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1

Evaluation of the biodegradability of petroleum in microcosm systems by using mangrove sediments from Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

We investigated the biodegradability of oil in mangrove sediment from Camamu Bay and measured its effect on the bacterial community. Microcosms of mangrove sediment were contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5% (w/v) oil, and the microbial activity was compared to that in uncontaminated sediment. The evolution of CO2 and gas chromatography showed the mineralization of oil compounds, which could reach 100%. Bacterial diversity was determined by polymerase chain reaction using a set of primers for the V3 and V6-V8 regions of 16S rDNA. The band profile obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the amplicons that were obtained for the V3 region showed a negative correlation between band number and oil concentration, whereas that of the V6-V8 region showed a positive correlation between band numbers and oil concentration. The latter also gave similar results for microcosms that were contaminated with 2 and 5% oil. These results demonstrate the mangrove sediment's capacity to recover from oil contamination (in vitro) and suggest that native mangrove microorganisms contain enzymes necessary for the catabolism of oil. PMID:24737430

Santos, A C F; Rezende, R P; Brendel, M; Souza, S S; Gonçalves, A C S; Dias, J C T

2014-01-01

2

Extraction of Urban Morphology Parameters from Generic European Datasets: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. The response of urban societies to the evolving climate depends not only on their regional climate characteristics but also on other local factors such as the urban heat island effect. Simulation of this phenomenon with local urban climate models requires comprehensive information about the urban morphology. This study focusses on the extraction of the planar and frontal area indices from detailed 3D city models and their relationship with the European Soil Sealing Level database from the European Environment Agency. These parameters have been calculated on a 1km2 grid and compared with soil sealing values aggregated at the same spatial resolution. The optimal size of the grid is a trade-off between the level of detail and the robustness of the established relationships by reducing the scatter at small scales. Moreover, the transferability of the results to other geographical areas has been investigated. The analyses have been conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission and include the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. First results show a correlation of 70% between the planar area index and the averaged soil sealing using a linear regression model at a 1km scale. Moreover, a good correspondence has been found between the relationships for Antwerp and Berlin which is promising for urban climate modellers to reduce model complexity and analyse various climate scenarios in an effective way.

Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

2014-05-01

3

Urban Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Europe: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. For example, the summer 2003 European heat wave caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. As around 75% of Europe's population resides in urban areas, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of seasonal to decadal-scale climate variability on urban areas and their populations. This study aims at downscaling the spatially coarse resolution CMIP5 climate predictions to the local urban scale and investigating the relation between heat waves and the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect). The resulting heat stress effect is not only driven by climatic variables but also impacted by urban morphology. Moreover, the exposure varies significantly with the geographical location. All this information is coupled with relevant socio-economic datasets such as population density, age structure, etc. focussing on human health. The analyses are conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. The end-user needs have been consolidated in a climate services plan including the production of heat risk exposure maps and the analysis of various scenarios considering e.g. the uncertainty of the global climate predictions, urban expansion over time and the impact of mitigation measures such as green roofs. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for the design and management of climate resilient cities.

Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

2014-05-01

4

Sedimentology and palaeontology of the Upper Jurassic Puesto Almada Member (Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Fossati sub-basin), Patagonia Argentina: Palaeoenvironmental and climatic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six facies associations are described for the Puesto Almada Member at the Cerro Bandera locality (Fossati sub-basin). They correspond to lacustrine, palustrine, and pedogenic deposits (limestones); and subordinated alluvial fan, fluvial, aeolian, and pyroclastic deposits. The lacustrine-palustrine depositional setting consisted of carbonate alkaline shallow lakes surrounded by flooded areas in a low-lying topography. The facies associations constitute four shallowing upward successions defined by local exposure surfaces: 1) a Lacustrine-Palustrine-pedogenic facies association with a 'conchostracan'-ostracod association; 2) a Palustrine facies association representing a wetland subenvironment, and yielding 'conchostracans', body remains of insects, fish scales, ichnofossils, and palynomorphs (cheirolepidiacean species and ferns growing around water bodies, and other gymnosperms in more elevated areas); 3) an Alluvial fan facies association indicating the source of sediment supply; and 4) a Lacustrine facies association representing a second wetland episode, and yielding 'conchostracans', insect ichnofossils, and a palynoflora mainly consisting of planktonic green algae associated with hygrophile elements. The invertebrate fossil assemblage found contains the first record of fossil insect bodies (Insecta-Hemiptera and Coleoptera) for the Cañadón Asfalto Formation. The succession reflects a mainly climatic control over sedimentation. The sedimentary features of the Puesto Almada Member are in accordance with an arid climatic scenario across the Upper Jurassic, and they reflect a strong seasonality with periods of higher humidity represented by wetlands and lacustrine sediments.

Cabaleri, Nora G.; Benavente, Cecilia A.; Monferran, Mateo D.; Narváez, Paula L.; Volkheimer, Wolfgang; Gallego, Oscar F.; Do Campo, Margarita D.

2013-10-01

5

AN EVALUATION OF THE 7-DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA (FORMERLY MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

The 7-d test measuring survival, growth, and fecundity of Americamysis bahia formerly Mysidopsis bahia) was developed for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and associated receiving waters for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits. Currently, this test...

6

Whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the pre-rift sequence of the Camamu Basin, northeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-rock geochemistry, combined with Sr-Nd isotopic composition of pelitic sedimentary rocks, have been considered to be useful parameters to estimate not only their provenance but also to make inferences about their depositional environment as well as the weathering processes they have been through. The basal sedimentary units of the basins of the northeastern Brazilian continental margin, particularly those of the pre-rift sequence, have been subject of interest of studies based on chemical and isotopic data, since they lack fossil content to establish their age and, therefore, stratigraphic correlations are difficult. The major and trace element contents as well as Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of whole-rock shale samples from five outcrops attributed to the pre-rift supersequence of the Camamu Basin were analyzed with the purpose of characterizing and obtaining further information that would allow a better correlation between the sites studied. The geochemical data suggest that the rocks exposed in the studied outcrops are part of the same sedimentary unit and that they might be correlated to the Capianga Member of the Aliança Formation of the Recôncavo Basin, exposed to the north of the Camamu Basin. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) suggests conditions associated with a humid tropical/subtropical climate at the time of deposition. Nd isotopic compositions indicate provenance from the Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Sao Francisco craton. The results presented here, therefore, show that the combined use of chemical and isotopic analyses may be of great interest to characterize and correlate lithologically homogeneous clastic sedimentary sequences.

Silva, D. R. A.; Mizusaki, A. M. P.; Milani, E. J.; Pimentel, M.; Kawashita, K.

2012-11-01

7

BAHIA GRANDE RESTORATION PROJECT DW14945947  

EPA Science Inventory

The Bahia Grande Restoration Project is located on a 6,000+ acre shallow basin that at one time was inundated with biological resources. The basin supported large flocks of wintering and migratory waterfowl. Also, it contributed to a productive recreational and commercial fishe...

8

Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

Reiter, Bernd

2009-01-01

9

Cheralite Quartzites in Itiuba Mountains-Bahia, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quartzitic pebbles of anomalous radioactivity were found by the geologists of the 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear' of Brazil (CNEN) in November 1964 in the Vicinity of Santa Rosa, municipality of Jaguarari, Bahia. A radioactive anomaly of large exte...

E. Gorsky V. A. Gorsky

1974-01-01

10

33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico 165.771 Section 165... § 165.771 Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico (a) Location. The...waters of the Caribbean Sea and the Bahia de Ponce, on approach to or departure from...

2010-07-01

11

33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico 165.771 Section 165... § 165.771 Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico (a) Location. The...waters of the Caribbean Sea and the Bahia de Ponce, on approach to or departure from...

2009-07-01

12

TOXICITY OF USED DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Static, acute toxicity tests were conducted with mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and 11 used drilling fluids (also called drilling muds) obtained from active drilling platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Each whole mud was tested, along with three phases of each mud: a liquid phase ...

13

Amerciamysis bahia Stochastic Matrix Population Model for Laboratory Populations  

EPA Science Inventory

The population model described here is a stochastic, density-independent matrix model for integrating the effects of toxicants on survival and reproduction of the marine invertebrate, Americamysis bahia. The model was constructed using Microsoft® Excel 2003. The focus of the mode...

14

Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

15

Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is usually provided with 1-3 notches, and teeth (1-2), if present, are small; and the posterolateral margin is smooth or slightly granulated. PMID:19419041

de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro

2008-09-01

16

OPTIMIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS DURING THE LIFE CYCLE OF 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA'  

EPA Science Inventory

When considering both survival capacity of Mysidopsis bahia (Mi bahia) through a complete life cycle and time required for juvenile mysids to become reproductively mature, salinity-temperature conditions of 20 parts per thopis and by wgt. dissolved salts and 25 C appear optimal f...

17

Documenting Architectural Heritage in Bahia, Brazil, Using Spherical Photogrammetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cultural Heritage disappears at a rate higher than we are able, not only, to restore but also to document: human and natural factors, negligence or worst, deliberate demolitions put in danger the collective Architectural Heritage (AH). According to CIPA statements, the recording is important and has to follow some guidelines. The Architectural and Urban Heritage data have to be historically related, critically assessed and analyzed, before to be organized according to a thematic structure and become available for further uses. This paper shows the experiences developed by the Laboratory of Computer Graphics applied to Architecture and Design (LCAD), at the Architecture School of the Federal University of Bahia (FAUFBA), Brazil, in cooperation with the Università Politecnica delle Marche (UNIVPM, DICEA Department), Italy, in documenting architectural heritage. The research set up now has been carried out in the historical sites of Bahia, as Pelourinho neighborhood, a World Heritage by UNESCO. Other historical sites are in the plan of this survey, like the cities of Lençóis and Mucugê in Chapada Diamantina region. The aim is to build a technological platform based on low cost digital technologies and open source tools, such as Panoramic Spherical Photogrammetry, Spatial Database, Geographic Information Systems, Three-dimensional Geometric Modeling, CAD technology, for the collection, validation and dissemination of AH.

De Amorim, A. L.; Fangi, G.; Malinverni, E. S.

2013-07-01

18

Petrology and Geochemistry of the Marbles and Calcosilicated Rocks from Ipira, Bahia - Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work explains a study of marbles and diopsitites from Serra das Panelas, Ipira, Bahia, Brazil. Petrographic analysis, chemistry some elements, trace elements and rare earths, isotopic analysis of Strontium, carbon and oxigen, and geochronological det...

M. A. F. T. Oliveira

1976-01-01

19

Relation between denudation history and sediment supply from apatite fission track thermochronology in the northeast Brazilian Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to provide a quantitative overview of Mesozoic-Cenozoic morphotectonic evolution and sediment supply to the northeast Brazilian margin. Landscape evolution and denudation histories for the northeastern Brazilian continental margin (Sergipe, Alagoas, Bahia, and Espírito Santo states) were detailed by apatite fission track thermochronology and thermal-history modeling and related with the sedimentological record of the offshore basins of the passive margin for a comparison with their denudational history. Approximately one hundred basement samples were analyzed from the coast to the inland of the Brazilian margin. The apparent fission track ages vary from 360 to 61 Ma and confined fission track lengths vary between 10 and 14.6 µm, indicating that not all of the samples recorded the same cooling events. The results of apatite fission track ages indicate that the area has been eroded regionally since the Mesozoic (< 250 Ma) and suggest that at less 4 km of overburden has been eroded regionally since the late Cretaceous (< 120 Ma) at a rate of 120 to 15 m/Ma. Two-stage of erosion process is deduced from simulated cooling histories for each sector. The Permian-Early Jurassic exhumation is restricted to the area of the Sertaneja Depression, besides the Diamantina Plateau. During this time, denudation rates are generally <20 m My-1 and record up to 1.5 km of denudation. Pre-rift sedimentation is recorded in the Camamu-Almada, Recôncavo, and Sergipe-Alagoas basins. Samples from the Conquista and Borborema Plateaus, and Mantiqueira Range record a Cretaceous-Paleogene onset of exhumation. This timing is consistent with the offshore sedimentary record, wherein a large clastic wedge started forming in the northeastern Sergipe-Alagoas basin, which suggests Sergipe-Alagoas basin records drainage reorganization and extension of the São Francisco River catchment. Interestingly, the Camamu basin, adjacent to the section of the margin does not record syn/post-rift exhumation, does contain a 6-km thick sedimentary succession, which should thus have been derived from more distal sources. The Neogene final denudation is observed throughout the study area and show conspicuous recent exhumation. The post-rift (<40 Ma) offshore sedimentation rates are generally lower than during preceding phases. This final sedimentary succession is thinner in all basins, consistent with limited onshore erosion during this time.

Jelinek, Andrea; Chemale, Farid; Bueno, Gilmar

2014-05-01

20

THE ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE ESTUARINE MYSID, 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA'  

EPA Science Inventory

Mysids, small shrimp-like crustacea, are used as practical bioassay animals for investigating the effects of cadmium in seawater. In laboratory tests, the mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) was more sensitive to cadmium than other crustaceans tested. LC50 values were 15.5 micrograms/l with...

21

Reconnaissance for radioactive rocks in the Paulo Afonso Region, Bahia, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground and air traverses were made to the northwest, north and northeast of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil, covering Precambrian crystalline rocks and sedimentary rocks of the Jatoba series of Jurassic or Cretaceous age. No important radioactivity anomalies were found; samples from the two strongest anomalies had an equivalent uranium-oxide content of 0.002 percent and 0.006 percent.

Haynes, Donald D.; Mau, Henry

1958-01-01

22

Epidemiological and molecular study of Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present article was an epidemio- logical and molecular study of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of Ilhéus and Itabuna in Bahia, as well as an evaluation of associated risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 153 dogs and DNA was extracted and analyzed by the nested-polymerase chain reaction, us- ing one pair of primers to detect Ehrlichia

F. S. Carvalho; A. A. Wenceslau; R. S. A. Carlos; G. R. Albuquerque

2008-01-01

23

COMPARATIVE ACUTE TOXICITIES OF SEVERAL PESTICIDES AND METALS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA AND POSTLARVAL PENAEUS DUORARUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of toxic chemicals on estuarine and marine crustaceans are often evaluated using the mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. n a literature survey of results of acute toxicity tests with estuarine crustaceans, Mysidae and Penaeidae were generally the two most sensitive families. owever,...

24

ACUTE TOXICITY OF EIGHT LABORATORY-PREPARED GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute toxicity tests were conducted during August-September 1983 with eight laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (also called muds) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, Florida. Two of t...

25

OCCURANCE OF 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' (MYSIDACEA: MYSIDAE) ON THE ATLANTIC COAST OF FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

Occurrence of Mysidopsis bahia (Mysidacea: Mysidae) is reported on the Atlantic Coast of Florida December 6, 1984. The sighting of 22 specimens (15 females, 4 males and 2 juveniles of undetermined sex) occurred at the Link Port Channel, Ft. Pierce, Florida. Dr. Thomas E. Bowman a...

26

Variation of nutrient and metal concentrations in aquatic macrophytes along the Rio Cachoeira in Bahia (Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cuprous fungicides in cocoa production in the southern part of the state of Bahia (Brazil) for decades has caused an accumulation of copper in various components of the cocoa plantations, and a contamination of regional freshwater ecosystems is suspected. Urban and industrial sources are supposed to contribute to water pollution and eutrophication of the Rio Cachoeira, the

Andreas Klumpp; Konrad Bauer; Charis Franz-Gerstein; Max de Menezes

2002-01-01

27

Increased Reproduction by Mysids ('Mysidopsis bahia') Fed with Enriched 'Artemia' spp. Nauplii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to assess effects of four diets on reproduction by the mysid Mysidopsis bahia in routine culture conditions. Two experiments were performed: the first lasted 25 d under semistatic conditions and the second lasted 60 d under flow-thro...

A. H. Kuhn D. A. Bengtson K. L. Simpson

1991-01-01

28

VIABILIDADE FINANCEIRA DA PRODUÇÃO DE FRUTAS NA REGIÃO SUDESTE DA BAHIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A região cacaueira da Bahia vem enfrentando uma crise sem precedente em sua história com a redução continuada da renda e emprego em virtude de problemas enfrentados pela cultura do cacau. O crescimento do parque agroindustrial de polpa de frutas na região poderá contribuir na diversificação da economia regional ao criar uma opção de mercado para a produção

Antônio Carlos de Araújo; Lúcia Maria Ramos Silva; Ahmad Saeed Khan; José B. V. Leite; Aurélio F. Macedo

29

Causes of School Failure: The Case of the State of Bahia in Brazil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the findings of a two-year study in Bahia (Brazil) designed to provide insight into the failure of the schooling system in Brazil to meet the educational needs of the population. Gives information from the literature review, reports on the survey results, and discusses a case study of four schools. (KO)

Verhine, Robert E.; Pita de Melo, Ana Maria

1988-01-01

30

Conservation status of ten endemic trees from the Atlantic Forest in the south of Bahia - Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic Forest in southern Bahia, rich in tree species and with high levels of endemism, has been suffering a strong impact from intense habitat reductions caused by deforestation. The conservation status for ten tree species was assessed in the landscape comprised of \\

Regina Helena; Rosa Sambuichi; Raquel Maria de Oliveira; Eduardo Mariano Neto; Rafael Lima de Oliveira; Morena Colares Pelição

31

CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON TWO SPECIES OF MYSID SHRIMP: 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' AND 'MYSIDOPSIS BIGELOWI'  

EPA Science Inventory

Two species of mysid shrimp, the sub-tropical Mysidopsis bahia and the northern temperate Mysidopsis bigelowi, were exposed simultaneously to cadmium (as CdC12) in a continuous-flow bioassay system to determine the effect on survival and reproductive success. Temperature and sali...

32

INCREASED REPRODUCTION BY MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) FED WITH ENRICHED ARTEMIA SPP. NAUPLII  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to assess effects of four diets on reproduction by the mysid Mysidopsis bahia in routine culture conditions. wo experiments were performed: the first lasted under semistatic conditions and the second lasted 60 d under flow-through conditions. he objective wa...

33

Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

34

Effect of Food Availability on the Acute Toxicity of Four Chemicals to 'Mysidopsis bahia' (Mysidacea) in Static Exposures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Static acute 96 hour tests were conducted with Mysidopsis bahia using either carbophenothion, cypermethrin, malathion, or 4-(tert-Octyl)phenol. The mysids were 24 hours old or less at test initiation. For each chemical, two replicate tests were conducted ...

G. M. Cripe A. Ingley-Guezou L. R. Goodman J. Forester

1989-01-01

35

Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Pas n 1, the major allergen of Bahia grass Paspalum notatum pollen.  

PubMed

Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is a clinically important subtropical grass with a prolonged pollination season from spring to autumn. We aimed to clone and characterise the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1. Grass pollen-allergic patients presenting to a tertiary hospital allergy clinic were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract by skin prick testing, ImmunoCAP, ELISA and immunoblotting. Using primers deduced from the N-terminal peptide sequence of a group 1 allergen of Bahia grass pollen extract separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the complete Pas n 1 cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and cloned. Biological relevance of recombinant Pas n 1 expressed in Escherichia coli was assessed by serum IgE reactivity and basophil activation. Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) consecutive patients presenting with grass pollen allergy were skin prick test positive to Bahia grass pollen. The Pas n 1 cDNA has sequence homology with the beta-expansin 1 glycoprotein family and is more closely related to the maize pollen group 1 allergen (85% identity) than to ryegrass Lol p 1 or Timothy grass Phl p 1 (64 and 66% identity, respectively). rPas n 1 reacted with serum IgE in 47 of 55 (85%) Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients, activated basophils and inhibited serum IgE reactivity with the 29 kDa band of Bahia grass pollen extract. In conclusion the cDNA for the major group 1 allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1, was identified and cloned. rPas n 1 is immunologically active and is a valuable reagent for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:18817975

Davies, Janet M; Mittag, Diana; Dang, Thanh D; Symons, Karen; Voskamp, Astrid; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

2008-12-01

36

Acute and chronic effects of heavy metals and cyanide on Mysidopsis bahia (crustacea:mysidacea)  

SciTech Connect

Acute and whole life-cycle toxicity tests were conducted with the estuarine mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, exposed to cyanide and selected heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96h LC50) ranged from 3.5 micrograms/1 for mercury to 3130 micrograms/1 for lead, and were ranked in order of toxicity: (greatest)Hg, Cd, Cu, Cn, Ag, Sn, Ni, As, Cr, and Pb(least). The chronic toxicity values ranged from 1.2 micrograms/1 for mercury to 893 micrograms/1 for arsenic. Chronic values were calculated from either survival, time to first reproduction, or number of young produced. When acute toxicity data for the same chemical are compared, M. bahia is consistently among the more sensitive marine species. Lack of comparable data precludes a similar observation with chronic tests. Examination of the relative sensitivity of the chronic responses indicates that only for cadmium was survival more sensitive than reproduction.

Lussier, S.M.; Gentile, J.H.; Walker, J.

1985-01-01

37

Photogeologic mapping in central southwest Bahia, using LANDSAT-1 multispectral images. [Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interpretation of LANDSAT multispectral imagery for geologic mapping of central southwest Bahia, Brazil is described. Surface features such as drainage, topography, vegetation and land use are identified. The area is composed of low grade Precambrian rocks covered by Mezozoic and Cenozoic sediments. The principal mineral prospects of economic value are fluorite and calcareous rocks. Gold, calcite, rock crystal, copper, potassium nitrate and alumina were also identified.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Ohara, T.

1981-01-01

38

Landsat mapping of rocks associated with copper mineralization, northern Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project has applied Landsat digital data to a study of the geology of a mineralized zone in northern Bahia State, Brazil. The study accomplished two tasks: (1) production of a 1:100,000 geologic map of approximately 3300 sq km and (2) development of a two tiered geobotanical index that exploits increased vegetation density and decreased soil brightness on the mafic rock units.

Stone, T. A.; Birnie, R. W.; Zantop, H.

1983-01-01

39

Three new species of the genus Paraleucilla Dendy, 1892 (Porifera, Calcarea) from the coast of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Three new species of calcareous sponges from the coast of Bahia State, NE Brazil are described. All of them belong to the genus Paraleucilla (Calcaronea, Leucosolenida, Amphoriscidae): P. solangeae sp. nov., P. oca sp. nov., and P. incomposita sp. nov. The number of species recorded from the Bahia coast has thus increased from 10 to 13. Including these new species, there are now 50 calcareous sponge species known from the entire Brazilian coast. Paraleucilla is now composed of 11 species, six of them occurring along the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The remaining species occur mainly in the Indian Ocean, and also in the Pacific Ocean, Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea. An identification key for all Paraleucilla species is provided. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Solange Peixinho, to acknowledge her contribution to our understanding of the biodiversity of Calcarea from the Bahia coast in Brazil. PMID:24870655

Cavalcanti, Fernanda F; Menegola, Carla; Lanna, Emilio

2014-01-01

40

A nonbreeding concentration of Roseate and Common Terns in Bahia, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report recoveries of banded Roseate (Sterna dougallii) and Common (S. hirundo) Terns netted at Mangue Seco, Bahia, Brazil (11? 27'S, 37? 21'W). Mangue Seco is the first reported South American location where large numbers of Roseate Terns concentrate December-March, and where members of both the North American and Caribbean populations occur together during these months. A Roseate Tern recovered at Mangue Seco sets an age record of 25.6 years for the species. Recoveries at Mangue Seco of Common Terns banded in the Azores (37? -38?N, 25? -29?W) suggest there is a regular transatlantic movement by Common Terns between the two locations.

Hays, H.; Lima, P.; Monteiro, L.; DiConstanzo, J.; Cormons, G.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Saliva, J.E.; Spendelow, J.A.; Burger, J.; Pierce, J.; Gochfeld, M.

1999-01-01

41

Bioavailability and Natural Pollution of Heavy Metals in Bahia de Magdalena, Baja California, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the pristine environment of Bahia de Magdalena, Baja California, elevated concentrations of heavy metals have been reported in the biota within the bay, such as sea grasses, blue crabs, and marine turtles. While the hypothesized source of these metals has emphasized anthropogenic inputs from a local fish cannery, geologic enrichment of metals from natural ophiolite formations in the Puerto Magdalena region may be an increasingly feasible source. Total (XRF) chromium and nickel concentrations (max 4,450 ppm and 2,396 ppm, respectively) in rock and soil are orders of magnitude higher than average concentrations in the crust and the beach sands directly impacted by waste discharge from the cannery (mean Cr, 55ppm and mean Ni 17ppm at cannery). Bioavailable (HNO3 acid extracted) metals differ between rock and soil versus cannery-impacted sites. Most notably, Ni is very bioavailable (mean 70% total Ni extracted) in pristine ophiolite areas, but almost completely unavailable at cannery-impacted sites. In contrast, Zn is slightly more bioavailable at the impacted cannery site (mean 55% Zn extracted) than the ophiolite rocks (mean 45% Zn extracted). In addition, these results suggest that while metals, such as Cu, Fe, and Mn, have been previously studied in the biota of the bay, other heavy metals such as Ni and Cr should be included in future biological studies within Bahia de Magdalena.

Lee, W.; O'Shea, B.

2012-12-01

42

Spatial analysis of migrating Apis mellifera colonies in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Beekeeping in Brazil is growing but also associated with an increase in the number of human and animal accidents involved. In particular, bees of the Apis mellifera species (Africanized bees) are known for their aggressive behaviour and frequent swarming activity due to their poor adaptation to the human environment. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of occurrences of migratory swarms of A. mellifera and recorded apicultural accidents in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The association of demographic and climatic variations on places where the swarms occurred was also evaluated. The study is based on data collected within the frame of the "SOS Bees", a project initiated for the protection of the environment and enforced by a special unit of the military police in Bahia. In the 3-year period from 2000 to 2003, 590 swarms were registered in 75 of the 98 zones of information of Salvador. Three cluster areas, representing 25.4% of all events, were identified. In that period, 316 apicultural accidents were registered involving humans and one involving dogs. The seasonal rise of the monthly average temperature showed an association with the increase of the number of swarming events. PMID:19908195

Sandes, Renato L; Oliveira, Cláudia L; Ferreira, Edvana S; Cruiff, Emersom; Tavares, Cezar; Santos, Antonio C B; Franke, Carlos R; Bavia, Maria E

2009-11-01

43

[What the expenses with the Family Health Program in a municipality of Bahia shows?].  

PubMed

The Family Health Program (PSF) was established by the federal government as a strategy to reverse the care model. This article aimed to identify the flow of accounts from local sources of funding to the activities of health; problematize and evaluate the allocation of financial resources and implementation of the PSF budget in the municipality of Santo Antonio de Jesus (Bahia, Brazil) in the year of 2005. The financial data were collected through four tables proposed by the National Health Accounts (NHA) and compared with data of official reports. The data result on the survey showed a expenditure per capita of 16 PSF units ranging from R$ 465.40 to R$ 62.30 per capita/unit/year. The average expenditure of a unit was R$ 17.302/unit/month) in 2005 and the federal government spent R$ 2.834/unit/month. In conclusion: there was a decisory financing of the PSF by the federal government and a lack of co-financing from state of Bahia; there was a great effort from the council to expand access to health services through the PSF. The choice of the municipality by this strategy may have make unviable other priority activities due to scarce resources; and the limits found in the expenditure description of activities register a profile that will allow comparisons in future researches. PMID:21519675

Rosa, Márcia Reis Rocha; Coelho, Thereza Christina Bahia

2011-03-01

44

Spigelia genuflexa (Loganiaceae), a new geocarpic species from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Spigelia L. (Loganiaceae), Spigelia genuflexa Popovkin & Struwe, sp. n., from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil, is described, being the first reported geocarpic species in the family. During fruit maturation, the basal infructescences bend down towards the ground, depositing the fruit on the surface (and burying it in soft kinds of ground cover, e.g., moss), whereas the upper ones do so slightly but noticeably. The species is a short-lived annual apparently restricted to sandy-soil habitat of the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, with variable and heterogeneous microenvironment and is known from only two restricted localities. A short review of amphi- and geocarpic species is provided. A discussion of comparative morphology within Spigelia with regards to dwarfism, indumentum, and annual habit is included. A phylogenetic parsimony and Bayesian analysis of ITS sequences from 15 Spigelia species plus 17 outgroups in Loganiaceae confirms its independent taxonomic status: on the basis of sequence similarity and phylogenetic topology it is phylogenetically distinct from all Spigelia species sequenced so far.

Popovkin, Alex V.; Mathews, Katherine G.; Santos, Jose Carlos Mendes; Molina, M. Carmen; Struwe, Lena

2011-01-01

45

A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species. Resumo Uma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção.

Giacomin, Leandro L.; Stehmann, Joao Renato

2011-01-01

46

A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species.ResumoUma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. PMID:22287920

Giacomin, Leandro L; Stehmann, João Renato

2011-01-01

47

Hawksbill × loggerhead sea turtle hybrids at Bahia, Brazil: where do their offspring go?  

PubMed

Hybridization between hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) breeding groups is unusually common in Bahia state, Brazil. Such hybridization is possible because hawksbill and loggerhead nesting activities overlap temporally and spatially along the coast of this state. Nevertheless, the destinations of their offspring are not yet known. This study is the first to identify immature hawksbill × loggerhead hybrids (n = 4) from this rookery by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 157 immature turtles morphologically identified as hawksbills. We also compare for the first time modeled dispersal patterns of hawksbill, loggerhead, and hybrid offspring considering hatching season and oceanic phase duration of turtles. Particle movements varied according to season, with a higher proportion of particles dispersing southwards throughout loggerhead and hybrid hatching seasons, and northwards during hawksbill season. Hybrids from Bahia were not present in important hawksbill feeding grounds of Brazil, being detected only at areas more common for loggerheads. The genetic and oceanographic findings of this work indicate that these immature hybrids, which are morphologically similar to hawksbills, could be adopting behavioral traits typical of loggerheads, such as feeding in temperate waters of the western South Atlantic. Understanding the distribution, ecology, and migrations of these hybrids is essential for the development of adequate conservation and management plans. PMID:24688839

Proietti, Maira C; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis F; Marcovaldi, Maria A; Soares, Luciano S; Monteiro, Danielle S; Wijeratne, Sarath; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R

2014-01-01

48

Advertisement call of Rhinella crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1821)
(Anura: Bufonidae) from southern Bahia, Brazil.
 

PubMed

The Rhinella crucifer species group is currently composed by six species: Rhinella crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1821); R. ornata (Spix, 1824); R. henseli (A. Lutz, 1924); R. abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004); R. pombali (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004) and R. inopina Vaz-Silva, Valdujo & Pombal, 2012. Until 2012, the group was known to occur only in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest from Rio Grande do Sul to Ceará, and adjacent areas in Minas Gerais and São Paulo (Baldissera et al. 2004). The recently described R. inopina revealed an allopatric distribution, occurring in forest vegetation types in eastern Cerrado (Vaz-Silva et al. 2012). Rhinella crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1821), occurs throughout the Atlantic Rain Forest from Rio de Janeiro to Ceará including the northeast of Minas Gerais (Baldissera et al. 2004; Frost, 2014). Only two species in the group have described calls: R. ornata as Bufo crucifer in Heyer et al. (1990) and R. pombali (Lourenço et al. 2010). The type locality of R. crucifer was informed as being between São Pedro de Alcantara in Santa Catarina and Barra da Vereda in Bahia, but as stated by Bokermann (1966) the type locality can be narrowed down to an area between the rivers Piabanda and Issara, both affluents of the Ilhéus river, approximately 40 km above the municipality of Itabuna. Herein we describe the advertisement call of R. crucifer from a population in the municipality of Igrapiúna, Bahia, Brazil, located less than 100 km from the city of Itabuna.  PMID:24872038

De Oliveira, Renan Manoel; Ruas, Danilo Silva; Mendes, Caio Vinicius De Mira; Solé, Mirco

2014-01-01

49

ALTERATIONS IN THE ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) AS INDICATORS OF STRESS FROM CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Various aspects of the energy metabolism of an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) were examined for different life stages during a life-cycle exposure to the organophosphate pesticide fenthion. Dose-response relationships were developed for several metabolic rate functions (oxyge...

50

Long-Term Assessment of the Oil Spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim Report. Volume 1: Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill w...

B. D. Keller J. B. C. Jackson

1991-01-01

51

Assessment of oil refinery waste on Rhizophora mangle L. seedling growth in mangroves of Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Rhizophora mangle L. were planted and comparatively assessed in six mangroves of Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil. Five of the mangroves were on the north of the bay, an area under the influence of oil activities: two areas around the Landulpho Alves Refinery in Mataripe, and in Madre de Deus Island, Pati Island, and Fontes Island. The

M. D. R Orge; I. J Porsché; M. C Costa; J. S Lima; S. E. D Soares; R Justino

2000-01-01

52

Long-Term Assessment of the Oil Spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim Report. Volume 2: Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill w...

B. D. Keller J. B. C. Jackson

1991-01-01

53

MAGMATISMO NEOPROTEROZÓICO NO SUL DO ESTADO DA BAHIA, MACIÇO SIENÍTICO SERRA DAS ARARAS: GEOLOGIA, PETROGRAFIA, IDADE E GEOQUÍMICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 ) is a Brasiliano aged intrusion (single zircon Pb-Pb age of 739 ± 2 Ma), located in the South area of an alignment of alkaline rocks that constitute the Alkaline Province of South Bahia. These rocks are predominantly hypersolvus syenites with biotite, hornblende an d occasionally quartz, which gradually evolve into blue quartz-alkaline granites in the core. The massif

HERBET CONCEIÇÃO; MOACIR JOSÉ BUENANO MACAMBIRA; MOACYR MOURA MARINHO; RITA CUNHA; LEAL MENEZES; MÔNICA PRISGSHEIM DA CUNHA; DÉBORA CORREIA RIOS

54

ACUTE TOXICITY OF TWO GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS AND SIX ADDITIVES, ALONE AND COMBINED, TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity tests were conducted with two laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (muds) and six commonly used drilling fluid additives to determine their toxicity, alone and combined, to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). In 25 tests, the acute toxicity of combinations of one, two, or ...

55

[Description of an outbreak of lepidopterism (dermatitis associated with contact with moths) among sailors in Salvador, State of Bahia].  

PubMed

An occurrence of pruritic papular dermatitis among the whole crew of a Filipino commercial ship in Salvador, State of Bahia, was associated with contact with Hylesia moths. This unusual type of dermatitis is caused by the bristles (flechettes) on the moths' bodies. Reporting on such cases serves to warn about possible similar situations. PMID:17992420

Moreira, Shirlei Cristina; de Lima, Jean Carla; Silva, Lucineide; Haddad, Vidal

2007-01-01

56

EFFECT OF FOOD AVAILABILITY ON THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF FOUR CHEMICALS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA IN STATIC EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Static acute 96 h tests were conducted with Mysidopsis bahia using either carbophenothion, cypermethrin, malathion, or 4-(tert-octyl)phenol. The mysids were < 24 h old at test initiation. For each chemical, two replicate tests were conducted simultaneously with each of thr...

57

'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA': AN ESTUARINE SPECIES SUITABLE FOR LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY TESTS TO DETERMINE EFFECTS OF A POLLUTANT  

EPA Science Inventory

This study documents the successful use of a mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, for life-cycle toxicity tests. These tests were conducted to determine acute and chronic toxicities of metal (cadmium) and pesticide (Kepone). Delay in the formation of mysid brood pouches and release of young ...

58

Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America. PMID:15575989

Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

2004-12-01

59

[Occurence of ectoparasites in ostriches (Struthio camelus) reared in semi-arid region of Bahia].  

PubMed

In the period of May to August of 2005, 19 ostrich's farms were visited in the semi-arid area of the Irecê, Bahia, in order to describe the ectoparasites. The African Black ostriches were reared in intensive system, and distributed for age group, in colonies, trio, couple or cráche. In each farm, after visually inspection of the ostrich, the feathers were taken in several areas of the body and were kept in plastic bags. The screwworms found were collected and stored in 70% ethanol. In 74% (14/19) and 47% (04/19) of the flocks were found ostriches infested, respectively, for the Struthiopterolichus bicaudatus (acari) and Struthiolipeurus rheae (mallophaga). In only one flock (5.3%) it was found an animal with Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae. PMID:19245762

Almeida, Maria Angela O; Duarte, Larissa De Fátima C; Rocha, Juliana Da S; Silva, Mariana S A; Guimarães, José Eugenio; Ayres, Maria Consuêlo C

2008-01-01

60

A new species of Atanatolica Mosely 1936 (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) from Serra Bonita, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The Neotropical genus Atanatolica includes 17 species distributed from Costa Rica to Brazil, but only two, A. brasiliana and A. flinti, have been recorded from Brazil, both occurring in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo States. A new species, Atanatolica bonita n. sp., is described and illustrated based on males and females from the Atlantic Forest in Bahia State in northeastern Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed by the following characters: Apicomesal and apicolateral processes of segment X of same length, long and digitate; and second article of each inferior appendage well developed, long, and thumb-shaped. Notes on demographic changes and correlations with seasonal variation and precipitation are also given. PMID:24869867

Costa, Anne M; Calor, Adolfo R

2014-01-01

61

[Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24627062

Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

2014-02-01

62

Mangifera indica and Phaseolus vulgaris in the bioindication of air pollution in Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

In this article are reported the results of a study on the concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) in Mangifera indica as passive monitor and in Phaseolus vulgaris as active monitor with the intention to study the effects of industrial emissions from the Petrochemical Complex of Camaçari (PCC), Bahia, Brazil, on the vegetation. Leaves from M. indica were collected in two sites in the region under direct influence of industrial emissions and in one presumed nonpolluted reference (background) site. Pots with P. vulgaris were exposed in the same sites. The AA increase in the leaves of M. indica from PCC sites indicates a stress situation. The small AA increase in the P. vulgaris exposed in the more polluted site indicates that the active monitor is a sensitive one. The decrease of its leaf area indicates the inability of this species to activate physiological protection mechanisms like an increase in AA production. PMID:10903824

Lima, J S; Fernandes, E B; Fawcett, W N

2000-07-01

63

A new extinct primate among the Pleistocene megafauna of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed Central

A nearly complete skeleton of a robust-bodied New World monkey that resembles living spider monkeys was recovered from undisturbed Pleistocene deposits in the Brazilian state of Bahia. The skeleton displays the highly specialized postcranial pattern typical of spider and woolly spider monkeys and shares cranial similarities to the spider monkey exclusively. It is generically distinct on the basis of its robustness (>20 kg) and on the shape of its braincase. This new genus indicates that New World monkeys nearly twice the size of those living today were part of the mammalian biomass of southern Amazonia in the late Pleistocene. The discovery of this specimen expands the known adaptive diversity of New World monkeys and demonstrates that they underwent body size expansion in the terminal Pleistocene, as did many other types of mammals. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5

Cartelle, C; Hartwig, W C

1996-01-01

64

Environmental impact of uranium mining and ore processing in the Lagoa Real District, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) started in 2000. Hydrogeochemical monitoring carried out from 1999 to 2001 revealed generally good quality of the water resources outside and inside the mineralized area. No chemical contamination in waters for domestic uses was observed. Hydrochemical characteristics did not vary significantly after 1 year of U exploitation, as compared to premining conditions. Due to the short time of mining, the results cannot exclude future variations in water quality. Leaching experiments helped to describe processes of ore and waste degradation. Sulfate was identified as an indicator for different types of contamination. Potential hazards related to local climate (hot rainy season) were identified. They indicate that tailings derived from the ore processing, destabilized by sulfuric acid attack, may induce acidification and salinization in the surrounding environment. Another potential source of environmental impact could be linked to local radium-rich mineralization, originating radon emission. PMID:16323758

Carvalho, Ilson G; Cidu, Rosa; Fanfani, Luca; Pitsch, Helmut; Beaucaire, Catherine; Zuddas, Pierpaolo

2005-11-15

65

Factors Associated with Food Insecurity in Households of Public School Students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191,73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment.

Bittencourt, Liliane de Souza; dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Aliaga, Marie Agnes

2013-01-01

66

Evaluation of toxicity of polluted marine sediments from Bahia Salina Cruz, Mexico.  

PubMed

Bahia Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, Mexico is a major center of oil and refined product distribution on the Mexican Pacific coast. From the start of oil industry operations in 1979, negative effects from discharges of treated effluents in the bay have been a constant concern for local communities. We analyzed 28 surface sediment samples obtained in June, 2002 to evaluate the level of toxicity in the littoral zone, port-harbor, and La Ventosa estuary in Bahia Salina Cruz. The extractable organic matter concentration was high (1,213 to 7,505 micro g g(-1)) in 5 of 7 stations from the port and harbor, whereas it was low in 12 of 16 stations in the littoral zone (36 to 98 micro g g(-1)). The total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest (57 to 142 micro g g(-1)) in the port and harbor compared to the La Ventosa estuary and the littoral zone. Among the heavy metals analyzed, cadmium exceeded the effects range-low values associated with adverse biological effects. The geo-accumulation index of sediments was moderate to strong contamination at 5 stations in the nonlittoral and 6 stations in the littoral zone. The enrichment of lead, zinc, and cadmium at 5 stations from the littoral, port, and harbor suggest that these metals are of anthropogenic origin. Bioassay tests of elutriates of sediments on nauplii of Artemia franciscana and Artemia sp. showed that the port and harbor were more toxic than the La Ventosa estuary and the coastal zone. The Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri) did not show a similar response with the solid phase of the sediments. The results of this study indicate that the high levels of organic content and metals in the sediments of port-harbor and the La Ventosa estuary are mainly caused by anthropogenic activities. PMID:20390851

Gonzalez-Lozano, Maria Cristina; Mendez-Rodriguez, Lia C; Maeda-Martinez, Alejandro M; Murugan, Gopal; Vazquez-Botello, Alfonso

2010-01-01

67

?-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Five restriction site polymorphisms in the ?-globin gene cluster (HincII-5‘ ?, HindIII-G ?, HindIII-A ?, HincII- ??1 and HincII-3‘ ??1) were analyzed in three populations (n = 114) from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the “quilombo community”, from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+ - - - -), 3 (- - - - +), 4 (- + - - +) and 6 (- + + - +) on the ?A chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (- + + + +) and 14 (+ + - - +), were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16) had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease) were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin) and CAR (Central African Republic), with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

2010-01-01

68

Factors associated with food insecurity in households of public school students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191.73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

de Souza Bittencourt, Liliane; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria; de Jesus Pinto, Elizabete; Aliaga, Marie Agnes; de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Rita

2013-12-01

69

Perfil sociodemográfico, epidemiológico e comportamental de mulheres infectadas pelo HTLV1 em Salvador-Bahia, uma área endêmica para o HTLV Sociodemographic, epidemiological and behavioral profile of women infected with HTLV1 in Salvador, Bahia, an endemic area for HTLV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to describe the sociodemographic, epidemiological and behavioral characteristics of women infected with HTLV-1 (64) and uninfected women (66) in Salvador, Bahia. The serological diagnosis was obtained via ELISA, Western Blot and Immunofluorescence. Epidemiological and sociodemographic data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. The chi-squared or Fisher test was used for categorical data and ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis (3

Ivanoska Moxoto; Ney Boa-Sorte; Ceuci Nunes; Augusto Mota; Alexandre Dumas; Inês Dourado; Bernardo Galvão-Castro

70

[Considerations on the Sistema Único de Saúde in the twenty-first century: an interview with Lígia Bahia].  

