of Anopheles homunculus in the eastern part of the Atlantic Forest are reported. This species was found for the first time in Barra do Ouro district, Maquiné municipality, Rio Grande do Sul state, located in the southern limit of the Atlantic Forest. The 2nd new record was in the Serra Bonita Reserve, Camacan municipality, southeast Bahia state. These records extend the geographical distribution of An. homunculus, suggesting that the species may be widely distributed in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest. It is hypothesized that the disjunct distribution of the species may be caused by inadequate sampling, and also difficulties in species identification based only on female external characteristics. Species identification was based on morphological characters of the male, larva, and pupa, and corroborated by DNA sequence analyses, employing data from both 2nd internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA and of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I. PMID:22533076

da Cardoso, Jader C; Bergo, Eduardo S; Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Sant'ana, Denise C; Motoki, Maysa T; Sallum, Maria Anice M

2012-03-01

305

Canto do Brazil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Getting to Brazil is getting more and more expensive, especially considering the rising prices of flights abroad. For those who have never been, or those looking for a compelling perspective on a few regions of this huge country, this site, designed by Geoffrey Hiller is worth a look. Hiller is a photographer who first visited Brazil 25 years ago, and recently returned to explore the country at length. The Flash introduction to the site offers some lovely images, set to the backdrop of rather enchanting music, with narration provided by a woman who talks about the nature of the Brazilian soul. The various short films, which consist of photographs that dissolve and melt into each scene, deal with such locals as Salvador Bahia, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais. After viewing each short film, visitors can wander through the images contained within each film in a separate photo gallery.

Hiller, Geoffrey

306

Learning in the informal spaces and re-signification of the existence of undergraduate students of nursing  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: to describe the perception of lecturers and undergraduate nursing students regarding the dialogic experience in the informal spaces and its relationship with training in health. METHOD: experiential descriptions were collected in the context of a public university in the non-metropolitan region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using open interviews. These descriptions were analyzed according to the principles of the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. RESULTS: it was revealed that the informal spaces contribute significantly to the construction of knowledge and professional training strengthening teaching and promoting the re-signification of the subjects' experience. CONCLUSION: it is evidenced that the dialogic experience has relevancy for rethinking the teaching-learning process in the university, such that the informal spaces should be included and valued as producers of meanings for the personal and academic life of lecturers and students, with the ability to re-signify existence. PMID:25493667

de Jesus, Isabel Silva; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Andrade, Luana Machado

2014-01-01

307

Ergonomic evaluation of the preparation of cuttings and minicuttings for eucalyptus seedling production, with the use of scissors.  

PubMed

This study was conducted in a nursery for eucalyptus seedling production in a forest Company, located in the southern state of Bahia, Brazil. It aimed to evaluate the ergonomic conditions of the preparation of cuttings and mini-cuttings with scissors for Eucalyptus seedling production to increase well-being, satisfaction and safety and minimizing the occurrence of occupational diseases, also improving the process efficiency and final product quality. Environmental conditions, levels of noise, postures, RSI risk and physical workload were assessed. The environmental conditions complied with the recommended norms, except at certain times of day, when workers should make compensation breaks. The workers that collect minicuttings presented postures classified as normal by OWAS. On the other hand, the posture of workers dealing with cutting preparation requires corrections in a short run. The workers were subjected to moderate RSI risk due to the high degree of repeatability found. The physical workload was classified as mild, with no need for ergonomic interventions. PMID:22317599

Cunha, Eduarda Gabriela Santos; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

2012-01-01

308

Nomenclatural corrections, neotype designation and new subspecies description in the genus Suiriri (Aves: Passeriformes: Tyrannidae).  

PubMed

Zimmer et al. (2001) documented two morphological and vocal forms within what was then known as Suiriri suiriri affinis, and described the short-billed form as Suiriri islerorum. However, studies of the Burmeister type material held at the Natural History Collections of the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany, revealed the types of Suiriri s. affinis (Burmeister, 1856) to be the same taxon as Suiriri islerorum, which name therefore becomes a junior synonym. No published name is available for the long-billed form. A new name is therefore introduced by an original description in accordance with the International code on zoological nomenclature. The original type material of S. s. bahiae (Berlepsch, 1893) is confirmed to be lost; a neotype is designated. PMID:24872051

Kirwan, Guy M; Steinheimer, Frank D; Raposo, Marcos A; Zimmer, Kevin J

2014-01-01

309

The 14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses (July 1–4, 2009; Salvador, Brazil)  

PubMed Central

The "14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses" was held in Salvador, Bahia, from July 1st to July 4th 2009. The aim of this biennial meeting is to promote discussion and share new findings between researchers and clinicians for the benefit of patients infected by human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). HTLV infects approximately 15–20 million individuals worldwide and causes a broad spectrum of diseases including neurodegeneration and leukemia. The scientific program included a breadth of HTLV research topics: epidemiology, host immune response, basic mechanisms of protein function, virology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and treatment. Exciting new findings were presented in these different fields, and the new advances have led to novel clinical trials. Here, highlights from this conference are summarized. PMID:19686596

Willems, Luc

2009-01-01

310

Two new South American species of Solanum section Crinitum (Solanaceae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species of Solanum section Crinitum are described here. Solanum falciforme Farruggia, sp. nov., closely resembles Solanum crinitum and Solanum lycocarpum, but differs by the presence of falcate trichomes on the young growth. It is endemic to the cerrado and adjacent woodlands of Distrito Federal, Bahia, Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The other species, Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia, sp.nov., has close affinities to Solanum sycophanta butdiffers from the latter in having prominent long-stalked stellate hairs along the stem, calyx, petiole and the adaxial surface of the leaf, in contrast to Solanum sycophanta which is glabrous or pubescent with sessile to short-stalked multangulate hairs. This species is narrowly distributed in tropical montane forests of northern Peru and southern Ecuador. PMID:22171169

Farruggia, Frank T.; Bohs, Lynn

2010-01-01

311

Cytogenetic divergence in two sympatric fish species of the genus Astyanax Baird and Girard, 1854 (Characiformes, Characidae) from northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The fish genus Astyanax is widespread throughout the Neotropical region and is one of the most species-rich genera of the Characiformes. Cytogenetic studies of Astyanax have revealed marked intra- and interspecific diversity, with the identification of various species complexes. In this report, we describe the karyotypic structure of two sympatric species of Astyanax (Astyanax sp. and Astyanax aff. fasciatus) from the Middle Contas River basin in the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. Both species had 2n = 48 but differed in their karyotypic formulae. Small heterochromatic blocks and multiple nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were identified in both species. Terminal CMA(3) (+)/DAPI(-) signals were observed in Astyanax sp. and A. aff. fasciatus, mostly coincident with NORs. These results show that chromosomal markers can be used to identify species in this fish complex. These markers can provide useful information for evolutionary studies and investigations on the mechanisms of chromosomal diversity in Astyanax. PMID:23271941

Medrado, Aline Souza; Ribeiro, Mavione Souza; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Carneiro, Paulo Luíz Souza; Costa, Marco Antônio

2012-12-01

312

Being Yoruba in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro.  

PubMed

Through the experiences of two West Africans shipped to Bahia as slaves, probably in the 1840s, then sold south to Rio de Janeiro where they met, became lovers, bought their freedom, married, and divorced, I comment on an ongoing debate over the refashioning or transfer of African ethnic identities in American slave societies. The sources in this Brazilian case suggest that previous identities were not suddenly erased, but rather, new layers of understanding and ways of responding were added. Whatever the dynamic of cultural formation, it was memory that crucially bridged the distance between the past they carried with them and the present into which they were thrust; and so it becomes illuminating to reconstruct the plausibly remembered African pasts on which this couple drew to make sense of an unfamiliar Brazilian present. PMID:21574280

Graham, Sandra Lauderdale

2011-01-01

313

Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra).  

PubMed

Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil. PMID:12563481

Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho

2002-12-01

314

[Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae)].  

PubMed

Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae). Parodontidae family is a group of Characiformes fishes distributed throughout South America and parts of Panama, except in the basins of the southern Bahia state in Brasil on the Atlantic coast, Patagonia and the Amazon river channel. The family includes three genera: Apareiodon Eigenmann 1916, Parodon Valenciennes 1849 y Saccodon Kner 1863, 28 recognized species and two valid genera: Parodon and Saccodon. Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis is carried out based on type, and topotypic material from Colombia. Significant differences were found in morphometric, meristic, osteologic and color characters. S. dariensis is widely distributed but P. caliensis is restricted to the upper Cauca River drainage. Three species are considered herein as synonyms of S. dariensis: Apareiodon dariensis, A. compressus and S. caucae. Sexual dimorphism is described for both species. PMID:20737840

Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro; Román-Valencia, César

2010-09-01

315

Use of passive samplers for improving oil toxicity and spill effects assessment.  

PubMed

Methods that quantify dissolved hydrocarbons are needed to link oil exposures to toxicity. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers can serve this purpose. If fibers are equilibrated with oiled water, dissolved hydrocarbons partition to and are concentrated on the fiber. The absorbed concentration (Cpolymer) can be quantified by thermal desorption using GC/FID. Further, given that the site of toxic action is hypothesized as biota lipid and partitioning of hydrocarbons to lipid and fibers is well correlated, Cpolymer is hypothesized to be a surrogate for toxicity prediction. To test this method, toxicity data for physically and chemically dispersed oils were generated for shrimp, Americamysis bahia, and compared to test exposures characterized by Cpolymer. Results indicated that Cpolymer reliably predicted toxicity across oils and dispersions. To illustrate field application, SPME results are reported for oil spills at the Ohmsett facility. SPME fibers provide a practical tool to improve characterization of oil exposures and predict effects in future lab and field studies. PMID:25096583

Letinski, Daniel; Parkerton, Thomas; Redman, Aaron; Manning, Ryan; Bragin, Gail; Febbo, Eric; Palandro, David; Nedwed, Tim

2014-09-15

316

Evaluation of the use of Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) frog tissues as bioindicator of metal contamination in Contas River, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study on the viability of the use of tissues of the Leptodactylus ocellatus species (Anura Leptodactylidae) as a bioindicator of metal pollution. The study is based on the determination and correlation of the concentrations of manganese, chromium, zinc, nickel, copper and iron in sediments and tissues (skin, muscles and viscera) of the frog Leptodactylus ocellatus collected in the middle region of the Contas River in Bahia, Brazil. The highest levels of the metals studied were found in the viscera of this animal. In this tissue, a higher correlation of the concentration of these metals with those found in sediments was also observed. The concentrations of elements found in the skin and muscles of these amphibians have revealed no correlation with the sediment where they were collected. According to the results obtained, the viscera of the L. ocellatus species presents itself as a good bioindicator of contamination by the metals studied. PMID:25590699

Correia, Lívia O; Siqueira Júnior, Sérgio; Carneiro, Paulo L S; Bezerra, Marcos A

2014-12-01

317

Habitat structural effect on squamata fauna of the restinga ecosystem in northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this work, we surveyed data on richness and composition of squamatan reptiles and habitat structural effect in nine areas of restinga ecosystem in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. The "restinga" ecosystems are coastal sand dune habitats on the coast of Brazil. Our main hypothesis is that the Squamata fauna composition along these restinga areas would be modulated by habitat structural. After 90 days of field sampling we recorded approximately 5% of reptile species known in Brazil. The composition of Squamata assemblages varied mainly based on the presence or absence of lizards of the genera Ameivula and Tropidurus. Our data showed that habitat structure consistently affected the composition of local Squamata fauna, especially lizards. PMID:24676173

Dias, Eduardo J R; Rocha, Carlos F D

2014-03-01

318

Water quality of runoff from revegetated mine spoil.  

PubMed

Permanent vegetation plots were established on mixed overburden and topsoiled overburden on a lignite test pit in eastern Texas in 1982. Vegetative treatments included two grass-legume treatments [switchgrass (panicum virgattun) - sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) - subterrancan elover (Trifolitun subterranean) and litte bluestem (Schizachyriun scoparium) - sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) - Illinois hundleflower (Dessmanthus illinoiensis)] and three monocultures [Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), bahia grass (paspalum notatum) and yellow Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans)]. Water was applied to the 0.5m(2) plots using a sprinklertype rainfall simulator and quality of runoff was determined for each plot. Parameters analyzed included: settleable solids, total filterable solids, sediment production, infiltration rate, nitrites, nitrates, total iron and total manganese. Topsoiling significantly increased inliltration and significantly decreased filterable sediments, sediment production and settleable solids. The hydrologie qualities of the switchgrass-sideoats grama-subterranean elover mixture coincided closely with those of the Coastal bermudagrass monoculture. PMID:24221679

Trouart, J E; Knight, R W

1985-03-01

319

Proposed biological testing methods for the United States incineration-at-sea research program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration-at-Sea research program, a suite of toxicity tests has been selected for assessing the toxicity of incinerator emissions generated during the combustion of chlorinated wastes. The test organisms for the five short-term chronic tests are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, the myside Mysidopsis bahia, the red macroalga Champia parvula, the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus, and gametes from the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. The durations of individual tests range from 2 hours to 7 days. The endpoints include survival, growth and reproductive effects. The results have demonstrated that the proposed methodologies can be used to test the toxicity of gaseous emissions, and that there appears to be no significant toxicity associated with the combustion products of a carrier fuel oil.

Strobel, C.J.; Gentile, J.H.; Schimmel, S.C.; Carr, R.S.; Williams, J.W.

1988-01-01

320

Potential assessed in Argentina's association contract areas  

SciTech Connect

The majority of the Austral basin fields discovered are mainly associated with structural and combination traps. Except for El Condor, La Sara, and San Sebastian fields, most of the oil reserves of limited size. This is due to several factors: small areal extent (5--50 sq km), variability of the Springhill thickness which frequently wedges out over the top of structures, facies changes and related complex reservoir distributions, and lack of hydrocarbons. Until 1985, all the commercial discoveries have been made in the area of the platform mostly in the Springhill reservoir and to a lesser extent on top of the volcanic Bahia Laura group (equivalent Lemaire or Tobifera formations). However, the Tertiary discoveries in Campo Boleadoras and Puesto Peter fields opened a zone, named Intermediate'' by YPF's geologists, located to the west of the known producing areas. In this zone, the lower member of the Magallanes group has yielded production. Reservoir characteristics are discussed.

Pucci, J.C. (Pucci (Juan Carlos), Buenos Aires (Argentina))

1994-06-20

321

Reply [to “Antarctic ice cover”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let me thank D. Milton and L. Lliboutry for sharing their information, criticisms, and thoughts on this important subject. Lliboutry, I believe, has provided useful information that relates to cartographic history. He has, however, unfortunately represented as fact a variety of speculations for which he has provided no references, e.g., “… the gulf should be Bahia Inutil in Tierra del Fuego, not the Weddell Sea…,” “Regio Patalis …actually is Australia,” and “… all the details… [on the] Finaeus map are surely absolutely fanciful….” It appears, rather, that these are his judgments, which I believe add little to the argument or the literature. The interested reader will surely consult the original paper and make his independent judgment.

Weihaupt, John G.

1984-04-01

322

Antimicrobial activity of Marcetia DC species (Melastomataceae) and analysis of its flavonoids by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector  

PubMed Central

Background: Marcetia genera currently comprises 29 species, with approximately 90% inhabiting Bahia (Brazil), and most are endemic to the highlands of the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia). Among the species, only M. taxifolia (A.St.-Hil.) DC. populates Brazil (state of Roraima to Paraná) and also Venezuela, Colombia, and Guyana. Objective: This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of three species of Marcetia (Marcetia canescens Naud., M. macrophylla Wurdack, and M. taxifolia A.StHil) against several microorganism. In addition, the flavonoids were analyzed in extracts by HPLC-DAD. Materials and methods: The tests were made using Gram-positive (three strains of Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (two strains of Escherichia coli, a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another of Salmonella choleraesius) bacteria resistant and nonresistant to antibiotics and yeasts (two strains of Candida albicans and one of C. parapsilosis) by the disk diffusion method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed on the above extracts to isolate flavonoids, which were subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results: Results showed that extracts inhibited the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. The hexane extracts possessed the lowest activity, while the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts were more active. Conclusion: Marcetia taxifolia was more effective (active against 10 microorganisms studied), and only its methanol extract inhibited Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesius). SPE and HPLC-DAD analysis showed that M. canescens and M. macrophylla contain glycosylated flavonoids, while the majority of extracts from M. taxifolia were aglycone flavonoids. PMID:23060695

Leite, Tonny Cley Campos; de Sena, Amanda Reges; dos Santos Silva, Tânia Regina; dos Santos, Andrea Karla Almeida; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Branco, Alexsandro

2012-01-01

323

[The fisheries and growth of Ark Clams (Arcoida: Arcidae) Anadara tuberculosa in Málaga Bay, Colombian Pacific, 2005-2007].  

PubMed

A. tuberculosa, is the most important bivalve species under exploitation in Colombia. Here, this species is found from Cabo Corrientes (Chocó) to the Ecuador border, in muddy substrates of mangrove forests. In order to determine the growth and the state of fisheries of A. tuberculosa, between December 2005 and April 2007, both, biological (in situ) and commercial studies were performed at Bahia Malaga (Colombian Pacific). The growth was estimated using the general equation of von Bertalanffy, with prior application of the methods of Bhattacharya and Powell-Wetherall. Mortality and exploitation rate were determined using the inverse model of von Bertalanffy. For the biological samplings, a total of 446 individuals of A. tuberculosa (0.64 +/- 0.13 individuals/m2) and 53 individuals (0.05 +/- 0.049 individuals/m2) of Anadara similis were collected. 79% of the catch was below 51mm. In the commercial samplings, 836 individuals of A. tuberculosa (size range: 31.1-92.2mm) were measured, but no A. similis samples were available for this. Recruitment of A. tuberculosa was higher during March, May, July and November. According to the data, A. tuberculosa might be reproducing during December, February, April and August. The data gathered with the biological samples were more reliable on explaining the growth of A. tuberculosa (K=0.332 per year, L(infinity)=88.256mm, t0=0.0556 years) than the one taken from market samples (K=0.256 per year, L(infinity)=89.77mm, t0=0733 years). The high exploitation rate (77%), the low density and the high mortality suggest that A. tuberculosa is in overexploitation state in Bahia Malaga and management strategies are urgently required. PMID:22458219

Lucero, Carlos; Cantera, Jaime; Neira, Raúl

2012-03-01

324

Allozyme Diversity and Morphometrics of Melocactus paucispinus (Cactaceae) and Evidence for Hybridization with M. concinnus in the Chapada Diamantina, North-eastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Melocacatus paucispinus (Cactaceae) is endemic to the state of Bahia, Brazil, and due to its rarity and desirability to collectors it has been considered threatened with extinction. This species is usually sympatric and inter-fertile with M. concinnus, and morphological evidence for hybridization between them is present in some populations. Levels of genetic and morphological variation and sub-structuring in populations of these species were assessed and an attempt was made to verify the occurrence of natural hybridization between them. • Methods Genetic variability was surveyed using allozymes (12 loci) and morphological variability using multivariate morphometric analyses (17 vegetative characters) in ten populations of M. paucispinus and three of M. concinnus occurring in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia. • Key Results Genetic variability was low in both species (P = 0·0–33·3, A = 1·0–1·6, He = 0·000–0·123 in M. paucispinus; P = 0·0–25·0, A = 1·0–1·4, He = 0·000–0·104 in M. concinnus). Deficit of heterozygotes within the populations was detected in both species, with high values of FIS (0·732 and 0·901 in M. paucispinus and M. concinnus, respectively). Evidence of hybridization was detected by the relative allele frequency in the two diaphorase loci. High levels of genetic (FST = 0·504 in M. paucispinus and 0·349 in M. concinnus) and morphological (A = 0·20 in M. paucispinus and 0·17 in M. concinnus) structuring among populations were found. • Conclusions The Melocactus spp. displayed levels of genetic variability lower than the values reported for other cactus species. The evidence indicates the occurrence of introgression in both species at two sites. The high FST values cannot be explained by geographical substructuring, but are consistent with hybridization. Conversely, morphological differentiation in M. paucispinus, but not in M. concinnus, is probably due to isolation by distance. PMID:16423866

LAMBERT, SABRINA MOTA; BORBA, EDUARDO LEITE; MACHADO, MARLON CÂMARA; ANDRADE, SÓNIA CRISTINA DA SILVA

2006-01-01

325

Protegiendo a su familia de los terremotos-Los siete pasos a la seguridad para prepararse en caso de un terremoto (en espa?ol y en ingles)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Les escribimos esta carta para comunicarle un mensaje sumamente importante sobre las preparaciones de emergencia. Historicamente, hemos sufrido terremotos aqui en el Area de la Bahia de San Francisco que han causado graves privaciones para los residentes de la comunidad y da?os increibles a nuestras ciudades. Es probable que suframos un terremoto de gran magnitud en los proximos 30 a?os. Muchos de nosotros venimos de otros paises donde hemos pasado por terremotos y por eso creemos entenderlos. Sin embargo, la manera que nos preparamos para terremotos en nuestros paises de origen puede ser distinta a la que empleamos aca en los Estados Unidos. Muy pocas personas mueren a causa de los derrumbes de los edificios en el Area de la Bahia porque la mayoria de los edificios son construidos para resistir el sacudimiento de la tierra. Pero es muy probable que su familia no tenga atencion medica, alimentos o que esten separados del uno al otro por dias o semanas. Finalmente depende de usted mantener a su familia a salvo hasta que llegue asistencia, por eso les pedimos que nos unamos para aprender a cuidar a su familia antes, durante, y despues de un terremoto. El primer paso es leer este libro. Cada uno de su familia, ni?os y adultos, pueden aprender como prepararse para un terremoto. Haga participar e incluya sus ni?os; pueden ayudarle a prepararse. Aproveche las clases ofrecidas en su comunidad sobre las preparaciones de terremotos por la Cruz Roja Estadounidense (American Red Cross). Estos cursos de preparacion son gratis y disponibles en espa?ol para todos en la comunidad sin tomar en cuenta la historia de la familia, estado legal, genero o edad. Les recomendamos que tome ventaja de estas clases gratuitas. Para mas informacion consulte la ultima pagina de este libro. Recuerde que un terremoto puede ocurrir sin aviso y la unica manera de reducir el da?o de terremotos es estar preparados. !Preparese!

