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Sample records for camamu almada bahia

  1. Characterization of small-scale fisheries in the Camamu-Almada basin, southeast state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, T C M; Petrere-Jr, M

    2008-11-01

    In the Camamu-Almada basin, marine fishery is exclusively small-scale, with several structural deficiencies such as boats with low or absent navigational technology, lack of credit and low income. Local fishers complain that shrimp and lobster trawling fishing is the main factor responsible for low stock abundance, but they still persist in these activities as these two species command the highest market prices. So they feel that the target species are already over-fished. We suggest that proper management action, alternative ways of income generation and the payment of job insurance would help to mitigate the problem. PMID:19197488

  2. [Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Lenz, Tiago; Boehs, Guisla

    2011-03-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is important fishery resource along the entire Brasilian coast with excellent potential for marine culture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the reproductive characteristics of the oyster of the Maraú river estuary in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The samples were collected monthly, from September 2006 to August 2007, at two points (I and II) in Camamu Bay. At each site 20 oysters were collected for histological analysis, fixed in Davidson's solution, embedded in paraffin, dehydrated in an ethanol series, sectioned (7 microm thick) and stained with Harris hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). Additionally, 30 oysters were sampled, at each point, for a condition index analysis. The water temperature ranged from 23.5 degrees C to 30 degrees C and the salinity from 15 to 25 ups at Point I (Maraú) and from 25 to 35 at Point II (Tanque Island). The oyster's height ranged from 30 to 92 mm at Point I and from 27 to 102 mm at Point II, with an average of 49.0 mm +/- 9.1 (n = 230) and 49.9 mm +/- 9.9 (n = 237), respectively. Among the sampled oysters at Point I, 59.1% were females, 31.3% males, 1.3% hermaphrodites and 8.2% of the oysters of undetermined sex. At Point II, 66.2% were females, 30.4% males, 0.8% hermaphrodites and 2.5% (n = 237) of undetermined sex. The gonadic stage analysis indicated that the reproduction period of the C. rhizophorae in the Maraú Peninsula was continuous all year, without any regressive phase. The condition index (R) ranged from 8.0% to 17.7%. The peak periods of R coincided with the expressive oyster's percentage in the maturation and liberation gametic stages. The results of these findings will contribute information for the oyster spat collection and to the process installation of the oyster culture in Camamu Bay. PMID:21516642

  3. Accumulation of trace metals in two commercially important shrimp species from Camamu Bay, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Migues, Vitor Hugo; de Almeida Bezerra, Marcos; de Francisco, Ana Karina; Guerrazzi, Maria Cecília; de Mello Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes

    2013-09-01

    Camamu Bay is the second largest estuary in Bahia state, northeastern Brazil, being recognized by its high diversity and economical relevance for fisheries and tourism. To evaluate the impacts of environmental disturbances in Camamu Bay, trace metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Pb) were quantified in two widespread and commercially exploited shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Xiphopenaeus kroyeri). High concentrations of all metals but Pb were observed in both species by ICPOES. The concentration values for Cr, Co, and Mn were invariably higher than the accepted limits for human consumption in Brazil. Inter and intraspecific variation in metal levels might be related to biological particularities and body size. The accentuated contamination by trace metals in both species validated them as efficient bioindicators of environmental quality. Thus, effective planning, monitoring and regulatory policies should be adopted to inspect and remediate the metal contamination in natural resources from Camamu Bay. PMID:23856807

  4. Urban Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Europe: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. For example, the summer 2003 European heat wave caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. As around 75% of Europe's population resides in urban areas, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of seasonal to decadal-scale climate variability on urban areas and their populations. This study aims at downscaling the spatially coarse resolution CMIP5 climate predictions to the local urban scale and investigating the relation between heat waves and the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect). The resulting heat stress effect is not only driven by climatic variables but also impacted by urban morphology. Moreover, the exposure varies significantly with the geographical location. All this information is coupled with relevant socio-economic datasets such as population density, age structure, etc. focussing on human health. The analyses are conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. The end-user needs have been consolidated in a climate services plan including the production of heat risk exposure maps and the analysis of various scenarios considering e.g. the uncertainty of the global climate predictions, urban expansion over time and the impact of mitigation measures such as green roofs. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for the design and management of climate resilient cities.

  5. Sedimentology and palaeontology of the Upper Jurassic Puesto Almada Member (Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Fossati sub-basin), Patagonia Argentina: Palaeoenvironmental and climatic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaleri, Nora G.; Benavente, Cecilia A.; Monferran, Mateo D.; Narváez, Paula L.; Volkheimer, Wolfgang; Gallego, Oscar F.; Do Campo, Margarita D.

    2013-10-01

    Six facies associations are described for the Puesto Almada Member at the Cerro Bandera locality (Fossati sub-basin). They correspond to lacustrine, palustrine, and pedogenic deposits (limestones); and subordinated alluvial fan, fluvial, aeolian, and pyroclastic deposits. The lacustrine-palustrine depositional setting consisted of carbonate alkaline shallow lakes surrounded by flooded areas in a low-lying topography. The facies associations constitute four shallowing upward successions defined by local exposure surfaces: 1) a Lacustrine-Palustrine-pedogenic facies association with a 'conchostracan'-ostracod association; 2) a Palustrine facies association representing a wetland subenvironment, and yielding 'conchostracans', body remains of insects, fish scales, ichnofossils, and palynomorphs (cheirolepidiacean species and ferns growing around water bodies, and other gymnosperms in more elevated areas); 3) an Alluvial fan facies association indicating the source of sediment supply; and 4) a Lacustrine facies association representing a second wetland episode, and yielding 'conchostracans', insect ichnofossils, and a palynoflora mainly consisting of planktonic green algae associated with hygrophile elements. The invertebrate fossil assemblage found contains the first record of fossil insect bodies (Insecta-Hemiptera and Coleoptera) for the Cañadón Asfalto Formation. The succession reflects a mainly climatic control over sedimentation. The sedimentary features of the Puesto Almada Member are in accordance with an arid climatic scenario across the Upper Jurassic, and they reflect a strong seasonality with periods of higher humidity represented by wetlands and lacustrine sediments.

  6. AN EVALUATION OF THE 7-DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA (FORMERLY MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 7-d test measuring survival, growth, and fecundity of Americamysis bahia formerly Mysidopsis bahia) was developed for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and associated receiving waters for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits. Currently, this test...

  7. Whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the pre-rift sequence of the Camamu Basin, northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, D. R. A.; Mizusaki, A. M. P.; Milani, E. J.; Pimentel, M.; Kawashita, K.

    2012-11-01

    Whole-rock geochemistry, combined with Sr-Nd isotopic composition of pelitic sedimentary rocks, have been considered to be useful parameters to estimate not only their provenance but also to make inferences about their depositional environment as well as the weathering processes they have been through. The basal sedimentary units of the basins of the northeastern Brazilian continental margin, particularly those of the pre-rift sequence, have been subject of interest of studies based on chemical and isotopic data, since they lack fossil content to establish their age and, therefore, stratigraphic correlations are difficult. The major and trace element contents as well as Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of whole-rock shale samples from five outcrops attributed to the pre-rift supersequence of the Camamu Basin were analyzed with the purpose of characterizing and obtaining further information that would allow a better correlation between the sites studied. The geochemical data suggest that the rocks exposed in the studied outcrops are part of the same sedimentary unit and that they might be correlated to the Capianga Member of the Aliana Formation of the Recncavo Basin, exposed to the north of the Camamu Basin. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) suggests conditions associated with a humid tropical/subtropical climate at the time of deposition. Nd isotopic compositions indicate provenance from the Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Sao Francisco craton. The results presented here, therefore, show that the combined use of chemical and isotopic analyses may be of great interest to characterize and correlate lithologically homogeneous clastic sedimentary sequences.

  8. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also limited by the nearly continuous cloud cover in the region and heavy rainfall, which occurs more than 150 days each year. The ability of the shuttle radars to 'see' through the forest canopy to the cultivated cacao below -- independent of weather or sunlight conditions --will allow researchers to distinguish forest from cabruca in unprecedented detail. This SIR-C/X-SAR image was produced by assigning red to the L-band, green to the C-band and blue to the X-band. The Una Reserve is located in the middle of the image west of the coastline and slightly northwest of Comandatuba River. The reserve's primary forests are easily detected by the pink areas in the image. The intensity of red in these areas is due to the high density of forest vegetation (biomass) detected by the radar's L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) channel. Secondary forest is visible along the reserve's eastern border. The Serrado Mar mountain range is located in the top left portion of the image. Cabruca forest to the west of Una Reserve has a different texture and a yellow color. The removal of understory in cabruca forest reduces its biomass relative to primary forest, which changes the L-band and C-band penetration depth and returns, and produces a different texture and color in the image. The region along the Atlantic is mainly mangrove swamp, agricultural fields and urban areas. The high intensity of blue in this region is a result of increasing X-band return in areas covered with swamp and low vegetation. The image clearly separates the mangrove region (east of coastal Highway 001, shown in blue) from the taller and dryer forest west of the highway. The high resolution capability of SIR-C/X-SAR imaging and the sensitivity of its frequency and polarization channels to various land covers will be used for monitoring and mapping areas of importance for conservation. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  9. BAHIA GRANDE RESTORATION PROJECT DW14945947

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bahia Grande Restoration Project is located on a 6,000+ acre shallow basin that at one time was inundated with biological resources. The basin supported large flocks of wintering and migratory waterfowl. Also, it contributed to a productive recreational and commercial fishe...

  10. Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

  11. Inequality and School reform in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author's research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates that inequality also blocks effective community and parental involvement in school management, as schools tend to distance themselves from neighbourhoods portrayed as poor and black, and thus "dangerous".

  12. Ultraviolet Index measurements in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula Corrêa, Marcelo; Morégula, Andréa; Fausto, Agnes; Okuno, Emico; Mol, Anderson; Santos, João C.

    2009-03-01

    This work presents results of the Joint Project for Solar UV Index Measurements in Southern Bahia State (PIU Project), and represents the first effort to measure UV radiation in this tourist region. The project goal is twofold: it has a scientific component in which the distribution of UV Index will be mapped out, and it also intends to disseminate the data as a mean of divulgation of the UV Index levels to the population. This constitutes a meaningful effort to reduce health risks from excessive solar radiation exposure in a country that reports more than 120,000 new skin cancer cases each year. This project is within the framework of a larger initiative to studying UV index distribution in Brazilian regions. PIU project has had two phases: 1) seasonal measurements were performed during the summer and winter seasons of 2006 and 2007 on a sandy beach in Ilhéus (15,0° S; 39,0° W; sea level), as well as on an asphalt surface in the urban perimeter of Itabuna (14,8° S; 39,3° W; 54 m ASL); and 2) since October 2007, measurements have been continuously conducted on a concrete surface, about 20 km from the beach, in a urban area of Ilhéus. During the summer season, UV Index reaches extreme values (>11), and in winter, results range between high (6

  13. Cacau Cabruca Agroforestry System of Production in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Southern Bahia probably in the beginning of the 19th century. To establish such system, farmers in the Atlantic rain forest region selectively maintained around 75 adult individual native trees per hectare, removed the o...

  14. Amerciamysis bahia Stochastic Matrix Population Model for Laboratory Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The population model described here is a stochastic, density-independent matrix model for integrating the effects of toxicants on survival and reproduction of the marine invertebrate, Americamysis bahia. The model was constructed using Microsoft® Excel 2003. The focus of the mode...

  15. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  16. [Retrospective study on Latrodectus stings in Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lira-da-Silva, R M; Matos, G B; Sampaio, R O; Nunes, T B

    1995-01-01

    This work is a retrospective study of latrodectism in the State of Bahia, Brazil, from August 1980 to July 1990. The data concerning the accidents were obtained from file cards at the Antivenom Information Center of Bahia (AVICB). Latrodectus curacavienis was the ethiologic agent identified in 28% of the arachnid accidents. The major incidence was registered in urban area (57%) affecting men (70%) more than women, with 10 to 29 year-old age group (58%). Local pain (56%), erythematous papula (29%) and light oedema (17%) were the principal local symptoms. Pain in the limbs (29%), tremor and rigidities (29%), sweating (28%), limbs and arms paresthesia (21%) and abdominal pain (17%) were systemic ones. The treatment was mainly symptomatic (67%) and antivenin serum was used in 21% of the cases. After serotherapy, 64% of the patients left the hospital within less than 24 hours. PMID:7480914

  17. Screening for Structural Hemoglobin Variants in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Wellington Santos; de Oliveira, Roberto Ferreira; Ribeiro, Sanzia Bezerra; da Silva, Isabel Batista; de Araújo, Edna Maria; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2016-01-01

    Brazil was the country that received the largest number of Africans during the time of colonization, and Bahia was the Brazilian state that received the largest number of slaves from Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the coverage of the newborn screening program for sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region of the state of Bahia, and to show the frequency of the subjects with hemoglobin variants in the 2006-2009 period. Blood samples from neonates in twelve cities in the Recôncavo Baiano region were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A total of 16,402 children were born in this period, 14,773 of which underwent newborn screening. In this period 1416 children were born carrying hemoglobin variants HbS and HbC. Forty-seven patients-20 HbSS genotype and 27 HbSC genotype-were diagnosed in eleven of the twelve cities surveyed. The proportion of children born with sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region was 1/314, which was higher than the 1/650 rate for the state of Bahia. The data presented in this study confirm the high frequency of sickle cell disease in Recôncavo Baiano, demonstrating the need to create a referral center for the care of patients with sickle cell diseases in the region. PMID:26901212

  18. Screening for Structural Hemoglobin Variants in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Wellington Santos; de Oliveira, Roberto Ferreira; Ribeiro, Sanzia Bezerra; da Silva, Isabel Batista; de Araújo, Edna Maria; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2016-01-01

    Brazil was the country that received the largest number of Africans during the time of colonization, and Bahia was the Brazilian state that received the largest number of slaves from Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the coverage of the newborn screening program for sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region of the state of Bahia, and to show the frequency of the subjects with hemoglobin variants in the 2006–2009 period. Blood samples from neonates in twelve cities in the Recôncavo Baiano region were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A total of 16,402 children were born in this period, 14,773 of which underwent newborn screening. In this period 1416 children were born carrying hemoglobin variants HbS and HbC. Forty-seven patients—20 HbSS genotype and 27 HbSC genotype—were diagnosed in eleven of the twelve cities surveyed. The proportion of children born with sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region was 1/314, which was higher than the 1/650 rate for the state of Bahia. The data presented in this study confirm the high frequency of sickle cell disease in Recôncavo Baiano, demonstrating the need to create a referral center for the care of patients with sickle cell diseases in the region. PMID:26901212

  19. EFFECT OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA AND ITS TOXINS ON MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA (MYSIDACEA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beauveria bassiana spores and metabolites were evaluated for toxicity and pathogenicity to Mysidopsis bahia. tatic acute 96-hr tests were conducted with <24-h-old M. bahia using either conidiospores, the mycotoxin, beauvericin, or a nonpolar extract of the mycelia. onidiospore de...

  20. SYSTEM-LEVEL MONITORING OF RESTORATION EFFORTS AT BAHIA GRANDE MX964487

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bahia Grande Restoration Project is located on a 6,000+ acre shallow basin that at one time was inundated with biological resources and was disrupted by human activity. The project is an attempt to restore Bahia Grande to its original state. Studies indicate that under favorabl...

  1. New species and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the state of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Galileo, Maria Helena M.; Martins, Ubirajara R.; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species are described from Bahia (Brazil): Coleoxestia beckeri (Cerambycini), and Oncioderes obliqua (Onciderini). Nine species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil). Key to species of Oncioderes Martins & Galileo, 1990 is provided. Coleoxestia beckeri is included in a previous key. PMID:26312029

  2. New species and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Two new species are described from Bahia (Brazil): Coleoxestiabeckeri (Cerambycini), and Oncioderesobliqua (Onciderini). Nine species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil). Key to species of Oncioderes Martins & Galileo, 1990 is provided. Coleoxestiabeckeri is included in a previous key. PMID:26312029

  3. Documenting Architectural Heritage in Bahia, Brazil, Using Spherical Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Amorim, A. L.; Fangi, G.; Malinverni, E. S.

    2013-07-01

    The Cultural Heritage disappears at a rate higher than we are able, not only, to restore but also to document: human and natural factors, negligence or worst, deliberate demolitions put in danger the collective Architectural Heritage (AH). According to CIPA statements, the recording is important and has to follow some guidelines. The Architectural and Urban Heritage data have to be historically related, critically assessed and analyzed, before to be organized according to a thematic structure and become available for further uses. This paper shows the experiences developed by the Laboratory of Computer Graphics applied to Architecture and Design (LCAD), at the Architecture School of the Federal University of Bahia (FAUFBA), Brazil, in cooperation with the Università Politecnica delle Marche (UNIVPM, DICEA Department), Italy, in documenting architectural heritage. The research set up now has been carried out in the historical sites of Bahia, as Pelourinho neighborhood, a World Heritage by UNESCO. Other historical sites are in the plan of this survey, like the cities of Lençóis and Mucugê in Chapada Diamantina region. The aim is to build a technological platform based on low cost digital technologies and open source tools, such as Panoramic Spherical Photogrammetry, Spatial Database, Geographic Information Systems, Three-dimensional Geometric Modeling, CAD technology, for the collection, validation and dissemination of AH.

  4. Relation between denudation history and sediment supply from apatite fission track thermochronology in the northeast Brazilian Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, Andrea; Chemale, Farid; Bueno, Gilmar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a quantitative overview of Mesozoic-Cenozoic morphotectonic evolution and sediment supply to the northeast Brazilian margin. Landscape evolution and denudation histories for the northeastern Brazilian continental margin (Sergipe, Alagoas, Bahia, and Esprito Santo states) were detailed by apatite fission track thermochronology and thermal-history modeling and related with the sedimentological record of the offshore basins of the passive margin for a comparison with their denudational history. Approximately one hundred basement samples were analyzed from the coast to the inland of the Brazilian margin. The apparent fission track ages vary from 360 to 61 Ma and confined fission track lengths vary between 10 and 14.6 m, indicating that not all of the samples recorded the same cooling events. The results of apatite fission track ages indicate that the area has been eroded regionally since the Mesozoic (< 250 Ma) and suggest that at less 4 km of overburden has been eroded regionally since the late Cretaceous (< 120 Ma) at a rate of 120 to 15 m/Ma. Two-stage of erosion process is deduced from simulated cooling histories for each sector. The Permian-Early Jurassic exhumation is restricted to the area of the Sertaneja Depression, besides the Diamantina Plateau. During this time, denudation rates are generally <20 m My-1 and record up to 1.5 km of denudation. Pre-rift sedimentation is recorded in the Camamu-Almada, Recncavo, and Sergipe-Alagoas basins. Samples from the Conquista and Borborema Plateaus, and Mantiqueira Range record a Cretaceous-Paleogene onset of exhumation. This timing is consistent with the offshore sedimentary record, wherein a large clastic wedge started forming in the northeastern Sergipe-Alagoas basin, which suggests Sergipe-Alagoas basin records drainage reorganization and extension of the So Francisco River catchment. Interestingly, the Camamu basin, adjacent to the section of the margin does not record syn/post-rift exhumation, does contain a 6-km thick sedimentary succession, which should thus have been derived from more distal sources. The Neogene final denudation is observed throughout the study area and show conspicuous recent exhumation. The post-rift (<40 Ma) offshore sedimentation rates are generally lower than during preceding phases. This final sedimentary succession is thinner in all basins, consistent with limited onshore erosion during this time.

  5. Environmental impact reduction through ecological planning at Bahia Magdalena, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Malagrino, Giovanni; Lagunas, Magdalena; Rubio, Alfredo Ortega

    2008-03-01

    For analyzing basic marine and coastal characteristics we selected the potential sites where shrimp culture could be developed in a large coastal zone, Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Based on our analysis, 6 sites were preselected and field stages of work were then developed to assess the precise suitability of each site in order to develop the proposed aquaculture activities. In ranking the suitability we were able to recommend the most appropriate places to develop shrimp culture in this region. Also, knowing the exact biological, physico-chemical and social environment, we determined the best species to cultivate, the recommended total area and the methodology to be used to lessen the environmental impact and to obtain the maximum profitability Our methodology could be used not only to select appropriate sites for shrimp culture in other coastal lagoons, but it also could be applied to assess the suitability in a quick and accurate way, of any other production activity in coastal zones. PMID:18831370

  6. Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gregório, Bernarda de Souza; Costa, Jorge Antonio Silva; Rapini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic treatment of Begoniaceae for the state of Bahia, Brazil, led to the recognition of three new species of Begonia with narrow distributions, which are described and illustrated here: Begoniadelicata Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a herb restricted to the region of the Recôncavo; Begoniaelianeae Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a shrub endemic to the Atlantic forest of the southern part of the state; and Begoniapaganuccii Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a subshrub known only from the type material, collected in the Piedmont of Paraguaçu. Notes on morphology, comparisons with morphologically similar species, etymology, geographic distribution, habitat and phenological data for each species are also presented. Furthermore, keys are provided as an aid to separating the new species from congeneric species that occur in their surroundings. Due to the sparse knowledge of the new species, there is as yet insufficient data to accurately assess their conservation status. PMID:25698891

  7. Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gregório, Bernarda de Souza; Costa, Jorge Antonio Silva; Rapini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic treatment of Begoniaceae for the state of Bahia, Brazil, led to the recognition of three new species of Begonia with narrow distributions, which are described and illustrated here: Begonia delicata Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a herb restricted to the region of the Recôncavo; Begonia elianeae Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a shrub endemic to the Atlantic forest of the southern part of the state; and Begonia paganuccii Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a subshrub known only from the type material, collected in the Piedmont of Paraguaçu. Notes on morphology, comparisons with morphologically similar species, etymology, geographic distribution, habitat and phenological data for each species are also presented. Furthermore, keys are provided as an aid to separating the new species from congeneric species that occur in their surroundings. Due to the sparse knowledge of the new species, there is as yet insufficient data to accurately assess their conservation status. PMID:25698891

  8. Spread and diversity of human populations in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevêdo, E S; Fortuna, C M; Silva, K M; Sousa, M G; Machado, M A; Lima, A M; Aguiar, M E; Abé, K; Eulálio, M C; Conceição, M M; Silva, M C; Santos, M G

    1982-05-01

    Data from surnames and racial subgroups were obtained in 60 localities to reconstruct the history of population spread and mixing over the state of Bahia, Brazil. Using the historically significant location of Cachoeira and Sao Felix as central points, the sampled localities were distributed along 7 main paved roads. 20% of the elementary school children were selected, but only the surnames of 12,872 boys were used in the analysis. The following parameters were estimated for each of the localities: black phenotype index (BPI), which is the proportion of 3 racial classifications determined by gene frequency analysis; black cultural index (BCI) determined by the frequency of devotional surnames; and indian cultural index (ICI) determined by the frequency of animal-plant surnames; and the isolated frequency of the surname Santos. The results of regression analysis indicate a negative association between BPI and BCI and the distance from Cachoeira-Sao Felix. Although not significant, ICI increases slightly with increased distance from Cachoeira-Sao Felix. The isolated frequency of the surname Santos is associated with the BCI but does not decrease significantly with distance from Cachoeira-Sao Felix. Construction of a map characterizing each of the 60 localities by its most representative racial admixture confirms the analysis and reveals the spread of blacks toward 4 cardinal points. A review of the historical background of the state explains the migration of blacks as related to the needs for slave labor during the development of gold mining and cocoa and sugar cultivation. The higher concentrations of indian admixtures farther from Cachoeira-Sao Felix reflects their retreat to survive the incoming foreign settlers. Given the strong link between the observed diversity in the population and major historical events, it is suggested that historical reconstruction of a population be an initial step before undertaking sampling for gene frequency analysis. PMID:7095799

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS IN AN ESTUARINE OPOSSUM SHRIMP, AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Americamysis bahia is a sensitive, and EPA approved, indicator of estuarine water quality. Genomic DNA, prepared from 200-300 whole adults, was cut and size selected for 400-900 nt. After addition of linkers and PCR enrichment, products were probed with biotinylated di- and tetra- nucleotide probes,...

  10. INCREASED REPRODUCTION BY MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) FED WITH ENRICHED ARTEMIA SPP. NAUPLII

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to assess effects of four diets on reproduction by the mysid Mysidopsis bahia in routine culture conditions. wo experiments were performed: the first lasted under semistatic conditions and the second lasted 60 d under flow-through conditions. he objective wa...

  11. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON TWO SPECIES OF MYSID SHRIMP: 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' AND 'MYSIDOPSIS BIGELOWI'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of mysid shrimp, the sub-tropical Mysidopsis bahia and the northern temperate Mysidopsis bigelowi, were exposed simultaneously to cadmium (as CdC12) in a continuous-flow bioassay system to determine the effect on survival and reproductive success. Temperature and sali...

  12. Cabruca its agrobiodiversity potential on small farmers in Southern region of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Bahia over 200 years ago. This system consists of planting cacao under the shade of trees in the Atlantic rain forest and has on an average 693 cacao plants and 93 trees per hectare. Even though the local community utili...

  13. EFFECTS OF TRIETHYLENE GLYCOL ON 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDACEA) AND 'MENIDIA PENINSULAE' (PISCES: ATHERINIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic effects of triethylene glycol (TEG), a chemical frequently used as a carrier-solvent in toxicity tests, were investigated in a 23-day life-cycle toxicity test with a mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) and in a 28-day early life-stage toxicity test with the tidewater silverside (Men...

  14. Cabruca agroforests of southern Bahia Brazil: tree component, management, species conservation and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In southern Bahia, cabruca is the agroforestry system in which cocoa is cultivated under the shade of sparse native forest trees. Aiming to characterize the tree component of this system and its management practices, we conducted an inventory of the non-cocoa trees in 16 ha of cabruca and do intervi...

  15. 33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico. 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and...

  16. Batkoa apiculata (Thaxter) Humber affecting Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Una, Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys for fungal pathogens affecting adult mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles were conducted in flooded and swamp-like natural breeding sites near residences in the center and suburbs of the city of Una as well as the nearby village of Outeiro in southern Bahia. Surveys of 54 mosquito breeding si...

  17. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  18. 33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and...

  19. OCCURANCE OF 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' (MYSIDACEA: MYSIDAE) ON THE ATLANTIC COAST OF FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Occurrence of Mysidopsis bahia (Mysidacea: Mysidae) is reported on the Atlantic Coast of Florida December 6, 1984. The sighting of 22 specimens (15 females, 4 males and 2 juveniles of undetermined sex) occurred at the Link Port Channel, Ft. Pierce, Florida. Dr. Thomas E. Bowman a...

  20. Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  1. The Entomophaga grylli (Fresenius) Batko species complex (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) infecting grasshoppers in Ilheus (Bahia) Brazil: notes and new records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi from the Entomophthoraceae (Zygomycotina; Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) belonging to the Entomophaga grylli species complex have been found in the state of Bahia, Brazil, to affect populations of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) of the species Rhammatocerus brasiliensis Bruner, Rhammatoce...

  2. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Pas n 1, the major allergen of Bahia grass Paspalum notatum pollen.

    PubMed

    Davies, Janet M; Mittag, Diana; Dang, Thanh D; Symons, Karen; Voskamp, Astrid; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2008-12-01

    Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is a clinically important subtropical grass with a prolonged pollination season from spring to autumn. We aimed to clone and characterise the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1. Grass pollen-allergic patients presenting to a tertiary hospital allergy clinic were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract by skin prick testing, ImmunoCAP, ELISA and immunoblotting. Using primers deduced from the N-terminal peptide sequence of a group 1 allergen of Bahia grass pollen extract separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the complete Pas n 1 cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and cloned. Biological relevance of recombinant Pas n 1 expressed in Escherichia coli was assessed by serum IgE reactivity and basophil activation. Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) consecutive patients presenting with grass pollen allergy were skin prick test positive to Bahia grass pollen. The Pas n 1 cDNA has sequence homology with the beta-expansin 1 glycoprotein family and is more closely related to the maize pollen group 1 allergen (85% identity) than to ryegrass Lol p 1 or Timothy grass Phl p 1 (64 and 66% identity, respectively). rPas n 1 reacted with serum IgE in 47 of 55 (85%) Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients, activated basophils and inhibited serum IgE reactivity with the 29 kDa band of Bahia grass pollen extract. In conclusion the cDNA for the major group 1 allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1, was identified and cloned. rPas n 1 is immunologically active and is a valuable reagent for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:18817975

  3. [Social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) diversity in a cerrado vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de M Santos, Gilberto M; da Cruz, Jucelho D; Marques, Oton M; Gobbi, Nivar

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the social wasps species diversity in a cerrado vegetation at the west region of the State of Bahia. Nineteen species of social wasps were found, with Chartergus globiventris de Saussure, Chartergellus communis Richards and Metapolybia cingulata (Fabricius) being recorded for the first time for the State of Bahia. The arboreous cerrado showed a higher species richness (S=19) and diversity (H'=2.33) than the agroecossistems (farms) (S=8; H'=1,84). However, nest abundance was higher at the agroecossystems (N=107 nests) than at the arboreous cerrado (N=87 nests). The physiognomy of 'cerrado campo sujo' showed the lowest abundance of social wasps colonies (N=61 nests) and intermediate values of species richness (S=13) and diversity (H'=2.20). PMID:19618045

  4. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems and risk of American visceral leishmaniasis in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bavia, M E; Carneiro, D D Madureira Trabuco; Gurgel, H da Costa; Madureira Filho, C; Barbosa, M G Rodrigues

    2005-03-01

    The spatial distribution of American visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was studied within the context of the environmental characteristics of northwest Bahia State in Brazil during an epidemic year. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) were used to characterize the landscape epidemiology of VL in order to identify and map high risk areas and endemic zones in a northwestern Bahia study area. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was shown to be one of the most important risk factors in the area of study. Low NDVI values were related to high numbers of sand flies and high numbers of human and canine VL positive cases. Caatinga vegetation type was the dominant vegetation type in the endemic area. The use of RS and GIS allowed the identification of classes of VL risk that may be useful information to guide control program interventions. PMID:16044686

  5. Photogeologic mapping in central southwest Bahia, using LANDSAT-1 multispectral images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Ohara, T.

    1981-01-01

    The interpretation of LANDSAT multispectral imagery for geologic mapping of central southwest Bahia, Brazil is described. Surface features such as drainage, topography, vegetation and land use are identified. The area is composed of low grade Precambrian rocks covered by Mezozoic and Cenozoic sediments. The principal mineral prospects of economic value are fluorite and calcareous rocks. Gold, calcite, rock crystal, copper, potassium nitrate and alumina were also identified.

  6. [Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) at Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México].

    PubMed

    García Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez Ruiz, Migdalia

    2007-03-01

    Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahia de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness) and higher diversity (Shannon's index). PMID:18457125

  7. Male sleeping aggregation of multiple Eucerini bee genera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hipólito, Juliana; de Oliveira, Favízia F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Males of some groups of bees have to find a place outside the nests to sleep, sometimes forming “male sleeping aggregations”. Here we report the first record of “dense” male sleeping aggregation of two different genera of Eucerini bees observed in Bahia, Brazil. We discuss the possible aim of this kind of aggregation as well the plant utilized on aggregate. PMID:25349523

  8. Landsat mapping of rocks associated with copper mineralization, northern Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, T. A.; Birnie, R. W.; Zantop, H.

    1983-01-01

    This project has applied Landsat digital data to a study of the geology of a mineralized zone in northern Bahia State, Brazil. The study accomplished two tasks: (1) production of a 1:100,000 geologic map of approximately 3300 sq km and (2) development of a two tiered geobotanical index that exploits increased vegetation density and decreased soil brightness on the mafic rock units.

  9. [On the founders of the Institute of Mathematics and Physics, University of Bahia].

    PubMed

    Dias, A L

    The reduced number of female students of mathematics at the University of Bahia School of Philosophy (Faculdade de Filosofia, Universidade da Bahia - FF/UBa) is quite surprising. To date, they are concentrated in areas traditionally viewed as feminine whereas men predominate in the mathematical fields. I have examined interview data from a few women who graduated in mathematics and went on to teach at the University of Bahia School of Mathematics (Faculdade de Filosofia - FF) and at the Institute of Mathematics and Physics (Instituto de Matemática e Física - IMF), where they were soon to outnumber men and constitute the majority of the mathematics teaching staff. In this study, I have investigated the course of their careers over time: from their early student days, through their time as teaching assistants and professors, and finally as founders of the Institute of Mathematics and Physics, in 1960. Special reference is made to Martha Maria de Souza Dantas, organizer of the I Brazilian Conference on Mathematics Teaching, an event which has provided the groundwork for what was to become the Institute (IMF); and to Arlete Cerqueira Lima, the mastermind behind its creation. PMID:16683339

  10. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Souza, Tiago Oliveira de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran's I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  11. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them. PMID:26668542

  12. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Tiago Oliveira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  13. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them. PMID:26668542

  14. A new species of Chilicola from Bahia, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Colletidae), with a key to the species of the megalostigma group

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas; Mahlmann, Thiago; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The bee genus Chilicola Spinola (Xeromelissinae) is recorded from the State of Bahia, Brazil for the first time, based on a new species of the megalostigma group of the subgenus Hylaeosoma Ashmead. Chilicola (Hylaeosoma) kevani sp. n. is described and figured from males collected in Wesceslau Guimarães, Bahia. The species can be distinguished on the basis of coloration, size, integumental sculpturing, and structure of the hidden metasomal sterna and genitalia. A revised key to the species of the megalostigma group is provided. PMID:22287912

  15. New species and first records of Macunahyphes Dias, Salles & Molineri, 2005 (Ephemeroptera: Leptohyphidae) from Bahia state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Everlin; Mariano, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Macunahyphes Dias, Salles & Molineri (Leptohyphidae) is described based on male imagos collected in the Michelin Ecological Reserve, Igrapiúna, Bahia state, Brazil, located in a preserved area of Atlantic Forest. The male of the new species can be distinguished from all congeners by the shape of the penes, which have a pair of unusual spines, and are elongated with lateral hook-shaped projections distributed from the base to the middle region. This new species represents the first record for the genus from Bahia State. PMID:26623741

  16. New taxa and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from the state of Bahia (Brazil) and notes on Meridiotroctes (Acanthoderini).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Twelve new species and two new genera are described from Bahia (Brazil): Ectenessa aurantiaca (Ectenessini); Stizocera lingafelteri (Elaphidiini); Raglicia monnei (Graciliini), new genus and species; Tobipuranga aspera (Heteropsini); Cicatrion unicolor, and Pygmodeon obscurum (Neoibidionini); Neophygopoda agdae (Rhinotragini); Arapari bellus (Trachyderini), new genus and species; Meridiotroctes obliquus (Acanthoderini); Melzerella inopinata (Aerenicini); Ceiupaba poranga, and Desmiphora (Desmiphora) nascimentoi (Desmiphorini). Notes on Meridiotroctes Martins & Galileo, 2007 and Cosmisoma brullei (Mulsant, 1862) are provided. Forty-eight species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil) including four species which are recorded for the first time for Brazil. PMID:26249859

  17. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

  18. A nonbreeding concentration of Roseate and Common Terns in Bahia, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, H.; Lima, P.; Monteiro, L.; DiConstanzo, J.; Cormons, G.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Saliva, J.E.; Spendelow, J.A.; Burger, J.; Pierce, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1999-01-01

    We report recoveries of banded Roseate (Sterna dougallii) and Common (S. hirundo) Terns netted at Mangue Seco, Bahia, Brazil (11? 27'S, 37? 21'W). Mangue Seco is the first reported South American location where large numbers of Roseate Terns concentrate December-March, and where members of both the North American and Caribbean populations occur together during these months. A Roseate Tern recovered at Mangue Seco sets an age record of 25.6 years for the species. Recoveries at Mangue Seco of Common Terns banded in the Azores (37? -38?N, 25? -29?W) suggest there is a regular transatlantic movement by Common Terns between the two locations.

  19. Oral Lesions in Elderly Patients in Referral Centers for Oral Lesions of Bahia

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Sarah; Alves, Técia; Santos, Jean; Oliveira, Márcio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aging population phenomenon is occurring on a global scale; aging affects all of the structures of organisms, including the oral cavity. Objective To estimate the frequency of oral lesions, according to the clinical and histopathologic diagnoses, and to describe the sociodemographic profile of the elderly treated at the referral centers of oral lesions of public universities in Bahia, Brazil. Methods A descriptive epidemiologic study with transverse characteristics was conducted with elderly patients between August 2010 and January 2012. A form was used to collect data. The descriptive analysis consisted of calculating the simple and relative frequencies of sociodemographic variables and oral lesions. Results The population was predominantly black women, and the minority of elderly people were retired. Fibroid (13%) and squamous cell carcinoma (145%) were more prevalent clinical diagnoses, with squamous cell carcinoma (30.7%) and fibrous hyperplasia more prevalent histopathologic diagnoses. Conclusion A prevention policy needs to be implemented to reduce new cases of oral lesions in Bahia, Brazil and to aid in early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of oral lesions. PMID:26491471

  20. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  1. Hawksbill × loggerhead sea turtle hybrids at Bahia, Brazil: where do their offspring go?

    PubMed Central

    Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis F.; Marcovaldi, Maria A.; Soares, Luciano S.; Monteiro, Danielle S.; Wijeratne, Sarath; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization between hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) breeding groups is unusually common in Bahia state, Brazil. Such hybridization is possible because hawksbill and loggerhead nesting activities overlap temporally and spatially along the coast of this state. Nevertheless, the destinations of their offspring are not yet known. This study is the first to identify immature hawksbill × loggerhead hybrids (n = 4) from this rookery by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 157 immature turtles morphologically identified as hawksbills. We also compare for the first time modeled dispersal patterns of hawksbill, loggerhead, and hybrid offspring considering hatching season and oceanic phase duration of turtles. Particle movements varied according to season, with a higher proportion of particles dispersing southwards throughout loggerhead and hybrid hatching seasons, and northwards during hawksbill season. Hybrids from Bahia were not present in important hawksbill feeding grounds of Brazil, being detected only at areas more common for loggerheads. The genetic and oceanographic findings of this work indicate that these immature hybrids, which are morphologically similar to hawksbills, could be adopting behavioral traits typical of loggerheads, such as feeding in temperate waters of the western South Atlantic. Understanding the distribution, ecology, and migrations of these hybrids is essential for the development of adequate conservation and management plans. PMID:24688839

  2. Bioavailability and Natural Pollution of Heavy Metals in Bahia de Magdalena, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.; O'Shea, B.

    2012-12-01

    In the pristine environment of Bahia de Magdalena, Baja California, elevated concentrations of heavy metals have been reported in the biota within the bay, such as sea grasses, blue crabs, and marine turtles. While the hypothesized source of these metals has emphasized anthropogenic inputs from a local fish cannery, geologic enrichment of metals from natural ophiolite formations in the Puerto Magdalena region may be an increasingly feasible source. Total (XRF) chromium and nickel concentrations (max 4,450 ppm and 2,396 ppm, respectively) in rock and soil are orders of magnitude higher than average concentrations in the crust and the beach sands directly impacted by waste discharge from the cannery (mean Cr, 55ppm and mean Ni 17ppm at cannery). Bioavailable (HNO3 acid extracted) metals differ between rock and soil versus cannery-impacted sites. Most notably, Ni is very bioavailable (mean 70% total Ni extracted) in pristine ophiolite areas, but almost completely unavailable at cannery-impacted sites. In contrast, Zn is slightly more bioavailable at the impacted cannery site (mean 55% Zn extracted) than the ophiolite rocks (mean 45% Zn extracted). In addition, these results suggest that while metals, such as Cu, Fe, and Mn, have been previously studied in the biota of the bay, other heavy metals such as Ni and Cr should be included in future biological studies within Bahia de Magdalena.

  3. Hawksbill נloggerhead sea turtle hybrids at Bahia, Brazil: where do their offspring go?

    PubMed

    Proietti, Maira C; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis F; Marcovaldi, Maria A; Soares, Luciano S; Monteiro, Danielle S; Wijeratne, Sarath; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization between hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) breeding groups is unusually common in Bahia state, Brazil. Such hybridization is possible because hawksbill and loggerhead nesting activities overlap temporally and spatially along the coast of this state. Nevertheless, the destinations of their offspring are not yet known. This study is the first to identify immature hawksbill נloggerhead hybrids (n = 4) from this rookery by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 157 immature turtles morphologically identified as hawksbills. We also compare for the first time modeled dispersal patterns of hawksbill, loggerhead, and hybrid offspring considering hatching season and oceanic phase duration of turtles. Particle movements varied according to season, with a higher proportion of particles dispersing southwards throughout loggerhead and hybrid hatching seasons, and northwards during hawksbill season. Hybrids from Bahia were not present in important hawksbill feeding grounds of Brazil, being detected only at areas more common for loggerheads. The genetic and oceanographic findings of this work indicate that these immature hybrids, which are morphologically similar to hawksbills, could be adopting behavioral traits typical of loggerheads, such as feeding in temperate waters of the western South Atlantic. Understanding the distribution, ecology, and migrations of these hybrids is essential for the development of adequate conservation and management plans. PMID:24688839

  4. Copepod Community Structure at Bahia Magdalena, Mexico during El Niño 1983 84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomares-García, Ricardo; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime

    1996-11-01

    Changes in the community structure and distribution patterns of 71 species of copepods collected during eight oceanographic surveys at Bahia Magdalena, Mexico were analysed. From March 1983 to January 1985, the responses of the copepod community structure to the seasonal environmental conditions and temporal changes during the peak warming of the El Niño event 1982-83, the relaxation phase in 1984, and the winter 1984-85 cooler period were studied. As in other estuaries and bays, the copepod community had a few dominant species, which have a seasonal succession throughout the year related to seasonal changes in sea-surface temperature. There are two major successional stages in the annual cycle of zooplankton development. During the warming period (July-October of 1983 and 1984), Acartia lilljeborgiiGiesbrecht and Acartia tonsaDana (tropical affinity) were the dominant species in the copepod community. During the cooler period (December-June), the dominant species was Paracalanus parvus(Claus). During Summer and Autumn 1983 (El Niño peak), an unusual increase of tropical-equatorial copepod species were found, that are regularly found offshore. The resident species Acartia clausiGiesbrecht was replaced by A. tonsa. Despite these changes in the species composition because of El Niño, seasonal succession is the general rule in Bahia Magdalena and was only enhanced by the presence of several tropical species during the warmest period.

  5. Spigelia genuflexa (Loganiaceae), a new geocarpic species from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Popovkin, Alex V.; Mathews, Katherine G.; Santos, José Carlos Mendes; Molina, M. Carmen; Struwe, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Spigelia L. (Loganiaceae), Spigelia genuflexa Popovkin & Struwe, sp. n., from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil, is described, being the first reported geocarpic species in the family. During fruit maturation, the basal infructescences bend down towards the ground, depositing the fruit on the surface (and burying it in soft kinds of ground cover, e.g., moss), whereas the upper ones do so slightly but noticeably. The species is a short-lived annual apparently restricted to sandy-soil habitat of the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, with variable and heterogeneous microenvironment and is known from only two restricted localities. A short review of amphi- and geocarpic species is provided. A discussion of comparative morphology within Spigelia with regards to dwarfism, indumentum, and annual habit is included. A phylogenetic parsimony and Bayesian analysis of ITS sequences from 15 Spigelia species plus 17 outgroups in Loganiaceae confirms its independent taxonomic status: on the basis of sequence similarity and phylogenetic topology it is phylogenetically distinct from all Spigelia species sequenced so far. PMID:22287919

  6. Microbiological characteristics of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus spp. in Bahia, Brazil: molecular types and antifungal susceptibilities.

    PubMed

    Matos, C S; de Souza Andrade, A; Oliveira, N S; Barros, T F

    2012-07-01

    To determine the profiles of susceptibility to antifungal and the genotypes of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus in Bahia, Brazil, 62 isolates were collected from cases of meningitis in the period from 2006 to 2010. Their susceptibilities to fluconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine were determined by the broth microdilution technique described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and genotyping of the URA5 gene was accomplished by restriction fragment length polymorphism. C. neoformans accounted for 79% of the identified yeast and C. gattii represented the remaining 21%. Evaluation of the genotypes determined that 100% of the C. gattii isolates belong to the VGII genotype, and 98% of the C. neoformans isolates belong to the VNI genotype. Determination of susceptibility revealed isolates resistant to fluconazole (4.8%), 5-flucytosine (1.6%) and amphotericin B (3.2%); the stratification of sensitivity results for each species showed significant differences in susceptibility to azoles. This study is the first to describe the susceptibility profiles of molecular and clinical isolates of Cryptococcus in Bahia, Brazil. The high percentage of C. gattii isolates belonging to the VGII genotype and its lower susceptibility to antifungal agents highlight the importance of knowing which species are involved in cryptococcal infections in northeastern Brazil. PMID:22278291

  7. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    PubMed

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km(2) with steep altitudinal gradients (200-950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi strains from triatomine collected in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Aline Rimoldi; Mendonça, Vagner José; Alves, Renata Tomé; Martinez, Isabel; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; Mello, Fernanda; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Collection of triatomines in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic environments in states of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul, Northeastern and Southern Brazil respectively, and isolation of Trypanosoma cruzi strains. METHODS First, the captured triatomines were identified using insect identification keys, then their intestinal content was examined by abdominal compression, and the samples containing trypanosomatid forms were inoculated in LIT medium and Swiss mice. RESULTS Six triatomine species were collected in cities in Bahia, namely Panstrongylus geniculatus (01), Triatoma melanocephala (11), T. lenti (94), T. pseudomaculata (02), T. sherlocki (26) and T. sordida (460), and two in cities in Rio Grande do Sul, namely T. circummaculata (11) and T. rubrovaria (115). Out of the specimens examined, T. cruzi was isolated from 28 triatomine divided into four different species: T. melanocephala (one), T. lenti (one), T. rubrovaria (16) and T. sordida (10). Their index of natural infection by T. cruzi was 6.4%. CONCLUSIONS The isolation of T. cruzi strains from triatomines found in domestic and peridomestic areas shows the potential risk of transmission of Chagas disease in the studied cities. The maintenance of those T. cruzi strains in laboratory is intended to promote studies that facilitate the understanding of the parasite-vector-host relationship. PMID:24897051

  9. 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA': AN ESTUARINE SPECIES SUITABLE FOR LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY TESTS TO DETERMINE EFFECTS OF A POLLUTANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study documents the successful use of a mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, for life-cycle toxicity tests. These tests were conducted to determine acute and chronic toxicities of metal (cadmium) and pesticide (Kepone). Delay in the formation of mysid brood pouches and release of young ...

  10. ALTERATIONS IN THE ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) AS INDICATORS OF STRESS FROM CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various aspects of the energy metabolism of an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) were examined for different life stages during a life-cycle exposure to the organophosphate pesticide fenthion. Dose-response relationships were developed for several metabolic rate functions (oxyge...

  11. The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

    1994-01-01

    Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

  12. REVIEW OF THE NEOTROPICAL PHYLINE GENUS PLATYSCYTISCA, WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES FROM BAHIA, BRAZIL (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA: MIRIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phyline genus Platyscytisca Costa and Henry is reviewed and one new species, P. nelsoni, is described from Bahia, Brazil. Platyscytisca nelsoni n. sp., the second species recognized in the genus, represents a considerable range extension for the genus. Provided for P. bergmannae Costa and Henr...

  13. Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

    2004-12-01

    A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America. PMID:15575989

  14. Bahia Adair and vicinity, Sonora: modern siliciclastic-dominated arid macrotidal coastline

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, B.E.; Sinitiere, S.M.; Williams, L.J.

    1989-03-01

    The northwestern Sonoran coastline, in the vicinity of Bahia Adair, combines several important geologic features. The arid landward environments are dominated by the dunes of the Gran Desierto and the surrounding alluvial fans and ephemeral streams. The Colorado River, whose delta lies to the northwest, has been an important source of sediment until very recently. The high tidal energy of the region has profoundly influenced the distribution and geometries of coastal and shallow-marine sand bodies, and the active tectonic setting has also played a role. The Cerro Prieto splay of the San Andreas fault system has been responsible for local uplift and downwarp and resulting transgression and regression. The intertidal and supratidal zones are dominated by sand and constitute a sand-body type that has been seldom considered by petroleum explorationists or other students of ancient sand bodies, and the associated evaporites are rather different from those described from the superficially analogous Persian Gulf sabkhas.