PubMed

This interview with Lígia Bahia explores evaluations of the first 25 years of Brazil's Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and analyzes the project's progress, impasses, and missteps. Bahia is critical of both tendencies currently found within SUS: the one that sees the system as aimed at equity and the other posing equality as its goal. She criticizes the ambivalence that various spheres of government have displayed in their decisions regarding large corporate groups and private health insurance plans, which conflict with the ideas of SUS. She evaluates the participation of doctors and other healthcare professionals in the system. Lastly, she analyzes the emergence of identity politics, which are missing from the public health reform project, whose emphasis was on equality. PMID:24789487

Bahia, Lígia; Cueto, Marcos; Benchimol, Jaime; Teixeira, Luiz Antonio; Cerqueira, Roberta C

2014-01-01

71

Associations Between Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins and the Bird Community in the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the presence of birds accompanying and foraging in proximity to golden-headed lion tamarins at Una Biological\\u000a Reserve, Bahia, Brazil. We followed 3 groups of golden-headed lion tamarins over 3 yr. We noted all birds ?5 m of a lion tamarin\\u000a during 20-min observation periods. We found 11 different bird species in the presence of the lion tamarins. We most

Sarah J. Hankerson; James M. Dietz; Becky E. Raboy

2006-01-01

72

Characterization and Relocation of Seismic Clusters in the Area of Bahia de Banderas, Jalisco-Nayarit, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed the seismic activity that took place the year of 2003 in the area of Bahia de Banderas, between the states of Jalisco and Nayarit, registrated with a local network of 7 stations, which belongs to the Civil Defence of Jalisco and the University of Guadalajara. 400 events have been located, in these earthquakes we identified some series of a similar waveforms. For defining this similarity between seismic events and in order to classify them into clusters, we have applied the cross-correlation method of the P and S arrivals. We found a fourth part of epicentres gathered into 15 clusters of 3-25 events. For some clusters we used relocations relative to a master event. Located south of Bahia de Banderas exist clusters aligned along structures trending N-S in the area of Tuito. This trend agrees with the topographic relief of the area. Other clustes can be related with active tectonic structures at north of Cajon de Peñas dam (Tomatlan). Another cluster was identified at the East, Amatlan de Cañas-Ameca area, and one more in the center of the Bahia de Banderas.

Rutz Lopez, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Carmona, E.

2004-12-01

73

The prevalence of mental disorders in prisoners in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The number of individuals affected by serious psychiatric disorders in Brazilian prisons is unknown. This cross-sectional study was conducted in prison complexes within the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The sample consisted of 497 prisoners, and the outcome measure was the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The prevalence rates found in the closed and semi-open prison systems, respectively, were as follows: depression 17.6% and 18.8%; bipolar mood disorder 5.2% and 10.1%; anxiety disorders 6.9% and 14.4%; borderline personality disorder 19.7% and 34.8%; antisocial personality disorder 26.9% and 24.2%; alcohol addiction 26.6% and 35.3%; drug addiction 27.9% and 32.4%; psychosis 1.4% and 12.6%; attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood 10.3% and 22.2%; and ADHD in adulthood 4.1% and 5.3%. This study revealed higher rates of substance-related disorders and lower rates of psychotic and mood disorders compared to other prevalence studies carried out in prison populations. PMID:21306379

Pondé, Milena P; Freire, Antônio C C; Mendonça, Milena S S

2011-05-01

74

Karyotype composition of some rodents and marsupials from Chapada Diamantina (Bahia, Brasil).  

PubMed

The Chapada Diamantina (CD) is located in Bahia State, between 11-14 degrees S and 41-43 degrees W, being part of the Serra do Espinhaço. The occurrence of different habitats and transition areas permits an interesting mammal fauna composition, with species from different biomes living in sympatry. Species of Didelphimorphia and Rodentia are important members of mammal communities in almost all different habitats, and morphological and cytogenetic characters are important for a correct identification of most of these species. In this work 258 specimens of small mammals from the orders Didelphimorphia (six genera and six species) and Rodentia (two families, five Sigmodontinae tribes, nine genera and 11 species) were collected during the whole field work (44 nights with traps). Chromosome preparations were obtained from 145 specimens from the species: Marmosops incanus, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Monodelphis domestica, Akodon aff. cursor, Necromys lasiurus, Cerradomys sp., Oligoryzomys fornesi, O. nigripes, O. rupestris, Calomys expulsus, Rhipidomys macrurus, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinus and Thrichomys inermis. Didelphis albiventris, Micoureus demerarae, Thylamys karymii and Nectomys sp. were identified by morphological characters. Most analyzed specimens do not show karyotype variation. However, numerical chromosomic variation was found in two individuals of Akodon aff. cursor (2n = 15) and in one individual of Cerradomys sp. (2n = 51). Structural variation in karyotype was observed in seven individuals of Cerradomys sp., showing one additional pair of metacentric chromosomes. PMID:18094834

Pereira, L G; Geise, L

2007-08-01

75

Application of PCR in Serum Samples for Diagnosis of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the Southern Bahia-Brazil  

PubMed Central

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) cannot always be diagnosed by conventional means such as direct examination of histopathology or clinical samples, and serological methods, used as an alternative, still have many cases of cross-reactivity. In this scenario, molecular techniques seem to arise as a rapid approach, specific and direct that could be used in the diagnosis of this mycosis. In this study we analyzed 76 serum samples from patients in southern Bahia suspected of having paracoccidioidomycosis using a conventional PCR with primers for the ITS1 ribosomal DNA of P. brasiliensis. Of these 76 patients, 5 were positive for PCM by double immunodiffusion and/or direct examination and histopathology. To test specificity of PCR, we used human DNA and three isolates of P. lutzii (1578, 01 and ED01). Additionally, we analyzed by serial dilutions of DNA the limit of detection of the assay. The test of PCR proved specific, as only a 144 bp fragment of the three isolates of P. lutzii and no human DNA was amplified. Detection limit was 1.1 pg/µL of DNA. Despite the high detection limit and specificity of PCR none of the 76 serum samples were found positive by PCR, but a biopsy specimen obtained from one of the patients with PCM was positive. These results, albeit limited, show that PCR is not effective in detecting DNA of P. brasiliensis or P. lutzii in serum, but could perhaps be used with other types of clinical samples, especially in those instances in which conventional methods fail.

Dias, Lucas; de Carvalho, Leila Falcao; Romano, Carla C.

2012-01-01

76

Variation of nutrient and metal concentrations in aquatic macrophytes along the Rio Cachoeira in Bahia (Brazil).  

PubMed

The use of cuprous fungicides in cocoa production in the southern part of the state of Bahia (Brazil) for decades has caused an accumulation of copper in various components of the cocoa plantations, and a contamination of regional freshwater ecosystems is suspected. Urban and industrial sources are supposed to contribute to water pollution and eutrophication of the Rio Cachoeira, the main river in this region. In order to study the metal contamination and nutritional status of this freshwater ecosystem, samples of the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were collected at seven sites along the river course. The samples were analysed for their copper, aluminium, chromium, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The levels of heavy metals increased in the downstream direction, particularly in the roots of water hyacinth. A dramatic increase of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in water as well as in plant tissues was found in samples collected downstream from the city of Itabuna. Metal input and eutrophication were attributed to agricultural, industrial and urban sources in the region. Biomonitoring of the water quality using aquatic macrophytes as accumulative indicator plants is recommended in addition to chemical water analyses. PMID:12222613

Klump, Andreas; Bauer, Konrad; Franz-Gerstein, Charis; de Menezes, Max

2002-07-01

77

Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. Methods This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests. Results We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin’s principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form (“pássaro” in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species. Conclusions The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community.

2014-01-01

78

Seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in dogs in Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in dogs living in the urban area of the city of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to investigate 24 serovars. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to dog owners to collect data about demography, husbandry and environmental factors. The prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in the population of 282 dogs was 7.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.4-10.7%). Serovar Copenhageni was the most prevalent, followed by serovars Bratislava, Canicola and Gryppotyphosa. No risk factor was detected with regard to demography (age, gender and breed), husbandry (Leptospira vaccinations, food and water exposure through their environment, hunting habits, contact with other animals and contact with rats) and environmental factors (sewage network, garbage collection, history of flooding, river proximity and wastelands). Despite the low prevalence found in this study, the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in healthy dogs in Ilhéus indicates the presence of this agent in the environment, which may be a source of human infection. Knowledge of the serovars present in this environment is important for understanding the epidemiology of leptospirosis and establishing public health policies aimed at its control. PMID:22510215

Oliveira Lavinsky, Manuella; Said, Roueda Abou; Strenzel, Gil Marcelo Reuss; Langoni, Helio

2012-09-01

79

Chloritization of the hydrothermally altered bedrock at the Igarapé Bahia gold deposit, Carajás, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Igarapé Bahia gold deposit has developed from weathering of a near-vertical hydrothermal Cu (Au) mineralization zone. The unweathered bedrock composed of chlorite schists is mainly metamorphosed basalts, pyroclastic and clastic sedimentary rocks and iron formation. Contents and Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios of chlorites increase from distal country rock towards the mineralization zone, which can be attributed to different water/rock ratios and locations in a hydrothermal system. In the hydrothermal system high salinity fluids convected through basin-floor rocks, stripping metals from the recharge zones with precipitation in discharge zones. The chlorite with lower Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios indicates alteration by relatively unreacted Mg-rich fluids, occurring within recharge zones. By contrast, the chlorite with higher Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios in the mineralization zone formed from solutions rich in Fe, Mn, Au, Cu, H2S and SiO2 within a discharge zone. The iron formation could also be formed within the discharge zone or on the basin floor from the Fe-rich fluids. The distal country rock with less chlorite content is a hydrothermal product at low water/rock ratios whereas the proximal country rock and the host rock with more chlorite content formed at high water/rock ratio conditions. The Al(IV) contents of chlorites indicate that the formation temperatures of these rocks range from 204 to 266 °C, with temperatures slightly increasing from distal country rock towards the mineralization zone.

Zang, W.; Fyfe, W. S.

1995-02-01

80

The occurrence of microdiamonds in Mesoproterozoic Chapada Diamantina intrusive rocks--Bahia/Brazil.  

PubMed

The origin of diamonds from Serra do Espinhaço in Diamantina region (State of Minas Gerais) and in Chapada Diamantina, Lençóis region (State of Bahia) remains uncertain, even taking into account the ample research carried out during the last decades. The lack of typical satellite minerals in both districts makes a kimberlitic source for these diamonds uncertain. In mid 18th century the occurrence of a metamorphosed igneous rock composed of martite, sericite and tourmaline was described in Diamantina region and named hematitic phyllite, considered by some researchers as a possible diamond source. Similar rocks were found in Lençóis and examined petrographically and their heavy mineral concentration was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Petrographic analyses indicated an igneous origin for these rocks and SEM analyses showed the discovery of microdiamonds. Geochronological studies using the Ar/Ar technique in muscovites yielded minimum ages of 1515+/-3 Ma, which may correlate with 1710+/-12 Ma from U-Pb method in igneous zircons from the hematitic phyllites. Both rock types also have the same mineral and chemical composition which leads to the conclusion that the intrusive rocks were protolith of the hematitic phyllites. This first discovery of microdiamonds in intrusive rocks opens the possibility of new investigation models for diamond mineralization in Brazilian Proterozoic terrains. PMID:17625685

Battilani, Gislaine A; Gomes, Newton S; Guerra, Wilson J

2007-06-01

81

[Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].  

PubMed

The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. PMID:21710038

Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

2011-01-01

82

Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%. PMID:8701041

França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

1996-01-01

83

Spatial distribution of triatomines (Reduviidae: Triatominae) in urban areas of the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Environmental changes have a strong influence on the emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases. The city of Salvador, Brazil--currently the focus of a housing boom linked to massive deforestation--is an example in point as the destruction of the remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest around the city has led to an increased risk for Chagas disease. Human domiciles have been invaded by the triatomine vectors of Trypansoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan causing Chagas disease, a problem of particular concern in urban/suburban areas of the city such as the Patamares sector in the north-east, where numbers of both the vector and human cases of the disease have increased lately. To control and prevent further deterioration of the situation, the control programme for Chagas disease, developed by the Bahia Center for Zoonosis Control, has divided the area into a grid of designated surveillance units (ZIs) that are subjected to vector examination. In six out of 98 of these ZIs, 988 triatomes were collected and georeferenced during the 3-year period between 2006 and 2009. The hottest months, that are also generally the driest, showed the highest numbers of triatomines with Triatoma tibiamaculata being the predominant species (98.3%) with Panstrongylus geniculatus present only occasionally (0.6%). Fifty-four percent of all triatomines captured were found inside the homes, and 48.6% out of 479 individuals in the affected ZIs selected for analysis tested positive for T. cruzi infection. The study presented here is a pioneering initiative to map the spatial distribution of triatomines based on geographical information systems with the additional aim of contributing to an expanded knowledge-base about T. cruzi and its vectors in urban areas and raise public health awareness of the risks involved. PMID:21590670

Santana, Karine de Souza O; Bavia, Maria Emília; Lima, Artur Dias; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina S; Soares, Enio Silva; Silva, Marta Mariana Nascimento; Mendonça, Jorge; Martin, Moara de Santana

2011-05-01

84

Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 ?m, 250-53 ?m, and <53 ?m)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

2010-02-01

85

Seroprevalence and serum profile of cytomegalovirus infection among patients with hematologic disorders in Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus with from 30% to 100% of the general population exhibiting prior exposure by serology. This cross-sectional study evaluated the serological profile of anti-CMV antibodies and two acute-phase reaction proteins in Haematologic Disorder Patients (HDPs) from Bahia State, Brazil. Immuno-chemiluminescence assays were performed to detect anti-CMV IgM and IgG antibodies. Serological levels of High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRPH) and Alpha-1-Acid Glycoprotein (AAG) were measured using immunonephelometry. A total of 470 HDPs were enrolled, 238 (50.6%) males and 232 (49.4%) females. The overall seroprevalence of CMV was 89.4%, directly proportional to age and to the amount of blood units transfused. There was no difference between seroprevalence rates according to gender (P?=?0.12). Four HDPs (0.9%) were seropositives for anti-CMV IgM, only one could be characterized as recent acute infection. The most CMV seropositive HDPs had anti-CMV IgG in low titers. There was a tendency for females to have higher anti-CMV IgG titers than men (P?

de Matos, Sócrates Bezerra; Meyer, Roberto; Lima, Fernanda Washington de Mendonça

2011-02-01

86

Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78?years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State.

2012-01-01

87

A fauna de Rotallida (Foraminiferida) da borda do recife de Itacimirim, Bahia, Brasil: um estudo comparativo do sedimento e das algas como substrato  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to compare the Rotaliida fauna (Foraminiferida) that lives in the sediment with that attached on algae from the Itacimirim's reef border, Bahia's north coast. Six samples of sediment and six of algae were collected in sites distributed along the reef border. The first 200 foraminnifers of each sample were selected, identified and the specimens belonging to the

Yonara S. Braga; Altair J. Machado; Simone S. Moraes

2008-01-01

88

Taphonomy and time-averaging of foraminiferal assemblages in Holocene tidal flat sediments, Bahia la Choya, Sonora, Mexico (northern Gulf of California)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraminiferal reproduction and preservation have been studied in Holocene tidal flat sediments of Bahia la Choya, Sonora, Mexico (northern Gulf of California). Foraminiferal reproduction at Choya Bay tends to occur in discrete (~ a few weeks) seasonal pulses, which are then followed by periods of homogenization and dissolution of several months duration. Foraminiferal number (number of tests\\/gram sediment) increases northward

Ronald E. Martin; M. Scott Harris; W. David Liddell

1995-01-01

89

Evaluation of the salt accumulation process during inundation in water resource of Contas river basin (Bahia–Brazil) applying principal component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high salinization in some reservoirs of the Contas river basin (Bahia–Brazil) has been erroneously attributed only to concentration by evaporation. However, recent studies of this basin have shown that in period of intense rainfalls, occur an increase of the saline concentration in the flowing rivers of the reservoirs. The application of statistical methods (cluster and principal components analysis) have

José Soares dos Santos; Elisabeth de Oliveira; Roy Eduard Bruns; Rosel?? Fernandes Gennari

2004-01-01

90

Ecological niche modeling for visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil, using genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction and growing degree day-water budget analysis.  

PubMed

Two predictive models were developed within a geographic information system using Genetic Algorithm Rule-Set Prediction (GARP) and the growing degree day (GDD)-water budget (WB) concept to predict the distribution and potential risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The objective was to define the environmental suitability of the disease as well as to obtain a deeper understanding of the eco-epidemiology of VL by associating environmental and climatic variables with disease prevalence. Both the GARP model and the GDDWB model, using different analysis approaches and with the same human prevalence database, predicted similar distribution and abundance patterns for the Lutzomyia longipalpis-Leishmania chagasi system in Bahia. High and moderate prevalence sites for VL were significantly related to areas of high and moderate risk prediction by: (i) the area predicted by the GARP model, depending on the number of pixels that overlapped among eleven annual model years, and (ii) the number of potential generations per year that could be completed by the Lu. longipalpis-L. chagasi system by GDD-WB analysis. When applied to the ecological zones of Bahia, both the GARP and the GDD-WB prediction models suggest that the highest VL risk is in the interior region of the state, characterized by a semi-arid and hot climate known as Caatinga, while the risk in the Bahia interior forest and the Cerrado ecological regions is lower. The Bahia coastal forest was predicted to be a low-risk area due to the unsuitable conditions for the vector and VL transmission. PMID:18686237

Nieto, Prixia; Malone, John B; Bavia, Maria E

2006-11-01

91

Assessment of computer techniques for processing digital LANDSAT MSS data for lithological discrimination of Serra do Ramalho, State of Bahia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enhancement techniques and thematic classifications were applied to the metasediments of Bambui Super Group (Upper Proterozoic) in the Region of Serra do Ramalho, SW of the state of Bahia. Linear contrast stretch, band-ratios with contrast stretch, and color-composites allow lithological discriminations. The effects of human activities and of vegetation cover mask and limit, in several ways, the lithological discrimination with digital MSS data. Principal component images and color composite of linear contrast stretch of these products, show lithological discrimination through tonal gradations. This set of products allows the delineations of several metasedimentary sequences to a level superior to reconnaissance mapping. Supervised (maximum likelihood classifier) and nonsupervised (K-Means classifier) classification of the limestone sequence, host to fluorite mineralization show satisfactory results.

Paradella, W. R. (principal investigator); Vitorello, I.; Monteiro, M. D.

1984-01-01

92

Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

2012-04-01

93

Bacterial communities associated with the rhizosphere of pioneer plants ( Bahia xylopoda and Viguiera linearis ) growing on heavy metals-contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the bacterial communities associated with the rhizospheres of pioneer plants Bahia xylopoda and Viguiera linearis were explored. These plants grow on silver mine tailings with high concentration of heavy metals in Zacatecas, Mexico. Metagenomic DNAs\\u000a from rhizosphere and bulk soil were extracted to perform a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis (DGGE) and to\\u000a construct 16S rRNA gene

Yendi E. Navarro-Noya; Janet Jan-Roblero; Maria del Carmen González-Chávez; Regina Hernández-Gama; César Hernández-Rodríguez

2010-01-01

94

Clinical and epidemiological study of 27 poisonings caused by ingesting puffer fish (Tetrodontidae) in the states of Santa Catarina and Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Puffer fish can be poisonous due to the presence of the potent neurotoxins such as Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and Saxitoxin (STX) found in its tissues. The authors report 27 human poisonings from ingestion of puffer fish in patients treated at Toxicology Centers in the states of Santa Catarina and Bahia, Brazil, between 1984 and January 2009. Poisonings were classified as moderate (52%) and severe (33%), two deaths were observed. Early diagnosis is very important to ensure respiratory support. PMID:20305956

Silva, Claudia Carvalho Pestana; Zannin, Marlene; Rodrigues, Daisy Schwab; Santos, Claudia Regina dos; Correa, Ieda Ana; Haddad Junior, Vidal

2010-01-01

95

HTLV-1 in pregnant women from the Southern Bahia, Brazil: a neglected condition despite the high prevalence  

PubMed Central

Background As the most frequent pathway of vertical transmission of HTLV-1 is breast-feeding, and considering the higher prevalence in women, it is very important to perform screening examinations for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies as part of routine prenatal care. So far, no studies of HTLV-1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in the Southern region of Bahia, Brazil, have been described. Methods Pregnant women were selected at the two regional reference centers for health care from Southern Bahia. A total of 2766 pregnant women attending the antenatal unit between November 2008 and May 2010 have been analyzed. An extra blood sample was drawn during their routine antenatal testing. A standardized questionnaire was applied and all positive plasma samples were tested by ELISA and were confirmed by Western Blot and PCR. Besides that, positive women were contacted and visited. The family members that were present during the visit were asked to be serologically screened to the virus. A prospective study was also carried out and newborns were followed up to two years for evaluation of vertical transmission. Results HTLV prevalence was 1.05% (CI 95%: 0.70-1.50). There was no association of HTLV-1 infection with age, education, income and ethnic differences. The association with marital status was borderline (OR?=?7.99; 95% CI 1.07-59.3; p?=?0.042). In addition, 43 family members of the HTLV-1 seropositive women have been analyzed and specific reactivity was observed in 32.56%, including two children from previous pregnancy. Conclusion: It is very important to emphasize that the lack of HTLV-1 screening in pregnant women can promote HTLV transmission especially in endemic areas. HTLV screening in this vulnerable population and the promotion of bottle-feeding for children of seropositive mothers could be important cost-effective methods to limit the vertical transmission. Besides that, our data reinforce the need to establish strategies of active surveillance in household and family contacts as important epidemiological surveillance actions for the early detection of virus infection and the prevention of transmission by sexual or and parenteral contact.

2014-01-01

96

The bivalve Neithea from the Cretaceous of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of new collections from the Sergipe and Camamu (Bahia) basins, revision of previously described material from the Pernambuco-Para?´ba Basin and a reassessment of previous descriptions, five species of the pectinid bivalve Neithea are described from the Cretaceous of northeastern Brazil: N. ( N.) alpina (d'Orbigny, 1847) from the Albian of the Camamu Basin; N. ( N.) coquandi (Peron, 1877) from the Aptian-Cenomanian of the Sergipe Basin, the Albian of the Camamu Basin, broadly mid-Cretaceous beds of the Tucano Sul Basin (Bahia), and the Cenomanian of the São Lu?´s Basin (Maranhão); N. ( N.) hispanica (d'Orbigny, 1850) from the Albian-lower Turonian of the Sergipe Basin; N. ( N.) bexarensis (Stephenson, 1941) from the Campanian of the Pernambuco-Para?´ba Basin; N. ( Neithella) notabilis (Münster in Goldfuss, 1833) from the Cenomanian of the Sergipe Basin. All species show a wide geographical distribution, in sharp contrast to previous studies that have indicated a highly endemic mollusc fauna in the Cretaceous of Brazil.

de Jesus Andrade, Edilma; Seeling, Jens; Bengtson, Peter; Souza-Lima, Wagner

2004-09-01

97

Influence of Tropical Cyclones Period 1970 TO 2010 IN the Region of Bahia de Banderas, Nayarit-Jalisco Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the impacts of tropical cyclones (TC) that made landfall in populated areas along the Pacific coast of Mexico, especially in the region of Bahia de Banderas. During the period of 1970-2010 and used a database of international natural disasters to identify impacts. Were more than 13 events during the reporting period, of which 10 are examined more precipitation accumulated and 6 that caused further damage to the affected population in these cases ranged from 5000 to more than 15 000 inhabitants. Strong winds and heavy rainfall in periods of one to three days were associated with property damage and loss of life. The results of the study indicate that excessive accumulations of rain and daily intensity are important factors connected with the occurrence of disasters in densely populated areas. Six of the first 10 Tropical Cyclone associated with major disasters occurred in conditions of El Niño and four neutral conditions. With the analysis of satellite images using GOES-10 in the IDV software maps were obtained in the coastal impacts of Banderas Bay and describes the main features of each meteorological phenomena. In which concludes that no tropical cyclone entered directly to the Banderas Bay region, but its effects were very relevant, taking into account the topography, land use change and the vulnerability of the region. Tropical Cyclones that have affected the region of Bay of Banderas

Hernandez, J. M.

2013-12-01

98

[The evolution of mortality by homicide in the State of Bahia in the period from 1996 to 2010].  

PubMed

An ecological study was conducted, the objective of which was to describe the evolution of homicide rates for residents of the State of Bahia, Brazil, and its nine health macroregions (MRS) in the period from 1996 to 2010. Crude and adjusted data from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and X85-Y09 codes of the Tenth International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) were analyzed. The number, proportion and homicide mortality rates (TMH) were analyzed. considering the characteristics of the victim and the event. The results revealed a profile of predominantly male mortality, Afro-Brazilian race/ethnicity with little education. The public highways were the main location of occurrence of deaths. There was an increase in TMH in all age groups, though the highest rates were observed in the population of 15 to 39 years of age. The TMH age-standardized rates were higher in the Far South, East, North and South. The conclusion reached was that the killings can be addressed from the loation/regional realities through strategic and planning of intersectoral actions that take into account the socioeconomic and cultural characteristics. PMID:24897488

Souza, Tiago Oliveira de; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach

2014-06-01

99

[Missed opportunity for timely diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in Afrodescendant communities in the southwest of the state of Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of missed opportunities for timely diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in Afrodescendant communities in Vitoria da Conquista in the state of Bahia. It involved a population-based cross-sectional study based on a probability sample (n=797), where 548 individuals were eligible for analysis considering the risk criteria: age of 45 years old and above, increased Body Mass Index and hypertension. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was estimated at 42.6%. Logistic regression indicated the following statistically associated factors: self-assessed good/very good health conditions; not measuring blood pressure and not consulting with a physician in the past twelve months; and poor access to health services. The high prevalence was associated with factors related to low utilization and poor access to health services. Actions for the diagnosis and prevention of diabetes should prioritize populations at risk, including better education and training of family health care teams, and improvement of attendance at health care units. Enhanced integration between primary and secondary health care actions can positively impact early diagnosis, treatment and reduction of potential complications associated with diabetes in this population. PMID:24897467

Souza, Cláudio Lima; Barroso, Sabrina Martins; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

2014-06-01

100

Analysis of 15 autosomal STR loci from Mar del Plata and Bahia Blanca (Central Region of Argentina).  

PubMed

Allele frequencies for the 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci included in the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler kit were estimated in a sample of unrelated individuals from Mar del Plata (MDQ; N?=?180) and Bahia Blanca (BB; N?=?85) (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Biological samples were obtained from voluntary donors and forensic cases. Both populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction, except for locus vWA in MDQ and D2S1338 in BB. FGA was the most informative locus, and the least discriminating locus was TPOX in both samples. The combined power of discrimination (PDc) and the combined probability of exclusion (PEc) were similar in MDQ and BB samples (0.999999998?

Parolin, María Laura; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Sambuco, Lorena Andrea; Jaureguiberry, Stella Maris; Iudica, Celia Estela

2014-05-01

101

Molecular frequency and isolation of cyst-forming coccidia from free ranging chickens in Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The Toxoplasmatinae parasites Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Hammondia spp. have carnivores as definitive hosts that shed the parasite oocysts in their feces. Birds that feed directly from the soil, such as chickens, are exposed to infection and may serve as indicators of the presence of the parasite in the environment and as a source of infection for other animals. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of infection by these parasites in free ranging chickens, to test whether chickens are intermediate hosts of Hammondia spp., and to isolate N. caninum from chickens. One hundred chickens, which were raised in contact to cattle and dogs, were bought in five towns located in Bahia, Brazil. Blood and tissues (brain and heart) were used for serology, molecular tests and bioassay in mice for parasite isolation. T. gondii DNA was detected in 29 chickens, and N. caninum DNA was observed in six animals. Hammondia spp. DNA was not detected in tissues from any chicken. Tissues from eight N. caninum seropositive chickens were bioassayed in interferon-gamma gene knockout mice, but the mice did not become infected; T. gondii was isolated from six of 14 seropositive chickens after bioassay in outbreed Swiss mice. The authors concluded that: chickens seem to be better hosts for T. gondii when compared to N. caninum, based on the molecular and bioassay results; Hammondia spp. probably does not infect chickens or is rarely found in this animal species. PMID:22673105

Gonçalves, I N; Uzêda, R S; Lacerda, G A; Moreira, R R N; Araújo, F R; Oliveira, R H M; Corbellini, L G; Gondim, L F P

2012-11-23

102

[Survey of sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with Xylella fastidiosa transmission in citrus groves of the North Coast of Bahia State].  

PubMed

The causal agent of citrus variegated clorosis, Xylella fastidiosa, is transmitted by leafhoppers of the subfamily Cicadellinae, whose species vary regionally. The goal of this study was to identify potential vectors of this pathogen in citrus groves of Bahia North Coast, Brazil. The survey was done from March/2002 to February/2003 in three seven- to nine-year-old sweet orange (Citrus sinensis, Pêra variety) groves located in Rio Real, BA. Fifteen yellow sticky cards (8.5x11.5 cm) were installed 40 m apart in each grove, hanged at 1.5 m high on the upper north side of citrus canopies, and replaced fortnightly. A sweep net was periodically used to sample leafhoppers on herbaceous weeds inside the groves, by selecting five points at random and performing 30 sweeps in each point. A total of 1,360 specimens of 49 Auchenorrhyncha species were collected in this study, mostly in the family Cicadellidae (90.2%). The subfamily Cicadellinae, which includes the sharpshooter vectors of X. fastidiosa, showed the largest number of species (14) and specimens (84.8%). Acrogonia flagellata Young, A. citrina Marucci & Cavichioli, Homalodisca spottii Takiya, Cavichioli & McKamey and an unidentified Cicadellini (species 1) were the dominant species trapped on citrus canopies, while Hortensia similis (Walker) and Erythrogonia dubia (Medler) were dominant in the weedy vegetation. Among the Cicadellinae species already known as vectors of X. fastidiosa in citrus, only A. citrina, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg) e Ferrariana trivittata (Signoret) were found. The two latter species were accidentally trapped by sweep net in the weedy vegetation. PMID:20098930

De Miranda, Marcelo P; Lopes, João R S; Do Nascimento, Antonio S; Dos Santos, José L; Cavichioli, Rodney R

2009-01-01

103

Climate Patterns Governing the Presence and Permanence of Salmonellae in Coastal Areas of Bahia de Todos Santos, Mexico?  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of salmonellae as one of the major causes of food-borne infections worldwide, data regarding the presence of these organisms in the environment are limited. We investigated the presence of Salmonella spp. in Bahia de Todos Santos (Baja California, Mexico) and evaluated the environmental factors that affect the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in this arid region. A total of 1,331 samples collected from 21 sites along the coast during a period of 3 years were analyzed for Salmonella spp. Geographical and seasonal distribution of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in association with environmental parameters and with human infections in the area. The incidence of Salmonella bacteria throughout the study was 4.8%, with the highest incidence detected in wastewater (16.2%), followed by stream water (10.6%), mollusks (7.4%), and seawater (2.3%). Twenty different serotypes were identified among the 64 Salmonella isolates. The dominant serotype was Typhimurium (23.4%), followed by Vejle (6.2%). The presence of Salmonella spp. in coastal areas was mostly confined to rainy periods and areas of stream discharges, and runoff was identified as the predominant factor influencing the transport of Salmonella bacteria from source points to the sea via streams. Isolation of Salmonella spp. was negatively and significantly associated with temperature, probably because of the effect of solar radiation in the decline of permanence of Salmonella bacteria. Conversely, human infections prevailed during the warmest months and were negatively correlated with the presence of Salmonella spp. in the marine environment.

Simental, Lourdes; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

2008-01-01

104

The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The orchid-bee faunas of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants ranging from 1 to 300 ha in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, were surveyed. Baits with seventeen different scents were used to attract orchid-bee males. Four thousand seven hundred and sixty-four males belonging to 36 species were actively collected with insect nets during 300 hours from November, 2008 to November, 2009. Richness and diversity of orchid bees found in this study are the highest ever recorded in the Atlantic Forest domain. Eufriesea dentilabris (Mocsáry, 1897) and Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840) were collected at the 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', the first record of these species for the state of Bahia and the northernmost record for both species. Females Exaerete dentata (Linnaeus, 1758) were also collected at 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal' and old records of Eufriesea aeneiventris (Mocsáry, 1896) in this area makes this site the richest and most diverse concerning its orchid-bee fauna in the entire Atlantic Forest and similar to areas in the Amazon Basin. PMID:23917575

Nemésio, A

2013-05-01

105

Prevalence and molecular characterization of ?-thalassemia in the state of Bahia, Brazil: first identification of mutation HBB: c.135delC in Brazil.  

PubMed

?-Thalassemia (?-thal) is a hereditary disease with at least 200 known causative molecular defects, with a limited number of distinct mutations predominating in any given population. The Brazilian population is one of the most heterogeneous in the world. Although occurrences of ?-thal in this country have been recognized for a long time and previous studies have shown important regional differences related to the mutational profile, no extensive analysis of mutations of the HBB gene has been carried out in Brazil. We examined 1011 teenagers from Bahia, a state located in the northeast of Brazil. Hematological data were obtained using automated cell counting, hemoglobin (Hb) profiles were studied by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and DNA was analyzed by automated sequencing. None of the four Mediterranean mutations that are most frequently found in South and Southeast Brazil (HBB: c.118C>T; HBB: c.93-21G>A; HBB: c.92+1G>A; HBB: c.92+6T>C), was found to be responsible for thalassemia in the cases that we studied. One heterozygote for a frameshift mutation at codon 44 (-C) was identified. This is the first study to determine the prevalence and profile of ?-thal in Bahia State. For the first time in Brazil, we report the occurrence of the HBB: c.135delC mutation in the ?-globin gene. PMID:23425035

Fonseca, Silvana F; Moura Neto, Jose P; Goncalves, Marilda S

2013-01-01

106

Impact of the Family Health Program on gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Northeast Brazil: an analysis of primary care-sensitive conditions.  

PubMed

In seeking to provide universal health care through its primary care-oriented Family Health Program, Brazil has attempted to reduce hospitalization rates for preventable illnesses such as childhood gastroenteritis. We measured rates of Primary Care-sensitive Hospitalizations and evaluated the impact of the Family Health Program on pediatric gastroenteritis trends in high-poverty Northeast Brazil. We analyzed aggregated municipal-level data in time-series between years 1999-2007 from the Brazilian health system payer database and performed qualitative, in-depth key informant interviews with public health experts in municipalities in Bahia. Data were sampled for Bahia's Salvador microregion, a population of approximately 14 million. Gastroenteritis hospitalization rates among children aged less than 5 years were evaluated. Declining hospitalization rates were associated with increasing coverage by the PSF (P = 0.02). After multivariate adjustment for garbage collection, sanitation, and water supply, evidence of this association was no longer significant (P = 0.28). Qualitative analysis confirmed these findings with a framework of health determinants, proximal causes, and health system effects. The PSF, with other public health efforts, was associated with decreasing gastroenteritis hospitalizations in children. Incentives for providers and more patient-centered health delivery may contribute to strengthening the PSF's role in improving primary health care outcomes in Brazil. PMID:23932060

Monahan, Laura J; Calip, Gregory S; Novo, Patricia M; Sherstinsky, Mark; Casiano, Mildred; Mota, Eduardo; Dourado, Inês

2013-09-01

107

The relationships between microbiological attributes and soil and litter quality in pure and mixed stands of native tree species in southeastern Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to link soil and litter microbial biomass and activity with soil and litter quality in the surface layer for different pure and mixed stands of native tree species in southeastern Bahia, Brazil. The purpose of the study was to see how strongly the differences among species and stands affect the microbiological attributes of the soil and to identify how microbial processes can be influenced by soil and litter quality. Soil and litter samples were collected from six pure and mixed stands of six hardwood species (Peltogyne angustifolia, Centrolobium robustum, Arapatiella psilophylla, Sclerolobium chrysophyllum, Cordia trichotoma, Macrolobium latifolium) native to the southeastern region of Bahia, Brazil. In plantations of native tree species in humid tropical regions, the immobilization efficiency of C and N by soil microbial biomass was strongly related to the chemical quality of the litter and to the organic matter quality of the soil. According to the variables analyzed, the mixed stand was similar to the natural forest and dissimilar to the pure stands. Litter microbial biomass represented a greater sink of C and N than soil microbial biomass and is an important contributor of resources to tropical soils having low C and N availability. PMID:22007789

Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Barros, Nairam F; Moço, Maria Kellen S

2011-11-01

108

INTERACTIONS AMONG SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, AND AGE ON GROWTH OF THE ESTUARINE MYSID MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA REARED IN THE LABORATORY THROUGH A COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE - I. BODY MASS AND AGE-SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

A broad range of salinity-temperature conditions (salinities from 3 to 31 o/oo and temperatures from 19 to 31 degrees C) significantly influenced growth rates and subsequent biomass of the estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, reared in the laboratory from the first free juvenile st...

109

Sensoriamento Remoto NA Estimativa DA Area Plantada COM Feijao, Milho E Mamona No Municipio de Irece (Remote Sensing Techniques in the Estimation of the Area Cultivated with Beans, Corn, and Castor Beans in the Irece County (Bahia State)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to obtain an estimation of the areas cultivated with beans, corn, and castor beans in the Irece county (Bahia State) using statistical and remote sensing techniques. Using a topographic chart at a scale of 1:100,000 the county area was d...

B. F. T. Rudorff T. Krug

1986-01-01

110

Isolation, pathogenicity and disinfection of Staphylococcus aureus carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Currently, hospital infection is a serious public health problem, and several factors may influence the occurrence of these infections, including the presence of insects, which are carriers of multidrug-resistant bacterial species. The aim of this study was to isolate staphylococci carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia and to identify the resistance profile, pathogenicity and efficacy of disinfection of the premises. A total of 91 insects were collected in 21 strategic points of these hospitals, and 32 isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. Based on antibiogram and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration results, 95% of these strains were susceptible to oxacillin. These strains were also evaluated for the presence of resistance genes encoding resistance to oxacillin/methicillin by polymerase chain reaction, but the sample was negative for this gene. Pathogenicity tests were performed in vitro biofilm formation induced by glucose, where it was found that eight (27.58%) strains were classified as biofilm producers and 21 (72.4%) as stronger producers. In addition, we performed PCR for their virulence genes: Sea (enterotoxin A), SEB (B), Sec (C), PVL (Panton-Valentine Leukocidin), ClfA (clumping factor A) and Spa (protein A). Of these, Sea, Spa PVL were positive in 7 (21.8%), 2 (6.3%) and 1 (3.1%) samples, respectively. The analysis of cytokine induction in the inflammatory response of J774 macrophages by isolates from the two hospitals did not show statistical difference at the levels of IL-6, TNF-?, IL-1 and IL-10 production. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial activity of disinfecting agents on these strains, quaternary ammonium, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, Lysoform(®), 70% alcohol solution of chlorhexidine digluconate, 2% peracetic acid, and 100% vinegar. Resistance was seen in only for the following two disinfectants: 70% alcohol in 31 (96.8%) samples tested and vinegar in 30 (93.8%) samples. The study demonstrated the presence of resistant and pathogenic organisms conveyed by insects, thus suggesting improvement in efforts to control these vectors. PMID:24216155

Oliveira, Pollianna S; Souza, Simone G; Campos, Guilherme B; da Silva, Danilo C C; Sousa, Daniel S; Araújo, Suerda P F; Ferreira, Laiziane P; Santos, Verena M; Amorim, Aline T; Santos, Angelita M O G; Timenetsky, Jorge; Cruz, Mariluze P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M

2014-01-01

111

[Community structure and association of waterbirds with spatial heterogeneity in the Bahia Magdalena-Almejas wetland complex, Baja California Sur, Mexico].  

PubMed

Community structure and association of waterbirds with spatial heterogeneity in the Bahia Magdalena-Almejas wetland complex, Baja California Sur, Mexico. To test the hypothesis that spatial heterogeneity determines waterbird diversity in a coastal wetland, we compared waterbird density, diversity, and species composition among various habitats and landscapes units in Bahia Magdalena-Almejas, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Based on diversity patterns and bird distribution, we assessed the effect of coastal development on the waterbird community structure. To gather information on habitat features and waterbird populations we conducted waterbird censuses in 329 habitat segments along the internal coastline of the study area, from February 2002 to February 2003. We performed non-parametric analyses to test the null hypothesis of no diference on waterbird density, and diversity among landscape units and seasons. The species composition was evaluated using ordination techniques. Waterbird density was higher in winter and autumn in the three lagoons of the study area, particularly in the insular coast, sandy beach and dunes; it was higher in the few segments of antropic sustrate. Diversity was significantly higher in mangrove habitat along the peninsular coast, and in mangrove-dunes association on the insular coast. Although modification of coastal natural habitat and boat transit disturbance had no influence on waterbird density or diversity, the highest richness of waterbirds occurred in well preserved areas. Species composition analysis showed differences between Santo Domingo Channel and Magdalena Bay. Pelagic and mangrove habitat had a species composition difference higher than those associations in other habitats. Such differences in species assemblages by habitat and landscape units suggest that communities are structured according to the range of available natural resources in structurally complex habitats, and that dominant piscivorous waterbird species were favored in this community. PMID:18624251

Zárate-Ovando, Bulmara; Palacios, Eduardo; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor

2008-03-01

112

Mineralogical and textural evidences of melt transfer in a granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In pelitic rocks, the effect of melt transfer (loss and/or gain) on phase relations can be successfully predicted via phase equilibrium modeling and more particularly using pseudosections with bulk composition as a variable (e.g. White et al., 2001). One of the most obvious effect of melt loss is the dehydration of the rock that limits further melting and favors the preservation of peak metamorphic assemblage. However, in most cases, melt loss has a limited effect that can be hardly seen mineralogically. Indeed, composition of phases like garnet, cordierite or plagioclase, that are first-order metamorphic phase, will not be affected significantly by melt loss. Therefore, evidences of melt extraction must be evidenced texturally. The goal of this contribution is to present an example where both mineralogical and textural evidences of melt extraction have been inferred. The studied sample is a pelitic granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). It is located in the city of Salvador da Bahia, next to the Farol da Bara. Structurally, it is located in a steeply deeping high strain zone that could have play a major role on the segregation and transfer of melt. The gneissic foliation is marked by a compositional banding with centimer-wide quartzo-feldspathic leucosomes in a garnet-bearing granulite. Leucosomes are almost systematically surrounded by a darker layer that is quartz-undersaturated and enriched in spinel and primatic sillimanite. This silica undersaturation is interpreted as the effect of extreme melt extraction and was modeled using phase diagram section. An interesting feature of the rock is that garnet grain size decreases and the number of garnet grains increases in the melanosome away from the leucosome. Furthermore, the type, amount and shape of inclusions in garnet, chemical composition and zoning in garnet also varies greatly and continuously across the gneissic foliation. Texturally, the presence of former melt consists on thin films along grain boundaries, melt pools that are much more abundant in the silica-undersaturated domain close to the leucosome.

Goncalves, Philippe; Santos de Souza, Jailma; Barbosa, Johildo; Bourque, Hugo; Floess, David

2014-05-01

113

Potential pollinators of Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), in restinga, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) are tropical plant species found in restinga (herbaceous-shrubby, sandy costal ecosystems). They have flowers with poricidal anthers and are pollinated by bees. The study sought to analyse potential pollinators of both plants during visits to their flowers in a restinga area in Bahia. The flowering displayed by both species was considered continuous and long duration, constantly providing pollen to floral visitors. C. ovalifolia was visited by 17 species of bees and C. ramosa by 16 species, predominantly from the Apidae family (with a similarity index of 74%). The behavior displayed by these visiting bees was of vibrating anthers. The small-sized Euglossa sp. Latreille, 1802 and Florilegus similis Urban, 1970 bees played less of a role as pollinators, since they rarely touched the flower stigma during harvests and were thus considered opportunist visitors or casual pollinators. Centris decolorata Lepetier, 1841 (= C. leprieuri) and Xylocopa subcyanea Perez, 1901 are large bees and were considered efficient pollinators of C. ovalifolia and C. ramosa because of the higher frequency and constancy of their visits, and their favourable behaviour and size for pollen transfer between flowers, which guarantees the survival of these native restinga plant species. PMID:21755150

Oliveira-Rebouças, P; Gimenes, M

2011-05-01

114

Pollen types and levels of total phenolic compounds in propolis produced by Apis mellifera L. (Apidae) in an area of the Semiarid Region of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Twenty-two propolis samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in an area of the Semiarid region the the State of Bahia (Agreste of Alagoinhas), Brazil, were palynologically analyzed and quantified regarding their levels of total phenolic compounds. These samples were processed using the acetolysis technique with the changes suggested for use with propolis. We found 59 pollen types belonging to 19 families and 36 genera. The family Fabaceae was the most representative in this study with nine pollen types, followed by the family Asteraceae with seven types. The types Mikania and Mimosa pudica occurred in all samples analyzed. The types Mimosa pudica and Eucalyptus had frequency of occurrence above 50% in at least one sample. The highest similarity index (c. 72%) occurred between the samples ER1 and ER2, belonging to the municipality of Entre Rios. Samples from the municipality of Inhambupe displayed the highest (36.78±1.52 mg/g EqAG) and lowest (7.68 ± 2.58 mg/g EqAG) levels of total phenolic compounds. Through the Spearman Correlation Coefficient we noticed that there was a negative linear correlation between the types Mimosa pudica (rs = -0.0419) and Eucalyptus (rs = -0.7090) with the profile of the levels of total phenolic compounds of the samples. PMID:24676176

Matos, Vanessa R; Alencar, Severino M; Santos, Francisco A R

2014-03-01

115

[An evolutionary study of mucosal leishmaniasis (a 7- to 17-year follow-up) due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Tres Braços, Bahia].  