Desarrollado por American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund, California Earthquake Authority, Governor's Office of Emergency Services, New America Media, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency, and U.S. Geological Survey

2007-01-01

326

Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land.  

PubMed

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucumxP. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96% and 91%, respectively, whereas bana had the lowest survival rate of 62%. The coverage and biomass of vetiver were also the highest after 6-month planting. Fertilizer application significantly increased biomass and tiller number of the four grasses, of which St. Augustine was promoted most, up to 70% for biomass, while vetiver was promoted least, only 27% for biomass. Two heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) tested in this trial had different concentrations in the oil shale residue, and also had different contents and distributions in the four grass species. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the four grasses presented a disparity of only 1.6-3.8 times, but their uptake amounts to the two metals were apart up to 27.5-35.5 times, which was chiefly due to the significantly different biomasses among them. Fertilizer application could abate the ability of the four species to accumulate heavy metals, namely concentration of heavy metals in plants decreased as fertilizer was applied. The total amount of metals accumulated by each plant under the condition of fertilization did not decrease due to an increase of biomass. In summary, vetiver may be the best species used for vegetation rehabilitation in oil shale disposal piles. PMID:14575747

Xia, H P

2004-01-01

327

Intensive Eucalyptus plantation management in Brazil: Long-term effects on soil carbon dynamics across 300 sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensively managed forest plantations now cover more than 6 million hectares in Brazil, and another 20 million hectares in other tropical regions. Although aboveground biomass, and therefore carbon, is well monitored due to commercial interest, the belowground carbon dynamics and site sustainability remain poorly understood. So, how does intensive silviculture change the storage of carbon in soils? Trends in soil organic carbon from land-use change indicate that conversion from pastures to Eucalyptus plantations should maintain soil carbon stocks. However, comprehensive, long-term studies are needed to understand the variability in these trends to better manage these systems for sustainable productivity across a highly variable landscape, as well as to understand the role that soils may play in sequestering carbon for climate change mitigation. In this unique, long-term soil study, soil samples were collected in the 1980s/90s, 2001, and 2010 across 300 intensively managed Eucalyptus plantation sites located in the states of Bahia, Espirito Santo, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. Natural ecosystems for these states include Savannah-Dry Forest, Atlantic Forest, and Savanna, respectively. The sampling covered at least three complete rotations of Eucalyptus at each site; climate, past land use, productivity, and soil characteristics vary across this geographic gradient. Across the two periods, both Espirito Santo (P<0.001) and Bahia (P=0.05) showed a decrease in soil carbon concentrations, while Sao Paulo saw no change over time. For the 0-30 cm layer, plantations in Espirito Santo state had the largest decrease in soil carbon concentration up to 2001, decreasing soil carbon stocks at an average rate of 1.3 Mg C ha-1 year-1. This, however, was followed by no significant change from 2001 to 2010 which may indicate stabilization of soil carbon stocks under the new land use. The Eucalyptus in Bahia created no change in the first sampling period, but saw a decline of 0.35 Mg C ha-1year-1 in soil carbon in the second sampling period from 2001-2010. Initial results show that, across the regions, sites that had higher soil carbon stocks tended to lose more soil carbon under intensive silviculture. In all three regions, clay content related strongly to soil carbon concentrations. However, the clay did not have a consistent relationship with the rates of change in soil carbon concentration, varying among regions, with negative, positive, and no relationship for the 2001-2010 time period. Further investigation will determine relationships with temperature and precipitation, past land use history, and Eucalyptus productivity. These results will be essential in evaluating the effects on soil organic carbon dynamics due to conversion to short-rotation Eucalyptus plantations in the tropics across a broad and variable landscape.

Cook, R. L.; Stape, J.; Binkley, D.

2011-12-01

328

Diffusion, intermittency and scaling in wave breaking turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of 3D turbulent velocity have been made near the coast for a variety of weather conditions in the wave breaking zone, and these values have been compared with flume measurements at a 100m long wave tank. There is a strong dependence of the integral lenthscales with the Wave Reynolds number as well as with the position and the wind, quantified through the friction velocity from wind profiles measured at the coastline. Earlier results have been published in Bezerra et al. (1998) and Rodriguez et al(1999). Several effects are important and give several decades of variation of eddy diffusivities measured near the coastline (between 0.0001 and 2 m2s-1)Inman et al.(1971), Zeitler(1976). Measurements of electromagnetic and ADV velocity measurements of the Coastal wave generated turbulence are compared in order to invest the scaling and intermittency of the turbulence produced by wave breaking. The velocity measurements were performed with an array of electromagnetic sensors that could be placed along the coastline in a stainless steel sledge. Rodriguez et al.(1994,1999) showed a parabolic shape of cross-shore diffusivity values but present analysis also shows the crosshore dependence of the intermittency as well as changes in the spectral slopes. Bezerra M.O., Diez M., Medeiros C., Rodriguez A., Bahia E. Sanchez-Arcilla A. y Redondo J.M. (1998) Study on the influence of waves on coastal diffusion using image analysis Applied Scientific Research. 59, 191-204. Rodriguez A., Sanchez-Arcilla A., Redondo J.M and C. Mosso (1999) Macroturbulence measurements with electromagnetic and ultrasonic sensors: a comparison under high-turbulent flows. Experiments in Fluids, 27, 31-42. Inman, D. L.; Tait, R.J.; Nordstrom, C.E. (1971). Mixing in the surf zone. Journal of Geophysical Research, vol 76, n° 15, 3493 - 3514. Zeidler, R. B. (1976) Coastal dispersion of pollutants, Journal of the Waterways Harbors and Coastal Engineering Division, 235 - 254 p. Rodriguez, A.; Bahia, E.; Falques, A.; Arcilla, A. S. And Stive, M. J. F. (1994) Image analysis of surf zone hydrodynamics. Coastal Dynamics 94. A.S.C.E., 350-365.

Redondo, J. M.; Mosso, C.; Marino, R.

2009-04-01

329

Size-selective harvesting alters life histories of a temperate sex-changing fish.  

PubMed

Selective mortality, whether caused naturally by predation or through the influence of harvest practices, initiates changes within populations when individuals possessing certain heritable traits have increased fitness. Theory predicts that increased mortality rates will select for changes in a number of different life history characteristics. For example, fishing often targets larger individuals and has been shown repeatedly to alter population size structure and growth rates, and the timing of maturation. For sex-changing species, selective fishing practices can affect additional traits such as the mature population sex ratio and the timing of sexual transformation. Using historical comparisons, we examined the effects of exploitation on life history characteristics of California sheephead, Semicossyphus pulcher, a temperate protogynous (female-male sex changer) labrid that inhabits nearshore rocky environments from central California, USA, to southern Baja California, Mexico. Recreational fishing intensified and an unregulated commercial live-fish fishery developed rapidly in southern California between the historical and current studies. Collections of S. pulcher from three locations (Bahia Tortugas, Catalina Island, and San Nicolas Island) in 1998 were compared with data collected 20-30 years previously to ascertain fishery-induced changes in life history traits. At Bahia Tortugas, where fishing by the artisanal community remained light and annual survivorship stayed high, we observed no changes in size structure or shifts in the timing of maturation or the timing of sex change. In contrast, where recreational (Catalina) and commercial (San Nicolas) fishing intensified and annual survivorship correspondingly declined, males and females shifted significantly to smaller body sizes, females matured earlier and changed sex into males at both smaller sizes and younger ages and appeared to have a reduced maximum lifespan. Mature sex ratios (female:male) increased at San Nicolas, despite a twofold reduction in the mean time spent as a mature female. Proper fisheries management requires measures to prevent sex ratio skew, sperm limitation, and reproductive failure because populations of sequential hermaphrodites are more sensitive to size-selective harvest than separate-sex species. This is especially true for S. pulcher, where different segments of the fishery (commercial vs. recreational) selectively target distinct sizes and therefore sexes in different locations. PMID:18213967

Hamilton, Scott L; Caselle, Jennifer E; Standish, Julie D; Schroeder, Donna M; Love, Milton S; Rosales-Casian, Jorge A; Sosa-Nishizaki, Oscar

2007-12-01

330

Zero Tillage cotton systems and soil quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity. Cotton is a deep tap-rooted crop, sensitive to physical and chemical impediments to root development; this has engendered a paradigm of heavy soil preparation operations to remove these. But, ZT can overcome such obstacles, allowing the cotton crop to benefit from cost reductions and a number of other benefits, especially erosion control.. Soil quality has three principal dimensions. Maximum yields only occur when soil fertility, structure and biological activity are in balance. Under Zero Tillage management of Brazilian soils, the processes of nutrient availability, nutrient cycling and efficiency result from increasing SOM and higher CEC. ZT system fertility is also strongly influenced by total annual aerial and root biomass generation; C:N ratios of the biomass, changes in aeration in residue breakdown processes (for roots, dependent on internal drainage), reduced fixation of Phosphorus fertilizers, the possibility of surface application of P and K, use of deep-rooted cover crops to re-cycle nutrients and deleterious effects of over-liming. Soil physical parameters undergo a transformation : greater water holding capacity, a small increase in bulk density (ameliorated by a reversal of soil aggregate breakdown inherent to conventional tillage by the binding action of root exudates and fungal hyphae), enhanced particle aggregate size protects SOM from oxidation; old root holes create semi-permanent macro-pores which facilitate rooting, aeration and rainfall infiltration.. Soil life of all types benefits from ZT management and contributes to soil fertility and structural improvements, plus enhancing certain biological controls of pathogenic organisms and allelopathic control of weeds by root exudates and residue breakdown products. Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity.

Landers, J. N.; de Freitas, P. L.

2012-04-01

331

'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement  

PubMed Central

This paper records the meaning of the term 'offense' and the folk knowledge related to local beliefs and practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. The data was recorded from September to November 2006 by means of open-ended interviews performed with 74 individuals of both genders, whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the local terms biting, stinging and pricking are synonymous and used as equivalent to offending. All these terms mean to attack. A total of 23 types of 'snakes' were recorded, based on their local names. Four of them are Viperidae, which were considered the most dangerous to humans, besides causing more aversion and fear in the population. In general, local people have strong negative behavior towards snakes, killing them whenever possible. Until the antivenom was present and available, the locals used only charms, prayers and homemade remedies to treat or protect themselves and others from snake bites. Nowadays, people do not pay attention to these things because, basically, the antivenom is now easily obtained at regional hospitals. It is understood that the ethnozoological knowledge, customs and popular practices of the Pedra Branca inhabitants result in a valuable cultural resource which should be considered in every discussion regarding public health, sanitation and practices of traditional medicine, as well as in faunistic studies and conservation strategies for local biological diversity. PMID:20346120

2010-01-01

332

Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic investigations on Isla de los Estados, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expedition in November-December 2005 to Isla de los Estados (Staten Island) off the southeastern tip of South America was a cooperative venture between Lund University (LU) and Stockholm University (SU) in Sweden and the CADIC-CONICET Institute in Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim of the expedition was threefold: (1) to extend the Swedish paleoclimatic "ATLANTIS"-project (Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Azores, Grenada, Tristan da Cunha; PI S Björck) to the southern part of the South American continent, (2) to connect earlier glacial and climate history reconstructions from the Antarctic Peninsula to equivalents north of the Drake Passage in southernmost South America, and (3) to complement paleo-information available from the Tierra del Fuego mainland with information from Isla de los Estados. Focus was on two areas in the northern and north-western part of the island, Bahía Colnett and Bahia Crossley. Detailed geomorphologic and stratigraphic mapping of glacial deposits were combined with sampling sediments for OSL dating. To reconstruct the paleoclimatic development of Isla de los Estados since the last ice retreat, four main peat bog/lake sites were cored and sampled. In addition, living trees of Nothofagus and old logs preserved in the peat were sampled for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies. Preliminary results show that the deglaciation of the study area occurred before 16500 cal yr BP. Detailed multi- proxy analyses of the four sequences are under way and first results will be presented.

Björck, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hjort, C.; Ljung, K.; Martinez, O.; Möller, P.; Ponce, F.; Rabassa, J.; Roig, F.; Unkel, I.; Wohlfarth, B.

2007-05-01

333

Effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes on the bioavailability of PCBs in field-contaminated sediments.  

PubMed

Adsorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) to black carbon is a well-studied phenomenon. One emerging class of engineered black carbon materials are single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Little research has investigated the potential of SWNT to adsorb and sequester HOCs in complex environmental systems. This study addressed the capacity of SWNT, amended to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated New Bedford Harbor (NBH) sediment, to reduce the toxicity and bioaccumulation of these HOCs to benthic organisms. Overall, SWNT amendments increased the survival of two benthic estuarine invertebrates, Americamysis bahia and Ampelisca abdita, and reduced the accumulation of PCBs to the benthic polychaete, Nereis virens. Reduction in PCB bioaccumulation by SWNT was independent of Kow. Further, passive sampling-based estimates of interstitial water concentrations indicated that SWNT reduced PCB bioavailability. Results from this study suggest that SWNT are a good adsorbent for PCBs and might be useful for remediation in the future once SWNT manufacturing technology improves and costs decrease. PMID:24266834

Parks, Ashley N; Chandler, G Thomas; Portis, Lisa M; Sullivan, Julia C; Perron, Monique M; Cantwell, Mark G; Burgess, Robert M; Ho, Kay T; Ferguson, P Lee

2014-08-01

334

Stable nitrogen isotopes in the turtle grass Thalassia testudinum from the Mexican Caribbean: Implications of anthropogenic development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient inputs associated with population growth threaten the integrity of coastal ecosystems. To assess the rapid increase in tourism, we compared the ?15N from Thalassia testudinum collected at sites with different levels of tourism development to detect the N inputs of wastewater discharge (WD) along the coast of Quintana Roo. The contributions of nitrogen enriched in 15N are directly related to the increase of WD inputs in areas of tourism development (Nichupte Lagoon in Cancun) and decreased toward Bahia Akumal and Tulum. The ?15N from T. testudinum was significantly lower at Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. In areas of the lowest development and with tourist activity restricted, such as the Yum Balam Reserve and Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, the ?15N values were relatively enriched compared to Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. Therefore, Puerto Morelos and Mahahual may be used for baseline isotopic monitoring where tourist activities are growing and can lead to environmental pressure on the reef lagoon ecosystem. The anthropogenic N input has the potential to impact, both environmentally and economically, the seagrass meadows and the coral reefs along the coast of Quintana Roo and the Caribbean.

Sánchez, Alberto; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma. Concepción; Talavera-Sáenz, Ana; Aguíñiga-García, Sergio

2013-12-01

335

Recognition on space photographs of structural elements of Baja California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gemini and Apollo photographs provide illustrations of known structural features of the peninsula and some structures not recognized previously. An apparent transform relationship between strike-slip and normal faulting is illustrated by the overlapping vertical photographs of northern Baja California. The active Agua Blanca right-lateral strike-slip fault trends east-southeastward to end at the north end of the Valle San Felipe and Valle Chico. The uplands of the high Sierra San Pedro Martir are a low-relief surface deformed by young faults, monoclines, and warps, which mostly produce west-facing steps and slopes; the topography is basically structural. The Sierra Cucapas of northeasternmost Baja California and the Colorado River delta of northwesternmost Sonora are broken by northwest-trending strike-slip faults. A strike-slip fault is inferred to trend northward obliquely from near Cabo San Lucas to La Paz, thence offshore until it comes ashore again as the Bahia Concepcion strike-slip fault.

Hamilton, W.

1971-01-01

336

Analysis of Seismic Swarms at the Oceanic Crust South of the Islas Marias, MEXICO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed data recorded at the Red Sismica Acelerometrica de Jalisco (RESAJ) from November 2010 to August 2013, focus on the seismicity occurred within an area south of the Islas Marias (-105.7, 20.3; -107, 21.8) west of Bahia de Banderas. We observed seismic swarms and low magnitude. Within our data set we identified four seismic swarms episodes. September 14 to 15, 2010 that starts with an earthquake of M = 5.6 at 23:31 followed by approximately 27 events, also has six earthquakes whose magnitudes are between M = 4.0 and M = 5.6; November 11 to December 5, 2011 which contains more than 25 events; October 12 to November 17, 2012 with more than 35 events with an earthquake M = 4.7 occurred on October 29; and finally the swarm occurred between January 20 and February 14, 2013 with over 120 events and one of M = 4.7 occurred on January 22. The last seismic swarm also present activity along two additional areas, one toward the west and the other toward the east of active area previously identified. This seismic activity is associated with the northern edge of the Barra de Navidad Trench whose geometry is unknown. Tectonic structures associated with this seismicity can be tsunamigenic and could represent a danger to nearby populations.

Tinoco Villa, M. E.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero, C. R.

2013-12-01

337

Periodontal profile and presence of periodontal pathogens in young African-Americans from Salvador, Ba, Brazil  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study evaluated the periodontal status and the presence of periodontopathogens in 132 young, black ethnic subjects who live in Salvador/Bahia-Brazil and have never smoked. Periodontal Probing Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were measured and analyzed by ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05) according to gender and age. The presence of A.actinomycetemcomitans, P.gingivalis, E.corrodens and F.nucleatum was determined by PCR and was analyzed by ANOVA, Wilcoxon, Student-t tests (p<0.05). Mean values of PPD and CAL were 2.18 and 1.0mm, respectively. Clinical parameters did not show differences between subjects of varying gender and age. The microbial prevalence was observed to be 95.45% for E.corrodens followed by F.nucleatum with 68.18%, A.actinomycetemcomitans with 45.45% and P gingivalis with 40.9%. An association between the presence of pathogens and gender and age was not observed (p<0.05). PPD, CAL and PI were not associated with P.gingivalis; however, GI appeared in higher frequencies among subjects without P.gingivalis. In this young, black ethnic, Brazilian population, a high percentage (96.96%) of subjects harbored at least one selected periodontal pathogen, but most subjects showed a healthy periodontal status. Further investigations are required to evaluate the actual influence of the presence of these bacterial species. PMID:24031206

Victor, Ligia Valéria; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Aquino, Davi Romeiro; de Carvalho Filho, Jonas; Cortelli, José Roberto

2008-01-01

338

Polyethylene process is ready to barge in and be used by Ipako in Argentina  

SciTech Connect

Ipako S.A.'s new 120,000 ton/yr Unipol low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plant will be built on a barge by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. and towed 14,000 mi to Bahia Blanca, Argent., where the barge will be moored to the shore. Union Carbide Corp. is offering barge-mounted LDPE plants using its Unipol process in 75,000 and 120,000 metric ton/yr sizes. The plants have the same design as land-based plants. The plant being built in Japan measures 300 ft long, 73.8 ft wide, and 175 ft to the top of the flare, and includes a raw materials storage and handling section, an onboard nitrogen plant, a purification system, fresh- and salt-water cooling systems, an enclosed personnel area, laboratory and process control facilities, a power distribution center, and an emergency power-generating plant. With construction in the shipyard, the plant can be completed in less time than would be required on site. When the plant starts operation, probably by the end of 1982, Ipako will become the largest LDPE producer in Argentina. Other companies, including Davy Offshore, have been promoting the idea of offshore plants.