  15. Characterization of organic matter in a sediment Core near the Mataripe refinery, Bahia-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alexandre Barreto; de Souza, José Roberto Bispo; Zucchi, Maria do Rosário; de Azevedo, Antonio Expedito Gomes; de Argollo, Roberto Max

    2016-04-15

    A sediment core was taken from the Todos os Santos Bay, near the Mataripe Bahia-Brazil refinery. The results of dating, (210)Pb and (137)Cs methods, combined with organic indicators, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes and total organic carbon (TOC), showed significant change with the start of production of the oil fields of Aratu, Itaparica and Dom João (1939-1947) and the construction of the Mataripe refinery (1949-1950). This event was marked by a series of significant changes, including an abrupt increase in TOC and the growth of PAH concentrations and the presence Unresolved/Resolved ratio (UR/R)>4 in n-alkanes fraction, which indicated that the contamination was of petrogenic origin. The δ(13)C of specific n-alkanes compounds showed gradual deplete with the depth. PMID:26920428

  16. [Scorpion stings in an area of Nordeste de Amaralina, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Amorim, Andréa Monteiro; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lira-da-Silva, Rejâne Maria; Brazil, Tania Kobler

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of individuals who referred scorpion sting accidents in a population sample from Areal, a neighborhood northeast of Amaralina, Salvador City, State of Bahia, Brazil. A random, systematic sample of 1,367 individuals was taken, corresponding to 44.4% of the total population. Eighty-two residents referred scorpion sting since they were resident in Areal, giving a prevalence coefficient of 6% (95% CI 4.7 - 7.3). The prevalence of persons stung by scorpions increased according to greater time spent in the domicile and more advanced age. It was remarkable that 92.7% of the scorpions stings occurred within the home. The incidence coefficient estimated for the most recent period of time (January to July, 2000) was 1.15 cases/1,000 inhabitants per month, comparable to the highest ever reported for an epidemic area. PMID:12715063

  17. A new species of Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, 2006 (Ephemeroptera: Leptohyphidae) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Molineri, Carlos; Lima, Lucas R C; Knapp, William D; Docio, Loyana

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the previously monotypic genus Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, 2006 is described based on the male imago, egg and nymph from the state of Bahia, Brazil. Characters and illustrations to distinguish Amanahyphes bahiensis sp. nov. from A. saguassu and all other species in Leptohyphidae are provided. Amanahyphes bahiensis sp. nov. is diagnosed as follows: in the male imago, forewing shaded slightly with brownish at basal third and penes basally fused, distally with diverging lobes, and with a short spine-like projection at midlength on lateral margin; in the nymph, femoral spines long, slender and acuminate, tarsal claws with 10-11 marginal denticles and 2+3 subapical submarginal denticles, gill formula 3/2/2/2. Geographic records of both species are amended and indicated on a map. PMID:26248920

  18. Back pain in adults living in quilombola territories of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Luis Rogério Cosme Silva; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Lima, Eduardo de Paula

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with back pain in adults who live in quilombola territories. METHODS A population-based survey was performed on quilombola communities of Vitória da Conquista, state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The sample (n = 750) was established via a raffle of residences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate sociodemographics and employment characteristics, lifestyle, and health conditions. The outcome was analyzed as a dichotomous variable (Poisson regression). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain was of 39.3%. Age ≥ 30 years and being a smoker were associated with the outcome. The employment status was not related to back pain. CONCLUSIONS The survey identified a high prevalence of back pain in adults. It is suggested to support the restructuring of the local public service in order to outline programs and access to healthy practices, assistance, diagnosis, and treatment of spine problems. PMID:25372165

  19. [Hygiene practices in a street market in the city of Salvador, Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Minnaert, Ana Cláudia de Sá Teles; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this research is to understand the meaning of the practices concerning food hygiene in a street market in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State in Brazil. The ethnographic study presents two main categories for symbolic production related to hygiene practices: cleanliness as order and dirtiness as disorder. These cultural codes make correspondence with the studies of Mary Douglas and Nobert Elias. The codes present particularities to decode everyday life, in which concept and hygiene practices are aspects normalized, in daily activity, for persons who share the space of street market: vendors, consumers, street cleaners and official inspectors. The techno-scientific knowledge and sanitary legislation are strange to the symbolic system of street market vendors. The laws are ineffective and their influence is of little importance in the creation of hygiene practices. Official inspectors' attitudes are coercive and punitive and do not take into account any cultural values when enforcing new hygiene practices. PMID:20640322

  20. [Managing comprehensive care: a case study in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos, Adriano Maia Dos; Giovanella, Ligia

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed management of comprehensive care in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil, at the political, institutional, organizational, and healthcare practice levels and the challenges for establishing coordinated care between municipalities. The information sources were semi-structured interviews with administrators, focal groups with healthcare professionals and users, institutional documents, and observations. A comprehensive and critical analysis was produced with dialectical hermeneutics as the reference. The results show that the Inter-Administrators Regional Commission was the main regional governance strategy. There is a fragmentation between various points and lack of communications linkage in the network. Private interests and partisan political interference overlook the formally agreed-upon flows and create parallel circuits, turning the right to health into currency for trading favors. Such issues hinder coordination of comprehensive care in the inter-municipal network. PMID:27027458

  1. Factors associated with food insecurity in households of public school students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Bittencourt, Liliane; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria; de Jesus Pinto, Elizabete; Aliaga, Marie Agnes; de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Rita

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191.73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

  2. Social inequality and depressive disorders in Bahia, Brazil: interactions of gender, ethnicity, and social class.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Filho, Naomar; Lessa, Ines; Magalhães, Lucélia; Araújo, Maria Jenny; Aquino, Estela; James, Sherman A; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2004-10-01

    We conducted a study of the association between gender, race/ethnicity, and social class and prevalence of depressive disorders in an urban sample (N = 2302) in Bahia, Brazil. Individual mental health status was assessed by the PSAD/QMPA scale. Family SES and head of household's schooling and occupation were taken as components for a 4-level social class scale. Race/ethnicity (white, moreno, mulatto, black) was assessed with a combination of self-designation and a system of racial classification. The overall 12-month prevalence of depressive symptoms was 12%, with a female:male ratio of 2:1. Divorced/widowed persons showed the highest prevalence and single the lowest. There was a negative correlation with education: the ratio college educated:illiterate was 4:1. This gradient was stronger for women than men. There was no F:M difference in depression among Whites, upper-middle classes, college-educated, or illiterate. Prevalence ratios for single, widowed and Blacks were well above the overall pattern. Regarding race/ethnicity, higher prevalences of depression were concentrated in the Moreno and Mulatto subgroups. There was a consistent social class and gender interaction, along all race/ethnicity strata. Three-way interaction analyses found strong gender effect for poor and working-class groups, for all race/ethnicity strata but Whites. Black poor yielded the strongest gender effect of all (up to nine-fold). We conclude that even in a highly unequal context such as Bahia, Blacks, Mulattos and women were protected from depression by placement into the local dominant classes; and that the social meaning of ethnic-gender-generation diversity varies with being unemployed or underemployed, poor or miserable, urban or rural, migrant or non-migrant. PMID:15246165

  3. Factors Associated with Food Insecurity in Households of Public School Students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Liliane de Souza; dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Aliaga, Marie Agnès

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191,73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

  4. Evaluation of toxicity of polluted marine sediments from Bahia Salina Cruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Lozano, Maria Cristina; Mendez-Rodriguez, Lia C; Maeda-Martinez, Alejandro M; Murugan, Gopal; Vazquez-Botello, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Bahia Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, Mexico is a major center of oil and refined product distribution on the Mexican Pacific coast. From the start of oil industry operations in 1979, negative effects from discharges of treated effluents in the bay have been a constant concern for local communities. We analyzed 28 surface sediment samples obtained in June, 2002 to evaluate the level of toxicity in the littoral zone, port-harbor, and La Ventosa estuary in Bahia Salina Cruz. The extractable organic matter concentration was high (1,213 to 7,505 micro g g(-1)) in 5 of 7 stations from the port and harbor, whereas it was low in 12 of 16 stations in the littoral zone (36 to 98 micro g g(-1)). The total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest (57 to 142 micro g g(-1)) in the port and harbor compared to the La Ventosa estuary and the littoral zone. Among the heavy metals analyzed, cadmium exceeded the effects range-low values associated with adverse biological effects. The geo-accumulation index of sediments was moderate to strong contamination at 5 stations in the nonlittoral and 6 stations in the littoral zone. The enrichment of lead, zinc, and cadmium at 5 stations from the littoral, port, and harbor suggest that these metals are of anthropogenic origin. Bioassay tests of elutriates of sediments on nauplii of Artemia franciscana and Artemia sp. showed that the port and harbor were more toxic than the La Ventosa estuary and the coastal zone. The Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri) did not show a similar response with the solid phase of the sediments. The results of this study indicate that the high levels of organic content and metals in the sediments of port-harbor and the La Ventosa estuary are mainly caused by anthropogenic activities. PMID:20390851

  5. [The legitimacy of representation in forums with social participation: the case of the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bispo Júnior, José Patrício; Gerschman, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    The electoral representation model is insufficient and inadequate for new participatory roles such as those played by members of health councils. This article analyzes representation and representativeness in the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil. The study included interviews with 20 current or former members of the State Health Council, analysis of the council minutes and bylaws, and observation of plenary meetings. Discourse analysis technique was used to analyze interventions by members. The article discusses the results in four analytical lines: the process by which various organizations name representatives to the Council; the relationship between Council members and their constituencies; interest representation in the Council; and criteria used by the plenary to take positions. The study reveals various problems with the representativeness of the Bahia State Health Council and discusses the peculiarities of representation in social participation forums and the characteristics that give legitimacy to representatives. PMID:25715302

  6. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  7. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auriculariumcollected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  8. A new Crossodactylodes Cochran, 1938 (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Paratelmatobiinae) from the highlands of the Atlantic Forests of southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Mauro; Recoder, Renato Sousa; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Damasceno, Roberta Pacheco; Cassimiro, José; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2013-01-01

    A new Crossodactylodes is described from Serra das Lontras, in the highlands of the Atlantic Forests of southern Bahia. The new species can be distinguished from all other Crossodactylodes by having Finger I ending in an acute tip, a larger body size, by cranial features, and by molecular data. Like their congeners, the new species live in bromeliads but is widely geographically disjunct, being apparently restricted to the summit of a mountain range in Northeastern Brazil. PMID:26146739

  9. Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from rubber tree crops in the State of Bahia, Brazil, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Nuvoloni, Felipe Micali; Lofego, Antonio Carlos; Castro, Elizeu Barbosa; Feres, Reinaldo José Fazzio

    2015-01-01

    The current study describes the results of a survey of Phytoseiidae mites conducted on a rubber tree plantation in the State of Bahia, Brazil. We present 22 species, two of which are new to science, Amblydromalus insolitus n. sp. Nuvoloni & Lofego, and Typhlodromips paramilus n. sp. Nuvoloni & Lofego, and three new records for this host are presented. The species composition was more related with the records of the northern Brazilian Region, than with that of Southeastern and Midwestern. PMID:26249435

  10. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings. PMID:21789421

  11. Source and Fate of Sediments in the Bahia de Anasco, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    Sediments and wastewater mix in the insular marine waters of the Bah'{i}a de Añasco near Mayag{u}ez, Puerto Rico. Trace metal concentrations in fine sediments deposited in the bay were measured to assess potential impact of the ocean outfall on the biota and habitats that include coral reefs. A Q-mode factor analysis of elemental compositions identified three sediment sources and their relative proportions in 51 core and surficial samples collected from the bay and within the coral reefs: (1) sediments discharged by the R'{i}o Grande de Añasco; (2) calcareous skeletal remains; and (3) sediments discharged by the R'{i}o Guanajibo. The nickel and chromium derived from laterite deposits provide a unique fingerprint for sediments discharged from the R'{i}o Guanajibo. Naturally occurring concentrations of these elements exceed Probable Effect Limits (PEL's: 42 mg/kg for nickel and 160 mg/kg for chromium) in sediments deposited near the river mouth. The detection of mercury at 1 mg/kg in one sample from a core recovered near the wastewater outfall was the only indication of a possible outfall source in the data set. The temporal and spatial variations in source fractions proved useful in determining relative frequencies of historic floods and steady-state circulation patterns off the west coast of Puerto Rico.

  12. [Work in health: sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (state of Bahia, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Bastos, Augusto Amorim; Costa, Ediná Alves; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo

    2011-05-01

    A drugstore is an establishment of interest in health, from which medication is dispensed, namely the therapeutic technology most broadly used in the practice of medicine. The scope of this study is to describe and analyze the sanitary surveillance of drugstores. Based on the theory of working processes in healthcare, a case study was conducted on the sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil), examining 2 analytical categories: agents and activities. Data were collected through observation, analysis of documents and interviews, and QSR N Vivo software was used for data processing. Personnel of the surveillance service were found to have varied professional and educational backgrounds, with limited experience in the sanitary surveillance of drugstores, and insufficient technical training for the performance of the tasks assigned. Deficiencies of a managerial nature were detected in the service. Its operation is primarily focused on granting drugstore licenses, prioritizing attendance to spontaneous demand, thereby configuring a technological model of intervention based on sanitary inspection. The findings revealed a need for updating the service and the adoption of technologies to enhance control of risk, given that technological evolution provides drugs that are increasingly more potent, with a concomitant rise in levels risk. PMID:21655712

  13. A new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil (Serpentes: Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Hamdan, Breno

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the highlands of Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all currently recognized congeners by a unique combination of states of characters on coloration, scale counts, scale ornamentation, and hemipenis. The new species closely resembles Chironius flavolineatus (Jan, 1863) in color pattern, but differs from the later taxon by the presence of two to four posterior temporal scales; cloacal shield entire; six to ten rows of keeled dorsal scales at midbody; ventral scales with posterior dark edges forming conspicuous transverse bars along almost the entire venter; conspicuous dark longitudinal stripes (in "zigzag") in the midventral portion of subcaudals; region of medial constriction of hemipenis slightly covered with spinules separating calyces of apex from spines below region of constriction; and sulcus spermaticus situated on convex face of hemipenis in lateral view. The new species is apparently restricted to Chapada Diamantina, corroborating the biological importance of this region from a conservational perspective. PMID:25543653

  14. The occurrence of microdiamonds in Mesoproterozoic Chapada Diamantina intrusive rocks--Bahia/Brazil.

    PubMed

    Battilani, Gislaine A; Gomes, Newton S; Guerra, Wilson J

    2007-06-01

    The origin of diamonds from Serra do Espinhaço in Diamantina region (State of Minas Gerais) and in Chapada Diamantina, Lençóis region (State of Bahia) remains uncertain, even taking into account the ample research carried out during the last decades. The lack of typical satellite minerals in both districts makes a kimberlitic source for these diamonds uncertain. In mid 18th century the occurrence of a metamorphosed igneous rock composed of martite, sericite and tourmaline was described in Diamantina region and named hematitic phyllite, considered by some researchers as a possible diamond source. Similar rocks were found in Lençóis and examined petrographically and their heavy mineral concentration was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Petrographic analyses indicated an igneous origin for these rocks and SEM analyses showed the discovery of microdiamonds. Geochronological studies using the Ar/Ar technique in muscovites yielded minimum ages of 1515+/-3 Ma, which may correlate with 1710+/-12 Ma from U-Pb method in igneous zircons from the hematitic phyllites. Both rock types also have the same mineral and chemical composition which leads to the conclusion that the intrusive rocks were protolith of the hematitic phyllites. This first discovery of microdiamonds in intrusive rocks opens the possibility of new investigation models for diamond mineralization in Brazilian Proterozoic terrains. PMID:17625685

  15. Orthopedics nursing patients' profile of a public hospital in Salvador-Bahia

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Renata Reis Matutino; Ribeiro, Natália Fonseca; de Andrade, Aline Mendonça; Jaques, Bruno Dórea

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the profile of patients treated in the trauma and orthopedics nursing of a trauma care referral public hospital of in the state of Bahia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which data were collected from medical records of patients in the period from July to December 2008. RESULTS: The profile of the patients involved was formed by subjects mostly male young subjects, victims of trauma from accidents, especially those with motorcycles or car runover. On the other hand,the most frequent traumas associated with urban violence were perforations by gunshot and stab wounds. The primary injury presented by these individuals was exposed fracture of the femur and the most common treatment was external fixation. The most frequent in-hospital complication was wound infection, which required another surgical approach. Most inpatients were discharged and only one death was reported during this period. CONCLUSION: The results of this study corroborate those from other institutions in the country, which may contribute to elaborate public policies for accidents and violence prevention. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453666

  16. Pigment signatures associated with an anoxic coastal zone: Bahia Concepcion, Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Bustillos-Guzmán; López-Cortés; Hernandez; Murillo

    2000-06-01

    Bahia Concepcion is a coastal lagoon that has bottom anoxic conditions and high pigment concentrations during the summer. The phytoplankton responsible for this pigment increase is enigmatic, therefore we sampled the lagoon to analyze the pigment with a C8-HPLC system to look for signatures of phytoplankton groups. Analysis reveals a low pigment concentration in the mixed layer with a higher concentration of zeaxanthin and increasing values of chlorophyll a, peridinin, and fucoxanthin below, which peaked at the depth where oxygen dramatically decreases and H(2)S increases. Below this depth, a high pigmentation was recorded and the most important signatures were six chlorophyll-like pigments that eluted between the fucoxanthin and the chlorophyll a, and one carotenoid that eluted just after the chlorophyll a. Spectral characteristics of these last pigments are very similar to pigments present in the Chlorobiales group. These results suggest that cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates are responsible for the chlorophyll a increases, though in highly pigmented samples, anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are probably the main contributors to the increase in pigments. PMID:10817829

  17. Interflow, overland flow and leaching of natural nutrients on an Alfisol slope of southern Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Oliveira Leite, J.

    1985-09-01

    Two experimental plots for hydrologic studies, 3595 and 7060 m 2, were delimited on a slope of Alfisol planted with cacao in Bahia, Brazil. Volumes of overland flow and interflow were measured daily and samples of collected water were taken monthly for analysis of Ca, Mg, Na, K, N, P and Fe. The highest overland-flow volumes represented 24% and the highest interflow 53% of the rainfall but on the average the volumes of overland flow and interflow were found to represent 1 and 14% of the annual rainfall. The percentage of interflow increases with increasing rainfall. In winter, it is higher than in summer, except during the highest rains observed. The mean annual loss for calcium was 85.8 kg ha -1 yr -1; for magnesium 18.2; potassium 17.0; sodium 23.5; nitrogen 22.1; iron 5.5 and phosphorus 0.9. In relative terms, considering the chemical components of the soils, the K losses are highest, indicating that this element is most leachable. The interflow volumes and the amounts of Na, K, N and P correlated at the 1% significance level in both plots. A general conclusion is that the leaching of nutrients varied with the intensity of the interflow, especially for Na, K, N and P, the leaching of nutrients through overland flow being of less importance.

  18. [Regional distribution of violence: mortality from external causes in Salvador (Bahia), Brazil].

    PubMed

    Paim, J S; Costa, M da C; Mascarenhas, J C; da Silva, L M

    1999-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the geographic distribution of mortality resulting from external causes during 1991 within the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Mortality indicators were calculated in terms of deaths from external causes and in terms of specific types of violence. Of the deaths in that year, 15% were due to external causes, corresponding to a mortality rate of 78/100,000 inhabitants. The homicide death rate was 32.2/100,000 inhabitants, and the traffic-related death rate was 21.8/100,000 inhabitants. The elderly, young adults, and teenagers were at higher risk of death from violent causes. Among the elderly, 38% of the deaths were from car accidents and 28% from falls. Among teenagers, homicides were the main cause of death, especially in males between 15 and 29 years of age. Our results show that the geographic distribution of violent deaths in Salvador is uneven. Such deaths occur mainly in poorer neighborhoods, which have higher violent death rates than average for the city of Salvador. There is a need for prevention and control measures, including public policies and public health activities, focusing on the areas that have the greatest risk of death from external causes. PMID:10626474

  19. Mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) life-cycle test: Design comparisons and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lussier, S.M.; Champlin, D.; Kuhn, A.; Heltshe, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    This study examines ASTM Standard E1191-90, ``Standard Guide for Conducting Life-cycle Toxicity Tests with Saltwater Mysids,`` 1990, using Mysidopsis bahia, by comparing several test designs to assess growth, reproduction, and survival. The primary objective was to determine the most labor efficient and statistically powerful test design for the measurement of statistically detectable effects on biologically sensitive endpoints. Five different test designs were evaluated varying compartment size, number of organisms per compartment and sex ratio. Results showed that while paired organisms in the ASTM design had the highest rate of reproduction among designs tested, no individual design had greater statistical power to detect differences in reproductive effects. Reproduction was not statistically different between organisms paired in the ASTM design and those with randomized sex ratios using larger test compartments. These treatments had numerically higher reproductive success and lower within tank replicate variance than treatments using smaller compartments where organisms were randomized, or had a specific sex ratio. In this study, survival and growth were not statistically different among designs tested. Within tank replicate variability can be reduced by using many exposure compartments with pairs, or few compartments with many organisms in each. While this improves variance within replicate chambers, it does not strengthen the power of detection among treatments in the test. An increase in the number of true replicates (exposure chambers) to eight will have the effect of reducing the percent detectable difference by a factor of two.

  20. Morphology and dynamics of large subtidal dunes in Bahia Blanca estuary, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor Salvatierra, Marta; Aliotta, Salvador; Ginsberg, Silvia Susana

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to carry out a detailed analysis of subtidal dune morphology and temporal variability and to estimate dune migration rate to improve knowledge of this topic, and so enhance the existing data on different marine environments in the world and especially in South America where this information is limited. Two swath bathymetry surveys were conducted across a dune field in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina). Morphometric parameters and migration rate according to the dune type, were analyzed. The field is composed of large dunes exhibiting two morphological configurations, which are differentiated into sinuous and barchan dunes. The dunes studied are the largest of the estuary, with heights and wavelengths greater than 5 m and 130 m, respectively. The crests of the large dunes are arranged with an orientation perpendicular to the axis of the channel. From geometrical analysis of the parameters, the dunes show a weakly positive correlation between dune height and wavelength as too between dune height and water depth. No clear relationship was observed between maximum height and wavelength parameters with water depth. Across the estuary, the bedforms migrate in the ebb direction, with mean rate of 43 m year- 1. Comparison of our results with previous data shows that during three decades the western boundary of dune field has been displaced 900 m towards the outer estuary, however the dune field configuration and distribution of diverse types of bedform appear to be relatively stable.

  1. Seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in dogs in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Lavinsky, Manuella; Said, Roueda Abou; Strenzel, Gil Marcelo Reuss; Langoni, Helio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in dogs living in the urban area of the city of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to investigate 24 serovars. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to dog owners to collect data about demography, husbandry and environmental factors. The prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in the population of 282 dogs was 7.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.4-10.7%). Serovar Copenhageni was the most prevalent, followed by serovars Bratislava, Canicola and Gryppotyphosa. No risk factor was detected with regard to demography (age, gender and breed), husbandry (Leptospira vaccinations, food and water exposure through their environment, hunting habits, contact with other animals and contact with rats) and environmental factors (sewage network, garbage collection, history of flooding, river proximity and wastelands). Despite the low prevalence found in this study, the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in healthy dogs in Ilhéus indicates the presence of this agent in the environment, which may be a source of human infection. Knowledge of the serovars present in this environment is important for understanding the epidemiology of leptospirosis and establishing public health policies aimed at its control. PMID:22510215

  2. Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. Methods This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests. Results We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin’s principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form (“pássaro” in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species. Conclusions The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community. PMID:25012812

  3. Effects of the artificial sweetener sucralose on Daphnia magna and Americamysis bahia survival, growth and reproduction.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Huggett DB; Stoddard KI

    2011-10-01

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has been detected in municipal wastewater effluent and surface waters at concentrations ranging from ng/L to low μg/L. Few chronic ecotoxicological data are available in the peer reviewed literature with respect to sucralose. To address this data gap, 21 d Daphnia magna and 28 d Americamysis bahia (mysid shrimp) studies were conducted to assess the effects of sucralose on the survival, growth and reproduction of these organisms. Concentrations ⩽1800mg/L resulted in no statistically significant reduction in D. magna survival or reproduction. Survival, growth and reproduction of mysid shrimp were unaffected by ⩽93mg/L sucralose. The no observable effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for the D. magna study were 1800 and >1800mg/L, respectively. The NOEC and LOEC for the mysid study were 93 and >93mg/L, respectively. Collectively, these data suggest that the concentrations of sucralose detected in the environment are well below those required to elicit chronic effects in freshwater or marine invertebrates.

  4. Effects of the artificial sweetener sucralose on Daphnia magna and Americamysis bahia survival, growth and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Huggett, D B; Stoddard, K I

    2011-10-01

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has been detected in municipal wastewater effluent and surface waters at concentrations ranging from ng/L to low μg/L. Few chronic ecotoxicological data are available in the peer reviewed literature with respect to sucralose. To address this data gap, 21 d Daphnia magna and 28 d Americamysis bahia (mysid shrimp) studies were conducted to assess the effects of sucralose on the survival, growth and reproduction of these organisms. Concentrations ⩽1800mg/L resulted in no statistically significant reduction in D. magna survival or reproduction. Survival, growth and reproduction of mysid shrimp were unaffected by ⩽93mg/L sucralose. The no observable effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for the D. magna study were 1800 and >1800mg/L, respectively. The NOEC and LOEC for the mysid study were 93 and >93mg/L, respectively. Collectively, these data suggest that the concentrations of sucralose detected in the environment are well below those required to elicit chronic effects in freshwater or marine invertebrates. PMID:21742009

  5. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis associated with an outbreak in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, Maria Cecília O.; de Lemos, Ana Paula S.; Quaresma, Márcia; Vilasboas, Rita; Marques, Orgali; de Sá, Márcia U.; Ogassavara, Cinthya T.; Brandileone, Maria Cristina de C.; Harrison, Lee H.; Dias, Juarez

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize meningococcal strains isolated from five cases of meningococcal disease (MD) associated with an outbreak in Trancoso – BA, occurred in October 2009. All cases, with the exception of a 39-year-old male, attended a dance party with approximately 1000 youngsters in a rural site. Materials and methods The epidemiological investigation was conducted by the Epidemiological Surveillance Service of Bahia State. Meningococcal strains were characterized at Adolfo Lutz Institute, the Brazilian National Reference Laboratory for Bacterial Meningitis by conventional techniques (serotype, serosubtype and antimicrobial susceptibility test) and by molecular methods (Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis – PFGE and Multilocus Sequence Typing – MLST). Results The PFGE showed 2 closely related restriction profiles, designated as PFGE types A and A1, having 92% relatedness to each other. MLST characterization showed both A and A1 clones were ST-3780, which belongs to the ST-103 complex. All isolates displayed the phenotype C:23:P1.5 and were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Conclusions This is the first reported MD outbreak associated with serogroup C ST-103 complex in Brazil, as well as the party and illicit drug-use associated outbreak. PMID:22078548

  6. Transformations of Mangrove Forests in Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico: Two Decade Results Based on Landsat Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Babu, S.; Abdul Rahaman, S.; Muthushankar, G.; Jonathan, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mangrove forests which thrive along the tropical and subtropical regions are the most productive ecosystems in the world with a wide range of ecological and economical services to mankind. With the rapid urbanization across the globe, these forests tend to be destroying at an alarming rate. The area of concern for this study, Bahia Magdalena is very important for the economy of the state as nearly 50% of the artisan fisheries are established in the mangrove zone. Henceforth this study is an attempt for a regional assessment and to accurately quantify the mangroves using LANDSAT imageries for over two decades in Bahia Magdalena, Baja California. Satellite imageries from the year 1986 through 2014 were analysed to assess the prolonged changes taking place in and around the mangrove reserve. Using the estimates of land use/cover for all the years, the spatio - temporal data was validated using ArcGIS software. The results revealed that the spatial extent of mangroves are decreasing until 2005 due to the developmental plans such as tourism, shrimp farming and establishment of industries in this part of the country. During the past 10 years (~ after 2005) there is no much change in the area extent of mangrove reserves due to afforestation and conservation efforts. Thus the unbiased dataset generated may be widely used for an improved understanding of the role of mangrove forests in the socio economic aspects, protection from natural disasters, identify possible areas for conservation, restoration and rehabilitation; and improve estimates of the amount of carbon stored in mangrove vegetation and the associated marine environment. Keywords: Mangroves, LANDSAT, Bahia Magdalena, México.

  7. Occurrence of Prosthenorchis elegans in Free-living Primates from the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Catenacci, Lilian S; Colosio, Adriana C; Oliveira, Leonardo C; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel M; Munhoz, Alexandre D; Deem, Sharon L; Pinto, Jaqueline M S

    2016-04-28

    Parasite prevalence and abundance are important factors affecting species' conservation. During necropsies on a free-living golden-headed lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas ) and two Wied's marmosets ( Callithrix kuhlii ) in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil, we collected a large number of adult intestinal parasites that we identified as Prosthenorchis elegans. This parasite is pathogenic for neotropical primates. Prosthenorchis spp. infestation is influenced by diet with increased risk of exposure from ingesting invertebrate intermediate hosts. The biological similarities and sympatric nature of these two nonhuman primates support that they may harbor similar infectious and parasitic agents. PMID:26981688

  8. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. PMID:21710038

  9. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%. PMID:8701041

  10. New geological model of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites from Bahia (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Chaves, Alexandre

    2013-09-01

    New evidence supported by petrography (including mineral chemistry), lithogeochemistry, U-Pb geochronology by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and physicochemical study of fluid and melt inclusions by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry, point to an orogenic setting of Lagoa Real (Bahia-Brazil) involving uraniferous mineralization. Unlike the previous models in which uraniferous albitites represent Na-metasomatised 1.75 Ga anorogenic granitic rocks, it is understood here that they correspond to metamorphosed sodium-rich and quartz-free 1.9 Ga late-orogenic syenitic rocks (Na-metasyenites). These syenitic rocks are rich not only in albite, but also in U-rich titanite (source of uranium). The interpretation of geochemical data points to a petrogenetic connection between alkali-diorite (local amphibolite protolith) and sodic syenite by fractional crystallization through a transalkaline series. This magmatic differentiation occurred either before or during shear processes, which in turn led to albitite and amphibolite formation. The metamorphic reactions, which include intense recrystallization of magmatic minerals, led uraninite to precipitate at 1.87 Ga under Oxidation/Reduction control. A second population of uraninites was also generated by the reactivation of shear zones during the 0.6 Ga Brasiliano Orogeny. The geotectonic implications include the importance of the Orosirian event in the Paramirim Block during paleoproterozoic S?o Francisco Craton edification and the influence of the Brasiliano event in the Paramirim Block during the West-Gondwana assembly processes. The regional microcline-gneiss, whose protolith is a 2.0 Ga syn-collisional potassic granite, represents the albitite host rock. The microcilne-gneiss has no petrogenetic association to the syenite (albitite protolith) in magmatic evolutionary terms.

  11. New geological model of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites from Bahia (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Chaves, Alexandre

    2013-09-01

    New evidence supported by petrography (including mineral chemistry), lithogeochemistry, U-Pb geochronology by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and physicochemical study of fluid and melt inclusions by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry, point to an orogenic setting of Lagoa Real (Bahia-Brazil) involving uraniferous mineralization. Unlike the previous models in which uraniferous albitites represent Na-metasomatised 1.75 Ga anorogenic granitic rocks, it is understood here that they correspond to metamorphosed sodium-rich and quartz-free 1.9 Ga late-orogenic syenitic rocks (Na-metasyenites). These syenitic rocks are rich not only in albite, but also in U-rich titanite (source of uranium). The interpretation of geochemical data points to a petrogenetic connection between alkali-diorite (local amphibolite protolith) and sodic syenite by fractional crystallization through a transalkaline series. This magmatic differentiation occurred either before or during shear processes, which in turn led to albitite and amphibolite formation. The metamorphic reactions, which include intense recrystallization of magmatic minerals, led uraninite to precipitate at 1.87 Ga under Oxidation/Reduction control. A second population of uraninites was also generated by the reactivation of shear zones during the 0.6 Ga Brasiliano Orogeny. The geotectonic implications include the importance of the Orosirian event in the Paramirim Block during paleoproterozoic Săo Francisco Craton edification and the influence of the Brasiliano event in the Paramirim Block during the West-Gondwana assembly processes. The regional microcline-gneiss, whose protolith is a 2.0 Ga syn-collisional potassic granite, represents the albitite host rock. The microcilne-gneiss has no petrogenetic association to the syenite (albitite protolith) in magmatic evolutionary terms.

  12. Seroprevalence of HIV, HTLV-I/II and other perinatally-transmitted pathogens in Salvador, Bahia.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, J I; Lopes, M A; Deliège-Vasconcelos, E; Couto-Fernandez, J C; Patel, B N; Barreto, M L; Ferreira Júnior, O C; Galvão-Castro, B

    1995-01-01

    Generation of epidemiological data on perinatally-transmitted infections is a fundamental tool for the formulation of health policies. In Brazil, this information is scarce, particularly in Northeast, the poorest region of the country. In order to gain some insights of the problem we studied the seroprevalence of some perinatally-transmitted infections in 1,024 low income pregnant women in Salvador, Bahia. The prevalences were as follow: HIV-1 (0.10%), HTLV-I/II (0.88%), T.cruzi (2.34%). T.pallidum (3.91%), rubella virus (77.44%). T.gondii IgM (2.87%) and IgG (69.34%), HBs Ag (0.6%) and anti-HBs (7.62%). Rubella virus and T.gondii IgG antibodies were present in more than two thirds of pregnant women but antibodies against other pathogens were present at much lower rates. We found that the prevalence of HTLV-I/II was nine times higher than that found for HIV-1. In some cases such as T.cruzi and hepatitis B infection there was a decrease in the prevalence over the years. On the other hand, there was an increase in the seroprevalence of T.gondii infection. Our data strongly recommend mandatory screening tests for HTLV-I/II, T.gondii (IgM), T.pallidum and rubella virus in prenatal routine for pregnant women in Salvador. Screening test for T.cruzi, hepatitis and HIV-1 is recommended whenever risk factors associated with these infections are suspected. However in areas with high prevalence for these infections, the mandatory screening test in prenatal care should be considered. PMID:8599064

  13. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and <53 μm)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  14. Environmental flow in the River Ondas basin in Bahia, Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    de Souza Castro, Elis Regina Rodrigues; Moreira, Michel Castro; da Silva, Demetrius David

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to estimate the environmental flow of a water basin located in the Brazilian Cerrado using the bidimensional model River2D. The study was carried out in a stretch of the lower portion of the River Ondas in the western part of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To carry out the ecohydrological modeling, the following were used: topobathymetry, hydraulic characterization, the streamflows with the probability of non-exceedances (Q50, Q60, Q70, Q80, Q90, and Q95), and the Habitat Suitability Index for species of the genus Hypostomus. In the River2D, the weighted usable areas (WUAs) pertaining to the streamflows associated with different non-exceedances were simulated for the later construction of optimization and identification matrices of the streamflows that maximize the habitat area throughout the year. For juvenile Hypostomus, WUA increased as streamflow increased, with higher values associated with Q50. For adult specimens, lower WUA values were observed associated with Q50, while higher values were associated with Q95, which shows a preference for lower streamflows. The environmental flows found for the stretch of the River Ondas varied over the course of the year. The lowest environmental flows were observed in September (30.31 m(3) s(-1)) and October (29.98 m(3) s(-1)), while the highest were observed in February (44.22 m(3) s(-1)) and March (43.16 m(3) s(-1)). The environmental flow regime obtained restricts the water availability in the basin, for the purpose of water capture, which shows the importance of ecohydrological studies in forming a basis for water resource management actions. PMID:26718949

  15. Speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in sediment samples from So Paulo Estuary, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mario Marques; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Moreira, caro Thiago Andrade; de Oliveira, Olvia Maria Cordeiro; de Souza Queiroz, Antnio Fernando; Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes an extraction procedure for the speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in sediment samples using slurry sampling and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization step of extraction of the species was performed employing a full two-level factorial design (2(3)) and a Box-Behnken matrix where the studied factors in both experiments were: extraction temperature, ultrasonic radiation time, and hydrochloric acid concentration. Using the optimized conditions, antimony species can be extracted in closed system using a 6.0M hydrochloric acid solution at temperature of 70C and an ultrasonic radiation time of 20min. The determination of antimony is performed in presence of 2.0M hydrochloric acid solution using HG AAS by external calibration technique with limits of detection and quantification of 5.6 and 19.0ngL(-1) and a precision expressed as relative standard deviation of 5.6% for an antimony solution with concentration of 6.0?gL(-1). The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of two certified reference materials of sediments. For a sample mass of sediment of 0.20g, the limits of detection and quantification obtained were 0.70 and 2.34ngg(-1), respectively. During speciation analysis, antimony(III) is determined in presence of citrate, while total antimony is quantified after reduction of antimony(V) to antimony(III) using potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. The method was applied for analysis of six sediment samples collected in So Paulo Estuary (Bahia State, Brazil). The antimony contents obtained varied from 45.3 to 89.1ngg(-1) for total antimony and of 17.7 to 31.4ngg(-1) for antimony(III). These values are agreeing with other data reported by the literature for this element in uncontaminated sediment samples. PMID:25537284

  16. Bioassay guided purification of the antimicrobial fraction of a Brazilian propolis from Bahia state

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Myrella Lessio; Vilela, Walquíria Ribeiro; Zauli, Rogéria Cristina; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Foglio, Mary Ann; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2009-01-01

    Background Brazilian propolis type 6 (Atlantic forest, Bahia) is distinct from the other types of propolis especially due to absence of flavonoids and presence of other non-polar, long chain compounds, but presenting good in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity. Several authors have suggested that fatty acids found in this propolis might be responsible for its antimicrobial activity; however, so far no evidence concerning this finding has been reported in the literature. The goals of this study were to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the main pure fatty acids in the ethanolic extract and fractions and elucidate the chemical nature of the bioactive compounds isolated from Brazilian propolis type 6. Methods Brazilian propolis type 6 ethanolic extract (EEP), hexane fraction (H-Fr), major fatty acids, and isolated sub-fractions were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (HRGC-FID), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three sub-fractions of H-Fr were obtained through preparative HPLC. Antimicrobial activity of EEP, H-Fr, sub-fractions, and fatty acids were tested against Staphyloccus aureus ATCC 25923 and Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt 1600 using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Results EEP and H-Fr inhibited the growth of the microorganisms tested; nevertheless, no antimicrobial activity was found for the major fatty acids. The three sub-fractions (1, 2, and 3) were isolated from H-Fr by preparative HPLC and only sub-fraction 1 showed antimicrobial activity. Conclusion a) The major fatty acids tested were not responsible for the antimicrobial activity of propolis type 6; b) Sub-fraction 1, belonging to the benzophenone class, was responsible for the antimicrobial activity observed in the present study. The identification of the bioactive compound will improve the development of more efficient uses of this natural product. PMID:19643008

  17. Carbon storage in soil size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Ramachandran Nair, P K; Nair, Vimala D; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C; Baligar, Virupax C; Machado, Regina C R

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 microm, 250-53 microm, and <53 microm)-corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions-and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide. PMID:20069301

  18. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State. PMID:22449069

  19. Clinical and epidemiological profile of multiple sclerosis in a reference center in the State of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Eduardo; Fukuda, Thiago; Pereira, Júlio; Seixas, Jamile; Miranda, Rafael; Rodrigues, Bernardo; Saback, Thaís; Andrade, Renata; Cardoso, Grace; Martinez, Rosa; Avena, Juliane; Melo, Ailton

    2006-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, demyelinating and degenerative disease that affects the central nervous system. Its prevalence and clinical aspects vary according to the continent considered, being more frequent in Caucasians and young individuals aged 20 to 40 years. Epidemiological data from Brazil show that prevalence is variable, being more frequent in the Southern and Southeastern areas of the country, rather than in the Northern and Northeastern areas. The purpose of this paper is to describe MS clinical and epidemiological features in the State of Bahia, in the Brazilian Northeastern region. Thus, we held a cross-sectional study over the period from February to May, 2005, in the Multiple Sclerosis Patient Support Center ("Núcleo de Apoio aos Pacientes com Esclerose Múltipla") of Bahia, which included all patients with a diagnosis of MS seen over this period of time. A total of 121 patients were investigated, being 80.2% females (female:male ratio=4:1), with higher frequency in mulatto individuals (64%), and the relapsing-remitting type (91.3%). Most patients (68.7%) had mild MS, and blacks were prone to worse prognosis compared to other patients. PMID:17057875

  20. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

  1. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 2: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

  2. PROJECTED POPULATION-LEVEL EFFECTS OF THIOBENCARB EXPOSURE ON THE MYSID, AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA, AND EXTINCTION PROBABILITY IN A CONCENTRATION-DECAY EXPOSURE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory



    Population-level effects of the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to varying thiobencarb concentrations were estimated using stage-structured matrix models. A deterministic density-independent matrix model estimated the decrease in population growth rate, l, with increas...

  3. Geochemistry of contaminated komatiites from the Umburanas greenstone belt, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes Leal, Angela Beatriz de; Santos, André Luis Dias; Bastos Leal, Luiz Rogério; Cunha, José Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The late Archaean Umburanas greenstone belt (UGB) is located in the São Francisco Craton, southwest of Bahia State, Brazil. The lower unit of UGB comprises basal komatiite lavas and tholeiitic basalts intercalated with felsic volcanic rocks. The regional crystalline basement rocks, the Gavião block, predominantly consist of granitic, granodioritic and migmatitic gneiss along with tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) associations. Petrographic studies of UGB komatiites reveal characteristic spinifex igneous texture although primary mineralogy is rarely preserved. Based on textural relationships, komatiites are divided into cumulate, spinifex, and massive types. The MgO content varies in the range 31.5-40.4 wt%. The MgO-SiO2 negative correlation in komatiites suggests olivine fractionation trend. The UGB komatiites are of Al-undepleted type, characterized by Al2O3/TiO2 (21-48) ratio, enriched in highly incompatible LILE relative to moderately incompatible HFSE and distinct negative Nb, Sr and Eu anomalies. Also shows depletion of light rare earths, convex-downward rare earth patterns typically not observed in komatiites world-wide, and primitive mantle normalized Gd/Yb (1.03-1.23) and La/Sm (2.36-4.99) ratios. The negative Eu anomaly is attributed to the circulation of H2O-rich fluid, whereas the negative Nb and Sr anomalies are attributed to contamination from granitic basement rocks of the Gavião block. The UGB komatiites are most likely derived from adiabatic decompressional melting of a mantle plume. The melting took place at liquidus temperatures in the range 1572-1711 °C, which is consistent with mantle-plume origin invoked for several other komatiites in Archaean greenstone belts elsewhere. The melts were more likely generated at a depth shallower than 100 km (pressure < 2.5 GPa) where garnet was absent in the source mineralogy. Geochemical characteristics suggest contamination of primary melts with granitic basement rocks either during ascent of melt or during emplacement of magma in a continental basin setting. Greenschist to low-T amphibolite facies metamorphism at ˜2Ga may also have played a role in modifying the original komatiite petrography and composition.

  4. Prospección de hongos Entomophthorales para el control natural de insectos en Bahía, Brasil [Prospecting Entomophthoralean fungi for the natural control of insects in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on Entomophthorales fungi in southern Bahia State, Brazil, included enzootic and epizootic studies on the dynamics of entomophthoromycosis and their interrelations with insect populations of various insect orders, geographical distributions and incidence on crops, natural grasses and other ...

  5. [The political and administrative context of the implementation of Health Districts in the State of Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, C F; Paim, J S; Araújo, E C; Formigli, V L; Costa, H G

    1993-01-01

    This investigation was conducted in order to determine the political and administrative context prevailing during the implementation of health districts in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The documentary review includes laws, agreements, and contracts at the State and Federal levels from 1987 to 1989. This period corresponded to the first phase of the State government after the 1986 elections. Information was also obtained from key informants and former directors of the State Secretariat of Health at the central level. We describe how the policy for regionalization by territory and population was formulated, and we review both State and national planning procedures, identifying the events leading to the decision to create health districts. We list the political instruments related to this decision and analyze the positions of the various actors in the Brazilian Health System in relation to this strategic choice. Brief comments are given about the difficulties faced by this proposal during the period studied. PMID:15448856

  6. [Spatial distribution of traumatic brain injury cases seen at the trauma units of reference in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Maia, Helena Fraga; Dourado, Inês; Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Carvalho, Silvana Sá

    2014-08-01

    An exploratory study was performed with patients who suffered traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in the period from July 31, 2007 to August 1, 2008. The spatial distribution of the TBI cases seen at the trauma unit of reference in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil was analyzed. Both the residential addresses and places of occurrence were geocoded by means of GPS receiver devices. The spatial aggregation of cases was evaluated using the nearest neighbor hierarchical clustering technique in the CrimeStat® 3.2 program. TBI cases were not randomly distributed; rather, they formed clusters in relation to both place of residence and place of occurrence of the trauma. Many of the clusters were identified in areas far removed from the locations of emergency services as well as from the locations where multi-professional rehabilitation is offered. Thus, the spatial distribution of the health services, in relation to the places of occurrence of TBI, reveals inequalities. PMID:25237801

  7. Assessment of computer techniques for processing digital LANDSAT MSS data for lithological discrimination of Serra do Ramalho, State of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradella, W. R. (Principal Investigator); Vitorello, I.; Monteiro, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Enhancement techniques and thematic classifications were applied to the metasediments of Bambui Super Group (Upper Proterozoic) in the Region of Serra do Ramalho, SW of the state of Bahia. Linear contrast stretch, band-ratios with contrast stretch, and color-composites allow lithological discriminations. The effects of human activities and of vegetation cover mask and limit, in several ways, the lithological discrimination with digital MSS data. Principal component images and color composite of linear contrast stretch of these products, show lithological discrimination through tonal gradations. This set of products allows the delineations of several metasedimentary sequences to a level superior to reconnaissance mapping. Supervised (maximum likelihood classifier) and nonsupervised (K-Means classifier) classification of the limestone sequence, host to fluorite mineralization show satisfactory results.

  8. Diversity of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) and associated braconid parasitoids from native and exotic hosts in southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Janisete G; Dutra, Vivian S; Santos, Mirian S; Silva, Nívea M O; Vidal, Daniela B; Nink, Ricardo A; Guimarães, Jorge A; Araujo, Elton L

    2010-10-01

    We documented fruit fly-host associations and infestation rates over 5 yr in the state of Bahia, Brazil, by systematically collecting native and introduced fruits in backyard and commercial orchards, experimental stations, and patches of native vegetation. Fruit were collected in multiple sites in the southern and southernmost regions of Bahia. A total of 942.22 kg from 27 fruit species in 15 plant families was collected throughout this study. Of these, 15 plant species from six families were infested by Anastrepha species. A total of 11,614 fruit flies was reared from the fruit (5,178 females and 6,436 males). No specimens of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were recovered. Eleven Anastrepha species were recovered from the collected fruit: Anastrepha antunesi Lima (0.04%), Anastrepha distincta Greene (0.1%), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (53.5%), Anastrepha leptozona Hendel (4.5%), Anastrepha manihoti Lima (0.1%), Anastrepha montei Lima (1.0%), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (33.0%), Anastrepha pickeli Lima (2.0%), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (1.0%), Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (3.0%), and Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (1.8%). We recovered 1,265 parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Anastrepha pupae. Three species of braconids were found to parasitize larvae of nine Anastrepha species. The most common parasitoid species recovered was Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) (81.7%), followed by Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (12.2%) and Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) (6.1%). We report A. fraterculus infesting Malay apple Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry and A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, and A. zenildae infesting araza Eugenia stipitata McVaugh for the first time in Brazil. PMID:22546440

  9. Magnetic anomalies in Bahia Esperanza: A window of magmatic arc intrusions and glacier erosion over the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Ruiz-Constán, Ana; Pedrera, Antonio; Ghidella, Marta; Montes, Manuel; Nozal, Francisco; Rodríguez-Fernandez, Luis Roberto

    2013-02-01

    Bahia Esperanza, constituting the NE tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, is made up of Paleozoic clastic sedimentary rocks overlain by a Jurassic volcano-sedimentary series and intruded by Cretaceous gabbros and diorites. The area is located along the southern part of the Pacific Margin magnetic anomaly belt. Field magnetic researches during February 2010 contribute to determining the deep geometry of the intermediate and basic intrusive rocks. Moreover, the new field data help constrain the regional Pacific Margin Anomaly, characterized up to now only by aeromagnetic and marine data. Field magnetic susceptibility measurements of intrusive intermediate and basic rocks, responsible for magnetic anomalies, ranges from 0.5 × 10- 3 SI in diorites to values between 0.75 × 10- 3 SI and 1.3 × 10- 3 SI in gabbros. In addition, a significant remanent magnetism should also have contributed to the anomalies. The regional magnetic anomaly is characterized by a westward increase from 100 nT up to 750 nT, associated with large intrusive diorite bodies. They probably underlie most of the western slopes of Mount Flora. Gabbros in the Nobby Nunatak determine local residual rough anomalies that extend northwards and westwards, pointing to the irregular geometry of the top of the basic rocks bodies below the Pirámide Peak Glacier. However, the southern and eastern boundaries with the Buenos Aires Glacier are sharp related to deep glacier incision. As a result of the glacier dynamics, magnetic anomalies are also detected north of the Nobby Nunatak due to the extension of the anomalous body and the presence of gabbro blocks in the moraines. The Bahia Esperanza region is a key area where onshore field geological and magnetic research allows us to constrain the shape of the crustal igneous intrusions and the basement glacier geometry, providing accurate data that complete regional aeromagnetic research.

  10. Clinical and laboratory profile of HIV-positive patients at the moment of diagnosis in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sá, Márcia Sampaio; Sampaio, Julio; Haguihara, Thiago; Ventin, Fernando Oak; Brites, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    In Brazil, current trends of the AIDS epidemic include an increase in transmission through heterosexual contact, predominantly from men to women, with more cases of AIDS in women and more children contaminated by vertical transmission. There is also a high proportion of cases in poor people or people living in small towns. HIV-infected patients with high levels of immunodeficiency are frequently hospitalized after their first visit to the clinic due to opportunistic infections, characteristic of advanced disease. This study characterized the clinical and laboratory pattern of AIDS in a sample of patients attended for the first time in the AIDS clinic of the Federal University of Bahia Hospital (HUPES) in Salvador, Brazil. We revised medical charts of cases of subjects registered at the outpatient AIDS clinic from January 1997 to December 2003. The demographics, clinical data, and laboratory characteristics were analyzed to determine the degree of immunodeficiency at the time of admission. A total of 377 patients were evaluated (58.6% were male, with a mean sample age of 33.4 years). The most frequent clinical manifestations were asthenia, weight loss, fever, anemia, dermatitis, oral thrush and diarrhea. CDC criteria were not adequate to define the initial cases. After admission to the outpatient clinic, nearly 25% of the patients were hospitalized immediately, indicating delay in the diagnosis. In Bahia, the initial presentation of HIV-infected patients to health care assistance is occurring at a late stage of the disease, when signs and symptoms of immunodeficiency are already established. Efforts are necessary to construct strategies to make an early diagnosis of these patients, improve the quality of care, and guarantee the benefits of antiretroviral therapy, when it is indicated. PMID:17873991

  11. Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

  12. Hydrography of Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California: Results of more than twenty five years of investigations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Serrano, H.; Canino-Herrera, S. R.; Morales-Chavez, R.; Martinez-Garcia, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The first study of Bahia Todos Santos (BTS) was reported by Walton in 1955. We conducted oceanographic studies in BTS since 1979. The BTS has a connection with a coastal lagoon named Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), two islands at the western portion and the Port of Ensenada. The general hydrographic characteristics are: In winter the water became homogeneous, less saline (<33.4) and with low stability. During spring and summer a hydrographic structure of three layers is noticed. The deepest layer is composed of the southern California water mass with a relatively high salinity (>33.6) low temperature (13°C), low oxygen (~3mL L-1) and rich in nutrient concentration. The isothermal top layer has relatively high temperature (>17°C) and oxygen concentration (>6mL L-1). The intermediate transition layer (seasonal thermocline) has minimum salinity, maximum oxygen and high stability. During fall there is distribution of heat from the surface layer to the entire water column. The thermic waves propagate with decrease amplitude in ~3 months, from surface to bottom water. The California Current flow generally southward off the western United States and northern Mexico and is one of the major coastal upwelling of the word oceans. The upwelling events in BTS appear regularly at the SW portion and were typically characterized by an increase in pCO2, decrease of O2, increase of nutrients and a lower temperature. Upwelling activity increases surface nutrient availability causing rise in the primary productivity and hence increased zooplankton biomass. The annual upwelling event which had a maximum strength on May, the seasonal warming and cooling, and the water advection were the dominant modifying processes for the variability of seawater characteristics. Higher salinities are located close to the coastline and lower off the bay. The levels of oxygen, alkalinity, pH and chlorophyll indicate that the maximum concentration of phytoplankton is located at the center of the bay. The nitrification support the primary productivity and the NO3 levels were below detection limits; the N/P ratio in 2005 was from 10 to 25; and for 2006 was below 5. There is a net enrichment of anthropogenic nutrients at BTS. The heavy metals and pesticides studies started since the early 80's with problems still to solve for Tl, Cd. There is a net Pb enrichment and higher Cr concentrations at the NE of the bay. The EPB is a wetland ~7 Km. long located at the SE part of the BTS. The EPB is a net source of DIP (deltaDIP = +0.13 mmol m-2 day-1), that brings agricultural runoff to the BTS. It is typically a hypersaline system during summer and a net heterotrophic (p-r = -14 mmol m-2 day-1), and a net denitrifying (nfix-denit = -2.1 mmol m-2 day-1) system. Some anomalies were in 2005 the presence of a huge red tide observed inside BTS (about 50% of the bay) that last for more than six months, this HAB's has killed many fishes (anoxia) and marine mammals. The hydrographic conditions during the red tide were, temperature anomalies higher than 2°C above normal; high nutrient concentration above the normal. In 2006 the values were normal again. The Port of Ensenada, increased in size and activities (tourism, transportation, coastguards for national security, cement industry, research) these developments generate some management problems, like the beach and coastline modification. The aground of the APL Panama, activates the management agencies to prevent and control pollution.

  13. Atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of particulate trace metals in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de P. Pereira, Pedro A.; Lopes, Wilson A.; Carvalho, Luiz S.; da Rocha, Gisele O.; de Carvalho Bahia, Nei; Loyola, Josiane; Quiterio, Simone L.; Escaleira, Viviane; Arbilla, Graciela; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Respiratory system is the major route of entry for airborne particulates, being the effect on the human organism dependent on chemical composition of the particles, exposure time and individual susceptibility. Airborne particulate trace metals are considered to represent a health hazard since they may be absorbed into human lung tissues during breathing. Fossil fuel and wood combustion, as well as waste incineration and industrial processes, are the main anthropic sources of metals to the atmosphere. In urban areas, vehicular emissions—and dust resuspension associated to road traffic—become the most important manmade source. This work investigated the atmospheric concentrations of TSP, PM 10 and elements such as iron, manganese, copper and zinc, from three different sites around Salvador Region (Bahia, Brazil), namely: (i) Lapa Bus Station, strongly impacted by heavy-duty diesel vehicles; (ii) Aratu harbor, impacted by an intense movement of goods, including metal ores and concentrates and near industrial centers and; (iii) Bananeira Village located on Maré Island, a non-vehicle-influenced site, with activities such as handcraft work and fishery, although placed near the port. Results have pointed out that TSP concentrations ranged between 16.9 (Bananeira) and 354.0 μg m -3 (Aratu#1), while for PM 10 they ranged between 30.9 and 393.0 μg m -3, both in the Lapa Bus Station. Iron was the major element in both Lapa Station and Aratu (#1 and #2), with average concentrations in the PM 10 samples of 148.9, 79.6 and 205.0 ng m -3, respectively. Zinc, on the other hand, was predominant in samples from Bananeira, with an average concentration of 145.0 ng m -3 in TSP samples, since no PM 10 sample was taken from this site. The main sources of iron in the Lapa Station and Aratu harbor were, respectively, soil resuspension by buses and discharge of solid granaries, as fertilizers and metal ores. On the other hand, zinc and copper in the bus station were mainly from anthropic contributions, probably heavy-duty vehicle ageing and wearing actions releasing off Zn from tires and Cu from brake linings. In the Aratu harbor, the high copper concentrations found were probably due to the port's activities, as discharges of copper concentrate on its terminal, although other sources could be possible, as burning of diesel fuel on ships and heavy oil in heaters. Finally, the Bananeira site has been presented as a different profile, since this remote site has shown zinc as the most abundant element, demonstrating to have an unexpected anthropic contribution. On a mass-to-mass basis, both zinc and manganese were in high levels in the Bananeira site and their presence strongly suggest the impact of other sources, such as the Industrial Center of Aratu and/or a siderurgy plant, not far away from that location.