PubMed

Seventy seven (68%) patients with mucosal leishmaniasis recorded during the period 1976-1986 in the region of Três Braços, Bahia were traced and re-evaluated clinically, diagnostically and therapeutically. Sixty-five patients were alive. The families of 12 dead patients were interviewed about probable cause of death. The 65 patients had a fresh clinical examination supplemented when necessary by a skilled ENT examination. All had a titre of circulating immunofluorescent antibodies estimated at the time. Eight patients with active mucosal lesions had triturated biopsies which were cultivated in NNN medium and inoculated in hamsters to attempt to recover Leishmania. The isolates were identified by monoclonal antibodies as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Fifty-six (86%) patients were judged clinically cured. Nine (13%) had active lesions. Of the 12 patients who died 5 (41%) had no signs of activity at death. Mucosal leishmaniasis was thought to be the direct cause of death in 3 patients. The field treatment programme at Três Braços has managed to clinically cure 61 patients (79%) during 17 years. Follow-up periods were a mean of 10 years (range 7-17). PMID:8668831

de Oliveira, M R; Macêdo, V de O; de Carvalho, E M; Barral, A; Marotti, J G; Bittencourt, A; de Abreu, M V; Orge M de La, G; Lessa, H de A; Marsden, P D

1995-01-01

116

Evaluation of optimal conditions for determination of low selenium content in shellfish samples collected at Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil using HG-AFS.  

PubMed

This work proposes a procedure for the determination of total selenium content in shellfish after digestion of samples in block using cold finger system and detection using atomic fluorescent spectrometry coupled hydride generation (HG AFS). The optimal conditions for HG such as effect and volume of prereduction KBr 10 % (m/v) (1.0 and 2.0 ml) and concentration of hydrochloric acid (3.0 and 6.0 mol L(-1)) were evaluated. The best results were obtained using 3 mL of HCl (6 mol L(-1)) and 1 mL of KBr 10 % (m/v), followed by 30 min of prereduction for the volume of 1 mL of the digested sample. The precision and accuracy were assessed by the analysis of the Certified Reference Material NIST 1566b. Under the optimized conditions, the detection and quantification limits were 6.06 and 21.21 ?g kg(-1), respectively. The developed method was applied to samples of shellfish (oysters, clams, and mussels) collected at Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil. Selenium concentrations ranged from 0.23?±?0.02 to 3.70?±?0.27 mg kg(-1) for Mytella guyanensis and Anomalocardia brasiliana, respectively. The developed method proved to be accurate, precise, cheap, fast, and could be used for monitoring Se in shellfish samples. PMID:24771464

Lopes Dos Santos, Walter Nei; Macedo, Samuel Marques; Teixeira da Rocha, Sofia Negreiros; Souza de Jesus, Caio Niela; Cavalcante, Dannuza Dias; Hatje, Vanessa

2014-08-01

117

[Factors associated with HIV/AIDS infection among adolescents and young adults enrolled in a Counseling and Testing Center in the State of Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

The study seeks to investigate factors associated with HIV infection among adolescents and young adults registered in the Counseling and Testing Center (CTC) of Feira de Santana, Bahia. An analytical study with a cross-sectional design was conducted using data from the CTC Information System in the period from 2007 to 2011. Information on 3,768 individuals were studied and the proportional difference was checked using the Pearson chi-squared test and stratified analysis by Prevalence Rate (PR) with confidence intervals of 95%, considering the serological status as the outcome. During the period under study, 73 young people were infected with HIV (1.94%). In the female population, statistically significant associations were identified for HIV status and drug use and consumption of alcohol and other drugs, as well as being married or in a stable relationship. In males, the consumption of other drugs and homosexual/bisexual orientation were associated with HIV status. In both sexes, in the category in a stable relationship the HIV status was associated with a partner using drugs and/or infected with a STD and/or HIV. These findings indicate the need for effective measures for the control and prevention of HIV infection among young people. PMID:24714890

Pereira, Bianca de Souza; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; da Costa, Hervânia Santana; da Silva, Carlos Alberto Lima; Sampaio, Vanessa Silva

2014-03-01

118

Long-term Change in Eelgrass Distribution at Bahi??a San Quinti??n, Baja California, Mexico, using Satellite Imagery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seagrasses are critically important components of many marine coastal and estuarine ecosystems, but are declining worldwide. Spatial change in distribution of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., was assessed at Bahi??a San Quinti??n, Baja California, Mexico, using a map to map comparison of data interpreted from a 1987 Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre multispectral satellite image and a 2000 Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapping image. Eelgrass comprised 49% and 43% of the areal extent of the bay in 1987 and 2000, respectively. Spatial extent of eelgrass was 13% less (-321 ha) in 2000 than in 1987 with most losses occurring in subtidal areas. Over the 13-yr study period, there was a 34% loss of submerged eelgrass (-457 ha) and a 13% (+136 ha) gain of intertidal eelgrass. Within the two types of intertidal eelgrass, the patchy cover class (<85% cover) expanded (+250 ha) and continuous cover class (???85% cover) declined (-114 ha). Most eelgrass losses were likely the result of sediment loading and turbidity caused by a single flooding event in winter of 1992-1993. Recent large-scale agricultural development of adjacent uplands may have exacerbated the effects of the flood. Oyster farming was not associated with any detectable losses in eelgrass spatial extent, despite the increase in number of oyster racks from 57 to 484 over the study period.

Ward, D. H.; Morton, A.; Tibbitts, T. L.; Douglas, D. C.; Carrera-Gonzalez, E.

2003-01-01

119

Severe impact and subsequent recovery of a coral assemblage following the 1997-8 El Niño event: a 17-year study from Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The coral reefs of northern Bahia evolved in isolation from other Atlantic systems and under conditions of high environmental stress, particularly high turbidity. We have monitored the scleractinian assemblage of four shallow bank reefs (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) annually for 17 years since 1995, collecting quantitative data on diversity and density of coral colonies. As the sampling period included the 1997-8 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for the first time these results allow a quantitative assessment of the long-term impact of this major environmental stressor on such a coral assemblage. After El Niño, most species showed significantly reduced densities of colonies, this decline occurring for the subsequent two years without evidence of any new settlement until 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the species Porites astreoides went unrecorded. Recovery was slow, and multivariate analysis revealed that assemblages had not returned to the pre-El Niño state until 2011. It therefore took 13 years for full recovery of the coral assemblage to occur, which has consequences for reef systems if such El-Niño events become more frequent in the future. PMID:23741459

Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J

2013-01-01

120

Hypothesis on the origin of lineaments in the LANDSAT and SLAR images of precambrian soil in the low Contas River Valley (southern Bahia)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examination of LANDSAT and SLAR images in southern Bahia reveals numerous linear features, which are grouped in five sets, based on their trends: N65 degrees E, N70 degrees W, N45 degrees E and NS/N15 degrees E. Owing to their topographic expressions, distributive patterns, spacing between individual lineaments and their mutual relationships, the lineament sets of N65 degrees E and N70 degrees W, as well as the sets of N40 degrees E and N45 degrees W, are considered as two groups of conjugate shear fractures and the former is older and is always cut by the latter. Their conjugate shear angles are 45 degrees and 85 degrees and their bisector lines are approximately in east-west and north-south directions, respectively. According to Badgeley's argumentation on the conjugate shear angles, the former conjugate shear fractures would be caused by: (1) vertical movements, and the bisector of their conjugate angle would be parallel to the long axis of horsting or folding, or (2) by a compressive force in the east-west direction and under a condition of low confining pressure and temperature.

Liu, C. C. (principal investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

1984-01-01

121

Evaluation of criteria for selecting the spectral attributes of digital LANDSAT MSS imagery for discriminating lithological units in the lower Curaca River Valley, Bahia. [Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of spectral attributes criteria was investigated, based on measures of statistical distance of separability between thematic classes in MSS digital LANDSAT imagery, in order to select the best subsets of channels in composite colors for the detection and discrimination of lithological units in the lower valley of Curaca River, State of Bahia, Brazil. Three situations were investigated: (1) selection of the three best channels, considering all of the original bands (channels 4, 5, 6, and 7); (2) selection of the three best bands, considering the six MSS band-ratios (channels 4/5, 4/6. 4/7, 5/6, 5/7, and 6/7); and (3) selection of the three best bands in a hybrid approach (the four original bands and the six ratios). A visual analysis was done on color composite images using the selected sets. Results show that the hybrid product (bands 4, 5/7, and 7 with green, blue, and red respectively) and the Normal Color Composite (bands 4, 5, and 7 with blue, green, and red colors respectively) had the best performance.

Paradella, W. R. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

122

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.

Moreira Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Sacramento Cunha Machado, Marcia; Borges da Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando; Fernandes Weyll Pimentel, Rodrigo; Teixeira Ferreira, Tatiana; Silva Leoni, Fernanda Maria; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

2012-01-01

123

Paleomagnetism of Middle Proterozoic (1.01 to 1.08 Ga) mafic dykes in southeastern Bahia State—São Francisco Craton, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleomagnetic results from profuse Middle-Late Proterozoic mafic dyke swarms in southeastern Bahia State (Sa˜o Francisco Craton) yield either an easterly direction with high upward inclination or a westerly direction with high downward inclination isolated during AF and/or thermal treatments. Thermal demagnetization behavior and thermochronologic and petrologic considerations indicate that these remanent components originated as primary TRM's. Four groups of directions were distinguished from dykes in spatially distinct areas: Ilheus normal polarity ( D = 60.0°; I = -68.8°; ? 95 = 2.6° ; N = 17) , Olivença normal polarity ( D = 82.4°; I = -71.0°; ? 95 = 5.1 ; N = 31), Itajúdo Coloˆnia ( D = 99.0; I = -71.9 ; ? 95 = 5.9° ; N = 23) and Olivença reversed polarity ( D = 298.8°; I = 60.7°; ? 95 = 6.4° ; N = 18), which yield paleomagnetic poles located at 100.4°E; 30.3°N ( I N), 107.0°E; 16.1°N ( O N), 111.0°E; 7.7°N ( IC) and 280.2°E; 17.0°N ( O R), respectively. These poles define an APW path for the Sa˜o Francisco Craton between the time interval 1.01-1.08 Ga which is characterized by at least two polarity intervals.

D'Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.; Pacca, Igor G.; Renne, Paul R.; Onstott, Tullis C.; Teixeira, Wilson

1990-12-01

124

Genetic diversity and structure of natural populations of Gossypium mustelinum, a wild relative of cotton, in the basin of the De Contas River in Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Gossypium mustelinum is a wild cotton relative found only in the semiarid region of Bahia state in Brazil, and changes caused by humans in the natural habitat of this species have endangered the existence of several natural populations. Information about the occurrence and genetic composition of these populations is necessary to design effective conservation measures. The aim of this study was to characterize the in situ maintenance mode and assess the genetic diversity of G. mustelinum populations in the basin of the De Contas River. A sample of 205 G. mustelinum specimens was collected from the margins of the Jacaré, Riacho Quixaba, Riacho Serra Azul, and Riacho Riachão rivers and genotyped using 13 SSR primer pairs. In general, all G. mustelinum populations exhibit inadequate in situ maintenance, predominantly due to the deforestation of riparian vegetation and herbivory. The observed total genetic diversity of G. mustelinum was significant (H E = 0.489), highly structured (F ST = 0.534), and organized in homozygous genotypes (F IS = 0.873). The high observed inbreeding level is consistent with the predominance of self-fertilization and geitonogamy (t m = 0.234). In addition, the pattern of genetic structure tended to form groups that coincided with the collection sites, i.e., first clustering within subpopulations, then within populations, and finally within the closest populations. Thus, the observed genetic diversity is likely to be rapidly lost, and conservation measures should therefore be undertaken. PMID:24473734

de Menezes, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Hoffmann, Lucia Vieira; Ciampi, Ana Yamaguishi; Barroso, Paulo Augusto Vianna

2014-02-01

125

A new species of Astyanax Baird & Girard (Characiformes: Characidae) from the Rio Paraguaçu basin, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil, with comments on bony hooks on all fins.  

PubMed

A new species of Astyanax from the Rio Paraguaçu basin, Bahia, Brazil, is described. This new species is distinguished from its congeners known to occur in Brazilian drainages by the presence of small bony hooks on all fins of mature males. Furthermore, the new species can be diagnosed by its colour pattern, which consists of a unique vertically elongated humeral blotch, a conspicuous dark drop-shaped horizontal blotch over the caudal peduncle, tapering anteriorly and not extending to the median caudal-fin rays, and by the absence of a conspicuous broad dark midlateral stripe. The new species differs further by having the greatest body depth just anterior to the dorsal-fin origin, 32-35 perforated scales in the lateral line and a reduced number of branched anal-fin rays (16-20). Apparently, the new species does not fit into any species complex of Astyanax. The occurrence of bony hooks on all fins of Astyanax is discussed. PMID:24446730

Camelier, P; Zanata, A M

2014-02-01

126

The 2 Ga peraluminous magmatism of the Jacobina — Contendas Mirante Belt (Bahia) Brazil): Major and trace-element geochemistry and metallogenic potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jacobina — Contendas Mirante belt represents a Transamazonian (2 Ga), N-S, 500-km long, elongated orogenic domain in the central part of the São Francisco craton, Bahia state. Numerous syntectonic to post-tectonic peraluminous leucogranites were emplaced along the major structures of the belt. Their mineralogical and geochemical and some of their metallogenetic characteristics are very similar to their Hercynian and Himalayan equivalents. However, their average peraluminous index varies from one granitic pluton to another and biotite is, on average, slightly more magnesian in the Transamazonian leucogranites. Higher oxygen fugacity is indicated by the general occurrence of magnetite, the stability of allanite and sometimes epidote in most of the plutons and by biotite chemistry. The peraluminous magmatism of the Jacobina-Contendas Mirante belt results from crustal partial melting during a continental collision event at 2 Ga. Trace-element geochemistry implies variable source composition and/or melting conditions for the different granitic plutons and some different facies within the same plutonic unit. The scarcity of ilmenite, the general occurrence of magnetite, and the relatively low peraluminous index of some of these granites suggest that graphite-beating sediments are not a significantly source material. From their mineralogical and geochemical characteristics, acid meta-igneous rocks such as the Sete Voltas TTG suite of presumed Archaean age, seem to represent a suitable source for these granites. Sn, W, Li, F and Be enrichment of most Transamazonian leucogranites is much weaker than in the mineralized Variscan equivalents. The Caetano-Aliança and Riacho das Pedras granites represent the most specialized granitic bodies. Beryl (emerald), molybdenite and scheelite mineralizations are related to some of these granites which intrude ultrabasic formations: the Campo Formoso and the Carnaiba granites. In many of these granites, uranium content is comparable to values measured in mineralized Hercynian leucogranites. The occurrence of hexavalent uranium minerals, mineralization and episyenitic alteration are favourable criteria for finding Variscan-type uranium ore deposits.

Cuney, Michel; Sabaté, Pierre; Vidal, Philippe; Marinho, Moacyr M.; Conceiçao, Herbet

1990-12-01

127

Capture and commercialization of blue land crabs ("guaiamum") Cardisoma guanhumi (Lattreille, 1825) along the coast of Bahia State, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach  

PubMed Central

Background Blue Land Crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) is one of the most important crustacean species captured and commercialized in Brazil. Although this species is not considered to be threatened with extinction, populations of C. guanhumi are known to be rapidly diminishing due to heavy harvesting pressures and degradation of their natural habitats, highlighting the necessity of developing and implanting management and protection strategies for their populations. There have been no ethnozoological publications that have focused specifically on C. guanhumi, in spite of importance of this type of information for developing efficient management plans of resource utilization. So, the present work describes the ethnoecological aspects of the capture and commercialization of C. guanhumi by a fishing community in northeastern Brazil. Methods Field work was carried out in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia in Brazil, between the months of January and March/2011 through the use of open semi-structured interviews with all of the crustacean harvesters in city who acknowledged their work in capturing this species, totaling 12 interviewees. The informants were identified through the use of the "snowball" sampling technique. In addition to the interviews themselves, the "guided tour" technique and direct observations was employed. Results According all the interviewees, the C. guanhumi is popularly called "guaiamum" and is collected in "apicum" zones. They recognize sexual dimorphism in the species based on three morphological characteristics and the harvesters also pointed two stages in the reproductive cycle during the year and another phase mentioned by the interviewees was ecdysis. All of the interviewed affirmed that the size and the quantities C. guanhumi stocks in Mucuri have been diminishing. All of the interviewees agreed that the species and other mangrove resources constituted their principal source of income. The harvesters dedicated three to five days a week to collect Blue Land Crabs and the principal technique utilized for capturing is a trap called a "ratoeira" (rat-trap). Conclusions The results of the present work demonstrated that the community retains a vast and important volume of knowledge about C. guanhumi that could subsidize both scientific studies and the elaboration of viable management and conservation strategies for this species.

2012-01-01

128

C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 ?m, 1000-2000 ?m, 250-1000 ?m, 53-250 ?m, and <53 ?m). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 ?m) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 ?m size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS.

Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

2011-07-01

129

Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen’s ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Methods Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen’s profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Results Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach’s Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r?=??0.38, p?=?0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes towards turtle conservation (H?=?8.33; p?=?0.04). Life history, habitat, specific and exogenous taboos, beliefs and the use of hawksbill turtle to make glasses and other handcrafts are also reported in the study. Conclusions Monitoring of spawning areas, preservation of traditional practices, strategies to moderate the use of fishery resources and the local ecological knowledge/attitudes can provide data to improve the conservation practices and management of sea turtles.

2013-01-01

130

The interactive effects of essential ions and salinity on the survival of Mysidopsis bahia in 96-H acute toxicity tests of effluents discharged to marine and estuarine receiving waters  

SciTech Connect

The importance of salinity in whole effluent toxicity tests using marine organisms has been acknowledged in most testing protocols. However, little if any attention has been given to the specific effects of alteration of the ionic composition of seawater solutions to the test organism. The presence of persistent toxicity in effluents with no apparent toxic agents prompted examination of the potential influence of essential ions on the survival of the opossum shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, a common effluent toxicity indicator organism. Through stepwise additions of ionic salts to deionized water, the minimum complement of salts to maintain survival of M. bahia during 96-h exposures was determined to be Ca, Mg, K, Br, Na, and Cl. The toxicity curves for Ca, Mg, K, and Br were then determined across test salinity ranging from 10 to 35 parts per thousand. These curves for Ca, Mg, and K revealed that there are significant negative effects on survival when the essential ions are present in either low or high concentrations relative to the levels in natural seawater. Although there were no statistically detectable effects of Br on organism survival over the concentration range tested (5--480 mg/L). Br toxicity at concentrations less than 5 mg/L and greater than 700 mg/L have been shown in other studies. In addition, the tolerance ranges for K, Ca, and Mg were shown to shift significantly with changes in salinity, with lower salinity causing an apparent decrease in tolerance to an excess of essential ions. Tests with toxic effluents from five industrial and municipal sources revealed that adjustment of the ionic balance prior to testing reduced or eliminated toxicity in four of the five whole effluents tested. Suggestions for integrating this information into biomonitoring programs and toxicity identification evaluations are presented.

Douglas, W.S.; Horne, M.T. [Aqua Survey, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

1997-10-01

131

Detection by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in microcosms of crude oil-contaminated mangrove sediments.  

PubMed

Currently, the effect of crude oil on ammonia-oxidizing bacterium communities from mangrove sediments is little understood. We studied the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in mangrove microcosm experiments using mangrove sediments contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5% crude oil as well as non-contaminated control and landfarm soil from near an oil refinery in Camamu Bay in Bahia, Brazil. The evolution of CO(2) production in all crude oil-contaminated microcosms showed potential for mineralization. Cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis-derived samples generated with primers for gene amoA, which encodes the functional enzyme ammonia monooxygenase, showed differences in the sample contaminated with 5% compared to the other samples. Principal component analysis showed divergence of the non-contaminated samples from the 5% crude oil-contaminated sediment. A Venn diagram generated from the banding pattern of PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to look for operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in common. Eight OTUs were found in non-contaminated sediments and in samples contaminated with 0.5, 1, or 2% crude oil. A Jaccard similarity index of 50% was found for samples contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2% crude oil. This is the first study that focuses on the impact of crude oil on the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium community in mangrove sediments from Camamu Bay. PMID:22370886

dos Santos, A C F; Marques, E L S; Gross, E; Souza, S S; Dias, J C T; Brendel, M; Rezende, R P

2012-01-01

132

Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along approximately 150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dendê were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches. PMID:18256899

Santos, Isaac R; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção

2009-01-01

133

Salvador Da Bahia: A "Modern" Imperial Rome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The city of Rome is situated on seven hills along the Tiber River. It developed from a series of small villages into numerous city-states, then to a Republic, and finally into an Empire, which covered several million miles. Thousands of miles away from Rome on another continent is Brazil, which measures 3,268,470 square miles in area. This article…

Hobbs, Vivian L.

2004-01-01

134

[Health survey in Quilombola communities (descendants of Afro-Brazilian slaves who escaped from slave plantations that existed in Brazil until abolition in 1888) in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia (COMQUISTA Project), Brazil: methodological aspects and descriptive analysis].  

PubMed

The scope of this article was to present the methodology, preliminary descriptive results and the reliability of the instruments used in the COMQUISTA Project. It involved a cross-sectional study with adults (>18 years) and children (up to 5 years old) of Quilombola communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia. Data collection consisted of individual and household interviews, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. A semi-structured questionnaire adapted from the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS) was used and the interviews were conducted using handheld computers. 397 housing units were visited and 797 adults and 130 children were interviewed. The demographic profile of the Quilombolas was similar to the Brazilian population with respect to sex and age, however, they had precarious access to basic sanitation and a low socioeconomic status. The analysis of reliability revealed the adequacy of strategies adopted for quality assurance and control in the study. The methodology used was considered adequate to achieve the objectives and can be used in other populations. The results indicate the need for implementing strategies to improve the quality of life and reduce the degree of vulnerability of the Quilombolas. PMID:24897483

Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Medeiros, Danielle Souto de; Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Souzas, Raquel; Giatti, Luana; Steffens, Ana Paula; Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Souza, Cláudio Lima; Moura, Cristiano Soares de; Soares, Daniela Arruda; Santos, Luis Rogério Cosme Silva; Cardoso, Luiz Gustavo Vieira; Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos de; Martins, Poliana Cardoso; Neves, Orlando Sílvio Caires; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

2014-06-01

135

Palaeogeographic evolution of the central segment of the South Atlantic during Early Cretaceous times: palaeotopographic and geodynamic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Early Cretaceous rift of the central segment of the South Atlantic Ocean is debated. Our objective is to better constraint the timing of its evolution by drawing palaeogeographic and deformation maps. Eight palaeogeographic and deformations maps were drawn from the Berriasian to the Middle-Late Aptian, based on a biostratigraphic (ostracodes and pollens) chart recalibrated on absolute ages (chemostratigraphy, interstratified volcanics, Re-Os dating of the organic matter). The central segment of the South Atlantic is composed of two domains that have a different history in terms of deformation and palaeogeography. The southern domain includes Namibe, Santos and Campos Basins. The northern domain extends from Espirito Santo and North Kwanza Basins, in the South, to Sergipe-Alagoas and North Gabon Basins to the North. Extension started in the northern domain during Late Berriasian (Congo-Camamu Basin to Sergipe-Alagoas-North Gabon Basins) and migrated southward. At that time, the southern domain was not a subsiding domain. This is time of emplacement of the Parana-Etendeka Trapp (Late Hauterivian-Early Barremian). Extension started in this southern domain during Early Barremian. The brittle extensional period is shorter in the South (5-6 Ma, Barremian to base Aptian) than in the North (19 to 20 Myr, Upper Berriasian to Base Aptian). From Late Berriasian to base Aptian, the northern domain evolves from a deep lake with lateral highs to a shallower one, organic-rich with no more highs. The lake migrates southward in two steps, until Valanginian at the border between the northern and southern domains, until Early Barremian, North of Walvis Ridge. The Sag phase is of Middle to Late Aptian age. In the southern domain, the transition between the brittle rift and the sag phase is continuous. In the northern domain, this transition corresponds to a hiatus of Early to Middle Aptian age, possible period of mantle exhumation. Marine influences were clearly occurring since the Early Aptian in the Northern domain and the Campos Basin. They seem sharp, brief flooding coming from the North, i.e. from the Tethys-Central Atlantic, trough a seaway crossing South America from Sao Luis, Parnaiba, Araripe and Almada basins (Arai, 1989). In the absence of data, the importance of those marine flooding during the Middle Aptian in the Santos Basin is still discussed. Keywords: South Atlantic Ocean, Early Cretaceous, Rift, Palaeogeography, Geodynamic

Chaboureau, A. C.; Guillocheau, F.; Robin, C.; Rohais, S.; Moulin, M.; Aslanian, D.

2012-04-01

136

Instrumental Instruction in Community Bands from Bahia, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community bands play an important role in Brazilian music education. Often the only point of musical access, they provide free instrumental teaching for thousands of people who cannot afford to pay. One challenge that needs to be continually addressed is the issue of attrition, especially during the first stages of instruction. Considering this…

Barbosa, Joel Luis

2010-01-01

137

Structural And Depositional Style Of The Syn-Rift Systems Of The West African And Brazilian Continental Margins: Regional Subsidence Independent Of Brittle Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West African and Brazilian passive continental margins are characterized by the regional distribution of syn-rift and post-rift sediment assemblages that are inconsistent with the minor amounts of brittle deformation interpreted from seismic sections across the margin or from field mapping of exposed rift systems. Fundamentally, the rift phase of West Africa and Brazil consists of a series of stacked sag basins. Ostracod data from the West African margin indicate that the distal syn-rift sag basins, where dated, are Neocomian to Aptian in age and are contemporaneous with proximal syn-rift deposits developed inboard of a major hinge zone, the Atlantic Hinge zone. Despite being syn-rift deposits (by virtue of their age), the sag basins exhibit none of the diagnostic characteristics of brittle deformation, such as the existence of normal faults, the rotation of crustal blocks, the existence of prominent rift onset unconformities (onlap surfaces), and the generation of sediment wedges. Seismic sections across the Camamu-Almada margin of Brazil indicate that the regional generation of space is essentially independent of faulting, as indicated by an absence of stratigraphic growth across normal faults and a regional seaward dip of the entire syn-rift stratigraphic package. The late syn-rift history of the West African and Brazilian margins is dominated by the creation of regional but shallow depositional environments that allowed the accumulation of the Loeme and Ezanga evaporites of West Africa and the Ibura, Taipus Mirim, and Mariricu evaporites of Brazil. Following break-up, the margins underwent significant post-rift subsidence allowing the deposition of the late Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene sedimentary packages. The development of significant post-rift accommodation in the same region characterized by minor syn-rift faulting and shallow depositional environments is the crucial observation requiring an explanation in terms of extensional strain partitioning through the lithosphere, lower crustal flow, major dyking of the lower crust during the extension process, and the thermal effects of mantle plumes. This presentation will show seismic and drilling data for the West African and Brazilian margins that clearly demonstrates the structural and depositional style of syn-rift systems: the stacking of syn-rift sag sequences showing subtle stratal relationships rather than the more familiar (and expected) characteristics of brittle deformation. Driscoll and Karner (1998) have suggested that the formation of syn-rift sag basins requires partitioning of extension across a mid-crustal decoupling zone separating upper crust (the upper plate) from a ductile-deforming lower crust and lithospheric mantle (the lower plate). The obvious problem with this hypothesis is that extension within the upper and lower plate needs to be laterally balance. The exact form and location of the counterbalancing upper plate extension presumably exists in the vicinity of the ocean-continent transition zone where the extensional balance through the upper crust probably occurs by a combination of thinned and "rafted" crustal blocks and exposed continental mantle. Nevertheless, it remains to be shown that this strain balance actually exists in addition to exploring alternative mechanisms that can augment syn-rift and post-rift subsidence without upper crustal brittle deformation.

Karner, G. D.

2004-05-01

138

Factors Associated with Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni Infection in an Endemic Area of Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Detailed knowledge of factors associated with resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in endemic areas might facilitate more effective schistosomiasis control. We conducted a cross-sectional study of persons resistant to schistosomiasis and found no association between socioeconomic status and resistance to infection. Mononuclear cells of resistant subjects produced higher levels of interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13 and interferon-? upon stimulation with soluble egg antigen (SEA) compared with infected persons. When stimulated with Sm21.6 or Sm22.6, levels of IL-10 were higher in cell culture of resistant persons. Levels of IgE against soluble adult worm antigen (SWAP) and against interleukin-4–inducing principle from S. mansoni eggs (IPSE) and levels of IgG4 against SWAP, SEA, and Sm22.6 were lower in the resistant group compared with the susceptible group. Our data suggest that socioeconomic status could not fully explain resistance to S. mansoni infection observed in the studied area. However, a mixture of Th1 and Th2 immune responses and low levels of specific IgG4 against parasite antigens could be mediating resistance to infection.

Oliveira, Ricardo R.; Figueiredo, Joanemile P.; Cardoso, Luciana S.; Jabar, Rafael L.; Souza, Robson P.; Wells, Martin T.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Glesby, Marshall J.

2012-01-01

139

Silver speciation during chronic toxicity tests with the mysid, Americamysis bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 28-day chronic toxicity test and two 7-day chronic estimation toxicity tests were conducted with silver nitrate (AgNO3) and the marine invertebrate, Americamysisbahia, in 20‰ (parts-per thousand) salinity seawater. One 7-day test was initiated with 7-day-old mysids and the second was initiated with <24-h-old mysids. There was very good agreement between the three toxicity tests. The no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) values

Timothy J. Ward; James R. Kramer

2002-01-01

140

Complex Population Responses to Food Resources in the Marine Crustacean Americamysis Bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

141

Americamysis bahia: A New Laboratory Model for Conservation Genetics in a Changing Environment (AGA09)  

EPA Science Inventory

Levels of population genetic diversity are expected to play an important role in species persistence during periods of environmental change, yet our understanding of how to quantify relevant aspects of this diversity is not well developed. We are conducting a long-term study wit...

142

Origin of sulfide and phosphate deposits in Upper Proterozoic carbonate strata, Irece basin, Bahia, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Carbonate strata of the Una Group represent late Proterozoic platform sedimentation in the Irece basin of north-central Brazil. Stratabound sulfide- and phosphate-rich units occur within a 50-m thick tidal flat sequence of dolomitic limestone and cherty dolomite. Three types of primary phosphate concentrations are present: columnar stromatolitic, laminar stromatolitic, and intraclastic. Resedimented phosphate clasts and phosphatic units interbedded with non phosphatic dolomites suggest early diagenetic replacement of algal carbonate units. Local stratabound Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide concentrations at the Tres Irmas prospect occur within silty dolomite with shallow water sedimentary structures and local disturbed laminae, synsedimentary faults, and breccias. Sulfide minerals include pyrite, sphalerite, galena, marcasite, jordanite, tetrahedrite, and covellite. Pyrite crystal aggregates commonly show bladed forms. Nodular aggregates of length-slow quartz are locally associated with sulfides. Sulfur isotope analyses indicate relatively uniform heavy {delta}{sup 34}S values. Barite shows a {delta}{sup 34}S range from +25.2 to +29.6{per thousand}, CDT. Pyrite and sphalerite representative of a variety of textural types have a {delta}{sup 34}S range of +20.2 to +22.6{per thousand}. Late Proterozoic evaporite sulfates show a wide range of {delta}{sup 34} S values from about +10 to +28{per thousand}. Thus, the {delta}{sup 34}S values for Irece barite could reflect original seawater sulfate values. However, the relatively heavy {delta}{sup 34}S values of the associated sulfides suggests that the original seawater sulfate was modified by bacterial sulfate reduction processes in shallow sea floor sediments. Textural and {delta}{sup 34}S evidence suggests that a later stage of metallic mineralization scavenged sulfur from preexisting sulfides or from direct reduction of evaporitic sulfate minerals.

Kyle, J.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)); Misi, A. (Univ. Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil))

1991-03-01

143

Palynological origin, phenolic content, and antioxidant properties of honeybee-collected pollen from Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the palynological origin, phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant properties of twenty-five samples of bee pollen harvested during a nine-month period (February-November) from the Canavieiras municipality (northeastern Brazil). Of the 25 samples analyzed, only two (February 01 and 02) were heterofloral. The predominant pollens in the samples analyzed during that month were: Cecropia, Eucalyptus, Elaeis, Mimosa pudica, Eupatorium, and Scoparia. Ethyl acetate fractions were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The flavonoids isoquercetin, myricetin, tricetin, quercetin, luteolin, selagin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were detected. The flavonoid present in all 22 samples was isolated and identified as isorhamnetin 3-O-b-neohesperidoside. The total phenolic contents determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent ranged from 41.5 to 213.2 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activities based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and Fe2+ ion chelating activity assays were observed for all extracts, and correlated with the total phenolic content. PMID:22314384

Freire, Kristerson R L; Lins, Antonio C S; Dórea, Marcos C; Santos, Francisco A R; Camara, Celso A; Silva, Tania M S

2012-01-01

144

Shellfish from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil: treat or threat?  

PubMed

This study determined the concentrations of major and trace elements in shellfish (oysters, clams and mussels) and conducted an assessment of the health risks due to the consumption of contaminated seafood. Samples were collected at 34 sites along Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil. The elements were determined by ICP OES and Hg by Direct Mercury Analysis. Relatively high concentrations of trace elements (As, Zn, Se and Cu) were found in seafood tissues. Potential daily intake of As, Co, Se, Zn and Cu associated to shellfish consumption suggested relevant non-carcinogenic risk for all studied locations. Copper was the element that posed the greatest non-carcinogenic risk, while Pb posed the highest carcinogenic risk. Health risks for humans were greatest from the consumption of mussels. Contaminated shellfish offer the greatest risk for children, subsistence fishers and subsistence shellfish consumers. PMID:21803378

de Souza, Manuel M; Windmöller, Cláudia C; Hatje, Vanessa

2011-10-01

145

USE OF LIFE-TABLES FOR EVALUATING THE CHRONIC TOXICITY OF POLLUTANTS TO 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA'  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examines the application of population statistics to laboratory-derived toxicological data for the purpose of developing a predictive model that assesses the population consequences of pollutant and environmentally-induced stress. Life tables are used to calculate age-...

146

PERDA AUDITIVA INDUZIDA PELO RU?DO EM TRABALHADORES INDUSTRIAIS DA REGIO METROPOLITANA DE SALVADOR, BAHIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An audiometric evaluation was conducted in 7,925 workers of fourty-four industrial companies in nine different fields of activity. The hearing loss prevalence was 45.9%. The noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) prevalence was 35.7% considering bilateral and unilateral losses. For each field of activity, the prevalence estimates were: 58.7% in the graphic, 51.7% in the mechanic, 45.9% in the beverage industry,

Carlos R. Miranda; Carlos R. Dias; Paulo G. L. Pena; C. C. Nobre; Rosana Aquino

147

Benthic Ecology of Bahia de San Quintin Baja California. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, Number 44.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three important biotic assemblages and several minor associations occur on the soft bottoms of San Quintin Bay. The most obvious assemblage is characterized by the eelgrass, Zostera marina, that covers approximately 20 percent of the study area. A second ...

J. L. Barnard

1970-01-01

148

Combating Educational Inequalities: Afro-Brazilian Youth & the Bahia Street Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In her article entitled “Inequity and Human Rights of African Descendants in Brazil,” Lucila Beato insists that Afro-Brazilian rights are violated everyday. Those who experience this violation the most are Afro-Brazilian, or Black, women who are considered to be at the bottom of the social hierarchy. These women are a double minority who are condemned for being both Black and

Kimberly Menendez

2008-01-01

149

Cadmium concentrations in blood of children living near a lead smelter in Bahia, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

A prevalence study of cadmium absorption was carried out among 396 children aged 1 to 9 years living at less than 900 m from a primary lead smelter in Santo Amaro City, northeast Brazil. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of cadmium concentrations in blood (CdB) were 0.087 and 2.5 mumole/liter, respectively, ranging from 0.004 to 0.511 units. Ninety-six per cent of these children presented CdB higher than 0.0089 mumole/liter (or 1.0 microgram/liter) which is usually taken as a reference level. Higher CdB levels were significantly associated with shorter distance from child's home to smelter chimney, residence time in the area greater than 7 months, racial groups Light and Medium, and heavy infection by hookworm. The variation in CdB levels was not associated with child's age, nutritional status, iron status, family per capita income, blood lead level, being a child of a lead worker, the habit of pica, and contamination of child's peridomiciliar environment by smelter dross.

Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Lima, M.E.; Alt, F.

1986-08-01

150

Archeomagnetism in Brazil: New archeointensity data from the Bahia region over the past five centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a clear need of new archeomagnetic data from the southern hemisphere to better constrain the global geomagnetic field models over the past few millennia. In particular, less than 5% of all available absolute archeointensity data have been obtained from this hemisphere. We will present the first archeointensity data obtained for Brazil from the analysis of several groups of

G. A. Hartmann; A. Genevey; R. I. Trindade; Y. Gallet; C. Etchevarne; M. Afonso

2009-01-01

151

URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

152

[Discoloration of microalgal blooms as a bioindicating parameter in the Bahia de Mazatlán, México].  

PubMed

In order to verify whether harmful algal blooms increased since 1979, a long-term project for the study of harmful algal blooms in Mazatlán Bay began 25 years ago (1979-2003). Observations were done daily and results indicate five trend types: (I) years without discoloration related to El Niño events; (II) years with days of sudden occurrence of discoloration, related to the release of accumulated energy after El Niño events; (III) years with similar number of discoloration events (days); (IV) years with a progressive decrease of the occurrence (days) of discoloration events; (V) years with gradual increase of discoloration events. The annual mean average of discoloration is of 25.3 days. Ninety-six discoloration events were recorded during year 2000, and represent the highest number of events in the last 25 years. Discoloration events are more common in March (174 days), harmful and toxic blooms included. This indicates continuity in the occurrence of the highest content of microalgae, and therefore, it is concluded that they play an important role for a better understanding of the environmental deterioration undergone by the coastal zone due to an increase of harmful and toxic microalgae blooms. PMID:17465115

Cortés-Altamirano, Roberto; Licea-Durán, Sergio

2004-09-01

153

Genetic characterisation of Langerin gene in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected women from Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Studies on human genetic variations are a useful source of knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. The Langerin protein, found at the surface of Langerhans cells, has an important protective role in HIV-1 infection. Differences in Langerin function due to host genetic factors could influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. To verify the frequency of mutations in the Langerin gene, 118 samples from HIV-1-infected women and 99 samples from HIV-1-uninfected individuals were selected for sequencing of the promoter and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD)-encoding regions of the Langerin gene. Langerin promoter analysis revealed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one mutation in both studied groups, which created new binding sites for certain transcription factors, such as NFAT5, HOXB9.01 and STAT6.01, according to MatInspector software analysis. Three SNPs were observed in the CRD-encoding region in HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals: p.K313I, c.941C>T and c.983C>T. This study shows that mutations in the Langerin gene are present in the analysed populations at different genotypic and allelic frequencies. Further studies should be conducted to verify the role of these mutations in HIV-1 susceptibility.

Costa, Giselle Calasans de Souza; Jesus, Jaqueline Goes; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Santos, Edson Souza; Galvao-Castro, Bernardo; Goncalves, Marilda de Souza; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior

2014-01-01

154

Genetic characterisation of Langerin gene in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected women from Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Studies on human genetic variations are a useful source of knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. The Langerin protein, found at the surface of Langerhans cells, has an important protective role in HIV-1 infection. Differences in Langerin function due to host genetic factors could influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. To verify the frequency of mutations in the Langerin gene, 118 samples from HIV-1-infected women and 99 samples from HIV-1-uninfected individuals were selected for sequencing of the promoter and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD)-encoding regions of the Langerin gene. Langerin promoter analysis revealed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one mutation in both studied groups, which created new binding sites for certain transcription factors, such as NFAT5, HOXB9.01 and STAT6.01, according to MatInspector software analysis. Three SNPs were observed in the CRD-encoding region in HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals: p.K313I, c.941C>T and c.983C>T. This study shows that mutations in the Langerin gene are present in the analysed populations at different genotypic and allelic frequencies. Further studies should be conducted to verify the role of these mutations in HIV-1 susceptibility. PMID:24676666

Costa, Giselle Calasans de Souza; Jesus, Jaqueline Goes; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Santos, Edson Souza; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Gonçalves, Marilda de Souza; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Júnior

2014-04-01

155

Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Life Cycle and Fitness of the Mysid Shrimp Americamysis Bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most concern about effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification focuses on mollusks, corals, and coccolithophores because skeletal and shell formation by these organisms is sensitive to the solubility of calcium minerals. However, many other marine organisms are likely affected by...

156

“Sou Doméstica:” Construções de Identidade e Saúde das Trabalhadoras Domésticas Salvador, Bahia Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

O mundo do trabalho doméstico é um mundo invisível de discriminação, desvalorização e exploração. No Brasil, existem milhões de trabalhadoras domésticas, na sua maioria mulheres, negras e que vêm de histórias pobres. Essas trabalhadoras domésticas enfrentam uma agressão profunda contra a dignidade, direitos, saúde, e identidade delas.\\u000aNesta pesquisa, perguntamos sobre a relação entre identidade e saúde. Como é que

Jenny Fauci

2006-01-01

157

Records on floral biology and visitors of Jacquemontia montana (Moric.) Meisn. (Convolvulaceae) in Mucugê, Bahia.  

PubMed

We present the first records on pollination biology of Jacquemontia montana (Moric.) Meisn. (Convolvulaceae), a widespread climber in the Chapada Diamantina. Our objectives were to (1) characterise flower morphology and biology of J. montana; (2) sample flower visitors and (3) make inferences about potential pollinators, based on foraging behaviour. Observations and sampling were performed on two patches from 8:00 AM to 3:30 PM, May 15th to 16th, 2007. The corolla is bowl shaped, pentamerous, gamopetalous, actinomorphic, and yellow, with a mean diameter of 22.43 +/- 1.81 mm, the depth being variable during flower phases. Stigma receptivity lasted from 8:00 AM-3:30 PM and pollen viability from 9:00 AM-3:30 PM Pollen. showed great decline in number but not in viability during anthesis. Nectarivorous (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera) and herbivorous (Orthoptera) insects were found on the flowers. Both male and female bees (Dialictus spp., Robertson 1902) were the most frequent flower visitor. The bees' behaviour, and time spent on flowers, varied according to the resource gathered (i.e., pollen or nectar). The Dialictus species are likely to be the main pollinator of J. montana, considering the frequency, contact with reproductive parts, and carrying only J. montana pollen spread over the ventral part of the thorax, abdomen and legs. Although not quantified, nectar may still be available in the afternoon, considering the behaviour of bees on flowers during this time. Pollen:ovule ration that was1.200:4, suggests facultative xenogamy. PMID:20730356

Silva, F O; Kevan, S D; Roque, N; Viana, B F; Kevan, P G

2010-08-01

158

SOIL CARBON AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS UNDER CACAO AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS IN BAHIA, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Brazil, cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) agroforestry systems (AFS) are established mostly in highly weathered soils with acidic pH and low fertility. The high amount of plant litter that is deposited (estimated to be ca 10 Mg ha-1 yr- 1) is believed to have an important role in maintaining nutrient cycling and microbial activity to support sustainable cacao production

Antonio Carlos Gama; Emanuela F. Gama; Rodrigues Rodrigues; Ramachandran Ramachandran; Nair Nair; V. C. Baligar Baligar; Regina Regina; Machado Machado; Norte Fluminense; Brazil Brazil

159

Inverse Demographic Analysis of Compensatory Responses to Resource Limitation in the Mysid Crustacean Americamysis bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

160

TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF A JUVENILE HORMONE MIMIC ON THE ESTUARINE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDACEA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Fenoxycarb is a juvenile hormone (JH) mimic used to control insect pests by interfering with reproductive and developmental processes mediated by JH. Crustaceans are ideal organisms to monitor environmental effects of these endocrine disruptors, since they are dominant aquatic ar...