Not Available

1980-04-02

339

A potential source for cellulolytic enzyme discovery and environmental aspects revealed through metagenomics of Brazilian mangroves  

PubMed Central

The mangroves are among the most productive and biologically important environments. The possible presence of cellulolytic enzymes and microorganisms useful for biomass degradation as well as taxonomic and functional aspects of two Brazilian mangroves were evaluated using cultivation and metagenomic approaches. From a total of 296 microorganisms with visual differences in colony morphology and growth (including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungus), 179 (60.5%) and 117 (39.5%) were isolated from the Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Bahia (BA) samples, respectively. RJ metagenome showed the higher number of microbial isolates, which is consistent with its most conserved state and higher diversity. The metagenomic sequencing data showed similar predominant bacterial phyla in the BA and RJ mangroves with an abundance of Proteobacteria (57.8% and 44.6%), Firmicutes (11% and 12.3%) and Actinobacteria (8.4% and 7.5%). A higher number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds were found in the BA mangrove. Specific sequences involved in the cellulolytic degradation, belonging to cellulases, hemicellulases, carbohydrate binding domains, dockerins and cohesins were identified, and it was possible to isolate cultivable fungi and bacteria related to biomass decomposition and with potential applications for the production of biofuels. These results showed that the mangroves possess all fundamental molecular tools required for building the cellulosome, which is required for the efficient degradation of cellulose material and sugar release. PMID:24160319

2013-01-01

340

[How do physical fitness and heavy physical work interact in the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders?].  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study investigated the association between self-reported physical fitness and musculoskeletal disorders in the neck, shoulder, or upper back among workers in 14 plastics factories in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Physical fitness was assessed on a scale from 0 to 5. Cases were defined as self-reported pain in the previous 12 months, lasting more than a week or having monthly minimum frequency, with restrictions at work or seeking medical care, or where respondents' severity was greater than 2 (on a scale from 0 to 5). Logistic regression was performed to investigate statistical interaction between physical fitness and physical demands from work in the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. Precarious physical fitness resulted in 3.19 times greater odds of musculoskeletal disorders among workers exposed to light physical demands on the job. Among workers exposed to heavy physical demands, physical fitness failed to protect against musculoskeletal disorders. Heavy physical work was always associated with high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Despite the importance of physical fitness, physical exercise programs should not be used to replace improvements in working conditions. PMID:25388321

Mascarenhas, Adauto Luis Moreira; Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira

2014-10-01

341

Coastal Fog, South Peruvian Coast at Pisco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coastal fog commonly drapes the Peruvian coast. This image captures complex interactions between land, sea, and atmosphere along the southern Peruvian coast. When Shuttle astronauts took the image in February of 2002, the layers of coastal fog and stratus were being progressively scoured away by brisk south to southeast winds. Remnants of the cloud deck banked against the larger, obstructing headlands like Peninsula Paracas and Isla Sangayan, giving the prominent 'white comma' effect. Southerlies also produced ripples of internal gravity waves in the clouds offshore where warm, dry air aloft interacts with a thinning layer of cool, moist air near the sea surface on the outer edge of the remaining cloud bank. South of Peninsula Baracas, the small headlands channeled the clouds into streaks-local horizontal vortices caused by the headlands provided enough lift to give points of origin of the clouds in some bays. Besides the shelter of the peninsula, the Bahia de Pisco appears to be cloud-free due to a dry, offshore flow down the valley of the Rio Ica. The STS-109 crew took image STS109-730-80 in February 2002. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

342

Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.  

PubMed

The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging. PMID:24615028

Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

2014-01-01

343

Influence of wavelength on the outcome of the treatment of TMJ disorders: TMDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that wavelength influences the outcome of many clinical protocols. Laser-phototherapy (LPT) and LEDs have been used on the treatment of pain of several origins including temporomandibular disorders - TMDs. TMDs are common painful multifactorial conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint whose treatment depends on the type and symptoms. Initially it requires pain control and for this, drugs, biting plates, oclusal adjustment, physiotherapy or their association are used. This work reports a series of patients of the Center of Biophotonics of the Federal University of Bahia over 10 years. Following standard anamneses, clinical and imaginologic examination and with the diagnosis of any type of TMD, the patients were set for light treatment. Treatment consisted of three sessions a week during six week. Prior irradiation, the patients were asked to score their pain using a VAS. ?780, ? 790, ? 830nm and/or ?660 and ?680nm lasers or LED were used on each session. Most patients were female (~43.6 years old). At the end of the 12 sessions the patients were again examined and score their pain using VAS. No other intervention was carried out during the treatment. The results were statistically analyzed and showed that most patients were asymptomatic or improved after treatment and that the association of wavelengths was very efficient on the symptomatic group. It is concluded that the association of both wavelengths was effective on pain reduction on TMJ disorders of several origins.

Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Marques, Aparecida Maria C.; Carvalho, Carolina M.; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T.; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.

2013-03-01

344

Impact of Neuropathic Pain at the Population Level  

PubMed Central

Background One of the chief complaints of individuals who frequent the Family Health Units is chronic pain which, in Salvador, affects over 40% of the population. However, little is known about the type of pain and its impact on quality of life (QoL) at population level. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of neuropathic pain on QoL in a community. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from March to October 2012, in a Family Health Unit, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The DN-4 (type of pain), body map (location), VAS (intensity) and SF-36 (QoL) instruments were applied. The Chi-square (univariate analysis) and logistic regression (multivariate) tests were used, with IC 95% and P < 0.05. Results In a sample of 191 individuals with chronic pain, predominantly women (86.4%), single (48.7%), nonwhite (93.2%), low educational (46.6%) and low economic (100%) level. The most affected locations of the body were knees, lumbar region and head. In 60.2% of interviewees, neuropathic pain, of high intensity (VAS = 7.09 ± 3.0) predominated, with duration of 8.53 ± 8.8 years and mean QoL was reduced in 47.13%. Conclusions Intense pain in the dorsal region and type of neuropathy are independent predictors for greater compromise of QoL. PMID:24578752

Vieira, Ana Shirley Maranhao; Baptista, Abrahao Fontes; Mendes, Livia; Silva, Kamilla Soares; Gois, Sharize Cristine de Araujo; Lima, Flavia Manoela de Almeida; Souza, Israel; Sa, Katia Nunes

2014-01-01

345

Beauveria bassiana strains for biological control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in plantain.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to select strains of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) in plantain farms (cv. Terra) of the "Recôncavo" and southern regions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The virulence of 32 B. bassiana isolates against C. sordidus was determined under laboratory conditions. Three isolates (CNPMF 407, CNPMF 218, and CNPMF 416) were selected for evaluation under field conditions in plantations located in the counties of Mutuípe and Wenceslau Guimarães. Population of C. sordidus was estimated every 15 days by using pseudostem traps. The efficiency of the three strains of B. bassiana was compared to chemical control (carbofuran, 4 g/trap) and absence of control. Carbofuran caused around 90% of adult mortality after 12 months, with a reduction in the population of C. sordidus since the first evaluation. A low number of trapped insects was observed in the fungus-treated plots, suggesting the efficiency of the isolates in controlling the C. sordidus population. The strain CNPMF 218 was the most efficient in controlling C. sordidus adults in both locations, causing around 20% mortality, leading to 40% population size reduction after 12 months. PMID:24187659

Fancelli, Marilene; Dias, Alex Batista; Delalibera, Italo; de Jesus, Sandra Cerqueira; do Nascimento, Antonio Souza; Silva, Sebastião de Oliveira e; Caldas, Ranulfo Correa; Ledo, Carlos Alberto da Silva

2013-01-01

346

Xylocopa bees in tropical coastal sand dunes: use of resources and their floral syndromes.  

PubMed

Large bees such as species from Xylocopa Latreille are usually associated with pollination in tropical sand dune areas, which frequently present shrubby herbaceous vegetation adapted to conditions of high salinity, high solar radiation and strong winds. We report on the diversity of Xylocopa and the plants they visited to collect nectar and pollen, focusing on the floral syndromes they present in these plants and on the breadth of the trophic niche in a tropical sand dune fragment over the year. The field work was carried out monthly in Baixio (Bahia, Brazil; Northern Coast Environmental Protection Area) from April 2008 to March 2009, over two consecutive days, from 06:30?AM to 05:00?PM. The medium-large body sized Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) cearensis Ducke and Xylocopa (Schonnherria) subcyanea Pérez were noticeable for their frequency, constancy on the flowers and sharing of plant species. Xylocopa spp. visited plants with flowers of different shapes, colors, inflorescence arrangement and syndromes. However, their resource collections were mainly concentrated on Cuphea brachiata, Waltheria cinerascens, Croton sellowii and Chamaecrista ramosa, which may be considered key species for Xylocopa spp. maintenance in coastal sand dune and restinga environments in Northeast Brazil. PMID:23949807

Figueiredo, N; Gimenes, M; de Miranda, M D; Oliveira-Rebouças, P

2013-06-01

347

Population fluctuation and damage caused by phytophagous mites on three rubber tree clones.  

PubMed

Our aim was to investigate the population fluctuation and the damage caused by the phytophagous mites Calacarus heveae Feres, Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, and Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) on clones FX 2784, FX 3864, and MDF 180 in rubber tree crops from southeastern Bahia, Brazil. Moreover, we tested for the influence of climatic variables on occurrence patterns of these species throughout weekly samples performed from October to April. The infestation peaks was between mid-January and late February. The clones FX 2784 and FX 3864 had the highest infestations and more severe damage possibly caused by C. heveae, which was the most frequent and abundant species in all clones. We found that sunlight duration and rainfall were the most important factors for C. heveae while T. heveae was affected by rainfall and temperature. Eutetranychus banksi was only affected by sunlight duration. However, the best models had low goodness of fit. We concluded that the clones FX 2784 and FX 3864 had a higher susceptibility to mite attack, and the association between climatic variables and favorable physiological conditions were determinant for the population increase of the species from January to April. PMID:23949718

Castro, E B; Nuvoloni, F M; Mattos, C R R; Feres, R J F

2013-02-01

348

Polytypic and polymorphic cytogenetic variations in the widespread anuran Physalaemus cuvieri (Anura, Leiuperidae) with emphasis on nucleolar organizing regions.  

PubMed

We investigated the NOR distribution in ten populations of Physalaemus cuvieri from different regions of Brazil and Argentina. A high variability in NOR pattern was observed and provided a useful tool in grouping several populations. The specimens from the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil, could easily be distinguished from all the other analyzed populations, since its karyotype presented NORs in the chromosome pairs 1,3,4 and 10 (and sometimes also in chromosome 5), and several pericentromeric C-bands. A NOR-site in chromosome 9 characterized three populations from the northeastern region of Brazil. Interestingly, the P. cuvieri populations located in opposite extremes of the geographic distribution had, as a fixed condition, the presence of NORs in 8q int and llp. Besides interpopulational divergences, intrapopulational variability was observed in the number of NORs, except for populations from the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais, which are boundary states respectively in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In relation to NOR size, interindividual variations occurred in all Brazilian and Argentinean populations. Additionally, intraindividual variability in NOR size was detected in specimens from Minas Gerais. The data presented herein revealed substantial geographic polytypic variation in P. cuvieri and indicated that a taxonomic reexamination of this species is necessary. PMID:19621135

Quinderé, Yeda R S D; Lourenço, Luciana B; Andrade, Gilda V; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M

2009-01-01

349

A relationship between tolerance to dehydration of rice cell lines and ability for ABA synthesis under stress.  

PubMed

Plant dehydration is commonly caused by some adverse environmental conditions such as salinity, drought and freezing. As the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in responses to water stress, we studied its putative relationship with the degree of tolerance to these abiotic stresses. For this purpose we used cell lines that had been established from mature embryos of rice (Oryza sativa L, cvs. Bahia and Bomba), and selected by their high (L-T) or low (L-S) levels of tolerance to each type of stress. Tolerance of rice calli to either osmotic, saline, or freezing stress was generally improved by a previous treatment with ABA. This ABA effect was evident in those callus lines with low tolerance (L-S), as their ability to recover from stress increased up to three fold. Independent of the cultivar used, there were no significant differences in the endogenous ABA contents between untreated L-T and L-S lines. However, upon stress, the increase in endogenous ABA was higher in L-T than in L-S lines. These results, together with those obtained by using Fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis, show that differences in the level of cell tolerance to osmotic, saline and freezing stress are related to their different capacity of ABA synthesis under stress conditions. PMID:16198586

Perales, Lorena; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Cornejo, Maria-Jesus; Sanz, Amparo

2005-08-01

350

Determination and evaluation of the metals and metalloids in the Chapeu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli).  

PubMed

The Chapeu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli) is a native plant from Brazil, which has been mainly used in medicinal application being a potent antirheumatic and diuretic, in the production of soft drinks, and also in the ornamentation of aquariums. In this paper, the metals and metalloids for the leaves of chapeu-de-couro collected in the Paraguacu River from the city Cachoeira, Bahia State, Brazil, was determined and evaluated using multivariate analysis. The samples were digested using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of apple leaves, furnished by National Institute of Standard and Technology. The study involved 15 samples of the Paraguacu River. The results expressed as milligrams of element per kilogram of sample demonstrated that the concentration ranges varied: 1.39-5.27 for chromium, 44.85-165.39 for manganese, 0.55-0.84 for arsenic, 0.01-3.94 for antimony, and 0.18-0.31 for lead. The principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis evidenced that the concentrations of the metals and metalloids varied according with the variations in the water of the Paraguacu. PMID:23852813

Barbosa, Uenderson Araujo; dos Santos, Ivanice Ferreira; dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; dos Santos, Debora Correia; da Costa, Grenivel Mota

2013-09-01

351

Health of subsistence fishermen and challenges for Occupational Health Surveillance.  

PubMed

There are approximately a million subsistence fishermen in Brazil whose activities expose them to severe occupational hazards without adequate health protection. This article conducts an analysis of working conditions and health risks faced by subsistence fishermen and outlines challenges to the implementation of Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT) actions. The methodology is based on qualitative analysis of risks and working conditions through observation and interviews, and diagnosis of occupational illnesses with clinical evaluation. Mobile teams conducted eight years of activities together with fishing communities throughout the state of Bahia. The results revealed the challenge of surveying a traditional self-employed category with relative management autonomy. Fishermen face precarious living conditions without access to occupational health services. They are exposed to thirty work-related illnesses without protection, diagnosis, treatment and social security coverage. The conclusion reached is that there is a need for intersectorial VISAT action to reduce excessive working hours, organization of the Unified Health System (SUS) for acknowledgement of occupational illnesses and guaranteeing social security rights through actions focused on health education. PMID:25388177

Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Gomez, Carlos Minayo

2014-12-01

352

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice.  

PubMed

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications. PMID:25182278

Cortés-Rojas, Diego Francisco; de Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandes; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira

2014-02-01

353

Subduction of the Rivera Plate Beneath the Jalisco Block as Imaged by Magnetotelluric Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two magnetotelluric profiles perpendicular to the trench provide information on the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco Block (JB). The geometry of the subducting slab is inferred by the anomalous conductor on the top of the profile in the central part of the JB. High-conductivity zones (< 50 ohm-m) at depths shallower than 10 km are associated to dewatering of the oceanic crust below the accretion prism in the SW portion of the profile. Away from the coast, observed upper crustal conductors (< 10 km) are interpreted as partial melt related to the Central Jalisco Volcanic Lineament. The source of the crustal conductor in the central part of the MT profile, ~150 km inland and down to depths of 40 km is interpreted as a region of interconnected fluids associated with the metamorphic dehydration of the oceanic plate. Contrasting resistivity at the mantle wedge at depths below 40 km suggest to us that hot mantle material may be migrating upwards, mixing with dehydration reaction products. Across Bahia de Banderas fault (BBF) zone subduction appears to stop or to occur closer to the trench at a steeper angle. The conductivity image at the NW edge of JB reveals no downwards dipping plate but an extended conductor apparently rising from depths > 40 km. Our results supports the mantle upwelling theory as an explanation to the reported 1.5 km uplift of the central part of the Jalisco Block, and the Rivera plate discontinuity across the BBF zone as suggested by seismicity data.

Alvarez, R.; Corbo, F.; Arzate, J.

2013-05-01

354

Development of aquatic toxicity benchmarks for oil products using species sensitivity distributions.  

PubMed

Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to spilled oil and chemically dispersed oil continues to be a significant challenge in spill response and impact assessment. We used standardized tests from the literature to develop species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) of acute aquatic toxicity values for several petroleum products and 2 Corexit oil dispersants. Fifth percentile hazard concentrations (HC5s) were computed from the SSDs and used to assess relative oil product toxicity and in evaluating the feasibility of establishing toxicity benchmarks for a community of species. The sensitivity of mysids (Americamysis bahia) and silversides (Menidia beryllina) were evaluated within the SSDs to determine if these common test species were appropriate surrogates for a broader range of species. In general, SSD development was limited by the availability of acute toxicity values that met standardization criteria for a diversity of species. Pooled SSDs were also developed for crude oil and Corexit dispersants because there was only small variability in the HC5s among the individual oil or dispersant products. The sensitivity of mysids and silversides varied across the oil and dispersant products, with the majority of toxicity values greater than the HC5. Application of SSDs appears to be a reasonable approach to developing oil product toxicity benchmarks, but additional toxicity data are needed for a larger range of species conducted under standardized test conditions. PMID:23554001

Barron, Mace G; Hemmer, Michael J; Jackson, Crystal R

2013-10-01

355

The spectral changes of deforestation in the Brazilian tropical savanna.  

PubMed

The Cerrado is a biome in Brazil that is experiencing the most rapid loss in natural vegetation. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in the spectral response in the red, near infrared (NIR), middle infrared (MIR), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested. The test sites were regions of the Cerrado located in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso. For each region, a pair of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes from 2008 (before deforestation) and 2009 (after deforestation) was compared. A set of 1,380 samples of deforested polygons and an equal number of samples of native vegetation have their spectral properties statistically analyzed. The accuracy of deforestation detections was also evaluated using high spatial resolution imagery. Results showed that the spectral data of deforested areas and their corresponding native vegetation were statistically different. The red band showed the highest difference between the reflectance data from deforested areas and native vegetation, while the NIR band showed the lowest difference. A consistent pattern of spectral change when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested was identified regardless of the location in the biome. The overall accuracy of deforestation detections was 97.75%. Considering both the marked pattern of spectral changes and the high deforestation detection accuracy, this study suggests that deforestation in Cerrado can be accurately monitored, but a strong seasonal and spatial variability of spectral changes might be expected. PMID:25471621

Trancoso, Ralph; Sano, Edson E; Meneses, Paulo R

2015-01-01

356

Pollination efficiency of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) on the monoecious plants Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill. and Jatropha mutabilis (Pohl) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in a semi-arid Caatinga area, northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown the superior competitive ability of honeybees compared with native bees in the exploitation of floral resources and nesting sites besides their low efficiency in pollinating native plant species. However, there is little evidence of the effect of this invading species on autochthonous plant populations in natural environments. Thus experiments were performed to test the pollination efficiency of honeybees in two species of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae), J. mollissima (Pohl) Baill. and J. mutabilis (Pohl) Baill., after a single flower visitation. Samplings were carried out between March and April 2006 in a hyperxerophilous shrub-arboreal Caatinga at Estação Biológica de Canudos, Bahia (9º 56´ 34" S, 38º 59´ 17" W), the property of Fundação Biodiversitas. Apis mellifera was efficient at pollinating J. mollissima (100%) and J. mutabilis (85%). This high efficiency may be explained by 1) the simple floral characteristics of both plant species, which facilitate access to the sexual organs of the plant; and 2) the body size of A. mellifera that fits the flower's dimensions. PMID:21437406

Neves, E L; Viana, B F

2011-02-01

357

Reproduction of the fish Lutjanus analis (mutton snapper; Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The mutton snapper Lutjanus analis is an overexploited species of economic importance for the Northeast region of Brazil. To determine the reproductive aspects of the mutton snapper, biological data were sampled from Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará States, between 7 and 200m depth, from February 1997 to December 1999, performed in the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone Study Program (REVIZEE-NE Program). Data on total length (TL), fork length (FL), standard length (SL), total weight (TW) and gutted weight (GW) were measured. The gonads were collected and fixed in FAACC for histological analysis on maturational stage and calculation of the gonadosomatic index (GSI). A total of 135 fishes were collected; from these, 74 were females and 61 were males. Females were between 28.0 and 69.0cm (TL) and the males between 35.0 and 75.0cm (TL). Mutton snapper are gonochorists, and the spawning season, determined by the maturity stages frequency and the GSI, occurred between November and April, with peak spawning in March. The mature females' minimum length was 28.0cm fork length, smaller than the minimum maturation length previously reported for the species in Cuba. The exploitation status of the species and the biological traits enhances the importance of establishing spatial and seasonal protection measures such as protected areas both in nursery and spawning sites. PMID:20737838

Teixeira, Simone F; Duarte, Yalan F; Ferreira, Beatrice P

2010-09-01

358

Use of marine TIE methods in determining causes of toxicity to fish in a public marine aquarium  

SciTech Connect

Aquarium personnel observed that a number of organisms in the coral reef tank were succumbing to fungal and other diseases. It was suspected that organisms were compromised due to a common environmental stressor because many types of fish were affected. One possible stressor was the home-made painted coral decor in the tank. The coral reef decor was crumbling in several sections of the display and release of toxic agents was suspected. A water sample containing broken pieces of the decor was shipped to the lab and a TIE performed. Phase 1 TIE results indicated that toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia (mysid shrimp) was removed after EDTA addition and to some extent after cation exchange column treatment.None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange column treatment. None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange columns will be presented. This study demonstrates a unique application of TIE methods.

Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; Burgess, R.M.; Pelletier, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Charles, J. [Science Application International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)

1995-12-31

359

Plant diversity hotspots in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil.  

PubMed

Plant-diversity hotspots on a global scale are well established, but smaller local hotspots within these must be identified for effective conservation of plants at the global and local scales. We used the distributions of endemic and endemic-threatened species of Myrtaceae to indicate areas of plant diversity and conservation importance within the Atlantic coastal forests (Mata Atlântica) of Brazil. We applied 3 simple, inexpensive geographic information system (GIS) techniques to a herbarium specimen database: predictive species-distribution modeling (Maxent); complementarity analysis (DIVA-GIS); and mapping of herbarium specimen collection locations. We also considered collecting intensity, which is an inherent limitation of use of natural history records for biodiversity studies. Two separate areas of endemism were evident: the Serra do Mar mountain range from Paraná to Rio de Janeiro and the coastal forests of northern Espírito Santo and southern Bahia. We identified 12 areas of approximately 35 km(2) each as priority areas for conservation. These areas had the highest species richness and were highly threatened by urban and agricultural expansion. Observed species occurrences, species occurrences predicted from the model, and results of our complementarity analysis were congruent in identifying those areas with the most endemic species. These areas were then prioritized for conservation importance by comparing ecological data for each. PMID:18950472

Murray-Smith, Charlotte; Brummitt, Neil A; Oliveira-Filho, Ary T; Bachman, Steven; Moat, Justin; Lughadha, Eimear M Nic; Lucas, Eve J

2009-02-01

360

Beauveria bassiana Strains for Biological Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Plantain  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to select strains of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) in plantain farms (cv. Terra) of the “Recôncavo” and southern regions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The virulence of 32 B. bassiana isolates against C. sordidus was determined under laboratory conditions. Three isolates (CNPMF 407, CNPMF 218, and CNPMF 416) were selected for evaluation under field conditions in plantations located in the counties of Mutuípe and Wenceslau Guimarães. Population of C. sordidus was estimated every 15 days by using pseudostem traps. The efficiency of the three strains of B. bassiana was compared to chemical control (carbofuran, 4g/trap) and absence of control. Carbofuran caused around 90% of adult mortality after 12 months, with a reduction in the population of C. sordidus since the first evaluation. A low number of trapped insects was observed in the fungus-treated plots, suggesting the efficiency of the isolates in controlling the C. sordidus population. The strain CNPMF 218 was the most efficient in controlling C. sordidus adults in both locations, causing around 20% mortality, leading to 40% population size reduction after 12 months. PMID:24187659

Dias, Alex Batista; Delalibera Júnior, Italo; de Jesus, Sandra Cerqueira; do Nascimento, Antonio Souza; Silva, Sebastião de Oliveira e; Caldas, Ranulfo Correa; Ledo, Carlos Alberto da Silva

2013-01-01

361

Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management  

PubMed Central

In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.). We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. PMID:21410969

2011-01-01

362

Ecology and ethnoecology of dusky grouper [garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834)] along the coast of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Dusky grouper (garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus) is an important catch for several artisanal small-scale fisheries along the Brazilian coast. It is a sedentary, monandric, and late maturing protogynous species, which makes it vulnerable to overharvesting even though it is mainly caught through hook and line or spear fishing through free diving. Lack of information on the ecology and biology of this species in Brazil is astonishing. Much of the information found in the literature concerns Mediterranean dusky groupers. Studies compiling local knowledge (ethnoecology) about fish species complement biological data, and have been fundamental for effective fisheries management. In this study, our objectives are to obtain data about dusky grouper through fish catches and analysis of stomach contents and gonad maturation (macroscopic analyses), along with interviews from fishermen from six small-scales communities from the southern (Pântano do Sul, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State) to the northern Brazilian coast (Porto Sauípe, Bahia State). We conclude that precautionary approaches and 'data-less' management approaches are needed in the coast of Brazil. Research on this species and on the potential of aquaculture for its cultivation, are urgent, due to the apparent vulnerability and decrease of dusky grouper along the coast of Brazil. PMID:18793394

Begossi, Alpina; Silvano, Renato AM

2008-01-01

363

Sickle cell disease retinopathy: characterization among pediatric and teenage patients from northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the present study was to characterize sickle cell disease retinopathy in children and teenagers from Bahia, the state in northeastern Brazil with the highest incidence and prevalence of sickle cell disease. Methods A group of 51 sickle cell disease patients (36 hemoglobin SS and 15 hemoglobin SC) with ages ranging from 4 to 18 years was studied. Ophthalmological examinations were performed in all patients. Moreover, a fluorescein angiography was also performed in over 10-year-old patients. Results The most common ocular lesions were vascular tortuosity, which was found in nine (25%) hemoglobin SS patients, and black sunburst, in three (20%) hemoglobin SC patients. Peripheral arterial closure was observed in five (13.9%) hemoglobin SS patients and in three (13.3%) hemoglobin SC patients. Arteriovenous anastomoses were present in six (16.5%) hemoglobin SS patients and six (37.5%) hemoglobin SC patients. Neovascularization was not identified in any of the patients. Conclusions This study supports the use of early ophthalmological examinations in young sickle cell disease patients to prevent the progression of retinopathy to severe disease and further blindness. PMID:25305166

de Almeida Oliveira, Dayse Cury; Carvalho, Magda O.S.; do Nascimento, Valma Maria Lopes; Villas-Bôas, Flávia Silva; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Goncalves, Marilda Souza

2014-01-01

364

Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease  

PubMed Central

The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%. PMID:15951847

2005-01-01

365

[Towards a dialogue of knowledge between subsistence fishermen, shellfish gatherers and environmental labor law].  

PubMed

The dialogue of knowledge between subsistence fishermen and shellfish gatherers on the right to a healthy working environment is established as a new process for claims for an improvement in working conditions by populations affected by environmental problems, and especially in Todos os Santos Bay (BTS). The communities surrounding the BTS have complained to the State Public Prosecutor about the harmful effects to health and the environment caused by the Aratu Industrial Complex and the Port of Aratu. Researchers in the fields of, chemistry, toxicology, oceanography, biology and medicine from the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA) have demonstrated the effects of contamination on the BTS in sundry scientific publications. The scope of this article is to reflect on the contribution of that dialogue on environmental labor law (DAT) in Brazil. The methodology of this study involved semi-structured interviews, participant observation and document analysis. The conclusion reached is that environmental labor law in Brazil must include the dialogue of knowledge to ensure access to a healthy working environment for subsistence fishermen and shellfish gatherers. PMID:25272110

Carvalho, Ingrid Gil Sales; Rêgo, Rita de Cássia Franco; Larrea-Killinger, Cristina; da Rocha, Júlio César de Sá; Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Machado, Louise Oliveira Ramos

2014-10-01

366

How Pecten Brazil drilled the Amazon basin  

SciTech Connect

Pecten Brazil overcame numerous obstacles to drill two exploratory wells in the Amazon Basin last year. These included: The threat of low water in normally navigable rivers. Dense jungle growth at both locations. Lack of suitable roads for heavy hauling. Inconvenient distances from supply points. An unusual basalt formation responsible for unique drilling problems. Hundreds of helicopter lifts to move drilling rigs, supplies, and personnel. Pecten contracted with Petrobras, the Brazilian national oil company, to evaluate three blocks in the Amazon jungle, each about 68 miles (110 km) on a side, through seismic study and ultimate drilling. Planning for the drilling phase got started on March 17, 1981 with December 1 targeted as spud date for the first well. Actual spud date was November 25, 5 days ahead of schedule, in spite of all obstacles. Pecten has a mid-Amazonas block now under seismic investigation for possible exploratory drilling. Logistics problems in this one provide new difficulties, as the area is extremely wet. Most work is carried on by boat. The company is also looking offshore Bahia, testing the possible extension of the Renconcavo basin. Two wells have already provided good shows of a high pour point oil, with flow rates from 400 to 1,000 b/d. Another area of interest to Pecten is offshore Rio Grande do Norte.

Bleakley, W.B.

1983-09-01

367

Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment  

SciTech Connect

Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A. [US EPA, Narragansett, RI (USA). Office for Research and Development

2009-01-15

368

Morphology of the eyeball from the Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).  

PubMed

Aquatic mammals underwent morphological and physiological adaptations due to the transition from terrestrial to aquatic environment. One of the morphological changes regards their vision since cetaceans' eyes are able to withstand mechanical, chemical, osmotic, and optical water conditions. Due to insufficient information about these animals, especially regarding their sense organs, this study aimed to describe the morphology of the Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) eyeball. Three newborn females, stranded dead on the coast of Sergipe and Bahia, Brazil, were used. Samples were fixed in a 10% formalin solution, dissected, photographed, collected, and evaluated through light and electron microscopy techniques. The Humpback whale sclera was thick and had an irregular surface with mechanoreceptors in its lamina propria. Lens was dense, transparent, and ellipsoidal, consisting of three layers, and the vascularized choroid contains melanocytes, mechanoreceptors, and a fibrous tapetum lucidum. The Humpback whale eyeball is similar to other cetaceans and suggests an adaptation to diving and migration, contributing to the perception of differences in temperature, pressure, and lighting. PMID:24644104

Rodrigues, Fernanda M; Silva, Fernanda M O; Trompieri-Silveira, Ana Carolina; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Guimarães, Juliana P

2014-05-01

369

[Characteristics of the access and utilization of public dental services in medium-sized cities].  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study sought to describe the main characteristics of access and utilization of primary and specialized public dental services in two medium-sized cities in Bahia with 100% coverage of the Family Health Program. A survey of 952 households and 2.539 individuals aged over 15 years was conducted. The main variables analyzed were: perceived oral health needs, demand for the service, barriers of organizational access and the type of service and procedure utilized. The use of specialized public dental services was of 11.7% and primary care was 26%. In the city where there was greater use of public dental services, there was less use of private services. The main barrier to access remained in primary care (from 5.0% to 15.2%). There was little interface between secondary care a primary care, as only 16.6% of users returned to this level of care. In conclusion, the main barrier to access in cities with specific organizational and geographic realities appears to be in primary dental care. Individual preventive actions were little reported. It is recommended that barriers to access in primary care be eliminated, and also that a protocol (clinical guides) be established to foster the continuity and longitudinality of primary dental care. PMID:23175317

Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima; Soares, Felipe Fagundes; Rossi, Thais Regis Aranha; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Figueiredo, Andreia Cristina Leal; Cruz, Denise Nogueira; Cury, Patrícia Ramos

2012-11-01

370

Spatio-temporal variation in the incubation duration and sex ratio of hawksbill hatchlings: implication for future management.  

PubMed

Climate change poses a unique threat to species with temperature dependent sex determination (TSD), such as marine turtles, where increases in temperature can result in extreme sex ratio biases. Knowledge of the primary sex ratio of populations with TSD is key for providing a baseline to inform management strategies and to accurately predict how future climate changes may affect turtle populations. However, there is a lack of robust data on offspring sex ratio at appropriate temporal and spatial scales to inform management decisions. To address this, we estimate the primary sex ratio of hawksbill hatchlings, Eretmochelys imbricata, from incubation duration of 5514 in situ nests from 10 nesting beaches from two regions in Brazil over the last 27 years. A strong female bias was estimated in all beaches, with 96% and 89% average female sex ratios produced in Bahia (BA) and Rio Grande do Norte (RN). Both inter-annual (BA, 88 to 99%; RN, 75 to 96% female) and inter-beach (BA, 92% to 97%; RN, 81% to 92% female) variability in mean offspring sex ratio was observed. These findings will guide management decisions in Brazil and provide further evidence of highly female-skew sex ratios in hawksbill turtles. PMID:25086976

dei Marcovaldi, Maria A G; Santos, Armando J B; Santos, Alexsandro S; Soares, Luciano S; Lopez, Gustave G; Godfrey, Matthew H; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Fuentes, Mariana M P B

2014-08-01

371

Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil  

PubMed Central

American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease. PMID:24863979

Castellucci, Léa Cristina; de Almeida, Lucas Frederico; Jamieson, Sarra Elisabeth; Fakiola, Michaela; de Carvalho, Edgar Marcelino; Blackwell, Jenefer Mary

2014-01-01

372

Interleukin-6 c.-174G>C Polymorphism and Periodontitis in a Brazilian Population  

PubMed Central

Aim. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the teeth supporting structures, triggered by periodontal pathogens, and is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Genes encoding molecules related to the immune response, such as cytokine, are the main candidates for polymorphisms analysis and may be possibly associated with this pathology. A G/C promoter polymorphism on the IL6 gene has been shown to affect basal IL-6 levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism and periodontitis in individuals from Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. Material and Methods. Three hundred and thirty individuals (134 cases, 196 controls) were genotyped for the IL6 c.-174G>C by MS-PCR technique. Concentrations of salivary IL-6 were determined by ELISA method. Results. The IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism was associated with periodontitis when comparing the distribution of genotypes between patients with periodontitis and control subjects. The GC genotype appeared as a protective factor for periodontitis. Results showed increased levels of salivary IL-6 in periodontitis patients. Nevertheless, there was no relationship between the concentrations of IL-6 and genotypes when comparing the case and control groups. Conclusions. Our data indicate an association between IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism and periodontitis and showed that IL-6 may be considered an important marker for periodontitis.

Gabriela Teixeira, Fernanda; Mendonça, Samir Andrade; Menezes Oliveira, Kamilla; Barbosa dos Santos, Djanilson; Miranda Marques, Lucas; Mendonça Amorim, Maise; de Souza Gestinari, Raquel

2014-01-01

373

Environmental control in the uranium mine Lagoa Real, Brazil.  

PubMed

Uranium production in Brazil will be restarted in the year 2000, through exploration of the Jazida da Cachoeira, located in the uraniferous region of Lagoa Real, Bahia State, northeast Brazil. Because of the mining operations, an open cast mine of approximately 27 x 10(4) m2 will be produced and the material removed will constitute approximately 14 x 10(6) tons, occupying an estimated area of 50 x 10(4) m2. Currently, there is a new concept about project developing, where the impact assessment is addressed during the initial phases. Beside this, legislation requires an environmental impact assessment before starting mining activities. In this context purpose, it is the purpose of this work to evaluate the chemical composition of the future waste; thus, samples were collected from the rocks that surround the mineral deposits. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the elemental quantification, the mean elemental concentrations were calculated, and the ratios were normalized using North American Shale Composite (NASC). In the raw material eight main mineral structures exist whose elementary composition were compared using the statistical techniques of analysis of variance, ranking ANOVA, and multivariate ANOVA. PMID:10676504

Tagliaferro, F S; Fernandes, E A; Sarriés, G A

1999-01-01

374

Social representations of adolescents on quality of life: structurally-based study.  

PubMed

This study sought to conduct a comparatively analysis and describe the contents of the structure of the social representations of adolescents on quality of life. It involves descriptive, quantitative research, with the benchmark of a structural approach to social representations. The informants included 316 adolescents from three public schools in Jequié in the State of Bahia. The Spontaneous Word-Choice Eliciting Technique using the key expression "Quality of Life" was used for data collection. The responses were processed using Evoc 2003 software, which generated the Four-House Chart. The results reveal the core nucleus of the terms: healthy eating; physical activity; money; and sex. In the 1st outer circle, the words absence of disease, condoms, liberty, marijuana, housing, work and living well are featured. In the 2nd outer circle, there appeared the words difficulty, family, peace and power, and the contrasting elements of well-being and soccer. The overall consensus is that adolescents associate quality of life with sports and other healthy behavior activities, and are influenced by the desires and curiosities of adolescence. PMID:25650597

Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Oliveira, Denize Cristina de; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Ribeiro, Ícaro José Santos; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro

2015-01-01

375

[Factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among Quilombola women].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among quilombola women living in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with women aged 18 to 64. Descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic model was applied. Women who had never performed the test or had not had one for over three years were compared separately from those who were examined within the preceding three years. Of the 348 women included in the analysis, 27.3%, reported never having a Pap smear test. The following factors were independently associated with never having taken the test: age of 18 to 29 years and 50 to 59 years; lack of education; not having a partner; seeking care in health-related units/establishments other than their place of residence; and having a clinical breast examination three or more years ago or never having one. The findings indicate a need for reflection in order to combat factors that are associated with not having a Pap smear test among quilombola women, since it is important to implement actions for the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25351319

Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; França, Elisabeth Barboza

2014-11-01

376

Chromosomal polymorphisms due to supernumerary chromosomes and pericentric inversions in the eyelidless microteiid lizard Nothobachia ablephara (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae).  

PubMed

Cytogenetic studies were performed on eight specimens of the monotypic microteiid lizard Nothobachia ablephara, endemic of the sand dunes of the middle São Francisco river, in the semiarid caatinga, State of Bahia, Brazil. Chromosomes from fibroblast cultures were analysed after conventional, Ag-NOR staining, C-, and replication R- banding. A basic karyotype of 2n = 62, consisting mostly of subtelocentric and acrocentric chromosomes of decreasing size, was found in five specimens. Diploid number variation (2n = 63 and 2n = 64) occurred in two specimens due to the presence of one and two medium-sized subtelocentric supernumerary chromosomes (Bs). The Bs were not clearly distinguishable from the autosomes in Giemsa-stained metaphases and C-banding, but showed late replication after R-banding. Polymorphisms of pairs 1 and 5, observed in three different combinations, including acrocentrics, subtelocentrics, submetacentrics and metacentrics, were interpreted as the result of small pericentric inversions. Variation in the number of Ag-NORs was also reported. A chromosomal mechanism of sex determination of the XX:XY type is present in this species. Our data add more evidence to confirm the remarkable chromosomal variability that has been found in Gymnophthalmidae. PMID:10461869

Pellegrino, K C; Rodrigues, M T; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y

1999-01-01

377

Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil).  

PubMed

In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil), a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997) and rainy (March, 1998) periods. The dominant groups found were Mollusca (Melanoides tuberculata), Oligochaeta, and Chironomidae larvae. Low Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index values were found, but with no significant difference between the sampling periods. However, density and taxonomic richness were significantly different (t(0.05: 31)) = -2.1945; p < 0.05; e t(0.05; 31) = -3.0600; p < 0.01) between the sampling periods, with a reduction in the number of taxa and macroinvertebrate abundance during the rainy period. An increasing gradient in benthic macroinvertebrate community structures was noted along the reservoir cascade from the first reservoir (Apolônio Sales), followed by a decrease downstream from the third reservoir of the system (Xing6). Despite the negative consequences of rapid proliferation of dams, which have caused widespread loss of freshwater habitats, the reservoir cascade system promoted an increase in benthic macroinvertebrate diversity, due to water-quality improvement along the system. PMID:16097725

Callisto, M; Goulart, M; Barbosa, F A R; Rocha, O

2005-05-01

378

Systematics and evolution of the Jacchus group of marmosets (Platyrrhini).  

PubMed

Interspecific differentiation and geographic variation patterns in 39 skull traits of eastern Brazilian marmosets are analyzed. Eastern Callithrix taxa are distinct morphologically, and no evidence of intergradation among taxa is observed. Instead, there are sharp, stepped morphological boundaries among taxa, consistent with species-level distinction. The morphological similarity cluster diagram obtained from Mahalanobis distances is different from available molecular trees, and the general picture emerging is that the eastern Callithrix taxa should be considered as good species arising recently in South American history. In particular, C. kuhlii is morphologically distinct from other marmoset taxa, including C. geoffroyi and C. penicillata, which were previously hypothesized to be the parental populations that formed C. kuhlii by hybridization. Furthermore, C. kuhlii populations from southeastern Bahia do not overlap morphologically with any C. penicillata population, including the upper São Francisco River populations that display skin colors and pelage patterns to some extent similar to true Kuhli's marmosets. There is a negative, though insignificant, correlation between the morphological distance matrix and a Mahalanobis distance matrix estimated from nine climatic variables, a pattern opposite to that expected under a parapatric speciation model. This result, together with the lack of clinal variation in skull traits, suggests that an allopatric model of speciation might best explain eastern marmoset diversification. PMID:14669232

Marroig, Gabriel; Cropp, Susan; Cheverud, James M

2004-01-01

379

Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.  