  14. [Management policy-making for work and education in health: the case of the Bahia State Health Department, Brazil, 2007-2008].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Isabela Cardoso de Matos; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes

    2011-09-01

    The construction of Brazil's Unified National Health System (SUS) has raised a set of challenges for the health sector's administrators and personnel, including issues of work management and continuing education for health workers, in view of the financial, political, and organizational constraints in the process of changing the healthcare model. The current study aimed to analyze the process of formulating the Health Work and Education Management Policy by the Bahia State Health Department. Public policy cycle was used as the theoretical framework. The study analyzed data from institutional documents and records of participant observation by one of the authors. The results include mapping the governmental and nongovernmental stakeholders that participated in the process. The analysis highlights a series of problems in the SUS in Bahia related to work management and health workers' profile, taken as the point of departure for priority-setting in the State Strategic Agenda and Health Plan for 2008-2011. PMID:21986605

  15. Pathogenicity of Nc-Bahia and Nc-1 strains of Neospora caninum in experimentally infected cows and buffaloes in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chryssafidis, Andreas Lazaros; Cantón, Germán; Chianini, Francesca; Innes, Elisabeth A; Madureira, Ed Hoffmann; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2014-04-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite known as an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Little is currently known about how different strains of N. caninum vary in their pathogenicity. In this study, we compared a Brazilian strain, Nc-Bahia, with the first isolate of this coccidian, Nc-1. Eight cows and seven buffaloes were submitted to fixed-time artificial insemination protocols for a better control of pregnancy. Group 1 was inoculated with Nc-Bahia (n = 8; five cows and three buffaloes), and Group 2 was inoculated with Nc-1 (n = 5; two cows and three buffaloes). One nonpregnant female of each species was left uninfected as sentinel controls for potential environmental infection. All inoculated animals received 5 × 10(8) tachyzoites of N. caninum, by intravenous route, on the 70th day of gestation. Uninfected animals remained seronegative throughout the experiment, indicating no exogenous infection, whereas all inoculated animals became seropositive to N. caninum. In Group 1, abortion was found in only one cow on 42 days postinfection (dpi; frequency of abortion = 12.5%), whilst all animals from Group 2 aborted on 35 dpi (frequency of abortion = 100%). Parasite DNA was detected by seminested PCR in maternal, foetal and placental tissues, confirming vertical transmission in Groups 1 and 2, although histological lesions had different frequencies and degrees of severity between the groups. There was evidence of lower pathogenicity of Nc-Bahia compared to Nc-1 when used in experimental infection, as it caused fewer abortions, as well as less frequent and milder histological lesions. This was the first time Nc-Bahia has been used for experimental infection. PMID:24562816

  16. HTLV-1 in pregnant women from the Southern Bahia, Brazil: a neglected condition despite the high prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As the most frequent pathway of vertical transmission of HTLV-1 is breast-feeding, and considering the higher prevalence in women, it is very important to perform screening examinations for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies as part of routine prenatal care. So far, no studies of HTLV-1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in the Southern region of Bahia, Brazil, have been described. Methods Pregnant women were selected at the two regional reference centers for health care from Southern Bahia. A total of 2766 pregnant women attending the antenatal unit between November 2008 and May 2010 have been analyzed. An extra blood sample was drawn during their routine antenatal testing. A standardized questionnaire was applied and all positive plasma samples were tested by ELISA and were confirmed by Western Blot and PCR. Besides that, positive women were contacted and visited. The family members that were present during the visit were asked to be serologically screened to the virus. A prospective study was also carried out and newborns were followed up to two years for evaluation of vertical transmission. Results HTLV prevalence was 1.05% (CI 95%: 0.70-1.50). There was no association of HTLV-1 infection with age, education, income and ethnic differences. The association with marital status was borderline (OR = 7.99; 95% CI 1.07-59.3; p = 0.042). In addition, 43 family members of the HTLV-1 seropositive women have been analyzed and specific reactivity was observed in 32.56%, including two children from previous pregnancy. Conclusion: It is very important to emphasize that the lack of HTLV-1 screening in pregnant women can promote HTLV transmission especially in endemic areas. HTLV screening in this vulnerable population and the promotion of bottle-feeding for children of seropositive mothers could be important cost-effective methods to limit the vertical transmission. Besides that, our data reinforce the need to establish strategies of active surveillance in household and family contacts as important epidemiological surveillance actions for the early detection of virus infection and the prevention of transmission by sexual or and parenteral contact. PMID:24524416

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw meats and prepared foods in public hospitals in salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Wellington Luis Reis; Ferreira, Jeane dos Santos; Carvalho, Joelza Silva; Cerqueira, Ellayne Souza; Oliveira, Lucimara Cardoso; Almeida, Rogeria Comastri de Castro

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw meat and fish and foods prepared from them for patient consumption in public hospitals in Salvador, Bahia, in northeastern Brazil. A total of 114 samples of raw meat and fish (chicken, n = 30; beef, n = 30; pork, n = 24; and fish, n = 30) and 63 samples of prepared foods (made with chicken, n = 15; beef, n = 15; pork, n = 15; and fish, n = 18) were collected from the kitchens of 10 different hospitals. Of the 114 investigated raw meat and fish samples, 28.1% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 23.3% beef, 23.3% chicken, 37.5% pork, and 30% fish samples. Of the prepared foods, 9.5% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 5.6% chicken products, 6.7% pork products, and 22.2% fish products. MRSA contamination was not detected in prepared beef dishes. A statistical analysis showed no association between the presence of MRSA and the type of raw food (P > 0.05). The high prevalence of MRSA among the raw foods tested and the presence of the microorganism in prepared foods emphasizes the necessity of enforcing hygienic practices within hospital kitchens. PMID:25472504

  18. Frequency of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Iris Daniela Santos de; Andrade, Müller Ribeiro; Uzêda, Rosângela Soares; Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Lindsay, David Scott; Gondim, Luís Fernando Pita

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris) are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the parasite. A total of 272 feline serum samples (134 from feral and 138 from house cats) were subjected to an indirect fluorescent antibody test using cultured merozoites of S. neurona as antigen. Positivity was detected in 4.0% (11/272) of the tested samples, with titers ranging from 25 to 800. The feline sera were also tested for antibodies against the protozoan Neospora caninum, with an observed antibody frequency of 2.9%. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to report antibodies against S. neurona in Brazilian cats. We conclude that cats are exposed to the parasite in the region of this study. Further investigations are needed to confirm the role of cats in the transmission cycle of S. neurona in Brazil. PMID:25517534

  19. [Domains of physical activity in slave-descendant communities in Southwest Bahia State, Brazil: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Csar, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors in various domains (leisure-time, work, home, and commuting) among quilombolas (descendants of African slaves) in Bahia State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study of 797 individuals from 18 to 100 years of age. The study adopted a cutoff point of 150 minutes of PA per week. A hierarchical Poisson model was used. The highest prevalence of PA was at work (42.1%), followed by the home environment (39.3%), commuting (35.5%), and leisure time (13.1%). PA at work was associated with male gender, lower age, higher schooling, and consumption of alcohol and fruits. PA in the household domain was associated with female gender, lower age, marital status (married), and negative self-rated health. In commuting, PA was associated with male gender and lower age bracket, and during leisure time with safety, male gender, lower age, and higher schooling. The study concludes that this slave-descendant community displays a profile of PA that is characteristic of rural groups (more active at work, with little leisure-time activity). The determinants of PA were similar to those seen in urban groups. PMID:26200369

  20. Prevalence and risk factors associated with anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sheep from Bahia state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Luciana Afonso; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Rocha, Daniele de Santana; Albuquerque, George Rêgo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and identify risk factors associated with this infection in sheep from the southern region of Bahia state. Between February and December 2010, 795 sheep from 31 farms located in nine municipalities were tested. We found seroprevalence of 30.2% (240/795), with titers of 64 (38.3%), 256 (34.2%), 1,024 (18.3%), and 4,096 (9.2%) by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT). Seropositive sheep were detected in all farms sampled. Univariate statistical analysis detected association between T. gondii seropositivity and the variables age, use of fresh food mainly, water source, stocking rate, production system, presence and number of cats on the farm, and transit of cats (p < 0.05). In the logistic regression model, transit of cats (p = 0.001), production system (p = 0.007), and age (p = 0.027) were identified as risk factors associated with T. gondii infection. PMID:23856729

  1. Fungal communities in gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes in forest and cabruca agrosystems of southern Bahia State (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Reis, Bárbara Monique dos Santos; Silva, Aline; Alvarez, Martín Roberto; Oliveira, Tássio Brito de; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-12-01

    Leaf-cutting ants interact with several fungi in addition to the fungal symbiont they cultivate for food. Here, we assessed alien fungal communities in colonies of Atta cephalotes. Fungus garden fragments were sampled from colonies in the Atlantic Rainforest and in a cabruca agrosystem in the state of Bahia (Brazil) in two distinct periods to evaluate whether differences in nest habitat influence the diversity of fungi in the ant colonies. We recovered a total of 403 alien fungi isolates from 628 garden fragments. The prevalent taxa found in these samples were Escovopsis sp. (26 %), Escovopsioides nivea (24 %), and Trichoderma spirale (10.9 %). Fungal diversity was similar between the colonies sampled in both areas suggesting that ants focus on reducing loads of alien fungi in the fungus gardens instead of avoiding specific fungi. However, fungal taxa composition differed between colonies sampled in the two areas and between the sampling periods. These differences are likely explained by the availability of plant substrates available for foraging over habitats and periods. Ordination analysis further supported that sampling period was the main attribute for community structuring but also revealed that additional factors may explain the structuring of fungal communities in colonies of A. cephalotes. PMID:26615740

  2. Bird-spiders (Arachnida, Mygalomorphae) as perceived by the inhabitants of the village of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Eraldo M Costa

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the conceptions, knowledge and attitudes of the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, on mygalomorph spiders locally known as 'caranguejeiras' (bird-spiders). It is launched here a new filed within ethnozoology: ethnoarachnology, which is defined as the transdisciplinary study of the relationships between human beings and bird-spiders. Data were collected from February to June 2005 by means of open-ended interviews carried out with 30 individuals, which ages ranged from 13 to 86 years old. It was recorded some traditional knowledge regarding the following items: taxonomy, biology, habitat, ecology, seasonality, and behavior. Results show that bird-spiders are classified as "insects". The most commented aspect of the interaction between bird-spiders and inhabitants of Pedra Branca is related to their dangerousness, since they said these spiders are very venomous and can cause health problems. In general, the traditional zoological knowledge of Pedra Branca's inhabitants concerning these spiders is coherent with the academic knowledge. PMID:17101055

  3. Influence of Tropical Cyclones Period 1970 TO 2010 IN the Region of Bahia de Banderas, Nayarit-Jalisco Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluates the impacts of tropical cyclones (TC) that made landfall in populated areas along the Pacific coast of Mexico, especially in the region of Bahia de Banderas. During the period of 1970-2010 and used a database of international natural disasters to identify impacts. Were more than 13 events during the reporting period, of which 10 are examined more precipitation accumulated and 6 that caused further damage to the affected population in these cases ranged from 5000 to more than 15 000 inhabitants. Strong winds and heavy rainfall in periods of one to three days were associated with property damage and loss of life. The results of the study indicate that excessive accumulations of rain and daily intensity are important factors connected with the occurrence of disasters in densely populated areas. Six of the first 10 Tropical Cyclone associated with major disasters occurred in conditions of El Niño and four neutral conditions. With the analysis of satellite images using GOES-10 in the IDV software maps were obtained in the coastal impacts of Banderas Bay and describes the main features of each meteorological phenomena. In which concludes that no tropical cyclone entered directly to the Banderas Bay region, but its effects were very relevant, taking into account the topography, land use change and the vulnerability of the region. Tropical Cyclones that have affected the region of Bay of Banderas

  4. Baseline trace elements in the seagrass Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Geysa B; de Souza, Thaís L; do N Costa, Fernanda; Moura, Carlos W N; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2016-03-15

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were found in samples of Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) seagrass from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This bay has been impacted by the presence of industrial activity that includes chemical and petrochemical plants as well as an oil refinery and harbor activities located in the north and northeastern area. Samples were collected at 4 stations to evaluate the distribution of element concentrations in this area and under different climatic conditions. The mean concentrations, in mgkg(-1), found in dry tissues for all the studied metals and stations were: As (1.08-5.42), Ba (3.72-32.0), Cd (0.135-1.68), Cr (1.15-10.4), Cu (2.23-13.4), Ni (1.95-9.87), Pb (0.873-5.18), V (3.39-22.4) and Zn (13.1-39.5). Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the seagrass data showed significant inter-site differences for all elements examined except nickel and vanadium. PMID:26874749

  5. [Nutritional deficit in children in a major city of the interior of the state of Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Gilmar Mercês; Castelão, Elizia Simões; Vieira, Tatiana de Oliveira; Gomes, Daiene Rosa; Vieira, Graciete Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    The study sought to analyze the nutritional deficit of children and associated environmental factors and maternal and infant characteristics in a major city in the interior of the state of Bahia. Information from mother/child-under-four duos of a birth cohort was assessed. Malnutrition was defined by the height-for-age (H/A) anthropometric index, at a cutoff of -1 z-score relative to the benchmark of the 2006 Multicentre Growth Reference Study. The variables studied were: the characteristics of children (birth weight and multiple births) and mothers (age at the time of birth, education level, parity and performing prenatal exams) and environmental factors (floor and roof material of residence, source of water consumed, indoor plumbing, water used for consumption and ownership of a refrigerator). Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with nutritional deficit. Nutritional deficit occurred in 24.6% of children. Underweight at birth, inadequate prenatal care, precarious nature of the floor of the home and no indoor plumbing were predictors of malnutrition among children in the study. Factors associated with malnutrition confirm the contribution of social issues in the genesis of malnutrition. PMID:24897223

  6. Cost-Effective Control of Plant Disease When Epidemiological Knowledge Is Incomplete: Modelling Bahia Bark Scaling of Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Franco M.; DeSimone, R. Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify—the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule—are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

  7. Climate Patterns Governing the Presence and Permanence of Salmonellae in Coastal Areas of Bahia de Todos Santos, Mexico▿

    PubMed Central

    Simental, Lourdes; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Despite the importance of salmonellae as one of the major causes of food-borne infections worldwide, data regarding the presence of these organisms in the environment are limited. We investigated the presence of Salmonella spp. in Bahia de Todos Santos (Baja California, Mexico) and evaluated the environmental factors that affect the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in this arid region. A total of 1,331 samples collected from 21 sites along the coast during a period of 3 years were analyzed for Salmonella spp. Geographical and seasonal distribution of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in association with environmental parameters and with human infections in the area. The incidence of Salmonella bacteria throughout the study was 4.8%, with the highest incidence detected in wastewater (16.2%), followed by stream water (10.6%), mollusks (7.4%), and seawater (2.3%). Twenty different serotypes were identified among the 64 Salmonella isolates. The dominant serotype was Typhimurium (23.4%), followed by Vejle (6.2%). The presence of Salmonella spp. in coastal areas was mostly confined to rainy periods and areas of stream discharges, and runoff was identified as the predominant factor influencing the transport of Salmonella bacteria from source points to the sea via streams. Isolation of Salmonella spp. was negatively and significantly associated with temperature, probably because of the effect of solar radiation in the decline of permanence of Salmonella bacteria. Conversely, human infections prevailed during the warmest months and were negatively correlated with the presence of Salmonella spp. in the marine environment. PMID:18708509

  8. Cost-effective control of plant disease when epidemiological knowledge is incomplete: modelling Bahia bark scaling of citrus.

    PubMed

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Laranjeira, Francisco F; Neri, Franco M; DeSimone, R Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2014-08-01

    A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify-the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule-are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

  9. Genetic diversity and structure in natural populations of Maytenus truncata Reiss, 1861, a medicinal plant vulnerable to extractivism in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simplicio, R R; Waldschmidt, A M; Amorim, M B; Almeida, B S; Pereira, D G

    2015-01-01

    Maytenus truncata (Celastraceae) is a plant species widely used in the treatment of ulcers and tumors. Despite the intensive harvest of native specimens in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, there is no information about the genetic variability or structure of this species. Therefore, the goal of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity and population structure of M. truncata based on inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. The samples comprised specimens from Jequié, Contendas do Sincorá, Boa Nova, and Boa Vista do Tupim in the State of Bahia. After selection of eight ISSR primers, the percentage of polymorphic loci was equal to 96.2% and genetic diversity was 0.3581. The Mantel test revealed positive correlation among genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.5462), but it was not significant (r ≥ 0, P = 0.8365). Even though AMOVA revealed that most variation was found within populations (68%), a high structuring was detected among them (ΦST = 0.31, P < 0.001). Both UPGMA and Bayesian analyses indicated that gene flow was higher between Jequié and Contendas do Sincorá, whereas samples from Boa Nova and Boa Vista do Tupim were more isolated. This result is likely because of the population decrease and restriction to gene flow associated with intensive extractivism of populations of this species. PMID:26782471

  10. Sarcocystis spp. in sheep and goats: frequency of infection and species identification by morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular tests in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Meneses, Iris Daniela S; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; de Jesus, Rogério Fernando; de Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro; Gondim, Luís F Pita

    2016-04-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are cyst-forming coccidia that infect numerous animals species, including several livestock species. Despite the importance of sheep and goat production in Brazil, little it is known about the Sarcocystis species that infect small ruminants in the country and their potential impact on meat condemnation due to the presence of macroscopic cysts of the parasite. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of infection by Sarcocystis spp. in goats and sheep intended for human consumption in Bahia State, Brazil, as well as to identify the parasite species in selected samples. The entire tongue, esophagus, and heart were collected from 120 goats and 120 sheep. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis spp. by macroscopic evaluation, light microscopy, electron microscopy, and molecular tests. Microscopic cysts of Sarcocystis spp. were detected in 95.8 % of sheep and 91.6 % of goats. Using either transmission electron microscopy or partial sequencing of the 18S region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for species identification, Sarcocystis tenella and Sarcocystis arieticanis were observed in sheep and Sarcocystis capracanis in goats. Macroscopic cysts were not detected in the analyzed samples. We concluded that goats and sheep destined for human consumption in Bahia possess high frequencies of Sarcocystis infection. Carcass condemnation due to Sarcocystis macrocysts seems to be rare in the studied region. S. arieticanis and S. capracanis were confirmed for the first time by electron microscopy or by molecular tests in small ruminants from Brazil. PMID:26786832

  11. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nemésio, A

    2013-05-01

    The orchid-bee faunas of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants ranging from 1 to 300 ha in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, were surveyed. Baits with seventeen different scents were used to attract orchid-bee males. Four thousand seven hundred and sixty-four males belonging to 36 species were actively collected with insect nets during 300 hours from November, 2008 to November, 2009. Richness and diversity of orchid bees found in this study are the highest ever recorded in the Atlantic Forest domain. Eufriesea dentilabris (Mocsáry, 1897) and Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840) were collected at the 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', the first record of these species for the state of Bahia and the northernmost record for both species. Females Exaerete dentata (Linnaeus, 1758) were also collected at 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal' and old records of Eufriesea aeneiventris (Mocsáry, 1896) in this area makes this site the richest and most diverse concerning its orchid-bee fauna in the entire Atlantic Forest and similar to areas in the Amazon Basin. PMID:23917575

  12. Triatominae Survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the South-Central Region of the State of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Vagner José; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Júlio C. R. Ferreira; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, JoãoAristeu

    2015-01-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macaúbas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macaúbas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macaúbas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population. PMID:25802433

  13. Triatominae survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Mendona, Vagner Jos; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Jlio C R Ferreira; de Arajo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, Joo Aristeu

    2015-05-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macabas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macabas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macabas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population. PMID:25802433

  14. The -308bp TNF gene polymorphism influences tumor necrosis factor expression in leprosy patients in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joyce Moura; Rêgo, Jamile Leão; de Lima Santana, Nadja; Braz, Marcos; Jamieson, Sarra E; Vieira, Thaillamar Silva; Magalhães, Thaís Lamêgo; Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Castellucci, Léa C

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a debilitating chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, with high incidence and prevalence in Brazil. The -308bp G/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1800629) in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene promoter is a proposed risk factor for leprosy. In Brazil, Northern India, Egypt and Nepal, the common G allele was associated with leprosy. In Eastern India, Thailand and Malawi the minor A allele was the risk factor. Allele A was previously associated with high TNF. We genotyped rs1800629 in 326 leprosy cases from Bahia State, Brazil, including 72 paucibacillary (PB) and 47 multibacillary (MB) without reactions, and 69 reversal reaction (RR) and 78 erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) with reactions. Logistic regression was used to compare patient groups with 331 healthy controls. Relative TNF mRNA was determined in peripheral blood leukocytes by QRTPCR, and serum TNF levels measured by ELISA. We found that TNF mRNA expression was higher (P=0.03) in leprosy patients compared to endemic controls, but did not differ significantly between clinical subgroups. Carriage of the minor A allele was associated (P=0.003) with low TNF mRNA across leprosy patients. Nevertheless, we found no evidence for either allele at this SNP as a risk factor for leprosy per se (OR=1.12, 95% CI 0.79-1.60, P=0.52), PB (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.54-1.81, P=0.97), MB (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.40-1.83, P=0.70), RR (OR=1.37, 95% CI 0.79-2.38, P=0.27) or ENL (OR=0.76, 95% CI 0.40-1.45, P=0.42) when compared to endemic controls. Further studies are required to determine whether the influence of the minor A allele on TNF mRNA levels determines response to treatment, particularly in the context of ENL reaction treatment with anti-TNF therapies and RR reactions where treatment with prednisolone is known to reduce TNF levels. Our findings contribute to understanding TNF as an important determinant of leprosy immunopathology in Brazil. PMID:26829382

  15. “Shark is the man!”: ethnoknowledge of Brazil’s South Bahia fishermen regarding shark behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fishermen’s knowledge is a source of indispensable information in decision-making processes related to efforts to stimulate the management and conservation of fishing resources, especially in developing countries. This study analyzed the knowledge of fishermen from three municipal areas of Bahia in northeast Brazil regarding the behavior repertoire of sharks and the possible influence that these perceptions may have on the inclination to preserve these animals. This is a pioneering study on the ethnobiological aspects of elasmobranchs in Brazil. Methods Open, semi-structured interviews with shark fishing specialists were conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The interviews addressed the fishermen’s profile, fishing techniques and knowledge about sharks, focusing on the behaviours exhibited by sharks. The data were analysed with quantitative approach and conducted with the use of descriptive statistical techniques. Results Sixty-five fishermen were interviewed. They descend from the rafting subculture of Brazil’s northeast, which has historically been disregarded by public policies addressing the management and conservation of fishing resources. The fishing fleet involved in shark fishing includes rafts, fishing boats and lobster boats equipped with fishing lines, gillnets, longlines and “esperas”. The informers classified sharks’ behaviour repertoire into 19 ethological categories, related especially to feeding, reproduction, and social and migratory behaviours. Because they identify sharks as predators, the detailed recognition of the behaviours exhibited is crucial both for an efficient catch and to avoid accidents. Therefore, this knowledge is doubly adaptive as it contributes to safer, more lucrative fishing. A feeling of respect for sharks predominates, since informers recognize the ecological role of these animals in marine ecosystems, attributing them the status of leader (or “the man”) in the sea. Conclusions This work demonstrates the complexity and robustness of artisanal fishermen’s ichthyological knowledge of sharks. Therefore, we suggest that such knowledge should be considered to develop public policies for the control of the fishing activity, as well as to develop and consolidate the National Action Plan for the Conservation of Shark and Ray Species (PAN - Tubarões e Raias). PMID:24994466

  16. A new species of Characidium Reinhardt (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from coastal rivers in the extreme south of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Angela M; Sarmento-Soares, Luisa M; Martins-Pinheiro, Ronaldo F

    2015-01-01

    Characidium helmeri, a species of the family Crenuchidae apparently endemic to rivers draining the extreme south of Bahia, Brazil, is described. The new species is easily distinguished from congeners by having dark, vertically elongated, irregular spots or dashes on flanks, usually more evident over midlateral stripe and/or ventral half of body, where it may present a somewhat curved or zigzag-shape. Characidium helmeri can be further distinguished from most congeners by having lateral line reduced to 13-22 pored scales, adipose fin absent, isthmus naked on its anteriormost portion, 14 scales around caudal peduncle, 4 scales above lateral line and 4 below, two series of dentary teeth, supraorbital absent or extremely reduced, and basicaudal black spot well defined. The occurrence of reductive characters in Characidium is briefly discussed. PMID:26624672

  17. Body size, diet and endoparasites of the microhylid frog Chiasmocleis capixaba in an Atlantic Forest area of southern Bahia state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Van Sluys, M; Schittini, G M; Marra, R V; Azevedo, A R M; Vicente, J J; Vrcibradic, D

    2006-02-01

    We analyzed the diet composition, endoparasites and sexual size dimorphism of the microhylid frog Chiasmocleis capixaba (Microhylidae) from a "mussununga" habitat in the municipality of Nova Viçosa, southern Bahia state, Brazil. All the 119 specimens analyzed were collected in a single night of heavy rainfall. Females (mean snout-vent length = 15.7 + 3.0 mm) were significantly larger than males (mean snout-vent length = 13.2 + 2.1 mm), and specimens of both sexes were smaller than those of a conspecific population previously reported in Aracruz, state of Espírito Santo state. The diet of C. capixaba was dominated by mites, ants and collembolans. Seventy-nine frogs (66.4% of the total) were infected by helminths, all belonging to a single species, Cosmocerca ornata, an intestinal nematode parasite. PMID:16680312

  18. [Slave-descendent communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: self-rated health and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; César, Cibele Comini

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of negative self-rated health and associated factors in the quilombola community (descendants of escaped slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. A household survey was conducted with 797 adults in 2011. Data on self-rated health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, social support, health status, and access to health services were obtained through questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for sex and age. Prevalence of negative self-rated health was 12.5%. After statistical modeling, the following variables remained associated with self-rated health: skin color, schooling, adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, chronic illness, physical limitations, and at least one medical visit in the previous 12 months. Self-rated health was associated with socioeconomic/demographic dimensions, lifestyle, social support, and health status. PMID:25166945

  19. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention. PMID:26648372

  20. Trace elements distribution in hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) tissues on the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Macêdo, Gustavo R; Tarantino, Taiana B; Barbosa, Isa S; Pires, Thaís T; Rostan, Gonzalo; Goldberg, Daphne W; Pinto, Luis Fernando B; Korn, Maria Graças A; Franke, Carlos Roberto

    2015-05-15

    Concentrations of elements (As, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, V, Zn) were determined in liver, kidneys and bones of Eretmochelys imbricata and Chelonia mydas specimens found stranded along the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil. Results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the liver and kidneys of juvenile C. mydas were the highest found in Brazil. We also observed a significant difference (p<0.05) on the bioaccumulation of trace elements between the two species: Al, Co, Mo, Na and Se in the liver; Al, Cr, Cu, K, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr and V in the kidneys; and Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and V in the bones. This study represents the first report on the distribution and concentration of trace elements in E. imbricata in the Brazilian coast. PMID:25796544

  1. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Elisa S. L.; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L. N.; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X.; de Souza, Anete P.

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called ‘Bahian cacao’ or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  2. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisa S L; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Mori, Gustavo M; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L N; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  3. Seroprevalence and molecular epidemiology of HTLV-1 isolates from HIV-1 co-infected women in Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Rego, Filipe Ferreira; Mota-Miranda, Aline; de Souza Santos, Edson; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos

    2010-12-01

    HTLV-1/HIV-1 co-infection is associated with severe clinical manifestations, marked immunodeficiency, and opportunistic pathogenic infections, as well as risk behavior. Salvador, the capital of the State of Bahia, Brazil, has the highest HTLV-1 prevalence (1.74%) found in Brazil. Few studies exist which describe this co-infection found in Salvador and its surrounding areas, much less investigate how these viruses circulate or assess the relationship between them. To describe the epidemiological and molecular features of HTLV in HIV co-infected women. To investigate the prevalence of HTLV/HIV co-infection in surrounding areas, as well as the molecular epidemiology of HTLV, a cross sectional study was carried out involving 107 women infected with HIV-1 from the STD/HIV/AIDS Reference Center located in the neighboring City of Feira de Santana. Patient samples were submitted to ELISA, and HTLV infection was confirmed using Western Blot and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis using Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) was performed on HTLV LTR sequences in order to gain further insights about molecular epidemiology and the origins of this virus in Bahia. Four out of five reactive samples were confirmed to be infected with HTLV-1, and one with HTLV-2. The seroprevalence of HTLV among HIV-1 co-infected women was 4.7%. Phylogenetic analysis of the LTR region from four HTLV-1 sequences showed that all isolates were clustered into the main Latin American group within the Transcontinental subgroup of the Cosmopolitan subtype. The HTLV-2 sequence was classified as the HTLV-2c subtype. It was also observed that four HTLV/HIV-1 co-infected women exhibited risk behavior with two having parenteral exposure, while another two were sex workers. This article describes the characteristics of co-infected patients. This co-infection is known to be severe and further studies should be conducted to confirm the suggestion that HTLV-1 is spreading from Salvador to surrounding areas. PMID:20929351

  4. Dengue virus 4 (DENV-4) re-emerges after 30 years in Brazil: cocirculation of DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 in Bahia.

    PubMed

    Campos, Gubio Soares; Pinho, Aryane Cruz Oliveira; Brandão, Claudio Jose de Freitas; Bandeira, Antonio Carlos; Sardi, Silvia Ines

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease of great concern in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One important cause of the increase in DF is rapid development and urbanization has led to proliferation of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the vector responsible for transmission of the illness. Surveillance of dengue virus (DENV) infection in Brazil shows the predominance of DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3 until 2010. This study reports the reappearance of DENV-4 in Brazil for the first time in 30 years. Serum samples were collected from individuals (n = 214) exhibiting fever and muscular pain in Bahia, Brazil, during 2011-2012. These samples were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/nested PCR, which revealed that 82% of samples were positive for DENV-4; most were older age groups and exhibited a serological pattern consistent with a primary infection. The cocirculation of multiple DENV serotypes within the same city places the population at risk for a fatal form of the disease. Therefore, with the increasing incidence of severe DF cases, early diagnosis will be a priority for public health efforts in Brazil. PMID:25420650

  5. Severe Impact and Subsequent Recovery of a Coral Assemblage following the 1997–8 El Niño Event: A 17-Year Study from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    The coral reefs of northern Bahia evolved in isolation from other Atlantic systems and under conditions of high environmental stress, particularly high turbidity. We have monitored the scleractinian assemblage of four shallow bank reefs (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) annually for 17 years since 1995, collecting quantitative data on diversity and density of coral colonies. As the sampling period included the 1997–8 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for the first time these results allow a quantitative assessment of the long-term impact of this major environmental stressor on such a coral assemblage. After El Niño, most species showed significantly reduced densities of colonies, this decline occurring for the subsequent two years without evidence of any new settlement until 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the species Porites astreoides went unrecorded. Recovery was slow, and multivariate analysis revealed that assemblages had not returned to the pre-El Niño state until 2011. It therefore took 13 years for full recovery of the coral assemblage to occur, which has consequences for reef systems if such El-Niño events become more frequent in the future. PMID:23741459

  6. Opportunistic responses of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) populations following the 1997 98 El Niño event in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attrill, Martin J.; Kelmo, Francisco

    2007-06-01

    We present results from a seven year (1995-2001) study on the coral reefs in Bahia (Brazil), the reef invertebrate community being severely impacted by the 1997-98 El Niño Southern Oscillation event. Despite local extinction of some taxa, the urchin Diadema antillarum was the only species out of a total of 678 enumerated demonstrating a significant increase in population size following El Niño, indicating a unique response of this species to the stresses associated with these events. Other species of echinoid did not show such a response, most disappearing from the fauna during the two post-El Niño years. The increasing Diadema numbers were most likely due to movement of individuals onto the reef systems from deeper water, exploiting the conditions on the reefs caused by a reduction in competitors and, we speculate, an increase in available space on the reef allowing potential algal settlement to sustain this elevated urchin population. This increased grazing pressure may have prevented algae covering the reef, as seen in other Atlantic reef systems, allowing new coral settlement in 2001.

  7. [Dietary patterns of children under five years of age living in the State capital and other counties of Bahia State, Brazil, 1996 and 1999-2000].

    PubMed

    Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim de; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Oliveira, Valterlinda A; Oliveira, Lucivalda P M; D'Innocenzo, Silvana; Teles, Carlos Antonio Santos; Pereira, Sheila Regina dos Santos; Prado, Matildes da Silva; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study included 3,817 preschool children, of whom 1,770 in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, and 2,047 in urban and rural areas from nine other municipalities (counties) in the same State. The study used 24-hour recall and principal components analysis to identify and compare dietary patterns. The sample was stratified by age and area. In the first six months of life, breast milk composed the second and third patterns, with positive loadings for children in all 10 municipalities. For children under 17 months of age, pattern 1 was characterized by cow's milk, flour, and sugar, except in rural areas. Pattern 2 was similar for children aged 6-17 months and consisted of bread/cookies, rice, beans, and meat. For children 18-23 months of age in urban areas, pattern 1 showed negative loadings for sugar, cow's milk, and flour. In children over 24 months of age, fruits were not part of the first pattern. The study showed low consumption of milk and low variety of fruits and vegetables. This food consumption profile indicates the need for early interventions to promote healthy eating habits. PMID:24627012

  8. Severe impact and subsequent recovery of a coral assemblage following the 1997-8 El Niño event: a 17-year study from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    The coral reefs of northern Bahia evolved in isolation from other Atlantic systems and under conditions of high environmental stress, particularly high turbidity. We have monitored the scleractinian assemblage of four shallow bank reefs (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) annually for 17 years since 1995, collecting quantitative data on diversity and density of coral colonies. As the sampling period included the 1997-8 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for the first time these results allow a quantitative assessment of the long-term impact of this major environmental stressor on such a coral assemblage. After El Niño, most species showed significantly reduced densities of colonies, this decline occurring for the subsequent two years without evidence of any new settlement until 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the species Porites astreoides went unrecorded. Recovery was slow, and multivariate analysis revealed that assemblages had not returned to the pre-El Niño state until 2011. It therefore took 13 years for full recovery of the coral assemblage to occur, which has consequences for reef systems if such El-Niño events become more frequent in the future. PMID:23741459

  9. Radiometric quality and performance of TIMESAT for smoothing moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer enhanced vegetation index time series from western Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Elane F.; Sano, Edson E.; Medrado, Euzébio

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua platforms in 1999 and 2002, respectively, with temporal resolutions of 1 to 2 days opened the possibility of using a longtime series of satellite images to map land use and land cover classes from different regions of the Earth, to study vegetation phenology, and to monitor regional and global climate change, among other applications. The main objectives of this study were twofold: to analyze the radiometric quality of the time series of enhanced vegetation index (EVI) products derived from the Terra MODIS sensor in western Bahia State, Brazil, and to identify the most appropriate filter to smooth MODIS EVI time series of the study area among those available in the public domain, the TIMESAT algorithm. The 2000 to 2011 time period was considered (a total of 276 scenes). The radiometric quality was analyzed based on the pixel reliability data set available in the MOD13Q1 product. The performances of the three smoothing filters available within TIMESAT (double logistic, Savitzky-Golay, and asymmetric Gaussian) were analyzed using the Graybill's F test and Willmott statistics. Five percent of the MODIS pixels from the study area were cloud-affected, almost all of which were from the rainy season. The double logistic filter presented the best performance.

  10. Hypothesis on the origin of lineaments in the LANDSAT and SLAR images of precambrian soil in the low Contas River Valley (southern Bahia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. C. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Examination of LANDSAT and SLAR images in southern Bahia reveals numerous linear features, which are grouped in five sets, based on their trends: N65 degrees E, N70 degrees W, N45 degrees E and NS/N15 degrees E. Owing to their topographic expressions, distributive patterns, spacing between individual lineaments and their mutual relationships, the lineament sets of N65 degrees E and N70 degrees W, as well as the sets of N40 degrees E and N45 degrees W, are considered as two groups of conjugate shear fractures and the former is older and is always cut by the latter. Their conjugate shear angles are 45 degrees and 85 degrees and their bisector lines are approximately in east-west and north-south directions, respectively. According to Badgeley's argumentation on the conjugate shear angles, the former conjugate shear fractures would be caused by: (1) vertical movements, and the bisector of their conjugate angle would be parallel to the long axis of horsting or folding, or (2) by a compressive force in the east-west direction and under a condition of low confining pressure and temperature.

  11. Predicting the toxicity of major ions in seawater to mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside minnow (Menidia beryllina)

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Caudle, D.D.; Tietge, J.E.; Evans, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Although marine organisms are naturally adapted to salinities well above those of freshwater, elevated concentrations of specific ions have been shown to cause adverse effects on some saltwater species. Because some ions are also physiologically essential, a deficiency of these ions can also cause significant effects. To provide a predictive tool to assess toxicity associated with major ions, mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside minnows (Menidia beryllina) were exposed to saline solutions containing calcium, magnesium, potassium, strontium, bicarbonate, borate, bromide, and sulfate at concentrations above and below what would be found in seawater. Solution salinity was maintained at approximately 31% by increasing or decreasing sodium and chloride concentrations. Logistic regression models were developed with both the ion molar concentrations and ion activity. Toxicity to all three species was observed when either a deficiency or an excess of potassium and calcium occurred. Significant mortality occurred in all species when exposed to excess concentrations of magnesium, bicarbonate, and borate. The response to the remaining ions varied with species. Sheepshead minnows were the most tolerant of both deficient and elevated levels of the different ions. Mysid shrimp and inland silverside minnows demonstrated similar sensitivities to several ions, but silverside minnow response was more variable. As a result, the logistic models that predict inland silverside minnow survival generally were less robust than for the other two species.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreira Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Sacramento Cunha Machado, Márcia; Borges da Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando; Fernandes Weyll Pimentel, Rodrigo; Teixeira Ferreira, Tatiana; Silva Leoni, Fernanda Maria; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide. PMID:23133306

  13. [Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Drummont, Patrícia; Silva, Fabiana O da; Viana, Blandina F

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap-nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 degrees 01' W e 38 degrees 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased (chi2 = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cells partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n = 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants. PMID:18641893

  14. Evaluation of criteria for selecting the spectral attributes of digital LANDSAT MSS imagery for discriminating lithological units in the lower Curaca River Valley, Bahia. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradella, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The use of spectral attributes criteria was investigated, based on measures of statistical distance of separability between thematic classes in MSS digital LANDSAT imagery, in order to select the best subsets of channels in composite colors for the detection and discrimination of lithological units in the lower valley of Curaca River, State of Bahia, Brazil. Three situations were investigated: (1) selection of the three best channels, considering all of the original bands (channels 4, 5, 6, and 7); (2) selection of the three best bands, considering the six MSS band-ratios (channels 4/5, 4/6. 4/7, 5/6, 5/7, and 6/7); and (3) selection of the three best bands in a hybrid approach (the four original bands and the six ratios). A visual analysis was done on color composite images using the selected sets. Results show that the hybrid product (bands 4, 5/7, and 7 with green, blue, and red respectively) and the Normal Color Composite (bands 4, 5, and 7 with blue, green, and red colors respectively) had the best performance.

  15. Pollen types and levels of total phenolic compounds in propolis produced by Apis mellifera L. (Apidae) in an area of the Semiarid Region of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matos, Vanessa R; Alencar, Severino M; Santos, Francisco A R

    2014-03-01

    Twenty-two propolis samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in an area of the Semiarid region the the State of Bahia (Agreste of Alagoinhas), Brazil, were palynologically analyzed and quantified regarding their levels of total phenolic compounds. These samples were processed using the acetolysis technique with the changes suggested for use with propolis. We found 59 pollen types belonging to 19 families and 36 genera. The family Fabaceae was the most representative in this study with nine pollen types, followed by the family Asteraceae with seven types. The types Mikania and Mimosa pudica occurred in all samples analyzed. The types Mimosa pudica and Eucalyptus had frequency of occurrence above 50% in at least one sample. The highest similarity index (c. 72%) occurred between the samples ER1 and ER2, belonging to the municipality of Entre Rios. Samples from the municipality of Inhambupe displayed the highest (36.78±1.52 mg/g EqAG) and lowest (7.68 ± 2.58 mg/g EqAG) levels of total phenolic compounds. Through the Spearman Correlation Coefficient we noticed that there was a negative linear correlation between the types Mimosa pudica (rs = -0.0419) and Eucalyptus (rs = -0.7090) with the profile of the levels of total phenolic compounds of the samples. PMID:24676176

  16. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of extracts prepared from different tissues of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi that occurs in the coast of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    D’Sousa’ Costa, Cinara Oliveira; Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Loureiro, Marta Bruno; Simões, Rafael Conceição; de Castro, Renato Delmondez; Fernandez, Luzimar Gonzaga

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schinus terebinthifolius is widely used in traditional medicine by Brazilian quilombola and indigenous communities for treatment of several diseases. Extracts from different tissues are being used to produce creams to treat cervicitis and cervicovaginitis. However, most studies are limited to the assessment of the essential oils and extracts obtained from the leaves. Objective: The aim was to evaluate antioxidant and antibacterial activities, to assess the phytochemical profile and to quantify total phenolic compounds of various extracts prepared from S. terebinthifolius grown in the coast of Bahia, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Extracts were obtained by hot continuous extraction (soxhlet) and by maceration. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant properties were assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical screening was performed as described by in the literature and antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) was determined by the microdilution broth assay. Results: Extraction method greatly affected the metabolite profile of the extracts. Antioxidant activity varied between 21.92% and 85.76%, while total phenols ranged between 5.44 and 309.03 mg EAG/g of extract. Leaf extract obtained with soxhlet showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15.62 μg/mL, while stem extract obtained by maceration was able to inhibit the growth of E. faecalis at 62.5 μg/mL. Stem bark extracts showed a MIC of 500 μg/mL for both extraction methods, while no inhibition was observed for fruit extracts. Conclusion: In general, total phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were higher in samples obtained by soxhlet. Our results provide important clues in order to identify alternative sources of bioactive compounds that can be used to develop new drugs. PMID:26246739

  17. Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).

    PubMed

    De Zordo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals. PMID:22889428

  18. Isolation, pathogenicity and disinfection of Staphylococcus aureus carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pollianna S; Souza, Simone G; Campos, Guilherme B; da Silva, Danilo C C; Sousa, Daniel S; Araújo, Suerda P F; Ferreira, Laiziane P; Santos, Verena M; Amorim, Aline T; Santos, Angelita M O G; Timenetsky, Jorge; Cruz, Mariluze P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M

    2014-01-01

    Currently, hospital infection is a serious public health problem, and several factors may influence the occurrence of these infections, including the presence of insects, which are carriers of multidrug-resistant bacterial species. The aim of this study was to isolate staphylococci carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia and to identify the resistance profile, pathogenicity and efficacy of disinfection of the premises. A total of 91 insects were collected in 21 strategic points of these hospitals, and 32 isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. Based on antibiogram and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration results, 95% of these strains were susceptible to oxacillin. These strains were also evaluated for the presence of resistance genes encoding resistance to oxacillin/methicillin by polymerase chain reaction, but the sample was negative for this gene. Pathogenicity tests were performed in vitro biofilm formation induced by glucose, where it was found that eight (27.58%) strains were classified as biofilm producers and 21 (72.4%) as stronger producers. In addition, we performed PCR for their virulence genes: Sea (enterotoxin A), SEB (B), Sec (C), PVL (Panton-Valentine Leukocidin), ClfA (clumping factor A) and Spa (protein A). Of these, Sea, Spa PVL were positive in 7 (21.8%), 2 (6.3%) and 1 (3.1%) samples, respectively. The analysis of cytokine induction in the inflammatory response of J774 macrophages by isolates from the two hospitals did not show statistical difference at the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-10 production. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial activity of disinfecting agents on these strains, quaternary ammonium, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, Lysoform(®), 70% alcohol solution of chlorhexidine digluconate, 2% peracetic acid, and 100% vinegar. Resistance was seen in only for the following two disinfectants: 70% alcohol in 31 (96.8%) samples tested and vinegar in 30 (93.8%) samples. The study demonstrated the presence of resistant and pathogenic organisms conveyed by insects, thus suggesting improvement in efforts to control these vectors. PMID:24216155

  19. Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen’s reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40’59”S and 38°56’38”W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary - the region’s main river - at 5.5 m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size. Behaviours described were compatible with the observations made in situ and with data found in the scientific literature, confirming the importance of traditional knowledge in complementing scientific data. One behaviour mentioned by the fishermen that had no equivalence in the scientific literature was confirmed in situ and, therefore, constitutes the first record for this species. PMID:22584063

  20. C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and <53 μm). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS.

  1. Phytoplankton composition of the water and gastrointestinal tract of the mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann, 1921) from São Francisco river (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Alves, T; Lima, P; Lima, G M S; Cunha, M C C; Ferreira, S; Domingues, B; Machado, J

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge on diet composition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann) would aid in its culture and propagation allowing, this way, the replacement of natural endangered populations in Brazil. Microalgae are the main food source for captive mussels and unionids have displayed an ability to sort algae based on the cellular characteristics prior to ingestion. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the phytoplankton composition of the water from and of the gastrointestinal contents of the mussel D. enno, as an initial step for development of a suitable rearing diet. Therefore, water samples and bivalve specimens were collected from S. Francisco River, city of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil. The microalgal composition found in water and stomach/gut content samples was very diverse being represented by the following divisions: Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Dinophyta and Heterokontophyta (Diatoms). Concerning the relative abundance of microalgae divisions, it is possible to state, for the water and gastrointestinal contents, that Cyanophyta represents 15% and 14%, Chlorophyta 54% in both, Heterokontophyta 31% and 27% and Dinophyta 0% and 5%, respectively. According to the Brazilian CETESB criteria for phytoplankton species classification, 50% of Cyanophyta and 15% of Chlorophyta species observed in the water samples were classified as "very frequent", as were 68% of Heterokontophyta and 33% of Chlorophyta species in the gut/stomach tract samples. Focusing at a species level, although in the water only Coelastrum sp. and Chroococcus sp. were observed in 100% and 75% of the samples, respectively, in the gastrointestinal tract the species Staurastrum sp., Aulacoseira sp., Scenedesmus sp. and Fragilaria crotonensis occurred in 80% to 100% of the samples. The present results showed that D. enno feeds not only on small chlorophytes microalgae, due to their convenient size that facilitates higher feeding rates, but also on large size diatoms, due to a possible nutritional advantage for the bivalves. Thus, a diet composed by large diatoms and small chlorophytes microalgae may be considered as the most reasonable for the maintenance of D. enno populations. PMID:27007506

  2. Neoproterozoic anorogenic magmatism in the Southern Bahia Alkaline Province of NE Brazil: U-Pb and Pb-Pb ages of the blue sodalite syenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Maria de Lourdes da Silva; Conceição, Herbet; Macambira, Moacir José Buenano; Galarza, Marco Antonio; Cunha, Mônica Pringsheim; Menezes, Rita Cunha Leal; Marinho, Moacyr Moura; Filho, Basílio Elesbão da Cruz; Rios, Débora Correia

    2007-08-01

    Blue sodalite syenite is a rare rock, and the Southern Bahia Alkaline Province (SBAP) is the only place in Brazil where economic deposits are found. This province forms part of the Archaean to Paleoproterozoic São Francisco craton, and contains a few batholiths, a large number of stocks and hundreds of dykes. Its southern part lies close to the tectonic contact between the craton and the Neoproterozoic Araçuaí mobile melt. Blue sodalite-bearing syenites are found in almost all the igneous bodies of the SBAP as dykes or pegmatitic masses hosted by nepheline syenite. Economically viable quantities for the production of dimension stones are found only in the Floresta Azul alkaline complex, the Itaju do Colônia and Rio Pardo stocks and the Itarantim batholith.U-Pb ages obtained for titanite from Itaju do Colônia (732 ± 8 Ma) and Rio Pardo (714 ± 8) and Pb-Pb evaporation ages of zircon from Floresta Azul (696 ± 3 Ma) and Itarantim (722 ± 5 Ma). The geochronology of the SBAP shows that the anorogenic alkaline magmatism persisted for at least 58 Ma, demonstrating an extensional tectonic environment in the southern part of the São Francisco craton at this time. The data show that the rift phase which preceded the formation of the Araçuaí orogen was active until at least 700 Ma. The reported ages are similar to those found for the nepheline syenite host bodies, which supports the conclusions of the previous petrologic study demonstrating that blue sodalite is formed during the crystallization of these bodies. Two different processes are involved. In the magmatic process, sodalite occurs as disseminated and interstitial crystals among alkali feldspar crystals, and is associated with calcite and cancrinite formed by destabilization of nepheline. In the metasomatic process, discontinuous bands of sodalite are in sharp contact with nepheline syenite pegmatite, and its crystal aggregates often contain relict textures of nepheline and albite been replaced by sodalite.

  3. Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Martha Eloy Bandeira; Le Pendu, Yvonnick; Neto, Eraldo Medeiros Costa

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen's reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40'59"S and 38°56'38"W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary --the region's main river--at 5.5 m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size. Behaviours described were compatible with the observations made in situ and with data found in the scientific literature, confirming the importance of traditional knowledge in complementing scientific data. One behaviour mentioned by the fishermen that had no equivalence in the scientific literature was confirmed in situ and, therefore, constitutes the first record for this species. PMID:22584063

  4. Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen’s ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Methods Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen’s profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Results Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach’s Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r = −0.38, p = 0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes towards turtle conservation (H = 8.33; p = 0.04). Life history, habitat, specific and exogenous taboos, beliefs and the use of hawksbill turtle to make glasses and other handcrafts are also reported in the study. Conclusions Monitoring of spawning areas, preservation of traditional practices, strategies to moderate the use of fishery resources and the local ecological knowledge/attitudes can provide data to improve the conservation practices and management of sea turtles. PMID:23448503

  5. Capture and commercialization of blue land crabs ("guaiamum") Cardisoma guanhumi (Lattreille, 1825) along the coast of Bahia State, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Blue Land Crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) is one of the most important crustacean species captured and commercialized in Brazil. Although this species is not considered to be threatened with extinction, populations of C. guanhumi are known to be rapidly diminishing due to heavy harvesting pressures and degradation of their natural habitats, highlighting the necessity of developing and implanting management and protection strategies for their populations. There have been no ethnozoological publications that have focused specifically on C. guanhumi, in spite of importance of this type of information for developing efficient management plans of resource utilization. So, the present work describes the ethnoecological aspects of the capture and commercialization of C. guanhumi by a fishing community in northeastern Brazil. Methods Field work was carried out in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia in Brazil, between the months of January and March/2011 through the use of open semi-structured interviews with all of the crustacean harvesters in city who acknowledged their work in capturing this species, totaling 12 interviewees. The informants were identified through the use of the "snowball" sampling technique. In addition to the interviews themselves, the "guided tour" technique and direct observations was employed. Results According all the interviewees, the C. guanhumi is popularly called "guaiamum" and is collected in "apicum" zones. They recognize sexual dimorphism in the species based on three morphological characteristics and the harvesters also pointed two stages in the reproductive cycle during the year and another phase mentioned by the interviewees was ecdysis. All of the interviewed affirmed that the size and the quantities C. guanhumi stocks in Mucuri have been diminishing. All of the interviewees agreed that the species and other mangrove resources constituted their principal source of income. The harvesters dedicated three to five days a week to collect Blue Land Crabs and the principal technique utilized for capturing is a trap called a "ratoeira" (rat-trap). Conclusions The results of the present work demonstrated that the community retains a vast and important volume of knowledge about C. guanhumi that could subsidize both scientific studies and the elaboration of viable management and conservation strategies for this species. PMID:22429762

  6. C and N content in density fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction under cacao agroforestry systems and natural forest in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rita, Joice Cleide O; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R; Baligar, Virupax C

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO(2). Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and <53 μm). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS. PMID:21387100

  7. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of "Reserva Ecológica Michelin", "RPPN Serra Bonita" and one Atlantic Forest remnant in the state of Bahia, Brazil, with new geographic records.

    PubMed

    Nemésio, A

    2014-02-01

    The orchid bee faunas of two private natural preserves, 'Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural da Serra Bonita' (RSB) and 'Reserva Ecológica Michelin' (REM), and a forest fragment inside the campus of the 'Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz', were surveyed for the first time. All three areas constitute Atlantic Forest remnants in the southern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 1,782 males belonging to 32 species were actively collected with insect nets during 90 hours of field work from November, 2009, to January, 2012. Euglossa cyanochlora Moure, 1996-one of the rarest orchid bee species-was found at RSB and REM, the latter representing the northernmost record for this species. Euglossa cognata, Moure, 1970 was found at RSB, the northernmost record for this species in the Atlantic Forest and the only recent record for this species at the northern border of Jequitinhonha river. PMID:25055082

  8. The interactive effects of essential ions and salinity on the survival of Mysidopsis bahia in 96-H acute toxicity tests of effluents discharged to marine and estuarine receiving waters

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, W.S.; Horne, M.T.

    1997-10-01

    The importance of salinity in whole effluent toxicity tests using marine organisms has been acknowledged in most testing protocols. However, little if any attention has been given to the specific effects of alteration of the ionic composition of seawater solutions to the test organism. The presence of persistent toxicity in effluents with no apparent toxic agents prompted examination of the potential influence of essential ions on the survival of the opossum shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, a common effluent toxicity indicator organism. Through stepwise additions of ionic salts to deionized water, the minimum complement of salts to maintain survival of M. bahia during 96-h exposures was determined to be Ca, Mg, K, Br, Na, and Cl. The toxicity curves for Ca, Mg, K, and Br were then determined across test salinity ranging from 10 to 35 parts per thousand. These curves for Ca, Mg, and K revealed that there are significant negative effects on survival when the essential ions are present in either low or high concentrations relative to the levels in natural seawater. Although there were no statistically detectable effects of Br on organism survival over the concentration range tested (5--480 mg/L). Br toxicity at concentrations less than 5 mg/L and greater than 700 mg/L have been shown in other studies. In addition, the tolerance ranges for K, Ca, and Mg were shown to shift significantly with changes in salinity, with lower salinity causing an apparent decrease in tolerance to an excess of essential ions. Tests with toxic effluents from five industrial and municipal sources revealed that adjustment of the ionic balance prior to testing reduced or eliminated toxicity in four of the five whole effluents tested. Suggestions for integrating this information into biomonitoring programs and toxicity identification evaluations are presented.