161

Proceedings of the Tenth Scientific Meeting at Bahia Blanca, 2-6 November 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Compilation is given of 64 short papers by different authors, arranged in 5 sections, including the following groups of subjects: experimental reactors; instrumentation and control; nuclear and radiological safety; radioisotopes and radiations; nuclear po...

1984-01-01

162

Idade transamazonica para o magmatismo, metamorfismo e deformacao no bordo norte do nucleo de Jequie (Itaberaba, Bahia). (Transamazonic age for magmatism, metamorphism and deformation on the northern limit of Jequie nucleous (Itaberaba, Bahia, Brazil)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Rb/Sr isochron of 2154 +- 20 M.y., with Ro = 0,705 +- (MSWD=2,85) has been obtained for the Itaberaba and Pedra d'Agua granites, located on the northern limit between the Archean Jequie cratonic nucleous and the Early Proterozoic Salvador - Curaca mobil...

P. C. D. Fernandes I. Mcreath J. M. Lafon

1990-01-01

163

STUDIES ON CONTROL OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS: IMPACT OF DOG CONTROL ON CANINE AND HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN JACOBINA, BAHIA, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effect of removing leishmania-infected dogs on the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis, a controlled intervention study was performed in northeast Brazil. The attempted elimination of seropositive dogs resulted in an initial significant decrease in the annual incidence of seroconversion among dogs from 36% to 6% over the first two years. In the following two years, the incidence increased

DAVID A. ASHFORD; JOHN R. DAVID; MIRALBA FREIRE; ROBERTA DAVID; ITALO SHERLOCK

164

Evaluation of Exploitation Alternatives of Iron - Titanium - Vanadium Ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia-Brazil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of experiences carried out in order to develop an economic process for vanadium, is presented. The attempts which are being developed in the Metallurgical Engineering Program at COPPE/UFRJ, are described, and the other technical and economic...

J. C. S. Cassa T. Ogasawara F. T. Silva O. D. Cuellar

1987-01-01

165

STORAGE DURATION AND TEMPERATURE AND THE ACUTE TOXICITIES OF ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA AND LEPTOCHEIRUS PLUMULOSUS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Many statutory needs for sediment quality assessment exist (U.S. EPA 1996). A variety of sediment toxicity tests have been used to support the development of sediment quality guidelines and to determine the benthic impacts of dredging activities and point and non-point source tox...

166

STORAGE DURATION AND TEMPERATURE AND THE ACUTE TOXICITIES OF ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA AND LEPTOCHEIRUS PLUMULOSUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many statutory needs for sediment quality assessment exist (U.S. EPA 1996). A variety of sediment toxicity tests have been used to support the development of sediment quality guidelines and to determine the benthic impacts of dredging activities and point and non-point source tox...

167

Population-level Experiments for Population-level Risk Assessment: An Example Using the Opposum Shrimp Americamysis bahia (NACSETAC)  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

168

EFFECTS OF WHOLE SEDIMENTS FROM CORPUS CHRISTI BAY ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuarine and marine coastlines are receiving waters for many anthropogenic substances. Concentrations of many of these contaminants have been diminished by regulatory control of effluents, but there is concern that continuing inputs (non-point sources) and contaminants contained...

169

Energy farming in Brazil: the role of agroforestry on the production of food and energy from biomass in southeast Bahia  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the problem of fuel production from plants, on the basis of information drawn from the literature and from case studies conducted in Brazil. Special reference is made to the production of charcoal and the production of alcohol and vegetable oils to replace gasoline and diesel fuel. The potential and socioeconomic implications of energy farming are discussed. Diversified plant communities are more stable than monocropping systems in terms of prevention of soil degradation by erosion and leaching, and consequently agroforestry is the safest and the most attractive system for the combined production of food and energy from plants in the humid tropics. Agroforestry is especially interesting in the establishment of perennial energy crops, because it provides earlier cash returns.

Alvim, R.

1983-01-01

170

TIPOS POLÍNICOS DOS VISITANTES FLORAIS DO UMBUZEIRO (Spondias tuberosa , ANACARDIACEAE), NO TERRITÓRIO INDÍGENA PANKARARÉ, RASO DA CATARINA, BAHIA, BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The services provided by the pollinators are directly linked to the reproductive success of the plants, since the transference of the pollen (genetic flow) up to the production of fruits and seeds. Five groups of floral visitors of the umbuzeiro were identified: bees (5 species), ants (6 species), wasps (6 species) and flies (8 families). The potencial pollinators were: Apis

Lílian Santos Barreto; Synara Mattos Leal; Joseane Costa dos Anjos; Marina Siqueira de Castro

171

Geologic and Geotechnical Contributions to the Lagoa DA Rabicha and Cachoeira Mines Projects, Lagoa Real, State of Bahia, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The procedures and systematics involved in obtaining basic geologic-geotechnical, geomechanical and hydrogeotechnical parameters to serve as an aid in the planning of mining activities for the Lagoa da Rabicha and Cachoeira deposits, located in the Lagoa ...

A. A. Tognon J. Costanzo Junior L. M. Ojima T. Oliveira Braga M. Mueller

1984-01-01

172

Microbiology of the middle meatus compared to sputum in young patients with cystic fibrosis from Bahia - Brazil.  

PubMed

Lower airway infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. It is currently unknown if the infection of the upper airway can cause exacerbation of lower respiratory tract infection. This study aimed to determine the microbiological profile of the anterior paranasal sinuses outflow tract (middle meatus) of cystic fibrosis outpatients. The microbiological profile was defined using endoscopically directed middle meatal cultures. Paired middle meatal and sputum specimens were collected from 56 outpatients for aerobic cultures. A semi-quantitative leukocyte count of the middle meatal samples was performed. The median age of patients was nine years (3-20 years). Staphylococcus aureus (37%), Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (25%), Neisseriac (14%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (7%) were the most prevalent microorganisms in the middle meatal cultures. Using the middle meatal leukocyte count, 16 out of 54 patients (29.6%) presented sinus infection. The most frequently identified pathogens in patients with sinus infections were Staphylococcus aureus (10 patients), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 patients), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (3 patients). Agreement of paired middle meatal and sputum cultures was significantly higher among patients with infection in middle meatal (69%). The most common middle meatal pathogens were the typical cystic fibrosis spectrum. This suggests the potential for participating in post-nasal lower airway seeding. PMID:24275368

Tunes, Alessandro; Reis, Joice Neves; Terse, Regina; Santana, Maria Angélica; Diniz, Ana Lúcia; Barros, Tânia Fraga; Leal, Ana Karina Souza; Paixão, Vilma; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

2014-01-01

173

Delimitação do topo de aqüífero na região de Porto Seguro - Bahia através da inversão de sondagens elétricas verticais  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho compreendeu estudos geofísicos conduzidos com o método da eletrorresistividade na região de Porto Seguro (BA), que tiveram o objetivo de localizar o aqüífero mais promissor para a exploração de água subterrânea naquela região. Os trabalhos recobriram uma área de aproximadamente 60km2 situada imediatamente ao norte de Porto Seguro. A área pesquisada insere-se num contexto geológico de ambiente

Alexandre C. Monteiro; Milton J. Porsani

2001-01-01

174

Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152??6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155??9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Trilhado granodiorite, and ages of 2,130??7 Ma and 2,128??8 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Teofila??ndia tonalite. The emplacement age of the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome as indicated by a 2,080??2-Ma xenotime age for a granite dyke probably marks the end of the felsic magmatism. This age shows good agreement with the Ar-Ar plateau age of 2,080??5 Ma obtained in hornblendes from an amphibolite and with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2,076??10 Ma in detrital zircon crystals from a quartzite, interpreted as the age of the peak of the metamorphism. The predominance of inherited zircons in the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome suggests that the basement of the supracrustal rocks was composed of Archaean continental crust with components of 2,937??16, 3,111??13 and 3,162??13 Ma. Ar-Ar plateau ages of 2,050??4 Ma and 2,054??2 Ma on hydrothermal muscovite samples from the Fazenda Brasileiro gold deposit are interpreted as minimum ages for gold mineralisation and close to the true age of gold deposition. The Ar-Ar data indicate that the mineralisation must have occurred less than 30 million years after the peak of the metamorphism, or episodically between 2,080 Ma and 2,050 Ma, during uplift and exhumation of the orogen. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

Mello, E. F.; Xavier, R. P.; McNaughton, N. J.; Hagemann, S. G.; Fletcher, I.; Snee, L.

2006-01-01

175

Origin of Zn-Pb-Ag Sulfide Mineralization within Upper Proterozoic Phosphate-Rich Carbonate Strata, Irecê Basin, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Irece Basin is a relatively small late Proterozoic basin within the São Francisco craton of northeast-central Brazil. Stratabound Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide and phosphate-rich units occur within a 50-m-thick tidal-flat sequence of dolomitic limestone and cherty dolostone within the lower Salitre Formation of the Una Group. Phosphate is concentrated in stromatolitic structures; metallic mineralization is represented by stratiform masses and disseminations

J. Richard Kyle; Aroldo Misi

1997-01-01

176

Natural Breeding Places for Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Semiarid Region of Bahia State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Few microhabitats have been previously identified as natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies so far, and little is known about the influence of climate variables in their density. The present study was conducted in a dry region with a semiarid climate, where visceral leishmaniasis occurs in humans and dogs. The occurrence of breeding places in specific microhabitats was investigated in soil samples collected from five houses, which were also the location used for sampling of adults. All the microhabitats sampled by our study were identified as natural breeding places due to the occurrence of immature forms of sand flies. On a weekly basis, the number of adult sand flies captured was positively correlated with the mean temperature from preceding weeks. These results, in addition to promoting an advance in the knowledge of sand flies biology, may furnish a tool for optimizing the control of the sand flies, by indicating the most suitable periods and microhabitats for the application of insecticides.

Sangiorgi, Bruno; Miranda, Daniel Neves; Oliveira, Diego Ferreira; Santos, Edivaldo Passos; Gomes, Fernanda Regis; Santos, Edna Oliveira; Barral, Aldina; Miranda, Jose Carlos

2012-01-01

177

The Effects of Protein and Amino Acid Supplementation on Performance and Training Adaptations During Ten Weeks of Resistance Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kerksick, C.M., C.J. Rasmussen, S.L. Lancaster, B. Magu, P. Smith, C. Melton, M. Greenwood, A.L. Almada, C.P. Earnest, and R.B. Kreider. The effects of protein and amino acid supplementation on performance and training adaptations dur- ing ten weeks of resistance training. J. Strength Cond. Res. 20(3):643-653. 2006.—The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation

Chad M. Kerksick; Christopher J. Rasmussen; Stacy L. Lancaster; Bharat Magu; Penney Smith; Charles Melton; Michael Greenwood; Anthony L. Almada; Conrad P. Earnest; Richard B. Kreider

2006-01-01

178

Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit-URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 ?Gy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 ?Gy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

Pereira, Wagner De S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy De Azevedo

2008-08-01

179

[Asbestos, danger and invisibility: perception of environmental risks and health of the residents of Bom Jesus da Serra/Bahia state].  

PubMed

It is important for society as a whole to know how environmentally exposed populations understand and respond to technological chemical risks. This study aimed to analyze the perception of environmental risks and health of the residents of BJS/BA, which is an area especially subjected to environmental exposure to asbestos in Brazil. Mixed questionnaires were used on residents who attend the "Family Health Program" of this city. The subjects of the study were selected according to the following characteristics: specific age groups--one group from 20 to 35 and the other group over 60; sex; length of time and location of dwelling. The intentional sample reached comprised 83 individuals. The results showed that there was general concern about contamination by dust in the air, but general denial of the environmental risks related to asbestos. With respect to health risks, there was lack of visibility by the majority of informants regarding greater risk of getting cancer and pulmonary diseases, mainly for the group of the residents close to the mine and elderly ex-workers. PMID:22267028

Moniz, Marcela de Abreu; de Castro, Hermano Albuquerque; Peres, Frederico

2012-02-01

180

The role of low soil moisture in mitigation of Water and Carbon exchange at a Bahia Grass (Paspalum notatum) Pasture in Central Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat fluxes (June 2000-February 2004) and carbon exchange (February 2003-February 2004) were made to determine the role soil water content (SWC) plays in water and carbon exchange over a pasture in central Florida. Maximum evapotranspiration rates (ET) were > 5 mm day-1 and occurred during the wet season (June to September) of each

R. G. Bracho; D. M. Sumner; T. L. Powell; C. R. Hinkle; B. G. Drake

2004-01-01

181

Hermaphroditism among dioecious Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) (Mollusca, Psammobiidae) and Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) (Mollusca, Donacidae) on the Cachoeira River estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The samples of Tagelus plebeius and Iphigenia brasiliana were manually collected on the Cachoeira River estuary region (Ilhéus, BA, Brazil) between August 2005 and August 2006, with a periodicity of 15 days, with 20 animals collected/sampled, performing 500 samples from each species. The animals were measured, eviscerated and kept in solution of Davidson and after 24-30 hours, they were transferred to ethanol 70%. The material was processed for routine histology, with paraffin embedding, obtaining 7 microm thick slices, stained with Harris hematoxilin and Eosin (HE). By light microscopy analysis, 2 cases of hermaphroditism (0.4%) in T. plebeius samples and one case (0.2%) in I. brasiliana were registered with predominance of female over male follicles. PMID:20231968

Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G; Santos, J J B

2010-02-01

182

Spat collection studies on pearl oysters Pinctada mazatlanica and Pteria sterna (Bivalvia, Pteriidae) in Bahia de La Paz, South Baja California, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with the temporal and bathymetrical variations of the epifaunal community associated with two species of pearl oysters (Pinctada mazatlanica and Pteria sterna) during a seed collecting season from June to November 1989. A total of 63 items (species, genera and\\/or families) were recorded; their variations in presence and abundance were followed during three periods (June–July, August–September

Mario Monteforte; Alejandra Garcia-Gasca

1994-01-01

183

Local ecological knowledge of the artisanal fishers on Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822) (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) on Ilh?us coast - Bahia State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) of traditional fishermen may be the only source of information regarding the conservation of the marine ecosystem and its endangered species. One of these species is Epinephelus itajara, which can exceed 2 m in length and 400 kg weight, is classified by the IUCN as a critically endangered. In Brazil, there is currently a moratorium that prohibits the capture of this specie, and in the northeastern coast, a Marine Protected Area was recently established properly justified by the existence a one spawning aggregation. The scope of the present study was the analysis the LEK of fishers with the goal of contributing to the conservation of E. Itajara. Methods The Knowledge of 24 “experts” was recorded through semi-structured interviews with fishermen selected based on their expertise. LEK regarding some aspects of the life history of E. itajara, such as its morphology, spatial distribution, feeding, breeding and conservation, was systematized. The interviews were conducted in synchronic and diachronic situations. The data analysis followed the model of unity of the various individual skills, while the consistency of the analysis was tested using a matrix of methods employed in comparative cognitive science. Potential reproductive aggregation sites were identified by experts through projective interviews conducted based on a cartographic database and transferred to a geographic information system (GIS). Results The LEK of these specialists in relation to the biological and ecological characteristics of E. itajara showed a high level of detail and a high agreement with the scientific literature. Projective interviews are presented as a promising tool allowing spatialization of the information generated through the registration of LEK. Therefore, the visualization of information from the fishermen, as well as its analysis and comparison with other databases, is simplified, thereby contributing to the decision-making process concerning the conservation of marine ecosystem in Brazil. Conclusions Integration of LEK with scientific knowledge is an efficient strategy for the conservation of endangered species, as it provides important additional biological information that can be used in the process of participative and sustainable management of marine resources.

2014-01-01

184

78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2013-0166] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano...de San Juan during the transit of the Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano...the high ranking officials on board the Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El...

2013-03-29

185

Geologic evolution of the Serrinha nucleus granite–greenstone terrane (NE Bahia, Brazil) constrained by U–Pb single zircon geochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

U–Pb single zircon crystallization ages were determined using TIMS and sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) on samples of granitoid rocks exposed in the Serrinha nucleus granite–greenstone terrane, in NE Brazil. Our data show that the granitoid plutons can be divided into three distinct groups. Group 1 consists of Mesoarchaean (3.2–2.9Ga) gneisses and N-S elongated TTG (Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite) plutons with gneissic

D. C. Rios; D. W. Davis; H. Conceição; W. J. Davis; M. L. S. Rosa; A. P. Dickin

2009-01-01

186

Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

Pereira, Wagner de S [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios, Caixa Postal 961, CEP 37701-970, Pocos de Caldas, MG, BR Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha (Brazil); Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental, Instituto de Geociencias, av. Litoranea s/no, Boa Viagem, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ Caixa Postal 107.092, CEP 24360-970, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio. Caixa Postal 7, CEP 46.400-000 Caetite, Bahia, Brasil Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil)

2008-08-07

187

PREDICTING THE TOXICITY OF MAJOR IONS IN SEAWATER TO MYSID SHRIMP (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA), SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS), AND INLAND SILVERSIDE MINNOW (MENIDIA BERYLLINA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Although marine organisms are naturally adapted to salinities well above those of freshwater, elevated concentrations of specific ions have been shown to cause adverse effects on some saltwater species. Because some ions are also physiologically essential, a deficiency of these i...

188

Distribution and mineralogy of platinum-group elements in altered chromitites of the Campo Formoso layered intrusion (Bahia State, Brazil): control by magmatic and hydrothermal processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyphase, penetrative hydrothermal metasomatism in chromitites of the Campo Formoso layered intrusion produced spectacular chromite - ferrian chromite zoning and transformed the primary intercumulus silicates into a chlorite - serpentine - carbonate - talc assemblage. Alteration did not substantially modify the composition of chromite cores and the distribution of platinum-group elements (PGE) through the sequence of chromitite layers, which still are consistent with magmatic fractionation processes. Texture and composition of laurite and Os-Ir-Ru alloys included in chromite cores indicate that these PGM were not altered, and are probably magmaticin origin. In contrast, the PGM located in the intergranular chlorite matrix (laurite, Ir-Ru-Rh sulfarsenides and Pt-Pd compounds with Sb, Bi and Te) display evidence of hydrothermal reworking. These PGM are intimately intergrown with low-temperature Ni-sulfides. The paragenesis suggests that the Ni-sulfides-PGM assemblage formed at the expenses of unknown PGM precursors, which must have been originally present in the intercumulus silicate matrix. Mechanism of formation involves a sequence of dissolution-precipitation events controlled by variation of redox conditions during chromite alteration. The presence of a secondary ore mineral assemblage consisting of galena, bismuthinite, native antimony, and various Pb-Sb compounds suggests a possible contribution of fluids derived from the adjacent granite.

Garuti, G.; Proenza, J. A.; Zaccarini, F.

2007-03-01

189

The phosphatic crusts from basalts of the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, Brazil): rocks formed from guanos during the Late QuaternaryLes croûtes phosphatées des basaltes de l'archipel d'Abrolhos (Bahia, Brésil) : des roches formées au Quaternaire récent à partir de guanos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basalts from the Abrolhos Archipelago are capped (1) by argilloferruginous saprolite formed under intense weathering conditions at the expense of the basalts and (2) by phosphatic leucophosphite and variscite-rich crusts developed at the expense of both saprolite and basalts. Phosphorus, as indicated by the associated organic compounds, is provided by the leaching of nitrogenous guanos. In the Siriba Island, the crusts affecting the basalts are overlain by a conglomerate related to the Quaternary transgressive-regressive phase at 5?100 years BP. Therefore, the leaching of the guanos certainly began before the transgression.

Flicoteaux, René; Melfi, Adolpho

2000-02-01

190

Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucum×P. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine,

H. P. Xia

2004-01-01

191

Rescuing Tradition at the Pierre Verger Cultural Space: Teaching and Learning Afro-Brazilian Culture through Music in Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how the Pierre Verger Cultural Space (PVCS), an educational organization dedicated to teaching Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, uses music to construct a sense of Afro-Brazilian self. Located in a poverty-stricken neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the PVCS sees its mission as "rescuing" ("resgatar") an Afro-Brazilian sense…

Junqueira, Joao Carlos

2010-01-01

192

LIFE-HISTORY AND TOXICOLOGICAL COMPARISONS OF TEMPERATE AND SUBTROPICAL MYSIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory populations of the temperate mysid Mysidopsis bigelowi were compared with Mysidopsis bahia to assess the former's suitability as a test organism for toxicological studies. ysidopsis bigelowi is widely distributed and often sympatric with M. bahia, a well-esta...

193

Land use/cover classification through multiresolution segmentation and object oriented neural networks classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper is presented a land use/cover classification methodology of the rural/urban fringe, by means of the application of a neuronal network, with resource to the multiresolution image segmentation, construction of complex elements through object oriented analysis and integration of not spectral (ancillary) information. The study area is the municipality of Almada, located in the south bank of Tagus River and corresponding to one of the core regions of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Portugal). The data used was 2004 HRVIR SPOT images fused with supermode panchromatic image and the Portuguese urban quarter statistical data. The developed procedure is based in five steps: 1) Legend creation; 2) deriving statistical ancillary data; 3) deriving object (texture) data; 4) deriving spectral data and 5) neural network classification.

Rocha, Jorge; Tenedório, José A.; Encarnação, Sara; Morgado, Paulo

2006-09-01

194

EFFECTS OF GROUND ULV (ULTRA-LOW VOLUME) APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON ESTUARINE BIOTA. 4. LETHAL AND SUBLETHAL RESPONSES OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

Low-level exposure to fenthion, following ground ULV application of the organsphosphate pesticide, resulted in increased mortality and sublethal growth retardation of Mysidopsis bahia. These two processes would reduce population production of this crustacean, which serves as an i...

195

Conservation and Development in the Gray Whale Lagoons in Baja California Sur, Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report identifies activities that could have a negative impact on two gray whale calving/breeding habitats, namely Laguna San Ignacio and Bahia Magdalena. This report describes (1) the natural history, exploitation, protection, and status of gray wha...

E. Young S. Dedina

1995-01-01

196

PHYSIOLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION IN ESTUARINE MYSIDS AND LARVAL DECAPODS WITH CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

A variety of physiological functions was examined in an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) during life-cycle exposures to four classes of pesticides. Pesticide exposure initially elevated respiration rates of juveniles. These increased metabolic requirements reduced the amount of...

197

POLYCLONAL ANTISERA AGAINST ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN VITELLIN AND VITELLOGENIN: DEVELOPMENT OF AN OOGENESIS DISFUNCTION ASSAY AS AN INDICATOR OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION FROM JUVENILE HORMONE AGONIST INSECTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

Adult female Lepidophthalmus louisianensis, Palaemonetes pugio, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, Mysidopsis bahia, and Uca panacea were collected from estuarine localities in Santa Rosa Sound, Gulf Breeze, FL during late spring and summer of 1999. Mature ovaries were dissected and homog...

198

FIELD AND LABORATORY TOXICITY TESTS WITH SHRIMP, MYSIDS, AND SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS EXPOSED TO FENTHION  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors conducted a series of laboratory pulse-exposure experiments to model short-term field exposures of two representative estuarine crustaceans, Penaeus duorarum and Mysidopsis bahia, to the organophosphate insecticide fenthion. These tests established acutely lethal and ...

199

Evaluation of the Particulate Additive Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study is to acquire and/or develop commercially available equipment for conducting the Particulate Additive Test (PAT) and Laboratory Stability Test (LAST). Dr. Hussein Bahia and his coworkers developed these tests under the National...

J. Youtcheff A. Shenoy

2004-01-01

200

COMPARISON OF LABORATORY TOXICITY TEST RESULTS WITH RESPONSES OF ESTUARINE ANIMALS EXPOSED TO FENTHION IN THE FIELD  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute, lethal effects of fenthion (an organophosphate insecticide) on mysids (Mysidopsis bahia), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were determined in laboratory tests and after field applications. Exp...

201

Project Colorado. Feasibility Studies. Preliminary Designs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Project Colorado is a program of cooperation for industrial development in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The objectives, to develop new small, rural industries and to train business and engineering leaders, are accomplished by utilizing faculty and students...

H. F. Troxell C. E. De Sa

1964-01-01

202

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS AND POPULATION CHANGES IN AN ESTUARINE MYSID DURING CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO A PESTICIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of vital life processes of an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) were examined throughout its life cycle during exposure to the thiocarbamate herbicide, thiobencarb. Initial exposure of juvenile mysids to thiobencarb resulted in elevated respiration rates. Concentrations...

203

KEPONE (TRADEMARK) BIOCONCENTRATION, ACCUMULATION, LOSS, AND TRANSFER THROUGH ESTUARINE FOOD CHAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Accumulation, transfer, and loss of Kepone in estuarine organisms were studied in laboratory bioassays. Kepone was bioconcentrated by oysters (Crassostrea virginica), mysids (Mysidopsis bahia), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus), and spo...

204

40 CFR Appendix 2 to Subpart A of... - Drilling Fluids Toxicity Test  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with approximately 50 Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii per mysid. This will reduce...of Eight Drilling Fluids to Mysid Shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia ), May 1984...Generic Drilling Fluids and Mysid Shrimp [fluid N2=1] Percent...

2009-01-01

205

40 CFR Appendix 2 to Subpart A of... - Drilling Fluids Toxicity Test  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with approximately 50 Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii per mysid. This will reduce...of Eight Drilling Fluids to Mysid Shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia ), May 1984...Generic Drilling Fluids and Mysid Shrimp [fluid N2=1] Percent...

2010-07-01

206

Cyanobacterial diversity in extreme environments in Baja California, Mexico: a polyphasic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Cyanobacterial diversity from two geographical areas of Baja California Sur, Mexico, were studied: Bahia Concepcion, and\\u000a Ensenada de Aripez. The sites included hypersaline ecosystems, sea bottom, hydrothermal springs, and a shrimp farm. In this\\u000a report we describe four new morphotypes, two are marine epilithic from Bahia Concepcion, Dermocarpa sp. and Hyella sp. The third, Geitlerinema sp., occurs in thermal

A. López-Cortés; F. García-Pichel; U. Nübel; R. Vázquez-Juárez

2001-01-01

207

Projeto Lagoa Real. Estudo da influencia do suporte de amostragem na avaliacao de reservas da AN-13 (Jazida Cachoeira), Lagoa Real, BA. (Lagoa Real design. Influence study of sampling support on reserve evaluation from AN-13 (Cachoeira mine), Lagoa Real, Bahia, Brazil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work analysis the effects followed by the change of sampling support from Cachoeira Mine. The differencies observed on U3 O8 tonnage oscillate between - 0,62 to + 0,01 %, while that the ore tonnage per reserve category change + 0,87% to + 1,59%, with...

E. B. Bastian R. A. C. Nogueira

1984-01-01

208

Modelling the Shallow Water Equations in Curvilinear Coordinates with Physical Application  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to provide the capability for simulating fluid flow on complicated geometries, such as in the Bahia de Todos Santos. The Bahia de Todos Santos is a bay situated in the northwest corner of Mexico, off the coast of Ensenada and south of San Diego, California, USA. Figure 1.1 shows the Bahia de Todos Santos. It is part of an image taken from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on the Aqua and Terra satellites in late June and early July 2003 [8]. Roughly 200 square kilometers in size, the bay also contains two islands off the peninsula of Punta Banda. Characteristics of flow in this bay are driven by the moon tide (M2) and wind forcing [9].

Wingenter, S

2005-01-12

209

Stress protein accumulation as an indicator of impact by the petroleum industry in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative concentrations of stress proteins in juvenile mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae), from six study sites in Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, were used to evaluate the possibility of chronic environmental impact induced by 40 years of exposure to the local petroleum industry. Replicated tissue samples from oysters at four sites associated with the extraction, transport and refinement of

I. A Nascimento; M. B. N Leite; G Sansone; S. A Pereira; D. H Smith

1998-01-01

210

A EXTENSÃO OFICIAL NO BRASIL: UMA AVALIAÇÃO DIAGNÓSTICA. O CASO DO NORDESTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabalho é resultado de uma investigação sobre a ação dos órgãos oficiais de Assistência Técnica e Extensão rural (ATER) no nordeste brasileiro, com o objetivo avaliar as ações dos mesmos visando a implementação da nova Política Nacional de ATER (PNATER), na região como referência para o país. Ela contemplou os Estados de Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte,

José Ribamar; Furtado de Souza

211

Extraction of Vanadium from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (BA, Brazil) Fe-Ti-V Ore by Partial Reduction/Magnetic Concentration/Salt Roasting/Hot Water Leaching.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process under development at COPPE/UFRJ to rocover vanadium from a titaniferous magnetite type ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia, Brazil), throxgh magnetizing roasting/magnetic concentration/salt roasting/hot water leaching, is described. The resu...

E. M. Alcantara T. Ogasawara F. T. Silva E. F. Fontes

1988-01-01

212

EVALUATION OF MICRO MINERALS COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT GRASSES IN RELATION TO LIVESTOCK REQUIREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four types of forages Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), Star grass (Hypoxis hirsute), and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) were collected from the Livestock Experimental Station Rakh Khaire Wala, located in the semi-arid region of central Punjab, Pakistan during two different seasons of 2003. Samples were collected and analyzed for iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc Zn), manganese (Mn),

ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN; MUHAMMAD ASHRAF; KAFEEL AHMAD; IRFAN MUSTAFA; MUHAMMAD DANISH

213

Upper Pleistocene Rocky Shores and Intertidal Biotas at Playa La Palmita (Baja California Sur, Mexico)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four examples of Upper Pleistocene, rocky shores and associated biotas are preserved in ecological detail at Playa La Palmita in Bahia Santa Ines on the Gulf of California (Baja California Sur, Mexico). A 2 m-high sea cliff eroded from Miocene andesite reaches 6.25 m above present sea level and retains 15 species of encrusting organisms. Dominant space occupiers are the

Laura K. Libbey; Markes E. Johnson

1997-01-01

214

FROM ORGANISMS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA ACROSS TWO LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION.  

EPA Science Inventory

A critical step in estimating the ecological effects of a toxicant is extrapolating organism-level response data across higher levels of biological organization. In the present study, the organism-to-population link is made for the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to a range of...

215

Avaliacao de Dados Do MSS-LANDSAT-4 Para O Mapeamento Geomorfologico No Semi-Arido COMO Suporte AO Planejamento Regional: Uma Abordagem Integrada (Area-Teste Regiao de Juazeiro-BA) (Evaluation of LANDSAT 4 MSS Data for Geomorphological Mapping in the Semiarid Environment for Regional Planning Purposes: An Integrated Approach (Study Site, the Juazeiro Region)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization of LANDSAT-MSS data is evaluated for geomorphological mapping at 1:100 scale in a semiarid environment for regional planning purposes. An integrated mapping approach was used. The study site is located in northern Bahia State and covers ne...

T. Gallottiflorenzano

1986-01-01

216

Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil), a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997) and rainy (March, 1998) periods. The dominant groups found were

M. Callisto; M. Goulart; F. A. R. Barbosa; O. Rocha

2005-01-01

217

Locational dynamics of Brazilian winegrowing: new regions in Rio Grande do Sul and in the São Francisco River Valley area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the research is to identify the locational factors that influenced the decision to expand winemaking activity into other regions of Brazil. In recent years, winemaking has expanded into new regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Serra do Sudeste and Campanha) and into the São Francisco River Valley (states of Bahia and Pernambuco) - regions

Márcia Azanha; Ferraz Dias de Moraes

218

RADIOCARBON DATING SITES OF ITAPARICA DAM, SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER VALLEY, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports radiocarbon dates of samples from archaeological sites in the Itaparica Dam region of the São Francisco River (Brazil). This region is important due to the evidence of its use by several prehistoric groups of hunter- gatherers. In the 1980s, a Brazilian state hydroelectric company (CHESF) engaged the federal universities of Bahia and Per- nambuco to perform an

L R P de Andrade Lima

219

Unveiling the Mirror: Afro-Brazilian Identity and the Emergence of the Community School Movement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Afro-Brazilian residents of urban favelas (outlying, unincorporated slums) have established community schools in response to lack of public schools. A study of three such community schools in Salvador, Bahia, focused on social justice issues, school efforts to rescue a Black identity denied by Brazil's official "racial democracy" rhetoric,…

Jones de Almeida, Adjoa Florencia

2003-01-01

220

Relationship between Learning Problems and Attention Deficit in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…

Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida

2012-01-01

221

The inverse gravimetry problem: An application to the northern San Francisco craton granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the knowledge of the anomalies of the gravitational field, we reconstruct the mass density distribution in a large region of the state of Bahia (Brazil). This inverse gravimetry problem has been translated into a linear programming problem and solved using the simplex method. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional models have been considered.

L. Misici; F. Zirilli

1989-01-01

222

Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

1993-01-01

223

Jungle I.D.: Educational Reform Inside the Brazilian Paramilitary Police  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article draws on direct observation and interviews with 27 of a total class of 70, in the Military Training Camp of the Military Police ( Polícia Militar ), of the State of Bahia, Brazil. This activity is conducted in a secluded area of the jungle and has great psychological repercussions for both trainers and trainees. Through the sacrifice, humiliation,

Eduardo Paes-Machado; Carlos Linhares De Albuquerque

2002-01-01

224

How To Raise Children's Early Literacy? The Influence of Family, Teacher, and Classroom in Northeast Brazil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 140 first- and second-grade classrooms and 1,925 students in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Ceara examined teaching practices and teacher behaviors in the classroom and their effects on students' early literacy achievement, as well as the influences of student, home, teacher, and school characteristics on literacy scores. (SV)

Fuller, Bruce; Dellagnelo, Lucia; Strath, Annelie; Barretto Bastos, Eni Santana; Holanda Maia, Mauricio; Lopes de Matos, Kelma Socorro; Luiza Portela, Adelia; Lerche Vieira, Sofia

1999-01-01

225

Are seismic surveys responsible for cetacean strandings? An unusual mortality of adult Humpback Whales in Abrolhos Bank, Northeastern coast of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) aggregate at Abrolhos Bank, Bahia and Espírito Santo States, during spring-winter season for breeding and calving. The Instituto Baleia Jubarte\\/Humpback Whale Institute - Brazil maintains a permanent marine mammal rescue program along the coast adjacent to the Abrolhos Bank, aiming to register the strandings of humpback whales and to identify their probable cause of death. Since

MÁRCIA H. ENGEL; MILTON C. C. MARCONDES; FABIA O LUNA; REGIS P. LIMA; ALEXANDRE CAMPOS

226

Sourcing Brazilian marijuana by applying IRMS analysis to seized samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios were measured in marijuana samples (Cannabis sativa L.) seized by the law enforcement officers in the three Brazilian production sites: Pernambuco and Bahia (the country's Northeast known as Marijuana Polygon), Pará (North or Amazon region) and Mato Grosso do Sul (Midwest). These regions are regarded as different with respect to climate and water

Elisa K. Shibuya; Jorge E. Souza Sarkis; Osvaldo Negrini Neto; Marcelo Z. Moreira; Reynaldo L. Victoria

2006-01-01

227

The Effect of Shade on Forage Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of shading on the nutritive value and chemical composition of five tropical grasses was investigated in two experiments. The grasses used were setaria (Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula), green panic (Panicum maximum var. trichoglume cv. Petrie), guinea grass (Panicum maximum cv. Riversdale), signal grass (Bruchiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk) and bahia grass (Paspalum notatum). In the first experiment, grass grown

B. W. Norton; J. R. Wilson; H. M. Shelton; K. D. Hill

228

Heavy metals in sediments from the Paraguay River: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first results ever obtained on heavy metal concentrations (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the Paraguay River surface sediments are presented. Samples collected at 11 locations, along a distance of 570 km, between the cities of Bahia Negra and Alberdi in Paraguay, for six different periods between November 1991 and 1993, were analyzed. The Paraguay sediments appeared

J Facetti; V. M Dekov; R Van Grieken

1998-01-01

229

EFEITO DO PACLOBUTRAZOL EM DUAS ÉPOCAS DE PRODUÇÃO DA MANGUEIRA(1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PACLOBUTRAZOL EFFECT AT TWO MANGO PRODUCTION CYCLES The growth regulators have been used as a practice to alter the mango phenologic cycle in order to forecast the harvest. With the aim to define doses and Paclobutrazol (PBZ) application forms, an experiment was carried out in Itaberaba, State of Bahia, Brazil. Two ways of application were tested, via soil and foliar,

Rua Cícero Pombo

230

EFFECT OF DIFLUBENZURON ON AN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Data are reported for tests exposing a small, estuarine crustacean, Mysidopsis bahia, to diflubenzuron (Dimilin, TH-6040, (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea)) in flowing seawater. Tests were conducted in intermittent flows from a diluter or continuous flowing water i...

231

CHANGES IN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

Measures of physiological performance and energy metabolism were made on an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) exposed throughout a life cycle to the defoliant DEF. EF concentrations > 0.246 ug/l reduced survival through release of the first brood. oung production was completely ...

232

Colonization of cacao seedlings by Trichoderma stromaticum, a mycoparasite of the witches’ broom pathogen, and its influence on plant growth and resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma stromaticum, a mycoparasite of the cacao witches‘ broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa, is being used in Bahia, Brazil to control the disease under field conditions. The endophytic potential of this biocontrol agent was studied in both shoot and root tissues of sterile and nonsterile cacao and bean seedlings. Agar plate and light and electron microscopy studies showed that T. stromaticum

J. T. De Souza; B. A. Bailey; A. W. V. Pomella; E. F. Erbe; C. A. Murphy; H. Bae; P. K. Hebbar

2008-01-01

233

Microbiological assay using bioluminescent organism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to testing processes for toxicity involving microorganisms and, more particularly, to testing processes for toxicity involving bioluminescent organisms. The present known method of testing oil-well drilling fluids for toxicity employs the mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) as the assay organism. The shrimp are difficult to raise and handle as laboratory assay organisms. This method is labor-intensive, because it

Stiffey

1987-01-01

234

Evaluation of some metals in Brazilian coffees cultivated during the process of conversion from conventional to organic agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of nutrients and toxic elements in coffees cultivated during the process of conversion, on organic agriculture, in southwest Bahia, Brazil. Levels of the nutrients and toxic elements were determined in samples of soils and coffee tissues from two transitional organic farms by atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The metals in soil

José Soares dos Santos; Maria Lúcia Pires dos Santos; Melina Moreira Conti; Sabrina Novaes dos Santos; Elisabeth de Oliveira

2009-01-01

235

BIOMASS QUANTIFICATION AND EMISSION REDUCTION CERTIFICATES FOR RUBBER - COCOA INTERCROPPING  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Os objetivos deste trabalho foram quantificar a biomassa vegetal e analisar o potencial de geração de Certificados de Emissões Reduzidas (CERs) em um consórcio de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis) M. Arg. aos 34 anos de idade com cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L.) aos 6 anos de idade. O experimento foi realizado nas Fazendas Reunidas Vale do Juliana, em Igrapiúna, Bahia.

Michele Karina Cotta; Laércio Antônio Gonçalves Jacovine; Haroldo Nogueira de Paiva; Carlos Pedro; Boechat Soares; Adonias de Castro; Virgens Filho; Sebastião Renato Valverde

236

Sistema de tratamiento y disposicion final de los residuos urbanos en la Region Metropolitana de Salvador, Bahía  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo trata de las innovaciones tecnicas en el tratamiento de los residuos industriales en la región metropolitana de Salvador y las principales medidas adoptadas para una gestión ambiental de la petroquímica en Bahia, Brasil. La adopción de procedimientos y criterios en conformidad con las normativas internacionales añade una nueva dimensión en la gestión del espacio regional.

Hilda Maria de Carvalho Braga

2007-01-01

237

Bureaucratic Politics and the Bay of Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On 17 April 1961, a brigade of 1300 Cuban exiles conducted an amphibious assault at the Bay of Pigs (Bahia de Cochinos) on Cuba's southern coast. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had recruited, organized, trained and equipped the Cuban brigade. CIA o...

D. C. O'Brien

1995-01-01

238

ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO MARINE FISH AND A MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

The acute toxicity (96-hr LC50 of un-ionized ammonia to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and larval inland silversides (menidia beryllina) was influenced by pH and salinity in a species specific manner. ith mysids, NH3 was most toxic at pH 7.0 and less toxic pH 8.0 and 9.0. n contrast, ...

239

Estimates of sea turtle mortality from poaching and bycatch in Bahía Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bahia Magdalena on the Pacific coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico, is an important feeding and nursery ground for black turtles Chelonia mydas, loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta, olive ridley turtles Lepidochelys olivacea, and hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata. Despite international and national protection, sea turtles continue to be caught incidentally and hunted for consumption in large numbers. This study examines the

Volker Koch; Wallace J. Nichols; Hoyt Peckham; Victor de la Toba

2006-01-01

240

AN OVERVIEW OF THE ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECTS OF FIRST AND SECOND GENERATION PESTICIDES ON AN ESTUARINE MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

Results are reported for laboratory experiments using the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, as a practical test species for life-cycle studies to determine subtle effects of toxicants. Ratios of the acute 96-hour lethal concentrations to the maximum acceptable toxicant concentratio...

241

USE OF MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION (TIE) METHODS IN DETERMINING CAUSES OF TOXICITY TO FISH IN A MARINE AQUARIUM FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

We obtained a water sample containing broken pieces of a tropical coral reef decor that was suspected of causing fish toxicity in a major aquarium. A toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) was performed using three species: a mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia; inland silvers...

242

Wood Anatomy of the Neotropical Sapotaceae. XXXVIII. Miscellaneous.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The three specimens included in this anatomical grouping are from the states of Eastern Brazil and for practical considerations are referred to here as Sapotaceae A. The specimens examined were Froes 1049 from Bahia, RBw 2955 collected by Mattos Filho in ...

B. F. Kukachka

1982-01-01

243

Calculation of the a sub 0 Value of the Unitary Cell of Garnets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The calculation of the a sub 0 (Angstrom) reticular constant of four samples of garnets, collected in the States of Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo and Bahia, in Brazil, is presented. The objective of this calculation is to determine the molecular compositio...

N. R. Baptista

1984-01-01

244

Two new species of the family Niphatidae van Soest, 1980 from Northeastern Brazil (Haplosclerida: Demospongiae: Porifera).  

PubMed

This paper deals with niphatid sponges from the coast of the Bahia State, northeastern coast of the Brazilian shelf (southwestern Atlantic). Two new species are described, Amphimedon estelae sp. nov. and Niphates luizae sp. nov. A taxonomic study of those samples is given, including description and illustrations. Both species were compared with their congeners present in the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:24871419

Santos, George Garcia; Docio, Loyana; Pinheiro, Ulisses

2014-01-01

245

Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and

M. T. Souza; O. Níckel; D. Gonsalves

2005-01-01

246

[Determination of HER2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in breast cancer. Experience of the Reference Laboratory of Lisbon].  

PubMed

The knowledgement of HER2/c-erbB-2 status in breast cancer is essential for the eligibility of the patients for therapy with monoclonal antibody anti-HER-2/trastuzumab. From the various existent techniques for the determination of HER-2, the most widely used are: immunohistochemistry (IHC), that estimates the protein expression, and in situ hybridization (FISH), that evaluates its amplification. FISH is essential as complementary of IHQ in tumors with equivocal or non interpreted staining, and also in those with complete weak to moderate membrane staining in >10 % of neoplastic cells (score 2+) because, of these, only cases with gene amplification (FISH positive) respond to therapy. Recent studies also support that FISH should be performed in cases with score 3+, because 10-12% of them don't have amplification. The expensive equipment and reagents for standard FISH method and the need of extensive training and expertise for both the technique and the evaluation, justify a centralized testing in Reference Laboratories. Our aim was to describe the work of the Department of Pathology of the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Lisbon as a Reference Laboratory in the execution of FISH technique and to present the results obtained from May 2001 to August 2004. FISH was performed with Kit INFORM HER2/neu Gene Detection System, using the BenckMark system of Ventana. We evaluated a series of 4499 invasive carcinoma primary of the breast, that included 587 cases of the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Lisboa and 3912 cases from different Hospitals of Lisboa, Cascais, Almada, Barreiro, Santarém, Evora, Faro, Portimão, Guimarães, Funchal and Angra do Heroísmo. We verified that 591 cases (13.5%) had HER2 gene amplification, being those patients eligible for therapy with trastuzumab. PMID:16684481

André, Saudade; Tomás, Ana Raquel; Fonseca, Ricardo

2005-01-01

247

Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition,\\u000a quantities and distribution of marine debris along ?150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia,\\u000a Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations\\u000a were observed. Plastics accounted for

Isaac R. Santos; Ana Cláudia Friedrich; Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul

2009-01-01

248

Invasion of ancient Lake Titicaca by the globally invasive Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygrophila)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vital population of Physa acuta, a globally invasive species of freshwater gastropods was dicovered in ancient Lake Titicaca in April 2007. The population\\u000a was found near Chucuito (Bahia de Puno) on the Peruvian side in close proximity to a boat landing of the aquaculture facility\\u000a of the University of Puno. Physids occured in great abundances at this site on

Christian Albrecht; Oliver Kroll; Edmundo Moreno Terrazas; Thomas Wilke

2009-01-01

249

Geographic Distribution of the Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas: Implications for Its Management and Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic distribution and conservation status of the golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, were studied during a survey carried out through an area of about 37,000 km2 in southern Bahia from March 1991 to March 1993. The survey involved interviews of local people and direct censusing in 33 forest patches using playback recordings of a male and female lion tamarin

Luiz Paulo de S. Pinto; Anthony B. Rylands

1997-01-01

250

View of 'Bottomless Bay' on Rim of 'Victoria'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a section of the scalloped rim called 'Bottomless Bay' (or 'Bahia sin Fondo'). This view shows the northeastern side of Bottomless Bay as seen from the southwest. The exposures combined into this mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera through a 750-nanometer filter during the 1,019th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Dec. 5, 2006).