PubMed

The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis. PMID:23177755

Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

2012-11-01

380

Finding oil in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Although oil in fractures of bituminous shales of Early Cretaceous age had been known since 1858 in Bahia, oil production in Brazil was delayed for eight decades. There were two fundamental reasons for this belated development. First, the paucity of good oil and gas seeps like those found in other countries and second, Brazilian entrepreneurs did not have the financing or the tradition of risk taking and technology to plunge into oil exploration. Thus, the development of the oil industry in Brazil evolved along different lines than in other countries. Petrobras was the beginning of the modern period of oil exploration in Brazil. Utilizing seismic interpretation methods, oil was discovered onshore in the Sergipe-Alagoas basin in 1957, in the Espirito Santo basin in 1969, and in the Potiquar basin in 1979. After many years of frustration looking for commercial oil in the huge Amazon basin, Petrobras discovered gas in the Jurua River Valley in 1978. Although offshore drilling began with discovery of the Guaricema field in 1968, it was not until the advent of modern offshore drilling and seismic technology that the prolific Garoupa field was discovered in 1974 which opened up the Campos basin. Furthermore, identification of huge structures in deep water by 3D seismic mapping methods indicate a bright future for Petrobras in offshore Brazil.

Campos, C.W.M.; Delaney, P.J.V. (Board of Stena Maritima, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1989-09-01

381

Testing of toxicology and emissions-sampling methodology for ocean incineration of hazardous wastes. Final report, January 1985-January 1986  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the development and testing of a system to expose marine organisms to hazardous-waste emissions in order to assess the potential toxicity of incinerator plumes at sea as they contact the marine environment through air-sea exchange and initial mixing. A sampling train was designed and tested at EPA's land-based hazardous-waste incinerator, using transformer oil as a waste feed. The incinerator was operated under conditions which would be appropriate for at-sea incinerators. The sampling train (Marine Incineration Biological Assessment Sampler--MIBAS) provides a sea-water sample containing a plume emission for the marine organisms testing. Five toxicity-test protocols were refined and/or developed for use in the program: (1) a sea-urchin fertilization test; (2) a chronic test using macroalgae Champia parvula; (3) a 7-day chronic test using growth and reproduction of the crustacean Mysidopsis bahia; (4) a 7-day growth and survival test with the fish Menidia beryllina; and (5) a 7-day life-cycle test using the archiannelid worm Dinophilus gyrocilatus. The results of applying these tests during a hazardous-waste burn are given.

Boehm, P.; Cooke, M.; Carr, S.; Piispanen, W.; Werme, C.

1988-05-01

382

Vegetation –environment relationships and ecological species groups of an Arizona Pinus ponderosa landscape, USA  

E-print Network

Pinus ponderosa forests occupy numerous topographic and soil complexes across vast areas of the south-western United States, yet few data exist on species distributions and vegetation –environment relationships for these environmentally diverse landscapes. We measured topography, soils, and vegetation on 66, 0.05-ha plots within a 110,000-ha P. ponderosa landscape in northern Arizona, USA, to discern vegetation –envi-ronment relationships on this landscape. We analyzed associations of environmental variables with plant communities and with single-species distributions, and we classified ecological species groups (co-occurring plant species exhibiting similar environmental affinities). Gradients in community composition paralleled gradients in soil texture, available water, organic C, total N, and geographic precipitation patterns. Soil parent material, affected by the presence or absence of volcanic activity, is a primary factor constraining vegetation patterns on this landscape. Using discriminant analysis, we built a model that correctly classified the most important of four grasses (Bouteloua gracilis, Muhlenbergia montana, Sporobolus interruptus, or Festuca arizonica) on 70 –80 % of plots based on five environmental variables related to soil moisture and resource levels. We also classified 52 of the 271 detected plant species into 18 ecological species groups. Species groups ranged from Phacelia and Bahia groups occupying xeric, volcanic cinder soils low in organic

Scott R. Abella; W. Wallace Covington

2006-01-01

383

Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations. PMID:19197503

Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T

2008-11-01

384

Miami Art Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you pay a virtual visit to the Miami Art Museum (MAM) before October of this year, you can join in on "I Wish Your Wish" online. Submit a wish, and you'll receive someone else's. Share their wish on Facebook, by email, Twitter, or dozens of other modes and you'll be emailed a free pass to visit the Museum. The on-site installation of "Eu desejo o seu desejo / I Wish Your Wish", by Brazilian artist Rivane Neuenschwander, consists of thousands of multicolored ribbons printed with wishes. Visitors are invited to choose wishes from past visitors and replace them with their own, based on a similar practice at the church of Nosso Senhor do Bonfim in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Other current exhibitions include BETWEEN HERE AND THERE, Modern and Contemporary Art from the Permanent Collection and Mark Dion's "South Florida Wildlife Rescue Unit", an installation that examines humans' interactions with the Florida Everglades since the 1700s. There's also an entire section of the website devoted to the new MAM, currently under construction, sited in Museum Park on Biscayne Bay.

385

Risk factors for death in patients with severe asthma*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for death among patients with severe asthma. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study. Among the patients with severe asthma treated between December of 2002 and December of 2010 at the Central Referral Outpatient Clinic of the Bahia State Asthma Control Program, in the city of Salvador, Brazil, we selected all those who died, as well as selecting other patients with severe asthma to be used as controls (at a ratio of 1:4). Data were collected from the medical charts of the patients, home visit reports, and death certificates. RESULTS: We selected 58 cases of deaths and 232 control cases. Most of the deaths were attributed to respiratory causes and occurred within a health care facility. Advanced age, unemployment, rhinitis, symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, long-standing asthma, and persistent airflow obstruction were common features in both groups. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender, FEV1 pre-bronchodilator < 60% of predicted, and the lack of control of asthma symptoms were significantly and independently associated with mortality in this sample of patients with severe asthma. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of outpatients with severe asthma, the deaths occurred predominantly due to respiratory causes and within a health care facility. Lack of asthma control and male gender were risk factors for mortality. PMID:25210958

Fernandes, Andréia Guedes Oliva; Souza-Machado, Carolina; Coelho, Renata Conceição Pereira; Franco, Priscila Abreu; Esquivel, Renata Miranda; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Cruz, Álvaro Augusto

2014-01-01

386

Multi-element determination in acid-digested soy protein formulations by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.  

PubMed

The concentrations of major (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) and trace elements (Al, Cu and Fe) in soy protein formulations sold in Bahia (Brazil) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Liquid and powdered soy protein formulation samples, both whole and light, were digested using a conventional heating program on a hot-plate. The powdered samples were prepared according to the label instructions for human consumption. A 5.0-ml aliquot of the soy protein emulsion was transferred to a borosilicate Erlenmeyer and concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid added. After a digestion time of approximately 50 min, hydrogen peroxide was added and heating continued to give a final volume of approximately 5 ml; the colorless digests were then made up to 15.0 ml with deionised water. Residual acid content was determined by acid-base titration. Good agreement between measured and certified values for all analytes in a non-fat milk powder (NIST SRM 1549) indicated that the method was suitable for major and trace elements determination in soy protein formulations. PMID:18473216

Morte, Elane S Boa; Costa, Leticia M; Nobrega, Joaquim A; Korn, Maria das Gracas A

2008-05-01

387

Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H., Jr.; Bonde, R.K.

2000-01-01

388

Migratory flows and foraging habitat selection by shorebirds along the northeastern coast of Brazil: The case of Baía de Todos os Santos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large numbers of Nearctic shorebirds migrate and winter along the coast of northeastern Brazil, but there is little information on their migratory flows, foraging ecology, and on the structure of the species assemblages that they form with resident shorebirds. We studied these issues on intertidal flats of Baía de Todos os Santos (Bahia), the second largest bay in Brazil. During a full year cycle we carried out weekly bird counts in an intertidal area of 280 ha divided in sectors, where we also measured environmental parameters. The analyses of weekly counts resulted in a detailed phenology of use of the area by shorebirds. Five species were resident and ten were Nearctic migrants. Several of the latter had clear peaks in numbers in March and October, revealing the use of the bay as a stopover during both the north-bound and south-bound migration flows. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relationship between environmental parameters and bird numbers indicated that the foraging bird assemblage could be divided into five main groups, occupying distinct ecological gradients in the study area. The most important factors driving this structure were invertebrate prey abundance, percentage of fine sediments, area of mangrove cover and distance to channels. Our findings imply that maintenance of the diversity of intertidal habitats in this bay is crucial to satisfy the particular habitat requirements of resident and migrant shorebirds using the northeastern coastal regions of Brazil.

Lunardi, Vitor O.; Macedo, Regina H.; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

2012-01-01

389

The warm chain.  

PubMed

1 series of events carried smallpox vaccination on an eastward odyssey; a 2nd path led westward from Spain to Spanish America, to the Philippines, and to China. Francisco Xavier Balmis (1753-1819), a Spanish physician, sailed around the world in 3 years, establishing vaccination boards in South America, the Philippines, and China. He led the "Real Expedicion Martima de la Vacuna," sponsored by the Bourbon King Charles IV; its success derived from arm-to-arm passage of the virus using orphan boys on the long voyages across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Venezuela was the 1st country to which Balmis introduced vaccine. He divided the expedition with his deputy, Slavany, who was to lead 1 group through the Spanish colonies in the Vice-Royalty of Peru; Balmis would lead the other group across the Vice-Royalty of New Spain to the far-distant colony in the Philippines. The establishment of central boards to regulate vaccination became one of Balmis's principal preoccupations. The board he created in Venezuela served as the model for those that he and Salvany were to establish later. Balmis sailed to Havana from La Guaira on May 8, 1804; Salvany led his team to Bogota. Balmis's singular success in Caracas, and Salvany's in Bogota, where Salvany also created a Central Vaccination Board, were attributable in large measure to the total support they received from church and civil authorites. The Portuguese throne had a comparable interest in its prize colony, Brazil. In 1804, Felisberto Calderia Brant Pontes sent a group of slave children from Bahia to Lisbon so that arm-to-arm transfer could be made on the return voyage. His effort was successful, and 1335 persons had been vaccinated in Bahia by June 1, 1804. In a decree of September 3, 1803 Charles IV directed that the Balmis expedition should continue to the Philippines. The advancement of health in the Philippines was a major commitment of the Spaniards. The Philippine vaccination expedition, headed by Balmis, sailed from Acapulco on February 8, 1805 with 26 Mexican boys who were to be used for arm-to-arm vaccination. On May 16 Balmis proposed the establishment of a central board of vaccination in Manila for the production, conservation, and distribution of lymph. He also opened a centre to which all residents of the city could come to be inoculated. The calves of the native water buffalo, "caraboa," were used to produce the vaccine, which was shipped to the provinces in glycerine protected by glass slides sealed in paraffin in capillary tubes or in small bottles. A singular set of barriers faced the early physician-vaccinators in China. The British established a vaccination center in Canton on December 2, 1805 with lymph from Balmis's expedition. On the voyage back to Spain, Balmis introduced vaccination on Saint Helena. Through the zeal of 2 physician-entrepreneurs, Jean De Carro and Francisco Xavier Balmis, 1 decade after its discovery, vaccination had girdled the world on Asian and New World voyages from Europe. PMID:12340730

Bowers, J Z

1985-01-01

390

Effects of triclosan on marine benthic and epibenthic organisms.  

PubMed

Triclosan is an antimicrobial compound that has been widely used in consumer products such as toothpaste, deodorant, and shampoo. Because of its widespread use, triclosan has been detected in various environmental media, including wastewater, sewage sludge, surface waters, and sediments. Triclosan is acutely toxic to numerous aquatic organisms, but very few studies have been performed on estuarine and marine benthic organisms. For whole sediment toxicity tests, the sediment-dwelling estuarine amphipod, Ampelisca abdita, and the epibenthic mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia, are commonly used organisms. In the present study, median lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained for both of these organisms using water-only and whole sediment exposures. Acute 96-h water-only toxicity tests resulted in LC50 values of 73.4 and 74.3 µg/L for the amphipod and mysid, respectively. For the 7-d whole sediment toxicity test, LC50 values were 303 and 257 mg/kg (dry wt) for the amphipod and mysid, respectively. Using equilibrium partitioning theory, these whole sediment values are equivalent to interstitial water LC50 values of 230 and 190 µg/L for the amphipod and mysid, respectively, which are within a threefold difference of the observed 96-h LC50 water-only values. Triclosan was found to accumulate in polychaete tissue in a 28-d bioaccumulation study with a biota-sediment accumulation factor of 0.23 kg organic carbon/kg lipid. These data provide some of the first toxicity data for triclosan with marine benthic and epibenthic species while also indicating a need to better understand the effects of other forms of sediment carbon, triclosan ionization, and organism metabolism of triclosan on the chemical's behavior and toxicity in the aquatic environment. PMID:22605471

Perron, Monique M; Ho, Kay T; Cantwell, Mark G; Burgess, Robert M; Pelletier, Marguerite C

2012-08-01

391

Bioavailability assessment of a contaminated field sediment from Patrick Bayou, Texas, USA: toxicity identification evaluation and equilibrium partitioning.  

PubMed

Contaminated sediments are commonly found in urbanized harbors. At sufficiently high contaminant levels, sediments can cause toxicity to aquatic organisms and impair benthic communities. As a result, remediation is necessary and diagnosing the cause of sediment toxicity becomes imperative. In the present study, six sediments from a highly industrialized area in Patrick Bayou (TX, USA) were subjected to initial toxicity testing with the mysid, Americamysis bahia, and the amphipod, Ampelisca abdita. All sediments were toxic to the amphipods, while sites PB4A, PB6A, and PB9 were the only sites toxic to mysids. Due to its toxicity to both test organisms, site PB6A was chosen for a marine whole sediment phase I toxicity identification evaluation (TIE). Results of the TIE found toxicity to amphipods was primarily due to nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs), rather than cationic metals or ammonia. Causes of mysid toxicity in the TIE were less clear. An assessment of metal bioavailability using equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approaches supported the results of the TIE that cationic metals were not responsible for observed toxicity in PB6A for either organism. Toxic units (TU) calculated on measured concentrations of NOCs in the sediment yielded a total TU of 1.25, indicating these contaminants are contributing to the observed sediment toxicity. Using a combination of these TIE and EqP assessment tools, this investigation was capable of identifying NOCs as the likely class of contaminants causing acute toxicity to amphipods exposed to Patrick Bayou sediment. The cause of mysid toxicity was not definitively determined, but unmeasured NOCs are suspected. PMID:20821502

Perron, Monique M; Burgess, Robert M; Ho, Kay T; Pelletier, Marguerite C; Cantwell, Mark G; Shine, James P

2010-03-01

392

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF COAL FLY ASH AMENDMENTS ON THE TOXICITY OF A CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENT  

PubMed Central

Approaches for cleaning-up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In the present report, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7 d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of post-oxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxides emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash prior to use and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. There was no evidence of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28 d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, there was no evidence of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content, or the accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon contents may represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments. PMID:18717615

Burgess, Robert M.; Perron, Monique M.; Friedman, Carey L.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Pennell, Kelly G.; Cantwell, Mark G.; Pelletier, Marguerite C.; Ho, Kay T.; Serbst, Jonathan R.; Ryba, Stephan A.

2013-01-01

393

Toxicity, bioaccumulation, and biotransformation of silver nanoparticles in marine organisms.  

PubMed

The toxicity, bioaccumulation, and biotransformation of citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated silver nanoparticles (NPs) (AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP) in marine organisms via marine sediment exposure was investigated. Results from 7-d sediment toxicity tests indicate that AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP did not exhibit toxicity to the amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia) at ?75 mg/kg dry wt. A 28-d bioaccumulation study showed that Ag was significantly accumulated in the marine polychaete Nereis virens (N. virens) in the AgNP-citrate, AgNP-PVP and a conventional salt (AgNO3) treatments. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) results showed the distribution of Ag species in marine sediments amended with AgNP-citrate, AgNP-PVP, and AgNO3 was AgCl (50–65%) > Ag2S (32–42%) > Ag metal (Ag0) (3–11%). In N virens, AgCl (25–59%) and Ag2S (10–31%) generally decreased and, Ag metal (32–44%) increased, relative to the sediments. The patterns of speciation in the worm were different depending upon the coating of the AgNP and both types of AgNPs were different than the AgNO3 salt. These results show that the AgNP surface capping agents influenced Ag uptake, biotransformation, and/or excretion. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the bioaccumulation and speciation of AgNPs in a marine organism (N. virens). PMID:25369427

Wang, Huanhua; Ho, Kay T; Scheckel, Kirk G; Wu, Fengchang; Cantwell, Mark G; Katz, David R; Horowitz, Doranne Borsay; Boothman, Warren S; Burgess, Robert M

2014-12-01

394

Assessment of supercritical fluid extraction use in whole sediment toxicity identification evaluations.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure CO(2) was assessed as a confirmatory tool in phase III of whole sediment toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs). The SFE procedure was assessed on two reference sediments and three contaminated sediments by using a combination of toxicological and chemical measurements to quantify effectiveness. Sediment toxicity pre- and post-SFE treatment was quantified with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia), and nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in sediments, overlying waters, and interstitial waters. In general, use of SFE with the reference sediments was successful, with survival averaging 91% in post-SFE treatments. Substantial toxicity reductions and contaminant removal from sediments and water samples generated from extracted sediments of up to 99% in two of the contaminated sediments demonstrated SFE effectiveness. Furthermore, toxicological responses for these SFE-treated sediments showed comparable results to those from the same sediments treated with the powdered coconut charcoal addition manipulation. These data demonstrated the utility of SFE in phase III of a whole sediment TIE. Conversely, in one of the contaminated sediments, the SFE treatments had no effect on sediment toxicity, whereas sediment concentrations of PCBs and PAHs were reduced. We propose that, for some sediments, the SFE treatment may result in the release of otherwise nonbioavailable cationic metals that subsequently cause toxicity to test organisms. Overall, SFE treatment was found to be effective for reducing the toxicity and concentrations of NOCs in some contaminated sediments. However, these studies suggest that SFE treatment may enhance toxicity with some sediments, indicating that care must be taken when applying SFE and interpreting the results. PMID:21194177

Burgess, Robert M; Hawthorne, Steven B; Perron, Monique M; Cantwell, Mark G; Grabanski, Carol B; Miller, David J; Ho, Kay T; Pelletier, Marguerite A

2011-04-01

395

Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter cloacae endophytes from healthy Theobroma cacao L. trees can systemically colonize seedlings and promote growth.  