  9. Tectonic fabric revealed by AARM of the proterozoic mafic dike swarm in the Salvador city (Bahia State): São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, M. Irene B.; Berquó, Thelma S.

    2008-04-01

    Magnetic fabric and rock magnetism studies were performed on 25 unmetamorphosed mafic dikes of the Meso-Late Proterozoic (˜1.02 Ga) dike swarm from Salvador (Bahia State, NE Brazil). This area lies in the north-eastern part of the São Francisco Craton, which was dominantly formed/reworked during the Transamazonian orogeny (2.14-1.94 Ga). The dikes crop out along the beaches and in quarries around Salvador city, and cut across both amphibolite dikes and granulites. Their widths range from a few centimeters up to 30 m with an average of ˜4 m, and show two main trends N140-190 and N100-120 with vertical dips. Magnetic fabrics were determined using both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). The magnetic mineralogy was investigated by many experiments including remanent magnetization measurements at variable low temperatures (10-300 K), Mössbauer spectroscopy, high temperature magnetization curves (25-700 °C) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rock magnetism study suggests pseudo-single-domain magnetite grains carrying the bulk magnetic susceptibility and AARM fabrics. The magnetite grains found in these dikes are large and we discard the presence of single-domain grains. Its composition is close to stoichiometric with low Ti substitution, and its Verwey transition occurs around 120 K. The main AMS fabric recognized in the swarm is so-called normal, in which the Kmax- Kint plane is parallel to the dike plane and the magnetic foliation pole ( Kmin) is perpendicular to it. This fabric is interpreted as due to magma flow, and analysis of the Kmax inclination permitted to infer that approximately 80% of the dikes were fed by horizontal or sub-horizontal flows ( Kmax < 30°). This interpretation is supported by structural field evidence found in five dikes. In addition, based on the plunge of Kmax, two mantle sources could be inferred; one of them which fed about 80% of the swarm would be located in the southern part of the region, and the other underlied the Valéria quarry. However, for all dikes the AARM tensors are not coaxial with AMS fabrics and show a magnetic lineation (AARM max) oriented to N30-60E, suggesting that magnetite grains were rotated clockwise from dike plane. The orientation of AARM lineation is similar to the orientation of a system of faults in which the Salvador normal fault is the most important. These faults were formed during Cretaceous rifting in the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá assemblage that corresponds to an aborted intra-continental rift formed during the opening of the South Atlantic. Therefore, the AARM fabric found for the Salvador dikes is probably tectonic in origin and suggests that the dike swarm was affected by the important tectonic event responsible for the break-up of the Gondwanaland.

  10. [Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) and notification of infant-juvenile violence in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in Feira de Santana in the state of Bahia].

    PubMed

    Souza, Camila dos Santos; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Musse, Jamilly de Oliveira; Sobrinho, Carlito Nascimento; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis

    2014-03-01

    The scope of the study is to analyze data of children and adolescents who are the victims of different forms of violence, registered in the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA/MS) in Feira de Santana in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The total number of records, since the implementation of VIVA in the city (01/2009 to 01/2011) was used and the analyses sought associations between characteristics of violence and profiles of victims and perpetrators. The results showed that children and adolescents were molested using different types of violence, including the use of physical force, verbal threats and weapons and sundry cases of personal injury. Approximately 35% were hospitalized and 15% died. Physical violence was more common among males during adolescence in the home environment and perpetrated by a family member. Sexual violence occurred with greater frequency among females during childhood and 55.5% of the cases occurred in the home environment and more frequently perpetrated by a family member or acquaintances. The results highlight the importance of investments in policies and programs for harm prevention and reduction, seeking to broaden coverage in the care and the enhancement of the information system and surveys of these indicators. PMID:24714892

  11. Salvador Da Bahia: A "Modern" Imperial Rome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Vivian L.

    2004-01-01

    The city of Rome is situated on seven hills along the Tiber River. It developed from a series of small villages into numerous city-states, then to a Republic, and finally into an Empire, which covered several million miles. Thousands of miles away from Rome on another continent is Brazil, which measures 3,268,470 square miles in area. This article

  12. Writing, Religion and Revolt in Bahia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goody, Jack

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the impact of writing on culture, especially the psychosocial consequences of literacy as a "technology of the intellect." Describes the role played by writing in both a slave revolt in nineteenth century Brazil and a preliterate African culture. Argues that "literacy" serves too many functions to be used as an all-encompassing…

  13. Salvador Da Bahia: A "Modern" Imperial Rome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Vivian L.

    2004-01-01

    The city of Rome is situated on seven hills along the Tiber River. It developed from a series of small villages into numerous city-states, then to a Republic, and finally into an Empire, which covered several million miles. Thousands of miles away from Rome on another continent is Brazil, which measures 3,268,470 square miles in area. This article…

  14. Instrumental Instruction in Community Bands from Bahia, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbosa, Joel Luis

    2010-01-01

    Community bands play an important role in Brazilian music education. Often the only point of musical access, they provide free instrumental teaching for thousands of people who cannot afford to pay. One challenge that needs to be continually addressed is the issue of attrition, especially during the first stages of instruction. Considering this…

  15. 78 FR 28167 - Special Local Regulation, Cruce a Nado Internacional de la Bahia de Ponce Puerto Rico, Bahia de...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public Participation and Request for... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... Puerto Rico, a swimming event. The event is scheduled to take place on Sunday, September 1,...

  16. Shallow Miocene basaltic magma reservoirs in the Bahia de Los Angeles basin, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Argote, Luis A.; García-Abdeslem, Juan

    1999-01-01

    The basement in the Bahı´a de Los Angeles basin consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Cretaceous granitoids. The Neogene stratigraphy overlying the basement is formed, from the base to the top, by andesitic lava flows and plugs, sandstone and conglomeratic horizons, and Miocene pyroclastic flow units and basaltic flows. Basaltic dikes also intrude the whole section. To further define its structure, a detailed gravimetric survey was conducted across the basin about 1 km north of the Sierra Las Flores. In spite of the rough and lineal topography along the foothills of the Sierra La Libertad, we found no evidence for large-scale faulting. Gravity data indicates that the basin has a maximum depth of 120 m in the Valle Las Tinajas and averages 75 m along the gravimetric profile. High density bodies below the northern part of the Sierra Las Flores and Valle Las Tinajas are interpreted to be part of basaltic dikes. The intrusive body located north of the Sierra Las Flores is 2.5 km wide and its top is about 500 m deep. The lava flows of the top of the Sierra Las Flores, together with the distribution of basaltic activity north of this sierra, suggests that this intrusive body continues for 20 km along a NNW-trending strike. Between the sierras Las Flores and Las Animas, a 0.5-km-wide, 300-m-thick intrusive body is interpreted at a depth of about 100 m. This dike could be part of the basaltic activity of the Cerro Las Tinajas and the small mounds along the foothills of western Sierra Las Animas. The observed local normal faulting in the basin is inferred to be mostly associated with the emplacement of the shallow magma reservoirs below Las Flores and Las Tinajas.

  17. 33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (LNG) cargo while transiting north of Latitude 17°54′00″ N in the waters of the Caribbean Sea and the... Ponce. (2) The waters within 150 feet of any vessel carrying LNG cargo while moored at the Puerto...

  18. Distribution of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, E; Viana, Z C V; Onofre, C R E; Korn, M G A; Santos, V L C S

    2016-02-01

    In this study, concentrations of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species (Litopenaeus vannamei) from farming and zone natural coastal located in the northeastern Brazil were investigated. The elements determination was performed by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES). The following ranges of concentrations in the tissues were obtained in µg g-1 dry weight: Al: 13.4-886.5, Cd: 0.93-1.80; Cu: 24.8-152; Fe: 3.2-410.9; Mn: 0.36-24.4; Se: 0.094-9.81 and Zn: 20.3-109.4. The shrimp muscle can be a good iron source (about 88.9 mg-1g dry weight). The distribution of Se concentration in tissues showed much variation between locations, and the concentration levels found in shrimp muscles of wild samples were high, where its levels in 67% of muscle and 50% of others tissues samples exceeded the ANVISA limit, indicating evidence of selenium bioaccumulation. Significant correlation was observed between the following pairs of elements: Fe-Zn (r= -0.70), Mn-Cu (r= -0.74), Se-Cu (r= -0.68), Se-Mn (r= 0.82) in the muscles; Fe-Al (r= 0.99), Mn-Al (r= 0.62), Mn-Fe (r= 0.62), Se-Al (r = 0.88), Se-Fe (r= 0.87), Se-Mn (r= 0.58) in the exoskeleton and Cu-Zn (r = 0.68), Al-Cu (r= 0.88), Fe-Cu (r= 0.95) and Fe-Al (r= 0.97) in the viscera. PMID:26909636

  19. Characterization of the lead smelter slag in Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, L R P de Andrade; Bernardez, L A

    2011-05-30

    For 33 years, a primary lead smelter operated in Santo Amaro (Brazil). Since the 1970s, large amounts of Pb and Cd have been widely documented in the blood and hair of people living near the smelter. The plant closed down in 1993, and several years later, the Pb levels in the blood of children under 4 years of age living near the smelter were high, where the disposed lead slag was suspected to be the main source of this contamination. The objective of this study is to elucidate the source of the Pb contamination and any other potentially toxic contamination, focusing on the characterization of the slag. The samples used for this characterization study were taken from the slag heaps. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the major constituents of the slag, in decreasing order of wt%, were the following: Fe(2)O(3) (28.10), CaO (23.11), SiO(2) (21.39), ZnO (9.47), MgO (5.44), PbO (4.06), Al(2)O(3) (3.56), C (2.26), MnO (1.44), Na(2)O (0.27), S (0.37), K(2)O (0.26), and TiO(2) (0.25). The Cd content of the slag was 57.3mg/kg, which is relatively low. The X-ray diffraction and the electron probe microanalyzer X-ray mapping indicated that the major phases in the slag were wüstite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and franklinite. Only spheroidal metallic Pb was found in the slag. The leaching study showed that the slag was stable at a pH greater than 2.8, and only in an extremely acidic environment was the solubilization of the Pb enhanced significantly. The solubilization of Zn was very limited in the acidic and alkaline environments. These results can be explained by the limited leachability of the metallic Pb and Zn-bearing compounds. The leaching study used TCLP, SPLP, and SWEP and indicated that the lead slag was stable in weak acidic environments for short contact times. PMID:21440365

  20. Effects of Coastal Acidification on the Life Cycle and Fitness of the Mysid Shrimp Americamysis Bahia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most studies of animal responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification focus on isolated individuals or uniformly aged and conditioned cohorts that lack the complexities typical of wild populations. These studies have become the primary data source for meta-analytic predictions abo...

  1. Inverse Demographic Analysis of Compensatory Responses to Resource Limitation in the Mysid Crustacean Americamysis bahia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  2. Complex Population Responses to Food Resources in the Marine Crustacean Americamysis Bahia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  3. Quartz sand resources in the Santa Maria Eterna formation, Bahia, Brazil: A geochemical and morphological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Murilo Ferreira Marques dos; Fujiwara, Eric; Schenkel, Egont Alexandre; Enzweiler, Jacinta; Suzuki, Carlos Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the quartz sand occurrences of the Santa Maria Eterna formation, in northeastern Brazil, as a potential source of raw material for silica glass manufacturing. Samples of quartz sand were analyzed by ICP-MS to determine a range of trace elements and establish its chemical purity. The technological potential of the sand was obtained by counting the quantity of bubbles formed during flame fusion over silica plate. Both chemistry and bubble formation indicate that the raw material is suitable for producing silica glass. The work also investigated the composition of fluid inclusions in the quartz grains and the surface micro-texture by scanning electron microscopy. With the results obtained by these procedures, we inferred that the quartz sand was probably formed in a marine environment, by the precipitation of silica in the form of quartz. The main impurities of the samples are probably present in the mineral inclusions implying that purification is possible and probably competitive.

  4. Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Life Cycle and Fitness of the Mysid Shrimp Americamysis Bahia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most concern about effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification focuses on mollusks, corals, and coccolithophores because skeletal and shell formation by these organisms is sensitive to the solubility of calcium minerals. However, many other marine organisms are likely affected by...

  5. 78 FR 28164 - Special Local Regulation; Aguada Offshore Grand Prix, Bahia de Aguadilla; Aguada, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73, FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Aguada Offshore Grand...

  6. Evaluation of soil quality in areas of cocoa cabruca, forest and multicropping in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic Rain Forest is one of the most complex natural environments of the earth and, linked with this ecosystem, the cacao-cabruca system is agroforestry cultivation with an arrangement including a range of environmental, social and economical benefits and can protect many features of the biod...

  7. Distribution of organic C oxidizable fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic material to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measuremen...

  8. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  9. TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF A JUVENILE HORMONE MIMIC ON THE ESTUARINE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDACEA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenoxycarb is a juvenile hormone (JH) mimic used to control insect pests by interfering with reproductive and developmental processes mediated by JH. Crustaceans are ideal organisms to monitor environmental effects of these endocrine disruptors, since they are dominant aquatic ar...

  10. Cadmium concentrations in blood of children living near a lead smelter in Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Lima, M.E.; Alt, F.

    1986-08-01

    A prevalence study of cadmium absorption was carried out among 396 children aged 1 to 9 years living at less than 900 m from a primary lead smelter in Santo Amaro City, northeast Brazil. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of cadmium concentrations in blood (CdB) were 0.087 and 2.5 mumole/liter, respectively, ranging from 0.004 to 0.511 units. Ninety-six per cent of these children presented CdB higher than 0.0089 mumole/liter (or 1.0 microgram/liter) which is usually taken as a reference level. Higher CdB levels were significantly associated with shorter distance from child's home to smelter chimney, residence time in the area greater than 7 months, racial groups Light and Medium, and heavy infection by hookworm. The variation in CdB levels was not associated with child's age, nutritional status, iron status, family per capita income, blood lead level, being a child of a lead worker, the habit of pica, and contamination of child's peridomiciliar environment by smelter dross.

  11. 78 FR 26246 - Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... 10.466' W; thence west to Point 2 in position 18 01.048' N, 67 10.535' W; thence southwest to Point 3..., 67 10.540' W; thence southwest to Point 2 in position 18 00.756' N, 67 10.731' W; thence east...

  12. Americamysis bahia: A New Laboratory Model for Conservation Genetics in a Changing Environment (AGA09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of population genetic diversity are expected to play an important role in species persistence during periods of environmental change, yet our understanding of how to quantify relevant aspects of this diversity is not well developed. We are conducting a long-term study wit...

  13. Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

  14. Analysis of the risk of karst collapse in Lapão, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Emerson S. M.; Silva, Raymundo W. S.; Sampaio, Edson E. S.

    2012-05-01

    On October 2008, the large extent of dissolution of limestone in the Irecê Basin resulted in the occurrence of minor ground shakes and the enhancement of fractures along the surface of the ground and on the walls of buildings in the urban and periurban area of the city of Lapão. After preliminary geological and geotechnical studies to analyse the danger of collapse of underground caves, we have carried out gravity and electro-resistivity profiles in order to map the concealed caves and to help the determination of the level of groundwater within them. The interpretation of the results provided useful information both for the immediate safety of the population and for subsequent hydrological and geotechnical work. We have defined five risk areas based on the variations of the Bouguer and of the electrical resistivity data, by correlating the distribution of gravity lows with the presence of caves and the less resistive zones with the presence of brine water underground.

  15. Soil and litter fauna of cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems deposit great amounts of plant residues on soil; and eventually, this leads to high levels of soil organic matter content and has increased soil biodiversity and improved its conservation. This study compares the distribution of meso and macrofaunal communities in soil and litte...

  16. Carbon storage in soil-size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shaded-perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively higher quantities of soil carbon (C) because of continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the amount of C sequestered in the soil will vary depending on the turnover time and the extent of physical protection of different soil organic ...

  17. Transtensional rifting in the late Proto-Gulf of California near Bahia Kino, Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Scott Edmund Kelsey

    The Gulf of California provides an active rift example to test the role of rift obliquity in continental rupture. Continental rifts require focused strain to rupture and form an ocean basin. Strike-slip faults are ubiquitous in oblique rifts and focused transtensional strain adjacent to these faults may be a catalyst for rupture. To test this hypothesis, I completed structural mapping, fault-kinematic analysis, geochronology, basin analysis, and paleomagnetism of pre- and syn-rift rocks exposed in coastal Sonora, Mexico. Sedimentary basins record ˜16 km of west-northwest-directed transtension across the Kino-Chueca Shear Zone. Onset of transtension in the study area is estimated to be ca. 7 Ma and lasted for approximately 1 million years. This represents a significant portion (˜28%) of plate boundary deformation over this time interval. Dextral shear was progressively localized within this zone of extensional deformation, and together shear and extension acted to focus lithospheric-scale strain into a narrower zone.

  18. 33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (LNG) cargo while transiting north of Latitude 17°54′00″ N in the waters of the Caribbean Sea and the... Ponce. (2) The waters within 150 feet of any vessel carrying LNG cargo while moored at the Puerto...

  19. Use of an open-path FTIR sensor at Camacari Petrochemical Complex--Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Neuza; Couto, Elizabeth d. R.; Kagann, Robert H.

    1995-05-01

    CETREL--Empresa de Protecao Ambiental, is an environmental engineering company, which is owned by the member companies in the Camacari Petrochemical Complex, the largest petrochemical complex in Brazil. CETREL operates a centralized waste treatment plant, treatment and disposal facilities, an incineration unit, groundwater monitoring and air quality monitoring networks. The air monitoring network was designed based on mathematical modeling, and the results showed that the monoitoring of hydrocarbons is important not just within the complex but also at the area surrounding the complex. There are presently no regulations for hydrocarbons in Brazil, however they are monitored due to concerns about health problems arising from human exposure. The network has eight multiparameter monitoring stations, located at the villages nearby, where hydrocarbons are sampled with Summa canisters and subsequently analyzed with a GC/MS, using a Cryogenic trap at the interface. The open-path FTIR is used to monitor at the individual plants and in the areas in between because it is more efficient and costs less than it would to attempt to achieve the same level of coverage using the canisters. Ten locations were selected based on mathematical modeling and knowledge of the likely emission sources. Since August 1993, there have been five different measurement campaigns.

  20. Geotectonic setting and metallogeny of the northern São Francisco craton, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, João Batista Guimarães; da Silva, Maria da Glória; Misi, Aroldo; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; da Silva Sá, José Haroldo

    2010-11-01

    This paper aims at establishing a tectonic and temporal framework to characterize the metallogenic processes that contributed to the origin of the mineral provinces in the northern São Francisco Craton. Many Archean mineralizations (eg. massive sulfide zinc, lead, zinc and copper, besides magnesite-talc, iron-titanium-vanadium, iron, chromite and manganese) were generated before the assembly of the Craton. Deposits of chromite, nickel, gold and emerald were produced during the Paleoproterozoic orogenic cycle, when the Craton was amalgamated into the Atlantica paleocontinent. An extension event is recorded in the Neoproterozoic, during the breakup of Rodinia, associated with deposits of phosphorite and uranium. Kimberlite diamond and gold mineralization were generated during the Brasiliano orogenic cycle, coeval with the amalgamation of West Gondwana. A long-lasting and rather uniform crustal stress is recorded in the area during the Cambrian period. Resetting of the isotopic and magnetic systems that affected the Neoproterozoic sediments of the Irecê Basin at about 520 Ma was attributed to the regional-scale fluid migration and mineralization in the aftermath of the Brasiliano orogenic cycle.

  1. Natural Breeding Places for Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Semiarid Region of Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sangiorgi, Bruno; Miranda, Daniel Neves; Oliveira, Diego Ferreira; Santos, Edivaldo Passos; Gomes, Fernanda Regis; Santos, Edna Oliveira; Barral, Aldina; Miranda, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Few microhabitats have been previously identified as natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies so far, and little is known about the influence of climate variables in their density. The present study was conducted in a dry region with a semiarid climate, where visceral leishmaniasis occurs in humans and dogs. The occurrence of breeding places in specific microhabitats was investigated in soil samples collected from five houses, which were also the location used for sampling of adults. All the microhabitats sampled by our study were identified as natural breeding places due to the occurrence of immature forms of sand flies. On a weekly basis, the number of adult sand flies captured was positively correlated with the mean temperature from preceding weeks. These results, in addition to promoting an advance in the knowledge of sand flies biology, may furnish a tool for optimizing the control of the sand flies, by indicating the most suitable periods and microhabitats for the application of insecticides. PMID:22529861

  2. Relationships between invertebrate communities, litter quality and soil attributes under different cacao agroforestry systems in the south of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to understand how soil and litter attributes interact with the faunal community, this study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between soil and litter attributes to soil and litter fauna, and further to determine which of these attributes would be most significant in explaining ...

  3. EFFECTS OF WHOLE SEDIMENTS FROM CORPUS CHRISTI BAY ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine and marine coastlines are receiving waters for many anthropogenic substances. Concentrations of many of these contaminants have been diminished by regulatory control of effluents, but there is concern that continuing inputs (non-point sources) and contaminants contained...

  4. Diversity and community structure of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in three ecosystems in Itaparica island, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Gilberto M de M; Bichara Filho, Carlos C; Resende, Janete J; da Cruz, Jucelho D; Marques, Oton M

    2007-01-01

    We studied the structure and composition of communities of social wasps associated with the three insular ecosystems: mangrove swamp, the Atlantic Rain Forest and the 'restinga'- lowland sandy ecosystems located between the mountain range and the sea. Three hundred and ninety-one nests of 21 social wasp species were collected. The diversity of wasps found in each ecosystem was significantly correlated to the diversity of vegetation in each of the three physiognomies, (r(2) = 0.85; F(1.16) = 93.85; P < 0. 01). The Tropical Atlantic Forest physiognomy had higher species richness (18 species), followed by the restinga (16 species) and the mangrove (8 species) ecosystems. PMID:17607449

  5. Topographic and hydrographic survey data for the São Francisco River near Torrinha, Bahia, Brazil, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the surveying techniques and data-processing methods used to collect, process, and disseminate topographic and hydrographic data. All standard and non‑standard data-collection methods, techniques, and data process methods were documented. Additional discussion describes the quality-assurance and quality-control elements used in this study, along with the limitations for the Torrinha-Itacoatiara study reach data. The topographic and hydrographic geospatial data are published along with associated metadata.

  6. Population-level Experiments for Population-level Risk Assessment: An Example Using the Opposum Shrimp Americamysis bahia (NACSETAC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  7. [Inclusion of persons with disabilities in a Reference Center for STD / AIDS of a town in Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Sales, Alessandra Santos; de Oliveira, Roberto Ferreira; de Araújo, Edna Maria

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to ascertain the opinion of health professionals about the inclusion of people with disabilities in the activities of reception, prevention and treatment in a Reference Center for STD/AIDS. The data were submitted to Bardin's content analysis technique. The analysis showed that professionals conduct their service in the sense of inclusion, seeking ways of communication to reach these people as the use of LIBRAS, matching the physical structure, equality of attendance and understanding of the vulnerabilities of this population. Despite the great importance of strategies adopted in facilitating a friendly service to people with disabilities, those strategies leave mostly from isolated and individually activities. It is needed an effective link among the service managers and political actors in the construction and adaptation of materials, programs and public policies to achieve equitable and inclusion of this population. PMID:23743840

  8. STORAGE DURATION AND TEMPERATURE AND THE ACUTE TOXICITIES OF ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA AND LEPTOCHEIRUS PLUMULOSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many statutory needs for sediment quality assessment exist (U.S. EPA 1996). A variety of sediment toxicity tests have been used to support the development of sediment quality guidelines and to determine the benthic impacts of dredging activities and point and non-point source tox...

  9. A new scorpion species of genus Diplocentrus Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Diplocentridae) endemic to Islas de la Bahia, Honduras.

    PubMed

    Sagastume-Espinoza, Kevin O; Longhorn, Stuart J; Santibáñez-López, Carlos E

    2015-07-01

    Three species of genus Diplocentrus are found in north-northwestern Honduras. These species represent the southern east limits of Diplocentrus' distribution. In recent years, a broad survey of arachnids in Honduras has yielded a collection of several specimens of an undescribed species from two islands in northern Honduras. This new species represents the second species of the genus inhabiting an island. The present contribution describes this new species, and compares it against its most similar relatives. A dichotomous key for the identification of the species of Diplocentrus in Honduras is also included. PMID:26026575

  10. POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE OF THE MYSID, AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA, TO VARYING THIOBENCARB CONCENTRATIONS BASED ON AGE-STRUCTURED POPULATION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To fully understand the potential long-term ecological impacts a pollutant has on a species, population-level effects must be estimated. Since long-term field experiments are typically not feasible, vital rates such as survival, growth, and reproduction of individual organisms ar...

  11. The Relative Contribution of Immigration or Local Increase for Persistence of Urban Schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Ronald E.; Barbosa, Lúcio M.; Reis, Eliana A.; Carmo, Theomira M.; dos Santos, Cláudio R. A.; Costa, Jackson M.; Aminu, Peace T.; Blank, Walter A.; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C.; Silva, Luciano K.; Reis, Mitermayer G.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely. PMID:25775457

  12. Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mello, E.F.; Xavier, R.P.; McNaughton, N.J.; Hagemann, S.G.; Fletcher, I.; Snee, L.

    2006-01-01

    U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152??6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155??9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Trilhado granodiorite, and ages of 2,130??7 Ma and 2,128??8 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Teofila??ndia tonalite. The emplacement age of the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome as indicated by a 2,080??2-Ma xenotime age for a granite dyke probably marks the end of the felsic magmatism. This age shows good agreement with the Ar-Ar plateau age of 2,080??5 Ma obtained in hornblendes from an amphibolite and with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2,076??10 Ma in detrital zircon crystals from a quartzite, interpreted as the age of the peak of the metamorphism. The predominance of inherited zircons in the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome suggests that the basement of the supracrustal rocks was composed of Archaean continental crust with components of 2,937??16, 3,111??13 and 3,162??13 Ma. Ar-Ar plateau ages of 2,050??4 Ma and 2,054??2 Ma on hydrothermal muscovite samples from the Fazenda Brasileiro gold deposit are interpreted as minimum ages for gold mineralisation and close to the true age of gold deposition. The Ar-Ar data indicate that the mineralisation must have occurred less than 30 million years after the peak of the metamorphism, or episodically between 2,080 Ma and 2,050 Ma, during uplift and exhumation of the orogen. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  13. A NEW RECORD OF THE ENTOMOPHAGA GRYLLI (FRESENIUS) BATKO SPECIES COMPLEX ON ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE IN SOUTHERN BAHIA, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An entomophthoralean fungus (Zygomycotina; Zygomycetes) from the ENTOMOPHAGA GRYLLI species complex has been found and described from Brazil, on populations of RHAMMATOCERUS BRASILIENSIS Bruner, 1904, RHAMMATOCERUS BRUNNERI Giglio Tos, 1895, ABRACRIS DILECTA Walker, 1870, ABRACRIS FLAVOLINEATA De G...

  14. Carbon, nitrogen, organic phosphorus, microbial biomass and N mineralization in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the soil organic P cycle is important to improve the P fertilization management in low-input tropical agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate organic P (Po) content by Bowman extraction method and labile P fractions by NaHCO3 extraction in soil profiles under cacao ...

  15. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. PMID:27038882

  16. Carbon stock and available nutrients in soils under “cacao-cabruca” system in southeast areas of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agroecosytems, the efficient nutrient cycling is considered responsible for plant nutrition; however it is important to consider the amount of total available nutrients. Experiments were undertaken to quantify the carbon stock and available nutrients in cacao plantation grown under tree shade of ...

  17. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-08-07

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  18. Local ecological knowledge of the artisanal fishers on Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822) (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) on Ilhéus coast – Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) of traditional fishermen may be the only source of information regarding the conservation of the marine ecosystem and its endangered species. One of these species is Epinephelus itajara, which can exceed 2 m in length and 400 kg weight, is classified by the IUCN as a critically endangered. In Brazil, there is currently a moratorium that prohibits the capture of this specie, and in the northeastern coast, a Marine Protected Area was recently established properly justified by the existence a one spawning aggregation. The scope of the present study was the analysis the LEK of fishers with the goal of contributing to the conservation of E. Itajara. Methods The Knowledge of 24 “experts” was recorded through semi-structured interviews with fishermen selected based on their expertise. LEK regarding some aspects of the life history of E. itajara, such as its morphology, spatial distribution, feeding, breeding and conservation, was systematized. The interviews were conducted in synchronic and diachronic situations. The data analysis followed the model of unity of the various individual skills, while the consistency of the analysis was tested using a matrix of methods employed in comparative cognitive science. Potential reproductive aggregation sites were identified by experts through projective interviews conducted based on a cartographic database and transferred to a geographic information system (GIS). Results The LEK of these specialists in relation to the biological and ecological characteristics of E. itajara showed a high level of detail and a high agreement with the scientific literature. Projective interviews are presented as a promising tool allowing spatialization of the information generated through the registration of LEK. Therefore, the visualization of information from the fishermen, as well as its analysis and comparison with other databases, is simplified, thereby contributing to the decision-making process concerning the conservation of marine ecosystem in Brazil. Conclusions Integration of LEK with scientific knowledge is an efficient strategy for the conservation of endangered species, as it provides important additional biological information that can be used in the process of participative and sustainable management of marine resources. PMID:24965849

  19. [Evaluation of the National Program of Integrated and Referential Actions (PAIR) to confront the child and adolescents sexual violence, in Feira de Santana, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Carvalho, Rosely Cabral; de Santana, Marcos Antonio Oliveira; da Silva, Luciano Macêdo Santos; da Silva, Mariana Rocha

    2010-03-01

    In Brazil, sexual violence against children and adolescents is a challenge for the public policies of prevention and intervention. The objective of this article is to present the evaluation of PAIR actions implemented in Feira de Santana city, on political and institutional integration, strength and performance of the Network Care for the violence victims in the period of 2003-2006. It was used a descriptive study with primary data based on interviews with professionals from the Institutions of care (38), Municipal Committee of PAIR (11) and key community informants (78), using quantitative and qualitative analysis. The evaluation of the PAIR capabilities, as the political and institutional integration was deemed appropriate, highlighting the support of state, federal and municipal managers. The processes of training were considered strategic to the individual professional performance with the Network (attitudes, participation). The results of the three segments of the community suggest the need of a social Network integration (Rights and Guardianship Councils), programs of assistance and protection, the work with the media (qualified training and information), involvement of managers and technicians and the continuity of actions, as strategies to face the sexual violence in Feira de Santana. PMID:20414624

  20. PREDICTING THE TOXICITY OF MAJOR IONS IN SEAWATER TO MYSID SHRIMP (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA), SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS), AND INLAND SILVERSIDE MINNOW (MENIDIA BERYLLINA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although marine organisms are naturally adapted to salinities well above those of freshwater, elevated concentrations of specific ions have been shown to cause adverse effects on some saltwater species. Because some ions are also physiologically essential, a deficiency of these i...

  1. Estimating Stage-Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis Bahia Using Digital Imaging (NAC SETAC 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  2. Estimating Stage Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress Within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis bahia Using Digital Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  3. Distribution and mineralogy of platinum-group elements in altered chromitites of the Campo Formoso layered intrusion (Bahia State, Brazil): control by magmatic and hydrothermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garuti, G.; Proenza, J. A.; Zaccarini, F.

    2007-03-01

    Polyphase, penetrative hydrothermal metasomatism in chromitites of the Campo Formoso layered intrusion produced spectacular chromite - ferrian chromite zoning and transformed the primary intercumulus silicates into a chlorite - serpentine - carbonate - talc assemblage. Alteration did not substantially modify the composition of chromite cores and the distribution of platinum-group elements (PGE) through the sequence of chromitite layers, which still are consistent with magmatic fractionation processes. Texture and composition of laurite and Os-Ir-Ru alloys included in chromite cores indicate that these PGM were not altered, and are probably magmaticin origin. In contrast, the PGM located in the intergranular chlorite matrix (laurite, Ir-Ru-Rh sulfarsenides and Pt-Pd compounds with Sb, Bi and Te) display evidence of hydrothermal reworking. These PGM are intimately intergrown with low-temperature Ni-sulfides. The paragenesis suggests that the Ni-sulfides-PGM assemblage formed at the expenses of unknown PGM precursors, which must have been originally present in the intercumulus silicate matrix. Mechanism of formation involves a sequence of dissolution-precipitation events controlled by variation of redox conditions during chromite alteration. The presence of a secondary ore mineral assemblage consisting of galena, bismuthinite, native antimony, and various Pb-Sb compounds suggests a possible contribution of fluids derived from the adjacent granite.

  4. Survival and Prognostic Factors for AIDS and Non-AIDS Patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Bahia, Brazil: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Iguaracyra; Brites, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Despite the benefits of HAART, HIV-infected patients are increasingly affected by different malignancies. We compared a 5-year-period survival time and prognostic factors for HIV-1-infected individuals diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) in a nested case-control study, with non-HIV-infected individuals in Salvador, Brazil. Survival time and prognostic factors were compared to HIV-negative patients. 31 cases (versus 63 controls) had a significantly more advanced NHL at diagnosis and lower mean CD4 count (26 cells/mm3) than controls. Mean overall survival (OS) was 35.8 versus 75.4 months, for cases and controls, respectively (P < 0.001), while mean event-free survival time (EFS) was 34.5 months for cases, versus 68.8 for controls (P = 0.002). Higher IPI, increased LDH levels, bone marrow infiltration, lower absolute lymphocyte counts (<1,000 cells/mm3), and type B symptoms were associated with a shorter survival time for cases. Although patients without poorer prognostic factors at baseline had an OS comparable to controls, the mean CD4 cell count for cases was similar for patients with favorable and nonfavorable response to therapy. Our findings suggest that HIV-1 infection is significantly associated with a shorter survival time for patients with NHL, independently of other predictive factors and of disease stage. PMID:24288620

  5. RESPONSE OF MYSID SHRIMP (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA), SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS), AND INLAND SILVERSIDE MINNOW (MENIDIA BERYLLINA) TO CHANGES IN ARTIFICIAL SEAWATER SALINITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although marine organisms are adapted to naturally high concentrations of total dissolved solids (salinity) in their environment, abnormally high or low concentrations of ions can be toxic. Toxicity can result from aberrant levels of a single ion or from shifts of the entire spec...

  6. Spatial and temporal hydrochemical variation of a third order river network in a quasi pristine coastal watershed, at Southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Elly R S de; Paula, Francisco C F de

    2013-01-01

    Rio da Serra watershed presents well preserved fragments of rain forest at the headwaters and small farms at middle and final stretches. These features allowed the study of fluvial hydrochemistry, under quasi pristine conditions. Sampling stations were established in order to represent the basin, and visited during dry, intermediate and wet periods. Obtained results are: temperature (22.1-28.6 °C); electric conductivity (34-52 µS/cm); dissolved oxygen (35-110%); pH (3.8-7.7); total suspended solids (1.1-20 mg/L); chlorophyll (1.0-9.2 µg/L); total N (74-580 µmol/L); particulate N (60-550 µmol/L); N-NO₃ (0.1-9.3 µmol/L); dissolved organic N (4-0 µmol/L); total phosphorous (5.3-47 µmol/L); particulate P (4.4-59 µmol/L); P-PO₄ (0.1-0.7 µmol/L); dissolved organic P (0.01-2.0 µmol/L); silicate (30-90 µmol/L); fecal coliforms (80-700 CFU/100mL). In seasonal terms dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, nitrate and silicate concentrations were higher during the dry, whereas TSS was higher during the wet period. Seasonal differences of dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and nitrate were also detected near wetlands areas. Along the basin results showed a distinction between headwaters and other sections, revealing a control of fluvial hydrochemistry by the preserved area, mostly for the dissolved organic N and P species and phosphate. PMID:24270838

  7. 33 CFR 100.35T07-0297 - Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.35T07-0297 Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de... origin. All persons and vessels, except those persons and vessels participating in the high-speed boat... west back to origin. All persons and vessels except those persons and vessels enforcing the buffer...

  8. 33 CFR 100.35T07-0297 - Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.35T07-0297 Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de... origin. All persons and vessels, except those persons and vessels participating in the high-speed boat... west back to origin. All persons and vessels except those persons and vessels enforcing the buffer...

  9. 78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... their 21 gun salute in accordance with the military tradition of vessel proving that it is unarmed upon... associated with the 21 gun salute near the Bar Channel entrance, and to protect the high ranking officials...

  10. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  11. Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

    2013-11-01

    The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

  12. Rescuing Tradition at the Pierre Verger Cultural Space: Teaching and Learning Afro-Brazilian Culture through Music in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junqueira, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the Pierre Verger Cultural Space (PVCS), an educational organization dedicated to teaching Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, uses music to construct a sense of Afro-Brazilian self. Located in a poverty-stricken neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the PVCS sees its mission as "rescuing" ("resgatar") an Afro-Brazilian sense…

  13. Rescuing Tradition at the Pierre Verger Cultural Space: Teaching and Learning Afro-Brazilian Culture through Music in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junqueira, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the Pierre Verger Cultural Space (PVCS), an educational organization dedicated to teaching Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, uses music to construct a sense of Afro-Brazilian self. Located in a poverty-stricken neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the PVCS sees its mission as "rescuing" ("resgatar") an Afro-Brazilian sense

  14. LIFE-HISTORY AND TOXICOLOGICAL COMPARISONS OF TEMPERATE AND SUBTROPICAL MYSIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory populations of the temperate mysid Mysidopsis bigelowi were compared with Mysidopsis bahia to assess the former's suitability as a test organism for toxicological studies. ysidopsis bigelowi is widely distributed and often sympatric with M. bahia, a well-esta...

  15. Self-organized critical phenomenon as a q-exponential decay - Avalanche epidemiology of dengue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, H.; Miranda, J. G. V.; Moret, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    We studied the evolution of dengue disease in the state of Bahia. The number of epidemiological dengue cases for each city follows a Self-Organized Criticality behavior (SOC). However, the analysis of the number of cases in Bahia exhibits a q-exponential distribution. To understand this different behavior, we analyzed the distribution of the power law of SOC (γ) to all cities of Bahia. Our findings show that the distribution of γ exhibits a dependence between the exponents, which may be because of migration between cities, causing the emergence of outbreaks in different cities in a correlated and asynchronous time series.

  16. Epiphytic diatoms associated with red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) prop roots in Bahía Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Siqueiros Beltrones, D A; López Fuerte, F O

    2006-06-01

    The first floristic inventory of benthic diatoms is provided for the Bahia Magdalena-Bahia Almejas lagoon system. Samplings were carried out during November of 1999. The oxydized samples were mounted permanently. Eighty six diatom taxa were identified, out of which 59 are new records for the Bahia Magdalena area, and 12 taxa are new for the Baja California peninsula. Taxa recorded previously as rare in other substrata are common or abundant on the epiphytic macroalgae of mangrove prop roots. Other species are mainly epipelic forms, while 24 are commonly found as tychoplankton in the area. Certain taxa appear to be characteristic of mangrove systems in general. PMID:18494299

  17. KEPONE (TRADEMARK) BIOCONCENTRATION, ACCUMULATION, LOSS, AND TRANSFER THROUGH ESTUARINE FOOD CHAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulation, transfer, and loss of Kepone in estuarine organisms were studied in laboratory bioassays. Kepone was bioconcentrated by oysters (Crassostrea virginica), mysids (Mysidopsis bahia), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus), and spo...

  18. POLYCLONAL ANTISERA AGAINST ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN VITELLIN AND VITELLOGENIN: DEVELOPMENT OF AN OOGENESIS DISFUNCTION ASSAY AS AN INDICATOR OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION FROM JUVENILE HORMONE AGONIST INSECTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult female Lepidophthalmus louisianensis, Palaemonetes pugio, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, Mysidopsis bahia, and Uca panacea were collected from estuarine localities in Santa Rosa Sound, Gulf Breeze, FL during late spring and summer of 1999. Mature ovaries were dissected and homog...

  19. WETLAND PLANT SEEDLINGS AS INDICATORS OF NEAR-COASTAL SEDIMENT QUALITY: INTERSPECIFIC VARIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicities of whole sediments collected from an urbanized Florida bayou-estuary were determined for the epibenthic mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, and the infaunal amphipod, Ampelisca abdita. In addition, the phytotoxicities of the same sediments were evaluated using rooted macrophy...

  20. PHYSIOLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION IN ESTUARINE MYSIDS AND LARVAL DECAPODS WITH CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of physiological functions was examined in an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) during life-cycle exposures to four classes of pesticides. Pesticide exposure initially elevated respiration rates of juveniles. These increased metabolic requirements reduced the amount of...

  1. Horizontal study of vaccinia virus infections in an endemic area: epidemiologic, phylogenetic and economic aspects.

    PubMed

    Assis, Felipe L; Franco-Luiz, Ana Paula M; Paim, Luis M; Oliveira, Graziele P; Pereira, Alexandre F; de Almeida, Gabriel M F; Figueiredo, Leandra B; Tanus, Adriano; Trindade, Giliane S; Ferreira, Paulo P; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2015-11-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV), the etiological agent of bovine vaccinia (BV), is widespread in Brazil and present in most of the milk-producing regions. We conducted a horizontal study of BV in Bahia, a state of Brazil in which the production of milk is increasing. During 2011, human and bovine clinical samples were collected during outbreaks for BV diagnosis, virus isolation and molecular analysis. We collected data for epidemiological inferences. Vaccinia virus was detected in 87.7% of the analyzed outbreaks, highlighting the effective circulation of VACV in Bahia. The molecular data showed the spreading of group 1 Brazilian VACV to Bahia. We observed a seasonal profile of BV, with its peak in the drier and cooler season. Manual milking was observed in 96 % of the visited properties, showing its importance to viral spread in herds. Under-notification of BV, ineffective animal trade surveillance, and bad milking practices have contributed to the spread of VACV in Brazil. PMID:26239343

  2. Antimicrobial effects of ionizing radiation on artificially and naturally contaminated cacao beans. [Aspergillus flavus; Penicillium citrinum

    SciTech Connect

    Restaino, L.; Myron, J.J.J.; Lenovich, L.M.; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.

    1984-04-01

    With an initial microbial level of ca. 10/sup 7/ microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation from a Co/sup 60/ source under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 50/sup 0/C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 x 10/sup 4/ and 1.4 x 10/sup 3/ spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D/sub 10/ values for A. flavus and P. citrinum spores on Bahia cacao beans were 0.66 and 0.88 kGy, respectively. 12 references.

  3. Modelling the Shallow Water Equations in Curvilinear Coordinates with Physical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Wingenter, S

    2005-01-12

    The goal of this project is to provide the capability for simulating fluid flow on complicated geometries, such as in the Bahia de Todos Santos. The Bahia de Todos Santos is a bay situated in the northwest corner of Mexico, off the coast of Ensenada and south of San Diego, California, USA. Figure 1.1 shows the Bahia de Todos Santos. It is part of an image taken from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on the Aqua and Terra satellites in late June and early July 2003 [8]. Roughly 200 square kilometers in size, the bay also contains two islands off the peninsula of Punta Banda. Characteristics of flow in this bay are driven by the moon tide (M2) and wind forcing [9].

  4. Styles of extension and oceanization: Examples from the South Atlantic margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Neto Araujo, Mario; Thoaldo Romeiro, Marco; Andres Martinez, Miguel; Phipps Morgan, Jason; Ros, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Along the margins of the South Atlantic from the Camamu/Gabao to the North Santos/South Kwanza conjugate margin, rift architecture changes considerably. On the Brazilian side, from North to South, the margin width increases, syn-rift subsidence decreases and the degree of conjugate margin asymmetry varies. Here we suggest that these changes in architectonical styles can be explained with a combination of extensional modes: core-complex, wide and narrow rift modes with sequential faulting mode, which arises at the last stages of extension and accounting for conjugate margin asymmetry. The prevalence of any of these modes during extension depends on the strength of the lower crust at the start of rifting and during extension. Melting and serpentinisation are also strongly linked with lower crustal rheology, with weaker rheologies leading to less coupling between lithospheric layers and a slower mantle uplift, hence relatively less melting and serpentinisation. Here we show how likely changes in crustal strength and lithospheric configuration from the northern San Francisco craton to the southern Ribeira belt, may have led to the rich variety in extensional and oceanization styles observed in this margin sector.

  5. Interpopulation variability among Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Silvia E; Dujardin, Jean P; Soares, Rodrigo P P; Pires, Herton H R; Margonari, Carina; Romanha, Alvaro J; Panzera, Francisco; Linardi, Pedro M; Duque-De-Melo, Mariana; Pimenta, Paulo F P; Pereira, Marcos H; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2003-07-01

    Comparisons were made among Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister) from three areas of Brazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Santa Catarina), where populations differ with regard to their degree of association with human dwellings. The following characters were studied: morphology of the eggs and the male genitalia; morphometry of the head and thorax; isoenzyme profile; enzymatic activity of the alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH); and cytogenetics. In general, differences were observed in the weight, diameter, and length of the egg among Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Santa Catarina populations. Differences were not observed in the architecture of the egg exochorion. The size of the median process of the pygophore of the male genitalia of individuals from Bahia differed from the other two populations. The Minas Gerais population presented the largest number of denticles in the endosome process. The morphometry of the head and thorax differentiated Santa Catarina from the Bahia and Minas Gerais populations. Phosphoglucomutase (EC 5.4.2.2., PGM) was the only enzyme out of 11 that showed polymorphism; the population from Minas Gerais was most polymorphic, whereas the population from Santa Catarina was monomorphic. Study of the alpha-GPDH activity and cytogenetics did not reveal differences among the three populations. Analysis of all the characters studied together with information on these three populations from previous publications allowed a phenogram to be constructed. Two distinct groups were evident, one represented by Santa Catarina and the other by Bahia and Minas Gerais. Considering the greater variability of the Minas Gerais and Bahia populations, we propose the inclusion of these states within the area of origin of P. megistus. PMID:14680104

  6. Genetic diversity in different populations of sloths assessed by DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Moraes, N; Morgante, J S; Miyaki, C Y

    2002-08-01

    In this study we analyzed a population of Bradypus torquatus with individuals originally distributed in different localities of Bahia, and two populations of B. variegatus with individuals from Bahia and São Paulo States. Using the DNA fingerprinting method, we assessed the genetic variability within and between populations. Analysis of the DNA profiles revealed genetic similarity indices ranging from 0.34 +/- 0.07 to 0.87 +/- 0.04. Similar low levels of genetic variability were found only in isolated mammalian populations or among related individuals. This study presents the first analyses of genetic diversity in sloth populations. PMID:12530188

  7. A CLOSER LOOK AT GRIFFINIA ESPIRITENSIS RAV. (AMARYLLIDACEAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Griffinia espiritensis Ravenna was described from a population near the Sooretama Biological Reserve in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. This species, which ranges north into the state of Bahia, is found only in Coastal Atlantic Rain Forest (Mata Atlântica), and is the most morphologically dive...

  8. Relationship between Learning Problems and Attention Deficit in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…

  9. Colonization of cacao seedlings by Trichoderma stromaticum, a mycoparasite of the witches’ broom pathogen, and its influence on plant growth and resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichoderma stromaticum is a mycoparasite of the cacao witches' broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa. This beneficial fungus is being used in Bahia, Brazil to control the witches' broom disease under field conditions. The endophytic potential of this biocontrol agent was studied in both sterile ...

  10. A Holistic Approach to Family Planning Counseling and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaves, Lushanhya Coutinho; And Others

    A family planning clinic which was part of a large public maternity hospital in Salvador Bahia, Brazil received a grant to expand its services and to evaluate a service model focusing on client counseling and education. The counseling, education, and service provision process included individual pre-consultation with a nurse, group education and…

  11. SURVEY FOR EGG PARASITOIDS ATTACKING CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN NORTH FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the natural enemies of Cactoblastis cactorum, a cactus moth native from Argentina, has increased since its accidental introduction to Bahia Honda Key, Florida, in October 1989. In 1957, C. cactorum was introduced onto the Caribbean islands of the Greater Antilles to manage the invasive p...

  12. FROM ORGANISMS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA ACROSS TWO LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical step in estimating the ecological effects of a toxicant is extrapolating organism-level response data across higher levels of biological organization. In the present study, the organism-to-population link is made for the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to a range of...

  13. CHANGES IN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measures of physiological performance and energy metabolism were made on an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) exposed throughout a life cycle to the defoliant DEF. EF concentrations > 0.246 ug/l reduced survival through release of the first brood. oung production was completely ...

  14. Household Survival in the Face of Poverty in Salvador, Brazil: Towards an Integrated Model of Household Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, William P.

    1988-01-01

    Compares the survival strategies of low-income urban households in a squatter settlement in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil with those of such households in other regions. Suggests, uses, and criticizes a simple additive model of survival household activities. Identifies important factors that emerge, and suggests issues for further research. (Author/BJV)

  15. Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

    1993-01-01

    Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

  16. [12th International workshop on Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabalais, J.W.; Nordlander, P.

    1999-10-15

    The twelfth international workshop on inelastic ion surface collisions was held at the Bahia Mar Resort and Conference Center on South Padre Island, Texas (USA) from January 24-29, 1999. The workshop brought together most of the leading researchers from around the world to focus on both the theoretical and experimental aspects of particle - surface interactions and related topics.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND LITTER FAUNA IN DIFFERENT COCOA AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize the density and diversity of meso and macro-fauna of soils located under cacao agrosystems of southern Bahia, Brazil. The researched areas studied were: Cacao improved with Erythrina spp. shade tree (CRE); Cacao under an improved cabruca (CRC); Cacao ...

  18. Unveiling the Mirror: Afro-Brazilian Identity and the Emergence of the Community School Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones de Almeida, Adjoa Florencia

    2003-01-01

    Afro-Brazilian residents of urban favelas (outlying, unincorporated slums) have established community schools in response to lack of public schools. A study of three such community schools in Salvador, Bahia, focused on social justice issues, school efforts to rescue a Black identity denied by Brazil's official "racial democracy" rhetoric,…

  19. Yoruba Cosmology and Culture in Brazil: A Study of African Survivals in the New World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jacob U.

    1979-01-01

    Yoruba cultural, religious, and linguistic traditions have been preserved to a great extent in Brazil, especially in the province of Bahia. Although many Afro-Brazilian religions have historically been considered lower-class, today Candomble and other religious/cultural practices are gaining social acceptance on a national level. (GC)

  20. Relationship between Learning Problems and Attention Deficit in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The

  1. 40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-trichlorobenzenes shall be tested in accordance with this section. (1) Marine invertebrate acute toxicity testing—(i... toxicity of the above chlorobenzene isomers to marine invertebrates. (ii) Test standards. The marine invertebrate (mysid shrimp, Mysidopis bahia) acute toxicity testing for 1,2,3- and...

  2. 40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-trichlorobenzenes shall be tested in accordance with this section. (1) Marine invertebrate acute toxicity testing—(i... toxicity of the above chlorobenzene isomers to marine invertebrates. (ii) Test standards. The marine invertebrate (mysid shrimp, Mysidopis bahia) acute toxicity testing for 1,2,3- and...

  3. 40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-trichlorobenzenes shall be tested in accordance with this section. (1) Marine invertebrate acute toxicity testing—(i... toxicity of the above chlorobenzene isomers to marine invertebrates. (ii) Test standards. The marine invertebrate (mysid shrimp, Mysidopis bahia) acute toxicity testing for 1,2,3- and...

  4. 40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-trichlorobenzenes shall be tested in accordance with this section. (1) Marine invertebrate acute toxicity testing—(i... toxicity of the above chlorobenzene isomers to marine invertebrates. (ii) Test standards. The marine invertebrate (mysid shrimp, Mysidopis bahia) acute toxicity testing for 1,2,3- and...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF VIRUS RESISTANT TRANSGENIC PAPAYAS EXPRESSING THE COAT PROTEIN FROM A BRAZILIAN ISOLATE OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS (PRSV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Translatable and untranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the State of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of Carica papaya L. The biolistic system was used to transform secondary soma...

  6. Academic and Diversity Consequences of Affirmative Action in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Porsha; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, Brazilian universities have been implementing affirmative-action policies to correct the racial, social and ethnic disparities in university admissions. An examination of the social-inclusion policies at three public universities in Brazil--the University of Brasilia, the Federal University of Bahia and the State University of…

  7. USE OF MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION (TIE) METHODS IN DETERMINING CAUSES OF TOXICITY TO FISH IN A MARINE AQUARIUM FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We obtained a water sample containing broken pieces of a tropical coral reef decor that was suspected of causing fish toxicity in a major aquarium. A toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) was performed using three species: a mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia; inland silvers...

  8. EFFECT OF DIFLUBENZURON ON AN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data are reported for tests exposing a small, estuarine crustacean, Mysidopsis bahia, to diflubenzuron (Dimilin, TH-6040, (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea)) in flowing seawater. Tests were conducted in intermittent flows from a diluter or continuous flowing water i...