2006-01-01

251

Omobranchus punctatus (Teleostei: Blenniidae), an Exotic Blenny in the Southwestern Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus (Valenciennes), native to the Indo-Pacific region, is recorded in the Southwestern Atlantic coast, inhabiting natural and\\u000a artificial substrates in the proximities of three large Brazilian seaports (states of Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina).\\u000a Due to its habitat and habits, the introduction of this species was probably by ship or oil rigs, presumably associated

Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger; Matheus Oliveira Freitas; Áthila Bertoncini Andrade; Carlos Augusto Rangel

2006-01-01

252

Hydrochloric acid leaching of a pre-reduced Brazilian ilmenite concentrate in an autoclave  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the Project on Integrated utilization of the Fe–Ti–V ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia), the present work have as its main objective to investigate the hydrochloric acid leaching of a pre-reduced ilmenitic concentrate, with the purpose of obtaining synthetic rutile.Initially, the crude ore was submitted to the following steps: partial reduction, grinding, sizing and magnetic

Tsuneharu Ogasawara; Ramon Veras Veloso de Araújo

2000-01-01

253

Reproductive biology of Caesalpinia calycina and C. pluviosa ( Leguminosae ) of the caatinga of north-eastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pollination biology, breeding system and fruiting success ofCaesalpinia calycina andC. pluviosa var.sanfranciscana were studied in caatinga vegetation in Bahia, NE Brazil. The principal pollinators for both species were carpenter bees.Caesalpinia calycina is andromonoecious but inC. pluviosa all flowers are hermaphrodite. InC. calycina all selfed flowers were abscised within 72 h despite rapid self-pollen tube growth to the ovary and

Gwilym Lewis; Peter Gibbs

1999-01-01

254

Southern Bahian moist forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moist forests of southern Bahia, although occupying less than 10% of the original cover, represent one of the last strongholds\\u000a of lowland forest in eastern Brazil. Friedrich Sellow (1815) and K. F. P. von Martius (1818) were the first botanists to make\\u000a significant collections in the region, a tradition which has been intensified by the efforts of the staff

Scott A. Mori; Brian M. Boom; André M. de Carvalho; Talmón S. dos Santos

1983-01-01

255

Effects of simulated storm sizes and nitrogen on three Chihuahuan Desert perennial herbs and a grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment and growth of three perennial herbs and a small tussock grass were studied in an experiment that provided simulated rainfall of 6 mm week?1 or 25 mm once per month and nitrogen fertilization in combination with the different simulated rainfall regimes. Wild onion, Allium macropetalum, failed to establish in plots receiving 25 mm month?1 simulated rainfall. The perennial composite, Bahia absinthifolia, occurred at higher

W. G. Whitford; Y. Steinberger

2011-01-01

256

Caracterização física e química de frutos de três tipos de gravioleira (Annona muricata L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Frutos de gravioleira dos tipos 'Morada', 'Lisa' e 'Comum', produzidos na região Sul do Estado da Bahia, foram avaliados quanto às características físicas e químicas. Com relação às características físicas, não foram detectadas diferenças de peso entre os tipos Morada (3,21kg), Lisa (2,82kg) e Comum (2,39kg). Os frutos do tipo 'Lisa' apresentaram maior rendimento de polpa (85,85%) em

Célio Kersul do Sacramento; José Cláudio Faria; Fábio Lopes da Cruz; Waldemar de Sousa Barretto; José Walter Gaspar; José Basilio Vieira Leite

2003-01-01

257

Dynamics of nitrogen in a shaded cacao plantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of nitrogen mineralization and leaching were conducted in the cacao-growing region in the south of Bahia, Brazil, on plots fertilized with N, P and K and on plots without fertilizer in plantations 30–40 yrs old on CEPEC soil (Tropudalf) over a period of one year. Mini-lysimeters were installed at depths of 10, 20 and 40 cm and the leachate

M. B. M. Santana; P. Cabala-Rosand

1982-01-01

258

Differentiation of Lippia gracilis Schauer Genotypes by LC Fingerprint and Chemometrics Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid chromatographic method with photodiode-array detection has been developed for differentiation of seven genotypes\\u000a of Lippia gracilis Schauer, originated from Sergipe state (named 106 to 110) and from Bahia state (201 and 202), cultivated and collected in\\u000a the rural campus of the Federal University of Sergipe. For a comparative analysis of the fingerprint chromatograms, chemometric\\u000a tools were applied with

Silvana V. F. Gomes; Alan D. C. Santos; Valéria R. S. Moraes; Lúcia R. R. Martins; Monalisa D. Viana; Arie F. Blank; Edenir R. Pereira-Filho; Quezia B. Cass; Paulo C. L. Nogueira; Péricles B. Alves

2010-01-01

259

Multi-year monitoring of estuarine sediments as ultimate sink for DDT, HCH, and other organochlorinated pesticides in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-nine superficial sediment samples used in this study were collected from eight sites in the Bahia Blanca Estuary, located\\u000a in the Buenos Aires Province southwest, Argentina, in a period between April 2005 and March 2009, to assess the concentration\\u000a levels, spatial and seasonal distribution, and putative input sources of 18 selected organochlorine pesticides (OCs), following\\u000a UNEP-IAEA procedures. Average concentration levels

Andrés Hugo Arias; Marcelo T. Pereyra; Jorge E. Marcovecchio

2011-01-01

260

Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions  

PubMed Central

Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne) were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

2012-01-01

261

Mitochondrial DNA variability in populations of Centris aenea (Hymenoptera, Apidae), a crop-pollinating bee in Brazil.  

PubMed

Centris spp are oil-collecting solitary bees that are valuable pollinators of crops such as Brazil nut, cashew, and acerola. We investigated the genetic variability of populations of C. aenea in the northeastern region of Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from 59 individuals from 6 locations in the States of Pernambuco and Bahia and a 600-650-bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI/COII region amplified by PCR, followed by digestion with the restriction enzymes DraI and SspI. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed eight different haplotypes among the populations. Haplotype A1, revealed by DraI, was the most frequent (50%), and haplotypes A3 and A4 were exclusive to Feira de Santana, Bahia and Morro do Chapéu, Bahia, respectively. Among the haplotypes revealed by SspI, B2 was the most frequent (37%) and B3 was exclusive to Feira de Santana. This information revealing high haplotype diversity will be useful for developing management strategies for Centris, especially because of increasing interest in the rearing and/ or relocation of these bees for crop pollination. PMID:23546967

Ferreira, V S; Aguiar, C M L; Oliveira, E J F; Costa, M A; Santos, G M M; Silva, J G

2013-01-01

262

Taxonomic notes on some Brazilian species of Synalpheus Spence Bate, 1888, with new records and description of a new species (Decapoda, Alpheidae).  

PubMed

The present report deals with several western Atlantic species of the snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus Spence Bate, 1888 occurring in Brazilian territorial waters. Two species, Synalpheus cf. ruetzleri Macdonald & Duffy, 2006 and Synalpheus yano (Ríos & Duffy, 2007), are recorded from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and Brazil (Ceará) for the first time; S. yano is also newly reported from the eastern Gulf of Mexico and USA (Florida). Synalpheus androsi Coutière, 1909, a distinctive species previously known in Brazil only from a single unconfirmed record, is confirmed to be present in Brazilian waters based on material from Bahia and Espírito Santo. Synalpheus tenuispina Coutière, 1909, a poorly known species from southern Brazil, is redescribed. Synalpheus ul (Ríos & Duffy, 2007), previously known from Bahia and Alagoas, is reported from Pernambuco based on older "Calypso" material misidentified as Synalpheus longicarpus (Herrick, 1891). A new species from the Synalpheus paraneptunus Coutière, 1909 complex is described as Synalpheus maxillispinus sp. nov. based on three specimens dredged from moderate depths (15-55 m) off southern Bahia and Espírito Santo, eastern Brazil. Finally, an incomplete specimen that appears to belong to a species presently unknown in Brazil is preliminarily reported as Synalpheus sp. gambarelloides group. Illustrations are provided for all reported taxa except for S. ul. PMID:24943610

Anker, Arthur; Pachelle, Paulo P G

2014-01-01

263

Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease across Europe: is there a difference between north and south? Results of the European Collaborative Study on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EC-IBD).  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is three or more times higher in northern than in southern Europe. The aim of this EC funded study was to investigate this apparent variation by ascertaining the incidence of IBD across Europe. METHODS: For the period 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1993 all new patients diagnosed with IBD were prospectively identified in 20 European centres according to a standard protocol for case ascertainment and definition. FINDINGS: Altogether 2201 patients aged 15 years or more were identified, of whom 1379 were diagnosed as UC (including proctitis), 706 as CD, and 116 as indeterminate. The overall incidence per 100,000 at ages 15-64 years (standardised for age and sex) of UC was 10.4 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 7.6 to 13.1) and that of CD was 5.6 (95% CI 2.8 to 8.3). Rates of UC in northern centres were 40% higher than those in the south (rate ratio (RR) = 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.5)) and for CD they were 80% higher (RR = 1.8 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.1)). For UC the highest reported incidence was in Iceland (24.5, 95% CI 17.4 to 31.5) and for CD, Maastricht (The Netherlands; 9.2, 95% CI 6.5 to 11.8) and Amiens (north west France; 9.2, 95% CI 6.3 to 12.2). The lowest incidence of UC was in Almada (southern Portugal) (1.6, 95% CI 0.0 to 3.2) and of CD in Ioannina (north west Greece) (0.9, 95% CI 0.0 to 2.2). An unexpected finding was a difference in the age specific incidence of UC in men and women with the incidence in women but not men declining with age. INTERPRETATION: The higher overall incidence rates in northern centres did not seem to be explained by differences in tobacco consumption or education. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the observed excess for both conditions is less than expected on the basis of previous studies. This may reflect recent increases in the incidence of IBD in southern Europe whereas those in the north may have stabilised.

Shivananda, S; Lennard-Jones, J; Logan, R; Fear, N; Price, A; Carpenter, L; van Blankenstein, M

1996-01-01

264

Intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil.  

PubMed

The Brazilian planorbidical chart is slowly but progressively been increased by new data. Distribution of vector species of Schistosoma mansoni, according to Paraense, 1986, may be thus resumed: Biomphalaria glabrata--delimited by parallels 13 and 21 degrees S and meridians 39 and 45 degrees W, area of greater dominance (Southeast Bahia, oriental hal of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). It is observed along the coast line of the states of Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte. Starting from there, it is found towards the southwest, in the direction to the São Francisco River and South-Center of Minas Gerais. Isolated population may be observed in other states. Its presence is probably, associated to the transmission of schistosomiasis in all areas where it occurs. B. tenagophila--extends it self through a wide strip of coast-line from the South of Bahia (17 degrees 45'S; 39 degrees 15'W), RS (33 degrees 41'S, 53 degrees 27'W). In São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul states it is found further inland. It is important in schistosomiasis transmission in the Paraiba valley (SP). Isolated populations are observed in the Federal District and Minas Gerais state. B. straminea--better adapter species to climatic variation, having a more dense distribution in the northeast (41 degrees W and 110 degrees S), south of Bahia and northeast of Minas Gerais (150 and 180 degrees S, 400 and 440 degrees W). It is less susceptible than the B. glabrata, being however, the most important responsible for the transmission of S. mansoni in the northeast, chiefly in the northeastern dry area, where it is almost the only transmissive species. PMID:1343914

Carvalho, O de D

1992-01-01

265

First record of Parakosa flexipes (Acari: Chirodiscidae) parasitizing a free-tailed bat (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study reports the occurrence of Parakosa flexipes (Pinichpongse) (Chirodiscidae) for the first time in Brazil, along with its infection sites on Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy. Thirty-eight bats were caught using mist nets that were placed near a house at the Mars Center for Cocoa Science in the state of Bahia, of which 14 (37%) were parasitized by P. flexipes. Parakosa flexipes was observed parasitizing M. rufus on hairs that were evidently longer than others distributed over the bat's body, where up to three parasites could be spotted on a single hair. PMID:23184323

Gomes, Luiz Antonio Costa; Silva, Roberta Mariano; Melo, Vanessa Lazaro

2012-01-01

266

New records, threatens and conservation status for Dichotomius schiffleri Vaz-de-Mello, Louzada & Gavino (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): an endangered dung beetle species from Brazilian atlantic forest ecosystems.  

PubMed

Dichotomius schiffleri Vaz-de-Mello et al is often cited as endemic to the preserved coastal sandy-dune vegetation (restinga) of Guriri Island, Espírito Santo state, and is included in the Brazilian List of Endangered Fauna as "critically endangered" (CR). However, we recorded its occurrence in twelve additional sites along the coasts of Espírito Santo, Bahia, Sergipe and Pernambuco. The geographic distribution of D. schiffleri is limited to the coastal Atlantic Forest domain, mainly in preserved restinga patches. We recommend that D. schiffleri remains in the List of Endangered species, but in the "endangered" (EN) category, according to the IUCN criteria. PMID:21584413

Vieira, L; Louzada, J; Vaz-de-Mello, F Z; Lopes, P P; Silva, F A B

2011-01-01

267

Agrarian Social Movements and the Making of Agrodiesel Moral Territories in Northeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to widespread concerns about the socio-ecological impacts of agrofuel production and development, particularly for food security, efforts have been made internationally to implement more sustainable forms of producing agrofuels. Brazil's National Program for the Production and Use of Agrodiesel (PNPB), launched in 2004, is one such attempt. Promoted as a socially and environmentally responsible program, the PNPB was made possible through unprecedented alliances between the 'postneoliberal' Brazilian state, the agribusiness sector, and social movements such as the Rural Trade Union's Movement (MSTTR) and the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST). In this research, I critically analyze the unexpected engagement of social movements in the making of agrodiesel territories in semi-arid Bahia, Northeastern Brazil by examining the territorial and moral processes and practices that underlie the production of castor bean (mamona) for agrodiesel. The methodology adopted comprised participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews (n=74) with leaders and members of the MST and the MSTTR in the territories of the Chapada Diamantina and Irece, in central Bahia. Interviews were also conducted with representatives of family farming cooperatives, government institutions, and agrodiesel companies (Petrobras) in the two study areas and in Salvador, capital of Bahia. Research methods also included the collection and critical discourse analysis of archival and other secondary data sources from public and private institutions. Drawing mainly from cultural geography and political ecology literatures, I argue that social movement leaders enable the making of agrodiesel territories mainly through their role as 'agrodiesel gatekeepers'---as legal interveners, managers, and caregivers. Family farmers tend to enable agrodiesel territorial expansion and to disrupt agrodiesel territorial management by not complying with moral prescriptions of loyalty. I see farmers' disloyalty towards their cooperatives as an everyday form of resistance against agrodiesel oppressive and exploitative practices. I suggest that the making of agrodiesel territories (re)produces gendered and racialized '(im)moral' peasants and serves to better contain peasants' movements. By critically analyzing how agrodiesel practices reproduce, homogenize and differentiate certain subjects, natures, and territories, I hope that this research contributes to politicize the moral geographies of agrodiesel development in semiarid Bahia.

Manzi, Maya

268

The acute and chronic toxicity of ammonia to marine fish and a mysid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity (96-hr LC50) of un-ionized ammonia to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and larval inland silversides (Menidia beryllina) was influenced by pH and salinity in a species specific manner. With mysids, NH3 was most toxic at pH 7.0 and less toxic at pH 8.0 and 9.0. In contrast, NH3 toxicity to inland silversides was greatest at pH 7.0 and 9.0

D. C. Miller; S. Poucher; J. A. Cardin; D. Hansen

1990-01-01

269

View of 'Bottomless Bay' on Rim of 'Victoria' (Altered Contrast)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a section of the scalloped rim called 'Bottomless Bay' (or 'Bahia sin Fondo'). This view shows the northeastern side of Bottomless Bay as seen from the southwest. The exposures combined into this mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera through a 750-nanometer filter during the 1,019th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Dec. 5, 2006). Contrast has been altered to improve the visibility of details in shadowed areas.

2006-01-01

270

Tracing coastal and estuarine groundwater discharge sources in a complex faulted and fractured karst aquifer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater discharge can be an important input of water, nutrients and other constituents to coastal wetlands and adjacent marine areas, particularly in karst regions with little to no surface water flow. A combination of natural processes (e.g., sea-level rise and climate change) and anthropogenic pressures (e.g., urban growth and development) can alter the subterranean water flow to the coastline. For water management practices and environmental preservation to be better suited for the natural and human environment, a better understanding is needed of the hydrogeologic connectivity between the areas of fresh groundwater recharge and the coastal zone. The Yucatan peninsula has a unique tectonic and geologic history consisting of a Cretaceous impact crater, Miocene and Eocene tectonic plate movements, and multiple sea-level stands. These events have shaped many complex geologic formations and structures. The Sian Káan Biosphere Reserve (SKBR), a UNESCO World Heritage Site located along the Atlantic Ocean, overlaps two distinct hydrogeologic regions: the evaporate region to the south and south west, and the Holbox Fracture Zone to the north. These two regions create a complex network of layered, perched and fractured aquifers and an extensive groundwater cave network. The two regions are distinguished by bedrock mineralogical differences that can be used to trace shallow subsurface water from interior portions of the peninsula to the Bahia de la Ascension in the SKBR. The objective of this research was to use naturally occurring geochemical tracers (eg., Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, K+, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen) to decipher the sources of groundwater flow through the coastal wetlands of the SKBR and into the Bahia de la Ascension. Surface water and groundwater samples were collected during two field campaigns in 2010 and 2012 within the coastal and estuarine waters of the SKBR. Additional water samples were collected at select cenotes along the western boundary of the reserve. Fresh groundwater and surface water from the southern evaporate region was characterized as a calcium sulfate water that was identified to contribute the southern portions of the Bahia de la Ascension. In the northern portions of the Bahia, surface and shallow groundwater chemistry was characterized as a more calcium bicarbonate-type water from the north that was undersaturated with respect to calcite. The implications from this preliminary study address the complex nature of the karst aquifer and help define groundwater flow pathways from the interior of the Yucatan peninsula to the coastal wetlands. Further investigation in the area will increase our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of shallow groundwater; and identify areas of coastal brackish groundwater discharge from the mixing of fresh groundwater and seawater.

Lagomasino, D.; Price, R. M.

2013-05-01

271

Co-occurrence patterns of anxiety, depression and alcohol use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive symptoms with alcohol consumption\\/abuse was analyzed in a sample of 2,302 adults in\\u000a Bahia, Brazil. A cross-sectional household survey collected self-reported information on social and personal health, as well\\u000a as individual psychological status, with standardized techniques and trained examiners. Twelve-month prevalence was 15% for\\u000a anxiety, 12% for depressive disorders and 7% for alcohol abuse\\/dependence. Symptom

Naomar Almeida-Filho; Ines Lessa; Lucélia Magalhães; Maria Jenny Araújo; Estela Aquino; Jair de Jesus Mari

2007-01-01

272

Identification and genetic characterization of a new Brazilian genotype of Toxoplasma gondii from sheep intended for human consumption.  

PubMed

Recent studies have demonstrated that strains of Toxoplasma gondii in Brazil are frequently different from those detected in other countries, thus making an accurate phylogenetic analysis difficult. The aim of this study was to genetically characterize T. gondii samples from sheep raised in southern Bahia and intended for human consumption, by means of PCR-RFLP and sequencing techniques. Experimental samples were obtained from 200 sheep brains purchased at butcher's shops in Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil. In total, three samples (#54, #124 and #127) were T. gondii-positive. The application of multilocus PCR-RFLP using ten molecular markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c22-8, PK1, GRA6, L358, c-29-2 and Apico) revealed a single genotype common to all samples of this study, which differed from any other published T. gondii genotypes. An atypical allele was detected in the L358 genetic marker; this has not previously been shown in any other South American T. gondii isolates. Phylogenetic analysis on the sequences from multilocus PCR sequencing revealed that these three samples were classified into the same lineage. Extensive indel regions were detected in the Apico genetic marker. Together, our findings revealed a new Brazilian T. gondii genotype. Further research should be conducted to enrich the database of Brazilian T. gondii genotypes from different regions. This will make it possible to understand the phylogenetic relationship between isolates. PMID:24631791

Maciel, B M; Moura, R L S; Carvalho, F S; Costa, E A; Albuquerque, G R

2014-06-01

273

Endemic and threatened tetrapods in the restingas of the biodiversity corridors of Serra do Mar and of the Central da Mata Atlântica in eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Biodiversity corridors comprise a mosaic of land uses connecting fragments of natural forest across a landscape. Two such corridors have been established along the eastern coast of Brazil: the Serra do Mar and the Central da Mata Atlântica corridors, along which most of the coastal plains are restinga areas. In this study, we analyze the present status of the endemic and endangered terrestrial vertebrates of both corridors. We sampled 10 restingas in both corridors, recording species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Some restingas harbor a relatively large number of endemic species,and two main regions of endemism can be identified along the restingas of both corridors: the coastal restingas from northern Espirito Santo State to southern Bahia State (between Linhares, ES, and Tarancoso, BA), and the coastal region between the restingas of Maricá and Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State. Six species of terrestrial vertebrates considered threatened with extinction are found in the restingas of Serra do Mar and Central da Mata Atlântica biodiversity corridors (Liolaemus lutzae, Formicivora littoralis, Mimus gilvus, Schistochlamys melanopis, and Trinomys eliasi). The region located between the restinga of Maricá and that of Jurubatiba is of special relevance for the conservation of vertebrate species of the restingas of the corridors because a considerable number of threatened species of terrestrial vertebrates are found there. We strongly recommend efforts to develop checklists of threatened faunas for the States of Espirito Santo and Bahia. PMID:16025914

Rocha, C F D; Van Sluys, M; Bergallo, H G; Alves, M A S

2005-02-01

274

[Ichthyofauna of the Navidad Bay, Jalisco, México].  

PubMed

A check-list and the relative abundance of the ichthyofauna from Bahia de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico is presented. This poorly known area of the eastern Tropical Pacific ocean is characterized by its great fish diversity. A total of 245 fish species (163 genera, 72 families) were collected during the 1994-1995 annual cycle. Vouchers were deposited in Centro de Ecologia Costera, Universidad de Guadalajara. The most important families in number of species were Carangidae (20 species), Haemulidae (20), Serranidae (17), Sciaenidae (13) and Lutjanidae (8); 20 species represented 85% and 80% of relative abundance and biomass respectively. Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caninus, Caranx caballus, Kiphosus analogus and Caranx sexfasciatus, were the dominant species. Most fish species collected in Bahia de Navidad have zoogeographical affinity with the Panamic Province (65%), and in lesser proportion with the Eastern Pacific Ocean (19%), Circumtropical (7%), Mexican Province (5%), Indo-Pacific Ocean (3%) and Gulf of California (0.4%). The great ichthyological affinity between the study area and the southern Gulf of California suggests an extension of the of Gulf southern limit. PMID:11795146

Aguilar-Palomino, B; Pérez Reyes, C; Galván-Magaña, F; Abitía-Cardenas, L A

2001-03-01

275

Epidemiological and Clinical Changes in American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in an Area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Transmission Over a 20-Year Period  

PubMed Central

The Health Post of Corte de Pedra is located in a region endemic for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the Brazilian state of Bahia, and it treats 500–1,300 patients annually. To describe temporal changes in the epidemiology of ATL, we reviewed a random sample of 10% of patient charts (N = 1,209) from 1988 to 2008. There was a twofold increase in the number of cases over the 20-year period, with fluctuations in 10-year cycles. Patients were most frequently male, between the ages of 10 and 30 years, and engaged in agricultural labor; 4.3% of patients had mucosal disease, and 2.4% of patients had disseminated disease. Over the study period, the number of disseminated cases increased threefold, the proportion of cases in younger patients and agricultural workers decreased, and the proportion of patients residing in coastal areas increased. ATL is on the rise in Bahia, with a 10-year periodicity and evolving changes in epidemiology and manifestations of disease.

Jirmanus, Lara; Glesby, Marshall J.; Guimaraes, Luiz H.; Lago, Ednaldo; Rosa, Maria Elisa; Machado, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

2012-01-01

276

Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian Campo Rupestre Vegetation, with Special Reference to Crepuscular Bees  

PubMed Central

Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome.

Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam

2011-01-01

277

Seismicity of the Jalisco Block  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April 2002 began to transmit the stations of the first phase of Jalisco Telemetric Network located at the northwest of Jalisco Block and at the area of Volcan de Fuego (Colima Volcano), in June were deployed four additional MarsLite portable stations in the Bahia de Banderas area, and by the end of August one more portable station at Ceboruco Volcano. The data of these stations jointly with the data from RESCO (Colima Telemetric Network) give us the minimum seismic stations coverage to initiate in a systematic and permanent way the study of the seismicity in this very complex tectonic region. A preliminary analysis of seismicity based on the events registered by the networks using a shutter algorithm, confirms several important features proposed by microseismicity studies carried out between 1996 and 1998. A high level of seismicity inside and below of Rivera plate is observed, this fact suggest a very complex stress pattern acting on this plate. Shallow seismicity at south and east of Bahia de Banderas also suggest a complex stress pattern in this region of the Jalisco Block, events at more than 30 km depth are located under the mouth of the bay and in face of it, a feature denominated Banderas Boundary mark the change of the seismic regime at north of this latitude (20.75°N), however some shallow events were located at the region of Nayarit.

Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz, M.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Trejo-Gomez, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

2002-12-01

278

Molecular evidence confirms that Proctoeces humboldti and Proctoeces chilensis (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) are the same species.  

PubMed

Two species of Proctoeces Odhner, 1911 have been described in marine organisms from Chile: P. humboldti George-Nascimento & Quiroga (1983), parasitizing the gonads of keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.), and P. chilensis Oliva (1984), an intestinal parasite of Sicyases sanguineus (Teleostei); both species were subsequently considered as P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960). To assist in the resolution of the taxonomic identification of Proctoeces species in marine organisms from Chile, phylogenetic studies using DNA sequences from the V4 region of the SSU rRNA gene were performed. Several specimens of P. lintoni were isolated from keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.) and clingfish (S. sanguineus) from Bahia San Jorge (23°40'S) and Bahia Concepción (36°50'S). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using three different approaches: a neighbour-joining (NJ), a maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). The phylogenetic analysis confirms that specimens of Proctoeces obtained from keyhole limpets and those specimens from the clingfish are in fact the same species. We prefer to consider our specimens as Proctoeces cf. lintoni, as the morphology of Proctoeces appears to be of doubtful value and genetic information about P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960) is not available. In addition, our results strongly suggest that there are at least three species in this genus. PMID:20078901

Valdivia, I M; Cardenas, L; Gonzalez, K; Jofré, D; George-Nascimento, M; Guiñez, R; Oliva, M E

2010-12-01

279

In vitro cultivation and morphological characterization of phloemic trypanosomatids isolated from coconut trees.  

PubMed

Plant trypanosomatids cause lethal vascular wilting in palms of the Arecaceae family. Infections, affecting plants in South and Central America, can result in significant economic loss. The study of trypanosomatids that cause these diseases has been complicated due to the inability to culture these organisms for in vitro analyses. To develop a protocol that would facilitate studies of trypanosomatids, continuous in vitro cultures of phloemic trypanosomatids were established from apical stems of diseased coconut trees collected in endemic and non-endemic regions of Brazil (the states of Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, respectively). Although attempts at establishing axenic cultures were unsuccessful, it was found that trypanosomatid co-cultures could be successfully established and maintained. The procedure was to preculture media with 10(4)Aedes albopictus cells in Grace's medium supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (without antibiotics or fungicides) for 3 d before adding 10(6) trypanosomatids/ml harvested from either fresh apical stem extracts or with 2 mm(3) fragments of coconut apical stems. By day 7 under these conditions the parasites grew exponentially. Using this strategy, two isolates were identified and have been maintained in our laboratory for over 400 passages, demonstrating the efficacy of this culturing procedure. In situ the organisms were observed in vascular bundles and inside sieve elements of the phloem of diseased palms. In vitro parasites retained their mobility. Morphometric analysis revealed differences between Bahia and Rio de Janeiro isolates. PMID:20002871

Keller, Darlí G; Miguens, Flávio C

2010-01-01

280

Identification of acute toxicants in New Bedford Harbor sediments  

SciTech Connect

New Bedford Harbor (NBH) is a marine Superfund site contaminated with high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. Experiments were conducted to determine the causal toxic agent(s) in pore waters from New Bedford Harbor sediments to amphipods and mysid shrimp. Chemical manipulations to characterize toxicity revealed that pore-water toxicity was organic in nature. Fractionation and subsequent mass spectral identification of peaks in the toxic fraction indicated that PCBs. PAHs, and unknown compounds were present. Comparisons of PAH LC50s and PAH concentrations in this fraction indicated that the toxicity was not due to PAHs because the PAH concentrations were much lower than the reported PAH LC50s. One unknown peak was positively identified as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and the other tentatively identified as pyrazole. Toxicity tests and comparison of toxicity in the blank and toxic fractions eliminated the two unknowns as toxic causal agents. The authors determined the range of PCB LC50s to fall between 10 and 110 ppb for Mysidopsis bahia and Ampelisca abdita. Concentrations of PCBs for the toxic fractions ranged from 12 to 27 ppb. This range falls within the observed PCB LC50s for M. bahia and A. abdita. Based upon these PCB concentrations, they concluded that PCBs were the acute toxic agents in NBH pore waters. Other compounds in the toxic fractions, or compounds that coeluted and were undistinguished from PCBs had minor contributions to the measured toxicity.

Ho, K.T.; McKinney, R.A.; Kuhn, A.; Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Atlantic Ecology Div.

1997-03-01

281

Identification and distribution of New World Leishmania species characterized by serodeme analysis using monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Five hundred thirty stocks of Leishmania isolated from human and domestic and wild reservoir hosts, representing a wide geographic distribution of endemic foci of American cutaneous (ACL) and visceral leishmaniases (AVL) were characterized and identified at species and/or subspecies levels based on their reactivity to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay. This study confirms and extends our preliminary results on the high specificity of some of these monoclonals for the L. braziliensis, L. mexicana, and L. donovani complexes. This study also demonstrates the relative stability of these molecular markers and the general usefulness of the method for parasite identification. Two hundred ninety-two of 420 isolates of ACL were classified as members of the L. braziliensis complex. Two hundred twenty-seven were L. b. braziliensis; these showed the widest geographical distribution (Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo; Honduras: Santa Barbara and Yoko; Peru: Ancash, Piura, and Ucayali; and Venezuela: Cojedes, Distrito Federal, Lara, Portuguesa, Vale Hondo, Yaracuy, and Zulia). Forty-one stocks were identified as L. b. guyanensis (from North Brazil: Amazonas, Amapa, Para, and Rondonia). Twenty-one stocks were identified as L. b. panamensis (from Costa Rica: Alajuela, Guanacasten, Limon, Puntarenas, and San Jose; and Honduras: El Paraiso, and Olancho). Out of 128 isolates classified as members of the L. mexicana complex, 74 were differentiated as L. m. amazonensis (from Bolivia; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso do Norte, and Para; Peru: Pasco Forest and Van Humboldt; and Venezuela: Carabobo, Guarico, and Merida). Forty-four stocks were identified as L. m. venezuelensis (from Venezuela: Lara). Six stocks were L. m. mexicana (from Belize; and Mexico: Campeche [corrected] and Quintana Roo, Yucatan). One hundred ten isolates from AVL were identified as L. donovani chagasi (from Brazil: Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, and Sergipe; and Honduras: Valle). The implications of these results with respect to both the clinical and epidemiological data (including the detection of seven unusual characterized stocks) are discussed. PMID:3826486

Grimaldi, G; David, J R; McMahon-Pratt, D

1987-03-01

282

Advertisement and courtship calls of Phyllodytes wuchereri (Peters, 1873) (Anura: Hylidae) .  

PubMed

The genus Phyllodytes Wagler comprises 11 species, of which six have vocalizations already described [P. edelmoi Peixoto, Caramaschi & Freire, 2003 (Lima et al. 2008); P. gyrinaethes Peixoto, Caramaschi & Freire, 2003 (Roberto & Ávila 2013); P. luteolus (Wied-Neuwied, 1824) (Weygoldt 1981); P. melanomystax Caramaschi, Silva & Britto-Pereira, 1992 (Nunes et al. 2007); P. kautskyi Peixoto & Cruz, 1988 (Simon & Peres 2012); and P. tuberculosus Bokermann, 1966 (Juncá et al. 2012)]. Here we describe the advertisement and courtship calls of P. wuchereri (Peters, 1873) recorded at the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, in the Camacan municipality, Bahia State, Brazil (15o23'S, 39o33'W; 900 m a.s.l.). This is the first description of a courtship call of the genus Phyllodytes.  PMID:24871409

Cruz, Deise; Marciano-Jr, Euvaldo; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

2014-01-01

283

Two new species of cheilostome bryozoans from the South Atlantic Ocean .  

PubMed

Two new species of cheilostome bryozoans are described from Bahia and Espírito Santo States, Brazil-Calyptooecia conuma n. sp. and Hippotrema fissurata n. sp. Both genera are registered for the first time in the South Atlantic Ocean. Inter alia, Calyptooecia conuma n. sp. is characterized by the presence of dimorphic brooding zooids with relatively small orifices and no perioral tubercles, contrasting with bigger non-brooding zooids having larger orifices surrounded by perioral tubercles. Hippotrema fissurata n. sp. differs from congeners in colony morphology and colour, in details of the ooecium and in zooidal metrics. Specimens were collected on varied substrata, commonly calcareous nodules and shells as well as other bryozoans and sponges.  PMID:24872298

Almeida, Ana Carolina S; Souza, Facelucia B C

2014-01-01

284

[Health services accessibility in a city of Northeast Brazil].  

PubMed

In order to analyze the implementation of measures targeting accessibility to primary health care in a municipality (county) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, a single case study was performed with two levels of analysis: system and services organization. The data were obtained from semi-structured interviews, observation of routine care, and document analysis. Of the four health units analyzed, three showed intermediate-level implementation of measures targeting accessibility. The Family Health Units showed better performance, due to measures for patient reception and referral to specialized services, but they revealed problems with scheduling of appointments. Despite having defined primary care as the portal of entry into the system and the implementation of a help desk for setting appointments with specialists, there are persistent organizational barriers in the municipality. A specific policy is recommended to improve accessibility, aimed at organization of the services supply in order to change the health care model. PMID:20512213

Cunha, Alcione Brasileiro Oliveira; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

2010-04-01

285

Monitoring the tidal Delaware River for ambient toxicity.  

PubMed

This study assessed ambient waters in an urbanized area of the Delaware River, to determine whether river water samples exhibited chronic lethal or sublethal toxicity when measured in laboratory experiments. Toxicity was assessed at 16 fixed stations in the main-stem river and 29 stations in tributaries of the tidal Delaware River with salinities from 0 to 15 parts per 1000 (ppt) using Pimephales promelas, Americamysis bahia, Menidia beryllina, and Ceriodaphnia dubia in 7-d tests; Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in a 96-h test; and Hyalella azteca in a 10-d water-only test. The toxicity tests measured organism survival, growth, and reproduction. Results from testing water samples collected in 4 different y indicated that the samples from sites tested in the main-stem of the Delaware River and from the majority of its tributaries did not produce chronic toxicity. The surveys identified tributaries that warrant further assessment for toxicity. PMID:21082667

MacGillivray, A Ronald; Russell, David E; Brown, Steven S; Fikslin, Thomas J; Greene, Richard; Hoke, Robert A; Nally, Christopher; O'Donnell, Linda

2011-07-01

286

Two new South American species of Solanum section Crinitum (Solanaceae).  

PubMed

Two new species of Solanum section Crinitum are described here. Solanum falciforme Farruggia, sp. nov., closely resembles Solanum crinitum and Solanum lycocarpum, but differs by the presence of falcate trichomes on the young growth. It is endemic to the cerrado and adjacent woodlands of Distrito Federal, Bahia, Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The other species, Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia, sp.nov., has close affinities to Solanum sycophanta butdiffers from the latter in having prominent long-stalked stellate hairs along the stem, calyx, petiole and the adaxial surface of the leaf, in contrast to Solanum sycophanta which is glabrous or pubescent with sessile to short-stalked multangulate hairs. This species is narrowly distributed in tropical montane forests of northern Peru and southern Ecuador. PMID:22171169

Farruggia, Frank T; Bohs, Lynn

2010-01-01

287

Two new South American species of Solanum section Crinitum (Solanaceae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species of Solanum section Crinitum are described here. Solanum falciforme Farruggia, sp. nov., closely resembles Solanum crinitum and Solanum lycocarpum, but differs by the presence of falcate trichomes on the young growth. It is endemic to the cerrado and adjacent woodlands of Distrito Federal, Bahia, Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The other species, Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia, sp.nov., has close affinities to Solanum sycophanta butdiffers from the latter in having prominent long-stalked stellate hairs along the stem, calyx, petiole and the adaxial surface of the leaf, in contrast to Solanum sycophanta which is glabrous or pubescent with sessile to short-stalked multangulate hairs. This species is narrowly distributed in tropical montane forests of northern Peru and southern Ecuador.

Farruggia, Frank T.; Bohs, Lynn

2010-01-01

288

Mass Spectrometry of Flavonoid Vicenin-2, Based Sunlight Barriers in Lychnophora species  

PubMed Central

Lychnophora salicifolia plants collected from four different places in Brazil (three states: Goias, Minas Gerais and Bahia) revealed a conserved accumulation of vicenin-2, a di-C-glycosyl flavonoid. Quantitative studies by UPLC-MS/MS showed high concentration of vicenin-2 in leaves from sixty specimens of six Lychnophora species. So the tissue distributions of vicenin-2 were evaluated in wild Lychnophora leaves (Asteraceae) by laser based imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to propose its distributions and possible functions for the species analyzed. Mass spectrometric imaging revealed that vicenin-2, unlike other flavonoids, was produced at the top of the leaves. The combination of localization and UV absorption properties of vicenin-2 suggests that it could act as a UV light barrier to protect the plants, since plants are sessile organisms that have to protect themselves from harsh external conditions such as intense sunlight.

Silva, Denise Brentan; Turatti, Izabel Cristina Casanova; Gouveia, Dayana Rubio; Ernst, Madeleine; Teixeira, Simone Padua; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

2014-01-01

289

Canto do Brazil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Getting to Brazil is getting more and more expensive, especially considering the rising prices of flights abroad. For those who have never been, or those looking for a compelling perspective on a few regions of this huge country, this site, designed by Geoffrey Hiller is worth a look. Hiller is a photographer who first visited Brazil 25 years ago, and recently returned to explore the country at length. The Flash introduction to the site offers some lovely images, set to the backdrop of rather enchanting music, with narration provided by a woman who talks about the nature of the Brazilian soul. The various short films, which consist of photographs that dissolve and melt into each scene, deal with such locals as Salvador Bahia, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais. After viewing each short film, visitors can wander through the images contained within each film in a separate photo gallery.

Hiller, Geoffrey

290

Classical and fractal analysis of vehicle demand on the ferry-boat system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transportation problems are important complex systems because of the increased number of vehicles in cities. In this paper, we study time series of vehicle demand by using the ferry-boat system between Salvador city and Itaparica island, in Bahia, Brazil. We compare the traditional demand analysis (ARIMA method) with the self-affine ones (the scaling exponent ? and the density of crossing points ?). In addition, taking into account the inherent self-affine behavior we study the stationary states of this dynamic process by using a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation. The present findings indicate that the scaling exponent ? describes some properties of flux of vehicles using the ferry-boat system. The behavior of ? gives an alternative explanation about demand analysis, and the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation presents a solution close to the stationary behavior of this complex dynamical analysis.

Moret, Marcelo A.; Antonio, Liliane Q.; Pereira, Hernane B. B.

2012-02-01

291

Additions to the mycobiota of the weed Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

A sequel to the work of systematic surveying the mycobiota of Lantana camara, aimed at finding potential biocontrol agents, was carried out during 1995-1996 covering part of its centre of origin in Brazil (state of Minas Gerais). Fifty-eight sampling sites, representing the four main climatic types in the state of Minas Gerais, were surveyed. Additional ad hoc collections were made in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, Parana, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Fifteen fungal species were recorded in association with L. camara including the previously undescribed species Phomopsis lantanae-glutinosae sp. nov. Five fungi are also newly recorded on this host in Brazil: Cercospora lantanicola, Corynespora cassiicola, Meliola ambigua, Mycovellosiella lantaniphila and Phornopsis lantanae. The following fungi, previously recorded on L. camara in Brazil, are recorded here for the first time in Minas Gerais: Dendryphielia aspera, Micropustulomyces mucilaginosus, Mycovellosiella lantanae, Pseudocercospora guianensis and Puccinia lantanae. PMID:11554581

Pereira, J M; Barreto, R W

2001-01-01

292

[Schistosomiasis and the challenge of community participation].  

PubMed

Using a semiotic and hermeneutical approach, the present paper discusses various theoretical elements in the analysis of popular views of schistosomiasis. Based on field work conducted in the State of Bahia, the authors identify two main processes in the construction of meaning related to schistosomiasis and show that depending on the social context of experience the disease may have a primary or secondary meaning for the populations affected by it. The first level of meaning refers to bodily experiences and is shared intersubjectively, whereas the second type is built on the discourse of health professionals. In the latter case, the popular view of the illness is directly linked to discourses and actions previously established by health programs designed for the control of the disease. PMID:9700227

Alves, P C; Souza, I M; Moura, M A; Cunha, L A

1998-01-01

293

Phylogeography of Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Brazil, 2010-2011  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) reemerged in Roraima State, Brazil, 28 years after it was last detected in the country in 1982. To study the origin and evolution of this reemergence, full-length sequences were obtained for 16 DENV-4 isolates from northern (Roraima, Amazonas, Pará States) and northeastern (Bahia State) Brazil during the 2010 and 2011 dengue virus seasons and for an isolate from the 1982 epidemic in Roraima. Spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-4 introductions in Brazil were applied to envelope genes and full genomes by using Bayesian phylogeographic analyses. An introduction of genotype I into Brazil from Southeast Asia was confirmed, and full genome phylogeographic analyses revealed multiple introductions of DENV-4 genotype II in Brazil, providing evidence for >3 introductions of this genotype within the last decade: 2 from Venezuela to Roraima and 1 from Colombia to Amazonas. The phylogeographic analysis of full genome data has demonstrated the origins of DENV-4 throughout Brazil.

Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Silva de Lima, Clayton Pereira; Carvalho, Valeria Lima; Pinto da Silva, Eliana Vieira; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Sousa, Edivaldo Costa; Nunes, Keley Nascimento Barbosa; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Abecasis, Ana Barroso; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe

2012-01-01

294

Phylogeography of dengue virus serotype 4, Brazil, 2010-2011.  