PubMed

Clonal genotypes resistant to fungal diseases are an important component of the cocoa production system in southeastern Bahia state (Brazil), so that technologies for faster production of stronger and healthier plantlets are highly desirable. In this study, the effects of inoculated bacterial endophytes isolated from healthy adult cacao plants on seedlings, and aspects related to inoculation methods, colonization patterns, and photosynthesis were investigated. Sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp-60, and rpo-B genes placed the wild-type isolates within the species Enterobacter cloacae (isolates 341 and 344) and Bacillus subtilis (isolate 629). Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (rif(R)) variants for 344 were also produced and tested. Endophytic application was either by immersion of surface sterilized seeds in bacterial suspensions or direct inoculation into soil, 20 days after planting non-inoculated seeds into pots. Results from in vitro recovery of inoculated isolates showed that the wild-type endophytes and rif(R) variants systemically colonized the entire cacao seedlings in 15-20 days, regardless of the inoculation method. Some endophytic treatments showed significant increases in seedlings' height, number of leaves, and dry matter. Inoculation methods affected the combined application of endophytes, which maintained the growth-promotion effects, but not in the same manner as in single applications. Interestingly, the 344-3.2 rif(R) variant showed improved performance in relation to both the wild type and another related variant. Photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance increased significantly for some endophytic treatments, being partially associated with effects on growth and affected by the inoculation method. The results suggest that E. cloacae and B. subtilis endophytes from healthy adult plants (not transmitted by seeds) were able to promote vegetative growth on cacao seedlings. The development of products for large-scale use in seedlings/plantlets production systems was discussed. PMID:23212670

Leite, Hianna Almeida Câmara; Silva, Anderson Barbosa; Gomes, Fábio Pinto; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Faria, José Cláudio; de Souza, Jorge Teodoro; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

2013-03-01

396

Resistance of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis to nitric oxide: correlation with antimony therapy and TNF-? production  

PubMed Central

Background Nitric oxide (NO) produced in macrophages plays a pivotal role as a leishmanicidal agent. A previous study has demonstrated that 20% of the L. (V.) braziliensis isolated from initial cutaneous lesions of patients from the endemic area of Corte de Pedra, Bahia, Brazil, were NO resistant. Additionally, 5 to 11% of the patients did not respond to three or more antimony treatments" (refractory patients). The aim of this study is to investigate if there is an association between the resistance of L. (V.) braziliensis to NO and nonresponsiveness to antimony therapy and cytokine production. Methods We evaluated the in vitro toxicity of NO against the promastigotes stages of L. (V.) braziliensis isolated from responsive and refractory patients, and the infectivity of the amastigote forms of these isolates against human macrophages. The supernatants from Leishmania infected macrophage were used to measure TNF-? and IL-10 levels. Results Using NaNO2 (pH 5.0) as the NO source, L. (V.) braziliensis isolated from refractory patients were more NO resistant (IC50 = 5.8 ± 4.8) than L. (V.) braziliensis isolated from responsive patients (IC50 = 2.0 ± 1.4). Four isolates were selected to infect human macrophages: NO-susceptible and NO-resistant L. (V.) braziliensis isolated from responsive and refractory patients. NO-resistant L. (V.) braziliensis isolated from refractory patients infected more macrophages stimulated with LPS and IFN-? at 120 hours than NO-susceptible L. (V.) braziliensis isolated from refractory patients. Also, lower levels of TNF-? were detected in supernatants of macrophages infected with NO-resistant L. (V.) braziliensis as compared to macrophages infected with NO-susceptible L. (V.) braziliensis (p < 0.05 at 2, 24 and 120 hours), while no differences were detected in IL-10 levels. Conclusion These data suggest that NO resistance could be related to the nonresponsiveness to antimony therapy seen in American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis. PMID:20633260

2010-01-01

397

Effect of dense vegetation on colloid transport and removal in surface runoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryWidely distributed in aquatic environment, colloids can pose risks to water quality, particularly when loaded in surface runoff, which can facilitate fast distribution of contaminants. It is unclear whether densely vegetated areas, which are known to be effective to reduce solutes and sediment from runoff, can be used to remove colloidal contaminants. In this paper, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate effects of dense vegetation on colloid transport and removal in surface runoff. First, batch experiments were conducted to obtain the sorption isotherms of colloids (fluorescent microspheres) onto different vegetation parts (grass leaf, stem, and root). Then, a laboratory rainfall/runoff system was used to compare the transport behaviors of a tracer (bromide) and colloids in overland and drainage flows during a simulated rainfall event (64 mm/h). The system was equipped with Bahia grass growing on sandy soil containers with one surface flow and four vertical drainage sampling outlets. We found that all grass parts can sorb aqueous colloids with the Langmuir maximum sorption capacity between 455.3 and 1188.3 mg kg-1. Runoff experimental results demonstrated that both the surface vegetation and the soil (including plant root) underneath can effectively remove colloids from surface and subsurface flows. Only about 33% of the applied colloids were recovered from the outflows, with about 29% and 4% from overland flow and drainages, respectively. Our results suggest that well designed and maintained areas of dense vegetation, like vegetative filter strips, can be used as an effective best management practice to reduce colloidal contaminants in surface runoff.

Yu, Congrong; Gao, Bin; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

2012-04-01

398

Elemental concentrations in different species of seaweeds from Loreto Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico: implications for the geochemical control of metals in algal tissue.  

PubMed

Concentration levels of 21 elements were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, As, Sb, Th, U, Br, Hf, Ta, Zr, and Ag) in seven different seaweed species (Codium cuneatum, Sargassum sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Laurencia johnstonii, L. papillosa, Gracilaria pachidermatica and Hypnea pannosa), collected in a shallow coastal zone from Bahia de Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Measured concentrations in algal tissue spanned almost eight orders of magnitude (from 2.0 x 10(-3) microg g(-1) for Hf to 1.2 x 10(5) microg g(-1) for Ca). Ca was consistently the most abundant element in all analyzed seaweeds, followed by Fe and Sr. Brown algae showed a tendency to incorporate higher concentrations of elements than red and green algae. Additionally, there were significant linear correlations (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) between a total of 76 different pairs of elements, some of them (e.g. Rb-Ni, Rb-Ag, Sc Cr, Sc-Fe, Sc Ni, Sc Hf, Cr Fe, Fe Ni, Fe-Hf and Ni-Th) highly correlated (r2 > 0.900). A significant correlation (r2 = 0.701, n = 18, P < 0.001) exists between our measurements in the tissue of algae and their corresponding average elemental concentrations in oceanic water from the North Pacific Ocean. Hence, overall elemental abundance in algal tissue apparently is controlled by the elemental abundance in oceanic water, whereas metabolic processes as well as environmental factors relevant to each region modify the final concentration of a given element in the body of a macroalgae. PMID:11504337

Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Huerta-Diaz, M A; Choumiline, E; Holguín-Quiñones, O; Zertuche-González, J A

2001-01-01

399

Genetic structure and natal origins of immature hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Brazilian waters.  

PubMed

Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1) characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples), (2) analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3) inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa), and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations. PMID:24558419

Proietti, Maira C; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis Fernando; Rodriguez-Zarate, Clara; Marcovaldi, Maria A; Monteiro, Danielle S; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R

2014-01-01

400

Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment.  

PubMed

Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments. PMID:18717615

Burgess, Robert M; Perron, Monique M; Friedman, Carey L; Suuberg, Eric M; Pennell, Kelly G; Cantwell, Mark G; Pelletier, Marguerite C; Ho, Kay T; Serbst, Jonathan R; Ryba, Stephan A

2009-01-01

401

A revision of Miobantia Giglio-Tos, 1917 (Mantodea: Thespidae, Miobantiinae), with molecular association of dimorphic sexes and immature stages.  

PubMed

The Neotropical praying mantis genus Miobantia Giglio-Tos, 1917 currently includes six species with a complex taxonomic history. Although frequently found in the atlantic forest of Brazil, little is known about these species. Several obstacles make it difficult identifying these mantids, including high levels of sexual dimorphism and both sexes known only for one of the six currently known species. The taxonomic boundaries among the species of Miobantia are proposed in this work, through a cladistic analysis using 99 morphological characters, and the analysis of sequence variation of approximately 700 bp of the mithocondrial gene COI for association of dimorphic sexes and nymphs. Additionally, an investigation of intraspecific variation is conducted based on a large number of specimens of M. fuscata (Giglio-Tos) in oder to choose the most relevant features for the separation of the species to be used in taxonomic descriptions and identification keys. The male of M. aptera Giglio-Tos, and the females of M. ciliata (Stål) and M. fuscata are described for the first time, and redescription of the males of these and the female of M. aptera, are provided based on additional data. Miobantia nebulosa (Giglio-Tos) is herein redescribed (male genitalia included) and proposed as a junior synonym of M. rustica (Fabr.). Additionally, four new species are here described, totaling nine species for the genus: M. immanis n. sp. (Espírito Santo, Brazil), M. arctissima n. sp. (Espírito Santo, Brazil), M. sulista n. sp. (Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; San Bernardino, Paraguay), and M. nordestina n. sp. (Bahia, Brazil); both sexes of all new species are described, except for M. arctissima, which remain known by males only. Identification keys and figures of diagnostic features are provided for both males and females of all valid species. The species distribution is mapped according to literature data and 50 new records. PMID:24870865

Scherrer, Marcus V

2014-01-01

402

The Magnetic Properties Of Aggregate Polycrystalline Diamond: Implications For Carbonado Petrogenesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonados are a type of diamond, which are made up of many aggregrates of small crystalline diamonds or microdiamonds. The term "carbonado" comes from the Portuguese word carbonated. They are only found in sedimentary deposits in the Central African Republic (CAR) and the Bahia Province of Brazil. They were once the source of the world's supply of industrial diamonds. Their origin is uncertain but several mutually exclusive hypotheses have been proposed. This theories are: (1) extraterrestrial, that is they formed from the dust cloud of original solar nebulae; (2) produced by the high temperatures and pressures of the Earth's mantle; (3) or as the result of an extra-terrestrial impact into a carbon rich layer of sediment. Our study was done to further the understanding of their origin. We measured the magnetic properties on some twenty samples from the CAR. An earlier study was done on whole samples of carbonados and the "common" or kimberlitic diamond. Our work differed in that we started at the surface and subsequently removed the surface layers (by days of acid immersion) into the interior; measuring the magnetic properties at each interval. This procedure permits us to monitor the distribution of magnetic substances within the samples. Our results showed that the magnetic carriers are distributed on the surface including the open pores and that the carbonado interior is essentially non-magnetic. This result suggests that the initial formation environment was deficient in magnetic particles. Such a situation could indicate that their formation was the result of an extra-terrestrial body impacting carbon-rich sediment. Obviously, more work will be required on isotopic and chemical analyses before a more detailed ori-in can be determined.

Kleteschka, Gunther; Taylor, Patrick T.; Wasilewski, Peter J.; Hill, Hugh G. M.

2000-01-01

403

Macrophytobenthic flora of the Abrolhos Archipelago and the Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Abrolhos Bank, located on the coast of Bahia, Brazil, harbors the largest coral reef system in the South Atlantic. This area has attracted the attention of biologists because of its peculiar mushroom-shaped structures, locally known as "chapeirões", and endemic species of corals and other organisms. The macrophytobenthos compartment plays an important ecological role in the functioning of the bank, and some reports on the presence of seaweeds and seagrasses have been published; however, the data are fragmentary, and a more detailed survey of the macrophytobenthos compartment is lacking. Here we consolidate the information available and add new data obtained from two expeditions focused on seaweed and seagrass diversity from two sectors of the bank: the islands of the Abrolhos archipelago (AA) and the Sebastião Gomes Reef (SG). These sites were selected for their contrasting characteristics. Specifically, SG (15 km off the mouth of the Caravelas River) is subjected to a broader range of anthropogenic impacts and to input of terrigenous sediments, while the AA (54 km offshore) is surrounded by calcareous biogenic sediments, has clearer water and is less affected by human activities. Macrophytobenthic species richness on both reference areas is larger than previously thought. Considering previous records, there are 164 species of macrophytes in AA and 111 species in SG, of which 59 and 74 species are first records for each respective location. The higher species richness at the AA may result from a higher habitat complexity and lower turbidity, but a potential negative effect of enhanced human impacts at SG cannot be ruled out. Considering that macroalgae are relevant components of the benthic community, as producers and structurer organisms, the data presented herein provide a reliable baseline for future environmental studies, and thus may contribute to improve management policies within the unique ecosystem of Abrolhos.

Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

2013-11-01

404

Is ABA involved in tolerance responses to salinity by affecting cytoplasm ion homeostasis in rice cell lines?  

PubMed

The ability of plant cells to maintain cytoplasm ion homeostasis under saline stress is among the main mechanisms involved in salt tolerance. To cope with excess Na(+), cells extrude it from the cytoplasm, which requires expenditure of metabolic energy, provided by H(+) gradients generated by membrane-bound H(+)-pumps. ABA is well-known to be involved in physiological processes elicited or enhanced by stresses causing cell dehydration. In this work we studied the possible implication of this plant hormone in the control of salt-induced cellular mechanisms conducting to Na(+) extrusion from the cytoplasm. We used rice (Oryza sativa L.) cell lines selected for their different tolerance to salinity to measure the response to ABA of H(+)-pumps and Na(+)/H(+)-antiporters associated to the plasma membrane and the tonoplast. Our results show that ABA generally enhances H(+)-pumping under salt stress but not under control conditions. This effect occurs to a higher extent across the tonoplast in the more tolerant lines (L-T). Na(+)/H(+) antiport activity is practically undetectable in calli under control conditions, pre-treated or not with ABA, but shows a strong activation under salinity across the tonoplast, particularly in L-T lines (cv Bahia) and also across de plasma membrane in cv Bomba. In these lines, prior treatments with ABA tend to reduce the NaCl enhanced activity of both antiporters. Overall, under saline conditions ABA seems to affect synergistically H(+) pumping and antagonistically Na(+) extrusion. A complex network of positive and negative regulatory signals seems involved in restoring ion cell homeostasis under salt stress. PMID:23202047

Pons, Raül; Cornejo, María Jesús; Sanz, Amparo

2013-01-01

405

The taxonomic status of the endangered thin-spined porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus (Olfers, 1818), based on molecular and karyologic data  

PubMed Central

Background The thin-spined porcupine, also known as the bristle-spined rat, Chaetomys subspinosus (Olfers, 1818), the only member of its genus, figures among Brazilian endangered species. In addition to being threatened, it is poorly known, and even its taxonomic status at the family level has long been controversial. The genus Chaetomys was originally regarded as a porcupine in the family Erethizontidae, but some authors classified it as a spiny-rat in the family Echimyidae. Although the dispute seems to be settled in favor of the erethizontid advocates, further discussion of its affinities should be based on a phylogenetic framework. In the present study, we used nucleotide-sequence data from the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and karyotypic information to address this issue. Our molecular analyses included one individual of Chaetomys subspinosus from the state of Bahia in northeastern Brazil, and other hystricognaths. Results All topologies recovered in our molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly supported Chaetomys subspinosus as a sister clade of the erethizontids. Cytogenetically, Chaetomys subspinosus showed 2n = 52 and FN = 76. Although the sexual pair could not be identified, we assumed that the X chromosome is biarmed. The karyotype included 13 large to medium metacentric and submetacentric chromosome pairs, one small subtelocentric pair, and 12 small acrocentric pairs. The subtelocentric pair 14 had a terminal secondary constriction in the short arm, corresponding to the nucleolar organizer region (Ag-NOR), similar to the erethizontid Sphiggurus villosus, 2n = 42 and FN = 76, and different from the echimyids, in which the secondary constriction is interstitial. Conclusion Both molecular phylogenies and karyotypical evidence indicated that Chaetomys is closely related to the Erethizontidae rather than to the Echimyidae, although in a basal position relative to the rest of the Erethizontidae. The high levels of molecular and morphological divergence suggest that Chaetomys belongs to an early radiation of the Erethizontidae that may have occurred in the Early Miocene, and should be assigned to its own subfamily, the Chaetomyinae. PMID:19192302

Vilela, Roberto V; Machado, Taís; Ventura, Karen; Fagundes, Valéria; de J Silva, Maria José; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo

2009-01-01

406

Relative salinity tolerance of warm season turfgrass species.  

PubMed

Fresh water, coupled with soil salinization in many areas has resulted in an increased need forscreening of salt tolerant turf grasses. Relative salinity tolerance of eightwarm season turfgrass species were examined in this study in sand culture. Grasses were grown in a glasshouse, irrigated with either distilled water or saline sea water adjusted to 24, 48 or 72 dSm-1. Salt tolerances of the grasses were assessed on the basis of their shoot and root growth, leaf firing and turf quality. Regression analysis indicated that Zoysiajaponica (Japanese lawn grass) (JG), Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustine) (SA), Cynodon dactylon (satiri) (BS), Zoysia teneuifolia (Korean grass) (KG), Digitaria didactyla (Serangoon grass) (SG), Cynodon dactylon (Tifdwarf) (TD), Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass) (BG) and Axonopus compressus(Pearl blue) (PB) suffered a 50% shoot growth reduction at 36.0, 31.8, 30.9, 28.4, 26.4, 25.7, 20.0 and 18.6 dSm1 of salinity, respectively and a root growth reduction at44.9, 43.7, 33.4, 31.0, 29.5 27.5, 21.5 and 21.4 dSm- of salinity, respectively. Leaf firing and turf quality of the selected species, as a whole, were also found to be affected harmoniously with the change in root and shoot growth. On the basis of the experimental results the selected species were ranked for salinity tolerance as JG>SA>BS>KG>SG >TD>BG>PB. PMID:22167942

Uddin, Kamal M; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Othman, Radziah; Rahim, Anuar Abdul

2011-05-01

407

TcCYS4, a cystatin from cocoa, reduces necrosis triggered by MpNEP2 in tobacco plants.  

PubMed

In Brazil, most cocoa bean production occurs in Southern Bahia. Witches' broom disease arrived in this area in 1989 and has since caused heavy losses in production. The disease is caused by the basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, a hemibiotrophic fungus that produces the necrosis and ethylene-inducting protein (MpNEP2) during infection; this protein can activate cysteine proteases and induce programmed cell death. Cysteine proteases can be modulated by cystatin. In this study, we overexpressed TcCYS4, a cocoa cystatin, in tobacco plants and evaluated the effect on MpNEP2 in model plants. Tccys4 cDNA was cloned into the pCAMBIA 1390 vector and inserted into the tobacco plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. Transcript and protein levels in Tcccys4:tobacco lines were 8.9- and 1.5-fold higher than in wild-type plants (wt). Tcccys4:tobacco lines showed no change in growth compared to wt plants. CO2 net assimilation (A) increased in Tcccys4:tobacco lines compared to wt plants. Only one line showed statistically significant stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) changes. MpNEP2 was infiltered into the foliar mesophyll of Tcccys4:tobacco lines and wt plants, and necrotic lesions were attenuated in lines highly expressing Tccys4. Our results suggest that cocoa cystatin TcCYS4 affects MpNEP2 activity related to the progression of programmed cell death in tobacco plants. This may occur through the action of cystatin to inhibit cysteine proteases activated by MpNEP2 in plant tissues. Further studies are necessary to examine cystatin in the Theobroma cacao-M. perniciosa pathosystem. PMID:25299077

Santana, L S; Costa, M G C; Pirovani, N M; Almeida, A F; Alvim, F C; Pirovani, C P

2014-01-01

408

Distribution, habitat, size, and color pattern of Cnemidophorus lemniscatus (Sauria: Teiidae) on Cayo Cochino Pequen??o, Honduras  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cayo Cochino Pequen??o is a 0.64-km2 Caribbean island in the Cayos Cochinos archipelago, Department of Islas de la Bahi??a, Honduras. One published report noted the presence of the rainbow whiptail (Cnemidophorus lemniscatus) on Cayo Cochino Pequen??o, but nothing is known about the biology of this insular population. During a part of the dry season in July and August 2004, we used drift fences, pitfall traps, and separate observational transects to elucidate the distribution and habitat use of C. lemniscatus on the island. The only population of this species was located in a narrow coastal zone (width to 60 m and length to 450 m) on the southern half of the eastern windward side of the island. We analyzed the percentage of the canopy cover and the percentage of 4 ground coverage types along 2 transects 200 m long in this area to understand the basis of the suitability of the habitat for C. lemniscatus. Descriptively, the area harboring this species on Cayo Cochino Pequen??o consisted of the remnants of a coconut palm grove with low-lying herbaceous vegetation and grasses, in which a mosaic of small, open areas of sandy soil and coral fragments, with or without accumulations of debris, were the foci of lizard activities. Also observed in this habitat were 2 individuals of the brown racer (Dryadophis melanolomus), an actively foraging snake and likely predator on C. lemniscatus. Data obtained on rainbow whiptails captured in pitfall traps and subsequently released were used to determine the size and color patterns of hatchlings and adult males and females.

Montgomery, C.E.; Reed, R.N.; Shaw, H.J.; Boback, S.M.; Walker, J.M.

2007-01-01

409

Prevalence of nutritional deficiency in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nutritional deficiency among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and from the medical records of patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (15-59 years of age) residing in one of the municipalities that make up the 16th Regional Health District of the state of Bahia. We calculated the incidence, lethality, and mortality rates, as well as the prevalence of nutritional deficiency, as evaluated by body mass index. Demographic, social, clinical, and epidemiological data were collected. RESULTS: Of the 72 confirmed cases of tuberculosis, 59 (81.9%) were in males, and 21 (29.2%) of the patients were in the 40-49 year age bracket. The majority (85.3%) described themselves as Mulatto or Black; 55.2% reported using alcohol; and approximately 90% were treated as outpatients. In the district and age bracket studied, the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 30.6/100,000 population. Among the 72 patients, data regarding nutritional status was available for 34. Of those, 50% and 25%, respectively, presented nutritional deficiency at the beginning and at the end of treatment. No statistically significant differences were found between normal-weight and malnourished patients regarding the characteristics studied. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of nutritional deficiency was high among our sample of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. This underscores the importance of nutritional follow-up for the assessment of tuberculosis treatment in the decision-making process regarding therapeutic interventions. PMID:24068270

Piva, Silvana Gomes Nunes; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Barreto, Florisneide Rodrigues; Pereira, Susan Martins

2013-01-01

410

Differential Responses of Emergent Intertidal Coral Reef Fauna to a Large-Scale El-Niño Southern Oscillation Event: Sponge and Coral Resilience  

PubMed Central

There is a paucity of information on the impacts of the 1997–8 El Niño event and subsequent climatic episodes on emergent intertidal coral reef assemblages. Given the environmental variability intertidal reefs experience, such reefs may potentially be more resilient to climatic events and provide important insights into the adaptation of reef fauna to future ocean warming. Here we report the results of a 17-year (1995–2011) biodiversity survey of four emergent coral reef ecosystems in Bahia, Brazil, to assess the impact of a major El Niño event on the reef fauna, and determine any subsequent recovery. The densities of two species of coral, Favia gravida and Siderastrea stellata, did not vary significantly across the survey period, indicating a high degree of tolerance to the El Niño associated stress. However, there were marked decreases in the diversity of other taxa. Molluscs, bryozoans and ascidians suffered severe declines in diversity and abundance and had not recovered to pre-El Niño levels by the end of the study. Echinoderms were reduced to a single species in 1999, Echinometra lucunter, although diversity levels had recovered by 2002. Sponge assemblages were not impacted by the 1997–8 event and their densities had increased by the study end. Multivariate analysis indicated that a stable invertebrate community had re-established on the reefs after the El Niño event, but it has a different overall composition to the pre-El Niño community. It is unclear if community recovery will continue given more time, but our study highlights that any increase in the frequency of large-scale climatic events to more than one a decade is likely to result in a persistent lower-diversity state. Our results also suggest some coral and sponge species are particularly resilient to the El Niño-associated stress and therefore represent suitable models to investigate temperature adaptation in reef organisms. PMID:24675785

Kelmo, Francisco; Bell, James J.; Moraes, Simone Souza; Gomes, Rilza da Costa Tourinho; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Attrill, Martin J.