  9. Academic and Diversity Consequences of Affirmative Action in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Porsha; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, Brazilian universities have been implementing affirmative-action policies to correct the racial, social and ethnic disparities in university admissions. An examination of the social-inclusion policies at three public universities in Brazil--the University of Brasilia, the Federal University of Bahia and the State University of

  10. 77 FR 44715 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    .... ARAUJO MONZON, Elvira, Avenida Ramon Lopez Velarde No. 3240, Colonia Presidentes de Mexico, Culiacan... No. 1585, Colonia Nuevo Culiacan, Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico; DOB 03 Jun 1975; POB Culiacan, Sinaloa....V. 9. MONZON ARAUJO, Ofelia, Calle Bahia de Topolobampo No. 1628, Colonia Nuevo Culiacan,...

  11. 78 FR 64961 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Mechanisms of Sensory, Perceptual, and Cognitive Processes Study Section, October 03, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to October 04, 2013, 05:30 p.m., Melrose Hotel, 2430..., 78 FR 55266-55267. The meeting will be held at the Bahia Hotel, 998 W. Mission Bay Drive, San...

  12. Clinical outcome and vertical transmission variability among canine Neospora caninum isolates in a pregnant mouse model of infection.

    PubMed

    Dellarupe, Andrea; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Jiménez-Ruiz, Elena; Schares, Gereon; Unzaga, Juan Manuel; Venturini, María Cecilia; Ortega-Mora, Luis M

    2014-03-01

    We compared the clinical outcome and vertical transmission of six canine Neospora caninum isolates using a pregnant BALB/c model. Four of the isolates were obtained from oocysts of naturally infected dogs (Nc-Ger2, Nc-Ger3, Nc-Ger6 and Nc-6Arg) and two were from diseased dogs with neurological signs (Nc-Bahia and Nc-Liv). The dams were inoculated with 2×106 tachyzoites of each isolate at day 7 of pregnancy. Morbidity, mortality and the antibody responses were evaluated in both the dams and the offspring, as was parasite transmission to the progeny. The mortality rates varied from 100% in Nc-Bahia and Nc-Liv-infected pups to 19% or less for those infected with the isolates from oocysts. The vertical transmission rates varied from 9 to 53% for N. caninum from oocysts, compared with 100% for the Nc-Liv and Nc-Bahia isolates. All dams showed specific IgG responses against tachyzoite and rNc-GRA7 antigens, confirming Neospora infection. The highest IgG levels were detected in mice inoculated with the Nc-Liv and Nc-Bahia isolates. These results demonstrate marked differences in virulence between the N. caninum isolates obtained from oocysts and neurologically affected dogs. This variability could help us to explain the differences in the outcome of the infection in definitive and intermediate hosts. PMID:24148606

  13. Unveiling the Mirror: Afro-Brazilian Identity and the Emergence of the Community School Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones de Almeida, Adjoa Florencia

    2003-01-01

    Afro-Brazilian residents of urban favelas (outlying, unincorporated slums) have established community schools in response to lack of public schools. A study of three such community schools in Salvador, Bahia, focused on social justice issues, school efforts to rescue a Black identity denied by Brazil's official "racial democracy" rhetoric,

  14. Host specificity testing and examination for plant pathogens reveals that the gall-forming psyllid, Calophya latiforceps (Hemiptera: Calophyidae), is safe to release for biological control of Schinus terebinthifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi) is one of the worst upland exotic weeds in Florida. Foreign exploration for natural enemies led to the discovery of a pit-galling psyllid, Calophya latiforceps (Hemiptera: Calophyidae), in the state of Bahia, Brazil in 2010. Crawlers of C. latifor...

  15. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A disease of the central nervous system in goats was observed in the municipalities of Juazeiro, Casa Nova and Curaça, state of Bahia, and Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The disease was produced experimentally in two goats by the administration of dry Turbina cordata mixed with...

  16. Asymmetry and polarity of the South Atlantic conjugated margins related to the presence of cratons: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrs-Martnez, Miguel; Prez-Gussiny, Marta; de Monserrat Navarro, Albert; Morgan, Jason P.

    2015-04-01

    Tectonic asymmetry of conjugated passive margins, where one margin is much narrower than the conjugate one, is commonly observed at many passive margins world-wide. Conjugate margin asymmetry has been suggested to be a consequence of lateral changes in rheology, composition, temperature gradient or geometries of the crust and lithosphere. Here we use the South Atlantic margins (from Camamu/Gabon to North Santos/South Kwanza) as a natural laboratory to understand conjugate margin asymmetry. Along this margin sector the polarity of the asymmetry changes. To the North, the Brazilian margin developed in the strong Sao Francisco craton, and this constitutes the narrow side of the conjugate pair. To the South, the Brazilian margin developed in the Ribeira fold belt, and the margin is wide. The opposite is true for the African side. We have thus numerically analysed how the relative distance between the initial location of extension and the craton influences the symmetry/asymmetry and polarity of the conjugate margin system. Our numerical model is 2D visco-elasto-plastic and has a free surface, strain weakening and shear heating. The initial set-up includes a cratonic domain, a mobile belt and a transition area between both. We have run tests with different rheologies, thickness of the lithosphere, and weak seeds at different distances from the craton. Results show asymmetric conjugated margins, where the narrower margin is generally the closest to the craton. Our models also allow us to study how the polarity is controlled by the distance between the initial weakness and the craton, and help to understand how the presence of cratonic domains affects the final architecture of the conjugated margins.

  17. Evaluating green infrastructure in urban environments using a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Pedro; Correia, Otília; Lecoq, Miguel; Munzi, Silvana; Vasconcelos, Sasha; Gonçalves, Paula; Rebelo, Rui; Antunes, Cristina; Silva, Patrícia; Freitas, Catarina; Lopes, Nuno; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Forested areas within cities host a large number of species, responsible for many ecosystem services in urban areas. The biodiversity in these areas is influenced by human disturbances such as atmospheric pollution and urban heat island effect. To ameliorate the effects of these factors, an increase in urban green areas is often considered sufficient. However, this approach assumes that all types of green cover have the same importance for species. Our aim was to show that not all forested green areas are equal in importance for species, but that based on a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach it is possible to value green infrastructure in urban environments. After evaluating the diversity of lichens, butterflies and other-arthropods, birds and mammals in 31 Mediterranean urban forests in south-west Europe (Almada, Portugal), bird and lichen functional groups responsive to urbanization were found. A community shift (tolerant species replacing sensitive ones) along the urbanization gradient was found, and this must be considered when using these groups as indicators of the effect of urbanization. Bird and lichen functional groups were then analyzed together with the characteristics of the forests and their surroundings. Our results showed that, contrary to previous assumptions, vegetation density and more importantly the amount of urban areas around the forest (matrix), are more important for biodiversity than forest quantity alone. This indicated that not all types of forested green areas have the same importance for biodiversity. An index of forest functional diversity was then calculated for all sampled forests of the area. This could help decision-makers to improve the management of urban green infrastructures with the goal of increasing functionality and ultimately ecosystem services in urban areas. PMID:26777032

  18. Quantitative determinations and imaging in different structures of buried human bones from the XVIII-XIXth centuries by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence - Postmortem evaluation.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, D; Dias, A A; Carvalho, M; Carvalho, M L; Santos, J P; Henriques, F R; Curate, F; Pessanha, S

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a non-commercial triaxial geometry energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) setup and a benchtop µ-XRF system were used to identify postmortem contamination in buried bones. For two of the individuals, unusually high concentrations of Cu and Pb, but also Zn (in one individual) were observed. The pigments of the burial shroud coverings have been identified as the source of contamination. Accurate and precise quantitative results were obtained by nondestructive process using fundamental parameters method taking into account the matrix absorption effects. A total of 30 bones from 13 individuals, buried between the mid-XVIIIth to early XIXth centuries, were analyzed to study the elemental composition and elemental distribution. The bones were collected from a church in Almada (Portugal), called Ermida do Espírito Santo, located near the Tagus River and at the sea neighbourhood. The triaxial geometry setup was used to quantify Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb of powder pressed bone pellets (n=9 for each bone). Cluster analysis was performed considering the elemental concentrations for the different bones. There was a clear association between some bones regarding Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb content but not a categorization between cortical and trabecular bones. The elemental distribution of Cu, Zn and Pb were assessed by the benchtop μ-analysis, the M4 Tornado, based on a polycapillary system which provides multi-elemental 2D maps. The results showed that contamination was mostly on the surface of the bone confirming that it was related to the burial shroud covering the individuals. PMID:27216663

  19. Impact of El Niño/Southern Oscillation on Visceral Leishmaniasis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Carlos Roberto; Ziller, Mario; Latif, Mojib

    2002-01-01

    We used time-series analysis and linear regression to investigate the relationship between the annual Niño-3 index from 1980 to 1998 and the annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, during 1985–1999. An increase in VL incidence was observed in the post-El Niño years 1989 (+38.7%) and 1995 (+33.5%). The regression model demonstrates that the previous year’s mean Niño-3 index and the temporal trend account for approximately 50% of the variance in the annual incidence of VL in Bahia. The model shows a robust agreement with the real data, as only the influence of El Niño on the cycle of VL was analyzed. The results suggest that this relationship could be used to predict high-risk years for VL and thus help reduce health impact in susceptible regions in Brazil. PMID:12194766

  20. Spelaeogammarus titan, a new troglobitic amphipod from Brazil (Amphipoda: Bogidielloidea: Artesiidae).

    PubMed

    Senna, André R; Andrade, Luiz F; Castelo-Branco, Lucas P; Ferreira, Rodrigo L

    2014-01-01

    A new troglobitic species of the amphipod family Artesiidae Holsinger, 1980 is described from a cave in the municipality of Santa Maria da Vitória, in the Brazilian state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Spelaeogammarus titan sp. nov. differs from the others in the genus by its body length, rising up to 18.3 mm, the antenna 1 with accessory flagellum 6-articulate, propodus of the first gnathopod 1.8 X longer than basis, the largest in the genus, coxa 5 with posterior lobe slightly concave, inner ramus of pleopods with 10 to 13 setae, outer ramus of uropod 3 with 22 simple setae, and telson with 1 apical plus 3 subapical stout setae in each lobe. With this study, the knowledge of Spelaeogammarus is improved to 5 species, all of them exclusive to caves in the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. A comparative table with the diagnostic characters of the species of Spelaeogammarus is provided. PMID:25543923

  1. Description of the male of Tityus kuryi Lourenço, 1997 and notes about males of Tityus stigmurus (Thorell, 1877) and Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922 (Scorpiones, Buthidae)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Maria Dulcinéia Sales; Porto, Tiago Jordão; Lira-da-Silva, Rejâne Maria; Brazil, Tania Kobler

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The male of Tityus kuryi Lourenço, 1997 is described for the first time. Despite being very similar to the female, the male presents more robust metasomal segments. Additionally, the distribution of the sexual populations of another two species of the T. stigmurus complex is reported herein: T. serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922 and T. stigmurus (Thorell, 1877). Males of T. serrulatus were, until now, restricted to the Minas Gerais State (Southwestern region of Brazil), and with new records reported here, its known distribution now encompasses the Northeastern region of Brazil. Males of T. stigmurus were previously recorded only for two municipalities in the State of Bahia, and here we present eight new records for Bahia State and one for Pernambuco State. We present a key to related species of the T. stigmurus complex based on morphology and coloration pattern. PMID:25152686

  2. ['Our mulattos are more exuberant'].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Mariza

    2008-01-01

    Raimundo Nina Rodrigues (1862-1906) will still engender considerable debate in the academic world. The centennial of his death, for which this translation has been made, has merited a special editions of the prestigious Gazeta Medica da Bahia and other newspapers in the state of Bahia. Nevertheless, his books have not become any more accessible or well known. Almost all of them have been out of print, in some cases for over one hundred years. The text published here, "Miscegenation, degeneracy and crime", is especially interesting, both for the ethnography, which deserves to be revisited, and because of the author's use of genealogies and case studies, unprecedented in Brazil at that time. PMID:19824326

  3. Human bocavirus in acute gastroenteritis in children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Gubio Soares; Silva Sampaio, Madina Lyve; Menezes, Aline Dorea Luz; Tigre, Dellane Martins; Moura Costa, Lilia Ferreira; Chinalia, Fabio Alexandre; Sardi, Silvia Ines

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological surveillance for Human Bocavirus (HBoV) was conducted on 105 fecal specimens from children with acute gastroenteritis in Bahia, Brazil. Among of a total 105 stool samples, 44 samples were positive for HBoV as detected by nested-PCR. Of the 44 positive samples, co-infections with other enteric viruses (Norovirus, Adenovirus, and Rotavirus) were found in 12 pediatric patients. Mixed infections among HBoV with Norovirus were frequently observed in this population. The phylogenetic analysis identified the presence of HBoV-1, and HBoV 2A species. This study shows that HBoV is another viral pathogen in the etiology of acute gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Brazil. PMID:26059266

  4. [Infant mortality among the black population of Brazil, 1960-1980].

    PubMed

    Tamburo, E M

    1987-08-01

    This is a comparative analysis of infant mortality trends for the period 1960-1980 among blacks, whites, and mixed race population groups in Brazil, based on data from official sources. The impact of marital and educational status is considered. The study is confined to the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul, and Sao Paulo. An appendix on the methodological issues involved is included. PMID:12341690

  5. Endecous apterus: a new species of cave cricket from northeast Brazil, with comments on the use of subterranean habitats by Luzarinae crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae: Luzarinae).

    PubMed

    Souza-Dias, Pedro G B; Bolfarini, Márcio P; Nihei, Silvio S; De Mello, Francisco A G

    2014-01-01

    In this study we describe the first apterous species of Endecous Saussure (1878), collected in two caves at Ituaçu, Bahia State, Brazil. In Brazil, Endecous is the most widespread cricket in hypogean environments and its species can colonize caves and inhabit the entrance and the aphotic zones; Endecous species can also be found in the litter, rock gullies, crevices, burrows, and any natural cavities. The use of subterranean habitat by Endecous crickets and its related genera are discussed. PMID:24872041

  6. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Thais Elias; Salino, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyatheasubincisa, Cyclodiumtrianae, Elaphoglossumstenophyllum, Hypoderrisbrauniana, Pleopeltisstolzei, Thelypterisarcana, Thelypteriscomosa, Thelypterisvaldepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodiumflagellare, Tectariaheracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophilasalvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurumcostatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypterisrolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains. PMID:25829857

  7. Búsqueda de los sitios de observación del tránsito de Venus de 1882 en territorio argentino. II. Bahía Blanca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milesi, G. E.; Vázquez, R. A.

    We present here the results of an investigation that allowed us to determine the precise site of the Temporary Astronomical Station; settled in the city of Bahia Blanca; Provincia de Buenos Aires; in order to observe the transit of Venus in front of the solar disk on 6 December 1882. Our work sets the geographical coordinates of the station and clears up some confusion about its true location. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  8. Two new troglobitic Newportia (Newportia) from Brazil (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha).

    PubMed

    De Ázara, Ludson Neves; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Newportia (Newportia) spelaea n. sp. and Newportia (N.) potiguar n. sp. are here described from Bahia and Rio Grande do Norte State, respectively. These two species show highly troglomorphic traits, such as elongation of antennae, legs, ultimate legs, tergites, pronounced depigmentation and reduced sclerotization of the cuticle. Both species occur in caves located in a semi-arid biome (Caatinga) and can be considered troglobites. PMID:25543635

  9. Cryptops (Cryptops) spelaeoraptor n. sp. a remarkable troglobitic species (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Azara, Ludson Neves; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Cryptops (Cryptops) spelaeoraptor is here described from Toca do Gonçalo cave, Bahia state, Brazil. This species presents highly troglomorphic traits and can be separated from all other species of Cryptops by possessing a unique trait in Scolopendromorpha: the ultimate pair of legs presents saw teeth on each of the prefemur to tarsus 2 (rather than being concentrated on the tibia and tarsus 1) numbering 28+30+14+17+17. PMID:24990047

  10. Acute aquatic toxicity studies of Gulf of Mexico water samples collected following the Deepwater Horizon incident (May 12, 2010 to December 11, 2010).

    PubMed

    Echols, B S; Smith, A J; Gardinali, P R; Rand, G M

    2015-02-01

    The potential for the Deepwater Horizon MC-252 oil incident to affect ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) was evaluated using Americamysis bahia, Menidia beryllina and Vibrio fischeri (Microtox® assay). Organisms were exposed to GOM water samples collected in May-December 2010. Samples were collected where oil was visibly present on the water surface or the presence of hydrocarbons at depth was indicated by fluorescence data or reduced dissolved oxygen. Toxicity tests were conducted using water-accommodated fractions (WAFs), and oil-in-water dispersions (OWDs). Water samples collected from May to June 2010 were used for screening tests, with OWD samples slightly more acutely toxic than WAFs. Water samples collected in July through December 2010 were subjected to definitive acute testing with both species. In A. bahia tests, total PAH concentrations for OWD exposures ranged from non-detect to 23.0 μg L(-1), while WAF exposures ranged from non-detect to 1.88 μg L(-1). Mortality was >20% in five OWD exposures with A. bahia and three of the WAF definitive tests. Total PAH concentrations were lower for M. beryllina tests, ranging from non-detect to 0.64 μg L(-1) and non-detect to 0.17 μg L(-1) for OWD and WAF exposures, respectively. Only tests from two water samples in both the WAFs and OWDs exhibited >20% mortality to M. beryllina. Microtox® assays showed stimulatory and inhibitory responses with no relationship with PAH exposure concentrations. Most mortality in A. bahia and M. beryllina occurred in water samples collected before the well was capped in July 2010 with a clear decline in mortality associated with a decline in total PAH water concentrations. PMID:25016336

  11. [Two pairs of brothers with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): case reports].

    PubMed

    Robazzi, Teresa Cristina M V; Rios, Gabriela; Castro, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    This is a case report of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in two pairs of brothers followed in the department of pediatric rheumatology, Universidade Federal da Bahia. Genetic involvement in JIA pathogenesis is clear and the risk of recurrence among siblings supports this contribution. An important landmark of this discovery involves the acknowledgment of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphism contribution to JIA development susceptibility. Despite many advances, the numerous available studies cannot explain several implicit mechanisms in JIA pathogenesis yet. PMID:25563760

  12. [Parasitism in Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) by Encarsia hispida De Santis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), in papaya, in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lourenção, André L; Fancelli, Marilene; Costa, Valmir A; Ribeiro, Nicolle C

    2007-01-01

    Infestation of Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) was observed in October 2004, in papaya plants of cultivar Sunrise Solo, under screenhouse conditions, in Cruz das Almas, State of Bahia, Brazil. In infested leaves, around 20% of parasitism on nymphs was verified. Leaves with parasitized nymphs were kept in laboratory until emergence of the parasitoid, identified as Encarsia hispida De Santis. This is the first time that this parasitoid was detected on T. variabilis nymphs in Brazil. PMID:17420874

  13. Production of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Inoculum in Aeroponic Culture †

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ling-Ling L.; Sylvia, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) and industrial sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) colonized by Glomus deserticola, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices were grown in aeroponic cultures. After 12 to 14 weeks, all roots were colonized by the inoculated vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Abundant vesicles and arbuscules formed in the roots, and profuse sporulation was detected intra-and extraradically. Within each fungal species, industrial sweet potato contained significantly more roots and spores per plant than bahia grass did, although the percent root colonization was similar for both hosts. Mean percent root colonization and sporulation per centimeter of colonized root generally increased with time, although with some treatments colonization declined by week 14. Spore production ranged from 4 spores per cm of colonized root for G. etunicatum to 51 spores per cm for G. intraradices. Infectivity trials with root inocula resulted in a mean of 38, 45, and 28% of bahia grass roots colonized by G. deserticola, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices, respectively. The germination rate of G. etunicatum spores produced in soil was significantly higher than that produced in aeroponic cultures (64% versus 46%) after a 2-week incubation at 28°C. However, infectivity studies comparing G. etunicatum spores from soil and aeroponic culture indicated no biological differences between the spore sources. Aeroponically produced G. deserticola and G. etunicatum inocula retained their infectivity after cold storage (4°C) in either sterile water or moist vermiculite for at least 4 and 9 months, respectively. PMID:16347548

  14. Mitochondrial DNA variability in populations of Centris aenea (Hymenoptera, Apidae), a crop-pollinating bee in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, V S; Aguiar, C M L; Oliveira, E J F; Costa, M A; Santos, G M M; Silva, J G

    2013-01-01

    Centris spp are oil-collecting solitary bees that are valuable pollinators of crops such as Brazil nut, cashew, and acerola. We investigated the genetic variability of populations of C. aenea in the northeastern region of Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from 59 individuals from 6 locations in the States of Pernambuco and Bahia and a 600-650-bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI/COII region amplified by PCR, followed by digestion with the restriction enzymes DraI and SspI. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed eight different haplotypes among the populations. Haplotype A1, revealed by DraI, was the most frequent (50%), and haplotypes A3 and A4 were exclusive to Feira de Santana, Bahia and Morro do Chapéu, Bahia, respectively. Among the haplotypes revealed by SspI, B2 was the most frequent (37%) and B3 was exclusive to Feira de Santana. This information revealing high haplotype diversity will be useful for developing management strategies for Centris, especially because of increasing interest in the rearing and/ or relocation of these bees for crop pollination. PMID:23546967

  15. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) geographical isolates from Brazil and comparison to other isolates from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Muller, Isabel C; Andrade, Thales P D; Tang-Nelson, Kathy F J; Marques, Maria R F; Lightner, Donald V

    2010-01-25

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a viral pathogen that has caused significant economic losses in shrimp farming. Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) (open reading frame [ORF] 94, 125 and 75), a large deletion (ORF 23/24) and a transposase were proposed as molecular markers for genotyping. WSSV-infected shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were collected in 2 Brazilian regions (Santa Catarina and Bahia) from 2005 to 2008. DNA was extracted and PCR of the variable regions was performed, followed by sequencing. All Santa Catarina samples showed the same number of repeats for the minisatellites analyzed. Bahia samples showed a different pattern for the regions, indicating that there are at least 2 different WSSV genotypes in Brazil. Both Brazilian isolates have an 11453 bp deletion in ORF 23/24 when compared with WSSV-TW (Taiwan), which has the full sequence for this locus. The Brazilian WSSV isolates were compared with WSSV isolates from other countries in the Americas (USA, Panama, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua); the repeat number patterns for the 3 VNTR regions analyzed were different between the Brazilian isolates and the other western-hemisphere isolates. This may be due to mutations in WSSV after its introduction into the different countries. Our results also show that WSSV found in Bahia and Santa Catarina very likely originated from different sources of contamination. PMID:20225670

  16. Taxonomy of recent Adeonidae (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from Brazil, with the description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana C S; Souza, Facelucia B C; Sanner, Joann; Vieira, Leandro M

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the taxonomy of the cheilostome genera Adeonellopsis MacGillivray, 1886 and Reptadeonella Busk, 1884 in Brazil. Of the six species previously reported in Brazilian waters, we include redescriptions of Adeonellopsis subsulcata (Smitt, 1873), Reptadeonella bipartita (Canu & Bassler, 1928) and Reptadeonella costulata (Canu & Bassler, 1928). Four new species of Reptadeonella are described: Reptadeonella aspera n. sp., Reptadeonella brasiliensis n. sp. (previously misidentified as Reptadeonella violacea), Reptadeonella cucullata n. sp. and Reptadeonella leilae n. sp. Reptadeonella aspera n. sp., from Bahia State, is characterized by rugose frontal calcification, a tubular peristome, small suboral avicularium and elliptical spiramen. Reptadeonella brasiliensis n. sp. is the commonest intertidal species in NE Brazil; it is distinguished from other Brazilian Reptadeonella in having a nodular peristome, large subperistomial areolar pore and zooids with one or two frontal pores frequently replaced by a suboral avicularium and crescentic spiramen. Reptadeonella cucullata n. sp., from Espírito Santo and Bahia states, has a hood-like peristome, large subperistomial areolar pore, suboral avicularium with curved mandible and denticulate spiramen. Reptadeonella leilae n. sp., described from Bahia State, has a frontal shield with small granules, tubular peristome, semilunar to semicircular subperistomial areolar pore and circular spiramen. Diagnostic characters of Reptadeonella species are discussed. PMID:26623902

  17. Interaction between Cities and Climate Change: Modelling Urban Morphology and Local Urban Planning Scenarios from Open Datasets across European Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Bart; Stevens, Catherine; Grommen, Mart

    2015-04-01

    Cities are characterised by a large spatiotemporal diversity of local climates induced by a superposition of various factors and processes interacting at global and regional scales but also at the micro level such as the urban heat island effect. As urban areas are known as 'hot spots' prone to climate and its variability over time leading to changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves, it is of crucial importance to capture the spatial heterogeneity resulting from variations in land use land cover (LULC) and urban morphology in an effective way to drive local urban climate simulations. The first part of the study conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission focusses on the extraction of land surface parameters linked to urban morphology characteristics from detailed 3D city models and their relationship with openly accessible European datasets such as the degree of soil sealing and disaggregated population densities from the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC). While it has been demonstrated that good correlations can be found between those datasets and the planar and frontal area indices, the present work has expanded the research to other urban morphology parameters including the average and variation of the building height and the sky view factor. Correlations up to 80% have been achieved depending on the considered parameter and the specific urban area including the cities of Antwerp (Belgium), Berlin (Germany) and Almada (Portugal) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. Moreover, the transferability of the established relations has been investigated across the various cities. Secondly, a flexible and scalable approach as a function of the required the level of detail has been elaborated to update the various morphology parameters in case of integration with urban planning data to analyse the local impact of future land use scenarios, climate adaptation strategies and mitigation measures in an effective way by comparing the future occupation of the soil against metrics derived from existing soil sealing data from the EEA.

  18. Response of Urban Systems to Climate Change in Europe: Heat Stress Exposure and the Effect on Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart; Grommen, Mart

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heavy rain- and windstorms, floods, drought, heat waves, etc. The summer 2003 European heat wave was the hottest summer on record in Europe over the past centuries leading to health crises in several countries like France and caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. The main risks induced by global climate change in urbanised areas are considered to be overheating and resulting health effects, increased exposure to flood events, increased damage losses from extreme weather conditions but also shortages in the provision of life-sustaining services. Moreover, the cities themselves create specific or inherent risks and urban adaptation is often very demanding. As most of Europe's inhabitants live in cities, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of climate variability on urban areas and their populations. The present study focusses on the identification of heat stress variables related to human health and the extraction of this information by processing daily temperature statistics of local urban climate simulations over multiple timeframes of 20 years and three different European cities based on recent, near future and far future global climate predictions. The analyses have been conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (Belgium), Berlin (Germany) and Almada (Portugal) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. Apart from the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect), additional heat stress parameters such as the average number of heat wave days together with their duration and intensities have been covered during this research. In a subsequent step, the heat stress variables are superposed on relevant socio-economic datasets targeting total population and its distribution per age class as well as vulnerable institutions such as hospitals, schools, rest homes and child/day care facilities in order to generate heat stress exposure maps for each use case city and various climate, urban planning and mitigation scenarios. The specifications and requirements for the various scenarios have been consolidated in close collaboration with the local stakeholders during dedicated end-users workshops. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for evolving towards sustainable and climate resilient cities.

  19. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The Distributional Ecology of the Maned Sloth: Environmental Influences on Its Distribution and Gaps in Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2014-01-01

    The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

  1. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Danielle de Oliveira; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira de Siqueira, Marinez; Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2014-01-01

    The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

  3. Short-term methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving water to marine and estuarine organisms. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, D.J.; Morrison, G.E.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Peltier, W.H.; Heber, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    This manual describes six short-term (one hour to nine days) estuarine and marine methods for measuring the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to five species; the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina; the mysid, Mysidopsis bahia; the sea urchin, Arbacia punctualata; and the red macroalga, Champia parvula. The methods include single and multiple concentration static renewal and static nonrenewal toxicity tests for effluents and receiving waters. Also included are guidelines on laboratory safety, quality assurance, facilities, and equipment and supplies; dilution water; effluent and receiving water sample collection, preservation, shipping, and holding; test conditions; toxicity test data analysis; report preparation; and organism culturing, holding, and handling.

  4. Dispersed oil toxicity tests with biological species indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fucik, K.W.; Carr, K.A.; Balcom, B.J.

    1994-08-01

    Static and flowthrough aquatic acute toxicity testing protocols were utilized on eggs and larvae of seven commercially important invertebrates and fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. Test organisms were exposed to Central and Western Gulf oils, dispersed oil, and Corexit 9527. Species included brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), inland silverside (Menidia berylina), and spot (Leiosomus xanthurus). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) was also tested because gulf menhaden were not available. Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) were evaluated as part of a chronic toxicity assessment.

  5. A new species of Scolopocryptops Newport: a troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede from a remarkable siliciclastic area of eastern Brazil (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopocryptopidae, Scolopocryptopinae)

    PubMed Central

    Chagas-Jr, Amazonas; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus sp. n., a new troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede species. The species was found in a remarkable siliciclastic karst area of Eastern Brazil, in three caves of the Chapada da Diamantina, in the state of Bahia. Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus sp. n. is close to Scolopocryptops miersii Newport, 1845 and Scolopocryptops ferrugineus macrodon (Kraepelin, 1903) but differs from them by troglomorphic features, such as depigmentation, long appendages and a thin cuticle. This new species is the second troglobitic scolopocryptopine described and is the first discovered in Brazil. PMID:25829851

  6. A new species of Margaromantis Piza, 1982 (Insecta: Mantodea) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A second species of the Neotropical mantid genus Margaromantis Piza, 1982, Margaromantis nigrolineata sp. n. is described from Bahia, Brazil. This new species can be recognized by the presence of a transverse black strip between compound eyes in the vertex; fore femora exhibiting black calluses on the inner face; lacking yellowish strips over the transverse veins on the metathoracic wings; left dorsal phallomere with rectangular ventral lamina, elongated and grooved lateral process, and a flattened, but not twisted apical process that is upwardly recurved. PMID:25698900

  7. Hillary Clinton visits Pathfinder projects in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In October 1995, US First Lady Hillary Clinton visited a maternity hospital in Salvador, Brazil, in which a family planning (FP)/reproductive health program has been administered by Pathfinder International since 1981 with funding from USAID. During her tour of the facility, Clinton learned about the high degree of unmet need for FP in the region which results from a lack of sufficient resources to meet demand. Clinton, in turn, praised the state of Bahia for its emphasis on FP in low-income areas. PMID:12179683

  8. Necrotic enteritis in collared (Pecari tajacu) and white-lipped (Tayassu pecari) peccaries.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Marco Antônio Galvão; Santos, Polyana Silva; Nogueira, Selene Siqueira da Cunha; Lessa, Fabiana; Almeida, Valter dos Anjos; Leça-Júnior, Nilo Fernandes; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama

    2011-12-01

    An outbreak of necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens type C was diagnosed in captive collared (Pecari tajacu) and white-lipped (Tayassu pecari) peccaries housed in the Laboratory of Applied Ethology of Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz located in Ilhéus, State of Bahia, Brazil. Four collared peccaries and three white-lipped peccaries, all juveniles (25-105 days old), were affected. For all affected animals, lethargy and inappetance were followed by sudden death within 24 hours. Histopathology of intestinal wall, culture of C. perfringens type C, and the identification of beta-toxin from intestinal content confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:22204072

  9. A new species of Scolopocryptops Newport: a troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede from a remarkable siliciclastic area of eastern Brazil (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopocryptopidae, Scolopocryptopinae).

    PubMed

    Chagas-Jr, Amazonas; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    We describe Scolopocryptopstroglocaudatus sp. n., a new troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede species. The species was found in a remarkable siliciclastic karst area of Eastern Brazil, in three caves of the Chapada da Diamantina, in the state of Bahia. Scolopocryptopstroglocaudatus sp. n. is close to Scolopocryptopsmiersii Newport, 1845 and Scolopocryptopsferrugineusmacrodon (Kraepelin, 1903) but differs from them by troglomorphic features, such as depigmentation, long appendages and a thin cuticle. This new species is the second troglobitic scolopocryptopine described and is the first discovered in Brazil. PMID:25829851

  10. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salino, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains. PMID:25829857

  11. Amphibious Shelter-Builder Oniscidea Species from the New World with Description of a New Subfamily, a New Genus and a New Species from Brazilian Cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed. PMID:25992909

  12. Tracing coastal and estuarine groundwater discharge sources in a complex faulted and fractured karst aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagomasino, D.; Price, R. M.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater discharge can be an important input of water, nutrients and other constituents to coastal wetlands and adjacent marine areas, particularly in karst regions with little to no surface water flow. A combination of natural processes (e.g., sea-level rise and climate change) and anthropogenic pressures (e.g., urban growth and development) can alter the subterranean water flow to the coastline. For water management practices and environmental preservation to be better suited for the natural and human environment, a better understanding is needed of the hydrogeologic connectivity between the areas of fresh groundwater recharge and the coastal zone. The Yucatan peninsula has a unique tectonic and geologic history consisting of a Cretaceous impact crater, Miocene and Eocene tectonic plate movements, and multiple sea-level stands. These events have shaped many complex geologic formations and structures. The Sian Káan Biosphere Reserve (SKBR), a UNESCO World Heritage Site located along the Atlantic Ocean, overlaps two distinct hydrogeologic regions: the evaporate region to the south and south west, and the Holbox Fracture Zone to the north. These two regions create a complex network of layered, perched and fractured aquifers and an extensive groundwater cave network. The two regions are distinguished by bedrock mineralogical differences that can be used to trace shallow subsurface water from interior portions of the peninsula to the Bahia de la Ascension in the SKBR. The objective of this research was to use naturally occurring geochemical tracers (eg., Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, K+, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen) to decipher the sources of groundwater flow through the coastal wetlands of the SKBR and into the Bahia de la Ascension. Surface water and groundwater samples were collected during two field campaigns in 2010 and 2012 within the coastal and estuarine waters of the SKBR. Additional water samples were collected at select cenotes along the western boundary of the reserve. Fresh groundwater and surface water from the southern evaporate region was characterized as a calcium sulfate water that was identified to contribute the southern portions of the Bahia de la Ascension. In the northern portions of the Bahia, surface and shallow groundwater chemistry was characterized as a more calcium bicarbonate-type water from the north that was undersaturated with respect to calcite. The implications from this preliminary study address the complex nature of the karst aquifer and help define groundwater flow pathways from the interior of the Yucatan peninsula to the coastal wetlands. Further investigation in the area will increase our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of shallow groundwater; and identify areas of coastal brackish groundwater discharge from the mixing of fresh groundwater and seawater.

  13. In the land of giants: the legacy of José Dantas de Souza Leite.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Lima, Plínio M; Germiniani, Francisco M B; Boguszewski, César L

    2015-07-01

    The authors describe the extraordinary contribution to science made by José Dantas de Souza Leite, who graduated from the Bahia School of Medicine and trained in Prof. Charcot's Neurology Service under the supervision of Charcot's most able pupil, Dr. Pierre Marie. Souza Leite presented his doctoral thesis on acromegaly, in Paris in 1890, and in the following year both him and Pierre Marie published a book on the subject, "Essays on Acromegaly". This exceptional work established Souza Leite internationally as an important researcher, and the first Brazilian physician to contribute to the development of neuroendocrinology in an innovative way. PMID:26200060

  14. Amphibious shelter-builder Oniscidea species from the New World with description of a new subfamily, a new genus and a new species from Brazilian cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae).

    PubMed

    Souza, Leila A; Ferreira, Rodrigo L; Senna, André R

    2015-01-01

    The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed. PMID:25992909

  15. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest)--ghost and blue mud shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hornig, S.; Sterling, A.; Smith, S.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic range: The ghost shrimp is found in intertidal areas along the west coast of North America from Mutiny Bay, Alaska, to the mouth of the Tijuana River, San Diego County, California; MacGinitie (1934) and Ricketts and Calvin (1968) reported finding specimens as far south as El Estuario de Punto Banda, Baja California Norte, Mexico. The blue mud shrimp is found from southeastern Alaska to San Quentin Bay (Bahia de San Quentin) in Baja California Norte. The general distribution of the two species in the Pacific Northwest is identical (Figure 3).

  16. Lead and cadmium concentrations in the hair of fishermen from the Subae River basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F.; Tavares, T.M.; Souza, S.P.; Linhares, P.S.

    1984-04-01

    Previous studies have shown heavy pollution by lead and cadmium in the Subae River basin, State of Bahia, Brazil, caused by a lead smelter. Concentrations of these metals were determined in scalp hair of fishermen from three riverside towns and from a reference town. Increased levels for both metals were associated with increasing proximity to the smelter. Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were higher among fishermen with straight hair than among those with curly hair. The effects of hair washing, hair type, and color and age on metal concentrations in fishermen's hair were studied.

  17. Natural hybridization between Gossypium mustelinum and exotic allotetraploid cotton species.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, I P P; da Silva, J O; Malafaia, G; Silveira, R D D; Barroso, P A V

    2015-01-01

    Cotton has been collected in Brazil for decades for its conservation, evaluation, and the use of its genetic resources. Gossypium mustelinum is an allotetraploid cotton species that only occurs in Brazil, and little is known about its genetic potential for improvement. However, the species is threatened by habitat fragmentation and interspecific hybridization with exotic species of cotton. In this study, we investigated the rate of natural hybridization in two populations of G. mustelinum in Bahia, Brazil, with G. hirsutum and G. barbadense using a set of microsatellite markers. PMID:26535735

  18. Open-path FTIR air quality measurements at a petrochemical complex in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Kagann, R.H.; Neves, N.; Villas Boas, F.

    1994-12-31

    An open-path FTIR sensor was used to determine the characteristic air pollutants at ten different locations in a large petrochemical complex in Bahia, Brazil. These measurements were part of an initial survey in preparation for a measurement program which will use both open path FTIR and GC/MS analysis of collected air samples to characterize the air quality within the complex and to obtain emission rates of the individual sources. In this initial survey, a total 17 different compounds were measured with the FTIR sensor, including the polar species, ammonia and acrylonitrile.

  19. Mössbauer spectrometry as a tool for mining industry: Application to an uranium-bearing mineralization of albitized granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izoret, L.; Rimbert, J. N.; Dumas, F.; Maruejol, P.

    1989-03-01

    Mössbauer Spectrometry is a suitable method to characterize the evolution of the redox conditions during mineralization processes and may be used as a guide of prospection. An application to the prospection of uranium-bearing mineralization associated with an albitized granit located in the Bahia State in Brazil is presented. A calibration of the Mössbauer parameters is performed from a set of appropriate synthetic ferri-diopsides. On the natural samples, the ore deposition, observed by the decreasing of the Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio, is related to an increasing of the oxygen fugacity in the hydrothermal fluids.

  20. Asian genotypes of dengue virus 4 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinho, A C O; Sardi, S I; Paula, F L; Peixoto, I B; Brando, C J; Fernandez, F M C; Campos, G S

    2015-10-01

    Dengue virus, commonly transmitted by mosquitoes, causes a human disease of significant social impact and presents a serious public health problem in Brazil. This report describes the unusual emergence of DENV-4 in northern Brazil after a nearly 30-year-long absence. DENV-4 genotype I is of Asian origin and was identified in the serum of patients receiving treatment at a hospital serving the Salvador area (Brazilian state of Bahia). The identification of dengue virus serotypes through molecular and phylogenetic analysis is essential for predicting disease severity or fatal illness, principally in endemic countries such as Brazil. PMID:25703810

  1. Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae): a New Potential Pest of Eucalyptus and Species Used for Atlantic Rainforest Restoration.

    PubMed

    Mafia, R G; da Silva, J B; Ramos, J F; Mafia, G V; Rosado-Neto, G H; Ferronatto, E M O

    2015-02-01

    Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a new pest of forest species, including eucalyptus (hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis), Joannesia princeps, Mimosa artemisiana, Croton urucurana, Croton floribundus, and Senna multijuga is recorded. The insect attack in clonal eucalyptus plantations and in forest restoration areas between 2010 and 2013 in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brasil, was observed for the first time. The outbreaks generally occurred from September to March. This new potential pest can affect the growth, productivity, and quality of the trees. We recommended monitoring this leaf-eating beetle especially during the critical period of its occurrence. PMID:26013018

  2. Cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebende, G. F.; Filho, A. Machado

    2009-12-01

    We study in this paper a cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers collected in the ferry-boat system (sea route that connects the city of Salvador and Itaparica island, Bahia, Brazil), this study is based on the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method. The DCCA method is designed to investigate power-law cross correlations between different simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity. Here in this paper we show that is possible to discriminate cross-correlation between vehicles and passengers and also identify seasonal components.

  3. Agrarian Social Movements and the Making of Agrodiesel Moral Territories in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, Maya

    In response to widespread concerns about the socio-ecological impacts of agrofuel production and development, particularly for food security, efforts have been made internationally to implement more sustainable forms of producing agrofuels. Brazil's National Program for the Production and Use of Agrodiesel (PNPB), launched in 2004, is one such attempt. Promoted as a socially and environmentally responsible program, the PNPB was made possible through unprecedented alliances between the 'postneoliberal' Brazilian state, the agribusiness sector, and social movements such as the Rural Trade Union's Movement (MSTTR) and the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST). In this research, I critically analyze the unexpected engagement of social movements in the making of agrodiesel territories in semi-arid Bahia, Northeastern Brazil by examining the territorial and moral processes and practices that underlie the production of castor bean (mamona) for agrodiesel. The methodology adopted comprised participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews (n=74) with leaders and members of the MST and the MSTTR in the territories of the Chapada Diamantina and Irece, in central Bahia. Interviews were also conducted with representatives of family farming cooperatives, government institutions, and agrodiesel companies (Petrobras) in the two study areas and in Salvador, capital of Bahia. Research methods also included the collection and critical discourse analysis of archival and other secondary data sources from public and private institutions. Drawing mainly from cultural geography and political ecology literatures, I argue that social movement leaders enable the making of agrodiesel territories mainly through their role as 'agrodiesel gatekeepers'---as legal interveners, managers, and caregivers. Family farmers tend to enable agrodiesel territorial expansion and to disrupt agrodiesel territorial management by not complying with moral prescriptions of loyalty. I see farmers' disloyalty towards their cooperatives as an everyday form of resistance against agrodiesel oppressive and exploitative practices. I suggest that the making of agrodiesel territories (re)produces gendered and racialized '(im)moral' peasants and serves to better contain peasants' movements. By critically analyzing how agrodiesel practices reproduce, homogenize and differentiate certain subjects, natures, and territories, I hope that this research contributes to politicize the moral geographies of agrodiesel development in semiarid Bahia.

  4. Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian Campo Rupestre Vegetation, with Special Reference to Crepuscular Bees

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome. PMID:22208813

  5. Seismic expression of Late Quaternary Banda submarine canyon and fan offshore northern Baja California

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles obtained throughout the inner California continental borderland offshore northwestern Baja California, Mexico, show the presence of numerous modern submarine canyons and associated fans. One set of these, the Banda submarine canyon/fan, is of relatively recent origin, as demonstrated by onlap of the basal fan sediments against an acoustically transparent, presumably hemipelagic deposit. Late Quaternary sedimentation rates inferred from isotopically dated piston core samples place the age of the postulated hemipelagic unit at approximately 650,000 years ago. The Banda submarine canyon heads within the Bahia Todos Santo and passes through a narrow gorge between Punta Banda and Islas Todos Santos. It is proposed that this submarine canyon and fan system formed entirely during late Quaternary time, following the breach of the Punta Banda ridge during a late Pleistocene high sea level stand. The presence of an ancient, buried channel exiting to the north out of Bahia Todos Santos probably marks the head of an earlier submarine canyon which acted as the conduit of clastic sediments from Valle Maneadero to the deep borderland basins. The now active Banda submarine canyon pirated the supply of terrigenous clastics from this older canyon. The active Agua Blanca fault zone cuts across the head of Banda submarine canyon, suggesting that tectonic movements may have played a role in the development of the Banda submarine canyon and fan system.

  6. The use of piezocone tests for high-resolution stratigraphy of Quaternary sediment sequences in the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    de Mio, Giuliano; Giacheti, Heraldo L

    2007-03-01

    Correlations between mapping units of costal sedimentary basin and interpretation of piezocone test results are presented and discussed based on examples from Caravelas strandplain, (State of Bahia), Paranaguá (State of Paraná) and Guarujá bays (State of São Paulo), Brazil. Recognizing that the sedimentary environment was mainly controlled by sea level fluctuations led to the interpretation of transgressive and regressive sedimentary sequences, which is in a good agreement with the sea level fluctuation curves currently accepted for these regions. The interpretation of piezocone test results shows that the sedimentary sequences of Caravelas and Guarujá sites are similar and they have a good correlation to the sea level fluctuation curve accepted for Salvador region, State of Bahia. On the other hand, the piezocone test results from Paranaguá site indicate a different sedimentary sequence from the previous ones, relating to the sea level fluctuation curve accepted for Paranaguá region. The results show the high applicability of piezocone testing for stratigraphical logging and suggest that it is possible to integrate it with other current techniques used for paleo-environmental studies in Brazil, in accordance with recent approaches used in international research on the subject. PMID:17401484

  7. Deaths from homicides: a historical series1

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Flávia Azevedo de Mattos Moura; da Trindade, Ruth França Cizino; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe mortality from homicides in Itabuna, in the State of Bahia. METHOD: study with hybrid, ecological and time-trend design. The mortality coefficients per 1,000 inhabitants, adjusted by the direct technique, proportional mortality by sex and age range, and Potential Years of Life Lost were all calculated. RESULTS: since 2005, the external causes have moved from third to second most-common cause of death, with homicides being responsible for the increase. In the 13 years analyzed, homicides have risen 203%, with 94% of these deaths occurring among the male population. Within this group, the growth occurred mainly in the age range from 15 to 29 years of age. It was ascertained that 83% of the deaths were caused by firearms; 57.2% occurred in public thoroughfares; and 98.4% in the urban zone. In 2012, the 173 homicides resulted in 7,837 potential years of life lost, with each death causing, on average, the loss of 45.3 years. CONCLUSIONS: mortality by homicide in a medium-sized city in Bahia reaches levels observed in the big cities of Brazil in the 1980s, evidencing that the phenomenon of criminality - formerly predominant only in the big urban centers - is advancing into the rural area of Brazil, causing changes in the map of violent homicide in Brazil. PMID:25591098

  8. [Ichthyofauna of the Navidad Bay, Jalisco, México].

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Palomino, B; Pérez Reyes, C; Galván-Magaña, F; Abitía-Cardenas, L A

    2001-03-01

    A check-list and the relative abundance of the ichthyofauna from Bahia de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico is presented. This poorly known area of the eastern Tropical Pacific ocean is characterized by its great fish diversity. A total of 245 fish species (163 genera, 72 families) were collected during the 1994-1995 annual cycle. Vouchers were deposited in Centro de Ecologia Costera, Universidad de Guadalajara. The most important families in number of species were Carangidae (20 species), Haemulidae (20), Serranidae (17), Sciaenidae (13) and Lutjanidae (8); 20 species represented 85% and 80% of relative abundance and biomass respectively. Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caninus, Caranx caballus, Kiphosus analogus and Caranx sexfasciatus, were the dominant species. Most fish species collected in Bahia de Navidad have zoogeographical affinity with the Panamic Province (65%), and in lesser proportion with the Eastern Pacific Ocean (19%), Circumtropical (7%), Mexican Province (5%), Indo-Pacific Ocean (3%) and Gulf of California (0.4%). The great ichthyological affinity between the study area and the southern Gulf of California suggests an extension of the of Gulf southern limit. PMID:11795146

  9. Evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated wastewater and groundwater. Volume 3. Old O-field groundwater. Final report, July 1990-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Turley, S.D.

    1992-03-01

    The toxicity of contaminated Old O-Field (Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground) groundwater and the reduction and/or elimination of toxicity by various treatment processes were evaluated. The study was divided into a bench scale and pilot scale study. The bench scale studies consisted of 48-h definitive acute toxicity tests run with daphnid neonates (Daphnia magna) and juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to untreated Old O-Field groundwater and groundwater treated by metals precipitation, UV oxidation (H 2O2 ), carbon adsorption, and carbon adsorption/biological sludge. The pilot scale studies consisted of several 96-h definitive acute toxicity tests run with two freshwater and two saltwater invertebrates and fish and Ames mutagenicity assays. Acute toxicity tests were run on untreated Old O-Field groundwater and groundwater treated by metals precipitation, UV oxidation (H2O2), air stripping, and carbon adsorption during the pilot scale study. The freshwater invertebrate and fish used in the study were daphnid neonates and juvenile fathead minnows, respectively. The saltwater invertebrate and fish were juvenile mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and juvenile sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Ames tests were run on untreated groundwater, UV oxidation-treated groundwater, and carbon-treated groundwater.... Groundwater, Aquatic, Toxicity, Daphnia, Daphnia magna, Fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, Mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, Sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus.

  10. Composition and source of salinity of ore-bearing fluids in Cu-Au systems of the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xavier, Roberto; Rusk, Brian; Emsbo, Poul; Monteiro, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The composition and Cl/Br – NaCl ratios of highly saline aqueous inclusions from large tonnage (> 100 t) IOCG deposits (Sossego, Alvo 118, and Igarapé Bahia) and a Paleoproterozoic intrusion-related Cu-Au-(Mo-W-Bi-Sn) deposit (Breves; < 50 Mt)) in the Carajás Mineral Province have been analysed by LA-ICP-MS and ion chromatography. In both Cu-Au systems, brine inclusions are Ca-dominated (5 to 10 times more than in porphyry Cu-Au fluids), and contain percent level concentrations of Na and K. IOCG inclusion fluids, however, contain higher Sr, Ba, Pb, and Zn concentrations, but significantly less Bi, than the intrusion-related Breves inclusion fluids. Cu is consistently below detection limits in brine inclusions from the IOCG and intrusion-related systems and Fe was not detected in the latter. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the IOCG inclusion fluids range from entirely evaporative brines (bittern fluids; e.g. Igarapé Bahia and Alvo 118) to values that indicate mixing with magma-derived brines. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the Breves inclusion fluids strongly suggest the involvement of magmatic brines, but that possibly also incorporated bittern fluids. Collectively, these data demonstrate that residual evaporative and magmatic brines were important components of the fluid regime involved in the formation of Cu-Au systems in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  11. Reduced genetic diversity in endemic Brazilian Lymania spp (Bromeliaceae) populations and implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Pampont, V C C; Alves, T F; Martinez, R A; Corra, R X; Gaiotto, F A

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of two sympatric species of Lymania (Bromeliaceae), both endemic to the Atlantic rainforest of southern Bahia (Brazil). Lymania azurea has a restricted occurrence, while Lymania smithii has a wider distribution. Our aim was to provide genetic data to contribute to the design of more efficient conservation strategies for these bromeliads, possibly justifying inclusion in the official Brazilian list of Endangered Species. Up to now, L. azurea has been classified by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment as "data deficient". We sampled four populations of L. azurea throughout its distribution area in southern Bahia and two populations of L. smithii in the same region. Genotyping was performed with 48 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Based on the Jaccard genetic similarity index, L. smithii has greater diversity than L. azurea. An analysis of molecular variation showed greater genetic variance within than between populations for both species. L. azurea was found to have 20% inbreeding, probably due to population fragmentation, with L. smithii showing only 10%. When we analyzed pairs of populations of L. azurea within a conservation unit, we found low population structure (?ST = 0.098), apparently due to a large degree of gene flow between them. In disturbed areas, we found a higher ?ST (0.372). We found low genetic variability for L. azurea, probably as a consequence of habitat fragmentation, supporting the need for its inclusion in the Brazilian list of endangered flora. PMID:24222215

  12. Shallow-water stenopodidean and caridean shrimps from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil: new records and updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Soledade, Guidomar O; Fonseca, Mytalle S; Almeida, Alexandre O

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with a recent collection of stenopodidean and caridean shrimps made in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil, in July and August 2013. Sampling was carried out in the vicinity of Ilha de Santa Bárbara (17°57'49"S 38°41'53"W). Specimens were obtained by hand or using small hand nets in tide pools or under rocks in the intertidal zone. Part of the material was collected by scuba diving in the shallow subtidal, to a maximum depth of 11 m. We obtained a total of 18 species, 12 of which are reported for the first time for the Abrolhos and 4 as new records for the state of Bahia. The distributions of Microprosthema semilaeve (von Martens, 1872), Typton gnathophylloides Holthuis, 1951, Alpheus verrilli (Schmitt, 1924) and Alpheopsis cf. trigona (Rathbun, 1901) are extended from their previously known ranges. The occurrence of Automate cf. rectifrons Chace, 1972 on the Brazilian coast is confirmed. We thus provide an updated checklist of stenopodidean (2 species) and caridean (29 species) shrimps from the Abrolhos Archipelago, incorporating and critically evaluating previous records.  PMID:25661021

  13. DGGE and multivariate analysis of a yeast community in spontaneous cocoa fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A C R; Marques, E L S; Dias, J C T; Rezende, R P

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa bean is the main raw material used in the production of chocolate. In southern Bahia, Brazil, cocoa farming and processing is an important economic activity. The fermentation of cocoa is the processing stage that yields important chocolate flavor precursors and complex microbial involvement is essential for this process. In this study, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoreses (DGGE) was used to investigate the diversity of yeasts present during the spontaneous fermentation of cocoa in southern Bahia. The DGGE analysis revealed a richness of 8 to 13 distinct bands of varied intensities among the samples; and samples taken at 24, 36, and 48 h into the fermentation process were found to group with 70% similarity and showed the greatest diversity of bands. Hierarchical clustering showed that all samples had common operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the highest number of OTUs was found in the 48 h sample. Variations in pH and temperature observed within the fermenting mass over time possibly had direct effects on the composition of the existing microbial community. The findings reported here indicate that a heterogeneous yeast community is involved in the complex cocoa fermentation process, which is known to involve a succession of specialized microorganisms. PMID:26782494

  14. Paralytic shellfish toxins in the chocolata clam, Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae), in Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Gárate-Lizárraga, I; Bustillos-Guzmán, J J; Erler, K; Muñetón-Gómez, M S; Luckas, B; Tripp-Quezada, A

    2004-09-01

    Occurrence and toxic profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in the chocolata clam Megapitaria squalida were investigated. From December 2001 to December 2002, 25 clams were obtained monthly from Bahia de La Paz, Gulf of California. Additionally, net (20 microm) and bottle phytoplankton samples were also collected to identify toxic species. Toxins were analyzed by HPLC with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection. Toxicity in the clam was low and varied from 0.14 to 5.46 microg/STXeq/100 g. Toxicity was detected in December, March, April, June, and August. Toxin profile was composed mainly by STX, GTX2, GTX3, dcGTX2, dcGTX3, C2, dcSTX and B1. Gymnodinium catenatum was the only PST-producing dinoflagellate identified in the phytoplankton samples throughout the study period. G. catenatum was observed mainly in net samples from December 2001 to December 2002; however, in bottle samples, G. catenatum was only observed in five months. Highest abundance (2600 cells l(-1)) was observed in March and the lowest (160 cells l(-1)) in June. G. catenatum mainly formed two-cell chains and rarely four or eight. The presence of PST in net phytoplankton samples support the fact that G. catenatum is the main source of PST in the clams. This study represents the first report of PST toxins in the chocolata clam from Bahia de La Paz. PMID:17465127

  15. Endemic and threatened tetrapods in the restingas of the biodiversity corridors of Serra do Mar and of the Central da Mata Atlântica in eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F D; Van Sluys, M; Bergallo, H G; Alves, M A S

    2005-02-01

    Biodiversity corridors comprise a mosaic of land uses connecting fragments of natural forest across a landscape. Two such corridors have been established along the eastern coast of Brazil: the Serra do Mar and the Central da Mata Atlântica corridors, along which most of the coastal plains are restinga areas. In this study, we analyze the present status of the endemic and endangered terrestrial vertebrates of both corridors. We sampled 10 restingas in both corridors, recording species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Some restingas harbor a relatively large number of endemic species,and two main regions of endemism can be identified along the restingas of both corridors: the coastal restingas from northern Espirito Santo State to southern Bahia State (between Linhares, ES, and Tarancoso, BA), and the coastal region between the restingas of Maricá and Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State. Six species of terrestrial vertebrates considered threatened with extinction are found in the restingas of Serra do Mar and Central da Mata Atlântica biodiversity corridors (Liolaemus lutzae, Formicivora littoralis, Mimus gilvus, Schistochlamys melanopis, and Trinomys eliasi). The region located between the restinga of Maricá and that of Jurubatiba is of special relevance for the conservation of vertebrate species of the restingas of the corridors because a considerable number of threatened species of terrestrial vertebrates are found there. We strongly recommend efforts to develop checklists of threatened faunas for the States of Espirito Santo and Bahia. PMID:16025914

  16. Development of a toxicity identification evaluation procedure for characterizing metal toxicity in marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Cook, H.F.; Kuhn, A.