PubMed

Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) reemerged in Roraima State, Brazil, 28 years after it was last detected in the country in 1982. To study the origin and evolution of this reemergence, full-length sequences were obtained for 16 DENV-4 isolates from northern (Roraima, Amazonas, Pará States) and northeastern (Bahia State) Brazil during the 2010 and 2011 dengue virus seasons and for an isolate from the 1982 epidemic in Roraima. Spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-4 introductions in Brazil were applied to envelope genes and full genomes by using Bayesian phylogeographic analyses. An introduction of genotype I into Brazil from Southeast Asia was confirmed, and full genome phylogeographic analyses revealed multiple introductions of DENV-4 genotype II in Brazil, providing evidence for >3 introductions of this genotype within the last decade: 2 from Venezuela to Roraima and 1 from Colombia to Amazonas. The phylogeographic analysis of full genome data has demonstrated the origins of DENV-4 throughout Brazil. PMID:23092706

Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Silva de Lima, Clayton Pereira; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Pinto da Silva, Eliana Vieira; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Sousa, Edivaldo Costa; Nunes, Keley Nascimento Barbosa; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Abecasis, Ana Barroso; Suchard, Marc A; Lemey, Philippe; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2012-11-01

295

Natural efficiency of parasitism by Billaea rhynchophorae (Blanchard) (Diptera: Tachinidae) for the control of Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

The occurrence of the tachinid parasitoid Billaea rhynchophorae (Blanchard) on larvae of the palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) was evaluated in plantations of piassava palm (Attalea funifera Mart.) and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin), in southeastern Bahia, Brazil. The monthly percentages of parasitism were evaluated during 13 months, from November 2000 to November 2001, based on the comparison between the number of parasitized and non-parasitized cocoons of R. palmarum. Mean parasitism was 40% and ranged from 50% in November 2000 to 18% in July 2001. While there is no method of mass reproduction of the parasitoid, a simple management practice is recommended, in order to preserve its beneficial effects in palm plantations. PMID:17348142

Moura, José Inacio L; Toma, Ronaldo; Sgrillo, Ricardo B; Delabie, Jacques H C

2006-01-01

296

[Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae)].  

PubMed

Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae). Parodontidae family is a group of Characiformes fishes distributed throughout South America and parts of Panama, except in the basins of the southern Bahia state in Brasil on the Atlantic coast, Patagonia and the Amazon river channel. The family includes three genera: Apareiodon Eigenmann 1916, Parodon Valenciennes 1849 y Saccodon Kner 1863, 28 recognized species and two valid genera: Parodon and Saccodon. Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis is carried out based on type, and topotypic material from Colombia. Significant differences were found in morphometric, meristic, osteologic and color characters. S. dariensis is widely distributed but P. caliensis is restricted to the upper Cauca River drainage. Three species are considered herein as synonyms of S. dariensis: Apareiodon dariensis, A. compressus and S. caucae. Sexual dimorphism is described for both species. PMID:20737840

Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro; Román-Valencia, César

2010-09-01

297

Habitat structural effect on squamata fauna of the restinga ecosystem in northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this work, we surveyed data on richness and composition of squamatan reptiles and habitat structural effect in nine areas of restinga ecosystem in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. The "restinga" ecosystems are coastal sand dune habitats on the coast of Brazil. Our main hypothesis is that the Squamata fauna composition along these restinga areas would be modulated by habitat structural. After 90 days of field sampling we recorded approximately 5% of reptile species known in Brazil. The composition of Squamata assemblages varied mainly based on the presence or absence of lizards of the genera Ameivula and Tropidurus. Our data showed that habitat structure consistently affected the composition of local Squamata fauna, especially lizards. PMID:24676173

Dias, Eduardo J R; Rocha, Carlos F D

2014-03-01

298

Cytogenetic divergence in two sympatric fish species of the genus Astyanax Baird and Girard, 1854 (Characiformes, Characidae) from northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The fish genus Astyanax is widespread throughout the Neotropical region and is one of the most species-rich genera of the Characiformes. Cytogenetic studies of Astyanax have revealed marked intra- and interspecific diversity, with the identification of various species complexes. In this report, we describe the karyotypic structure of two sympatric species of Astyanax (Astyanax sp. and Astyanax aff. fasciatus) from the Middle Contas River basin in the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. Both species had 2n = 48 but differed in their karyotypic formulae. Small heterochromatic blocks and multiple nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were identified in both species. Terminal CMA3+/DAPI? signals were observed in Astyanax sp. and A. aff. fasciatus, mostly coincident with NORs. These results show that chromosomal markers can be used to identify species in this fish complex. These markers can provide useful information for evolutionary studies and investigations on the mechanisms of chromosomal diversity in Astyanax.

Medrado, Aline Souza; Ribeiro, Mavione Souza; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza; Costa, Marco Antonio

2012-01-01

299

Non-Detection of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in HHV-8-Seropositive Blood Donors from Three Brazilian Regions  

PubMed Central

Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the etiologic agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and the plasmablastic cell variant of multicentric Castleman disease. In endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, blood transfusions have been associated with a substantial risk of HHV-8 transmission. By contrast, several studies among healthy blood donors from North America have failed to detect HHV-8 DNA in samples of seropositive individuals. In this study, using a real-time PCR assay, we investigated the presence of HHV-8 DNA in whole-blood samples of 803 HHV-8 blood donors from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Amazon, Bahia) who tested positive for HHV-8 antibodies, in a previous multicenter study. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in any sample. Our findings do not support the introduction of routine HHV-8 screening among healthy blood donors in Brazil. (WC?=?140).

Levi, Jose Eduardo; Nascimento, Maria Claudia; Sumita, Laura Masami; de Souza, Vanda Akico Ueda Fick; Freire, Wilton S.; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S.

2011-01-01

300

Non-detection of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in HHV-8-seropositive blood donors from three Brazilian regions.  

PubMed

Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the etiologic agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and the plasmablastic cell variant of multicentric Castleman disease. In endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, blood transfusions have been associated with a substantial risk of HHV-8 transmission. By contrast, several studies among healthy blood donors from North America have failed to detect HHV-8 DNA in samples of seropositive individuals. In this study, using a real-time PCR assay, we investigated the presence of HHV-8 DNA in whole-blood samples of 803 HHV-8 blood donors from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Amazon, Bahia) who tested positive for HHV-8 antibodies, in a previous multicenter study. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in any sample. Our findings do not support the introduction of routine HHV-8 screening among healthy blood donors in Brazil. (WC?=?140). PMID:21858163

Levi, José Eduardo; Nascimento, Maria Claudia; Sumita, Laura Masami; de Souza, Vanda Akico Ueda Fick; Freire, Wilton S; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S

2011-01-01

301

[Collective health checks for children: an experience in Villa Caracol, Bahía Blanca].  

PubMed

The health team in the San Dionisio Health Center developed a device called Collective Health Checks for Children (CHCC) to minimize the difficulties arise for effective coverage of health checks of children in the neighborhood of Villa Caracol, Bahia Blanca. The objectives of the CHCC were to strengthen the sense of family responsibility for children's health, conduct a screening of children needing urgently health control and strengthen personal living spaces. There were five days of CHCC for children 2 to 14 year, 101 children were attended, achieving a coverage of 82.11%. Adhesion to the device was achieved in a recreational space in the neighborhood, which in turn was associated with healthy habits, specifying the sense of family responsibility for the health of children. PMID:24862811

Buedo, Paola Estefanía; Guzmán, Claudia; Príncipe, Natalia Verónica; Spinelli, Juliana; Vollertsen, Susana Victoria; Zabala, Mara

2014-06-01

302

Being Yoruba in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro.  

PubMed

Through the experiences of two West Africans shipped to Bahia as slaves, probably in the 1840s, then sold south to Rio de Janeiro where they met, became lovers, bought their freedom, married, and divorced, I comment on an ongoing debate over the refashioning or transfer of African ethnic identities in American slave societies. The sources in this Brazilian case suggest that previous identities were not suddenly erased, but rather, new layers of understanding and ways of responding were added. Whatever the dynamic of cultural formation, it was memory that crucially bridged the distance between the past they carried with them and the present into which they were thrust; and so it becomes illuminating to reconstruct the plausibly remembered African pasts on which this couple drew to make sense of an unfamiliar Brazilian present. PMID:21574280

Graham, Sandra Lauderdale

2011-01-01

303

[Planning nursing care in oncology: study of the structure of social representations of nurses].  

PubMed

Characterize the social representations of nurses regarding the planning of nursing care for people with cancer, by determining the central nucleus and of the peripheral system. Qualitative study conducted in a specialized hospital in Salvador, Bahia, between July 2008 and March 2009. Data collection was made by free association of words, with forty-one nurses. The data were processed by the software Ensemble de Programmes Permettant L'analyse des Evocations and analyzed according to the Theory of Social Representations. The results indicated the following central elements: humanization, care, organization, individualizing and suffering. In the peripheral system, professional and personal attitudinal elements necessary for the planning were observed: skill, knowledge on the disease, family care, respect and sensitivity. It is concluded that care planning is linked to the peculiarities of the individual with cancer, and requires that nurses have knowledge and skills necessary to prioritize actions and ensure the quality of care. PMID:24930281

da Silva, Rita de Cássia Velozo; da Cruz, Enêde Andrade

2014-03-01

304

Influence of proximity to an urban center in the pattern of contamination by marine debris.  

PubMed

In order to test the relationship between the occurrence of marine debris and the distance from urban areas, nine beaches in the metropolitan area of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil and the adjacent northern coast were studied. Marine debris were collected, sorted in several categories and weighed. It was observed that plastics were numerically the most abundant component of the collected debris. As expected, the beaches closest to Salvador presented the largest density of debris, with the exception of the Porto da Barra beach, which has an efficient public cleaning system and does not have any vegetation, making it difficult to accumulate solid waste. Linear regression analyses showed significant relationships between the distance from the urban center (Salvador) and the number of marine debris per m(2), the total number of debris per beach (abundance), and the diversity of debris types (richness). The results showed that proximity to urban regions was a key factor in the marine debris distribution along the coast. PMID:24530003

Leite, A S; Santos, L L; Costa, Y; Hatje, V

2014-04-15

305

Xenotime in the Lower Buntsandstein of Central Europe: Evidence from cathodoluminescence investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Xenotime and zircon in heavy mineral separates of siliciclastic sediments can easily be distinguished by means of cathodoluminescence (CL). All shades of bright blue, yellow and grey to white colours have been reported for zircon while only bottle green to greenish yellow colours have been found in xenotime in heavy mineral separates of Lower Buntsandstein samples as well as in two samples from crystalline rocks from Bahia (Brazil) and the Karpaty Mts. (Slovakia). The CL-spectra of both minerals are commonly dominated by narrow emission bands of rare earth elements, especially Dy 3+. The two different crystal lattices induce differences in the intensity ratios of the emission lines that are thought to be the reason for the different CL-colours. Additionally, intrinsic broad bands that may occur in the CL-spectra of zircon are missing in the xenotime spectra. The possibility to distinguish minerals with similar optical properties underlines the large potential of cathodoluminescence in sedimentary petrology.

Richter, Detlev K.; Krampitz, Holger; Görgen, Peter; Götte, Thomas; Neuser, Rolf D.

2006-01-01

306

Effluents of Shrimp Farms and Its Influence on the Coastal Ecosystems of Bah?a de Kino, Mexico  

PubMed Central

The impact on coastal ecosystems of suspended solids, organic matter, and bacteria in shrimp farm effluents is presented. Sites around Bahía de Kino were selected for comparative evaluation. Effluent entering Bahia Kino (1) enters Laguna La Cruz (2). A control site (3) was outside the influence of effluents. Water quality samples were collected every two weeks during the shrimp culture period. Our data show that the material load in shrimp farm effluents changes biogeochemical processes and aquatic health of the coastal ecosystem. Specifically, the suspended solids, particulate organic matter, chlorophyll a, viable heterotrophic bacteria, and Vibrio-like bacteria in the bay and lagoon were two- to three-fold higher than the control site. This can be mitigated by improvements in the management of aquaculture systems.

Barraza-Guardado, Ramon H.; Arreola-Lizarraga, Jose A.; Lopez-Torres, Marco A.; Casillas-Hernandez, Ramon; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Magallon-Barrajas, Francisco; Ibarra-Gamez, Cuauhtemoc

2013-01-01

307

[The medical perspective towards chronic pain: biomedical model and clinical practice].  

PubMed

This study aimed to shed light on the meanings ascribed to chronic pain in medical discourse and clinical practice in two Pain Clinics located in University hospitals in Salvador (Bahia) and São Paulo, Brazil. An ethnographic approach used participant observation and semi-structuralized interviews with attending and managing physicians. Data analysis drew on the clinical models developed by Byron Good and the medical rationalities project formulated by Madel Luz. The meanings emerging from the study were the recognition of chronic pain by biomedicine as a disease rather than a symptom, its invisibility to physicians, and its non-communicability and inevitability. The informants suggested the need for valorization of the human encounter in the clinic, exercise of understanding as opposed to suspicion, and negotiation of sustainable therapeutic projects. PMID:17952260

Lima, Mônica Angelim Gomes de; Trad, Leny A Bomfim

2007-11-01

308

[Disposal of drugs: an analysis of the practices in the family health program].  

PubMed

The scope of this article is to discuss the perception of health workers in relation to the disposal of drugs and analyze how this practice occurs in family health units in a city in the state of Bahia. It involved a qualitative and exploratory study together with nurses, nursing assistants, community health workers and pharmacists of Pharmaceutical Care and Health Surveillance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with systematic observation and use of previously-drafted scripts and the content analysis method was used for data analysis. The results showed poor understanding regarding proper disposal among the workers, dissonant practices in the implementation of the regulations and a lack of communication between health surveillance and other health services. The creation of effective strategies must involve the whole process from management to the prescription and use of drugs and requires further political, economic and social participation. PMID:25014295

Alencar, Tatiane de Oliveira Silva; Machado, Carla Silva Rocha; Costa, Sônia Carine Cova; Alencar, Bruno Rodrigues

2014-07-01

309

Molecular variability of cowpea mild mottle virus infecting soybean in Brazil.  

PubMed

Molecular variability was assessed for 18 isolates of cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV, genus Carlavirus, family Betaflexiviridae) found infecting soybean in various Brazilian states (Bahia, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará) in 2001 and 2010. A variety of symptoms was expressed in soybean cv. CD206, ranging from mild (crinkle/blistering leaves, mosaic and vein clearing) to severe (bud blight, dwarfing, leaf and stem necrosis). Recombination analysis revealed only one CPMMV isolate to be recombinant. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis were performed for partial genomes (ORF 2 to the 3' terminus) and for each ORF individually (ORFs 2 to 6), showing the isolates to be distinct. The topology of the phylogenetic tree could be related to symptoms, but not to the year of collection or geographical origin. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis supported the existence of two distinct strains of the virus, designated CPMMV-BR1 and CPMMV-BR2, with molecular variations between them. PMID:24142270

Zanardo, L G; Silva, F N; Lima, A T M; Milanesi, D F; Castilho-Urquiza, G P; Almeida, A M R; Zerbini, F M; Carvalho, C M

2014-04-01

310

Peridomestic structure, farming activity and triatomine infestation.  

PubMed

The role of peridomestic structure and farming activity on triatomine infestation was studied on two vector species of Chagas disease (Triatoma pseudomaculata and T. brasiliensis) in Bahia State, northeastern Brazil. A randomly selected population issued from 136 farms was divided into four categories according to the householder activity. At regional scale, the dwellings of farmers working on degraded land of irrigated farms are less exposed to T. pseudomaculata infestation. At premises scale, the farmers and casual workers, who have smaller peridomiciles and less cattle, are also less exposed to T. pseudomaculata. The association of T. brosiliensis with the most mobile populations (casual workers and young breeders) suggests a passive transport of this competitive species. Finally, the retired farmers that own large premises and cattle, but have more sedentary behavior, are the most exposed to T. pseudomaculata infestation. PMID:17007216

Pojo De Rego, I; Walter, A; Ferreira, A J; Rangel, M; Girard-Ferreira, E; Noireau, F

2006-09-01

311

[Use of personal protective equipment for motorcycle taxi drivers: perception of risks and associated factors].  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the practices and perceptions of motorcycle taxi drivers concerning the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), based on field research and an exploratory and descriptive qualitative approach. Thirty motorcycle taxi drivers from Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, were interviewed. Data collection used a semi-structured interview and questionnaire. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The results showed: Category 1 - risk perception, subcategory conditioning/determinant factors for the use of PPE; Category 2 - adherence, subcategory adherence to the use of personal protective equipment; Category 3 - PPE as a protective factor against traffic accidents, subcategories 1 - work-related accidents, 2 - use of PPE at the time of the accident, 3 - non-use of PPE at the time of the accident. Finally, motorcycle taxi drivers clearly have some knowledge of personal protective equipment and even acknowledge the importance of its use, despite not always using it properly. PMID:24896065

Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Santos, Ninalva de Andrade; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Santos, Ramon Araújo Dos; Mota, Tilson Nunes

2014-04-01

312

Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land.  

PubMed

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucumxP. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96% and 91%, respectively, whereas bana had the lowest survival rate of 62%. The coverage and biomass of vetiver were also the highest after 6-month planting. Fertilizer application significantly increased biomass and tiller number of the four grasses, of which St. Augustine was promoted most, up to 70% for biomass, while vetiver was promoted least, only 27% for biomass. Two heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) tested in this trial had different concentrations in the oil shale residue, and also had different contents and distributions in the four grass species. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the four grasses presented a disparity of only 1.6-3.8 times, but their uptake amounts to the two metals were apart up to 27.5-35.5 times, which was chiefly due to the significantly different biomasses among them. Fertilizer application could abate the ability of the four species to accumulate heavy metals, namely concentration of heavy metals in plants decreased as fertilizer was applied. The total amount of metals accumulated by each plant under the condition of fertilization did not decrease due to an increase of biomass. In summary, vetiver may be the best species used for vegetation rehabilitation in oil shale disposal piles. PMID:14575747

Xia, H P

2004-01-01

313

Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará). Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern). Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of Rhinophylla pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to Rhinophylla pumilio (pair 15). However, two chromosomes of Mimon crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes described for Rhinophylla pumilio.

Gomes, Anderson Jose Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luis Reginaldo Ribeiro; Farias, Solange Gomes; Rissino, Jorge Dores; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

2012-01-01

314

Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera).  

PubMed

The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará). Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern). Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of Rhinophylla pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to Rhinophylla pumilio (pair 15). However, two chromosomes of Mimon crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes described for Rhinophylla pumilio. PMID:24260663

Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Farias, Solange Gomes; Rissino, Jorge Dores; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

2012-01-01

315

Antimicrobial activity of Marcetia DC species (Melastomataceae) and analysis of its flavonoids by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector  

PubMed Central

Background: Marcetia genera currently comprises 29 species, with approximately 90% inhabiting Bahia (Brazil), and most are endemic to the highlands of the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia). Among the species, only M. taxifolia (A.St.-Hil.) DC. populates Brazil (state of Roraima to Paraná) and also Venezuela, Colombia, and Guyana. Objective: This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of three species of Marcetia (Marcetia canescens Naud., M. macrophylla Wurdack, and M. taxifolia A.StHil) against several microorganism. In addition, the flavonoids were analyzed in extracts by HPLC-DAD. Materials and methods: The tests were made using Gram-positive (three strains of Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (two strains of Escherichia coli, a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another of Salmonella choleraesius) bacteria resistant and nonresistant to antibiotics and yeasts (two strains of Candida albicans and one of C. parapsilosis) by the disk diffusion method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed on the above extracts to isolate flavonoids, which were subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results: Results showed that extracts inhibited the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. The hexane extracts possessed the lowest activity, while the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts were more active. Conclusion: Marcetia taxifolia was more effective (active against 10 microorganisms studied), and only its methanol extract inhibited Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesius). SPE and HPLC-DAD analysis showed that M. canescens and M. macrophylla contain glycosylated flavonoids, while the majority of extracts from M. taxifolia were aglycone flavonoids.

Leite, Tonny Cley Campos; de Sena, Amanda Reges; dos Santos Silva, Tania Regina; dos Santos, Andrea Karla Almeida; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Branco, Alexsandro

2012-01-01

316

Perceptions of environmental changes and Lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community  

PubMed Central

Background Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Methods Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters) were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. Results According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. Conclusions The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural resource conservation.

2011-01-01

317

Comparative toxicity of oil, dispersant, and oil plus dispersant to several marine species.  

PubMed

Dispersants are a preapproved chemical response agent for oil spills off portions of the U.S. coastline, including the Texas-Louisiana coast. However, questions persist regarding potential environmental risks of dispersant applications in nearshore regions (within three nautical miles of the shoreline) that support dense populations of marine organisms and are prone to spills resulting from human activities. To address these questions, a study was conducted to evaluate the relative toxicity of test media prepared with dispersant, weathered crude oil, and weathered crude oil plus dispersant. Two fish species, Cyprinodon variegatus and Menidia beryllina, and one shrimp species, Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia), were used to evaluate the relative toxicity of the different media under declining and continuous exposure regimes. Microbial toxicity was evaluated using the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fisheri. The data suggested that oil media prepared with a chemical dispersant was equal to or less toxic than the oil-only test medium. Data also indicated that continuous exposures to the test media were generally more toxic than declining exposures. The toxicity of unweathered crude oil with and without dispersant was also evaluated using Menidia beryllina under declining exposure conditions. Unweathered oil-only media were dominated by soluble hydrocarbon fractions and found to be more toxic than weathered oil-only media in which colloidal oil fractions dominated. Total concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in oil-plus-dispersant media prepared with weathered and unweathered crude oil were both dominated by colloidal oil and showed no significant difference in toxicity. Analysis of the toxicity data suggests that the observed toxicity was a function of the soluble crude oil components and not the colloidal oil. PMID:15648769

Fuller, Chris; Bonner, James; Page, Cheryl; Ernest, Andrew; McDonald, Thomas; McDonald, Susanne

2004-12-01

318

Comparative toxicity of eight oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC to two aquatic test species.  

PubMed

The present study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, South Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach used consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispersants, including Corexit 9500A, the predominant dispersant applied during the DeepWater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Static acute toxicity tests were performed using two Gulf of Mexico estuarine test species, the mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia) and the inland silversides (Menidia beryllina). Dispersant-only test solutions were prepared with high-energy mixing, whereas water-accommodated fractions of LSC and chemically dispersed LSC were prepared with moderate energy followed by settling and testing of the aqueous phase. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values for the dispersant-only tests were calculated using nominal concentrations, whereas tests conducted with LSC alone and dispersed LSC were based on measured total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. For all eight dispersants in both test species, the dispersants alone were less toxic (LC50s: 2.9 to >5,600 µl/L) than the dispersant-LSC mixtures (0.4-13 mg TPH/L). Louisiana sweet crude oil alone had generally similar toxicity to A. bahia (LC50: 2.7 mg TPH/L) and M. beryllina (LC50: 3.5 mg TPH/L) as the dispersant-LSC mixtures. The results of the present study indicate that Corexit 9500A had generally similar toxicity to other available dispersants when tested alone but was generally less toxic as a mixture with LSC. PMID:21766318

Hemmer, Michael J; Barron, Mace G; Greene, Richard M

2011-10-01

319

Zero Tillage cotton systems and soil quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity. Cotton is a deep tap-rooted crop, sensitive to physical and chemical impediments to root development; this has engendered a paradigm of heavy soil preparation operations to remove these. But, ZT can overcome such obstacles, allowing the cotton crop to benefit from cost reductions and a number of other benefits, especially erosion control.. Soil quality has three principal dimensions. Maximum yields only occur when soil fertility, structure and biological activity are in balance. Under Zero Tillage management of Brazilian soils, the processes of nutrient availability, nutrient cycling and efficiency result from increasing SOM and higher CEC. ZT system fertility is also strongly influenced by total annual aerial and root biomass generation; C:N ratios of the biomass, changes in aeration in residue breakdown processes (for roots, dependent on internal drainage), reduced fixation of Phosphorus fertilizers, the possibility of surface application of P and K, use of deep-rooted cover crops to re-cycle nutrients and deleterious effects of over-liming. Soil physical parameters undergo a transformation : greater water holding capacity, a small increase in bulk density (ameliorated by a reversal of soil aggregate breakdown inherent to conventional tillage by the binding action of root exudates and fungal hyphae), enhanced particle aggregate size protects SOM from oxidation; old root holes create semi-permanent macro-pores which facilitate rooting, aeration and rainfall infiltration.. Soil life of all types benefits from ZT management and contributes to soil fertility and structural improvements, plus enhancing certain biological controls of pathogenic organisms and allelopathic control of weeds by root exudates and residue breakdown products. Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity.

Landers, J. N.; de Freitas, P. L.

2012-04-01

320

Microbiological assay using bioluminescent organism  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to testing processes for toxicity involving microorganisms and, more particularly, to testing processes for toxicity involving bioluminescent organisms. The present known method of testing oil-well drilling fluids for toxicity employs the mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) as the assay organism. The shrimp are difficult to raise and handle as laboratory assay organisms. This method is labor-intensive, because it requires a assay time of about 96 hours. Summary of the Invention: A microbiological assay in which the assay organism is the dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula. A sample of a substance to be assayed is added to known numbers of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate and the mixture is agitated to subject the organisms to a shear stress causing them to emit light. The amount of light emitted is measured and compared with the amount of light emitted by a known non-toxic control mixture to determine if there is diminution or non-diminution of light emitted by the sample under test which is an indication of the presence or absence of toxicity, respectively. Accordingly, an object of the present invention is the provision of an improved method of testing substances for toxicity. A further object of the invention is the provision of an improved method of testing oil-well drilling fluids for toxicity using bioluminescent dinoflagellate (Pyrocystis lunula).

Stiffey, A.V.

1987-12-21

321

Morphology of the eyeball from the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).  

PubMed

Aquatic mammals underwent morphological and physiological adaptations due to the transition from terrestrial to aquatic environment. One of the morphological changes regards their vision since cetaceans' eyes are able to withstand mechanical, chemical, osmotic, and optical water conditions. Due to insufficient information about these animals, especially regarding their sense organs, this study aimed to describe the morphology of the Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) eyeball. Three newborn females, stranded dead on the coast of Sergipe and Bahia, Brazil, were used. Samples were fixed in a 10% formalin solution, dissected, photographed, collected, and evaluated through light and electron microscopy techniques. The Humpback whale sclera was thick and had an irregular surface with mechanoreceptors in its lamina propria. Lens was dense, transparent, and ellipsoidal, consisting of three layers, and the vascularized choroid contains melanocytes, mechanoreceptors, and a fibrous tapetum lucidum. The Humpback whale eyeball is similar to other cetaceans and suggests an adaptation to diving and migration, contributing to the perception of differences in temperature, pressure, and lighting. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:348-355, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24644104

Rodrigues, Fernanda M; Silva, Fernanda M O; Trompieri-Silveira, Ana Carolina; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Guimarães, Juliana P

2014-05-01

322

Oxygenation variability in Mejillones Bay, off northern Chile, during the last two centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Peru Chile Current ecosystem is characterized by high biological productivity and important fisheries. Although this system is likely to be severely affected by climate change, its response to current global warming is still uncertain. In this paper, we analyze 10-166 year-old sediments in two cores collected from Mejillones Bay, an anoxic sedimentary setting favorable for the preservation of proxies. Based on a 166-year chronology, we used proxies of bottom-water oxygenation (Mo, V, S, and the (lycopane + n-C35)/n-C31 ratio) and surface water productivity (biogenic opal, counts of diatom valves, biogenic Ba, organic carbon, and chlorins) to reconstruct environmental variations in Mejillones Bay. During the last two centuries, a shift took place in the coastal marine ecosystem of Bahia Mejillones at decadal scales. This shift was characterized by intense ENSO-like activity, large-scale fluctuations in biological export productivity and bottom water oxygenation, and increased eolian activity (inferred from Ti/Al and Zr/Al). This short-term variability was accompanied by a gradual increase of sulfidic conditions that has intensified since the early 1960s.

Díaz-Ochoa, J. A.; Pantoja, S.; de Lange, G. J.; Lange, C. B.; Sánchez, G. E.; Acuña, V. R.; Muñoz, P.; Vargas, G.

2011-01-01

323

Occurrence of Gobiidae larvae in a tropical Brazilian estuary, with particular emphasis on the use of size classes to categorize species guilds.  

PubMed

The structure and seasonal dynamics of larvae of the Gobiidae family in the Mucuri Estuary (Bahia, Brazil) were studied for nine consecutive years. Sampling was conducted at three stations in the lower estuary channel, between 2002 and 2010, in relation to season, day and night and tidal variations. A total of 5802 Gobiidae larvae, representing 15 taxa (12 species and three morphotypes), were collected in the Mucuri Estuary during this time. The highest mean?±?s.d. density of fish larvae, 54·7?±?79·8 larvae 100?m(-3) , was recorded during the flood tide and night sampling. Ctenogobius boleosoma was the most abundant species (68%), being dominant in the rainy and dry seasons and had a long reproductive period. This species was classed as a marine estuarine-opportunist because it was observed at high frequencies and active larvae entering the estuary between 6·1 and 12·0?mm standard length (LS ). Gobionellus oceanicus, second in abundance (12%), occurred only in later larval stages but did not use the estuary as a preferred location for spawning, being classed a marine estuarine dependent. Microgobius carri (11%) was represented in all LS classes and was resident in the estuary for spawning, remaining there throughout their life cycle. The other species were considered rare due to their low densities and could not be classified in any guild. PMID:24628601

Gomes, E A P; Campos, P N; Bonecker, A C T

2014-04-01

324

Migratory flows and foraging habitat selection by shorebirds along the northeastern coast of Brazil: The case of Baía de Todos os Santos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large numbers of Nearctic shorebirds migrate and winter along the coast of northeastern Brazil, but there is little information on their migratory flows, foraging ecology, and on the structure of the species assemblages that they form with resident shorebirds. We studied these issues on intertidal flats of Baía de Todos os Santos (Bahia), the second largest bay in Brazil. During a full year cycle we carried out weekly bird counts in an intertidal area of 280 ha divided in sectors, where we also measured environmental parameters. The analyses of weekly counts resulted in a detailed phenology of use of the area by shorebirds. Five species were resident and ten were Nearctic migrants. Several of the latter had clear peaks in numbers in March and October, revealing the use of the bay as a stopover during both the north-bound and south-bound migration flows. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relationship between environmental parameters and bird numbers indicated that the foraging bird assemblage could be divided into five main groups, occupying distinct ecological gradients in the study area. The most important factors driving this structure were invertebrate prey abundance, percentage of fine sediments, area of mangrove cover and distance to channels. Our findings imply that maintenance of the diversity of intertidal habitats in this bay is crucial to satisfy the particular habitat requirements of resident and migrant shorebirds using the northeastern coastal regions of Brazil.

Lunardi, Vitor O.; Macedo, Regina H.; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

2012-01-01

325

Niche differences between two sympatric whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus abaetensis and C. ocellifer, Teiidae) in the restinga habitat of northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Differences among sympatric lizard species usually result from differences in the use of three resources: space, time and food or some combination of these three. However, differences in resource utilization among sympatric species may simply reflect their specific ecological needs rather than competitive pressures. In this study, we analyzed the temporal, spatial and food niche of two congeneric teiids (Cnemidophorus abaetensis and C. ocellifer) living sympatrically in the "restinga" habitat of Abaeté in the Salvador Municipality, Bahia State, Brazil to assess the degree of niche differentiation among them. The whiptail species overlapped considerably in an hourly activity (Ojk = 0.93), in microhabitat use (Ojk = 0.97) and in the prey items consumed (Ojk = 0.89). Differences in amount of vegetation in the microhabitats used by both lizard species may have contributed to differences in the activity period and in the distribution of the main prey eaten by these lizards which may, in turn, facilitate their coexistence in Abaeté. Although sympatric C. ocellifer and C. abaetensis in Abaeté differed only slightly in their use of microhabitats, period of activity and diet, the most important niche dimension segregating the two species seemed to be the food niche. PMID:17505748

Dias, E J R; Rocha, C F D

2007-02-01

326

[Pharmaceutical Assistance in the Family Healthcare Program: points of affinity and discord in the organization process].  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to discuss the organization of the pharmaceutical assistance service in the family healthcare program. Qualitative research from a critical/analytical perspective was conducted in family healthcare units in a municipality of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Data was collected on the basis of systematic observation, semi-structured interviews and documents analysis from a dialectic standpoint. The organization of Pharmaceutical Assistance consisted of selection, planning, acquisition, storage and dispensing activities. The process was studied in the implementation phase, which was occurring in a centralized and uncoordinated fashion, without the proposed team work. An excess of activity was observed among the healthcare workers and there was an absence of a continued education policy for the workers. For the transformation of this situation and to ensure the organization of pharmaceutical assistance with quality and in an integrated manner, a reworking of the manner of thinking and action of the players concerned (managers, health workers and users), who participate directly in the organization, is necessary. Furthermore, mechanical, bureaucratic and impersonal work practices need to be abandoned. PMID:21987338

Silva Oliveira, Tatiana de Alencar; Maria, Tatiane de Oliveira Silva; Alves do Nascimento, Angela Maria; do Nascimento, Angela Alves

2011-09-01

327

Influence of flooding and vegetation on carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus dynamics in the pore water of a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh.  

PubMed

Four sites were selected in a salt marsh in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina): (1) low marsh (flooded by the tide twice daily) vegetated by S. alterniflora; (2) non-vegetated low marsh; (3) high marsh (flooded only in spring tides) vegetated by S. alterniflora; (4) non-vegetated high marsh. The pH and Eh were measured in sediments, while dissolved nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate) and particulate organic matter (POM) were determined in pore water. pH (6.2-8.7) was only affected by vegetation in low areas. Eh (from -300 to 250 mV) was lower at low sites than at high ones; in the latter, the values were higher in the non-vegetated sediments. The POM concentration was greater in the high marsh than in the low marsh, with no effect of vegetation. Ammonium was the most abundant nitrogen nutrient species in pore water, except in the non-vegetated high marsh where nitrate concentration was higher. All nitrogen nutrients were affected by both flooding and vegetation. Phosphate was always present in pore water at all sites throughout the year and its concentration varied within narrow limits, with no effect of flooding and greater values always at non-vegetated sites. Our results showed that the variability of the pore water composition within the marsh is greater than the temporal variation, meaning that both tidal flooding and vegetation are important in the dynamics of nutrients and organic matter in the sediment pore water. PMID:21516994

Negrin, Vanesa L; Spetter, Carla V; Asteasuain, Raúl O; Perillo, Gerardo M E; Marcovecchio, Jorge E

2011-01-01

328

The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions  

PubMed Central

The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies.

Begossi, Alpina

2006-01-01

329

Thaptomys Thomas 1915 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae, Akodontini) with karyotypes 2n = 50, FN = 48, and 2n = 52, FN = 52: Two monophyletic lineages recovered by molecular phylogeny  

PubMed Central

A novel karyotype with 2n = 50, FN = 48, was described for specimens of Thaptomys collected at Una, State of Bahia, Brazil, which are morphologically indistinguishable from Thaptomys nigrita, 2n = 52, FN = 52, found in other localities. It was hence proposed that the 2n = 50 karyotype could belong to a distinct species, cryptic of Thaptomys nigrita, once chromosomal rearrangements observed, along with the geographic distance, might represent a reproductive barrier between both forms. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood based on partial cytochrome b sequences with 1077 bp were performed, attempting to establish the relationships among the individuals with distinct karyotypes along the geographic distribution of the genus; the sample comprised 18 karyotyped specimens of Thaptomys, encompassing 15 haplotypes, from eight different localities of the Atlantic Rainforest. The intra-generic relationships corroborated the distinct diploid numbers, once both phylogenetic reconstructions recovered two monophyletic lineages, a northeastern clade grouping the 2n = 50 and a southeastern clade with three subclades, grouping the 2n = 52 karyotype. The sequence divergence observed between their individuals ranged from 1.9% to 3.5%.

2010-01-01

330

Diversity among isolates of cowpea severe mosaic virus infecting cowpeas in northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Eleven isolates of cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), a member of the genus Comovirus, were selected from 50 samples collected of nine cowpea fields in Northeastern Brazil (Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, Bahia, and Distrito Federal) and partially sequenced. The RNA1 partial sequence, corresponding to the helicase, viral genome-linked protein, picornain 3C-like protease, and the RNA-directed RNA polymerase genes from CPSMV, had high identity among isolates, varying from 98 to 100%. No evidence was found for intermolecular or intramolecular recombination. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the Brazilian CPSMV isolates are substantially different from the CPSMV strain USA. Despite the low variability found among Brazilian CPSMV isolates, there were notable differences in the symptomatology of infected cowpea plants, ranging from mild to moderate. Previous reports have demonstrated an association between CPSMV symptom determinants and helicase. However, we found no correlation between the helicase mutations and symptoms caused by CPSMV. Nevertheless, all isolates with mutation R to K in the protease provoked severe symptoms. This type of information can provide a foundation for the development of strategies to produce durable resistant cowpea lines. It is crucial for strategies based on DNA sequence-dependent technologies, such as inhibition with RNAi. PMID:23007993

Abreu, E F M; Tinoco, M L P; Andrade, E C; Aragão, F J L

2012-01-01

331

Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426?mg/L and LC(50) 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94?mg/L, LC(50) 13.51?mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceição, Adilva S; Moura, Flávia de B Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

2012-01-01

332

Systematics and evolution of the Jacchus group of marmosets (Platyrrhini).  

PubMed

Interspecific differentiation and geographic variation patterns in 39 skull traits of eastern Brazilian marmosets are analyzed. Eastern Callithrix taxa are distinct morphologically, and no evidence of intergradation among taxa is observed. Instead, there are sharp, stepped morphological boundaries among taxa, consistent with species-level distinction. The morphological similarity cluster diagram obtained from Mahalanobis distances is different from available molecular trees, and the general picture emerging is that the eastern Callithrix taxa should be considered as good species arising recently in South American history. In particular, C. kuhlii is morphologically distinct from other marmoset taxa, including C. geoffroyi and C. penicillata, which were previously hypothesized to be the parental populations that formed C. kuhlii by hybridization. Furthermore, C. kuhlii populations from southeastern Bahia do not overlap morphologically with any C. penicillata population, including the upper São Francisco River populations that display skin colors and pelage patterns to some extent similar to true Kuhli's marmosets. There is a negative, though insignificant, correlation between the morphological distance matrix and a Mahalanobis distance matrix estimated from nine climatic variables, a pattern opposite to that expected under a parapatric speciation model. This result, together with the lack of clinal variation in skull traits, suggests that an allopatric model of speciation might best explain eastern marmoset diversification. PMID:14669232

Marroig, Gabriel; Cropp, Susan; Cheverud, James M

2004-01-01

333

Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil).  

PubMed

In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil), a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997) and rainy (March, 1998) periods. The dominant groups found were Mollusca (Melanoides tuberculata), Oligochaeta, and Chironomidae larvae. Low Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index values were found, but with no significant difference between the sampling periods. However, density and taxonomic richness were significantly different (t(0.05: 31)) = -2.1945; p < 0.05; e t(0.05; 31) = -3.0600; p < 0.01) between the sampling periods, with a reduction in the number of taxa and macroinvertebrate abundance during the rainy period. An increasing gradient in benthic macroinvertebrate community structures was noted along the reservoir cascade from the first reservoir (Apolônio Sales), followed by a decrease downstream from the third reservoir of the system (Xing6). Despite the negative consequences of rapid proliferation of dams, which have caused widespread loss of freshwater habitats, the reservoir cascade system promoted an increase in benthic macroinvertebrate diversity, due to water-quality improvement along the system. PMID:16097725

Callisto, M; Goulart, M; Barbosa, F A R; Rocha, O

2005-05-01

334

Chromosomal polymorphisms due to supernumerary chromosomes and pericentric inversions in the eyelidless microteiid lizard Nothobachia ablephara (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae).  

PubMed

Cytogenetic studies were performed on eight specimens of the monotypic microteiid lizard Nothobachia ablephara, endemic of the sand dunes of the middle São Francisco river, in the semiarid caatinga, State of Bahia, Brazil. Chromosomes from fibroblast cultures were analysed after conventional, Ag-NOR staining, C-, and replication R- banding. A basic karyotype of 2n = 62, consisting mostly of subtelocentric and acrocentric chromosomes of decreasing size, was found in five specimens. Diploid number variation (2n = 63 and 2n = 64) occurred in two specimens due to the presence of one and two medium-sized subtelocentric supernumerary chromosomes (Bs). The Bs were not clearly distinguishable from the autosomes in Giemsa-stained metaphases and C-banding, but showed late replication after R-banding. Polymorphisms of pairs 1 and 5, observed in three different combinations, including acrocentrics, subtelocentrics, submetacentrics and metacentrics, were interpreted as the result of small pericentric inversions. Variation in the number of Ag-NORs was also reported. A chromosomal mechanism of sex determination of the XX:XY type is present in this species. Our data add more evidence to confirm the remarkable chromosomal variability that has been found in Gymnophthalmidae. PMID:10461869

Pellegrino, K C; Rodrigues, M T; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y

1999-01-01

335

Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations. PMID:19197503

Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T

2008-11-01

336

Detection of a resistance gradient to Passion fruit woodiness virus and selection of 'yellow' passion fruit plants under field conditions.  

PubMed

Productivity of 'yellow' passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa O. Deg.) is reduced by infection with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). We examined resistance in 72 yellow passion fruit plants grown from open-pollinated commercial seed. Plants were mechanically inoculated with CABMV virus and maintained in the field in order to select contrasting genotypes for resistance. Isolates were obtained from symptomatic leaves of yellow passion fruit plants from field production in Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia state and were characterized by sequencing the viral coat protein gene. Severity of leaf symptoms of the disease, evaluated through a global leaf disease index, was measured during the eighth month of growth. Morpho-agronomic variables of fruit were evaluated from months 10 to 12. Significant linear regressions between the quantification of the leaf symptoms and the morpho-agronomic characteristics related to productivity were detected (5.17%

Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Moreira, C N; Figueira, A R; Corrêa, R X; Oliveira, A C

2008-01-01

337

[Pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Centris tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) nests].  

PubMed

A new treatment protocol was developed to analyze pollen residues found in nests of Centris tarsata Smith harvested from nest-traps. The study area was located in the Canudos Biological Station in the municipality of Canudos (09 masculine56'34'S; 38 masculine59'17'W), in the northeastern micro-region of Bahia State, Brazil. The local vegetation is an open caatinga (deciduous dryland vegetation), the regional climate is semi-arid, the average annual temperature is 24.1 masculineC, and the annual regional rainfall rate is 454 mm. Ten nests of C. tarsata were collected in trap-nests during the first semester of 2004. Pollen analysis from the nests required the development of a new methodology that combined techniques of palynological sediment analysis with the more common pollinic analysis by acetolysis. Microscopic analyses employed optical microscopy techniques. The pollinic spectrum of the samples from C. tarsata indicated the presence of 17 pollen types from seven plant families, which were present in assemblage of five to eleven pollen types, pointed to the plants used by bees to feed on their offspring. The most represented plant families were Leguminosae (49.3%) and Solanaceae (43.2%). The most frequent pollen types in the samples were from Solanum paniculatum (43.8%) and Senna rizzini (32.1%). The protocol developed provides a new tool for diet assessment of Centris and other groups of solitary bees. PMID:19488507

Dórea, Marcos da C; Dos Santos, Francisco de A R; Lima, Luciene C de L E; Figueroa, Luís E R

2009-01-01

338

Multivariate optimization of an ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure for Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn determination in ration to chickens.  

PubMed

In this work, multivariate optimization techniques were used to develop a method based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction for copper, manganese, nickel and zinc determination from rations for chicken nutrition using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The proportions of extracting components (2.0 mol.L-1 nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acid solutions) were optimized using centroid-simplex mixture design. The optimum proportions of this mixture taken as percentage of each component were respectively 20%, 37% and 43%. Variables of method (sample mass, sonication time and final acid concentration) were optimized using Doehlert design. The optimum values found for these variables were respectively 0.24 g, 18s and 3.6 mol.L-1. The developed method allows copper, manganese, nickel and zinc determination with quantification limits of 2.82; 4.52; 10.7; e 9.69 µg.g-1, and precision expressed as relative standard deviation (%RSD, 25 µg.g-1, N = 5) of 5.30; 2.13; 0.88; and 0.83%, respectively. This method was applied in the analytes determination from chicken rations collected from specialized commerce in Jequié city (Bahia State/Brazil). Application of paired t-test at the obtained results, in a confidence level of 95%, does not show significant difference between the proposed method and the microwave-assisted digestion. PMID:24068081

Barros, Joélia M; Bezerra, Marcos A; Valasques, Gisseli S; Do Nascimento Jr, Baraquízio B; Souza, Anderson S; De Aragão, Nádia M

2013-09-01

339

Semiotic regulation through inhibitor signs: creating a cycle of rigid meanings.  