2014-01-01

411

Exserohilum rostratum: Characterization of a Cross-Kingdom Pathogen of Plants and Humans  

PubMed Central

Pathogen host shifts represent a major source of new infectious diseases. There are several examples of cross-genus host jumps that have caused catastrophic epidemics in animal and plant species worldwide. Cross-kingdom jumps are rare, and are often associated with nosocomial infections. Here we provide an example of human-mediated cross-kingdom jumping of Exserohilum rostratum isolated from a patient who had received a corticosteroid injection and died of fungal meningitis in a Florida hospital in 2012. The clinical isolate of E. rostratum was compared with two plant pathogenic isolates of E. rostratum and an isolate of the closely related genus Bipolaris in terms of morphology, phylogeny, and pathogenicity on one C3 grass, Gulf annual rye grass (Lolium multiflorum), and two C4 grasses, Japanese stilt grass (Microstegium vimineum) and bahia grass (Paspalum notatum). Colony growth and color, as well as conidia shape and size were the same for the clinical and plant isolates of E. rostratum, while these characteristics differed slightly for the Bipolaris sp. isolate. The plant pathogenic and clinical isolates of E. rostratum were indistinguishable based on morphology and ITS and 28S rDNA sequence analysis. The clinical isolate was as pathogenic to all grass species tested as the plant pathogenic strains that were originally isolated from plant hosts. The clinical isolate induced more severe symptoms on stilt grass than on rye grass, while this was the reverse for the plant isolates of E. rostratum. The phylogenetic similarity between the clinical and plant-associated E. rostratum isolates and the ability of the clinical isolate to infect plants suggests that a plant pathogenic strain of E. rostratum contaminated the corticosteroid injection fluid and was able to cause systemic disease in the affected patient. This is the first proof that a clinical isolate of E. rostratum is also an effective plant pathogen. PMID:25285444

Sharma, Kalpana; Goss, Erica M.; Dickstein, Ellen R.; Smith, Matthew E.; Johnson, Judith A.; Southwick, Frederick S.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

2014-01-01

412

Species composition, richness and nestedness of lizard assemblages from Restinga habitats along the brazilian coast.  

PubMed

Habitat fragmentation is well known to adversely affect species living in the remaining, relatively isolated, habitat patches, especially for those having small range size and low density. This negative effect has been critical in coastal resting habitats. We analysed the lizard composition and richness of restinga habitats in 16 restinga habitats encompassing three Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia) and more than 1500km of the Brazilian coast in order to evaluate if the loss of lizard species following habitat reduction occur in a nested pattern or at random, using the "Nestedness Temperature Calculator" to analyse the distribution pattern of lizard species among the restingas studied. We also estimated the potential capacity that each restinga has to maintain lizard species. Eleven lizard species were recorded in the restingas, although not all species occurred in all areas. The restinga with the richest lizard fauna was Guriri (eight species) whereas the restinga with the lowest richness was Praia do Sul (located at Ilha Grande, a large coastal island). Among the restingas analysed, Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves, were the most hospitable for lizards. The matrix community temperature of the lizard assemblages was 20.49° (= P <0.00001; 5000 randomisations; randomisation temperature = 51.45° ± 7.18° SD), indicating that lizard assemblages in the coastal restingas exhibited a considerable nested structure. The degree in which an area is hospitable for different assemblages could be used to suggest those with greater value of conservation. We concluded that lizard assemblages in coastal restingas occur at a considerable level of ordination in restinga habitats and that some restinga areas such as Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves are quite important to preserve lizard diversity of restinga environments. PMID:25166319

Rocha, C F D; Vrcibradic, D; Kiefer, M C; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A F; Hatano, F H; Galdino, C A B; Bergallo, H G; Van Sluys, M

2014-05-01

413

Diversity and Localization of Bacterial Endosymbionts from Whitefly Species Collected in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is the first survey of whitely populations collected in Brazil, and provides further insights into the complexity of infection with secondary endosymionts in whiteflies. PMID:25259930

Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

2014-01-01

414

K-Ar ages confirm Pliocene age for oldest Neogene marine strata near Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Beds of pumiceous tuff interbedded with mollusk-rich sedimentary rocks provide new age constraints on the timing of the late Neogene subsidence and marine transgression a few kilometers north of Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The lower part of the Neogene section consists of approximately 1500 m of early to middle Miocene nonmarine volcanic-derived sandstone, breccia, and porphyritic andesite and dacite lavas, called the Comondu Formation or Comondu Group by previous workers. The Miocene rocks are unconformably overlain by nearly 1000 m of predominantly marine sandstone, siltstone, conglomerate, coquina, and tuff of Pliocene age. This 1000-m section grades upward from unfossiliferous fanglomerate, sandstone, and pelitic red beds that are interpreted to be nonmarine into mollusk-rich marine strata; this sequence indicates that marine transgression occurred within the Pliocene section. Plagioclase and hornblende from three pumiceous tuff beds stratigraphically located near the base, middle, and top of the marine section yield K-Ar ages of 3.2, 1.9, and 1.8 Ma, respectively; these ages are similar to Pliocene ages indicated by reconnaissance studies of ostracods, diatoms, and foraminifers. The diatoms indicate open-ocean waters and the foraminifers indicate outer shelf depth. Ostracods, oysters, pectens, and other fossil bivalves seem to indicate a shallow-water embayment. Lateral distribution of nonmarine and marine facies suggests a paleoenvironment in which alluvial fans fed coarse debris into a series of coastal fan deltas. The Pliocene basin may have been a largely landlocked embayment similar to the modern Bahia Concepcion, located 70 km north of Loreto. Marine and volcanic rocks are assumed to be associated with the opening of the Gulf of California. If this assumption is correct, the beds near Loreto suggest that the opening occurred during the Pliocene.

McLean, H.

1987-05-01

415

Genetic Structure and Natal Origins of Immature Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Brazilian Waters  

PubMed Central

Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1) characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples), (2) analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3) inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa), and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations. PMID:24558419

Proietti, Maira C.; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis Fernando; Rodriguez-Zarate, Clara; Marcovaldi, Maria A.; Monteiro, Danielle S.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R.

2014-01-01

416

When depth is no refuge: cumulative thermal stress increases with depth in Bocas del Toro, Panama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are increasingly affected by high-temperature stress events and associated bleaching. Monitoring and predicting these events have largely utilized sea surface temperature data, due to the convenience of using large-scale remotely sensed satellite measurements. However, coral bleaching has been observed to vary in severity throughout the water column, and variations in coral thermal stress across depths have not yet been well investigated. In this study, in situ water temperature data from 1999 to 2011 from three depths were used to calculate thermal stress on a coral reef in Bahia Almirante, Bocas del Toro, Panama, which was compared to satellite surface temperature data and thermal stress calculations for the same area and time period from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coral Reef Watch Satellite Bleaching Alert system. The results show similar total cumulative annual thermal stress for both the surface and depth-stratified data, but with a striking difference in the distribution of that stress among the depth strata during different high-temperature events, with the greatest thermal stress unusually recorded at the deepest measured depth during the most severe bleaching event in 2005. Temperature records indicate that a strong density-driven temperature inversion may have formed in this location in that year, contributing to the persistence and intensity of bleaching disturbance at depth. These results indicate that depth may not provide a stress refuge from high water temperature events in some situations, and in this case, the water properties at depth appear to have contributed to greater coral bleaching at depth compared to near-surface locations. This case study demonstrates the importance of incorporating depth-stratified temperature monitoring and small-scale oceanographic and hydrologic data for understanding and predicting local reef responses to elevated water temperature events.

Neal, B. P.; Condit, C.; Liu, G.; dos Santos, S.; Kahru, M.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kline, D. I.

2014-03-01

417

Hydrologic characteristics of lagoons at San Juan, Puerto Rico, during an October 1974 tidal cycle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flow and water-quality changes were studied during a period of intense rainfall in the San Juan Lagoon system. The study covered a 25-hour period beginning 0900 hours 22 October, 1974. Precipitation during the study period averaged 70 millimeters. Sampling stations were located at Boca de Cangrejos, the main ocean outlet; Canal Pinones between Laguna de Pinones and Laguna La Torrecilla; Canal Suarez between Laguna San Jose, connects to Laguna La Torrecilla; and Cano de Martin Pena between Laguna San Jose and Bahia de San Juan. In addition water-elevation recording gages were installed at each lagoon. Water samples from the canal stations were analyzed for organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and suspended sediment. Specific-conductance measurements were used with the chemical data to estimate the runoff contributions of nutrients. Runoff into the lagoon, system during the study period was about 2.8 million cubic meters, or about 70 percent of the average precipitation. The runoff contributed chemical loadings to the lagoons of 95,000 kilograms total-organic carbon; 2,700 kilograms of total phosphorus; and 10,000 kilograms of total Khjeldhal nitrogen. A comparison with a prior study during which there was no significant rain, show that dry-period loadings are less than 10 percent of the wet-period loadings. At the end of the study period the system had not reached equilibrium, and the lagoons retained 80 percent of the water inflows from 50 to 90 percent of the chemical loads. Nearly 95 percent of the water outflows occurred at the Boca de Cangrejos sea outlet. The three lagoons and interconnecting canals form a very complex hydraulic system that is difficult to study using traditional techniques. A model of the system will facilitate management to improve the quality of water in the lagoons.

Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Ellis, S.R.

1983-01-01

418

Epidemiological situation of leprosy in Salvador from 2001 to 2009*  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium leprae was first described as the bacillus that causes leprosy, a chronic granulomatous infectious disease, in 1873 by Amauer Hansen. Leprosy is part of a group of 10 neglected diseases and Bahia has endemic levels of this illness, varying between high and very high. The detection of 52 new cases of leprosy in children under 15 years old in Salvador in 2006 is alarming, and suggests an early contact with the disease. The aim of this review is to analyze the epidemiological situation, the detection rate and evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of leprosy in Salvador, in the period 2001-2009. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using secondary data collected at Notifiable Diseases Information System Database (SINAN) through the notification of patients with leprosy. Over these nine years 3,226 patients were reported, with a predominance of: females (51.5%), and clinical multibacillary forms in the general population (51.7%), but when we analyze those under 15 years old, paucibacillary forms (tuberculoid + indeterminate) prevailed. The tuberculoid form was the most diagnosed type of presentation. The annual detection rate in Salvador remained at a very high level of endemicity during the studied period and for those under 15 years old it ranged between high and very high. Grade 2 disabilities both at the time of diagnosis and at discharge after cure, varied between low and medium. Based on these data we conclude that the high levels of leprosy detection rates in the general population, plus the variation between high and very high levels in those under 15 years old, associated with the medium level of grade 2 disabilities at the time of diagnosis and discharge, demonstrate the need for improvement on the existing services, investment in active case finding and training of the healthcare professionals in Salvador. PMID:24626655

Moreira, Shirlei Cristina; Batos, Claudilson José de Carvalho; Tawil, Lara

2014-01-01

419

In silico analysis of diverse endophytic fungi by using ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 sequences with isolates from various plant families in Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazil has a great diversity of plants, and considering that all plant species studied to date have endophytic microorganisms (bacteria or fungi), the country is a resource in the search for bioactive compounds. Endophytes live within plants without causing damage and may be in dynamic equilibrium with the health of the plant. Endophytic fungi can be identified by sequencing the region corresponding to internal transcribed spacer 1-5,8S-internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA, and carrying out phylogenetic analyses of these sequences helps to identify species. The objective of this research was to perform in silico phylogenetic analysis of fungi isolated from various plant families in Brazil. For this study, we chose 12 articles published between 2005 and 2012 that examined endophytes isolated in Brazil. We analyzed sequences deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank database and carried out alignment to determine the genetic distance of strains using the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 5 program. The articles yielded 73 plant species belonging to 13 families found in the Brazilian States of Amazonas, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Paraná, and São Paulo. The use of GenBank and the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis program for phylogenetic observation revealed that several endophytes had been incorrectly identified because inconsistencies were apparent in their location in the phylogenetic tree. However, approximately 98% of the sequences deposited in GenBank were consistent with the identification of related genera, indicating that the database is sufficiently robust to support future studies, in which molecular identification of endophytes is made via analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences. PMID:23613240

Rhoden, S A; Garcia, A; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

2013-01-01

420

Study of resent seismic activity in the basin and transform faults of the Gulf of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deployment of broad-band seismic stations around the Gulf of California since 2002 have greatly improved the location of small to medium size earthquakes. This is the result of a joint project between CICESE, Utrecht University and Caltech. This network consists of the RESBAN-CICESE network (eight broad band stations and five short period stations) and the NARS-Baja network from the Utrecht University (thirteen broad-band stations). For example, an earthquake of magnitude 5.6 occurred on November 12, 2003 and it was located east of the Bahia de los Angeles town at 29.034° Latitude North and 113.251° Longitude West, over the North Salsipuedes Basin. Fault geometry was obtained with the body waveform modeling using Herrmann (1987) reflectivity code. A preliminary fault geometry with a strike of 320° , a dip of 70° , a slip of -100° and a focal depth of 5 km was calculated. Seismic station BAHB located at about 22 km west of the epicenter showed a clear triangular source time function of 4.5 seconds. Over the southern end of the Gulf of California occurred bursts of earthquake activity on January 13 and 14, 2004 with events in the magnitude range from 3.5 to 4.4 over the Pescadero Basin at the average geographic coordinates of 24.634° ± 0.011° Latitude North and 109.296° ± 0.10° Longitude West. Again on February 9, 2004 another earthquake swarms occurred with events in the magnitude range from 4.0 to 5.3. Preliminary locations of the events indicated that the events are located in the Pescadero Basin. Focal depths of the earthquakes are uncertain. We will show the best-located events that we have been able to locate with the RESBAN-NARS-Baja network of the Gulf of California.

López-Pineda, L.; Perez-Vertti, A.; Mendoza, J. A.

2004-05-01

421

Geographic diversity of adult t-cell leukemia/lymphoma in Brazil. The Brazilian ATLL Study Group.  

PubMed

We describe 195 cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) reported to the national registry of T-cell malignancies in Brazil between 1994 and 1998. We compared the effect of demographic differences and clinical features of 150 consecutive ATLL cases in different regions of this diverse country. At diagnosis, the predominant clinical sub-type was the acute type (60%), followed by lymphoma (22%), chronic (10%) and smoldering (8%) types. Although we expected that different sub-types would be present in different regions, on the basis of immunogenetic factors determined by ethnicity, we did not demonstrate these differences. There were no significant differences among ATLL subtypes by age or gender. No ethnic group predominated in the total population of patients, but significant differences were noted when examining ethnic distribution by region. Reflecting the general population distribution, white patients were seen more often in São Paulo and black patients in Bahia, than in other regions. In most regions, cases were equally distributed between blacks and mulattos, except in Pernambuco, where blacks were less frequent. The main clinical features were lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, hypercalcemia and hepatomegaly. Fourteen patients (9%) suffered from HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP), either at diagnosis or during follow-up of ATLL. All cases but one had antibodies to HTLV-I, with concordant results with ELISA, WB and PCR analyses. For the antibody-negative case, pol and tax gene sequences were present in tumor cells when subjected to PCR analyses. The prognosis was generally poor, suggesting that the disease in Brazil behaves in similar fashion regardless of ethnic or geographical differences. PMID:10495418

Pombo De Oliveira, M S; Loureiro, P; Bittencourt, A; Chiattone, C; Borducchi, D; De Carvalho, S M; Barbosa, H S; Rios, M; Sill, A; Cleghorn, F; Blattner, W

1999-10-29

422

Development of spatially diverse and complex dune-field patterns: Gran Desierto Dune Field, Sonora, Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pattern of dunes within the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico, is both spatially diverse and complex. Identification of the pattern components from remote-sensing images, combined with statistical analysis of their measured parameters demonstrate that the composite pattern consists of separate populations of simple dune patterns. Age-bracketing by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) indicates that the simple patterns represent relatively short-lived aeolian constructional events since ???25 ka. The simple dune patterns consist of: (i) late Pleistocene relict linear dunes; (ii) degraded crescentic dunes formed at ???12 ka; (iii) early Holocene western crescentic dunes; (iv) eastern crescentic dunes emplaced at ???7 ka; and (v) star dunes formed during the last 3 ka. Recognition of the simple patterns and their ages allows for the geomorphic backstripping of the composite pattern. Palaeowind reconstructions, based upon the rule of gross bedform-normal transport, are largely in agreement with regional proxy data. The sediment state over time for the Gran Desierto is one in which the sediment supply for aeolian constructional events is derived from previously stored sediment (Ancestral Colorado River sediment), and contemporaneous influx from the lower Colorado River valley and coastal influx from the Bahia del Adair inlet. Aeolian constructional events are triggered by climatic shifts to greater aridity, changes in the wind regime, and the development of a sediment supply. The rate of geomorphic change within the Gran Desierto is significantly greater than the rate of subsidence and burial of the accumulation surface upon which it rests. ?? 2006 The Authors. Journal compilation 2006 International Association of Sedimentologists.

Beveridge, C.; Kocurek, G.; Ewing, R.C.; Lancaster, N.; Morthekai, P.; Singhvi, A.K.; Mahan, S.A.

2006-01-01

423

Exserohilum rostratum: characterization of a cross-kingdom pathogen of plants and humans.  

PubMed

Pathogen host shifts represent a major source of new infectious diseases. There are several examples of cross-genus host jumps that have caused catastrophic epidemics in animal and plant species worldwide. Cross-kingdom jumps are rare, and are often associated with nosocomial infections. Here we provide an example of human-mediated cross-kingdom jumping of Exserohilum rostratum isolated from a patient who had received a corticosteroid injection and died of fungal meningitis in a Florida hospital in 2012. The clinical isolate of E. rostratum was compared with two plant pathogenic isolates of E. rostratum and an isolate of the closely related genus Bipolaris in terms of morphology, phylogeny, and pathogenicity on one C3 grass, Gulf annual rye grass (Lolium multiflorum), and two C4 grasses, Japanese stilt grass (Microstegium vimineum) and bahia grass (Paspalum notatum). Colony growth and color, as well as conidia shape and size were the same for the clinical and plant isolates of E. rostratum, while these characteristics differed slightly for the Bipolaris sp. isolate. The plant pathogenic and clinical isolates of E. rostratum were indistinguishable based on morphology and ITS and 28S rDNA sequence analysis. The clinical isolate was as pathogenic to all grass species tested as the plant pathogenic strains that were originally isolated from plant hosts. The clinical isolate induced more severe symptoms on stilt grass than on rye grass, while this was the reverse for the plant isolates of E. rostratum. The phylogenetic similarity between the clinical and plant-associated E. rostratum isolates and the ability of the clinical isolate to infect plants suggests that a plant pathogenic strain of E. rostratum contaminated the corticosteroid injection fluid and was able to cause systemic disease in the affected patient. This is the first proof that a clinical isolate of E. rostratum is also an effective plant pathogen. PMID:25285444

Sharma, Kalpana; Goss, Erica M; Dickstein, Ellen R; Smith, Matthew E; Johnson, Judith A; Southwick, Frederick S; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

2014-01-01

424

Adaptability and stability analysis of the juice yield of yellow passion fruit varieties.  