    2000-04-01

    A multiagency effort is underway to develop whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites and in the conduct of environmental risk assessments. The research approach is based on the predominance of three classes of toxicants in sediments: ammonia, nonpolar organic chemicals, and metals. Here the authors describe a procedure for characterizing acute toxicity caused by metals in whole marine sediments. The procedure involves adding a chelating resin to sediments, resulting in the sequestration of bioavailable metal while not stressing testing organisms. Within the testing chambers, the presence of resin resulted in statistically significant reductions in the overlying and interstitial water concentrations of five metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc) generally by factors of 40 and 200. Toxicity to both the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and mysid Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia) of sediments spiked with the five metals was decreased by approximately a factor of four when resin was present. While very effective at reducing the concentrations and toxicity of metals, the resin has only minor ameliorative effects on the toxicity of ammonia and a representative nonpolar toxicant (Endosulfan). Resin and accumulated metal were easily isolated from the testing system following exposures allowing for the initiation of phase II TIE (identification) procedures. This procedure using the addition of a chelating resin provides an approach for determining the importance of metals to the toxicity of marine sediments. Work is continuing to validate the method with environmentally contaminated sediments.

  17. [Evaluation of Brazilian public policies to promote food security and fight hunger, 1995-2002. 2 - the Workers' Nutrition Program].

    PubMed

    Pacheco Santos, Leonor Maria; Nazaré Araújo, Maria da Purificação; Martins, Maísa Cruz; Veloso, Iracema Santos; Assunção, Marilena Pacheco; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated the Workers' Nutrition Program in Brazil from 1995 to 2002, from a structure-process-results perspective. The methodology involved documental research and a case study in 45 municipalities in the State of Bahia, resulting in 2,389 household interviews. In relation to structure, we analyzed the program's normative evolution until 2002. As for nutritional recommendations, the program shifted from insufficient calorie supply in the 1980s to a positive association between overweight and employment in companies adopting the Workers' Nutrition Program. In Bahia, overall program coverage was insufficient among the 5,120 adults 20 years or older who were interviewed. A significant difference was observed in access to food benefits among workers in the interior of the State (6.1%) as compared to the State capital, Salvador (26.1%). However, targeting was adequate: all workers benefiting from the program in the interior and 92.4% of those in Salvador earned less than five times the minimum wage (approximately US dollars 950/month). It is necessary to improve the program's coverage in the target population in order to raise workers' awareness about their rights and the actions developed by the program. PMID:17653411

  18. Development of marine toxicity data for ordnance compounds.

    PubMed

    Nipper, M; Carr, R S; Biedenbach, J M; Hooten, R L; Miller, K; Saepoff, S

    2001-10-01

    A toxicity database for ordnance compounds was generated using eight compounds of concern and marine toxicity tests with five species from different phyla. Toxicity tests and endpoints included fertilization success and embryological development with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata; zoospore germination, germling length, and cell number with the green macroalga Ulva fasciata; survival and reproductive success of the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus; larvae hatching and survival with the redfish Sciaenops ocellatus; and survival of juveniles of the opossum shrimp Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia). The studied ordnance compounds were 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl), 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The most sensitive toxicity test endpoints overall were the macroalga zoospore germination and the polychaete reproduction tests. The most toxic ordnance compounds overall were tetryl and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene. These were also the most degradable compounds, often being reduced to very low or below-detection levels at the end of the test exposure. Among the dinitro- and trinitrotoluenes and benzenes, toxicity tended to increase with the level of nitrogenation. Picric acid and RDX were the least toxic chemicals tested overall. PMID:11503067

  19. Use of porewater extracts to identify the cause of toxicity in marine and estuarine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, W.S.

    1994-12-31

    Amphipod toxicity tests in the evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal has come under increased scrutiny by the regulated community in the Port of NY/NJ. In recent large-scale assessments of sediment quality in the harbor, the vast majority of locations were deemed highly contaminated when tested with Ampelisca abdita. Toxicity tests, by themselves, do not provide data regarding the cause of toxicity of these sediments. The enormous potential costs associated with most proposed alternatives to ocean disposal of dredged sediments has prompted the investigation of the causative agents of toxicity in sediments of the NY/NJ Harbor. Sediment from five locations in the harbor, selected in consultation with local regulatory agencies to represent diverse potential contamination scenarios, was collected and tested for toxicity to the amphipods Ampelisca abdita, Leptocheirus plumulosus, Eohaustorius estuadus, Rhepoxynius abronius, and the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, using 10-day static bioassays. Porewater from each of the five sediments was extracted under centrifugation and used in water-only toxicity tests with A. abdita, L. plumulosus, R. abronius, E. estuadus, M. bahia, M. beryllina, and Microtox. A Phase 1 Toxicity Identification Evaluation of the three most toxic porewater samples was conducted using several of the species tested. Results from the preliminary investigations and the ongoing TIE`s will be presented. Species selection, porewater toxicity test procedures, and Phase 1, 2, and 3 paradigms will be discussed.

  20. A 7-d toxicity test for marine pollutants using the Pacific mysid Mysidopsis intii. 2: Protocol evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, V.L.; Langdon, C.J.

    1996-10-01

    The sensitivity of the Pacific coast mysid Mysidopsis intii to pollutants was compared in 7-d toxicity tests with that of the Gulf coast mysid M. bahia and the Pacific coast mysid Holmesimysis costata. Survival and growth responses of M. intii to zinc (maximum acceptable toxicant concentration [MATC] survival and growth, 152 {micro}g/L) were as sensitive as survival of both M. bahia (MATC survival, 152 {micro}g/L) and H. costata (MATC survival, 152 {micro}g/L). In contrast, the 7-d test for M. intii was less sensitive (MATC growth and survival, 4.99 mg/L) than the test for H. costata (MATC survival, 1.99 mg/L) when sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the toxicant. Interlaboratory evaluation of the 7-d test for M. intii exposed to SDS indicated that the test was reliable. The mean test results for the group of participating laboratories were not significantly different from those of a group of three in-house tests, indicating that shipping and handling did not affect mysid sensitivity to SDS. Mysid growth was not as sensitive to SDS as survival in the interlaboratory tests. Although there were significant differences in median lethal concentration (LC50) values among participating laboratories, coefficients of variation of LC50 and MATC survival values among laboratories were 10.3 and 37%, respectively. These coefficients were comparable to those reported for interlaboratory tests with H. costata.

  1. Fibropapillomatosis in green turtles Chelonia mydas in Brazil: characteristics of tumors and virus.

    PubMed

    Rodenbusch, C R; Baptistotte, C; Werneck, M R; Pires, T T; Melo, M T D; de Ataíde, M W; Testa, P; Alieve, M M; Canal, C W

    2014-10-16

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a benign neoplasia that affects physiological functions of sea turtles and may lead to death. High prevalence of FP in sea turtle populations has prompted several research groups to study the disease and the associated herpesvirus, chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5). The present study detected and quantified ChHV5 in 153 fibropapilloma samples collected from green turtles Chelonia mydas on the Brazilian coast between 2009 and 2010 to characterize the relationship between viral load and tumor characteristics. Of the tumor samples collected, 73 and 87% were positive for ChHV5 in conventional PCR and real-time PCR, respectively, and viral loads ranged between 1 and 118.62 copies cell⁻¹. Thirty-three percent of turtles were mildly, 28% were moderately and 39% were severely affected with FP. Skin samples were used as negative control. High viral loads correlated positively with increasing FP severity in turtles sampled on the Brazilian coast and with samples from turtles found dead in the states of São Paulo and Bahia. Six viral variants were detected in tumor samples, 4 of which were similar to the Atlantic phylogenetic group. Two variants were similar to the western Atlantic/eastern Caribbean phylogenetic group. Co-infection in turtles with more than one variant was observed in the states of São Paulo and Bahia. PMID:25320033

  2. Taxonomic guide and historical review of starfishes in northeastern Brazil (Echinodermata, Asteroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Anne Isabelley; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; Pereira Dias, Thelma Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Presently more than 1900 species of sea stars are recognized, of which 77 are recorded for the coast of Brazil. Although the first starfish record in Brazil was published 363 years ago, our knowledge of this fauna remains unsatisfactory from a systematic and ecological point of view, particularly in the north and northeastern regions of the country. This study provides the first annotated list of sea stars from northeastern Brazil. Material described herein is housed at the collections of the Federal University of Paraíba, Federal University of Sergipe, and the Federal University of Bahia, Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo and Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Twenty-one species were identified, belonging to 12 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders. Descriptions of species are provided. Three new occurrences were recorded for northeast Brazil: Astropecten alligator, Luidia ludwigi scotti, and Mithrodia clavigera. Highest diversities of Asteroidea were encountered for the states of Bahia (n = 14 spp), Paraíba (n = 12 spp) and Pernambuco (n = 9 spp). No species were recorded for the states of Maranhão and Sergipe. Sandy substrates and depths below 10 m were the least sampled areas over the continental shelf. Herein we provide a first panorama on the fauna of Asteroidea occurring in the northeast region of Brazil, hopefully to function as a basic reference for biodiversity studies in this poorly studied area. PMID:25408612

  3. Evaluation of the humoral and cellular immune response to different antigens of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in Canindé goats and their potential protection against caseous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Moura-Costa, L F; Bahia, R C; Carminati, R; Vale, V L C; Paule, B J A; Portela, R W; Freire, S M; Nascimento, I; Schaer, R; Barreto, L M S; Meyer, R

    2008-11-15

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a disease that affects goats and sheep, and can cause severe economic losses. In this study, four different antigenic extracts were obtained from the attenuated strain T1, which was isolated in the state of Bahia (Brazil). Forty-four Canindé breed goats were divided in five groups, each receiving a different antigen solution and saline buffer as a control. The humoral response was monitored through the identification of specific IgG by indirect ELISA and Western Blotting, and the production of IFN-gamma was followed in order to observe the activation of cellular response. After twelve weeks of antigen inoculation, the animals were challenged with 2 x 10(5)CFU of a wild strain, also isolated in Bahia, and necropsy was performed on all animals twelve weeks afterwards. It was observed that the attenuated bacteria gave a protection of 33.3%, in addition to the weak humoral response elicited. Animals inoculated with secreted antigen associated with Freund's incomplete adjuvant and oligodeoxynucleotide containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG ODN) showed a strong humoral response, but this inoculation could not prevent the spread of challenge bacteria in the majority of animals. These results demonstrate the immunogenic potential of the attenuated T1 strain in the development of a vaccine against caseous lymphadenitis in goats. PMID:18752855

  4. Rock magnetic properties and paleomagnetic behavior of Neogene marine sediments from northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia, Claudio A.; Wilson, Gary S.

    2014-11-01

    sediments from La Portada and Bahia Inglesa formations located at Mejillones Peninsula and Caldera Port, northern Chile carry multicomponent magnetizations, which can lead to misidentification of the characteristic paleomagnetic vector and consequently, errors in chronostratigraphic and structural interpretation of the strata. Here we present a complete rock magnetic and paleomagnetic behavior study of Neogene sediments from La Portada and Bahia Inglesa formations. Isothermal remanent magnetization, thermal-magnetic susceptibility, magnetic hysteresis, and X-ray diffractometer experiments are combined with paleomagnetic, alternating field, and thermal demagnetization data to determine magnetization history. Remanent magnetizations generally comprises three components: a low blocking temperature (Tb) component, below 150C, close to the present-day field in direction, interpreted as a thermoviscous component; an intermediate Tb component, between 150C and 290C, overprinted by the low and the high Tb components, considered as the survival of the characteristic detrital magnetization; and a high Tb component, above 290C, thought to be of diagenetic origin. Detrital magnetite, titanomagnetite, and low titanium maghemite are identified as the main carrier of the magnetic remanence. Rock magnetic results of a minor group of samples at both locations detected the presence of a high-coercivity mineral, possibly hematite, interpreted to carry the high Tb component and to represent oxidation of minerals in postdepositional processes.

  5. Identification of acute toxicants in New Bedford Harbor sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; McKinney, R.A.; Kuhn, A.; Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH) is a marine Superfund site contaminated with high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. Experiments were conducted to determine the causal toxic agent(s) in pore waters from New Bedford Harbor sediments to amphipods and mysid shrimp. Chemical manipulations to characterize toxicity revealed that pore-water toxicity was organic in nature. Fractionation and subsequent mass spectral identification of peaks in the toxic fraction indicated that PCBs. PAHs, and unknown compounds were present. Comparisons of PAH LC50s and PAH concentrations in this fraction indicated that the toxicity was not due to PAHs because the PAH concentrations were much lower than the reported PAH LC50s. One unknown peak was positively identified as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and the other tentatively identified as pyrazole. Toxicity tests and comparison of toxicity in the blank and toxic fractions eliminated the two unknowns as toxic causal agents. The authors determined the range of PCB LC50s to fall between 10 and 110 ppb for Mysidopsis bahia and Ampelisca abdita. Concentrations of PCBs for the toxic fractions ranged from 12 to 27 ppb. This range falls within the observed PCB LC50s for M. bahia and A. abdita. Based upon these PCB concentrations, they concluded that PCBs were the acute toxic agents in NBH pore waters. Other compounds in the toxic fractions, or compounds that coeluted and were undistinguished from PCBs had minor contributions to the measured toxicity.

  6. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne triclosan in food crops.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Manmeet W; Toor, Gurpal S; O'Connor, George A; Wilson, Patrick C

    2012-09-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial compound commonly found in biosolids. Thus, plants grown in biosolids-amended soil may be exposed to TCS. We evaluated the plant toxicity and accumulation potential of biosolids-borne TCS in two vegetables (lettuce and radish) and a pasture grass (bahia grass). Vegetables were grown in growth chambers and grass in a greenhouse. Biosolids-amended soil had TCS concentrations of 0.99, 5.9, and 11 mg/kg amended soil. These TCS concentrations represent typical biosolids containing concentrations of 16 mg TCS/kg applied at agronomic rates for 6 to 70 consecutive years, assuming no TCS loss. Plant yields (dry wt) were not reduced at any TCS concentration and the no observed effect concentration was 11 mg TCS/kg soil for all plants. Significantly greater TCS accumulated in the below-ground biomass than in the above-ground biomass. The average bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were 0.43 ± 0.38 in radish root, 0.04 ± 0.04 in lettuce leaves, 0.004 ± 0.002 in radish leaves, and <0.001 in bahia grass. Soybean (grain) and corn (leaves) grown in our previous field study where soil TCS concentrations were lower (0.04-0.1 mg/kg) had BAF values of 0.06 to 0.16. Based on the data, we suggest a conservative first approximate BAF value of 0.4 for risk assessment in plants. PMID:22761010

  7. Official crime data versus collaborative crime mapping at a Brazilian city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, P. L.; Jesus, E. G. V.; Sant'Ana, R. M. S.; Martins, C.; Delgado, J. P. M.; Fernandes, V. O.

    2014-11-01

    In July of 2013 a group of undergraduate students from the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, published a collaborative web map called "Where I Was Robbed". Their initial efforts in publicizing their web map were restricted to announce it at a local radio as a tool of social interest. In two months the map had almost 10.000 reports, 155 reports per day and people from more the 350 cities had already reported a crime. The present study consists in an investigation about this collaborative web map spatial correlation to official robbery data registered at the Secretary of Public Safety database, for the city of Salvador, Bahia. Kernel density estimator combined with map algebra was used to the investigation. Spatial correlations with official robbery data for the city of Salvador were not found initially, but after standardizing collaborative data and mining official registers, both data pointed at very similar areas as the main hot spots for pedestrian robbery. Both areas are located at two of the most economical active areas of the city, although web map crimes reports were more concentrated in an area with higher income population. This results and discussions indicates that this collaborative application is been used mainly by mid class and upper class parcel of the city population, but can still provide significant information on public safety priority areas. Therefore, extended divulgation, on local papers, radio and TV, of the collaborative crime map application and partnership with official agencies are strongly recommended.

  8. SAR measurements of coastal features in the NW Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Martinez Benjamin, Juan Jose; Diez, Margarita; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar

    2013-04-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a useful tool to study both marine water dynamics and its pollution, this is relevant near the coastline, where river pollution may be also important. Oil spills and natural slicks are detected with SAR [1-3] to reveal river and vessel pollution as well as the complex eddy and current interaction in the ocean surface near the coastline. In the framework of the ESA and European Union contracts, more than 1000 SAR images of the North-west Mediterranean Sea area taken between December 1996 and December 2008 are presented using self-similar traces that may be used to parametrize mixing at both limits of the Rossby Deformation Radius scale. Results show the ability to identify different SAR signatures and at the same time provide calibrations for the different local configurations of vortices, spirals, oil spills and tensioactive slicks that eventually allow predicting the behaviour of different tracers and pollutants in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to different polarization and intensity levels in satellite imagery can be used to distinguish between natural and man-made sea surface features due to their distinct self-similar as a function of spill parameters, environmental conditions and history of both oil release and weather conditions. (Environmental factors determine [4] spreading, drift and weathering of oil on the sea surface - see: Behaviour oil at sea). Detecting the low contrast patches depends also on the speckle noise which always presents in the image. Application of different filters (available for example in several image processing software (Matlab, Envi, IDL) to the radar data decreases noise level and improves the feature detecting in the image [1] Bezerra, M.O., Diez, M., Medeiros, C., Rodriguez, A., Bahia, E., Sanchez-Arcilla, A. and Redondo, J.M. 1998. Study on the influence of waves on coastal diffusion using image analysis. Applied Scientific Research 59, pp.191-204. [2] Carrillo, A., A., Sanchez,, M.A., Platonov, A., Redondo, J.M. 2001. Coastal and Interfacial Mixing. Laboratory Experiments and Satellite Observations. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, v. B, 26/4. pp. 305-311. [3]Redondo J., Rodriguez A., Bahia E., Falqués A., Gracia V., Sánchez Arcilla A. and Stive M.J.F. (1994). Image Analysis of Surf-Zone Hydrodynamics. Coastal Dynamics'94, ASCE. [4]Rodriguez A., Sánchez-Arcilla A., Redondo, J.M., Bahia E. and Sierra, J.P. (1995): Measurements and modelling of pollutant dispersion in the nearshore region, Water Science and Technology, IAWQ, 32, 10-19.

  9. Play behavior of the golden-headed lion tamarin in Brazilian cocoa agroforests.

    PubMed

    Monteiro de Almeida Rocha, Juliana; Pedreira Dos Reis, Paula; de Carvalho Oliveira, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    During play, primates may become more vulnerable to predation. Our goal was to examine the potential role of predation risk on the play behavior of 3 groups of golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, in shaded cocoa agroforest (cabruca) of Southern Bahia, Brazil. We identified the preferred (and safer) locations on vertical strata during playtime and investigated if frequency and duration of play differed according to group size. All groups preferred to play on the lower levels of vertical strata, which may be perceived as either a safer environment or as a more suitable location for play due to the vegetation structure. The smallest group played less than the others, while the largest group played more and for longer periods. Our data suggest that predation risk can influence where play takes place as well as its frequency and length. PMID:25116696

  10. Proposed biological testing methods for the United States incineration-at-sea research program

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Gentile, J.H.; Schimmel, S.C.; Carr, R.S.; Williams, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration-at-Sea research program, a suite of toxicity tests has been selected for assessing the toxicity of incinerator emissions generated during the combustion of chlorinated wastes. The test organisms for the five short-term chronic tests are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, the myside Mysidopsis bahia, the red macroalga Champia parvula, the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus, and gametes from the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. The durations of individual tests range from 2 hours to 7 days. The endpoints include survival, growth and reproductive effects. The results have demonstrated that the proposed methodologies can be used to test the toxicity of gaseous emissions, and that there appears to be no significant toxicity associated with the combustion products of a carrier fuel oil.

  11. Angiosperms and the Linnean shortfall: three new species from three lineages of Melastomataceae at one spot at the Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Michelangeli, Fabián A.; Aona, Lidyanne Y.S.; Amorim, André M.

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Angiosperms have been found in four short collection trips to the same protected reserve—“Estação Ecológica Estadual de Wenceslau Guimarães”—and neighboring areas in the Atlantic Forest in the south of the Brazilian state of Bahia. These new species belong to three genera from three distinct lineages in the family Melastomataceae: Huberia, Meriania and Physeterostemon. The description of these species represent a good example of a Linnean shortfall, i.e., the absence of basic knowledge about the biodiversity in the area, as well as in tropical forests as a whole. The description of these probably endemic species per se is a signal that this area deserves more attention regarding research and policies, but its consequences go farther: this area has a relevant role as a phylogenetic (both genetic and morphological) stock, and thus is also valuable as a phylogenetic conservation priority. PMID:27019469

  12. Projecting Month of Birth for At-Risk Infants after Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Johansson, Michael A.; Valencia, Diana; Simeone, Regina M.; Hills, Susan L.; Polen, Kara; Jamieson, Denise J.; Petersen, Lyle R.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    The marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in Brazil after a 2015 outbreak of Zika virus (Zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. To project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in Bahia State, Brazil, we incorporated data on reported Zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. We projected that these births would occur through February 2016. Applying similar projections to a hypothetical location at which Zika virus transmission started in November, we projected that full-term infants at risk for Zika virus infection would be born during April–September 2016. We also developed a modifiable spreadsheet tool that public health officials and researchers can use for their countries to plan for deliveries of infants to women who were infected with Zika virus during different pregnancy trimesters. PMID:27088494

  13. Angiosperms and the Linnean shortfall: three new species from three lineages of Melastomataceae at one spot at the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Renato; Michelangeli, Fabián A; Aona, Lidyanne Y S; Amorim, André M

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Angiosperms have been found in four short collection trips to the same protected reserve-"Estação Ecológica Estadual de Wenceslau Guimarães"-and neighboring areas in the Atlantic Forest in the south of the Brazilian state of Bahia. These new species belong to three genera from three distinct lineages in the family Melastomataceae: Huberia, Meriania and Physeterostemon. The description of these species represent a good example of a Linnean shortfall, i.e., the absence of basic knowledge about the biodiversity in the area, as well as in tropical forests as a whole. The description of these probably endemic species per se is a signal that this area deserves more attention regarding research and policies, but its consequences go farther: this area has a relevant role as a phylogenetic (both genetic and morphological) stock, and thus is also valuable as a phylogenetic conservation priority. PMID:27019469

  14. [Embracement: when the user knocks on the door].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Gisele Vieira Dourado Oliveira; Menezes, Tânia Maria de Oliva; Miranda, Adriana Cerqueira; de Araújo, Kênya Lima; Guimãraes, Eleonora Lima Peixinho

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative study conducted between April and June 2010, in a health-care teacher who works in the Family Health Strategy, located in Salvador -Bahia, the study aimed to analyze the perceptions of users about the embracement. Study participants were 12 subjects of both sexes. The data were submitted to categorical analysis, from which emerged four categories: User understanding on embracement; Relationship between the health team and embracement; Embracement as part of accountability, co-responsibility and problem solving; Barriers to embracement. The analysis and discussion of the above categories suggests that the embracement is a proposal on continuous improvement even when there is an effort to achieve them in health practices coming in the intersubjectivity of the subjects involved. PMID:24676076

  15. [Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae)].

    PubMed

    Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro; Román-Valencia, César

    2010-09-01

    Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae). Parodontidae family is a group of Characiformes fishes distributed throughout South America and parts of Panama, except in the basins of the southern Bahia state in Brasil on the Atlantic coast, Patagonia and the Amazon river channel. The family includes three genera: Apareiodon Eigenmann 1916, Parodon Valenciennes 1849 y Saccodon Kner 1863, 28 recognized species and two valid genera: Parodon and Saccodon. Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis is carried out based on type, and topotypic material from Colombia. Significant differences were found in morphometric, meristic, osteologic and color characters. S. dariensis is widely distributed but P. caliensis is restricted to the upper Cauca River drainage. Three species are considered herein as synonyms of S. dariensis: Apareiodon dariensis, A. compressus and S. caucae. Sexual dimorphism is described for both species. PMID:20737840

  16. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 4 January - 21 March 1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, Alex

    2005-06-30

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Maurice Ewing cruise in the South Atlantic Ocean on the A17 WOCE section. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), this cruise was also a part of the French WOCE program consisting of three expeditions (CITHER 1, 2, and 3) focused on the South Atlantic Ocean. The A17 section was occupied during the CITHER 2 expedition, which began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 4, 1994 and finished in Cayenne, French Guyana, on March 21, 1994. During this period the ship stopped in Salvador de Bahia and Recife, Brazil, to take on supplies and exchange personnel. Upon completion of the cruise the ship transited to Fort de France, Martinique. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  17. [Validity of the Experiences of Discrimination scale in a Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Fattore, Gisel Lorena; Teles, Carlos Antonio; Santos, Darci Neves Dos; Santos, Leticia Marques; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2016-01-01

    One of the most widely used tools in epidemiological research on discrimination is the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) scale, used but not validated in Brazil. The objective was to assess the reliability and dimensional structure of the EOD scale in a Brazilian population. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,380 adults in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed testing a two-factor model: experiences of discrimination and concerned about discrimination. The results of CFA showed satisfactory fit, high factor loads, and adequate reliability, confirming the scale's internal consistency. Residual correlations were identified involving items from both factors. The dimensional structure presented in this study highlights the importance of using different measures of discrimination (interpersonal and group) to allow more in-depth future research on the effects of racism on health. PMID:27143308

  18. Phylogeography of Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Brazil, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Silva de Lima, Clayton Pereira; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Pinto da Silva, Eliana Vieira; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Sousa, Edivaldo Costa; Nunes, Keley Nascimento Barbosa; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Abecasis, Ana Barroso; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) reemerged in Roraima State, Brazil, 28 years after it was last detected in the country in 1982. To study the origin and evolution of this reemergence, full-length sequences were obtained for 16 DENV-4 isolates from northern (Roraima, Amazonas, Pará States) and northeastern (Bahia State) Brazil during the 2010 and 2011 dengue virus seasons and for an isolate from the 1982 epidemic in Roraima. Spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-4 introductions in Brazil were applied to envelope genes and full genomes by using Bayesian phylogeographic analyses. An introduction of genotype I into Brazil from Southeast Asia was confirmed, and full genome phylogeographic analyses revealed multiple introductions of DENV-4 genotype II in Brazil, providing evidence for >3 introductions of this genotype within the last decade: 2 from Venezuela to Roraima and 1 from Colombia to Amazonas. The phylogeographic analysis of full genome data has demonstrated the origins of DENV-4 throughout Brazil. PMID:23092706

  19. Learning in the informal spaces and re-signification of the existence of undergraduate students of nursing

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Isabel Silva; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Andrade, Luana Machado

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe the perception of lecturers and undergraduate nursing students regarding the dialogic experience in the informal spaces and its relationship with training in health. METHOD: experiential descriptions were collected in the context of a public university in the non-metropolitan region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using open interviews. These descriptions were analyzed according to the principles of the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. RESULTS: it was revealed that the informal spaces contribute significantly to the construction of knowledge and professional training strengthening teaching and promoting the re-signification of the subjects' experience. CONCLUSION: it is evidenced that the dialogic experience has relevancy for rethinking the teaching-learning process in the university, such that the informal spaces should be included and valued as producers of meanings for the personal and academic life of lecturers and students, with the ability to re-signify existence. PMID:25493667

  20. Coastal nutrification in Brazil: A review of the role of nutrient excess on coral reef demise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Ozeas S., Jr.; Nimmo, Malcolm; Attrill, Martin J.

    2008-03-01

    Coral reefs worldwide have suffered extensive decline in density and diversity. Brazilian coral reefs were spared natural acute stresses that have had key influences on Caribbean and Indo-Pacific corals. Their demise is due mainly to human activities, especially nutrification. This study presents a review of the current state of knowledge of coastal nutrification in Brazil and its role in coral reef demise. Using examples from Bahia State, we describe how nutrient excess has driven a shift from coral to algal dominance of benthic production. Increases in chlorophyll concentration and abundance of filter feeders are also reported. The ecological significance of seasonality and submarine groundwater discharge is discussed, and the article concludes by examining the implications of nutrification for coastal resources management.

  1. [The work of the intensive care nurse: a study on the social representations structure].

    PubMed

    Silva, Iranete Almeida Sousa; da Cruz, Enêde Andrade

    2008-09-01

    This study aims at characterizing the social representations of the nurse in the intensive care unit (ICU) by identifying the central core and the peripheral system. It was carried out in five ICUs from both public and philanthropic teaching, research and assistance hospitals in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil). Data were gathered from ninety nurses by means of free evocation from the phrase: nurse's work in an ICU and then processed with the EVOC software. Analysis was performed by building a four-digit chart based on the structural approach to the theory of social representations. Results point out stress, responsibility, integral care and gratification as the core elements. The peripheral system comprised personal and professional attitudes deemed necessary to perform the work. Therefore, it could be concluded that stress and responsible work are relieved by the gratifying feeling of providing integral care, which demands a range of personal and professional attitudes. PMID:18856125

  2. In search of plumes: a GPR odyssey in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrych, T.J.; Lima, O.A.L. de; Sampaio, E.E.S.

    1994-12-31

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and geoelectrical surveys have been combined to outline underground contaminant plumes of industrial origin within a petrochemical center in Bahia, Brazil. Such plumes are invading the upper phreatic layers of a regional aquifer system which is being exploited for supplying cities and villages in the region, for industrial activities and even for the population of Salvador, the third largest city in Brazil. Three case studies are presented: two are related to conductive plumes localized beneath a metallurgical plant and an effluent treatment plant and another, a DNAPL plume below a dirt petrochemical unit. Resistivity soundings and transverse profiling were useful for a gross delineation of the aquifer structure and the extent of the contamination. GPR processed sections were employed for refining the subsurface stratigraphy and petrophysics as well as for a more precise mapping of the plume boundaries.

  3. Redescription of the advertisement call of Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Pederassi, Jonas; Lima, Mauro Sérgio Cruz Souza; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Souza, Patrícia Dos Santos; Santos, Mayra Caroliny De Oliveira; Silva, Islaíane Costa

    2015-01-01

    The genus Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 is composed by 46 species occuring from north to southern South America, east of the Andes (Frost 2015). Physalaemus albifrons is morphologically differentiated from the other species mainly due to the presence of a second tarsal tubercle located nearly the tibio-tarsal articulation (Bokermann 1966). Physalaemus albifrons occurs in Brazil from north of the State of Maranhão through the states of Piauí, Ceará, Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas, being its more austral occurrence in the State of Minas Gerais (Frost 2015). The advertisement call of P. albifrons was described by Bokermann (1966); however, the description needs improvement by applying new technologies, which we provide herein. PMID:26250286

  4. Delivering genetic education and genetic counseling for rare diseases in rural Brazil.

    PubMed

    Acosta, A X; Abé-Sandes, K; Giugliani, R; Bittles, A H

    2013-12-01

    Brazil is the largest country in Latin America, with an ethnically diverse, Portuguese-speaking and predominantly Roman Catholic population of some 194 million. Universal health care is provided under the Federal Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) but, as in many other middle and low income countries, access to medical genetics services is limited in rural and remote regions of the country. Since there is no formally recognized Genetic Counseling profession, genetic counseling is provided by physicians, trained either in medical genetics or a related clinical discipline. A comprehensive medical genetics program has been established in Monte Santo, an inland rural community located in the state of Bahia in Northeast Brazil, with high prevalences of a number of autosomal recessive genetic disorders, including non-syndromic deafness, phenyketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism and mucopolysaccharidosis VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome). Genetic education, counseling and treatment are locally provided, with a neonatal screening program for MPSVI currently under trial. PMID:23338802

  5. Outbreak of aggressions and transmission of rabies in human beings by vampire bats in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Marcio A S; Sá-Neto, Raymundo J; Brazil, Tania K

    2002-01-01

    Outbreaks of attacks upon human beings by vampire bats seems to be a common phenomenon in several regions of Latin America, but the occurrence of rabies infection among humans bled by vampires, is relatively low. In the present study, two outbreaks of human rabies transmitted by common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are described from Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil, in 1991 and 1992. The first was recorded in Aporá where 308 people were bled by vampires bats and three of these die from this zoonosis. The 2nd outbreak occurred in Conde where only five people were bled by vampires, and two deaths by rabies were registered. Our data suggest that rabies transmitted by bats basically depends on the presence of virus in the vampire bat population and not on the number of humans bled by them. PMID:12621664

  6. Effluents of Shrimp Farms and Its Influence on the Coastal Ecosystems of Bahía de Kino, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón H.; Arreola-Lizárraga, José A.; López-Torres, Marco A.; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Magallón-Barrajas, Francisco; Ibarra-Gámez, Cuauhtemoc

    2013-01-01

    The impact on coastal ecosystems of suspended solids, organic matter, and bacteria in shrimp farm effluents is presented. Sites around Bahía de Kino were selected for comparative evaluation. Effluent entering Bahia Kino (1) enters Laguna La Cruz (2). A control site (3) was outside the influence of effluents. Water quality samples were collected every two weeks during the shrimp culture period. Our data show that the material load in shrimp farm effluents changes biogeochemical processes and aquatic health of the coastal ecosystem. Specifically, the suspended solids, particulate organic matter, chlorophyll a, viable heterotrophic bacteria, and Vibrio-like bacteria in the bay and lagoon were two- to three-fold higher than the control site. This can be mitigated by improvements in the management of aquaculture systems. PMID:23861653

  7. Effluents of shrimp farms and its influence on the coastal ecosystems of Bahía de Kino, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón H; Arreola-Lizárraga, José A; López-Torres, Marco A; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Magallón-Barrajas, Francisco; Ibarra-Gámez, Cuauhtemoc

    2013-01-01

    The impact on coastal ecosystems of suspended solids, organic matter, and bacteria in shrimp farm effluents is presented. Sites around Bahía de Kino were selected for comparative evaluation. Effluent entering Bahia Kino (1) enters Laguna La Cruz (2). A control site (3) was outside the influence of effluents. Water quality samples were collected every two weeks during the shrimp culture period. Our data show that the material load in shrimp farm effluents changes biogeochemical processes and aquatic health of the coastal ecosystem. Specifically, the suspended solids, particulate organic matter, chlorophyll a, viable heterotrophic bacteria, and Vibrio-like bacteria in the bay and lagoon were two- to three-fold higher than the control site. This can be mitigated by improvements in the management of aquaculture systems. PMID:23861653

  8. New records of Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from South America

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Higor D. D.; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; Reduciendo Klementová, Barbora; Svitok, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera occur on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide variety of habitats, including lentic and lotic water bodies, perennial or temporary. In the Neotropical Region, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the geographical distribution of most represented species, which can only be solved by the collection of specimens in under-studied areas and publication of new records and lists of species. New information New records are presented for eleven species of Gerromorpha and ten Nepomorpha, including first records from Venezuela (Brachymetra lata, Limnogonus hyalinus, Rhagovelia evidis, Tenagobia peruana, Limnocoris burmeisteri, L. fittkaui fittkaui, Placomerus micans, and Martarega gonostyla), the Venezuelan State of Bolívar (Cylindrostethus palmaris, R. elegans, R. tenuipes, and Ambrysus stali), the Brazilian State of Bahia (Martarega bentoi), Peru (Euvelia lata), and the Peruvian Region of Arequipa (Microvelia pulchella). PMID:27226754

  9. PARAGANGLIOMA IN THE SPINE: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Gusmão, Maurício Santos; Gomes, Eduardo Gil França; Fernandes, Rony Brito; de Amorim Junior, Djalma Castro; Simōes, Marcus Thadeu Venãncio; Gomes, Joilda Fontes; Freire, Jayme Batista; Matos, Marcos Almeida; Azulay, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors that originate in specialized cells derived from neural crest cells, affecting the region of the carotid or jugular-tympanic artery. They are rare within the spinal canal and, when they occur, they are normally found in the extramedullary intradural compartment of the lumbosacral region. This report presents the case of a 26-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with pathological fracture of the thoracic spine (T10), secondary to paraganglioma, thus causing complete spinal cord injury. Surgical treatment was performed at the General Hospital of the State of Bahia and the complication of excessive bleeding occurred, which indicated that there had been a need for prior embolization. Because of this, the authors recommend caution when evaluating and treating this rare lesion that causes neurological deficits, with careful surgical planning in order to catastrophic complications. PMID:27042633

  10. Projecting Month of Birth for At-Risk Infants after Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Reefhuis, Jennita; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Johansson, Michael A; Valencia, Diana; Simeone, Regina M; Hills, Susan L; Polen, Kara; Jamieson, Denise J; Petersen, Lyle R; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-01

    The marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in Brazil after a 2015 outbreak of Zika virus (Zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. To project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in Bahia State, Brazil, we incorporated data on reported Zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. We projected that these births would occur through February 2016. Applying similar projections to a hypothetical location at which Zika virus transmission started in November, we projected that full-term infants at risk for Zika virus infection would be born during April-September 2016. We also developed a modifiable spreadsheet tool that public health officials and researchers can use for their countries to plan for deliveries of infants to women who were infected with Zika virus during different pregnancy trimesters. PMID:27088494

  11. [Non-fatal work-related accidents in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Santana, Vilma; Itaparica, Martha; de Amorim, Andréa M; Araújo Filho, José Bouzas; Araújo, Gustavo; Oliveira, Mônia; Cooper, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    This community-based survey estimates the annual incidence of non-fatal work-related injuries in adolescents and describes their characteristics. Using a random area sampling design, 2,513 households were selected from the city of Salvador, capital of Bahia State, Northeast Brazil. The study population included 361 young people 10 to 20 years of age who answered individual questionnaires on socio-demographic, occupational, and health data. Annual incidence of non-fatal work-related injuries was 6.4%. Among females, most injuries were mild and were related to household chores; some 38.5% required medical care, and 36.4% caused permanent non-disabling lesions. Among males, work-related injuries took place mainly in public byways, and the majority (60.0%) were treated in emergency-care facilities. These results show that work-related injuries need to be considered in adolescent protection policies. PMID:12764456

  12. [Work in the prison system: a study of correctional officers in Greater Metropolitan Salvador, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Silvany Neto, Annibal Muniz; Sena, Gildélia de Miranda; Leal, Alexandre dos Santos; Carneiro, Carina Amorim Pouillard; Costa, Fernanda Pita Mendes da

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify possible associations between working conditions and health among correctional officers in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The study used a stratified proportional random sample of 311 individuals who answered a non-identifiable self-applied questionnaire. The following results were obtained by logistic regression: (a) psychologically inadequate workplace, insufficient basic work conditions, no leisure time, lack of sports practice, >/=nine years working in the prison system, excessive work hours, >/=48 hours work/week, and inadequate organizational conditions at work were associated with minor psychological disorders; (b) lack of specific training, female gender, >/=48 hours work/week, psychologically inadequate workplace, no leisure time, and lack of sports practice were associated with persistent stress, (c) age >/=45 years, >/=nine years working in the prison system, excessive work hours, lack of sports practice, inadequate basic and organizational work conditions, and minor psychological disorders were associated with health complaints. PMID:12048606

  13. [Elisabeth Kübler-Ross-Nurekr renewal center: health care based on the hospice model].

    PubMed

    de Santana, M T; Nascimento, M F; de Almeida, C F

    2000-01-01

    The hospice model is a movement concerned with the care of the dying patient and its family. It's main aim is to comfort and give nursing assistance to terminal patients, giving the patient and family more decision making power than it would have in regular hospitals. The Hospice is not a geographic, territorial space, defined as what we call an "institution". It is more than that, it is an attitude, a behavior towards death and dying. This paper reports on the experience of a multi-professional team' which implemented hospice model care in the Nursing School of the Federal University of Bahia. The study showed that there is a need to understand and study tanathology, to change one's changing attitude towards death and dying, and to develop the ability to deal with one's own terminability. PMID:12138832

  14. Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil. PMID:26689277

  15. Water quality of runoff from revegetated mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Trouart, J E; Knight, R W

    1985-03-01

    Permanent vegetation plots were established on mixed overburden and topsoiled overburden on a lignite test pit in eastern Texas in 1982. Vegetative treatments included two grass-legume treatments [switchgrass (panicum virgattun) - sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) - subterrancan elover (Trifolitun subterranean) and litte bluestem (Schizachyriun scoparium) - sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) - Illinois hundleflower (Dessmanthus illinoiensis)] and three monocultures [Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), bahia grass (paspalum notatum) and yellow Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans)]. Water was applied to the 0.5m(2) plots using a sprinklertype rainfall simulator and quality of runoff was determined for each plot. Parameters analyzed included: settleable solids, total filterable solids, sediment production, infiltration rate, nitrites, nitrates, total iron and total manganese. Topsoiling significantly increased inliltration and significantly decreased filterable sediments, sediment production and settleable solids. The hydrologie qualities of the switchgrass-sideoats grama-subterranean elover mixture coincided closely with those of the Coastal bermudagrass monoculture. PMID:24221679

  16. Evaluation of the use of Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) frog tissues as bioindicator of metal contamination in Contas River, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correia, Lívia O; Siqueira Júnior, Sérgio; Carneiro, Paulo L S; Bezerra, Marcos A

    2014-10-24

    This paper presents a study on the viability of the use of tissues of the Leptodactylus ocellatus species (Anura Leptodactylidae) as a bioindicator of metal pollution. The study is based on the determination and correlation of the concentrations of manganese, chromium, zinc, nickel, copper and iron in sediments and tissues (skin, muscles and viscera) of the frog Leptodactylus ocellatus collected in the middle region of the Contas River in Bahia, Brazil. The highest levels of the metals studied were found in the viscera of this animal. In this tissue, a higher correlation of the concentration of these metals with those found in sediments was also observed. The concentrations of elements found in the skin and muscles of these amphibians have revealed no correlation with the sediment where they were collected. According to the results obtained, the viscera of the L. ocellatus species presents itself as a good bioindicator of contamination by the metals studied. PMID:25352369

  17. Diet of Physalaemus cf. cicada (Leptodactylidae) and Bufo granulosus (Bufonidae) in a semideciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Santana, A S; Juncá, F A

    2007-02-01

    We determined the diet of the two most abundant anuran species which occur in the litter of a semideciduous forest (Lençóis, Bahia, Brazil), Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus in the dry and rainy seasons. Pitfall traps were used to collect anuran and invertebrate fauna, which showed the availability of prey in the environment. Physalaemus cf. cicada was present in both seasons and Bufo granulosus only in the rainy season. Both species fed mainly on Isoptera and Formicidae. However, there is a difference between the rainy and dry seasons concerning the diet of P. cf. cicada. During the rainy season P. cf. cicada consumed less Isoptera and more Formicidae than in the dry season. In the volumetric sense, Orthoptera was the most important alimentary category for P. cf. cicada and B. granulosus. The Jacobs electivity index indicated that Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus were specialists in Isoptera. PMID:17505759

  18. Evaluation of the use of Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) frog tissues as bioindicator of metal contamination in Contas River, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correia, Lívia O; Siqueira Júnior, Sérgio; Carneiro, Paulo L S; Bezerra, Marcos A

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a study on the viability of the use of tissues of the Leptodactylus ocellatus species (Anura Leptodactylidae) as a bioindicator of metal pollution. The study is based on the determination and correlation of the concentrations of manganese, chromium, zinc, nickel, copper and iron in sediments and tissues (skin, muscles and viscera) of the frog Leptodactylus ocellatus collected in the middle region of the Contas River in Bahia, Brazil. The highest levels of the metals studied were found in the viscera of this animal. In this tissue, a higher correlation of the concentration of these metals with those found in sediments was also observed. The concentrations of elements found in the skin and muscles of these amphibians have revealed no correlation with the sediment where they were collected. According to the results obtained, the viscera of the L. ocellatus species presents itself as a good bioindicator of contamination by the metals studied. PMID:25590699

  19. A new species of Leptodactylus Fitzinger (Anura, Leptodactylidae, Leptodactylinae) from montane rock fields of the Chapada Diamantina, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, Thiago Ribeiro; Leite Felife Sa Fortes; Pezzuti, Tiago Leite

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new species of the Leptodactylusfuscus group on the basis of adult morphology and advertisement call, occurring restricted to montane rock fields of the Chapada Diamantina, northern portion of the Espinhaço Range, central State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. In addition, we re-describe the advertisement call ofL. camaquara from its type locality. Leptodactylus oreomantis sp. nov. represents the first species of the genus occurring restricted to montane rock fields of the Chapada Diamantina, northeastern Brazil, whereas the other three species of the L. fuscus group assumed to be restricted to montane field environments (L. camaquara, L. cunicularius, and L. tapiti) occur in association with mountain ranges of southeastern or central Brazil. PMID:26191589

  20. Mass Spectrometry of Flavonoid Vicenin-2, Based Sunlight Barriers in Lychnophora species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Denise Brentan; Turatti, Izabel Cristina Casanova; Gouveia, Dayana Rubio; Ernst, Madeleine; Teixeira, Simone Pádua; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

    2014-03-01

    Lychnophora salicifolia plants collected from four different places in Brazil (three states: Goias, Minas Gerais and Bahia) revealed a conserved accumulation of vicenin-2, a di-C-glycosyl flavonoid. Quantitative studies by UPLC-MS/MS showed high concentration of vicenin-2 in leaves from sixty specimens of six Lychnophora species. So the tissue distributions of vicenin-2 were evaluated in wild Lychnophora leaves (Asteraceae) by laser based imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to propose its distributions and possible functions for the species analyzed. Mass spectrometric imaging revealed that vicenin-2, unlike other flavonoids, was produced at the top of the leaves. The combination of localization and UV absorption properties of vicenin-2 suggests that it could act as a UV light barrier to protect the plants, since plants are sessile organisms that have to protect themselves from harsh external conditions such as intense sunlight.

  1. Cysticercosis in epileptic patients of Mulungu do Morro Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, I; Veiga, M; Correa, D; Meza-Lucas, A; Mata, O; Garcia, R C; Osornio, A; Rabelo, R; Lucena, R; Melo, A

    2000-09-01

    With the aim to study the magnitude of infection by the metacestode of Taenia solium in a population of epileptic patients in the arid region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil, we examined 200 consecutive cases who attended an ambulatory clinic in the disctrict of Mulungu do Morro. Sixty-six of the patients had a diagnosis of epilepsy. From them 10 (15.2%) presented antibodies against a specific fraction of antigens in Western blot, and 4 (6.0%) had circulating parasite products, as tested by capture ELISA. Only 1 case was positive for antibodies and antigens. We found that the frequency of seropositivity was related to the time without epileptic seizure. We conclude that cysticercosis is endemic in the region of Mulungu do Morro and that it is related to a benign form of epilepsy. PMID:10973100

  2. Power spectrum and Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of tidal records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovallo, Michele; Pierini, Jorge O.; Telesca, Luciano

    2012-10-01

    The time dynamics of tidal fluctuations measured in three sites in Bahia Blanca Estuary (central Argentina), Ingeniero White, Puerto Belgrano and Torre Mareografica, are analyzed. To investigate the time series of the tidal waves we used two different approaches: the power spectral density (PSD) and the Fisher-Shannon (FS) information plane. The PSD permitted: (i) the identification of diurnal, semi-diurnal and higher frequency cycles in all the three tidal signals, and (ii) the detection of two different dynamical regimes (scaling and white-noise), involving respectively timescales lower and higher than about 2-2.5 days. The FS method, which allows to gain insight into the complex structure of a time series, quantifying its degree of organization and order, was applied to the residual tidal series (after removing the main cycles) and permitted to identify a period of low organization in the tidal signal measured at Puerto Belgrano.

  3. [Changes in the forms of industrial production and their effects on workers' health].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Assunção, Ada Avila; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to identify determinants of health in workers of plastic industries. Production organization, machinery from maintenance and productive areas, and workers' characteristics of 14 plastic industries from Greater Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, were described. Data were collected about development policy of each company; marketing, operational procedures; production and quality requirements, and formal rules of work organization. High strain management techniques for production time reduction have been implemented. The increase of work rhythm, reduction of break time, and a situation of high cognitive demand impose to workers anomalous body positioning for performing tasks that imply repetitive movements. Physical and psychosocial demands (repetitive work, lower control of the worker on his own tasks, time pressure and job dissatisfaction) compose a complex of conditions adverse to workers' health. Changes in production management, personnel and business impose new strains into the development of task by the workers and bringing in new risk factors to workers' health. PMID:20640318

  4. Being Yoruba in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sandra Lauderdale

    2011-01-01

    Through the experiences of two West Africans shipped to Bahia as slaves, probably in the 1840s, then sold south to Rio de Janeiro where they met, became lovers, bought their freedom, married, and divorced, I comment on an ongoing debate over the refashioning or transfer of African ethnic identities in American slave societies. The sources in this Brazilian case suggest that previous identities were not suddenly erased, but rather, new layers of understanding and ways of responding were added. Whatever the dynamic of cultural formation, it was memory that crucially bridged the distance between the past they carried with them and the present into which they were thrust; and so it becomes illuminating to reconstruct the plausibly remembered African pasts on which this couple drew to make sense of an unfamiliar Brazilian present. PMID:21574280

  5. Ultrastructural analysis and polymorphisms in Coarazuphium caatinga (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Zuphiini), a new Brazilian troglobitic beetle.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Thais Giovannini; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Coarazuphium caatinga sp. n. occurs in limestone caves located in Campo Formoso municipality, in the Brazilian Caatinga (Bahia, Brazil). The new species is close to C. formoso although they are morphologically distinct by the elytra sinuosity, which is more pronounced in C. caatinga; the aedeagus is more tapered at the tip in this last species. Important traits found in C. caatinga are the variable size presented by the eyes, and the remarkable variability of body pigmentation among specimens; both traits do not seem to be correlated. Coarazuphium Gnaspini, P., Vanin, S.A. & Godoy, N.M., 1998, species exhibit advanced troglomorphic characters in comparison to other Brazilian cave beetles, as are increased extra-optic sensory structures, presence of particular sensilla, and sensory and gustatory receptors. These characters are not detected under routine microscopy and thus require ultrastructural methods for their study. PMID:24870919

  6. A new species of Spelaeogammarus (Amphipoda: Bogidielloidea: Artesiidae) with an identification key for the genus.

    PubMed

    Bastos-Pereira, Rafaela; Ferreira, Rodrigo L

    2015-01-01

    There are five described species of the cave-dwelling amphipods of the genus Spelaeogammarus, all of them inhabiting caves on the Brazilian state of Bahia. A new species of this genus is here described, which is closely related to the already known species S. santanensis and S. titan. Spelaeogammarus sanctus sp. nov. differs from its congeneric species basically by the presence of more than 18 bifid setae on the dorsal margin of uropod 3 outer ramus and telson with one apical and two subapical stout setae, while the other species generally present less setae on the third uropod and more setae on telson. An identification key and an updated table of the Spelaeogammarus species diagnosis are provided, as well as a multivariate statistical approach of morphological variations among the species. PMID:26624139

  7. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species. PMID:25878553

  8. Biology and External Morphology of Immatures of O psiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Neves, D A; Paluch, M

    2016-02-01

    The genus Opsiphanes Doubleday occurs in the Neotropics. Adults belong to the guild of frugivorous butterflies and use as host plants some genera of Arecaceae and Musaceae. The present study provides information on the biology and describes the external morphology of immatures of the species Opsiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger obtained from females collected in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. The development of immatures was monitored and photographed in the laboratory. The larvae were fed with leaves of Dypsis lutescens (Arecaceae), an ornamental plant. The egg stage lasted, on average, 7.2 days. The larval stage had five instars, with an average duration of 48.5 days. The pupal stage lasted 16.5 days. The average growth rate of the head capsule was 1.5 mm. PMID:26341197

  9. Association between eating patterns and body mass index in a sample of children and adolescents in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Nadya Helena Alves dos; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Silva, Luce Alves da; Silva, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between eating patterns and body mass index (BMI) in children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study of 1,247 male and female students, aged between 6 and 12, from public elementary schools in São Francisco do Conde, Bahia State, Brasil. BMI was used to analyze the children's nutritional status. Food consumption frequencies, in addition to demographic and socioeconomic information, were collected for each participant. Dietary patterns were identified through a factor analysis. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.3% (10.2% overweight and 7.1% obese). Two eating patterns, "obesogenic" and "prudent", were identified. The former is characterized by sweets and sugars, typical Brazilian dishes, pastries, fast food, oils, milk, cereals, cakes, and sauces, and was positively associated with increased BMI (ßi = 0.244; p = 0.018). An "obesogenic" dietary pattern was associated with increased BMI. PMID:25388325

  10. The biomedicalisation of illegal abortion: the double life of misoprostol in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zordo, Silvia De

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the double life of misoprostol in Brazil, where it is illegally used by women as an abortifacient and legally used in obstetric hospital wards. Based on my doctoral and post-doctoral anthropological research on contraception and abortion in Salvador, Bahia, this paper initially traces the "conversion" of misoprostol from a drug to treat ulcers to a self-administered abortifacient in Latin America, and its later conversion to aneclectic global obstetric tool. It then shows how, while reducing maternal mortality, its use as an illegal abortifacient has reinforced the double reproductive citizenship regime existing in countries with restrictive abortion laws and poor post-abortion care services, where poor women using it illegally are stigmatised, discriminated against and exposed to potentially severe health risks. PMID:27008072

  11. [Factorial analysis of correspondence of the social representations about nurse nocturnal work].

    PubMed

    Veiga, Kátia Conceição Guimarães; Fernandes, Josicelia Dumet; Paiva, Mirian Santos

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to apprehend the Social Representations of nurses on nocturnal work. It was based on the Theory of Social Representations with qualitative and quantitative approaches. The free evocations of 25 nurses in a public hospital in Salvador-Bahia were collected, that underwent the Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC). The FAC revealed on the opposition game demonstrated, in Factor 1, opposition between shifts service and, in Factor 2, age x length of service. Seized on the semantic universe of nurses the nocturnal work is a Responsibility Work, Hard Work, Initiative Work and Financial Need. The nurses refer to the nocturnal work through representations that give normative character, prescribing attitudes and behaviors socially constructed and accepted as from the category itself, emphasizing the historical development of the profession. Those results indicate the need for strategies that contribute to the development of policies for managing people, considering the specificity, subjectivity and complexity of nocturnal work. PMID:23681374

  12. Use of passive samplers for improving oil toxicity and spill effects assessment.

    PubMed

    Letinski, Daniel; Parkerton, Thomas; Redman, Aaron; Manning, Ryan; Bragin, Gail; Febbo, Eric; Palandro, David; Nedwed, Tim

    2014-09-15

    Methods that quantify dissolved hydrocarbons are needed to link oil exposures to toxicity. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers can serve this purpose. If fibers are equilibrated with oiled water, dissolved hydrocarbons partition to and are concentrated on the fiber. The absorbed concentration (Cpolymer) can be quantified by thermal desorption using GC/FID. Further, given that the site of toxic action is hypothesized as biota lipid and partitioning of hydrocarbons to lipid and fibers is well correlated, Cpolymer is hypothesized to be a surrogate for toxicity prediction. To test this method, toxicity data for physically and chemically dispersed oils were generated for shrimp, Americamysis bahia, and compared to test exposures characterized by Cpolymer. Results indicated that Cpolymer reliably predicted toxicity across oils and dispersions. To illustrate field application, SPME results are reported for oil spills at the Ohmsett facility. SPME fibers provide a practical tool to improve characterization of oil exposures and predict effects in future lab and field studies. PMID:25096583

  13. Taxonomic distinctness and conservation of a new high biodiversity subterranean area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallão, Jonas E; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-03-01

    Subterranean environments, even though they do not possess a primary production (photosynthesis), may present high biodiversity, faunistic originality, endemism, phylogenetic isolations and unique ecological and/or evolution events, in addition to rare taxa. Studies investigating the biological diversity in Neotropical caves are relatively rare and recent, and most of them have been conducted in Brazil. We sampled caves from the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, and through sampling sufficiency tests and richness estimators, we demonstrate that the normatization for the Brazilian cave laws is not adequate for its conservation and that only α diversity index is not enough to verify faunistic patterns. We suggest that a phylogenetic diversity index be more robust and accurate for conservation purposes, particularly the Taxonomic Distinctness index. Moreover, we propose that the sandstone complex caves from Chapada Diamantina National Park need to be classified as being of high subterranean biodiversity in a global scope. PMID:25673471

  14. Determination of bioactivity of chemical fractions of liquid wastes using freshwater and saltwater algae and crustaceans

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, G.E.; Garnas, R.L.

    1983-03-01

    Complex wastes from industrial and municipal outfalls were fractionated chemically and tested for toxicity with freshwater and saltwater algae and crustaceans. The organic fraction of each waste was subfractionated into acid-, base-, and neutral-extractable portions, and the inorganic fraction was subfractionated into its anion and cation components. All wastes affected growth of the algae Skeletonema costatum (saltwater) and Monoraphidium capricornutum (freshwater) or survival of Mysidopsis bahia (saltwater) and Daphnia magna (freshwater). Usually, bioactivity was limited to one or two subfractions. In some cases, algal growth was stimulated by a fraction or subfraction, whereas stimulation was not detected in whole waste. It is suggested that fractionation must be done in order to estimate the full potential impact of complex wastes on aquatic systems. The method can also be used to identify toxic factors before application of cost-effective control technology.

  15. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra).

    PubMed

    Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho

    2002-12-01

    Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil. PMID:12563481

  16. [Voluntary abortion and domestic violence among women attended at a public maternity hospital of Salvador-BA].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Gesteira, Solange Maria Dos Anjos; Lopes, Regina Lúcia Mendonça; Santos Mota, Rosana; Pérez, Bárbara Angélica Gómez; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative study in order to study domestic violence in women with induced abortion. Interviews were conducted with 147 women hospitalized for induced abortion in a public maternity hospital in Salvador, Bahia. The subjects are characterized by mostly women, black, poorly educated, economically dependent on spouses, experienced psychological abuse, physical and sexual abuse committed by their spouses. Almost half of the women were victims of domestic violence during the current pregnancy, and that was the reason for inducing abortion for 67% of them. The study reveals an association between experience of domestic violence and induced abortion. As mental health consequences, they developed symptoms of post trauma stress disorder. It is necessary that the health professionals consider the cues to identify domestic violence as a health problem associated with induced abortion, which requires a transformation on the training model, including domestic violence as a health issue. PMID:22664597

  17. Investigation of an outbreak of endemic coccidioidomycosis in Brazil's northeastern state of Piau with a review of the occurrence and distribution of Coccidioides immitis in three other Brazilian states.

    PubMed

    Wanke, B; Lazera, M; Monteiro, P C; Lima, F C; Leal, M J; Ferreira Filho, P L; Kaufman, L; Pinner, R W; Ajello, L

    1999-11-01

    An outbreak of coccidioidomycosis is described that involved three individuals and eight of their dogs, who had engaged in a successful hunt for nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the environs of Oeiras, a community in Brazil's north eastern state of Piau. Diagnosis was based on clinical, serological and cultural findings. Four of 24 soil samples collected in and around the burrow of an armadillo yielded cultures of Coccidioides immitis, thus establishing the endemicity of that mould in the state of Piau. A literature review revealed that C. immitis, aside from that state, is endemic in three other Brazilian states--Bahia, Cear and Maranho. These four contiguous states have semi-arid regions where climatic conditions and their flora are similar to those that exist in C. immitis's endemic regions in North, Central and South America. PMID:11220226

  18. [Schistosomiasis and the challenge of community participation].

    PubMed

    Alves, P C; Souza, I M; Moura, M A; Cunha, L A

    1998-01-01

    Using a semiotic and hermeneutical approach, the present paper discusses various theoretical elements in the analysis of popular views of schistosomiasis. Based on field work conducted in the State of Bahia, the authors identify two main processes in the construction of meaning related to schistosomiasis and show that depending on the social context of experience the disease may have a primary or secondary meaning for the populations affected by it. The first level of meaning refers to bodily experiences and is shared intersubjectively, whereas the second type is built on the discourse of health professionals. In the latter case, the popular view of the illness is directly linked to discourses and actions previously established by health programs designed for the control of the disease. PMID:9700227

  19. [Identification and treatment of pain in the premature newborn in the intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Santos, Luciano Marques dos; Ribeiro, Isabelle Santos; Santana, Rosana Castelo Branco de

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the parameters used by the nursing staff of a public hospital in Bahia for pain assessment in premature newborns and to describe the interventions used to relieve the pain. This is a qualitative descriptive study that was carried out through semi-structured interviews with ten participants, in the period from December 2008 to January 2009. The data were analyzed through content analysis. The results showed the use of crying and facial expression as the clinical indications of pain premature newborns and that the interviewed participants use, on a non-systematic basis, non-pharmacological measures in order to ease this process. We suggest the introduction of pain as the fifth vital sign to be evaluated and the use of scales, contributing to excellence and humane care. PMID:22911409

  20. [Factors associated with work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector].

    PubMed

    Rios, Marcela Andrade; Nery, Adriana Alves; Rios, Polianna Alves Andrade; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Cardoso, Jefferson Paixão

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incidence of non-fatal work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector and analyze associated socio-demographic, occupational, workplace, and health factors, in a cross-sectional survey of 434 workers in the business district of Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2013. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with accidents. Incidence of accidents in the previous 12 months was estimated at 32.3%, and multivariate analysis showed higher odds of accidents in male sex workers (OR = 1.61), young individuals (OR = 4.62), meat or poultry workers (OR = 9.55), and workers performing heavy physical work (OR = 1.71). The results show the need for public policies to prevent accidents in the informal commercial sector. PMID:26200368

  1. [Health services accessibility in a city of Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cunha, Alcione Brasileiro Oliveira; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2010-04-01

    In order to analyze the implementation of measures targeting accessibility to primary health care in a municipality (county) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, a single case study was performed with two levels of analysis: system and services organization. The data were obtained from semi-structured interviews, observation of routine care, and document analysis. Of the four health units analyzed, three showed intermediate-level implementation of measures targeting accessibility. The Family Health Units showed better performance, due to measures for patient reception and referral to specialized services, but they revealed problems with scheduling of appointments. Despite having defined primary care as the portal of entry into the system and the implementation of a help desk for setting appointments with specialists, there are persistent organizational barriers in the municipality. A specific policy is recommended to improve accessibility, aimed at organization of the services supply in order to change the health care model. PMID:20512213

  2. Sandy beaches contamination by arsenic, a result of nearshore sediment diagenesis and transport (Brazilian coastline)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirlean, N.; Garcia, F.; Baisch, P.; Quintana, G. C.; Agnes, F.

    2013-12-01

    We studied the distribution of As, Fe, Ca and Al in beach sands and near-shore surface sediments along the Brazilian coast from the equatorial zone to Rio de Janeiro state. High concentrations of As (up to 120 mg kg-1) exceeding the environmentally acceptable thresholds were found in the beach sands and near-shore surface sediment in several segments of the studied coast. That increased from north to south. The significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.58) between As and calcium carbonate in the beach sands corroborated the hypothesis that calcareous bioclasts participate in metalloid retention and its accumulation in beach sediments. Most likely, enrichment of As occurs in the oxic horizon of sediments caused by the diagenetic redistribution of various elements. Enrichment of As in beach sands occurs in the coast of Bahia and Espirito Santo states. That is facilitated by clastic material of calcareous algae.

  3. The endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a potential vector of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. PMID:24895865

  4. Xenotime in the Lower Buntsandstein of Central Europe: Evidence from cathodoluminescence investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Detlev K.; Krampitz, Holger; Görgen, Peter; Götte, Thomas; Neuser, Rolf D.

    2006-01-01

    Xenotime and zircon in heavy mineral separates of siliciclastic sediments can easily be distinguished by means of cathodoluminescence (CL). All shades of bright blue, yellow and grey to white colours have been reported for zircon while only bottle green to greenish yellow colours have been found in xenotime in heavy mineral separates of Lower Buntsandstein samples as well as in two samples from crystalline rocks from Bahia (Brazil) and the Karpaty Mts. (Slovakia). The CL-spectra of both minerals are commonly dominated by narrow emission bands of rare earth elements, especially Dy 3+. The two different crystal lattices induce differences in the intensity ratios of the emission lines that are thought to be the reason for the different CL-colours. Additionally, intrinsic broad bands that may occur in the CL-spectra of zircon are missing in the xenotime spectra. The possibility to distinguish minerals with similar optical properties underlines the large potential of cathodoluminescence in sedimentary petrology.

  5. The genome anatomy of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis VD57 a highly virulent strain causing Caseous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sintia; Tiwari, Sandeep; Mariano, Diego; Souza, Flávia; Jamal, Syed Babar; Coimbra, Nilson; Raittz, Roberto Tadeu; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Carvalho, Alex Fiorine de; Pereira, Felipe Luiz; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Leal, Carlos Augusto Gomes; Barh, Debmalya; Ghosh, Preetam; Figueiredo, Henrique; Moura-Costa, Lília Ferreira; Portela, Ricardo Wagner; Meyer, Roberto; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain VD57 (Cp_VD57), a highly virulent, nonmotile, non-sporulating, and a mesophilic bacterium, was isolated from a goat's granulomatous lesion in the municipality of Juazeiro, Bahia State, Brazil. Here, we describe a set of features of the strain, together with the details of its complete genome sequence and annotation. The genome comprises of a 2.5 Mbp long, single circular genome with 2,101 protein-coding genes, 12 rRNA, 49 tRNA and 47 pseudogenes and a G + C content of 52.85 %. Genetic variation was detected in Cp_VD57 using C. pseudotuberculosis strain 1002 as reference, wherein small genomic insertions and deletions were identified. The comparative analysis of the genome sequence provides means to better understand the host pathogen interactions of this strain and can also help us to understand the molecular and genetic basis of virulence of this bacterium. PMID:27066196

  6. The relationship between mental disorders and types of crime in inmates in a Brazilian prison.

    PubMed

    Pondé, Milena P; Caron, Jean; Mendonça, Milena S S; Freire, Antônio C C; Moreau, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    This cross-sectional study conducted in prisons in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, investigated the association between the presence of psychiatric disorders in 462 prisoners and the types of crimes committed by them. Psychiatric diagnosis was obtained by means of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A statistically significant association was found between some psychiatric disorders and specific groups of crime: lifelong substance addiction with sex crimes and homicide; antisocial personality disorder with robbery and with kidnapping and extortion; borderline personality disorder with sex crimes; and lifelong alcohol addiction with fraud and conspiracy and with armed robbery and murder. It was concluded that the mental disorders considered more severe (psychosis and bipolar disorder) were not associated with violent crimes, suggesting that the severity of the psychotic disorder may be the factor that has caused psychosis to be associated with violent crimes in previous studies. PMID:24712866

  7. Two new species of cheilostome bryozoans from the South Atlantic Ocean .

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana Carolina S; Souza, Facelucia B C

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of cheilostome bryozoans are described from Bahia and Espírito Santo States, Brazil-Calyptooecia conuma n. sp. and Hippotrema fissurata n. sp. Both genera are registered for the first time in the South Atlantic Ocean. Inter alia, Calyptooecia conuma n. sp. is characterized by the presence of dimorphic brooding zooids with relatively small orifices and no perioral tubercles, contrasting with bigger non-brooding zooids having larger orifices surrounded by perioral tubercles. Hippotrema fissurata n. sp. differs from congeners in colony morphology and colour, in details of the ooecium and in zooidal metrics. Specimens were collected on varied substrata, commonly calcareous nodules and shells as well as other bryozoans and sponges.  PMID:24872298

  8. Mass Spectrometry of Flavonoid Vicenin-2, Based Sunlight Barriers in Lychnophora species

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Brentan; Turatti, Izabel Cristina Casanova; Gouveia, Dayana Rubio; Ernst, Madeleine; Teixeira, Simone Pádua; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

    2014-01-01

    Lychnophora salicifolia plants collected from four different places in Brazil (three states: Goias, Minas Gerais and Bahia) revealed a conserved accumulation of vicenin-2, a di-C-glycosyl flavonoid. Quantitative studies by UPLC-MS/MS showed high concentration of vicenin-2 in leaves from sixty specimens of six Lychnophora species. So the tissue distributions of vicenin-2 were evaluated in wild Lychnophora leaves (Asteraceae) by laser based imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to propose its distributions and possible functions for the species analyzed. Mass spectrometric imaging revealed that vicenin-2, unlike other flavonoids, was produced at the top of the leaves. The combination of localization and UV absorption properties of vicenin-2 suggests that it could act as a UV light barrier to protect the plants, since plants are sessile organisms that have to protect themselves from harsh external conditions such as intense sunlight. PMID:24603617

  9. Miltefosine in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Brazil: A Randomized and Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Paulo R.; Ampuero, Julia; Guimarães, Luiz H.; Villasboas, Leonardo; Rocha, Ana T.; Schriefer, Albert; Sousa, Rosana S.; Talhari, Anette; Penna, Gerson; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is treated with parenteral drugs for decades with decreasing rate cures. Miltefosine is an oral medication with anti-leishmania activity and may increase the cure rates and improve compliance. Methodology/Principal Findings This study is a randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of miltefosine versus pentavalent antimony (Sbv) in the treatment of patients with CL caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Bahia, Brazil. A total of 90 patients were enrolled in the trial; 60 were assigned to receive miltefosine and 30 to receive Sbv. Six months after treatment, in the intention-to-treat analyses, the definitive cure rate was 53.3% in the Sbv group and 75% in the miltefosine group (difference of 21.7%, 95% CI 0.08% to 42.7%, p = 0.04). Miltefosine was more effective than Sbv in the age group of 13–65 years-old compared to 2–12 years-old group (78.9% versus 45% p = 0.02; 68.2% versus 70% p = 1.0, respectively). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the Sbv and miltefosine groups (76.7% vs. 78.3%). Vomiting (41.7%), nausea (40%), and abdominal pain (23.3%) were significantly more frequent in the miltefosine group while arthralgias (20.7%), mialgias (20.7%) and fever (23.3%) were significantly more frequent in the Sbv group. Conclusions This study demonstrates that miltefosine therapy is more effective than standard Sbv and safe for the treatment of CL caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Bahia, Brazil. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT00600548 PMID:21200420

  10. Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land.

    PubMed

    Xia, H P

    2004-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucumxP. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96% and 91%, respectively, whereas bana had the lowest survival rate of 62%. The coverage and biomass of vetiver were also the highest after 6-month planting. Fertilizer application significantly increased biomass and tiller number of the four grasses, of which St. Augustine was promoted most, up to 70% for biomass, while vetiver was promoted least, only 27% for biomass. Two heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) tested in this trial had different concentrations in the oil shale residue, and also had different contents and distributions in the four grass species. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the four grasses presented a disparity of only 1.6-3.8 times, but their uptake amounts to the two metals were apart up to 27.5-35.5 times, which was chiefly due to the significantly different biomasses among them. Fertilizer application could abate the ability of the four species to accumulate heavy metals, namely concentration of heavy metals in plants decreased as fertilizer was applied. The total amount of metals accumulated by each plant under the condition of fertilization did not decrease due to an increase of biomass. In summary, vetiver may be the best species used for vegetation rehabilitation in oil shale disposal piles. PMID:14575747

  11. Mapping Large-Scale Mechanized Agriculture Across the Brazilian Cerrado Between 2001-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, S. A.; Mustard, J. F.; VanWey, L.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is a global commodities powerhouse. Over the last decade, dynamic changes in agricultural development and land transformations occurred within Brazil's tropical savanna region, the cerrado. This interdisciplinary study uses remote sensing tools to map land cover across more than 3.6 million km2 of cerrado and statistical methods to characterize drivers of this land-cover change. We use the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index 16-day data product and a decision-tree algorithm, proven highly accurate in Mato Grosso (Spera et al. 2014) and here modified for the broader cerrado region, to characterize crop type, cropping frequency, expansion, and abandonment of large-scale mechanized agriculture during the 2001-2013 period. The algorithm exploits phenological differences between forest, pasture and cerrado, and mechanized agriculture. It is parameterized to distinguish between crop rotations in Mato Grosso, Goias, and the new agricultural frontier spanning Maranhao, Tocantins, Piaui, and Bahia (MaToPiBa). Training and validation data were collected using Google's Earth Engine. We map single-cropped soy, corn, and cotton; double-cropped soy/corn and soy/cotton rotations; and irrigated agriculture across these six Brazilian cerrado states. We find that while double cropping dominates in Mato Grosso and Goias, single cropping is still the dominant form of mechanized agriculture in the burgeoning MaToPiBa region. In western Bahia alone, preliminary results show agriculture has expanded by almost 350,000 ha and double cropping has increased by almost 40,000 ha. With MaToPiBa touted as Brazil's latest and last agricultural frontier, we predict that the region will experience a transition similar to that of Mato Grosso during the 2000s—an expansion and intensification of agriculture—which may beget unprecedented ramifications on regional climate processes that can then affect ecosystem health and the economic feasibility of cultivating rain-fed export crops.

  12. [Spatial and biogeographic characterization of macroalgal assemblages from Bahía del Rincón, Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Riosmena-Rodríguez, R; Hinojosa-Arango, G; López-Vivas, J M; León-Cisneros, K; Holguin-Acosta, E

    2005-01-01

    Macroalgal studies in Baja California Sur have dealt mainly with occurrence and seasonality, but some areas are poorly known even for these basic data. Bahia del Rincón-La Rivera is an important high-productivity fisheries area where coastal infrastructure development is under way. A spatial characterization of the marine flora from Bahia del Rincón-La Rivera was done by intensive sampling at different depths and localities with skin and SCUBA diving. At least 500 m2 were surveyed in each site. Additionally. quantitative sampling was done in ten random 25 cm2 quadrates per site. In the intertidal section, density and cover estimates were used. We also investigated the historical records and geographical affinities. A total of 72 species were identified (most were red algae: 62%). We found no general trend in the biogeographical affinities, which varied with each taxonomic group. Most brown algae species were tropical-endemic; red algae temperate-cosmopolite and green algae tropical-cosmopolite. In the spatial assemblage structure we found a high similarity between the intertidal areas, but a low similarity in shallow or deeper areas (3-5 m). This pattern was the same when we compared the abundance of the main species. We suggest that there are significant spatial differences in recruitment and development of the assemblages in relation to vertical distribution (depth) and position along the shore. There is a clear-cut Gelidium-Jania belt in the intertidal zone and a Padina-Dictyota belt below the low tide. Sporadic and year-round species occur in the intertidal zone, annual and perennial species below the low tide line. Sites differ in recruitment and this affects the abundance of other species (such as coraline and Caulerpa species). Temperature and sedimentation affect seasonality, but community structure is relatively constant throughout the year. PMID:17354423

  13. Unusual primitive heteromorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Proceratophrys boiei (Anura, Cycloramphidae, Alsodinae), with description of C-Band interpopulational polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Ananias, Fernando; Modesto, Alvaro Dhimas S; Mendes, Samantha Celi; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

    2007-11-01

    We performed cytogenetic analyses on specimens from three population samples of Proceratophrys boiei from southeastern and northeastern Brazil. We stained chromosomes of mitotic and meiotic cells with Giemsa, C-banding and Ag-NOR methods. All specimens of P. boiei presented a karyotype with a full chromosome complement of 2n=22, metacentric and submetacentric. We observed the secondary constriction within the short arm of pair 8, which was in the same position of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR). NOR heteromorphism was observed within two specimens from the municipality of Mata de São João (northeastern Bahia State). The C-banding evidenced an unusual heterochromatic pattern in the genome of P. boiei. In the southern most population samples (São Paulo State), we observed large blocks of heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes, whereas the northernmost samples (Bahia State) presented a small amount of constitutive heterochromatin. We suppose that this geographic variation in heterochromatin quantities could be due to heterochromatinization of some chromosome regions in the genome of the São Paulo samples. Furthermore, females from São Paulo presented, within chromosome pair 1 from C-banded karyotypes, one homologous chromosome almost heterochromatic, whereas males had heterochromatin restricted to the centromeric region. This unusual heterochromatic arrangement led us to assume that P. boiei owns a ZZ/ZW type of sexual determination system. This finding is very important, as this is the first record of ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes within Cycloramphidae. We believe that the cytogenetic differences found between southeastern and northeastern Brazilian population samples of P. boiei strongly supports the existence of a species complex under the name P. boiei, and the requirement of taxonomic and systematic reviews by morphological, bioacoustical, molecular, and cytogenetic data could define this taxonomic issue in the future. PMID:18031355

  14. [The fisheries and growth of Ark Clams (Arcoida: Arcidae) Anadara tuberculosa in Málaga Bay, Colombian Pacific, 2005-2007].

    PubMed

    Lucero, Carlos; Cantera, Jaime; Neira, Raúl

    2012-03-01

    A. tuberculosa, is the most important bivalve species under exploitation in Colombia. Here, this species is found from Cabo Corrientes (Chocó) to the Ecuador border, in muddy substrates of mangrove forests. In order to determine the growth and the state of fisheries of A. tuberculosa, between December 2005 and April 2007, both, biological (in situ) and commercial studies were performed at Bahia Malaga (Colombian Pacific). The growth was estimated using the general equation of von Bertalanffy, with prior application of the methods of Bhattacharya and Powell-Wetherall. Mortality and exploitation rate were determined using the inverse model of von Bertalanffy. For the biological samplings, a total of 446 individuals of A. tuberculosa (0.64 +/- 0.13 individuals/m2) and 53 individuals (0.05 +/- 0.049 individuals/m2) of Anadara similis were collected. 79% of the catch was below 51mm. In the commercial samplings, 836 individuals of A. tuberculosa (size range: 31.1-92.2mm) were measured, but no A. similis samples were available for this. Recruitment of A. tuberculosa was higher during March, May, July and November. According to the data, A. tuberculosa might be reproducing during December, February, April and August. The data gathered with the biological samples were more reliable on explaining the growth of A. tuberculosa (K=0.332 per year, L(infinity)=88.256mm, t0=0.0556 years) than the one taken from market samples (K=0.256 per year, L(infinity)=89.77mm, t0=0733 years). The high exploitation rate (77%), the low density and the high mortality suggest that A. tuberculosa is in overexploitation state in Bahia Malaga and management strategies are urgently required. PMID:22458219

  15. Summary report of bioassays for the city of Hollywood water plant membrane reject water as it mixed with WWTP effluent in an ocean outfall environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fergen, R.E.; Vinci, P.; Bloetscher, F.

    1999-07-01

    A special bioassay study was conducted to review the impact of the City of Hollywood's Membrane Softening Water Treatment Plant (WRP) reject water as it mixes with the City's Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent. Three sampling periods occurred during 1997. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of the WTP reject water, pre-chlorinated effluent, and combined effluent, and to demonstrate if the combined effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent samples were collected at six sampling points; three were in the plant, while the other three were along the outfall pipeline. Definitive, static renewal bioassay tests were performed using Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina as indicators of potential toxicity. The bioassay tests at 30% effluent concentration indicate that there is not potential toxicity for the pre-chlorinated WTP effluent, WTP reject water, dechlorinate combined effluent at the plant, and chlorinated combined effluent at Holland Park, the riser, and the terminus. The results indicate that the WTP reject water (100%) is not toxic to Menidia beryllina but was toxic to Mysidopsis bahia. When combined with the WWRP effluent, the reject water's impact on the potential toxicity of the commingled effluent was insignificant. All of the tests indicate the combined effluents are not toxic to the species tested at the 30% effluent level. Therefore, potential toxicity concerns were not demonstrated for this outfall discharge and did not prevent FDEP from issuing a permit to the City of Hollywood for the disposal of the combined effluent. Furthermore, these results, in combination with the previous results, indicated that individual bioassay testing for the reject water for regulatory compliance is not required.

  16. Environmental assessment of creosote-treated pilings in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Butala, J.H.; Webb, D.A.; Jop, K.M.; Putt, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    A comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental impact of creosote-treated pilings in the marine environment at Moss Landing Harbor, Moss Landing, California. Four areas of investigation comprising the risk assessment were (1) evaluation of environmental conditions around existing creosote-treated pilings (2) investigating effects related to restoration of pilings (3) assessing creosote migration into surrounding environment, one year after pile-driving and (4) confirmation of creosote toxicity in laboratory studies. Biological and chemical evaluation of the impact of creosote-treated pilings was conducted on surface sheen, water column and sediment samples collected at Moss Landing Harbor. Water samples (surface sheen, water column and sediment pore water) were evaluated using short-term chronic exposures with Mysidopsis bahia, while bulk sediment samples were evaluated with 10-day sediment toxicity tests with Ampelisca abdita. Samples of surface, column water and sediment were analyzed for the constituents of creosote by GC mass spectrometry. In addition, a sample of neat material used to preserve treated pilings represented a reference for the polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Verification of organism response and analyses of field collected samples was performed by conducting 10-day A. abdita sediment and 7-day M. bahia elutriate exposures with creosote applied to clean sediment collected at Moss Landing, Evaluations were also performed to determine the effects of photoinduced toxicity on test organisms exposed to PAHs. The biological and analytical results of the field and laboratory exposures are being used to evaluate and determine risk of creosote-treated pilings on the marine environment.

  17. Ion toxicity and the development of a salinity toxicity relationship (STR) model for marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Tietge, J.E.; Mount, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Salinity in effluents can cause acute toxicity to marine organisms. The toxicity of the water can be due to an excess or deficiency of common ions, which usually are not thought of as toxicants. In order to develop an understanding of this phenomenon, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted to determine the effects of single ion deficiency, single ion excess, multiple ion deficiency, multiple ion excess, and total salinity on survival of three common marine test organisms (Mysidopsis bahia, Cyprinidon variegatus, and Menidia beryllina). The ions which were manipulated in these studies were Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, Mg{sup ++}, Sr{sup ++}, Cl{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}{minus}}, HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and B{sub 4}O{sub 7}{sup {minus}{minus}}. Results indicate that Ca{sup ++} and K{sup +} are essential ions at normal salinities, since the deficiency of these two ions causes mortality. In contrast, the complete deficiency of Mg{sup ++}, Sr{sup ++}, B{sub 4}O{sub 7}{sup {minus}{minus}}, and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} did not affect survival. The single ion excess studies demonstrated that K{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, Mg{sup ++}, and B{sub 4}O{sub 7}{sup {minus}} were acutely toxic in excess at normal salinities. Total salinity studies determined the salinity tolerance range for each species, with upper and lower LC{sub 50}s for Mysidopsis bahia at 44 g/L and 8 g/L, for Cyprinidon variegatus at 73 g/L and < 0 g/L, and for Menidia beryllina at 45 g/L and < 0 g/L. These data will be used to develop a model to predict toxicity due to common ions.

  18. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Farias, Solange Gomes; Rissino, Jorge Dores; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2012-01-01

    The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará). Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern). Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of Rhinophylla pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to Rhinophylla pumilio (pair 15). However, two chromosomes of Mimon crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes described for Rhinophylla pumilio. PMID:24260663

  19. Phenotype analysis of lymphocytes of workers with chronic benzene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Brandão, M M; Rêgo, M A V; Pugliese, L; Clarêncio, J; Bastos, C M; Ferreira, J; Meyer, R; Neves, M; Freire, S M

    2005-10-15

    Lifetime exposure to benzene is associated to a variety of blood disorders, and except for the risk of cancer, almost nothing is known concerning health impairment in individuals who are no longer exposed. In Brazil, this exposure is one of the serious problems in workplaces, and many workers have been laid off their jobs due to this intoxication, particularly in the State of Bahia, the largest producer of benzene in Latin America, which is the area of this study. From a larger study to describe health effects and genetic polymorphisms among workers with chronic benzene poisoning (CBP), this previous specific investigation analyzes the association between CBP and the pattern of sub-populations of lymphocytes. The study was performed with a CBP group (n=24) and a control group with other occupational diseases (n=24); both were selected at the Workers Health Study Center in the State of Bahia, Brazil. Clinical and epidemiologic variables were collected from medical records and from a detailed questionnaire. The average age was similar in the two groups (51.1 and 50.7, respectively). Analyzing the mean proportions of the sub-populations of lymphocytes, statistically significant differences were found for T cytotoxic cells (TCD8) (27.9; 19.4; p=0.002) and T helper memory cell (CD4CD45RO) (31.2; 37.0; p=0.015), respectively, for the CBP group and control group. These results should be viewed with caution because of the small sample size, but they strengthen a previous impression that workers exposed to benzene have their immune system impaired, even in the long term, which may contribute to some disorders and carcinogenesis process. These workers must be strictly followed up in a medical surveillance program. Although this problem has been known for a long time, this is the first attempt to study these specific effects in Brazil. PMID:15913788

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Marcetia DC species (Melastomataceae) and analysis of its flavonoids by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Tonny Cley Campos; de Sena, Amanda Reges; dos Santos Silva, Tânia Regina; dos Santos, Andrea Karla Almeida; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Branco, Alexsandro

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marcetia genera currently comprises 29 species, with approximately 90% inhabiting Bahia (Brazil), and most are endemic to the highlands of the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia). Among the species, only M. taxifolia (A.St.-Hil.) DC. populates Brazil (state of Roraima to Paraná) and also Venezuela, Colombia, and Guyana. Objective: This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of three species of Marcetia (Marcetia canescens Naud., M. macrophylla Wurdack, and M. taxifolia A.StHil) against several microorganism. In addition, the flavonoids were analyzed in extracts by HPLC-DAD. Materials and methods: The tests were made using Gram-positive (three strains of Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (two strains of Escherichia coli, a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another of Salmonella choleraesius) bacteria resistant and nonresistant to antibiotics and yeasts (two strains of Candida albicans and one of C. parapsilosis) by the disk diffusion method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed on the above extracts to isolate flavonoids, which were subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results: Results showed that extracts inhibited the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. The hexane extracts possessed the lowest activity, while the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts were more active. Conclusion: Marcetia taxifolia was more effective (active against 10 microorganisms studied), and only its methanol extract inhibited Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesius). SPE and HPLC-DAD analysis showed that M. canescens and M. macrophylla contain glycosylated flavonoids, while the majority of extracts from M. taxifolia were aglycone flavonoids. PMID:23060695

  1. The Genus Cerion (Gastropoda: Cerionidae) in the Florida Keys

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The systematic relationships and phylogeography of Cerion incanum, the only species of Cerion native to the Florida Keys, are reviewed based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes derived from 18 populations spanning the range of this species and including the type localities of all four described subspecies. Our samples included specimens of Cerion casablancae, a species introduced to Indian Key in 1912, and a population of C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrids descended from a population of C. casablancae introduced onto Bahia Honda Key in the same year. Molecular data did not support the partition of C. incanum into subspecies, nor could populations be apportioned reliably into subspecies based on morphological features used to define the subspecies. Phylogenetic analyses affirmed the derived relationship of C. incanum relative to other cerionids, and indicated a Bahamian origin for the Cerion fauna of southern Florida. Relationships among the populations throughout the Keys indicate that the northernmost populations, closest to the Tomeu paleoislands that had been inhabited by Cerion petuchi during the Calabrian Pleistocene, are the oldest. The range of Cerion incanum expanded as the archipelago that is the Florida Keys was formed since the lower Tarantian Pleistocene by extension from the northeast to the southwest, with new islands populated as they were formed. The faunas of the High Coral Keys in the northeast and the Oölite Keys in the southwest, both with large islands that host multiple discontinuous populations of Cerion, are each composed of well supported clades that are characterized by distinctive haplotypes. In contrast, the fauna of the intervening Low Coral Keys consist of a heterogeneous series of populations, some with haplotypes derived from the High Coral Keys, others from the Oölite Keys. Individuals from the C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrid population inhabiting the southeastern coast of Bahia Honda Key were readily segregated based on their mitogenome lineage, grouping either with C. incanum or with C. casablancae from Indian Key. Hybrids with C. casablancae mitogenomes had haplotypes that were more divergent from their parent mitogenome than were hybrids with C. incanum mitogenomes. PMID:26378443

  2. Zero Tillage cotton systems and soil quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landers, J. N.; de Freitas, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity. Cotton is a deep tap-rooted crop, sensitive to physical and chemical impediments to root development; this has engendered a paradigm of heavy soil preparation operations to remove these. But, ZT can overcome such obstacles, allowing the cotton crop to benefit from cost reductions and a number of other benefits, especially erosion control.. Soil quality has three principal dimensions. Maximum yields only occur when soil fertility, structure and biological activity are in balance. Under Zero Tillage management of Brazilian soils, the processes of nutrient availability, nutrient cycling and efficiency result from increasing SOM and higher CEC. ZT system fertility is also strongly influenced by total annual aerial and root biomass generation; C:N ratios of the biomass, changes in aeration in residue breakdown processes (for roots, dependent on internal drainage), reduced fixation of Phosphorus fertilizers, the possibility of surface application of P and K, use of deep-rooted cover crops to re-cycle nutrients and deleterious effects of over-liming. Soil physical parameters undergo a transformation : greater water holding capacity, a small increase in bulk density (ameliorated by a reversal of soil aggregate breakdown inherent to conventional tillage by the binding action of root exudates and fungal hyphae), enhanced particle aggregate size protects SOM from oxidation; old root holes create semi-permanent macro-pores which facilitate rooting, aeration and rainfall infiltration.. Soil life of all types benefits from ZT management and contributes to soil fertility and structural improvements, plus enhancing certain biological controls of pathogenic organisms and allelopathic control of weeds by root exudates and residue breakdown products. Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity.

  3. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Farias, Solange Gomes; Rissino, Jorge Dores; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará). Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern). Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of Rhinophylla pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to Rhinophylla pumilio (pair 15). However, two chromosomes of Mimon crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes described for Rhinophylla pumilio. PMID:24260663

  4. Use of Doehlert and constrained mixture designs in the development of a photo-oxidation procedure using UV radiation/H₂O₂ for decomposition of landfill leachate samples and determination of metals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Marcos A; Souza, Antônio D S; Oliveira, Rafael V; Oliveira, Djalma M; Cardoso, Luiz A M; Sousa Filho, Hélio R

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes the use of photo-oxidation degradation with UV radiation/H2O2 as sample treatment for the determination of Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni and Co in municipal solid waste landfill leachate by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Three variables (pH, irradiation time and buffer concentration) were optimized using Doehlert design and the proportions of mixture components submitted to UV radiation (leachate sample, buffer solution and H2O2 30%, v/v) were optimized using a constrained mixture design. Using the experimental conditions established, this procedure allows limits of detection of 0.075, 0.025, 0.010, 0.075 and 0.041 µg mL-1, and the precision levels expressed as relative standard (%RSD, 0.5 µg mL-1) were 3.6, 1.8, 1.3, 3.3 and 1.7%, for Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni and Co respectively. Recovery tests were carried out for evaluation of the procedure accuracy and recoveries were between 92 and 106% for the studied metals. This procedure has been applied for the analysis of the landfill leachate collected in Jequié, a city of the southwestern region of the State of Bahia, Brazil. The results were compared with those obtained by acid digestion. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by the two methods based on paired t-test at 95% confidence level. PMID:25806976

  5. Use of neomysis mercedis (crustacea: mysidacea) for estuarine toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, O.M.; Fujimura, R.W.; Finlayson, B.J. )

    1993-03-01

    The mysid Neomysis mercedis was examined as a test organism for use in acute toxicity tests at intermediate salinities characteristic of estuarine waters. Several sensitive invertebrate species are available for marine assessments (mysids) and freshwater tests (cladocerans), but few are available for estuarine toxicity tests. Observations in the laboratory indicate that Neomysis mercedis can be reared successfully at a temperature of 17[degrees]C, a salinity of 2%, and a population density less than 5/L. Brine shrimp nauplii Artemia salina, algae, and commercial foods were used to sustain mysid cultures. Neomysis mercedis is vivaparous and can complete its life cycle in 3-4 months. Neomysis mercedis is as sensitive as or more sensitive to toxicants than the marine mysid Mysidopsis bahia and the freshwater cladocerans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Simocephalus serrulatus. The mean 96-h LC50 values (concentrations lethal to half the test animals) for N. mercedis, in increasing order, were 0.20 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and for malathion, 14 [mu]g/L for carbofuran, 150 [mu]g/L for copper sulfate, 280 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and 1,600 [mu]g/L for molinate. Neonates (5 d postrelease) were generally more sensitive than older juveniles. Coefficients of variation (100[center dot]SD/mean) of LC50 values varied from 21 to 35%. 37 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. MtDNA variability in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) populations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valle, G E; Loureno, A L; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Abreu, A G

    2011-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) consists of a complex of morphologically indistinct biotypes that vary mainly in their capacity to transmit plant viruses and to induce physiological disorders in plants of economic importance. The adaptability of B. tabaci to many regions of the world has fostered the appearance of various biotypes and has resulted in a broad spectrum of host plants. Our goal was to identify which biotypes were present in four B. tabaci populations in Brazil. We quantified genetic variability between and within populations. Three individuals were collected from three host plant species: two populations on soybean (Campinas and Rondonpolis), one on pumpkin (Barreiras) and one on tomato (Cruz das Almas) in three States of Brazil (So Paulo, Mato Grosso, and Bahia). We chose one sequence of the B biotype, obtained from GenBank; the Campinas population, which had been previously characterized as biotype B, was used as a control for this biotype. We also included one sequence of the Q biotype, obtained from GenBank, as an outgroup. The COI region of the mtDNA gene was partially amplified with the CI-J-2195 and L2-N-3014 pair of primers, and the reaction products were sequenced. Based on distance-based algorithm analyses, we found that all haplotypes belong to biotype B, which was confirmed by the haplotype network. Genetic structure analyses showed that the host plant species does not influence population structuring of this pest; only the geographic location mattered. PMID:21968683

  7. Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castellucci, Léa Cristina; de Almeida, Lucas Frederico; Jamieson, Sarra Elisabeth; Fakiola, Michaela; de Carvalho, Edgar Marcelino; Blackwell, Jenefer Mary

    2014-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease. PMID:24863979

  8. [Mefloquine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Laguna-Torres VA; Silva CA; Correia D; Carvalho EM; Magalhães AV; Macêdo Vde O

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in patients infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis at an endemic region. Mefloquine is an oral drug effective against malaria with a prolonged half-life, less toxicity and easier administration than pentavalent antimonials. At Corte de Pedra in the Southern litoral of Bahia State, two randomized groups of ten patients with leishmaniasis were treated. The first group was treated with oral mefloquine, 250 mg per day in a single dose for six days and repeated three weeks later. The second group received meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), 20 mg/kg daily administered intravenously for 20 days. Only one patient in the group treated with mefloquine showed evidence of clinical success. During treatment, one patient with four lesions developed a new lesion. The other three patients with clinical leismaniasis did not show evidence of clinical success after nine weeks of treatment. The group treated with Glucantime showed evident clinical improvement of the skin lesions.

  9. Xylocopa bees in tropical coastal sand dunes: use of resources and their floral syndromes.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, N; Gimenes, M; de Miranda, M D; Oliveira-Rebouças, P

    2013-06-01

    Large bees such as species from Xylocopa Latreille are usually associated with pollination in tropical sand dune areas, which frequently present shrubby herbaceous vegetation adapted to conditions of high salinity, high solar radiation and strong winds. We report on the diversity of Xylocopa and the plants they visited to collect nectar and pollen, focusing on the floral syndromes they present in these plants and on the breadth of the trophic niche in a tropical sand dune fragment over the year. The field work was carried out monthly in Baixio (Bahia, Brazil; Northern Coast Environmental Protection Area) from April 2008 to March 2009, over two consecutive days, from 06:30 AM to 05:00 PM. The medium-large body sized Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) cearensis Ducke and Xylocopa (Schonnherria) subcyanea Pérez were noticeable for their frequency, constancy on the flowers and sharing of plant species. Xylocopa spp. visited plants with flowers of different shapes, colors, inflorescence arrangement and syndromes. However, their resource collections were mainly concentrated on Cuphea brachiata, Waltheria cinerascens, Croton sellowii and Chamaecrista ramosa, which may be considered key species for Xylocopa spp. maintenance in coastal sand dune and restinga environments in Northeast Brazil. PMID:23949807

  10. Tests of a system to exclude roots from buried radioactive waste in a warm, humid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Corey, J.C.; Adriano, D.C.; Decker, O.D.; Griggs, R.D.

    1989-12-31

    Vegetation is commonly used to stabilize the ground covering buried waste sites. However, constituents of buried waste can be brought to the surface if the waste is penetrated by plant roots. An ideal waste burial system would allow the use of vegetation to stabilize the soil above the buried waste but would exclude roots from the waste. One system that shows considerable promise is a slow release encapsulation of a root growth inhibitor (Trifluralin). Projected lifetimes of the capsule are in the order of 100 years. The capsule is bonded to a geotextile, which provides an easy means of distributing the capsule evenly over the area to be protected. Vegetation grown in the soil above the barrier has provided good ground cover, although some decrease in growth has been found in some species. Of the species tested the sensitivity to the biobarrier, as measured by the distance root growth stops near the barrier, is bamboo> bahia grass> bermuda grass> soybean. Potential uses for the biobarrier at the Savannah River Site (SRS) include the protection of clay caps over buried, low-level saltstone and protection of gravel drains and clay caps over decommissioned seepage basins. Trails of the biobarrier as part of waste site caps are scheduled to begin during the next 12 months.

  11. Tests of a system to exclude roots from buried radioactive waste in a warm, humid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Corey, J.C. ); Adriano, D.C. ); Decker, O.D.; Griggs, R.D. )

    1989-01-01

    Vegetation is commonly used to stabilize the ground covering buried waste sites. However, constituents of buried waste can be brought to the surface if the waste is penetrated by plant roots. An ideal waste burial system would allow the use of vegetation to stabilize the soil above the buried waste but would exclude roots from the waste. One system that shows considerable promise is a slow release encapsulation of a root growth inhibitor (Trifluralin). Projected lifetimes of the capsule are in the order of 100 years. The capsule is bonded to a geotextile, which provides an easy means of distributing the capsule evenly over the area to be protected. Vegetation grown in the soil above the barrier has provided good ground cover, although some decrease in growth has been found in some species. Of the species tested the sensitivity to the biobarrier, as measured by the distance root growth stops near the barrier, is bamboo> bahia grass> bermuda grass> soybean. Potential uses for the biobarrier at the Savannah River Site (SRS) include the protection of clay caps over buried, low-level saltstone and protection of gravel drains and clay caps over decommissioned seepage basins. Trails of the biobarrier as part of waste site caps are scheduled to begin during the next 12 months.

  12. Crustal evolution between 2.0 and 3.5 Ga in the southern Gavio block (Umburanas-Brumado-Aracatu region), So Francisco Craton, Brazil: A 3.5-3.8 Ga proto-crust in the Gavio block?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Pinto, Marilda; Peucat, Jean-Jacques; Martin, Herv; Barbosa, Johildo S. F.; Fanning, C. Mark; Cocherie, Alain; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2012-12-01

    The main evolution of the Gavio block in the Umburanas-Brumado-Aracatu region, in the state of Bahia, is defined by several sets of tonalitic-trondhjemitic and granodioritic gneisses emplaced during the Paleoarchean. The juvenile Bernada gneisses are emplaced at 3386 9 Ma (SHRIMP zircon age). The Aracatu gneisses, probably derived from the partial melting of ca 3.4 Ga gneisses, are emplaced at 3325 16 Ma. They contain inherited zircon dated at 3366 15 Ma in the range of ages obtained for the juvenile Bernada gneisses. Furthermore, one core in these zircons provides an age of 3487 9 Ma, which is the oldest xenocryst found in the Gavio block. A Neoarchean alkaline granite was emplaced at 2693 5 Ma (Serra de Eixo gneiss) and corresponds to a major crustal reworking stage. All of these rocks were metamorphosed and melted at ca 2.0 Ga, as recorded by monazite ages (EPMA and La-ICPMS) in diatexitic Archean gneisses (Aracatu) and Paleoproterozoic granites (Umburanas). The occurrence of a proto-crust ca 3.5 Ga or older in the Gavio block is discussed based on inherited zircon ages and Sm-Nd isotope signatures of the Archean gneisses.

  13. Evaluation of mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of Pb and Cd in contaminated soil using TCLP, BCR and earthworms.

    PubMed

    Kede, Maria Luiza F M; Correia, Fabio V; Conceição, Paulo F; Junior, Sidney F Salles; Marques, Marcia; Moreira, Josino C; Pérez, Daniel V

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the reduction of mobility, availability and toxicity found in soil contaminated with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) from Santo Amaro Municipality, Bahia, Brazil using two combined methods, commonly tested separately according to the literature: metal mobilization with phosphates and phytoextraction. The strategy applied was the treatment with two sources of phosphates (separately and mixed) followed by phytoremediation with vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)). The treatments applied (in triplicates) were: T1-potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4); T2-reactive natural phosphate fertilizer (NRP) and; T3-a mixture 1:1 of KH2PO4 and NRP. After this step, untreated and treated soils were planted with vetiver grass. The extraction procedures and assays applied to contaminated soil before and after the treatments included metal mobility test (TCLP); sequential extraction with BCR method; toxicity assays with Eisenia andrei. The soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) for Pb and Cd were estimated in all cases. All treatments with phosphates followed by phytoremediation reduced the mobility and availability of Pb and Cd, being KH2PO4 (T1) plus phytoremediation the most effective one. Soil toxicity however, remained high after all treatments. PMID:25386955

  14. Effects of habitat structure on the epifaunal community in Mussismilia corals: does coral morphology influence the richness and abundance of associated crustacean fauna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Marcos M.; Neves, Elizabeth; Johnsson, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    Coral habitat structures increase abundance and richness of organisms by providing niches, easy access to resources and refuge from predators. Corals harbor a great variety of animals; the variation in coral species morphology contributes to the heterogeneity and complexity of habitat types. In this report, we studied the richness and abundance of crustaceans (Decapoda, Copepoda, Peracarida and Ostracoda) associated with three species of Mussismilia exhibiting different growth morphologies, in two different coral reefs of the Bahia state (Caramuanas and Boipeba-Moreré, Brazil). Mussismilia hispida is a massive coral; M. braziliensis also has a massive growth pattern, but forms a crevice in the basal area of the corallum; M. harttii has a meandroid pattern. PERMANOVA analysis suggests significant differences in associated fauna richness among Mussismilia species, with higher values for M. harttii, followed by M. braziliensis and later by M. hispida. The same trend was observed for density, except that the comparison of M. braziliensis and M. hispida did not show differences. Redundancy and canonical correspondence analysis indicated that almost all of the crustacean species were more associated with the M. harttii colonies that formed a group clearly separated from colonies of M. braziliensis and M. hispida. We also found that the internal volume of interpolyp space, only present in M. harttii, was the most important factor influencing richness and abundance of all analyzed orders of crustaceans.