PubMed

This study analyzed the genotype x environment interaction (GE) for the juice productivity (JuProd) of 12 yellow passion fruit varieties (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg.) using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model and auxiliary parameters. The experiments were conducted in eight environments of Bahia State, Brazil, using a randomized block design with three replications. Analysis of variance showed significant effects (P ? 0.01) for environments, genotypes, and GE interaction. The first two interaction principal component axes (IPCAs) explained 81.00% of the sum of squares of the GE interaction. The AMMI1 and AMMI2 models showed that varieties 09 and 11 were the most stable. Other parameters, namely, the AMMI stability value (ASV), yield stability (YSI), sustainability, and stability index (StI), indicated that other varieties were more stable. These varying results were certainly a consequence of methodological differences. In contrast, the ranking of varieties for each of the stability parameters showed significant positive correlations (P ? 0.05) between IPCA1 x (ASV, YSI), JuProd x (StI, YSI), YSI x ASV, and StI x YSI. Cluster analysis based on the genotypic profile of the effects of the GE interaction identified three groups that correlated with the distribution of varieties in the AMMI1 biplot. However, the classification of stable genotypes was limited because the association with the productivity was not included in the analysis. Variety 08 showed the most stable and productive behavior, ranking above average in half of the environments, and it should be recommended for use. PMID:25177932

Oliveira, E J; Freitas, J P X; Jesus, O N

2014-01-01

425

Tolerance of Sponge Assemblages to Temperature Anomalies: Resilience and Proliferation of Sponges following the 1997–8 El-Niño Southern Oscillation  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs across the world are under threat from a range of stressors, and while there has been considerable focus on the impacts of these stressors on corals, far less is known about their effect on other reef organisms. The 1997–8 El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had notable and severe impacts on coral reefs worldwide, but not all reef organisms were negatively impacted by this large-scale event. Here we describe how the sponge fauna at Bahia, Brazil was influenced by the 1997–8 ENSO event. Sponge assemblages from three contrasting reef habitats (reef tops, walls and shallow banks) at four sites were assessed annually from 1995 to 2011. The within-habitat sponge diversity did not vary significantly across the study period; however, there was a significant increase in density in all habitats. Multivariate analyses revealed no significant difference in sponge assemblage composition (ANOSIM) between pre- and post-ENSO years for any of the habitats, suggesting that neither the 1997–8 nor any subsequent smaller ENSO events have had any measurable impact on the reef sponge assemblage. Importantly, this is in marked contrast to the results previously reported for a suite of other taxa (including corals, echinoderms, bryozoans, and ascidians), which all suffered mass mortalities as a result of the ENSO event. Our results suggest that of all reef taxa, sponges have the potential to be resilient to large-scale thermal stress events and we hypothesize that sponges might be less affected by projected increases in sea surface temperature compared to other major groups of reef organisms. PMID:24116109

Kelmo, Francisco; Bell, James J.; Attrill, Martin J.

2013-01-01

426

Learning all together.  

PubMed

This article discusses the benefits and successes of the NGO, GAPA-Bahia Project, started in 1992, to involve students and teachers in developing an AIDS prevention education program and evaluation. The project sought to help youth make decisions that result in a healthy, safe, and pleasurable sexual life and to encourage acceptance and support for people living with HIV and AIDS. The involvement of teachers and students in project design allows for greater adaptation and utility. The project initially collected information from teachers and students about sexuality, death, fear, prejudice, and expectations about male and female behavior; additional information was collected from role playing and discussions. The information was used to plan the curriculum and teacher training. Project staff met with teachers monthly for support and supervision. Teachers' feedback was incorporated into future planning activities. Daily activities were recorded by teachers and students. Daily records indicated personal feelings about the day, the issues under discussion, and the impact of these issues on their own lives. The project conducted review sessions with teachers, students, and trainers. One particularly successful training exercise involved identifying an individual's view on a sheet of paper and posting it along with others' views on a wall for all to comment on and prioritize. Outreach activities include special days when out of school youth, parents, and other community members are invited to visit and attend small group discussions and workshops. Simple and regular monitoring of project activities results in easy adaptations in a staged process. Community participation results in an expanded role beyond just the recipient one. PMID:12293245

1996-01-01

427

Magnetism of Carbonados  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonados are porous polycrystalline (with crystal sizes up to 100 micrometer) diamonds. Carbonado is found only in alluvial deposits in Bahia, Brazil and in the Central African Republic (CAR). Alluvial deposit host is 1.5 Ga while the carbonados are between 2.6 - 3.8 Ga. The process of fusing the carbonado microcrystals together is not fully understood, partly due to fact that the origin of these carbonado, is not known. Several modes of origins are proposed for carbonado. First, a crustal origin. Carbonados have a light carbon and helium isotopic signature. They contain an enrichment of the rare-earth elements (REE). Carbonados have tightly trapped atmospheric noble gases and contain an evidence of high He content despite the carbonado expected depletion of He at mantle temperatures. Carbonados have high porosity incompatible with high pressure mantle conditions. Second, a mantle origin is proposed based on similar REE pattern to kimberlites. The presence of nitrogen platelet (by IR spectra) indicates high temperature origin and syngenetic inclusions of rutile, ilmenite, and magnetite indicates high pressure and high temperature conditions consistent with mantle origin as well. Third, it is proposed that carbonado diamonds are a result of early impacts into crustal rocks. This is indicated by the rare and controversial occurrence of high pressure diamond polymorph, londsdaleite, frequently found in diamonds from meteorite impact sites, and by observation of planar deformation features, possibly indicating shock events. Finally, it is suggested that carbonados have an extraterrestrial origin, as indicated by a long term annealing based on observation of a zero-phonon line, attributed to paired nitrogen atoms in association with a vacancy.

Kletetschka, G.; Taylor, P. T.; Wasilewski, P. J.

1999-01-01

428

The chemical generation of NO for the determination of nitrite by high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

In the present work, we propose a method for the determination of nitrite based on the chemical generation of nitric oxide (NO) and its detection by high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry. NO is generated by the reduction of nitrite in acidic media with ascorbic acid as the reducing agent and then transferred into a quartz cell by a stream of argon carrier gas. The conditions under which the NO is generated are as follows: 0.4 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid, 1.5%(w/v) ascorbic acid, an argon gas pressure of 0.03 MPa and an injection time of the reducing agent of 4s. All measurements of molecular absorption were performed using the NO line at 215.360 nm, and the signal was measured by peak height. Under these conditions, the method described has limits of detection and quantification of 0.045 and 0.150 ?g mL(-1) of nitrite, respectively. The calibration curve is linear for nitrite concentrations in the range 0.15-15 ?g mL(-1). The precision, estimated as the relative standard deviation (RSD), was 3.5% and 4.4% for solutions with nitrite concentrations of 0.5 and 5.0 ?g mL(-1), respectively. This method was applied to the analysis of different water samples (well water, drinking water and river water) collected in Cachoeira City, Bahia State, Brazil. The results were in agreement with those obtained by a spectrophotometric method using the Griess reaction. Addition/recovery tests were also performed to check the validity of the proposed method. Recoveries of 93-106% were achieved. PMID:22939152

Brandao, Geovani C; Lima, Daniel C; Ferreira, Sergio L C

2012-08-30

429

Assessment of primary health care received by the elderly and health related quality of life: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Population aging leads to increased burden of chronic diseases and demand in public health. This study aimed to assess whether the score of Primary Health Care (PHC) is associated with a) the model of care - Family Health Strategy (FHS) vs. traditional care model (the Basic Health Units; BHU); b) morbid conditions such as - hypertension, diabetes mellitus, mental disorders, chronic pain, obesity and central obesity; c) quality of life in elderly individuals who received care in those units. Methods A survey was conducted among the elderly between August 2010 and August 2011, in Ilheus, Bahia. We interviewed elderly patients - 60 years or older - who consulted at BHU or FHS units in that day or participated in a group activity, and those who were visited at home by the staff of PHC, selected through a random sample. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, services’ attainment of primary care attributes, health problems and quality of life were investigated. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) was used to assess quality of life and PCATool to generate PHC scores. In addition, weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Trained research assistants, under supervision performed the data collection. Results A total of 511 elderly individuals were identified, two declined to participate, resulting in 509 individuals interviewed. The health care provided by the FHS has higher attainment of PHC attributes, in comparison to the BHU, resulting in lower prevalence of score below six. Except for hypertension and cardiovascular disease, other chronic problems were not independently associated with low scores in PHC. It was observed an independent and positive association between PHC score and the mental component of quality of life and an inverse association with the physical component. Conclusions This study showed higher PHC attributes attainment in units with FHS, regardless of the health problem. The degree of orientation to PHC increased the mental component score of quality of life. PMID:23800179

2013-01-01

430

Diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in Brazil.  

PubMed

Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is the first survey of whitely populations collected in Brazil, and provides further insights into the complexity of infection with secondary endosymionts in whiteflies. PMID:25259930

Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

2014-01-01

431

Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.  

PubMed

Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both types of subtropical grass pollens to achieve optimal diagnosis and treatment of patients with allergic respiratory disease in subtropical regions of the world. PMID:24684550

Davies, J M

2014-06-01

432

Pityriasis versicolor: clinical-epidemiological characterization of patients in the urban area of Buerarema-BA, Brazil*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a cutaneous pigmentation disorder caused by a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia sp. It is a superficial mycosis characterized by well-defined, slightly scaly skin lesions of variable color. In Brazil, the number of reported cases is small, and there are few epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES: to assess incidence, characteristics of the lesions, effectiveness of the Zileri's Sign procedure, and the epidemiological profile of PV in the urban area of Buerarema - Bahia. METHODS: Biological samples were collected on pre-established days at Basic Health Care Units from July to September 2010. Sample collection was followed by laboratory diagnosis using Porto's Method. RESULTS: Of the 158 patients with suspected PV participating in the study, 105 (66.5%) were positive; 72 (68.6%) were female and 33 (31.4%) were male. Sex and location of lesions showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The region with the highest rate of cases of PV was found to be the center of the city, with 40.9% of diagnosed cases. The most affected age group was between 10 and 19 years. There was a significant association between the results produced through Zileri's Sign and Porto's Method in relation to positive and negative results (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a higher prevalence of PV among individuals at puberty. The Zileri's Sign method proved to be counterproductive, because it showed low efficacy as a method for clinical diagnosis, yielding negative results for 36 (34.3%) patients who had been diagnosed with PV through laboratory examination. PMID:23739695

Santana, Juliano Oliveira; de Azevedo, Fernanda Luiza Andrade; Campos, Pedro Costa

2013-01-01

433

Diet, foraging, and use of space in wild golden-headed lion tamarins.  

PubMed

Lion tamarins (Callitrichidae: Leontopithecus) are small frugi-faunivores that defend large home ranges. We describe results from the first long-term investigation of wild golden-headed lion tamarins (L. chrysomelas; GHLTs). We present data about activity budgets, daily activity cycles, diet, daily path length, home range size, home range overlap, and territorial encounters for three groups of GHLTs that were studied for 1.5-2.5 years in Una Biological Reserve, Bahia State, Brazil, an area characterized by aseasonal rainfall. We compare our results to those from other studies of lion tamarins to identify factors that may influence foraging and ranging patterns in this genus. Ripe fruit, nectar, insects, and small vertebrates were the primary components of the GHLT diet, and gums were rarely eaten. Fruit comprised the majority of plant feeding bouts, and the GHLTs ate at least 79 different species of plants from 32 families. The most common foraging sites for animal prey were epiphytic bromeliads. The GHLTs defended large home ranges averaging 123 ha, but showed strong affinities for core areas, spending 50% of their time in approximately 11% of their home range. Encounters with neighboring groups averaged two encounters every 9 days, and they were always aggressive. Data about time budgets and daily activity cycles reveal that the GHLTs spent most of their time foraging for resources or traveling between foraging sites distributed throughout their home ranges. The GHLTs spent much less time consuming exudates compared to lion tamarins in more seasonal environments. Additionally, the GHLTs had much larger home ranges than golden lion tamarins (L. rosalia), and did not engage in territorial encounters as frequently as L. rosalia. GHLT ranging patterns appear to be strongly influenced by resource acquisition and, to a lesser extent, by resource defense. PMID:15152369

Raboy, Becky E; Dietz, James M

2004-05-01

434

Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and intermediate institutionalism. The regional interagency committee’s managerial routine needs to incorporate more democratic devices for connecting with educational institutions, devices that are more permeable to social demands relating to regional policy making. PMID:25210821

dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

2014-01-01

435

The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data.  

PubMed

A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO(4)(2-)). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC(marine) using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na(2)MoO(4)·2H(2)O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC(10) levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC(5,50%) (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74(mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a value that can be used for national and international regulatory purposes. PMID:22663766

Heijerick, D G; Regoli, L; Stubblefield, W

2012-07-15

436

Hazard Evaluation in Valparaíso: the MAR VASTO Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Project "MAR VASTO" (Risk Management in Valparaíso/Manejo de Riesgos en Valparaíso), funded by BID/IADB (Banco InterAmericano de Desarrollo/InterAmerican Development Bank), has been managed by ENEA, with an Italian/Chilean joined partnership and the support of local institutions. Valparaíso tells the never-ending story of a tight interaction between society and environment and the city has been declared a Patrimony of Humanity by UNESCO since 2003. The main goals of the project have been to evaluate in the Valparaíso urban area the impact of main hazards (earthquake, tsunami, fire, and landslide), defining scenarios and maps on a geo-referenced GIS database. In particular, for earthquake hazard assessment the realistic modelling of ground motion is a very important base of knowledge for the preparation of groundshaking scenarios which serve as a valid and economic tool to be fruitfully used by civil engineers, supplying a particularly powerful tool for the prevention aspects of Civil Defense. When numerical modelling is successfully compared with records (as in the case of the Valparaíso, 1985 earthquake), the resulting synthetic seismograms permit the generation of groundshaking maps, based upon a set of possible scenario earthquakes. Where no recordings are available for the scenario event, synthetic signals can be used to estimate ground motion without having to wait for a strong earthquake to occur (pre-disaster microzonation). For the tsunami hazard, the available reports, [e.g., SHOA (1999) Carta de Inundacion por Tsunami para la bahia de Valparaíso, Chile, http://www.shoa.cl/servicios/citsu/citsu.php], have been used as the reference documents for the hazard assessment for the Valparaíso site. The deep and detailed studies already carried out by SHOA have been complemented with (a) sets of parametric studies of the tsunamigenic potential of the 1985 and 1906 scenario earthquakes; and (b) analytical modelling of tsunami waveforms for different scenarios, in order to provide a complementary dataset to be used for the tsunami hazard assessment at Valparaíso. In addition, other targeted activities have been carried out, such as architectonic/urban planning studies/vulnerability evaluation for a pilot building stock in a historic area and a vulnerability analysis for three monumental churches. In this paper, a general description of the work is given, taking into account the in situ work that drove the suggestion of guidelines for mitigation actions.

Indirli, Maurizio; Razafindrakoto, Hoby; Romanelli, Fabio; Puglisi, Claudio; Lanzoni, Luca; Milani, Enrico; Munari, Marco; Apablaza, Sotero

2011-03-01

437

Determination of copper in airborne particulate matter using slurry sampling and chemical vapor generation atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

The present paper describes the development of a method for the determination of copper in airborne particulate matter using slurry sampling and chemical vapor generation atomic absorption spectrometry (CVG AAS). Chemometric tools were employed to characterize the influence of several factors on the generation of volatile copper species. First, a two-level full factorial design was performed that included the following chemical variables: hydrochloric acid concentration, tetrahydroborate concentration, sulfanilamide concentration and tetrahydroborate volume, using absorbance as the response. Under the established experimental conditions, the hydrochloric acid concentration had the greatest influence on the generation of volatile copper species. Subsequently, a Box-Behnken design was performed to determine the optimum conditions for these parameters. A second chemometric study employing a two-level full factorial design was performed to evaluate the following physical factors: tetrahydroborate flow rate, flame composition, alcohol volume and sample volume. The results of this study demonstrated that the tetrahydroborate flow rate was critical for the process. The chemometric experiments determined the following experimental conditions for the method: hydrochloric acid concentration, 0.208 M; tetrahydroborate concentration, 4.59%; sulfanilamide concentration, 0.79%; tetrahydroborate volume, 2.50 mL; tetrahydroborate flow rate, 6.50 mL min(-1); alcohol volume, 200 µL; and sample volume, 7.0 mL. Thus, this method, using a slurry volume of 500 µL and a final dilution of 7 mL, allowed for the determination of copper with limits of detection and quantification of 0.30 and 0.99 µg L(-1), respectively. Precisions, expressed as RSD%, of 4.6 and 2.8% were obtained using copper solutions at concentrations of 5.0 and 50.0 µg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by the analysis of a certified reference material of urban particulate matter. The copper concentration obtained was 570±63 mg kg(-1), and the certified value was 610±70 mg kg(-1). This method was applied for the determination of copper in airborne particulate matter samples collected in two Brazilian regions of Bahia State, Brazil. The copper contents found varied from 14.46 to 164.31 ng m(-3). PMID:24913868

Silva, Laiana O B; Leao, Danilo J; dos Santos, Debora C; Matos, Geraldo D; de Andrade, Jailson B; Ferreira, Sergio L C

2014-09-01

438

Evaluation of the taxonomic status of populations assigned to Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis (Anura, Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae) based on molecular, chromosomal, and morphological approach  

PubMed Central

Background The taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of the genus Phyllomedusa have been amply discussed. The marked morphological similarities among some species hamper the reliable identification of specimens and may often lead to their incorrect taxonomic classification on the sole basis of morphological traits. Phenotypic variation was observed among populations assigned to either P. azurea or P. hypochondrialis. In order to evaluate whether the variation observed in populations assigned to P. hypochondrialis is related to that in genotypes, a cytogenetic analysis was combined with phylogenetic inferences based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences. Results The inter- and intra-population variation in the external morphology observed among the specimens analyzed in the present study do not reflect the phylogenetic relationships among populations. A monophyletic clade was recovered, grouping all the specimens identified as P. hypochondrialis and specimens assigned P. azurea from Minas Gerais state. This clade is characterized by conserved chromosomal morphology and a common C-banding pattern. Extensive variation in the nucleolar organizing region (NOR) was observed among populations, with four distinct NOR positions being recognized in the karyotypes. Intra-population polymorphism of the additional rDNA clusters observed in specimens from Barreiras, Bahia state, also highlights the marked genomic instability of the rDNA in the genome of this group. Based on the topology obtained in the phylogenetic analyses, the re-evaluation of the taxonomic status of the specimens from the southernmost population known in Brazil is recommended. Conclusions The results of this study support the need for a thorough revision of the phenotypic features used to discriminate P. azurea and P. hypochondrialis. The phylogenetic data presented here also contribute to an extension of the geographic range of P. hypochondrialis, which is known to occur in the Amazon basin and neighboring areas of the Cerrado savanna, where it may be sympatric with P. azurea, within contact zones. The misidentification of specimens may have led to inconsistencies in the original definition of the geographic range of P. azurea. The variability observed in the NOR of P. hypochondrialis reinforces the conclusion that these sites represent hotspots of rearrangement. Intraspecific variation in the location of these sites is the result of constant rearrangements that are not detected by classical cytogenetic methods or are traits of an ancestral, polymorphic karyotype, which would not be phylogenetically informative for this group. PMID:23937545

2013-01-01

439

Frog species richness, composition and beta-diversity in coastal Brazilian restinga habitats.  

PubMed

We studied the species richness and composition of frogs in 10 restinga habitats (sand dune environments dominated by herbaceous and shrubby vegetation) along approximately 1500 km of coastal areas of three Brazilian States: Rio de Janeiro (Grumari, Maricá, Massambaba, Jurubatiba and Grussaí), Espírito Santo (Praia das Neves and Setiba) and Bahia (Prado and Trancoso). We estimated beta-diversity and similarity among areas and related these parameters to geographic distance between areas. All areas were surveyed with a similar sampling procedure. We found 28 frog species belonging to the families Hylidae, Microhylidae, Leptodactylidae and Bufonidae. Frogs in restingas were in general nocturnal with no strictly diurnal species. The richest restinga was Praia das Neves (13 species), followed by Grussaí and Trancoso (eight species in each). The commonest species in the restingas was Scinax alter (found in eight restingas), followed by Aparasphenodon brunoi (seven areas). Our data shows that richness and composition of frog communities vary consistently along the eastern Brazilian coast and, in part, the rate of species turnover is affected by the distance among areas. Geographic distance explained approximately 12% of species turnover in restingas and about 9.5% of similarity among frog assemblages. Although geographic distance somewhat affects frog assemblages, other factors (e.g. historical factors, disturbances) seem to be also involved in explaining present frog assemblage composition in each area and species turnover among areas. The frog