  15. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of water quality following the exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.M.; Stubblefield, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    As part of a comprehensive water-quality assessment program performed in Prince William Sound and the western Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989, water samples were collected from 417 locations, most of them in areas through which the oil drifted, to assess the distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column. Over 5,000 water samples were analyzed for individual and total petroleum alkanes and for aromatic hydrocarbons by very sensitive gas chromatographic techniques. A total of 2,461 of these samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concurrent with some of these samples, an additional 123 water samples were collected in April 1989 (a week to a month after the spill) at 32 offshore locations and in June 1989 at 7 nearshore sites in Prince William Sound to determine the toxicity of the water to representative species of marine organisms. The toxicity of Prince William Sound water was assessed with standard Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and American Society for Testing and materials (ASTM) marine toxicity tests with representative species of three taxonomic groups: (1) Skeletonema costatum (a marine diatom), (2) Mysidopsis bahia (a crustacean), and (3) larval/juvenile Cyprinodon variegatus (a fish, the sheepshead minnow). 58 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Testing of toxicology and emissions-sampling methodology for ocean incineration of hazardous wastes. Final report, January 1985-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, P.; Cooke, M.; Carr, S.; Piispanen, W.; Werme, C.

    1988-05-01

    This report addresses the development and testing of a system to expose marine organisms to hazardous-waste emissions in order to assess the potential toxicity of incinerator plumes at sea as they contact the marine environment through air-sea exchange and initial mixing. A sampling train was designed and tested at EPA's land-based hazardous-waste incinerator, using transformer oil as a waste feed. The incinerator was operated under conditions which would be appropriate for at-sea incinerators. The sampling train (Marine Incineration Biological Assessment Sampler--MIBAS) provides a sea-water sample containing a plume emission for the marine organisms testing. Five toxicity-test protocols were refined and/or developed for use in the program: (1) a sea-urchin fertilization test; (2) a chronic test using macroalgae Champia parvula; (3) a 7-day chronic test using growth and reproduction of the crustacean Mysidopsis bahia; (4) a 7-day growth and survival test with the fish Menidia beryllina; and (5) a 7-day life-cycle test using the archiannelid worm Dinophilus gyrocilatus. The results of applying these tests during a hazardous-waste burn are given.

  17. Cytogenetic analysis of Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa and Espínola, 1964 (Hemiptera, Triatominae) from different Brazilian states.

    PubMed

    Imperador, C H L; Alevi, K C C; Oliveira, J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma maculata and T. pseudomaculata are allopatric; however, it is believed that T. maculata was introduced into the Brazilian northeast by passive transportation of the nymphs between the feathers of migratory birds, followed by the speciation of T. pseudomaculata. T. pseudomaculata is the second most epidemiologically important species in the northeast of Brazil after T. brasiliensis. Therefore, given the broad range of T. pseudomaculata, the objective of the present study was to cytogenetically analyze different populations of T. pseudomaculata from different Brazilian states in order to investigate possible intraspecific chromosomal variation between them. Three adult T. pseudomaculata males from each population (Pernambuco, Ceará, Paraíba, Bahia, Rio Grande do Norte, and Piauí) were analyzed by lacto-acetic orcein and C-banding. All of the specimens analyzed exhibited the same cytogenetic characteristics, i.e., 22 chromosomes (20 autosomes and XY), a chromocenter formed by the X and Y sex chromosomes and one pair of autosomes, and heterochromatin blocks in three or four pairs of autosomes. These data confirm that all of the populations analyzed were T. pseudomaculata, and although they may be subject to different selection pressures they have maintained the genetic integrity that characterizes the species. PMID:27051018

  18. A potential source for cellulolytic enzyme discovery and environmental aspects revealed through metagenomics of Brazilian mangroves

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The mangroves are among the most productive and biologically important environments. The possible presence of cellulolytic enzymes and microorganisms useful for biomass degradation as well as taxonomic and functional aspects of two Brazilian mangroves were evaluated using cultivation and metagenomic approaches. From a total of 296 microorganisms with visual differences in colony morphology and growth (including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungus), 179 (60.5%) and 117 (39.5%) were isolated from the Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Bahia (BA) samples, respectively. RJ metagenome showed the higher number of microbial isolates, which is consistent with its most conserved state and higher diversity. The metagenomic sequencing data showed similar predominant bacterial phyla in the BA and RJ mangroves with an abundance of Proteobacteria (57.8% and 44.6%), Firmicutes (11% and 12.3%) and Actinobacteria (8.4% and 7.5%). A higher number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds were found in the BA mangrove. Specific sequences involved in the cellulolytic degradation, belonging to cellulases, hemicellulases, carbohydrate binding domains, dockerins and cohesins were identified, and it was possible to isolate cultivable fungi and bacteria related to biomass decomposition and with potential applications for the production of biofuels. These results showed that the mangroves possess all fundamental molecular tools required for building the cellulosome, which is required for the efficient degradation of cellulose material and sugar release. PMID:24160319

  19. Risk factors for death in patients with severe asthma*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Andréia Guedes Oliva; Souza-Machado, Carolina; Coelho, Renata Conceição Pereira; Franco, Priscila Abreu; Esquivel, Renata Miranda; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Cruz, Álvaro Augusto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for death among patients with severe asthma. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study. Among the patients with severe asthma treated between December of 2002 and December of 2010 at the Central Referral Outpatient Clinic of the Bahia State Asthma Control Program, in the city of Salvador, Brazil, we selected all those who died, as well as selecting other patients with severe asthma to be used as controls (at a ratio of 1:4). Data were collected from the medical charts of the patients, home visit reports, and death certificates. RESULTS: We selected 58 cases of deaths and 232 control cases. Most of the deaths were attributed to respiratory causes and occurred within a health care facility. Advanced age, unemployment, rhinitis, symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, long-standing asthma, and persistent airflow obstruction were common features in both groups. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender, FEV1 pre-bronchodilator < 60% of predicted, and the lack of control of asthma symptoms were significantly and independently associated with mortality in this sample of patients with severe asthma. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of outpatients with severe asthma, the deaths occurred predominantly due to respiratory causes and within a health care facility. Lack of asthma control and male gender were risk factors for mortality. PMID:25210958

  20. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; Dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Henriques, João A P; Brendel, Martin; Pungartnik, Cristina; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as "mangosteen fruit," originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application. PMID:27042187

  1. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N.; Henriques, João A. P.; Brendel, Martin; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as “mangosteen fruit,” originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application. PMID:27042187

  2. Quick, portable toxicity testing of marine or terrigenous fluids, sediments, or chemicals with bioluminescent organism

    SciTech Connect

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    A hand-held, battery-operated instrument, which measures bioluminescence inhibition of the microscopic marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula, is capable of field-testing substances for toxicity. The organism is sensitive to ppb of strong toxicants. It tolerates some solvents in concentrations necessary for testing lipophylic samples. A test consumes only micrograms of sample. This method requires no adjustments for salinity, pH, color, or turbidity. It has been used successfully to test oil-well drilling fluids, brines produced with oil, waters and sediments from streams and lakes and petroleum-plant effluents containing contaminants such as benzene. The test is non-specific; however, if the substance is known, the end-point effects a direct measurement of its concentration. One-hour toxicity screening tests in the field produce results comparable to the standard four-hour laboratory test. Keeping the sample in the dark during incubation and testing, together with shortness of the overall procedure, eliminates anomalies from light-sensitive substances. Day-to-day variation, as well as among test replicates, is less than 10%. This quick method yields results comparable with a quick test that uses Photobacterium phosphoria, and with 96-hour tests that use Mysidopsis bahia, Artemia salina, Gonyaulax polyedra, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Cyprinodon variegatus.

  3. Influence of wavelength on the outcome of the treatment of TMJ disorders: TMDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Marques, Aparecida Maria C.; Carvalho, Carolina M.; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T.; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.

    2013-03-01

    It is known that wavelength influences the outcome of many clinical protocols. Laser-phototherapy (LPT) and LEDs have been used on the treatment of pain of several origins including temporomandibular disorders - TMDs. TMDs are common painful multifactorial conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint whose treatment depends on the type and symptoms. Initially it requires pain control and for this, drugs, biting plates, oclusal adjustment, physiotherapy or their association are used. This work reports a series of patients of the Center of Biophotonics of the Federal University of Bahia over 10 years. Following standard anamneses, clinical and imaginologic examination and with the diagnosis of any type of TMD, the patients were set for light treatment. Treatment consisted of three sessions a week during six week. Prior irradiation, the patients were asked to score their pain using a VAS. λ780, λ 790, λ 830nm and/or λ660 and λ680nm lasers or LED were used on each session. Most patients were female (~43.6 years old). At the end of the 12 sessions the patients were again examined and score their pain using VAS. No other intervention was carried out during the treatment. The results were statistically analyzed and showed that most patients were asymptomatic or improved after treatment and that the association of wavelengths was very efficient on the symptomatic group. It is concluded that the association of both wavelengths was effective on pain reduction on TMJ disorders of several origins.

  4. Ethnoecological knowledge of the artisan fishermen of octopi in the community of Coroa Vermelha.

    PubMed

    Martins, Viviane S; Schiavetti, Alexandre; Souto, Francisco J B

    2011-06-01

    Coral reefs are quite diverse ecosystems that carry out several ecological functions and plays a relevant socioeconomic role. The artisan fishing of octopi (Octopus spp.) is practiced for the survival of part of the inhabitants of Coroa Vermelha community, in the south of the state of Bahia. We intended to study the knowledge of the octopi fishermen of Coroa Vermelha using the comprehensive ethnoecological proposal of Marques. The data were collected between July, 2006 and April, 2008 through direct observation and from interviews with fishermen met by chance and through the "native specialists" criterion. Twenty semi-structured interviews were carried out following an itinerary of pre-established questions about the activity of octopi capture, and the biological and ecological aspects of the resource. The data showed that the fishermen have knowledge about biological and ecological aspects of the octopi. Two capture techniques are used: octopus fishing (polvejamento) in the reefs and through diving. Two specific folk are recognized: the "normal octopus" (Octopus insularis) and the "east octopus" (Octopus macropus (?)). The intervieews demonstrated ecological knowledge sometimes compatible with the scientific literature, mainly in which concerns the trophic ecology and behavior of the octopi. PMID:21670875

  5. Geologic structure and tectonics of inner continental borderland of northern Baja California

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, M.R.; Victor, W.O.; Francisco, S.V.

    1987-05-01

    Detailed marine geophysical surveys of the inner California continental borderland west of northern Baja California show that the region is underlain by two major, northwest-trending, Quaternary, dextral wrench fault systems. The San Clemente fault system lies along the western part of the inner borderland and is delineated by the San Clemente and San Isidro fault zones. Together, these fault zones connect to form a long (300 km), narrow (5-10 km), continuous zone of faulting that is very similar to the larger San Andreas fault system onshore. The Agua Blanca fault system is a complex zone of shear delineated by three or more subparallel wrench fault zones in the eastern part of the inner borderland. The westernmost San Diego Trough-Bahia Soledad fault zone consists of relatively long (50 km), continuous, main fault traces which cut the Quaternary sediments of the nearshore basin trough. The Coronado Bank-Agua Blanca fault zone is more complicated, with numerous discontinuous, subparallel, right- and left-stepping, anastomosing fault traces which are associated with significant structural relief. A nearshore zone of faults, marked by the Newport-Inglewood-Rose Canyon fault zone in the north and the Estero-Descanso fault zone in the south, parallels the coast and defines the eastern boundary of the California continental borderland structural province. All of these eastern fault zones merge into the transpeninsular Agua Blanca fault, and their N30/sup 0/W trend differs substantially from the trend of the major peninsular ranges fault zones.

  6. New distributional data on aquatic and semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha & Nepomorpha) from South America

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Isabelle R S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Water bugs in general play an important role in freshwater ecosystems, and knowledge about them is essential for the study of water biology and the proper management of aquatic habitats. The Neotropical fauna is relatively well known, but the existence of large under-collected areas makes taxonomic and faunistic studies concerning the aquatic and semiaquatic bugs from tropical America urgent. New information Distributional information is presented for thirty-eight species of Gerromorpha and five Nepomorpha, including first records from the Brazilian states of Bahia (Mesovelia amoena), Ceará (Limnogonus profugus and Rhagovelia whitei), Espírito Santo (R. lucida), Goiás (Halobatopsis platensis and R. zela), Mato Grosso (Rheumatobates bonariensis), Pará (Nerthra terrestris), Paraná (H. spiniventris, Hydrometra fruhstorferi and R. janeira), Piauí (Microvelia ayacuchana, M. pulchella, Neogerris lubricus and Platyvelia brachialis), Rio de Janeiro (Martarega bentoi) and São Paulo (Rheumatobates minutus flavidus); and the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios (Rhagovelia fontanalis). PMID:25892925

  7. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Rojas, Diego Francisco; de Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandes; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications. PMID:25182278

  8. Systematics of Spiny Predatory Katydids (Tettigoniidae: Listroscelidinae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Based on Morphology and Molecular Data

    PubMed Central

    Fialho, Verônica Saraiva; Chamorro-Rengifo, Juliana; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano; Yotoko, Karla Suemy Clemente

    2014-01-01

    Listroscelidinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) are insectivorous Pantropical katydids whose taxonomy presents a long history of controversy, with several genera incertae sedis. This work focused on species occurring in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the world's most threatened biomes. We examined material deposited in scientific collections and visited 15 conservation units from Rio de Janeiro to southern Bahia between November 2011 and January 2012, catching 104 specimens from 10 conservation units. Based on morphological and molecular data we redefined Listroscelidini, adding a new tribe, new genus and eight new species to the subfamily. Using morphological analysis, we redescribed and added new geographic records for six species, synonymized two species and built a provisional identification key for the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae. Molecular results suggest two new species and a new genus to be described, possibly by the fission of the genus Hamayulus. We also proposed a 500 bp region in the final portion of the COI to be used as a molecular barcode. Our data suggest that the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae are seriously endangered, because they occur in highly preserved forest remnants, show high rates of endemism and have a narrow geographic distribution. Based on our results, we suggest future collection efforts must take into account the molecular barcode data to accelerate species recognition. PMID:25118712

  9. Increase in Reported Prevalence of Microcephaly in Infants Born to Women Living in Areas with Confirmed Zika Virus Transmission During the First Trimester of Pregnancy - Brazil, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kleber de Oliveira, Wanderson; Cortez-Escalante, Juan; De Oliveira, Wanessa Tenório Gonçalves Holanda; do Carmo, Greice Madeleine Ikeda; Henriques, Cláudio Maierovitch Pessanha; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Araújo de França, Giovanny Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    Widespread transmission of Zika virus by Aedes mosquitoes has been recognized in Brazil since late 2014, and in October 2015, an increase in the number of reported cases of microcephaly was reported to the Brazil Ministry of Health.* By January 2016, a total of 3,530 suspected microcephaly cases had been reported, many of which occurred in infants born to women who lived in or had visited areas where Zika virus transmission was occurring. Microcephaly surveillance was enhanced in late 2015 by implementing a more sensitive case definition. Based on the peak number of reported cases of microcephaly, and assuming an average estimated pregnancy duration of 38 weeks in Brazil (1), the first trimester of pregnancy coincided with reports of cases of febrile rash illness compatible with Zika virus disease in pregnant women in Bahia, Paraíba, and Pernambuco states, supporting an association between Zika virus infection during early pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly. Pregnant women in areas where Zika virus transmission is occurring should take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the relationship between Zika virus infection in pregnancy and microcephaly. PMID:26963593

  10. Clinical profile of 93 cases of 46, XY disorders of sexual development in a referral center

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Bianca Costa; Oliveira, Luciana Mattos Barros; Lago, Renata; Brito, Paula; Canguçú-Campinho, Ana Karina; Barroso, Ubirajara; Toralles, Maria Betânia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The term DSD refers to disorders that affect the normal process of sexual development causing disagreement between chromosomal, gonadal and phenotypic sex, and this study aimed to describe the clinical profile of a group with DSD 46, XY joined on DSD Clinic of Hospital of Salvador, Bahia Clinics. It was a retrospective study of medical records of survey data of 93 patients with DSD 46, XY. Among the patients studied 50.5% had no defined etiology and 20.4% had androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), 63.4% had been initially recorded in males, 31 (33.3%) in females, being that in two it was necessary to reassignment. All patients with complete AIS pure gonadal dysgenesis and had female genitalia. Others have been diagnosed with genital ambiguity or severe hypospadias and cryptorchidism. The gonads were palpable at the first consultation in 75.3% of patients. It is important to establish an active surveillance program for these patients. The first assessment took place before the age of ten in more than 50% of cases, which shows that much needs to be done for medical education and community about the DSD. Because the phenotypic variability of sexual development disorders was noted that the clinical profile of patients studied ranged between different etiologies, including hindering the diagnostic conclusion of these individuals. PMID:26689524

  11. High degree of concordance between flow cytometry and geno2pheno methods for HIV-1 tropism determination in proviral DNA.

    PubMed

    Torres, Alex José Leite; Brígido, Luis Fernando de Macedo; Abrahão, Marcos Herculano Nunes; Angelo, Ana Luiza Dias; de Jesus Ferreira, Gilcivaldo; Coelho, Luana Portes; Ferreira, João Leandro; Jorge, Célia Regina Mayoral Pedroso; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Brites, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Use of CCR5 antagonists requires previous viral tropism determination. The available methods have high cost, are time-consuming, or require highly trained personnel, and sophisticated equipment. We compared a flow cytometry-based tropism assay with geno2pheno method to determine HIV-1 tropism in AIDS patients, in Bahia, Brazil. We tested peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 102 AIDS patients under antiretroviral therapy by using a cytometry-based tropism assay and geno2pheno assay. Cellular membrane receptors were identified by using CXCR4, CCR5 and CD4 monoclonal antibodies, while detection of cytoplasmic mRNAs for gag and pol HIV regions was achieved by using a labeled probe. Genotypic identification of X4 and R5 tropic viruses was attempted by geno2pheno algorithm. There was a high degree of concordance between cytometry-based tropism assay and geno2pheno algorithm in determination of HIV-1 tropism. Cytometry-based tropism assay demonstrated higher sensitivity and specificity in comparison to geno2pheno, which was used as a gold-standard. One sample could not be amplified by geno2pheno method, but was classified as duotropic by cytometry-based tropism assay. We did not find any association between CD4+ count or plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load and tropism results. The overall performances of cytometry-based tropism assay and geno2pheno assay were almost identical in determination of HIV-1 tropism. PMID:25701547

  12. Comparative animal and plant toxicities of 10 treated effluents discharged to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Weber, D.E.; Stanley, R.S.

    1998-09-01

    The chemical quality and acute and chronic toxicities of 10 effluents discharged to near-coastal areas in Northwest Florida were determined using standard and nonstandard toxicity tests. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate and compare the toxicities of different types of effluents and to assess the ability of a variety of toxicity tests to differentiate effluent-specific effects. Focus was placed on animal-plant sensitivity comparisons because phytotoxicity is rarely determined for effluents discharged to coastal estuaries. The standard toxicity test organisms included two algae, two invertebrates, and two fish. In addition, effluent toxicity was evaluated using three rapid bioassays and an early-seedling-growth toxicity test. Most concentrations of potentially toxic inorganic and organic contaminants in the effluents were low, a finding that contrasted with the sometimes elevated biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient concentrations. With the exception of their effects on algae, the toxicities of most effluents were considered moderate. Chronic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia and Mysidopsis bahia were observed consistently for five effluents; the lowest first-effect levels were typically 35 or 71% effluent. Inhibitory effects on fish and macrophyte seedling growth were infrequent, as were those determined using the three rapid bioassays. Nine of the ten effluents were either phytotoxic or phytostimulatory to algae; first effects were noted in some cases at effluent concentrations less than 6%.

  13. [Association between psychosocial aspects of work and quality of life among motorcycle taxi drivers].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Pereira, Rafael; Ribeiro, Ícaro José Santos; Rios, Marcela Andrade; Amorim, Camila Rego; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of motorcycle taxi drivers and the association with psychosocial characteristics of their work. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a sample of 400 motorcycle taxi drivers in Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil. The study used a form containing demographic and socioeconomic data, WHO Quality of Life-Bref Questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), and the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Motorcycle taxi drivers with greater decision-making control over their work showed better self-rated quality of life in the psychological domain; those with high psychological demands presented better self-rated quality of life in the social relations and environmental domains; those with high strain and active work showed better self-rated quality of life in the social and environmental domains. The psychosocial work environment and especially decision-making autonomy were thus important determinants of self-rated quality of life in this group of motorcycle taxi drivers. PMID:25715295

  14. Microsatellite markers for an endemic Atlantic Forest tree, Manilkara multifida (Sapotaceae).

    PubMed

    Moraes, Ramiris C S; Vivas, Caio V; Oliveira, Fernanda A; Menezes, Ivandilson P P; van den Berg, Cassio; Gaiotto, Fernanda A

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara multifida is a tropical tree that is endemic to the Atlantic forests of southern Bahia, Brazil. Currently, populations of this species are restricted to fragmented landscapes that are susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. Considering this issue, and that there is no genetic information available for this endangered species, we developed microsatellite markers for M. multifida to provide resources for future conservation genetics studies. Using an enriched genomic library, we isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite loci and optimized the amplification conditions for M. multifida. For each locus, we estimated the number of alleles, H E and H O, paternity exclusion Q, individual identity I and fixation index F, and examined the presence of null alleles. The mean number of alleles was 11.9, and the heterozygosity was high at all loci (average H E = 0.809 and H O = 0.777). The combined values for both paternity exclusion and individual identity were Q = 0.9959 and I = 5.45 × 10(-11), respectively. No evidence of null alleles was detected. The results of our analysis indicated that all eight microsatellites are promising for assessing questions involving inbreeding, gene flow, co-ancestry and mating patterns in M. multifida. PMID:23487575

  15. Effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes on the bioavailability of PCBs in field-contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Parks, Ashley N; Chandler, G Thomas; Portis, Lisa M; Sullivan, Julia C; Perron, Monique M; Cantwell, Mark G; Burgess, Robert M; Ho, Kay T; Ferguson, P Lee

    2014-08-01

    Adsorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) to black carbon is a well-studied phenomenon. One emerging class of engineered black carbon materials are single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Little research has investigated the potential of SWNT to adsorb and sequester HOCs in complex environmental systems. This study addressed the capacity of SWNT, amended to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated New Bedford Harbor (NBH) sediment, to reduce the toxicity and bioaccumulation of these HOCs to benthic organisms. Overall, SWNT amendments increased the survival of two benthic estuarine invertebrates, Americamysis bahia and Ampelisca abdita, and reduced the accumulation of PCBs to the benthic polychaete, Nereis virens. Reduction in PCB bioaccumulation by SWNT was independent of Kow. Further, passive sampling-based estimates of interstitial water concentrations indicated that SWNT reduced PCB bioavailability. Results from this study suggest that SWNT are a good adsorbent for PCBs and might be useful for remediation in the future once SWNT manufacturing technology improves and costs decrease. PMID:24266834

  16. 'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This paper records the meaning of the term 'offense' and the folk knowledge related to local beliefs and practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. The data was recorded from September to November 2006 by means of open-ended interviews performed with 74 individuals of both genders, whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the local terms biting, stinging and pricking are synonymous and used as equivalent to offending. All these terms mean to attack. A total of 23 types of 'snakes' were recorded, based on their local names. Four of them are Viperidae, which were considered the most dangerous to humans, besides causing more aversion and fear in the population. In general, local people have strong negative behavior towards snakes, killing them whenever possible. Until the antivenom was present and available, the locals used only charms, prayers and homemade remedies to treat or protect themselves and others from snake bites. Nowadays, people do not pay attention to these things because, basically, the antivenom is now easily obtained at regional hospitals. It is understood that the ethnozoological knowledge, customs and popular practices of the Pedra Branca inhabitants result in a valuable cultural resource which should be considered in every discussion regarding public health, sanitation and practices of traditional medicine, as well as in faunistic studies and conservation strategies for local biological diversity. PMID:20346120

  17. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence1

    PubMed Central

    Paixão, Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Lira, Margaret Ollinda de Souza Carvalho e; Carvalho, Milca Ramaiane da Silva; da Silva, Rudval Souza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence. Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011). Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence. Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon. PMID:26487137

  18. Reliability of Bolton analysis evaluation in tridimensional virtual models

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Marianna Mendonca; Sobral, Marcio Costal; Vogel, Carlos Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at evaluating the reliability of Bolton analysis in tridimensional virtual models, comparing it with the manual method carried out with dental casts. Methods: The present investigation was performed using 56 pairs of dental casts produced from the dental arches of patients in perfect conditions and randomly selected from Universidade Federal da Bahia, School of Dentistry, Orthodontics Postgraduate Program. Manual measurements were obtained with the aid of a digital Cen-Tech 4"(r) caliper (Harpor Freight Tools, Calabasas, CA, USA). Subsequently, samples were digitized on 3Shape(r) R-700T scanner (Copenhagen, Denmark) and digital measures were obtained by Ortho Analyzer software. Results: Data were subject to statistical analysis and results revealed that there were no statistically significant differences between measurements with p-values equal to p = 0.173 and p= 0.239 for total and anterior proportions, respectively. Conclusion: Based on these findings, it is possible to deduce that Bolton analysis performed on tridimensional virtual models is as reliable as measurements obtained from dental casts with satisfactory agreement. PMID:26560824

  19. Analysis of Seismic Swarms at the Oceanic Crust South of the Islas Marias, MEXICO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinoco Villa, M. E.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero, C. R.

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed data recorded at the Red Sismica Acelerometrica de Jalisco (RESAJ) from November 2010 to August 2013, focus on the seismicity occurred within an area south of the Islas Marias (-105.7, 20.3; -107, 21.8) west of Bahia de Banderas. We observed seismic swarms and low magnitude. Within our data set we identified four seismic swarms episodes. September 14 to 15, 2010 that starts with an earthquake of M = 5.6 at 23:31 followed by approximately 27 events, also has six earthquakes whose magnitudes are between M = 4.0 and M = 5.6; November 11 to December 5, 2011 which contains more than 25 events; October 12 to November 17, 2012 with more than 35 events with an earthquake M = 4.7 occurred on October 29; and finally the swarm occurred between January 20 and February 14, 2013 with over 120 events and one of M = 4.7 occurred on January 22. The last seismic swarm also present activity along two additional areas, one toward the west and the other toward the east of active area previously identified. This seismic activity is associated with the northern edge of the Barra de Navidad Trench whose geometry is unknown. Tectonic structures associated with this seismicity can be tsunamigenic and could represent a danger to nearby populations.

  20. Finding oil in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, C.W.M.; Delaney, P.J.V. )

    1989-09-01

    Although oil in fractures of bituminous shales of Early Cretaceous age had been known since 1858 in Bahia, oil production in Brazil was delayed for eight decades. There were two fundamental reasons for this belated development. First, the paucity of good oil and gas seeps like those found in other countries and second, Brazilian entrepreneurs did not have the financing or the tradition of risk taking and technology to plunge into oil exploration. Thus, the development of the oil industry in Brazil evolved along different lines than in other countries. Petrobras was the beginning of the modern period of oil exploration in Brazil. Utilizing seismic interpretation methods, oil was discovered onshore in the Sergipe-Alagoas basin in 1957, in the Espirito Santo basin in 1969, and in the Potiquar basin in 1979. After many years of frustration looking for commercial oil in the huge Amazon basin, Petrobras discovered gas in the Jurua River Valley in 1978. Although offshore drilling began with discovery of the Guaricema field in 1968, it was not until the advent of modern offshore drilling and seismic technology that the prolific Garoupa field was discovered in 1974 which opened up the Campos basin. Furthermore, identification of huge structures in deep water by 3D seismic mapping methods indicate a bright future for Petrobras in offshore Brazil.

  1. [Repetitive tasks under time pressure: the musculoskeletal disorders and the industrial work].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Assunção, Ada Avila; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2010-05-01

    An ergonomic study was carried out to characterize repetitive work and psychosocial demands at work in a plastic industry in The Greater Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil. Global observations of tasks were preliminary carried out to investigate work organization, production organization and tasks determinants. Time requirements in tasks development involved psychosocial demands and physical demands, particularly when the latter implied very fast repetitive work. Secondly, those findings led to systematic observations with simultaneous interviews of workers. Work cycles in each task of molding/finishing plastic bags were measured by video analysis. All disturbances that required worker regulation on tasks development were recorded. This study allowed identifying variabilities of work process and of tasks development, and to put into evidence the extra demands and changeable tasks processes that require workers' regulation. In that situation, higher cognitive and physical demands are resulted from time pressure. The inadequate work conditions associated to time pressure and a work organization with low control generate a situation in which the task development is just possible under workers' body overload. PMID:20464207

  2. Nuclear markers reveal a complex introgression pattern among marine turtle species on the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Vilaça, Sibelle T; Vargas, Sarah M; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Molfetti, Érica; Reis, Estéfane C; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele; Soares, Luciano S; Santos, Fabrício R

    2012-09-01

    Surprisingly, a high frequency of interspecific sea turtle hybrids has been previously recorded in a nesting site along a short stretch of the Brazilian coast. Mitochondrial DNA data indicated that as much as 43% of the females identified as Eretmochelys imbricata are hybrids in this area (Bahia State of Brazil). It is a remarkable find, because most of the nesting sites surveyed worldwide, including some in northern Brazil, presents no hybrids, and rare Caribbean sites present no more than 2% of hybrids. Thus, a detailed understanding of the hybridization process is needed to evaluate natural or anthropogenic causes of this regional phenomenon in Brazil, which could be an important factor affecting the conservation of this population. We analysed a set of 12 nuclear markers to investigate the pattern of hybridization involving three species of sea turtles: hawksbill (E. imbricata), loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea). Our data indicate that most of the individuals in the crossings L. olivacea × E. imbricata and L. olivacea × C. caretta are F1 hybrids, whereas C. caretta × E. imbricata crossings present F1 and backcrosses with both parental species. In addition, the C. caretta × E. imbricata hybridization seems to be gender and species biased, and we also found one individual with evidence of multispecies hybridization among C. caretta × E. imbricata × Chelonia mydas. The overall results also indicate that hybridization in this area is a recent phenomenon, spanning at least two generations or ~40 years. PMID:22780882

  3. Patients Perception About Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Mendona, Kelminda Maria Bulhes; de Andrade, Tarcisio Matos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The diagnosis of coronary artery disease referred for heart surgery has an important psychological component. The purpose of this study was to access the difficulties experienced by individuals awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting and to determine strategies that facilitate adaptation to a new lifestyle, modified by the disease. METHODS A qualitative, exploratory study involving patients admitted to a university teaching hospital in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting. Semi-structured interviews were performed in accordance with a previously defined script based on the study objective. Each transcription was read in its entirety to verify the representativeness, homogeneity and pertinence of the data obtained (pre-analysis), followed by separation of categories of analysis. RESULTS The descriptions of this study show that patients admitted to the completion of coronary artery bypass grafting experience a wide range of psychological difficulties, considering that surgery acquires interpretations that vary according to individuals' subjectivity. The patients recognized the benefit of being able to discuss their feelings as a means of diminishing their fear and anxiety. CONCLUSION Helping patients find resources to confront more positively the daily hospitalization is an important aspect for the health care professionals who assist them. This goal can be achieved through modification of the biomedical model of care for a biopsychosocial view. The investment of time and attention is of fundamental importance and aims to overcome existing deficiencies that interfere with the outcome of patients after cardiac surgery. PMID:26735601

  4. Effects of ionic strength, particle size, flow rate, and vegetation type on colloid transport through a dense vegetation saturated soil system: Experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Congrong; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Gao, Bin; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2013-08-01

    Colloids are widely distributed in agricultural runoff, especially from croplands with manure applications. Dense vegetation has been suggested to be effective to reduce surface runoff contaminants, including colloidal particles. In this work, small scale laboratory experiments were used to determine the influence of physical and chemical factors (i.e. solution ionic strength, particle size, surface flow rate, and vegetation type) on the surface transport and removal of colloids in a dense vegetation system without drainage. Conservative tracer studies of bromide were conducted as a control to quantify the deposition of colloids onto grass surfaces and the mass exchange of colloids between the overland flow and soil underneath under various experimental conditions. The deposition of colloids enhanced with increases in solution ionic strength and particle size, and with decreases in flow rate. We also found vegetation type played an important role on colloid transport with more deposition onto Ryegrass than onto Bahia grass under the same experimental conditions. A mathematical model combining overland flow, convection-dispersion equations and exchange layer theory was developed to simulate the transport of colloids in overland flow through the dense vegetation. Simulations of the model fitted the experimental data well and helped to understand the effect of ionic strength, particle size, flow rate, and vegetation type on colloid transport and removal in dense vegetation. Although additional investigations are still needed, findings from this study can inform the installation and maintenance of dense vegetation systems, such as vegetative filter strips, to reduce the loading of colloids in surface runoff.

  5. Estimation of genetic structure of a Mycosphaerella musicola population using inter-simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Peixouto, Y S; Dórea Bragança, C A; Andrade, W B; Ferreira, C F; Haddad, F; Oliveira, S A S; Darosci Brito, F S; Miller, R N G; Amorim, E P

    2015-01-01

    Among the diseases affecting banana (Musa sp), yellow Sigatoka, caused by the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella musicola Leach, is considered one of the most important in Brazil, causing losses throughout the year. Understanding the genetic structure of pathogen populations will provide insight into the life history of pathogens, including the evolutionary processes occurring in agrosystems. Tools for estimating the possible emergence of pathogen variants with altered pathogenicity, virulence, or aggressiveness, as well as resistance to systemic fungicides, can also be developed from such data. The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity and population genetics of M. musicola in the main banana-producing regions in Brazil. A total of 83 isolates collected from different banana cultivars in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Rio Grande do Norte, and Minas Gerais were evaluated using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. High variability was detected between the isolates, and 85.5% of the haplotypes were singletons in the populations. The highest source of genetic diversity (97.22%) was attributed to variations within populations. Bayesian cluster analysis revealed the presence of 2 probable ancestral groups, however, showed no relationship to population structure in terms of collection site, state of origin, or cultivar. Similarly, we detected noevidence of genetic recombination between individuals within different states, indicating that asexual cycles play a major role in M. musicola reproduction and that long-distance dispersal of the pathogen is the main factor contributing to the lack of population structure in the fungus. PMID:26214487

  6. The Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Ulcerative Colitis in a Northeast Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Bruno César; Lyra, Andre Castro; Mendes, Carlos Maurício Cardeal; Ribeiro, Camila Paula Oliveira; Lisboa, Sonyara Rauedys Oliveira; de Souza, Mariana Tinoco Lordello; Portela, Renata Cavalcanti; Santana, Genoile Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of UC in Bahia, a Brazilian state, and to identify the variables associated with extensive colitis, steroid therapy, immunosuppression, and colectomy. Methods. In this cross-sectional study UC patients were interviewed, and additional information was collected from the medical records. Descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson regression analysis were used. Results. This study included 267 individuals, the mean age of whom was 39.4 years at diagnosis. There was a predominance of females and left-side colitis. Extensive colitis was positively associated with male gender, diarrhea, weight loss, and a younger age at diagnosis. In contrast, active smoking and a family history of IBD were negatively associated with extensive colitis. Positive associations were observed between steroid therapy and diarrhea, weight loss, urban patients, extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs), and hospitalization. Younger age and weight loss at diagnosis, a family history of IBD, extensive colitis, EIMs, hospitalization, and steroid therapy were all positively associated with immunosuppression. In contrast, Caucasian individuals, smokers, patients with rectal bleeding, and rural patients areas were all observed to have a decreased likelihood of immunosuppression. Conclusions. Our results corroborate the association between higher prevalence of extensive colitis and younger age at diagnosis. An association between steroid therapy and clinical presentation at diagnosis was observed. The observation that white individuals and rural patients use less immunosuppressive drugs highlights the need to study the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the behavior of UC in this population. PMID:26509150

  7. Occurrence of Gobiidae larvae in a tropical Brazilian estuary, with particular emphasis on the use of size classes to categorize species guilds.

    PubMed

    Gomes, E A P; Campos, P N; Bonecker, A C T

    2014-04-01

    The structure and seasonal dynamics of larvae of the Gobiidae family in the Mucuri Estuary (Bahia, Brazil) were studied for nine consecutive years. Sampling was conducted at three stations in the lower estuary channel, between 2002 and 2010, in relation to season, day and night and tidal variations. A total of 5802 Gobiidae larvae, representing 15 taxa (12 species and three morphotypes), were collected in the Mucuri Estuary during this time. The highest mean ± s.d. density of fish larvae, 54·7 ± 79·8 larvae 100 m(-3), was recorded during the flood tide and night sampling. Ctenogobius boleosoma was the most abundant species (68%), being dominant in the rainy and dry seasons and had a long reproductive period. This species was classed as a marine estuarine-opportunist because it was observed at high frequencies and active larvae entering the estuary between 6·1 and 12·0 mm standard length (L(S)). Gobionellus oceanicus, second in abundance (12%), occurred only in later larval stages but did not use the estuary as a preferred location for spawning, being classed a marine estuarine dependent. Microgobius carri (11%) was represented in all L(S) classes and was resident in the estuary for spawning, remaining there throughout their life cycle. The other species were considered rare due to their low densities and could not be classified in any guild. PMID:24628601

  8. Accumulation of chromium in root tissues of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. in Cachoeira river—Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangabeira, P. A. O.; Labejof, L.; Lamperti, A.; de Almeida, A.-A. F.; Oliveira, A. H.; Escaig, F.; Severo, M. I. G.; Silva, D. da C.; Saloes, M.; Mielke, M. S.; Lucena, E. R.; Martins, M. C.; Santana, K. B.; Gavrilov, K. L.; Galle, P.; Levi-Setti, R.

    2004-06-01

    Heavy metals are not biodegradable and enter the food chain through a number of pathways causing progressive toxic actions due to the accumulation in different organs during a life span and long-term exposure to contaminated environments. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to localize chromium in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. ICP-MS was used for the determination of Cr concentrations in water, sediments and plant samples in the Cachoeira basin, Bahia, Brazil. The results obtained by ICP-MS shows abnormally high values of Cr concentrations in water samples (0.38 μg/l), in soil samples (63 μg/g) and 70 μg/g in plant tissue. SIMS results show increased levels of Cr in the root cell wall and xylem vessel, these sites show high Cr accumulation. The ICP-MS data confirm E. crassipes like bioindicator plant. Chemical analysis using ICP-MS, confirms SIMS analysis on the presence of Cr in roots xylem cell walls. The use of ICP-MS, to investigate the same organs as the ones investigated by SIMS, provided complementary results on chromium study.

  9. Dentistry in Brazil: its history and current trends.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Diniz, Diego Garcia

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this article are to provide a short history of dentistry and dental education in Brazil and to analyze the nature of its development to date. The databases consulted are those provided by the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry, Brazilian Ministry of Health, Brazilian Ministry of Education, National Institute of Studies and Educational Research Anísio Teixeira, and Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Formal dental education in Brazil started in the late nineteenth century with the creation of courses annexed to existing schools of medicine in Rio de Janeiro and Bahia. Today, there are 191 institutions of higher education nationwide granting degrees in dentistry (137 private [71.7 percent] and fifty-four public [28.3 percent]), with a total of 17,157 student positions offered annually. These schools graduate around 10,000 professionals per year-one of the highest rates in the world. Both the distribution of schools of dentistry and of dentists varies among the regions of the country, with the greatest concentrations in major metropolitan centers with high population density, resulting in limited coverage in the more deprived regions. A review of epidemiological data for oral health and distribution of dentists in Brazil indicates that there is a lack of systematic planning for the allocation of the dental workforce and a lack of consideration of regional needs in the development of dental training programs in Brazil today. PMID:19234079

  10. Stable nitrogen isotopes in the turtle grass Thalassia testudinum from the Mexican Caribbean: Implications of anthropogenic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Alberto; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma. Concepción; Talavera-Sáenz, Ana; Aguíñiga-García, Sergio

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient inputs associated with population growth threaten the integrity of coastal ecosystems. To assess the rapid increase in tourism, we compared the δ15N from Thalassia testudinum collected at sites with different levels of tourism development to detect the N inputs of wastewater discharge (WD) along the coast of Quintana Roo. The contributions of nitrogen enriched in 15N are directly related to the increase of WD inputs in areas of tourism development (Nichupte Lagoon in Cancun) and decreased toward Bahia Akumal and Tulum. The δ15N from T. testudinum was significantly lower at Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. In areas of the lowest development and with tourist activity restricted, such as the Yum Balam Reserve and Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, the δ15N values were relatively enriched compared to Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. Therefore, Puerto Morelos and Mahahual may be used for baseline isotopic monitoring where tourist activities are growing and can lead to environmental pressure on the reef lagoon ecosystem. The anthropogenic N input has the potential to impact, both environmentally and economically, the seagrass meadows and the coral reefs along the coast of Quintana Roo and the Caribbean.

  11. Laboratory Scale X-ray Fluorescence Tomography: Instrument Characterization and Application in Earth and Environmental Science.

    PubMed

    Laforce, Brecht; Vermeulen, Bram; Garrevoet, Jan; Vekemans, Bart; Hoorebeke, Luc Van; Janssen, Colin; Vincze, Laszlo

    2016-03-15

    A new laboratory scale X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging instrument, based on an X-ray microfocus tube equipped with a monocapillary optic, has been developed to perform XRF computed tomography experiments with both higher spatial resolution (20 μm) and a better energy resolution (130 eV @Mn-Kα) than has been achieved up-to-now. This instrument opens a new range of possible applications for XRF-CT. Next to the analytical characterization of the setup by using well-defined model/reference samples, demonstrating its capabilities for tomographic imaging, the XRF-CT microprobe has been used to image the interior of an ecotoxicological model organism, Americamysis bahia. This had been exposed to elevated metal (Cu and Ni) concentrations. The technique allowed the visualization of the accumulation sites of copper, clearly indicating the affected organs, i.e. either the gastric system or the hepatopancreas. As another illustrative application, the scanner has been employed to investigate goethite spherules from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, revealing the internal elemental distribution of these valuable distal ejecta layer particles. PMID:26891032

  12. 'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement.

    PubMed

    Fita, Dídac S; Costa Neto, Eraldo M; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    This paper records the meaning of the term 'offense' and the folk knowledge related to local beliefs and practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. The data was recorded from September to November 2006 by means of open-ended interviews performed with 74 individuals of both genders, whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the local terms biting, stinging and pricking are synonymous and used as equivalent to offending. All these terms mean to attack. A total of 23 types of 'snakes' were recorded, based on their local names. Four of them are Viperidae, which were considered the most dangerous to humans, besides causing more aversion and fear in the population. In general, local people have strong negative behavior towards snakes, killing them whenever possible. Until the antivenom was present and available, the locals used only charms, prayers and homemade remedies to treat or protect themselves and others from snake bites. Nowadays, people do not pay attention to these things because, basically, the antivenom is now easily obtained at regional hospitals. It is understood that the ethnozoological knowledge, customs and popular practices of the Pedra Branca inhabitants result in a valuable cultural resource which should be considered in every discussion regarding public health, sanitation and practices of traditional medicine, as well as in faunistic studies and conservation strategies for local biological diversity. PMID:20346120

  13. Multi-element determination in acid-digested soy protein formulations by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Morte, Elane S Boa; Costa, Leticia M; Nobrega, Joaquim A; Korn, Maria das Gracas A

    2008-05-01

    The concentrations of major (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) and trace elements (Al, Cu and Fe) in soy protein formulations sold in Bahia (Brazil) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Liquid and powdered soy protein formulation samples, both whole and light, were digested using a conventional heating program on a hot-plate. The powdered samples were prepared according to the label instructions for human consumption. A 5.0-ml aliquot of the soy protein emulsion was transferred to a borosilicate Erlenmeyer and concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid added. After a digestion time of approximately 50 min, hydrogen peroxide was added and heating continued to give a final volume of approximately 5 ml; the colorless digests were then made up to 15.0 ml with deionised water. Residual acid content was determined by acid-base titration. Good agreement between measured and certified values for all analytes in a non-fat milk powder (NIST SRM 1549) indicated that the method was suitable for major and trace elements determination in soy protein formulations. PMID:18473216

  14. The genus Paravelia Breddin, 1898 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) in Brazil, with descriptions of eight new species.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Higor D D; Moreira, Felipe F F; Nieser, Nico; Chen, Ping Ping; Melo, Alan L; Dias-Silva, Karina; Giehl, Nubia F S

    2014-01-01

    Eight new species of Paravelia Breddin, 1898 from Brazil are described and illustrated: P. amapaensis sp. nov. from Amapá State, P. bipunctata sp. nov. from Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul States, P. bilobata sp. nov. and P. polhemusi sp. nov. from Mato Grosso State, P. bahiana sp. nov. from Bahia State, P. lacrymosa sp. nov. from Minas Gerais State, P. micromaculata sp. nov. from Maranhão State, and P. ornata sp. nov. from Amazonas State. The genus is redescribed, with photos of the dorsal view for nineteen species: P. basalis (Spinola), P. biae Spangler, P. boliviana Breddin, P. bullialata Polhemus & Polhemus, P. capillata (Drake& Harris), P. capixaba Moreira, Nessimian & Rúdio, P. conata (Hungerford), P. dilatata Polhemus & Polhemus, P. foveata Polhemus & Polhemus, P. itatiayana (Drake), P. lanemeloi Moreira & Barbosa, P. manausana Polhemus & Polhemus, P. nieseri Moreira & Barbosa, P. platensis (Berg), P. recens (Drake & Harris), P. rotundanotata (Hungerford), P. spinifera Polhemus & Polhemus, P. splendoris (Drake & Harris) and P. williamsi (Hungerford). Three of these species are recorded for the first time from Brazil: P. platensis, P. spinifera and P. williamsi. Also, the macropterous forms of P. capixaba and P. dilatata are described. Lastly, an identification key to the 36 species of Paravelia recorded from Brazil and a checklist of described species are presented. PMID:24872030

  15. Thaptomys Thomas 1915 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae, Akodontini) with karyotypes 2n = 50, FN = 48, and 2n = 52, FN = 52: Two monophyletic lineages recovered by molecular phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A novel karyotype with 2n = 50, FN = 48, was described for specimens of Thaptomys collected at Una, State of Bahia, Brazil, which are morphologically indistinguishable from Thaptomys nigrita, 2n = 52, FN = 52, found in other localities. It was hence proposed that the 2n = 50 karyotype could belong to a distinct species, cryptic of Thaptomys nigrita, once chromosomal rearrangements observed, along with the geographic distance, might represent a reproductive barrier between both forms. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood based on partial cytochrome b sequences with 1077 bp were performed, attempting to establish the relationships among the individuals with distinct karyotypes along the geographic distribution of the genus; the sample comprised 18 karyotyped specimens of Thaptomys, encompassing 15 haplotypes, from eight different localities of the Atlantic Rainforest. The intra-generic relationships corroborated the distinct diploid numbers, once both phylogenetic reconstructions recovered two monophyletic lineages, a northeastern clade grouping the 2n = 50 and a southeastern clade with three subclades, grouping the 2n = 52 karyotype. The sequence divergence observed between their individuals ranged from 1.9% to 3.5%. PMID:21637479

  16. Impact of Neuropathic Pain at the Population Level

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Ana Shirley Maranhao; Baptista, Abrahao Fontes; Mendes, Livia; Silva, Kamilla Soares; Gois, Sharize Cristine de Araujo; Lima, Flavia Manoela de Almeida; Souza, Israel; Sa, Katia Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the chief complaints of individuals who frequent the Family Health Units is chronic pain which, in Salvador, affects over 40% of the population. However, little is known about the type of pain and its impact on quality of life (QoL) at population level. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of neuropathic pain on QoL in a community. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from March to October 2012, in a Family Health Unit, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The DN-4 (type of pain), body map (location), VAS (intensity) and SF-36 (QoL) instruments were applied. The Chi-square (univariate analysis) and logistic regression (multivariate) tests were used, with IC 95% and P < 0.05. Results In a sample of 191 individuals with chronic pain, predominantly women (86.4%), single (48.7%), nonwhite (93.2%), low educational (46.6%) and low economic (100%) level. The most affected locations of the body were knees, lumbar region and head. In 60.2% of interviewees, neuropathic pain, of high intensity (VAS = 7.09 ± 3.0) predominated, with duration of 8.53 ± 8.8 years and mean QoL was reduced in 47.13%. Conclusions Intense pain in the dorsal region and type of neuropathy are independent predictors for greater compromise of QoL. PMID:24578752

  17. Chronic ulcers and myasis as ports of entry for Clostridium tetani.

    PubMed

    Greco, J B; Sacramento, E; Tavares-Neto, J

    2001-12-01

    Evaluating tetanus immune status is not yet the usual clinical practice regarding patients with chronic ulcers or myasis. However, of 858 tetanus patients at Hospital Couto Maia (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil) aged 1 year or above, 2 had pressure ulcers and 17 had chronic ulceration of the lower limbs where these skin lesions were the ports of entry for Clostridium tetani. In these 19 cases, the following predisposing factors were described: venous insufficiency (n=6), sickle cell anemia (n=2), Hansen s disease (n=1), malnutrition (n=1), diabetes mellitus (n=1), trauma (n=1) and unknown factors (n=7). In 6 other cases, in addition to the Hansen s disease patient, the port of entry for tetanus was the site of extraction of Tunga penetrans larvae. In these 25 cases, the majority of patients (68%) were over 40 years old (17/25) and all of these patients stated that they had either not followed a tetanus toxoid vaccination regimen (19/25), or had partially completed such a regimen, or did not give precise information (6/25). Among the same series studied, over half (52%) of the patients died (13/25). We conclude that tetanus prevention must be included in the treatment of chronic skin ulcer patients, vaccination coverage should be increased among older people, and strategies aimed at improving coverage for all age groups must be reviewed. PMID:11980594

  18. Development of microsatellite markers for Manilkara maxima T.D. Penn. (Sapotaceae) and their use in conservation genetics.

    PubMed

    Silva-Junior, José Audenor; de Souza França, Daniele; Moraes, Ramiris César Souza; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato

    2016-06-01

    Manilkara maxima is an endemic tree species of the Atlantic Forest in southern Bahia, Brazil. It is considered important for forest conservation due to its mutualistic interactions with endemic and endangered animals. Our aim was to develop microsatellite markers to estimate genetic diversity in order to provide information for effectiveness of future conservation programs. We used next generation sequencing technology to develop the first specific microsatellite markers for M. maxima. Seventeen new microsatellite loci were applied in 72 individuals sampled in three natural populations. On average, the number of alleles per loci was 8.8. The expected heterozygosity varied between 0.72 and 0.77, indicating that the developed set of molecular markers is useful for genetic diversity studies. Additionally, the estimated value for the combined probability of exclusion (Q) was greater than 0.999, which indicates the powerful of these molecular tools for paternity and kinship analysis. Our results demonstrate that the set of microsatellites developed in this work is a powerful tool for population genetics, molecular ecology and conservation biology purposes. PMID:27061192

  19. Lactic acid bacteria dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of cocoa beans verified by culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Santos, T F; Santana, L K A; Santos, A C F; Silva, G S; Romano, C C; Dias, J C T; Rezende, R P

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa is naturally fermented in the field before the cocoa seeds are removed for processing. We assessed the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria during cocoa fermentation in Bahia, Brazil. During five days of fermentation, temperature and pH were measured and beans were collected for genomic DNA extraction every 12 h. The DNA was used as a template for amplification with Lac1-Lac2 and Lac3-Lac2 for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses. pH values ranged from 3.34 to 4.98, while the temperature varied from 23° to 50°C. Lac1-Lac2 primers permitted detection of 11 operational taxonomic units. Twenty-eight operational taxonomic units were obtained with the primer pair Lac3-Lac2. It was observed that there were variations between the numbers of operational taxonomic units throughout the process, probably because of changes in pH and temperature. The greatest similarity in amplified samples was obtained with the primers Lac3-Lac2. PMID:22095596

  20. Ochratoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin A in cocoa during farm processing.

    PubMed

    Copetti, Marina V; Pereira, José Luís; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2010-09-30

    This study investigated the occurrence of fungi with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA), and the occurrence of OTA, in Brazilian cocoa beans. Two hundred and twenty two samples of cocoa were evaluated, taken at various stages of fermentation, drying and storage. Samples were collected from Bahia, the main cocoa producing region in Brazil. Fungi with the potential to produce OTA were isolated by direct plating of cocoa beans on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar after surface disinfection, and identified by standard techniques. The ability of the fungi to produce OTA was estimated using the agar plug technique and TLC. The presence of OTA in cocoa samples was determined by HPLC after immunoaffinity column clean up. The most common ochratoxigenic species found were Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger aggregate, with lower numbers of A. melleus, A. westerdijkiae and Av. ochraceus. A considerable increase in the numbers of these species was observed during drying and storage. OTA was found at all stages of cocoa processing, with the major incidence during drying and storage. The OTA levels found were in general low and there was a strong positive correlation between the presence of A. carbonarius and OTA contamination in the beans. PMID:20709419