PubMed

This study aims to analyze the process of semiotic regulation in youth transition to adulthood from the perspectives of cultural developmental psychology and dialogical self theory. The focus is on the transformations that occur in youth's self-system configurations during a critical developmental period. In this paper, we will advance the idea that semiotic regulation may lead to the construction of strong signs (i.e. those signs that bring rigidity to personal meaning systems)-and more specifically, of strong inhibitor signs-that block the emergence of alternative meanings, leading to rigidity in the self-system. We present a longitudinal case study of a young man who participated in a social project in Salvador, Bahia to illustrate the process. Data was collected through two rounds of in-depth interviews at ages 18 (1st round) and 21 (2nd round) years. Analysis followed a mapping of positions and counter-positions, as well as emerging tensions and their resolution over time and in different spheres of life (i.e. work, school, and family life). The idea is to show how negotiations of self-positions evolve and activate a mechanism of inhibition of hierarchical integration and construction of alternative future meanings, in which rigid meanings are created and do not allow for emergence of alternative life trajectories. PMID:23188720

de Mattos, Elsa; Chaves, Antônio Marcos

2013-03-01

340

Use of neomysis mercedis (crustacea: mysidacea) for estuarine toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

The mysid Neomysis mercedis was examined as a test organism for use in acute toxicity tests at intermediate salinities characteristic of estuarine waters. Several sensitive invertebrate species are available for marine assessments (mysids) and freshwater tests (cladocerans), but few are available for estuarine toxicity tests. Observations in the laboratory indicate that Neomysis mercedis can be reared successfully at a temperature of 17[degrees]C, a salinity of 2%, and a population density less than 5/L. Brine shrimp nauplii Artemia salina, algae, and commercial foods were used to sustain mysid cultures. Neomysis mercedis is vivaparous and can complete its life cycle in 3-4 months. Neomysis mercedis is as sensitive as or more sensitive to toxicants than the marine mysid Mysidopsis bahia and the freshwater cladocerans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Simocephalus serrulatus. The mean 96-h LC50 values (concentrations lethal to half the test animals) for N. mercedis, in increasing order, were 0.20 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and for malathion, 14 [mu]g/L for carbofuran, 150 [mu]g/L for copper sulfate, 280 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and 1,600 [mu]g/L for molinate. Neonates (5 d postrelease) were generally more sensitive than older juveniles. Coefficients of variation (100[center dot]SD/mean) of LC50 values varied from 21 to 35%. 37 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Brandt, O.M.; Fujimura, R.W.; Finlayson, B.J. (Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Elk Grove, CA (United States))

1993-03-01

341

Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

1995-10-01

342

A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

1995-05-01

343

[Prevalence of eating disorders in urban workers in a city of the northeast of Brazil].  

PubMed

This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of eating disorders among workers living in urban areas of Feira de Santana, Bahia. It involves an epidemiologic, descriptive and exploratory cross-sectional study of 1,273 randomly selected workers. Socio-demographic and work characteristics, lifestyle, psychosocial aspects at work and eating behavior were investigated. Females were predominant (60.2%), the youngest 51.7% were up to 35 years old, married (53.1%), Afro-Brazilian descent (55.2%), with high school education (51.5%) and with low incomes (81.2%). The prevalence of Binge Eating Disorder and Bulimia Nervosa were, respectively, 4.3% and 1%. The prevalence of these disorders was higher among workers who indulged in excessive alcohol consumption, were dissatisfied with their personal appearance and weight, reported violence in childhood and had financial problems or related worries. Also included were those involved in house care services and commerce, who had informal work arrangements or were in highly demanding work environments. Besides investigating the relation between eating disorders and work, data was provided about these disorders in a population-based study. It is hoped that this study may encourage investments in health policies for these disorders. PMID:23670388

Prisco, Ana Paula Kalil; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; de Almeida, Maura Maria Guimarães; Santos, Kionna Oliveira Bernardes

2013-04-01

344

Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease.  

PubMed

The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobromacacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%. PMID:15951847

Rubini, Marciano R; Silva-Ribeiro, Rute T; Pomella, Alan W V; Maki, Cristina S; Araújo, Welington L; Dos Santos, Deise R; Azevedo, João L

2005-01-01

345

Neural network based automated interpretation algorithm for combined geophysical soundings in coastal zones.  

PubMed

The fresh water availability in coastal aquifers is an important problem faced by a major part of world's population dwelling there. For in situ and dynamic characterization of seawater encroachment into coastal aquifers, electrical geophysical methods are better suited. However, the resolving power of such data in distinguishing saline sands from moist clays in the subsurface is very poor. To meet this aspect and also the problem of analyzing voluminous data sets, we propose a feed forward back-propagation neural network (BPNN) based approach for the analysis of combined vertical electrical and induced polarization soundings. Our method is tested on synthetic data computed from available geo-electric sections and prevailing subsurface geological information of coastal aquifers of East Coast of India. The synthetic data are comprised of 18 combined soundings spread over five profiles. 15 out of 18 are used for training the BPNN, while 3 are used for testing. The trained BPNN (one node each in each of the input and output layers and 18 hidden nodes) showed 84.85% accuracy in testing phase for distinguishing clays from saline sands. Our method is also tested on real data concerning a shaly aquifer in Bahia, Brazil yielding an overall accuracy of 84.9%, comparable to that of synthetic case; thereby validating our approach. PMID:16648959

Sastry, Rambhatla G; Tesfakiros, Haile G

2006-04-01

346

Subduction of the Rivera Plate Beneath the Jalisco Block as Imaged by Magnetotelluric Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two magnetotelluric profiles perpendicular to the trench provide information on the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco Block (JB). The geometry of the subducting slab is inferred by the anomalous conductor on the top of the profile in the central part of the JB. High-conductivity zones (< 50 ohm-m) at depths shallower than 10 km are associated to dewatering of the oceanic crust below the accretion prism in the SW portion of the profile. Away from the coast, observed upper crustal conductors (< 10 km) are interpreted as partial melt related to the Central Jalisco Volcanic Lineament. The source of the crustal conductor in the central part of the MT profile, ~150 km inland and down to depths of 40 km is interpreted as a region of interconnected fluids associated with the metamorphic dehydration of the oceanic plate. Contrasting resistivity at the mantle wedge at depths below 40 km suggest to us that hot mantle material may be migrating upwards, mixing with dehydration reaction products. Across Bahia de Banderas fault (BBF) zone subduction appears to stop or to occur closer to the trench at a steeper angle. The conductivity image at the NW edge of JB reveals no downwards dipping plate but an extended conductor apparently rising from depths > 40 km. Our results supports the mantle upwelling theory as an explanation to the reported 1.5 km uplift of the central part of the Jalisco Block, and the Rivera plate discontinuity across the BBF zone as suggested by seismicity data.

Alvarez, R.; Corbo, F.; Arzate, J.

2013-05-01

347

Polytypic and polymorphic cytogenetic variations in the widespread anuran Physalaemus cuvieri (Anura, Leiuperidae) with emphasis on nucleolar organizing regions.  

PubMed

We investigated the NOR distribution in ten populations of Physalaemus cuvieri from different regions of Brazil and Argentina. A high variability in NOR pattern was observed and provided a useful tool in grouping several populations. The specimens from the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil, could easily be distinguished from all the other analyzed populations, since its karyotype presented NORs in the chromosome pairs 1,3,4 and 10 (and sometimes also in chromosome 5), and several pericentromeric C-bands. A NOR-site in chromosome 9 characterized three populations from the northeastern region of Brazil. Interestingly, the P. cuvieri populations located in opposite extremes of the geographic distribution had, as a fixed condition, the presence of NORs in 8q int and llp. Besides interpopulational divergences, intrapopulational variability was observed in the number of NORs, except for populations from the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais, which are boundary states respectively in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In relation to NOR size, interindividual variations occurred in all Brazilian and Argentinean populations. Additionally, intraindividual variability in NOR size was detected in specimens from Minas Gerais. The data presented herein revealed substantial geographic polytypic variation in P. cuvieri and indicated that a taxonomic reexamination of this species is necessary. PMID:19621135

Quinderé, Yeda R S D; Lourenço, Luciana B; Andrade, Gilda V; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M

2009-01-01

348

Ecology and ethnoecology of dusky grouper [garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834)] along the coast of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Dusky grouper (garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus) is an important catch for several artisanal small-scale fisheries along the Brazilian coast. It is a sedentary, monandric, and late maturing protogynous species, which makes it vulnerable to overharvesting even though it is mainly caught through hook and line or spear fishing through free diving. Lack of information on the ecology and biology of this species in Brazil is astonishing. Much of the information found in the literature concerns Mediterranean dusky groupers. Studies compiling local knowledge (ethnoecology) about fish species complement biological data, and have been fundamental for effective fisheries management. In this study, our objectives are to obtain data about dusky grouper through fish catches and analysis of stomach contents and gonad maturation (macroscopic analyses), along with interviews from fishermen from six small-scales communities from the southern (Pântano do Sul, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State) to the northern Brazilian coast (Porto Sauípe, Bahia State). We conclude that precautionary approaches and 'data-less' management approaches are needed in the coast of Brazil. Research on this species and on the potential of aquaculture for its cultivation, are urgent, due to the apparent vulnerability and decrease of dusky grouper along the coast of Brazil.

Begossi, Alpina; Silvano, Renato AM

2008-01-01

349

How Pecten Brazil drilled the Amazon basin  

SciTech Connect

Pecten Brazil overcame numerous obstacles to drill two exploratory wells in the Amazon Basin last year. These included: The threat of low water in normally navigable rivers. Dense jungle growth at both locations. Lack of suitable roads for heavy hauling. Inconvenient distances from supply points. An unusual basalt formation responsible for unique drilling problems. Hundreds of helicopter lifts to move drilling rigs, supplies, and personnel. Pecten contracted with Petrobras, the Brazilian national oil company, to evaluate three blocks in the Amazon jungle, each about 68 miles (110 km) on a side, through seismic study and ultimate drilling. Planning for the drilling phase got started on March 17, 1981 with December 1 targeted as spud date for the first well. Actual spud date was November 25, 5 days ahead of schedule, in spite of all obstacles. Pecten has a mid-Amazonas block now under seismic investigation for possible exploratory drilling. Logistics problems in this one provide new difficulties, as the area is extremely wet. Most work is carried on by boat. The company is also looking offshore Bahia, testing the possible extension of the Renconcavo basin. Two wells have already provided good shows of a high pour point oil, with flow rates from 400 to 1,000 b/d. Another area of interest to Pecten is offshore Rio Grande do Norte.

Bleakley, W.B.

1983-09-01

350

Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil.  

PubMed

American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease. PMID:24863979

Castellucci, Léa Cristina; Almeida, Lucas Frederico de; Jamieson, Sarra Elisabeth; Fakiola, Michaela; Carvalho, Edgar Marcelino de; Blackwell, Jenefer Mary

2014-06-01

351

Effects of ionic strength, particle size, flow rate, and vegetation type on colloid transport through a dense vegetation saturated soil system: Experiments and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colloids are widely distributed in agricultural runoff, especially from croplands with manure applications. Dense vegetation has been suggested to be effective to reduce surface runoff contaminants, including colloidal particles. In this work, small scale laboratory experiments were used to determine the influence of physical and chemical factors (i.e. solution ionic strength, particle size, surface flow rate, and vegetation type) on the surface transport and removal of colloids in a dense vegetation system without drainage. Conservative tracer studies of bromide were conducted as a control to quantify the deposition of colloids onto grass surfaces and the mass exchange of colloids between the overland flow and soil underneath under various experimental conditions. The deposition of colloids enhanced with increases in solution ionic strength and particle size, and with decreases in flow rate. We also found vegetation type played an important role on colloid transport with more deposition onto Ryegrass than onto Bahia grass under the same experimental conditions. A mathematical model combining overland flow, convection-dispersion equations and exchange layer theory was developed to simulate the transport of colloids in overland flow through the dense vegetation. Simulations of the model fitted the experimental data well and helped to understand the effect of ionic strength, particle size, flow rate, and vegetation type on colloid transport and removal in dense vegetation. Although additional investigations are still needed, findings from this study can inform the installation and maintenance of dense vegetation systems, such as vegetative filter strips, to reduce the loading of colloids in surface runoff.

Yu, Congrong; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Gao, Bin; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

2013-08-01

352

Seismicity at Jalisco-Nayarit Border, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.

Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.

2003-12-01

353

Determination and evaluation of the metals and metalloids in the Chapeu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli).  

PubMed

The Chapeu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli) is a native plant from Brazil, which has been mainly used in medicinal application being a potent antirheumatic and diuretic, in the production of soft drinks, and also in the ornamentation of aquariums. In this paper, the metals and metalloids for the leaves of chapeu-de-couro collected in the Paraguacu River from the city Cachoeira, Bahia State, Brazil, was determined and evaluated using multivariate analysis. The samples were digested using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of apple leaves, furnished by National Institute of Standard and Technology. The study involved 15 samples of the Paraguacu River. The results expressed as milligrams of element per kilogram of sample demonstrated that the concentration ranges varied: 1.39-5.27 for chromium, 44.85-165.39 for manganese, 0.55-0.84 for arsenic, 0.01-3.94 for antimony, and 0.18-0.31 for lead. The principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis evidenced that the concentrations of the metals and metalloids varied according with the variations in the water of the Paraguacu. PMID:23852813

Barbosa, Uenderson Araujo; dos Santos, Ivanice Ferreira; dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; dos Santos, Debora Correia; da Costa, Grenivel Mota

2013-09-01

354

The genus Paravelia Breddin, 1898 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) in Brazil, with descriptions of eight new species.  

PubMed

Eight new species of Paravelia Breddin, 1898 from Brazil are described and illustrated: P. amapaensis sp. nov. from Amapá State, P. bipunctata sp. nov. from Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul States, P. bilobata sp. nov. and P. polhemusi sp. nov. from Mato Grosso State, P. bahiana sp. nov. from Bahia State, P. lacrymosa sp. nov. from Minas Gerais State, P. micromaculata sp. nov. from Maranhão State, and P. ornata sp. nov. from Amazonas State. The genus is redescribed, with photos of the dorsal view for nineteen species: P. basalis (Spinola), P. biae Spangler, P. boliviana Breddin, P. bullialata Polhemus & Polhemus, P. capillata (Drake& Harris), P. capixaba Moreira, Nessimian & Rúdio, P. conata (Hungerford), P. dilatata Polhemus & Polhemus, P. foveata Polhemus & Polhemus, P. itatiayana (Drake), P. lanemeloi Moreira & Barbosa, P. manausana Polhemus & Polhemus, P. nieseri Moreira & Barbosa, P. platensis (Berg), P. recens (Drake & Harris), P. rotundanotata (Hungerford), P. spinifera Polhemus & Polhemus, P. splendoris (Drake & Harris) and P. williamsi (Hungerford). Three of these species are recorded for the first time from Brazil: P. platensis, P. spinifera and P. williamsi. Also, the macropterous forms of P. capixaba and P. dilatata are described. Lastly, an identification key to the 36 species of Paravelia recorded from Brazil and a checklist of described species are presented. PMID:24872030

Rodrigues, Higor D D; Moreira, Felipe F F; Nieser, Nico; Chen, Ping Ping; Melo, Alan L; Dias-Silva, Karina; Giehl, Nubia F S

2014-01-01

355

Recognition on space photographs of structural elements of Baja California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gemini and Apollo photographs provide illustrations of known structural features of the peninsula and some structures not recognized previously. An apparent transform relationship between strike-slip and normal faulting is illustrated by the overlapping vertical photographs of northern Baja California. The active Agua Blanca right-lateral strike-slip fault trends east-southeastward to end at the north end of the Valle San Felipe and Valle Chico. The uplands of the high Sierra San Pedro Martir are a low-relief surface deformed by young faults, monoclines, and warps, which mostly produce west-facing steps and slopes; the topography is basically structural. The Sierra Cucapas of northeasternmost Baja California and the Colorado River delta of northwesternmost Sonora are broken by northwest-trending strike-slip faults. A strike-slip fault is inferred to trend northward obliquely from near Cabo San Lucas to La Paz, thence offshore until it comes ashore again as the Bahia Concepcion strike-slip fault.

Hamilton, W.

1971-01-01

356

Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.  

PubMed

The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging. PMID:24615028

Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

2014-01-01

357

'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement  

PubMed Central

This paper records the meaning of the term 'offense' and the folk knowledge related to local beliefs and practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. The data was recorded from September to November 2006 by means of open-ended interviews performed with 74 individuals of both genders, whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the local terms biting, stinging and pricking are synonymous and used as equivalent to offending. All these terms mean to attack. A total of 23 types of 'snakes' were recorded, based on their local names. Four of them are Viperidae, which were considered the most dangerous to humans, besides causing more aversion and fear in the population. In general, local people have strong negative behavior towards snakes, killing them whenever possible. Until the antivenom was present and available, the locals used only charms, prayers and homemade remedies to treat or protect themselves and others from snake bites. Nowadays, people do not pay attention to these things because, basically, the antivenom is now easily obtained at regional hospitals. It is understood that the ethnozoological knowledge, customs and popular practices of the Pedra Branca inhabitants result in a valuable cultural resource which should be considered in every discussion regarding public health, sanitation and practices of traditional medicine, as well as in faunistic studies and conservation strategies for local biological diversity.

2010-01-01

358

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in asymptomatic Brazilian adolescents  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among asymptomatic Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: Transversal observational study included asymptomatic adolescents with central obesity from private and public schools in Salvador-Bahia, northeastern Brazil. The children answered a questionnaire that included age, gender, race, and medical history, and were submitted to a complete physical exam and abdominal ultrasound. Biochemical exams included: ALT, AST, GGT, C reactive protein (CRP), fasting glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides. Criteria for NAFLD included: the presence of steatosis in ultrasound and/or high level of ALT, negative or occasional historic of intake of alcohol (? 140 g/wk), negative investigation for hepatitis A, B, C, auto-immune hepatitis, Wilson disease and hemochromatosis. RESULTS: From October, 2005 to October, 2006, the study included 1801 subjects between 11 and 18 years of age and a mean age of 13.7 ± 2.0 years. One hundred ninety-nine had central obesity. The prevalence of NAFLD was 2.3%, most of whom were male and white. Insulin resistance (IR) was observed in 22.9% of them and had positive correlations with ALT and GGT (P < 0.05). Elevated CRP was observed in 6.9% of the cases; however, it was not associated with WC, IR or liver enzymes. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of NAFLD in Brazilian adolescents was low. The ethnicity may have influence this frequency in the population studied, which had a large proportion of African descendents.

Rocha, Raquel; Cotrim, Helma Pinchemel; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Barbosa, Daniel Batista Valente; Santos, Admeia Souza; de Moura Almeida, Alessandro; Cunha, Bruno; Guimaraes, Isabel

2009-01-01

359

The influence of insect juvenile hormone agonists on metamorphosis and reproduction in estuarine crustaceans.  

PubMed

Comparative developmental and reproductive studies were performed on several species of estuarine crustaceans in response to three juvenile hormone agonists (pyriproxyfen, methoprene and fenoxycarb). Larval development of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was greater than two orders of magnitude more sensitive to disruption by methoprene and fenoxycarb than was embryonic development. Developing larvae of the mud crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, exhibited reduced metamorphic success at lower concentrations of methoprene and pyriproxyfen than grass shrimp larvae. These responses suggest that the more rigidly controlled metamorphic process in crabs is more sensitive to compounds acting as endocrine disruptors than is the more flexible metamorphic pattern in shrimp. The final crab larval stage, the megalopa, was more sensitive to methoprene and fenoxycarb exposure than earlier zoeal stages. Mud crab larvae exposed to fenoxycarb had reduced biomass and lipid content, particularly triglycerides and sterols. Concentrations of fenoxycarb which reduced the reproductive capacity in single life-cycle exposures of the estuarine mysid, Americamysis bahia, were similar to those concentrations which inhibited metamorphosis in grass shrimp. Juvenile mysids released by exposed adults and reared through maturation without further exposure produced fewer young and had altered sex ratios (lower percentages of males) at lower parental-exposure concentrations than directly affected parental reproduction. These transgenerational responses may well be a product of irreversible effects during developmental exposures which become apparent following maturation and initiation of reproduction. These findings support using a functional approach as an appropriate screening procedure to evaluate potential environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals in aquatic environments. PMID:21676750

McKenney, Charles L

2005-01-01

360

A Remarkable Comet and Other Astronomical Objects in the Brazilian Art Rock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the studies that we have made during the two expeditions to the archaelogical area of Central northwest of the state of Bahia, Brazil, I have the chance to discover in the rock art representations a remarkable comet and other astronomical objects and to verify that the men that had lived at those sites, had an important notions about how to use the stars and planets on their behalf for the day-by-day life. They used to know the starry sky as much as they used the Sun as a mean of guidance, using also the changes of aspect of our satellite all along of a lunation as one of their main time markers}. There are vestiges that the primitive societies used the Sun, the Moon and constellations and even sometimes, a very shining star, like Sirius, Regulus, etc., or even opened starring agglomerated, like the Pleiades, as an element of guidance and/or of time score. Some stars and planets, the same way as the Pleiades among the Brazilian Indians, constituted authentic seasonal marking references.

Mour, R. R. D.

2009-08-01

361

Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease  

PubMed Central

The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

2005-01-01

362

Chaetognatha in the Bahía Magdalena lagoon complex, Baja California Sur, México: species composition and assemblages.  

PubMed

The chaetognaths from 187 zooplankton samples collected from the Bahia Magdalena lagoon complex, Baja California Sur, Mexico during March, June, July, August, September, November, and December 1982 were studied. Twelve species belonging to two genera were identified. Sagitta euneritica and S. enflata were the most abundant and most frequent species with maximum abundance in July (40,000 org/100 m(3) and 6100 org/100 m(3) respectively). Sagitta pacifica, S. regularis and S. pseudoserratodentata were stenothermic (21 to 25 degrees C), whereas the rest of the species were eurythermic (15.5 to 29.5 degrees C). Sagitta euneritica contributed considerably to the zooplanktonic biomass, increasing the density in particular in BahíaAlmejas. The analysis of the species assemblages (Morisita index) showed that S. pacifica and S. regularis interact more frequently in August when there is a change of the water masses that converge in this zone during summer, when the California Countercurrent predominates. The composition of taxa during winter is characterized by the dominance of S. euneritica. Entering the warm period, an abrupt change occurs in taxa composition of the three zones studied: channels, Bahía Magdalena, and BahíaAlmejas. The amplitude and distribution of S. peruviana was influenced possibility by the oceanographic conditions of ENSO 1982. PMID:22315819

Cota Meza, M S

2011-07-01

363

Monazite cathodoluminescence — A new tool for heavy mineral analysis of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An appropriate technique to distinguish monazite from other similar minerals like zircon and xenotime is of significance in modern heavy mineral analysis since monazite occurs in sands and sandstone and may provide useful information on provenance and history of sedimentary sequences. Monazite differs from the optically very similar zircon by its dark-olive cathodoluminescence (CL) feature. The CL-spectra of monazite and zircon are dominated by characteristically narrow bands of different rare earth elements: Nd 3+ and Sm 3+ for monazite and mainly Dy 3+ for zircon. Because of the different crystal-lattices of both minerals, the splitting of the multiplet level of equally available elements is different. High amounts of rare earth elements within monazite lead to quenching effects, so that the CL-feature visually appears very weak. Detection of monazite in heavy mineral separates from Triassic sandstones of E-Bavaria allows us to reconstruct different crystalline source areas (Bohemian Massif, Erzgebirge). Altogether, the monazites from these areas show the same CL-behaviour like those from other crystalline areas (Dora Maira Massif) and from placers (Bahia/Brazil, Taiwan). These investigations underline the considerable potential of the cathodoluminescence technique for heavy mineral analysis and specifically for the distinction of minerals with similar optical properties.

Richter, Detlev K.; Görgen, Peter; Götte, Thomas

2008-09-01

364

Dietary Patterns and Wheezing in the Midst of Nutritional Transition: A Study in Brazil  

PubMed Central

To assess the influence of dietary patterns on the prevalence of wheezing in the child and adolescent population in Northeastern Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of male and female students, 6–12 years old, from the public elementary schools of São Francisco do Conde, Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The report of wheezing in the past 12 months was collected using a questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Program phase III, adapted to Portuguese. Consumption patterns were derived from principal component analysis based on the frequency of consumption of 97 food items by the food frequency questionnaire. We also obtained the anthropometric status, level of physical activity, pubertal development, and socioeconomic information, for each participant. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations of interest. Of the children surveyed, 10.6% reported having wheezing. We identified 2 dietary patterns named Western and Prudent. We found a positive statistically significant association of the Western pattern with wheeze (odds ratio=1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.10–2.84) after adjustment for total energy intake and controlling for potential confounders. The results showed that the Western dietary pattern was associated with wheezing. Our result is according with previous findings reported in several other studies.

Assis, Ana Marlucia Oliveira; Cruz, Alvaro Augusto; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; DInnocenzo, Silvana; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; da Silva, Luce Alves; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria

2013-01-01

365

Presence of a Vanadium Nitrogenase in Azotobacter paspali  

PubMed Central

There have been no previous studies on the genetics of Azotobacter paspali, an aerobic bacterium which forms a highly specific diazotrophic association with Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum). We constructed A. paspali strains defective in the molybdenum nitrogenase so that alternative N2ases could be studied. The cosmid vector pTBE and genomic DNA fragments (?50 kb) of A. paspali ATCC 23367 were used to construct a gene library in Escherichia coli. Recombinant cosmids containing sequences homologous to molybdenum nitrogenase nifDK structural genes were identified by hybridization. A 2.9-kb fragment bearing the putative nifDK genes of A. paspali was subcloned and mutagenized in vitro by the insertion of a kanamycin resistance gene cassette. The mutation was recombined into the chromosome of A. paspali with the suicide vector pCU101. One resultant mutant strain, AP2, was incapable of diazotrophic growth in a molybdenum-containing medium (Nif-) without vanadium but grew well in a molybdenum-deficient medium with vanadium. The nitrogenase system in AP2 reduced acetylene to ethylene and produced ethane as 2.4% of the total products. Molybdenum levels as low as 10 nM prevented the diazotrophic growth of AP2, even in the presence of vanadium at levels up to 10 ?M. These results are consistent with the existence of a vanadium nitrogenase system in A. paspali.

Fallik, Elazar; Hartel, Peter G.; Robson, Robert L.

1993-01-01

366

Accumulation of chromium in root tissues of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. in Cachoeira river—Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metals are not biodegradable and enter the food chain through a number of pathways causing progressive toxic actions due to the accumulation in different organs during a life span and long-term exposure to contaminated environments. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to localize chromium in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. ICP-MS was used for the determination of Cr concentrations in water, sediments and plant samples in the Cachoeira basin, Bahia, Brazil. The results obtained by ICP-MS shows abnormally high values of Cr concentrations in water samples (0.38 ?g/l), in soil samples (63 ?g/g) and 70 ?g/g in plant tissue. SIMS results show increased levels of Cr in the root cell wall and xylem vessel, these sites show high Cr accumulation. The ICP-MS data confirm E. crassipes like bioindicator plant. Chemical analysis using ICP-MS, confirms SIMS analysis on the presence of Cr in roots xylem cell walls. The use of ICP-MS, to investigate the same organs as the ones investigated by SIMS, provided complementary results on chromium study.

Mangabeira, P. A. O.; Labejof, L.; Lamperti, A.; de Almeida, A.-A. F.; Oliveira, A. H.; Escaig, F.; Severo, M. I. G.; Silva, D. da C.; Saloes, M.; Mielke, M. S.; Lucena, E. R.; Martins, M. C.; Santana, K. B.; Gavrilov, K. L.; Galle, P.; Levi-Setti, R.

2004-06-01

367

[Traffic accidents in a metropolitan area in Brazil, 1991-2000].  

PubMed

A time series study described the trend in motor vehicle accidents from 1991 to 2000, using data from the State Transit Department in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Rates were calculated for total motor vehicle accidents, number of casualties, and standardized mortality based on population and number of vehicles, comparing two periods (1991-1994 and 1995-2000), before and after the adoption of safety measures including compulsory seat belt use and the new National Transit Code (NTC). Vehicle accident and casualty rates were high and showed little variation during the study period. The mortality rate decreased from 25.7/100,000 inhabitants in 1995 to 18.1/100,000 in 1998 and remained stable thereafter. The only significant difference (p < 0.001) was in the mean motor vehicle accident mortality rate before and after the intervention. The case fatality rate decreased from 10.7% (1995) to 7% (2000). Although still representing a major public health problem in this important metropolitan area, the decrease in motor vehicle accident mortality was possibly due to interventions in 1995 and expanded NTC measures in 1998. Greater efforts to change driver and pedestrian behavior could further decrease the high number of accidents and related mortality. PMID:18278283

Oliveira, Zenaide Calazans de; Mota, Eduardo Luiz Andrade; Costa, Maria da Conceição N

2008-02-01

368

Multi-element determination in acid-digested soy protein formulations by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.  

PubMed

The concentrations of major (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) and trace elements (Al, Cu and Fe) in soy protein formulations sold in Bahia (Brazil) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Liquid and powdered soy protein formulation samples, both whole and light, were digested using a conventional heating program on a hot-plate. The powdered samples were prepared according to the label instructions for human consumption. A 5.0-ml aliquot of the soy protein emulsion was transferred to a borosilicate Erlenmeyer and concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid added. After a digestion time of approximately 50 min, hydrogen peroxide was added and heating continued to give a final volume of approximately 5 ml; the colorless digests were then made up to 15.0 ml with deionised water. Residual acid content was determined by acid-base titration. Good agreement between measured and certified values for all analytes in a non-fat milk powder (NIST SRM 1549) indicated that the method was suitable for major and trace elements determination in soy protein formulations. PMID:18473216

Morte, Elane S Boa; Costa, Leticia M; Nobrega, Joaquim A; Korn, Maria das Gracas A

2008-05-01

369

Carry-over effects of winter location contribute to variation in timing of nest initiation and clutch size in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We assessed carry-over effects from winter location on timing of nest initiation and clutch size of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) using observations of individually marked brant breeding at the Tutakoke River colony in Alaska, and wintering along a latitudinal gradient at three areas on the Pacific coast of Baja California: northernmost Bahia San Quintin (BSQ), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and southernmost Laguna San Ignacio (LSI). Black Brant initiated nests according to a north—south trend in winter location, although year was a stronger predictor of initiation date than was wintering site. Female Black Brant that wintered at BSQ initiated nests 2.2 days earlier than females from LSI. Conversely, Black Brant showed only a weak south—north trend in clutch size; individuals from LSI laid slightly larger clutches than individuals from BSQ, probably because a smaller proportion of only high-quality females from the southernmost wintering area in Baja California were able to attain the nutritional condition necessary to breed. These results indicate that winter location can influence individual reproductive performance and, potentially, limit population growth of southern segments of the wintering Black Brant population.

Schamber, Jason L.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.

2012-01-01

370

Beauveria bassiana Strains for Biological Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Plantain  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to select strains of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) in plantain farms (cv. Terra) of the “Recôncavo” and southern regions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The virulence of 32 B. bassiana isolates against C. sordidus was determined under laboratory conditions. Three isolates (CNPMF 407, CNPMF 218, and CNPMF 416) were selected for evaluation under field conditions in plantations located in the counties of Mutuípe and Wenceslau Guimarães. Population of C. sordidus was estimated every 15 days by using pseudostem traps. The efficiency of the three strains of B. bassiana was compared to chemical control (carbofuran, 4g/trap) and absence of control. Carbofuran caused around 90% of adult mortality after 12 months, with a reduction in the population of C. sordidus since the first evaluation. A low number of trapped insects was observed in the fungus-treated plots, suggesting the efficiency of the isolates in controlling the C. sordidus population. The strain CNPMF 218 was the most efficient in controlling C. sordidus adults in both locations, causing around 20% mortality, leading to 40% population size reduction after 12 months.

Dias, Alex Batista; Delalibera Junior, Italo; de Jesus, Sandra Cerqueira; do Nascimento, Antonio Souza; Silva, Sebastiao de Oliveira e; Caldas, Ranulfo Correa; Ledo, Carlos Alberto da Silva

2013-01-01

371

[Teenage pregnancy: analysis of risk factors for low birth weight, prematurity and cesarean delivery].  

PubMed

The scope of the study was to analyze possible associations between maternal age under 16 years and the weight and gestational age of the newborn child, as well as the occurrence of cesarean delivery. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data of Live Birth Certificates/DN from the National System of Live Births/SINASC in Feira de Santana, State of Bahia, Brazil, in the 2006-2012 period. In the analyses, logistic regression for the odds ratio (OR) and a confidence interval of 95% was used, measuring the strength of association between variables adjusted for confounding factors. Newborns (NB), with low birth weight and underweight, revealed a significant association with maternal age (? 16 years) and statistical interaction of inadequate prenatal care and cesarean delivery. In teenage pregnancy under the age of 16 years, cesarean delivery showed a significant association with single marital status (OR 1.24), inadequate prenatal care (OR 1.58) and newborns with low weight (OR 1.34). The data suggest that multiple factors may interfere with the type of delivery and pregnancy outcome of adolescents at an early age, pointing to the importance of investment in policies and actions directed at this group considered highly vulnerable to perinatal and pregnancy complications. PMID:24714887

Santos, Nilma Lázara de Almeida Cruz; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Vieira, Graciete Oliveira; Bacelar, Eloisa Barreto; de Almeida, André Henrique do Vale

2014-03-01

372

Late Quaternary molluscan assemblages from the coastal area of Bahía Bustamante (Patagonia, Argentina): Paleoecology and paleoenvironments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in the composition, distribution, and diversity of molluscan assemblages from Patagonian marine terraces (MT) formed during the late Quaternary sea-level highstands and neotectonic events—between the late Pleistocene, mid-Holocene, and present—are discussed. Molluscs and associated macrofauna (balanids, brachiopods, polychaetes, bryozoans) from nine fossiliferous localities and three modern sites suggest paleoecological, paleobiogeographical, and paleoenvironmental implications for paleoclimatic interpretations of the coastal area of Bahia Bustamante-Caleta Malaspina (˜44.9 and 45.3°S) since marine oxygen isotope stage (MOIS) 7. Crepidula protea, Buccinanops paytensis, and Brachidontes rodriguezi are first recorded for the late Pleistocene MTIV (MOIS5-7); Nacella (Patinigera) deaurata, Epitonium magellanicum, B. paytensis, Aequipecten tehuelchus, and Clausinella gayi are recorded for the mid-Holocene MTVI (MOIS1) in the area. These molluscs currently live in the SW Atlantic, but Venericardia procera represents a northward migration and Tegula atra a faunal extinction in response to climate change. Overall, they indicate hard substrates, shallow waters, and truly marine conditions, similar to the modern littoral. With respect to temperature, the qualitative, quantitative, morphological, and distributional variations suggest slightly higher SST during the mid-Holocene (MTVI, MOIS1, hypsithermal), colder for MTV (MOIS5c?, 5a?), and warmer or similar for MTIV (MOIS5e, 7?).

Aguirre, Marina L.; Sirch, Yamila Negro; Richiano, Sebastián

2005-10-01

373

Determination of the mineral composition of Caigua (Cyclanthera pedata) and evaluation using multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

Caigua (in Brazil "maxixe do reino") is a fruit that is generally consumed either cooked or even raw as salad. This fruit has been used as a food and also in folk medicine. In this work, the mineral composition of Caigua was determined for the first time. Twenty-nine samples from five farms located in the southwestern region of Bahia, Brazil were acquired and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The elements determined in this fruit included calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, manganese, iron, zinc, copper and vanadium. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied to evaluate the obtained results. The average concentrations of the determined elements (expressed as mg 100 g(-1)) were as follows: 0.91 for sodium, 152 for potassium, 19.4 for phosphorus, 11.9 for calcium, 8.4 for magnesium, 0.074 for manganese, 0.21 for iron, 0.013 for copper, 0.13 for zinc and 0.015 for vanadium. PMID:24444984

Oliveira, Adriana Caires; dos Santos, Vitor Silva; dos Santos, Debora Correia; Carvalho, Rosemary Duarte Sales; Souza, Anderson Santos; Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa

2014-06-01

374

Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus) in northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hosts' bodies for each Tropidurus species. All four species of Tropidurus at Morro do Chapéu were parasited by the chigger mite, with high (97-100%) prevalences. Host body size significantly explained the intensity of mite infestation for all species, except T. erythrocephalus. The body regions with highest intensity of infestation in the four lizard species were the mite pockets. The spacial niche width of the chigger varied consistently among the four lizards species studied being highest for T. erytrocephalus and lowest for T. cocorobensis. We conclude that the distribution and intensity with which lizards of the genus Tropidurus are infested by Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae results from the interaction between aspects of host morphology (such as body size and the occurrence and distribution of mite pockets) and ecology (especially microhabitat use). PMID:18642505

Rocha, C F D; Cunha-Barros, M; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A f; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M

2008-06-01

375

Review on the Precambrian geotectonics of the Brazilian Shield and its correlations within West Gondwana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Brazilian Shield, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic rocks are widespread in the large Amazonian Craton, as well as in the São Francisco, São Luiz, Rio de La Plata and other smaller cratonic fragments. Archean nuclei are present as granite-greenstone terrains in the Carajás region and in Central Bahia, and as medium to high-grade crustal fragments within younger belts. The Neoproterozoic tectonic provinces of Borborema, Tocantins and Mantiqueira, that include several orogenic belts active between 950 and 520 Ma, are associated to the process of agglutination of West Gondwana. Their correlative tectonic units in West and South-West Africa are the Trans-Saharan, West Congo, Damara, Gariep and Saldania belts. Juvenile, mantle derived, intra-oceanic magmatic arcs are found within the Tocantins province and the Trans-Saharan belt. They are associated to the Transbrasiliano lineament in South America, and indicate the existence of a large oceanic domain separating Amazonia and West-Africa from the São Francisco-Congo craton in the Neoproterozoic. On the other hand, the crustal signature of granitoid rocks suggests that the Neoproterozoic Adamastor ocean may not have been very large, and that the Rio de La Plata and Kalahari cratons were always relatively close together and to the São Francisco-Congo.

Cordani, U. G.

2003-04-01

376

Stable nitrogen isotopes in the turtle grass Thalassia testudinum from the Mexican Caribbean: Implications of anthropogenic development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient inputs associated with population growth threaten the integrity of coastal ecosystems. To assess the rapid increase in tourism, we compared the ?15N from Thalassia testudinum collected at sites with different levels of tourism development to detect the N inputs of wastewater discharge (WD) along the coast of Quintana Roo. The contributions of nitrogen enriched in 15N are directly related to the increase of WD inputs in areas of tourism development (Nichupte Lagoon in Cancun) and decreased toward Bahia Akumal and Tulum. The ?15N from T. testudinum was significantly lower at Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. In areas of the lowest development and with tourist activity restricted, such as the Yum Balam Reserve and Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, the ?15N values were relatively enriched compared to Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. Therefore, Puerto Morelos and Mahahual may be used for baseline isotopic monitoring where tourist activities are growing and can lead to environmental pressure on the reef lagoon ecosystem. The anthropogenic N input has the potential to impact, both environmentally and economically, the seagrass meadows and the coral reefs along the coast of Quintana Roo and the Caribbean.

Sánchez, Alberto; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma. Concepción; Talavera-Sáenz, Ana; Aguíñiga-García, Sergio

2013-12-01

377

Nuclear markers reveal a complex introgression pattern among marine turtle species on the Brazilian coast.  

PubMed

Surprisingly, a high frequency of interspecific sea turtle hybrids has been previously recorded in a nesting site along a short stretch of the Brazilian coast. Mitochondrial DNA data indicated that as much as 43% of the females identified as Eretmochelys imbricata are hybrids in this area (Bahia State of Brazil). It is a remarkable find, because most of the nesting sites surveyed worldwide, including some in northern Brazil, presents no hybrids, and rare Caribbean sites present no more than 2% of hybrids. Thus, a detailed understanding of the hybridization process is needed to evaluate natural or anthropogenic causes of this regional phenomenon in Brazil, which could be an important factor affecting the conservation of this population. We analysed a set of 12 nuclear markers to investigate the pattern of hybridization involving three species of sea turtles: hawksbill (E. imbricata), loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea). Our data indicate that most of the individuals in the crossings L. olivacea × E. imbricata and L. olivacea × C. caretta are F1 hybrids, whereas C. caretta × E. imbricata crossings present F1 and backcrosses with both parental species. In addition, the C. caretta × E. imbricata hybridization seems to be gender and species biased, and we also found one individual with evidence of multispecies hybridization among C. caretta × E. imbricata × Chelonia mydas. The overall results also indicate that hybridization in this area is a recent phenomenon, spanning at least two generations or ~40 years. PMID:22780882

Vilaça, Sibelle T; Vargas, Sarah M; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Molfetti, Érica; Reis, Estéfane C; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele; Soares, Luciano S; Santos, Fabrício R

2012-09-01

378

Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, Jr. , E. H.; Bonde, R. K.

2000-01-01

379

Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management  

PubMed Central

In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.). We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

2011-01-01

380

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice  

PubMed Central

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications.

Cortes-Rojas, Diego Francisco; de Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandes; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira

2014-01-01

381

The Endemic Copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a Potential Vector of White Spot Syndrome Virus.  

PubMed

Abstract The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. Received May 22, 2013; accepted October 2, 2013. PMID:24895865

Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge

2014-06-01

382

Phototoxicity of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum to marine invertebrate larvae and juveniles  

SciTech Connect

Phototoxicity resulting from photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been reported in the literature for a variety of freshwater organisms. The magnitude of increase in PAH toxicity often exceeds a factor of 100. In the marine environment phototoxicity to marine organisms has not been reported for individual or complex mixtures of PAHs. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis, and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, were exposed to individual known phototoxic PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene), as well as the water-accommodated fractions of several petroleum products (Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, Arabian Light Crude, Prudhoe Bay Crude, Fuel Oil {number_sign}6) containing PAHs. Phototoxicity of individual PAHs was 12 to >50,000 times that of conventional toxicity. Three of the petroleum products demonstrated phototoxicity while the lightest product, Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, was not phototoxic at the concentrations tested. The phototoxicity of petroleum products appears to be dependent on the composition and concentrations of phototoxic PAHs present: lighter oils have fewer multiple aromatic ring, phototoxic compounds while heavier oils have higher levels of these types of molecules. This study shows that phototoxicity can occur in marine waters to marine species. Further, the occurrence of oil in marine waters presents the additional risk of phototoxicity not routinely assessed for during oil spills.

Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.; Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; McKinney, R.A.; Ryba, S.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)

1997-10-01

383

Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Brazil.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated risk factors in HIV-infected pregnant women followed for prenatal care in Salvador, Bahia. This was a cross-sectional study of 63 women seeking prenatal care at a reference center. Participants were interviewed regarding socio-epidemiological and clinical history, and were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti HTLV I/II, VDRL, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, CD4 count, and HIV plasma viral load. The main outcome variable was the presence of any STI. The mean age of patients was 28.2 years (16-40 years). 23 (36.5%) were diagnosed with at least one STI. The frequency of diagnoses was: HBV, 3.2%; HCV, 8.1%; HTLV I/II, 3.4%; syphilis, 9.5%; Chlamydia trachomatis, 11.1%; HPV, 15.0%; Mycoplasma hominis, 2.1%, and Ureaplasma urealyticum, 2.1%. No case of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was identified. No association was found between socio-epidemiological variables and the presence of an STI. CD4 T lymphocyte < 500 cells/?L (p=0.047) and plasma viral load >1,000 copies (p = 0.027) were associated with the presence of STI. STIs are frequent in pregnant women infected with HIV, and all HIV-infected pregnant women should be screened to decrease transmission of these pathogens and to protect their own health. PMID:23168304

Travassos, Ana Gabriela Álvares; Brites, Carlos; Netto, Eduardo M; Fernandes, Sheyla de Almeida; Rutherford, George W; Queiroz, Conceição Maria

2012-01-01

384

Energy and Mass Balance At Gran Campo Nevado, Patagonia, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gran Campo Nevado (GCN) Ice Cap on Peninsula Muñoz Gamero, Chile, is lo- cated in the southernmost part of the Patagonian Andes at 53S. It comprises an ice cap and numerous outlet glaciers which mostly end in proglacial lakes at sea level. The total ice covered area sums up to approximately 250 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonian Icefield and the Street of Magallan. Its almost unique location in the zone of the all-year westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the westwind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. Mean annual temperature of approximately +5C at sea level and high precipitation of about 8.000 mm per year lead to an extreme turn-over of ice mass from the accumulation area of the GCN Ice Cap to the ablation areas of the outlet glaciers. Since October 1999 an automated weather station (AWS) is run continuously in the area at Bahia Bahamondes for monitoring climate parameters. From February to April 2000 an additional AWS was operated on Glaciar Lengua a small outlet glacier of GCN to the north-west. Ablation has been measured at stakes during the same pe- riod. The aim of this study, was to obtain point energy and mass balance on Glaciar Lengua. The work was conducted as part of the international and interdisciplinary working group SGran Campo NevadoT and supported by the German Research Foun- & cedil;dation (DFG). Energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulas and calibrated to the measured ablation. It turns out, that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance. Since high cloud cover rates prevail, air tempera- ture is the key factor for the energy balance of the glacier. Despite high rain fall rates, energy input from rain fall is of only minor importance to the overall energy balance. From the energy balance computed, it was possible to derive summer-time degree-day factors for Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby AWS at Bahia Bahamondes we computed summer ablation for the summer seasons of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Ablation at 45o m a.s.l. sums up to about 7 m in 1999/2000 and to 5.5 m in 2000/2001. This is in excellent accordance (+/-2%) with measurements at ablation stakes that have been drilled into the glacier on its ablation area. Surface velocity measured from the displacement of the ablation stakes is estimated to 62 m per year. A RADAR survey with ice penetrating RADAR conducted on the ablation area of Glaciar Lengua during the austral summer 2000/2001 reveals glacier depths between 120 m and 200 m ap- 1 proximately. The data sampled will allow to set up a model for mass flow and ablation at a cross-section of Glaciar Lengua at 450 m a.s.l. Glaciar Lengua has no accumu- lation area itself but obtains all of its ice mass through icefall from the heights of the GCN Ice Cap. Therefore, this model will be of fundamental importance to understand the glacial regime of the entire ice cap. 2

Schneider, C.; Kilian, R.; Casassa, G.

385

Application of multi-dimensional discrimination diagrams and probability calculations to Paleoproterozoic acid rocks from Brazilian cratons and provinces to infer tectonic settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present work, we applied two sets of new multi-dimensional geochemical diagrams (Verma et al., 2013) obtained from linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of natural logarithm-transformed ratios of major elements and immobile major and trace elements in acid magmas to decipher plate tectonic settings and corresponding probability estimates for Paleoproterozoic rocks from Amazonian craton, São Francisco craton, São Luís craton, and Borborema province of Brazil. The robustness of LDA minimizes the effects of petrogenetic processes and maximizes the separation among the different tectonic groups. The probability based boundaries further provide a better objective statistical method in comparison to the commonly used subjective method of determining the boundaries by eye judgment. The use of readjusted major element data to 100% on an anhydrous basis from SINCLAS computer program, also helps to minimize the effects of post-emplacement compositional changes and analytical errors on these tectonic discrimination diagrams. Fifteen case studies of acid suites highlighted the application of these diagrams and probability calculations. The first case study on Jamon and Musa granites, Carajás area (Central Amazonian Province, Amazonian craton) shows a collision setting (previously thought anorogenic). A collision setting was clearly inferred for Bom Jardim granite, Xingú area (Central Amazonian Province, Amazonian craton) The third case study on Older São Jorge, Younger São Jorge and Maloquinha granites Tapajós area (Ventuari-Tapajós Province, Amazonian craton) indicated a within-plate setting (previously transitional between volcanic arc and within-plate). We also recognized a within-plate setting for the next three case studies on Aripuanã and Teles Pires granites (SW Amazonian craton), and Pitinga area granites (Mapuera Suite, NW Amazonian craton), which were all previously suggested to have been emplaced in post-collision to within-plate settings. The seventh case studies on Cassiterita-Tabuões, Ritápolis, São Tiago-Rezende Costa (south of São Francisco craton, Minas Gerais) showed a collision setting, which agrees fairly reasonably with a syn-collision tectonic setting indicated in the literature. A within-plate setting is suggested for the Serrinha magmatic suite, Mineiro belt (south of São Francisco craton, Minas Gerais), contrasting markedly with the arc setting suggested in the literature. The ninth case study on Rio Itapicuru granites and Rio Capim dacites (north of São Francisco craton, Serrinha block, Bahia) showed a continental arc setting. The tenth case study indicated within-plate setting for Rio dos Remédios volcanic rocks (São Francisco craton, Bahia), which is compatible with these rocks being the initial, rift-related igneous activity associated with the Chapada Diamantina cratonic cover. The eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth case studies on Bom Jesus-Areal granites, Rio Diamante-Rosilha dacite-rhyolite and Timbozal-Cantão granites (São Luís craton) showed continental arc, within-plate and collision settings, respectively. Finally, the last two case studies, fourteenth and fifteenth showed a collision setting for Caicó Complex and continental arc setting for Algodões (Borborema province).

Verma, Sanjeet K.; Oliveira, Elson P.

2013-08-01

386

Biogeography of Brazilian populations of Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) based on molecular marker and paleo-vegetational data.  

PubMed

In epidemiological terms, Panstrongylus megistus is one of the most important species of triatomine bug in Brazil. Samples from 11 localities were studied using the random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, which was able to differentiate the study populations clearly. Biogeographical data indicate that these populations could already have arisen 18,000 years ago (C(14)), it being possible to differentiate insects from the Brazilian states of Santa Catarina (SC) in the south, Ceará (CE) in the northeast and another large intermediate block containing the remaining eight populations from five other states. These results agree with those obtained by phenograms constructed from RAPD data, in which the SC population lies opposite those of CE, consistent with the greatest geographical distance between these localities. The other eight populations (Alagoas (AL), Bahia (BA), Goiás (GO), Minas Gerais (MG) and São Paulo (SP)) are closer genetically and originated in areas whose vegetational characteristics have remained similar to each other during the last 18,000 years, thus allowing greater contact between them. The greatest divergence of this group of insects and those of Ceará appears to have occurred 8000 years ago. This more humid period gave rise to other landscape changes, allowing greater differentiation of the vegetation and consequent expansion of P. megistus populations. Formation of the Serras do Mar and Mantiqueira probably created geographical barriers that favored a certain degree of isolation and greater differentiation of the SC population. Atlantic forest remnants within the caatinga domain (created between 25 and 17,000 years ago), where the CE populations originated probably constitute ecological refugia produced by successive amplification and retraction of the most suitable habitats for this species. PMID:17055993

Barbosa, Silvia E; Belisário, Carlota J; Souza, Rita C M; Paula, Alexandre S; Linardi, Pedro M; Romanha, Alvaro J; Diotaiuti, Liléia

2006-10-01

387

Microstructural Distinctions Between Two Polycrystalline Diamond Varieties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally occurring polycrystalline diamonds (PCDs) are classified by a number of varietal names, including carbonado, framesite, stewartite, bort, and ballas. The distinctions that underlie this taxonomy are geographical, historical, and grossly morphological. The extent to which these varietal names also reflect differences in petrogenesis remains unclear. For example, carbonado and framesite exhibit similar physical characteristics at the macroscale, as both varieties typically are found as black, porous diamond aggregates measuring centimeters in diameter. Consequently, the terms carbonado and framesite have been used in the literature somewhat interchangeably. When a distinction is made, the differentiation is based on location and relationship to kimberlite intrusives: Carbonado nodules are found in Bahia, Brazil and near Bangui in the Central African Republic with no demonstrable proximity to kimberlite pipes, and framesite aggregates exhibit a known affiliation with kimberlite and lamproite volcanoes. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we have described the suite of microstructural defects that characterize Brazilian and Central African carbonado nodules in great detail (De et al., 1998 EPSL 164:421). These include high concentrations of line dislocations (>1012 cm-2), polygonalization textures that outline subgrains that range from 1 to 10 micrometers in diameter, and pervasive planar defect boundaries roughly parallel to \\{111\\} with periodicities of 40 to 100 micrometers. More recently, we have examined framesite specimens from the Orapa kimberlite pipe in Botswana that were prepared for TEM by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, and our preliminary results reveal quantitative differences in the microstructures of framesite and carbonado. Unlike the diamond crystals that constitute carbonado, the diamonds in the framesite samples we examined have a high degree of crystallographic perfection. Dislocation concentrations are extremely low, and we found no evidence for the polygonalization or the planar defect textures that are endemic in carbonado. These results are consistent with isotopic distinctions reported for carbonado and framesite (Shelkov et al. 1997 Russian Geol Geophys 38:332], and they support models that propose different formation pathways for the two varieties.

Heaney, P. J.; Vicenzi, E. P.; De, S.

2002-05-01

388

Pityriasis versicolor: clinical-epidemiological characterization of patients in the urban area of Buerarema-BA, Brazil*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a cutaneous pigmentation disorder caused by a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia sp. It is a superficial mycosis characterized by well-defined, slightly scaly skin lesions of variable color. In Brazil, the number of reported cases is small, and there are few epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES: to assess incidence, characteristics of the lesions, effectiveness of the Zileri's Sign procedure, and the epidemiological profile of PV in the urban area of Buerarema - Bahia. METHODS: Biological samples were collected on pre-established days at Basic Health Care Units from July to September 2010. Sample collection was followed by laboratory diagnosis using Porto's Method. RESULTS: Of the 158 patients with suspected PV participating in the study, 105 (66.5%) were positive; 72 (68.6%) were female and 33 (31.4%) were male. Sex and location of lesions showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The region with the highest rate of cases of PV was found to be the center of the city, with 40.9% of diagnosed cases. The most affected age group was between 10 and 19 years. There was a significant association between the results produced through Zileri's Sign and Porto's Method in relation to positive and negative results (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a higher prevalence of PV among individuals at puberty. The Zileri's Sign method proved to be counterproductive, because it showed low efficacy as a method for clinical diagnosis, yielding negative results for 36 (34.3%) patients who had been diagnosed with PV through laboratory examination.

Santana, Juliano Oliveira; de Azevedo, Fernanda Luiza Andrade; Campos, Pedro Costa

2013-01-01

389

The Magnetic Properties Of Aggregate Polycrystalline Diamond: Implications For Carbonado Petrogenesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonados are a type of diamond, which are made up of many aggregrates of small crystalline diamonds or microdiamonds. The term "carbonado" comes from the Portuguese word carbonated. They are only found in sedimentary deposits in the Central African Republic (CAR) and the Bahia Province of Brazil. They were once the source of the world's supply of industrial diamonds. Their origin is uncertain but several mutually exclusive hypotheses have been proposed. This theories are: (1) extraterrestrial, that is they formed from the dust cloud of original solar nebulae; (2) produced by the high temperatures and pressures of the Earth's mantle; (3) or as the result of an extra-terrestrial impact into a carbon rich layer of sediment. Our study was done to further the understanding of their origin. We measured the magnetic properties on some twenty samples from the CAR. An earlier study was done on whole samples of carbonados and the "common" or kimberlitic diamond. Our work differed in that we started at the surface and subsequently removed the surface layers (by days of acid immersion) into the interior; measuring the magnetic properties at each interval. This procedure permits us to monitor the distribution of magnetic substances within the samples. Our results showed that the magnetic carriers are distributed on the surface including the open pores and that the carbonado interior is essentially non-magnetic. This result suggests that the initial formation environment was deficient in magnetic particles. Such a situation could indicate that their formation was the result of an extra-terrestrial body impacting carbon-rich sediment. Obviously, more work will be required on isotopic and chemical analyses before a more detailed ori-in can be determined.

Kleteschka, Gunther; Taylor, Patrick T.; Wasilewski, Peter J.; Hill, Hugh G. M.

2000-01-01

390

Macrophytobenthic flora of the Abrolhos Archipelago and the Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Abrolhos Bank, located on the coast of Bahia, Brazil, harbors the largest coral reef system in the South Atlantic. This area has attracted the attention of biologists because of its peculiar mushroom-shaped structures, locally known as "chapeirões", and endemic species of corals and other organisms. The macrophytobenthos compartment plays an important ecological role in the functioning of the bank, and some reports on the presence of seaweeds and seagrasses have been published; however, the data are fragmentary, and a more detailed survey of the macrophytobenthos compartment is lacking. Here we consolidate the information available and add new data obtained from two expeditions focused on seaweed and seagrass diversity from two sectors of the bank: the islands of the Abrolhos archipelago (AA) and the Sebastião Gomes Reef (SG). These sites were selected for their contrasting characteristics. Specifically, SG (15 km off the mouth of the Caravelas River) is subjected to a broader range of anthropogenic impacts and to input of terrigenous sediments, while the AA (54 km offshore) is surrounded by calcareous biogenic sediments, has clearer water and is less affected by human activities. Macrophytobenthic species richness on both reference areas is larger than previously thought. Considering previous records, there are 164 species of macrophytes in AA and 111 species in SG, of which 59 and 74 species are first records for each respective location. The higher species richness at the AA may result from a higher habitat complexity and lower turbidity, but a potential negative effect of enhanced human impacts at SG cannot be ruled out. Considering that macroalgae are relevant components of the benthic community, as producers and structurer organisms, the data presented herein provide a reliable baseline for future environmental studies, and thus may contribute to improve management policies within the unique ecosystem of Abrolhos.

Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

2013-11-01

391

[Sea star (Asteroidea) association structures on the rocky reef in the Gulf of California, Mexico].  

PubMed

Sea stars are invertebrates that play relevant roles in rocky and coral reefs: they occupy different levels in food webs and may act as top predators. There are numerous studies on taxonomy and biogeography of the class in the eastern tropical Pacific, but information about the attributes and composition of its assemblages is scant. The objectives of this study were the examination and comparison of asteroid community structure from four regions of the Gulf of California, Mexico, characterized by the presence of rocky reefs, and the search for possible associations between pairs of species. In August 2004 we visited four locations in the western gulf: Bahia de Los Angeles (29 degrees N), Santa Rosalia (27 degrees N), Loreto (26 degrees N) and La Paz (24 degrees N), and censuses sea stars using 50 m2 belt transects (N=93). Abundance and species richness was estimated, as well as diversity (H'), evenness (J') and taxonomic distinctness (delta*); then, all variables were compared among regions with analysis of variance. In addition, an ordination analysis was run looking for groups of locations with similar faunistic composition. Our results showed that Loreto Bay had the highest richness and abundance of asteroids, probably because it presents a large number of habitats and multiple food sources; these conditions seem to favor the occurrence of rare species and of detritivores. However, there were no significant interregional differences among ecological indices, nor we detected groups of locations singled out because of its species composition. Thus, community structure of sea stars in rocky areas of the Gulf of California is quite homogeneous and do not change with latitude. This is a consequence of the fact that all regions under analysis had the species Phataria unifascialis and Pharia pyramidatus as dominant in number. There were significant positive associations between three pairs of species: apparently competition is not particularly relevant to control sea star community structure in the Gulf. PMID:17469253

Reyes Bonilla, Héctor; González Azcárraga, Adriana; Rojas Sierra, Aracely

2005-12-01

392

Structures of mono-unsaturated triacylglycerols. I. The beta1 polymorph.  

PubMed

The crystal structures of the beta1 polymorphs of mono-unsaturated triacylglycerols have been solved from high-resolution laboratory and synchrotron powder diffraction data for five pure compounds, the 1,3-dimyristoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (beta1-MOM), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (beta1-POP), 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (beta1-SOS), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoylglycerol (beta1-POS), 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-3-arachidoylglycerol (beta1-SOA) and three mixtures: the co-crystallized 1:1 molar mixture of SOS and POP [beta1-SOS/POP (1:1)] and two cocoa butters from Bahia and Ivory Coast, both in their beta-VI (=beta1) polymorph. All eight beta1 structures crystallized in the space group (P2(1)/n) and have two short cell axes (5.44-5.46 and 8.18-8.22 A), as well as a very long b axis (112-135 A). The dominant-zone problem in the indexing of the powder patterns was solved with the special brute-force indexing routine LSQDETC from the POWSIM program. Structures were solved using the direct-space parallel-tempering method FOX and refined with GSAS. Along the b axis, alternations of inversion-centre-related ;three-packs' can be discerned. Each ;three-pack' has a central oleic zone, with oleic acyl chains of the molecules being packed together, that is sandwiched between two saturated-chain zones. The conformation of the triacylglycerol molecules is relatively ;flat' because the least-square planes through the saturated chains and those through the saturated parts of the olein chain are parallel. The solution of the beta1 structures is a step forward towards understanding the mechanism of fat-bloom formation in dark chocolate and has led to a reexamination of the beta2 structural model [see van Mechelen et al. (2006). Acta Cryst. B62, 1131-1138]. PMID:17108667

van Mechelen, Jan B; Peschar, Rene; Schenk, Henk

2006-12-01

393

Development of spatially diverse and complex dune-field patterns: Gran Desierto Dune Field, Sonora, Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pattern of dunes within the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico, is both spatially diverse and complex. Identification of the pattern components from remote-sensing images, combined with statistical analysis of their measured parameters demonstrate that the composite pattern consists of separate populations of simple dune patterns. Age-bracketing by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) indicates that the simple patterns represent relatively short-lived aeolian constructional events since ???25 ka. The simple dune patterns consist of: (i) late Pleistocene relict linear dunes; (ii) degraded crescentic dunes formed at ???12 ka; (iii) early Holocene western crescentic dunes; (iv) eastern crescentic dunes emplaced at ???7 ka; and (v) star dunes formed during the last 3 ka. Recognition of the simple patterns and their ages allows for the geomorphic backstripping of the composite pattern. Palaeowind reconstructions, based upon the rule of gross bedform-normal transport, are largely in agreement with regional proxy data. The sediment state over time for the Gran Desierto is one in which the sediment supply for aeolian constructional events is derived from previously stored sediment (Ancestral Colorado River sediment), and contemporaneous influx from the lower Colorado River valley and coastal influx from the Bahia del Adair inlet. Aeolian constructional events are triggered by climatic shifts to greater aridity, changes in the wind regime, and the development of a sediment supply. The rate of geomorphic change within the Gran Desierto is significantly greater than the rate of subsidence and burial of the accumulation surface upon which it rests. ?? 2006 The Authors. Journal compilation 2006 International Association of Sedimentologists.

Beveridge, C.; Kocurek, G.; Ewing, R. C.; Lancaster, N.; Morthekai, P.; Singhvi, A. K.; Mahan, S. A.

2006-01-01

394

Controlling runoff from subtropical pastures has differential effects on nitrogen and phosphorus loads.  

PubMed

A 4-yr (2005-2008) study was conducted to evaluate the potential of pasture water management for controlling nutrient losses in surface runoff in the Northern Everglades. Two pasture water management treatments were investigated on Bahia grass ( Flüggé) pastures: reduced flow and unobstructed flow. The reduced flow treatment was applied to four of eight 20.23-ha pastures by installing water control structures in pasture drainage ditches with flashboards set at a predetermined height. Four other pastures received the unobstructed-flow treatment, in which surface runoff exited pastures unimpeded. Automated instruments measured runoff volume and collected surface water samples for nutrient analysis. In analyzing data for before-after treatment analysis, the 2005 results were removed because of structural failure in water control structures and the 2007 results were removed because of drought conditions. Pasture water retention significantly reduced annual total nitrogen (TN) loads, which were 11.28 kg ha and 6.28 kg ha, respectively, in pastures with unobstructed and reduced flow. Total phosphorus (TP) loads were 27% lower in pastures with reduced flow than in pastures with unobstructed flow, but this difference was not statistically significant. Concentrations of available soil P were significantly greater in pastures with reduced flow. Pasture water retention appears to be an effective approach for reducing runoff volume and TN loads from cattle pastures in the Northern Everglades, but the potential to reduce TP loads may be diminished if higher water table conditions cause increased P release from soils, which could result in higher P concentration in surface runoff. PMID:21546685

Bohlen, Patrick J; Villapando, Odi R

2011-01-01

395

Diet, foraging, and use of space in wild golden-headed lion tamarins.  

PubMed

Lion tamarins (Callitrichidae: Leontopithecus) are small frugi-faunivores that defend large home ranges. We describe results from the first long-term investigation of wild golden-headed lion tamarins (L. chrysomelas; GHLTs). We present data about activity budgets, daily activity cycles, diet, daily path length, home range size, home range overlap, and territorial encounters for three groups of GHLTs that were studied for 1.5-2.5 years in Una Biological Reserve, Bahia State, Brazil, an area characterized by aseasonal rainfall. We compare our results to those from other studies of lion tamarins to identify factors that may influence foraging and ranging patterns in this genus. Ripe fruit, nectar, insects, and small vertebrates were the primary components of the GHLT diet, and gums were rarely eaten. Fruit comprised the majority of plant feeding bouts, and the GHLTs ate at least 79 different species of plants from 32 families. The most common foraging sites for animal prey were epiphytic bromeliads. The GHLTs defended large home ranges averaging 123 ha, but showed strong affinities for core areas, spending 50% of their time in approximately 11% of their home range. Encounters with neighboring groups averaged two encounters every 9 days, and they were always aggressive. Data about time budgets and daily activity cycles reveal that the GHLTs spent most of their time foraging for resources or traveling between foraging sites distributed throughout their home ranges. The GHLTs spent much less time consuming exudates compared to lion tamarins in more seasonal environments. Additionally, the GHLTs had much larger home ranges than golden lion tamarins (L. rosalia), and did not engage in territorial encounters as frequently as L. rosalia. GHLT ranging patterns appear to be strongly influenced by resource acquisition and, to a lesser extent, by resource defense. PMID:15152369

Raboy, Becky E; Dietz, James M

2004-05-01

396

[Hurricane impact on Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) beds in the Mexican Caribbean].  

PubMed

Hurricanes have increased in strength and frequency as a result of global climate change. This research was conducted to study the spatio-temporal distribution and changes of Thalassia testudinum, the dominant species in Bahia de la Ascension (Quintana Roo, Mexico), when affected by heavy weather conditions. To complete this objective, a 2001 Landsat ETM+ image and the information from 525 sampling stations on morpho-functional and coverage of T. testudinum were used, and the seeds generated for the classification of eight benthic habitats. To quantify the changes caused by two hurricanes, we used two images, one of 1988 (Gilberto) and another of 1995 (Roxanne); other three data sets (2003, 2005 and 2007) were also used to describe the study area without major weather effects. Six categorial maps were obtained and subjected to analysis by 8 Landscape Ecology indexes, that describe the spatial characteristics, structure, function, change of the elements (matrix-patch-corridor), effects on ecosystems, connectivity, edges, shape and patch habitat fragmentation. Models indicate that T. testudinum may be classified as a continuum (matrix), since the fragments were not observed intermittently, but as a progression from minimum to maximum areas in reference to their coverage (ecological corridors). The fragments do not have a regular shape, indicating that the impacts are recent and may be due to direct effects (high-intensity hurricanes) or indirect (sediment). Fragments of type "bare soils" have a discontinuous distribution, and are considered to be the sites that have remained stable over a long timescale. While more dense coverage areas ("beds", "medium prairie" and "prairie") have low fragmentation and high connection of fragments. Features have an irregular perimeter and radial growth of formal; suggesting that the impact of meteors has no effect on the resilience of T. testudinum in this ecosystem, indicating good environmental quality to grow in this bay. PMID:21516658

Arellano-Méndez, Leonardo U; Liceaga-Correa, María de los Angeles; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Hernández-Núñez, Héctor

2011-03-01

397

Effects of brine addition on effluent toxicity and marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulations  

SciTech Connect

Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. These factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of this study was to determine (a) the effect of salinity adjustment using hypersaline brine on the toxicity of effluents stored up to 40 d, and (b) to determine the effect of salinity adjustment on TIE manipulations. Changes in effluent toxicity over time were examined by using a municipal and an industrial effluent. A toxicity time series was performed for 16 d for the industrial effluent and 40 d for the municipal effluent. Toxicity was measured with modified 48-h acute Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina tests. Results indicate that, compared to day 0 test results, effluent stored with brine had fewer significant changes in toxicity than did effluent stored without brine. To determine the effects of brine addition on TIE manipulations, the authors conducted a series of manipulations in which one aliquot of an effluent had brine added prior to the TIE manipulations and the other aliquot had brine added after the TIE manipulation. The manipulations conducted were EDTA addition, sodium thiosulfate addition, C[sub 18] extraction, aeration, filtration, and graduated pH manipulations. Toxicity was measured with the modified 48-h acute mysid test. Addition of brine had no effect on the outcome of TIE manipulations. They have concluded that it is operationally easier to add brine as soon as possible after sampling and that effluent tests should be conducted as soon as practical.

Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)); Mitchell, K. (Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States). Biology Dept.); Zappala, M. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States))

1995-02-01

398

Polymorphisms of the cytokine genes TGFB1 and IL10 in a mixed-race population with Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Most Crohn’s disease (CD) genes discovered in recent years are associated with biological systems critical to the development of this disease. TGFB1 and IL10 are cytokines with important roles in CD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between CD, its clinical features and TGFB1 and IL10 gene polymorphisms. Methods This case–control study enrolled 91 patients and 91 controls from the state of Bahia, Brazil. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were studied in the TGFB1 gene (codon 10 T?>?C - rs1800470; codon 25 G?>?C - rs1800471) and IL10 gene (?1082 A?>?G - rs1800896; -819 T?>?C - rs1800871; -592 A?>?C - rs1800872). An analysis of the genetic polymorphisms was performed using a commercial kit. A comparison of allele frequencies and genotypes was estimated by calculating the odds ratio (OR) with a confidence interval adjusted via the Bonferroni test for a local alpha of 1%. A stratified analysis was applied for gender, race and smoking history. Patients with CD were characterized according to the Montreal classification. Results The C allele and CC genotype of the TGFB1 gene rs1800470 were both significantly associated with CD. The stratified analysis showed no confounding factors for the co-variables of gender, race and smoking history. The IL10 gene rs1800896 G allele was significantly associated with age at diagnosis of CD, while the T allele of the IL10 gene rs1800871 was significantly associated with perianal disease. The SNPs rs1800871 and rs1800872 were in 100% linkage disequilibrium. Conclusions TGFB1 gene polymorphisms may be associated with susceptibility to the development of CD, and IL10 gene polymorphisms appear to influence the CD phenotype in this admixed population.

2013-01-01

399

The fish species composition and variation of catch from the small-scale gillnet fishery before, during and after the 1997-1998 ENSO event, central Mexican Pacific.  

PubMed

In the tropical and subtropical coastal zone, were highly diverse fish communities occur, it is important to study the small scale fisheries exploiting these communities. For this study, 219 fishing days were carried out in Bahia de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico. Four gillnets with different mesh sizes (76.2, 88.9, 101.6 and 114.3 mm) were used for the fishing operations, from April 1994 to March 1995 and from January 1998 to December 2000. A total of 26126 organisms weighting 11680 kg were caught. One hundred and eighty three species belonging to 57 families and 19 orders were identified. Ten species accumulated more than 60% of the total abundance and biomass, the remaining species (173) individually contributed with less than 2% of the total abundance and biomass. The most important species in the catch were Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Scomberomorus sierra, C. caninus, C. sexfjasciatus, Lutjanus guttatus and L. argentiventris. The catch per unit of effort showed a large variation during the study, both in number and biomass. On average, 110 fishes and 48.5 kg fishing day(-1) were caught. The maximum values were recorded during January and October 1998 (250 fishes and 100 kg fishing day(-1)), and the minimum values were recorded during September and November 1994 (25 org. and 10 kg fishing day(-1)). The total abundance and biomass was lower during the 1994-95 period (F=6.16, 8.32, P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences among the annual catch from each gillnet. All the environmental changes caused by the ENSO event had ecological and economic effects that can be rated from moderate to severe. PMID:18624232

Rojo-Vázquez, J A; Quiñonez-Velázquez, C; Echavarria-Heras, H A; Lucano-Ramirez, G; Godínez-Domínguez, E; Ruiz-Ramírez, S; Galván-Piña, V H; Sosa-Nishizaki, O

2008-03-01

400

Population dynamics of Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae) at Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico.  

PubMed

The population dynamics of an intertidal population of Megapitaria squalida was studied from September 2002 to February 2003 in Bahia Magdalena, Mexico. To obtain information about the artisanal and recreational fishery of M. squalida, local fishermen at different parts of the bay were interviewed. Clam densities were determined at one unexploited and two exploited sites along perpendicular transects from the shore line. Average clam density was 2.01+/-1.41 ind/m2, densities did not differ significantly between the three sampling sites. The length-total mass relation was Mtot = 0.0001*SL3.1644 (r2 = 0.9804, n = 92) and the length-tissue mass relation was Mtis = 0.0002*SL2.7144 (r2 = 0.945, n = 92). Von Bertalanffy-growth parameters were determined using marked individuals. Strong interindividual and also seasonal differences in growth were observed. Average annual values were: K = 0.655, Linfinity = 83 mm. Since M. squalida can reach a shell length of more than 135 mm in deeper waters, it is necessary to consider intertidal and subtidal populations separately. Average total mortality (Z) was 1.61 y(-1). No fishing mortality was calculated because total mortality Z at the unexploited control site was higher than Z at the exploited sites. It appears that M. squalida migrates into deeper water with increasing shell length, as average shell length increased at lower tidal levels and marked specimens showed a clear migration towards deeper waters. As yet no overexploitation could be found in the study area. PMID:18491642

Schweers, Tanja; Wolff, Matthias; Koch, Volker; Duarte, Francisco Sinsel

2006-09-01

401

Local adverse effects associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with moderate or severe asthma*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe and characterize local adverse effects (in the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx) associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) in patients with moderate or severe asthma. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 200 asthma patients followed in the Department of Pharmaceutical Care of the Bahia State Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program Referral Center, located in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The patients were ? 18 years of age and had been using ICSs regularly for at least 6 months. Local adverse effects (irritation, pain, dry throat, throat clearing, hoarseness, reduced vocal intensity, loss of voice, sensation of thirst, cough during ICS use, altered sense of taste, and presence of oral candidiasis) were assessed using a 30-day recall questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 200 patients studied, 159 (79.5%) were women. The mean age was 50.7 ± 14.4 years. In this sample, 55 patients (27.5%) were using high doses of ICS, with a median treatment duration of 38 months. Regarding the symptoms, 163 patients (81.5%) reported at least one adverse effect, and 131 (65.5%) had a daily perception of at least one symptom. Vocal and pharyngeal symptoms were identified in 57 (28.5%) and 154 (77.0%) of the patients, respectively. The most commonly reported adverse effects were dry throat, throat clearing, sensation of thirst, and hoarseness. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported adverse effects related to ICS use were common among the asthma patients evaluated here.

Pinto, Charleston Ribeiro; Almeida, Natalie Rios; Marques, Thamy Santana; Yamamura, Laira Lorena Lima; Costa, Lindemberg Assuncao; Souza-Machado, Adelmir

2013-01-01

402

Prevalence of nutritional deficiency in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nutritional deficiency among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and from the medical records of patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (15-59 years of age) residing in one of the municipalities that make up the 16th Regional Health District of the state of Bahia. We calculated the incidence, lethality, and mortality rates, as well as the prevalence of nutritional deficiency, as evaluated by body mass index. Demographic, social, clinical, and epidemiological data were collected. RESULTS: Of the 72 confirmed cases of tuberculosis, 59 (81.9%) were in males, and 21 (29.2%) of the patients were in the 40-49 year age bracket. The majority (85.3%) described themselves as Mulatto or Black; 55.2% reported using alcohol; and approximately 90% were treated as outpatients. In the district and age bracket studied, the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 30.6/100,000 population. Among the 72 patients, data regarding nutritional status was available for 34. Of those, 50% and 25%, respectively, presented nutritional deficiency at the beginning and at the end of treatment. No statistically significant differences were found between normal-weight and malnourished patients regarding the characteristics studied. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of nutritional deficiency was high among our sample of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. This underscores the importance of nutritional follow-up for the assessment of tuberculosis treatment in the decision-making process regarding therapeutic interventions.

Piva, Silvana Gomes Nunes; Costa, Maria da Conceicao Nascimento; Barreto, Florisneide Rodrigues; Pereira, Susan Martins

2013-01-01

403

Resting blood lactate in individuals with sickle cell disease  

PubMed Central

Background The most common hereditary hemoglobin disorder, affecting 20 million individuals worldwide, is sickle cell disease. The vascular obstruction resulting from the sickling of cells in this disease can produce local hypoxemia, pain crises and infarction in several tissues, including the bones, spleen, kidneys and lungs. Objective To determine red blood group genes in a Brazilian populations. Methods The present study is characterized as a case control study, with the aim of identifying the baseline blood lactate concentration in individuals with hemoglobin SS and SC diseases. One-way ANOVA with the Tukey post-test was used to analyze the results and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Calculations were made using the INSTAT statistical program. The graphs were generated using the ORING program. The study sample was composed of 31 men and women residing in the city of Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Brazil. The individuals were divided into two groups: Group GC of 16 subjects who did not present with any type of structural hemoglobinopathy; and Group GE composed of 15 individuals with ages between 2 and 35 years old, who had the SS and SC genotypes. Sample analyses were performed with 3 mL of blood during fasting. Results The baseline blood lactate concentration of the SS and SC individuals was higher than that of the control group (p<0.001) with means of 4.86 ± 0.95; 3.30 ± 0.33; 1.31 ± 0.08 IU/L for SS, SC and controls, respectively. This corroborates the initial research hypothesis. Conclusion The baseline blood lactate of SS and SC individuals is 3 to 4 times higher than that of healthy subjects, probably due to the fact that these patients have a metabolic deviation to the anaerobic pathway.

Petto, Jefferson; de Jesus, Jaqueline Brito; Vasques, Leila Monique Reis; Pinheiro, Renata Leao Silva; Oliveira, Aila Mascarenhas; Spinola, Kelly Aparecida Borges; Silva, Wellington dos Santos

2011-01-01

404

Genetic Structure and Natal Origins of Immature Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Brazilian Waters  

PubMed Central

Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1) characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples), (2) analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3) inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa), and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations.

Proietti, Maira C.; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis Fernando; Rodriguez-Zarate, Clara; Marcovaldi, Maria A.; Monteiro, Danielle S.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R.

2014-01-01

405

Baseline susceptibility to Cry1Ac insecticidal protein in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in Brazil.  

PubMed

The tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), is one of the target pests of genetically modified cotton expressing Cry1Ac insecticidal protein (Bt cotton) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. This study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of field-collected populations of H. virescens to Cry1Ac to establish a baseline for use in an insect resistance management program for Bt cotton in Brazil. Insects were sampled from the main Brazilian cotton-growing regions (Bahia, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás) during the cropping seasons of 2007/08 and 2008/09. Cry1Ac susceptibility was estimated by using diet incorporation bioassays. H. virescens was highly susceptible to Cry1Ac protein. The estimated LC50 values varied from 0.18 to 0.66 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet among the 2007-2008 populations (approximately 3.7-fold variation). Similarly, the EC50 values based on growth inhibition ranged from 0.0053 to 0.0161 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet for the 2007-2008 populations (approximately 3.0-fold variation). A joint analysis of the mortality data across all tested populations was used to develop and validate the diagnostic concentrations of 3.1 and 5.6 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet, the upper bound of the confidence interval and twice the LC99 were selected, for resistance monitoring programs of H. virescens to Cry1Ac protein in Brazil. PMID:24020298

Albernaz, K C; Merlin, B L; Martinelli, S; Head, G P; Omoto, C

2013-08-01

406

The taxonomic status of the endangered thin-spined porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus (Olfers, 1818), based on molecular and karyologic data  

PubMed Central

Background The thin-spined porcupine, also known as the bristle-spined rat, Chaetomys subspinosus (Olfers, 1818), the only member of its genus, figures among Brazilian endangered species. In addition to being threatened, it is poorly known, and even its taxonomic status at the family level has long been controversial. The genus Chaetomys was originally regarded as a porcupine in the family Erethizontidae, but some authors classified it as a spiny-rat in the family Echimyidae. Although the dispute seems to be settled in favor of the erethizontid advocates, further discussion of its affinities should be based on a phylogenetic framework. In the present study, we used nucleotide-sequence data from the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and karyotypic information to address this issue. Our molecular analyses included one individual of Chaetomys subspinosus from the state of Bahia in northeastern Brazil, and other hystricognaths. Results All topologies recovered in our molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly supported Chaetomys subspinosus as a sister clade of the erethizontids. Cytogenetically, Chaetomys subspinosus showed 2n = 52 and FN = 76. Although the sexual pair could not be identified, we assumed that the X chromosome is biarmed. The karyotype included 13 large to medium metacentric and submetacentric chromosome pairs, one small subtelocentric pair, and 12 small acrocentric pairs. The subtelocentric pair 14 had a terminal secondary constriction in the short arm, corresponding to the nucleolar organizer region (Ag-NOR), similar to the erethizontid Sphiggurus villosus, 2n = 42 and FN = 76, and different from the echimyids, in which the secondary constriction is interstitial. Conclusion Both molecular phylogenies and karyotypical evidence indicated that Chaetomys is closely related to the Erethizontidae rather than to the Echimyidae, although in a basal position relative to the rest of the Erethizontidae. The high levels of molecular and morphological divergence suggest that Chaetomys belongs to an early radiation of the Erethizontidae that may have occurred in the Early Miocene, and should be assigned to its own subfamily, the Chaetomyinae.

Vilela, Roberto V; Machado, Tais; Ventura, Karen; Fagundes, Valeria; de J Silva, Maria Jose; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo

2009-01-01

407

Assessment of primary health care received by the elderly and health related quality of life: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Population aging leads to increased burden of chronic diseases and demand in public health. This study aimed to assess whether the score of Primary Health Care (PHC) is associated with a) the model of care - Family Health Strategy (FHS) vs. traditional care model (the Basic Health Units; BHU); b) morbid conditions such as - hypertension, diabetes mellitus, mental disorders, chronic pain, obesity and central obesity; c) quality of life in elderly individuals who received care in those units. Methods A survey was conducted among the elderly between August 2010 and August 2011, in Ilheus, Bahia. We interviewed elderly patients - 60 years or older - who consulted at BHU or FHS units in that day or participated in a group activity, and those who were visited at home by the staff of PHC, selected through a random sample. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, services’ attainment of primary care attributes, health problems and quality of life were investigated. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) was used to assess quality of life and PCATool to generate PHC scores. In addition, weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Trained research assistants, under supervision performed the data collection. Results A total of 511 elderly individuals were identified, two declined to participate, resulting in 509 individuals interviewed. The health care provided by the FHS has higher attainment of PHC attributes, in comparison to the BHU, resulting in lower prevalence of score below six. Except for hypertension and cardiovascular disease, other chronic problems were not independently associated with low scores in PHC. It was observed an independent and positive association between PHC score and the mental component of quality of life and an inverse association with the physical component. Conclusions This study showed higher PHC attributes attainment in units with FHS, regardless of the health problem. The degree of orientation to PHC increased the mental component score of quality of life.

2013-01-01

408

Serological markers of hepatitis A, B and C viruses in rural communities of the semiarid Brazilian northeast.  

PubMed

In the village of Cavunge, located in a dry tropical, semiarid rural region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, a sentinel study on viral hepatitis is underway. We report on the first part of the study. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis A, B and C in the village. Cross sectional study. Blood samples were tested for serological markers of hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV) and C (HCV) through ELISA-III assay. In HBsAg and anti-HCV carriers, HCV-RNA and HBV-DNA were checked by PCR. The prevalence of anti-HAV IgG was 83.3% (1,210/1,452), being higher among residents from the village (87.4%) than in residents from the rural area (79.5%); it also higher among individuals older than 10 years of age. The prevalence of HBsAg was 2.6% (38/1,476), 9.3% anti-HBc (137/1,476) and 10.5% (155/1,476) anti-HBs of. In more than half (58.1%; 90/155) of anti-HBs carriers, this was the only serological marker found. In 3.7% of the population, (55/1,476), anti-HBc was the only serological marker found. All HBV carriers were infected by genotype A. Only 0.4% (6/1,536) presented anti-HCV antibodies and only one of them was viremic, being infected with genotype 1. The prevalence of patients with antibodies against hepatitis A virus in the village of Cavunge was high, but the prevalence of B virus was moderate, with only genotype A among HBV carriers. The prevalence of C virus was very low, contrasting with the situation in large Brazilian urban centers. PMID:17293918

Almeida, Delvone; Tavares-Neto, José; Vitvitski, Ludmila; Almeida, Alessandro; Mello, Caroline; Santana, Diana; Tatsch, Fernando; Paraná, Raymundo

2006-10-01

409

Tolerance of sponge assemblages to temperature anomalies: resilience and proliferation of sponges following the 1997-8 El-Niño southern oscillation.  

PubMed

Coral reefs across the world are under threat from a range of stressors, and while there has been considerable focus on the impacts of these stressors on corals, far less is known about their effect on other reef organisms. The 1997-8 El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had notable and severe impacts on coral reefs worldwide, but not all reef organisms were negatively impacted by this large-scale event. Here we describe how the sponge fauna at Bahia, Brazil was influenced by the 1997-8 ENSO event. Sponge assemblages from three contrasting reef habitats (reef tops, walls and shallow banks) at four sites were assessed annually from 1995 to 2011. The within-habitat sponge diversity did not vary significantly across the study period; however, there was a significant increase in density in all habitats. Multivariate analyses revealed no significant difference in sponge assemblage composition (ANOSIM) between pre- and post-ENSO years for any of the habitats, suggesting that neither the 1997-8 nor any subsequent smaller ENSO events have had any measurable impact on the reef sponge assemblage. Importantly, this is in marked contrast to the results previously reported for a suite of other taxa (including corals, echinoderms, bryozoans, and ascidians), which all suffered mass mortalities as a result of the ENSO event. Our results suggest that of all reef taxa, sponges have the potential to be resilient to large-scale thermal stress events and we hypothesize that sponges might be less affected by projected increases in sea surface temperature compared to other major groups of reef organisms. PMID:24116109

Kelmo, Francisco; Bell, James J; Attrill, Martin J

2013-01-01

410

The Impact of a Program for Control of Asthma in a Low-Income Setting  

PubMed Central

Abstract: The prevalence of asthma is increasing in developing countries and the burden of uncontrolled asthma affects patients, families, and the health system. This is to summarize, evaluate, and discuss previous reports on the impact of a targeted and comprehensive approach to the most severe cases of asthma in a low-income setting. A Program for Control of Asthma (ProAR) was developed in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, prioritizing the control of severe asthma. By facilitating referrals from the public health system and providing proper multidisciplinary but simple management including education and medication, for free, the Program enrolled 2385 patients in 4 reference clinics. They are offered regular follow up and discharged back to primary health care only when asthma control can be maintained without requirement of a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting ?2 agonist. ProAR has markedly reduced health resource utilization and decreased the rate of hospital admissions because of asthma in the entire City (2.8 million inhabitants) by 74%. Moderate to severe rhinitis was associated with lack of control of asthma. The average income of the families in the ProAR was US$2955 a year, and they spent 29% of all their income attempting to control the severe asthma of one member, a unbearable expenditure for a low-income family. The ProAR was shown to be cost-effective, reducing costs to the public health system (US$387 patient/year) and the families (US$789 patient/year). In a low-income setting of Brazil, an intervention prioritizing the control of severe asthma was feasible, effective, and reduced costs.

Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Franco, Rosana; Souza-Machado, Carolina; Ponte, Eduardo V.; Moura Santos, Pablo; Barreto, Mauricio L.

2010-01-01

411

Blooms of Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Gymnodiniaceae) in the Gulf of California, Mexico.  

PubMed

Cochlodinium polykrikoides was the species responsible for the discoloration that occurred between September 15th and 27th, 2000 in a shallow coastal lagoon located in the southern part of the Bahia de La Paz, on the west side of the Gulf of California. Blooms of C. polykrikoides were observed four days after two rainy days with a seawater temperature of 29 to 31 degrees C. Nutrient concentration ranges during the bloom were 0.165-0.897 microM NO2+NO3, 0.16-3.25 microM PO4, and 1.0-35.36 microM SiO4. Abundance of C. polykrikoides ranged from 360 x 10(3) to 7.05 x 10(6)/cells l(-1). Biomass expressed in terms of chlorophyll a was high, ranging from 2.7 to 56.8 mg/m3. A typical dinoflagellate pigment profile (chlorophyll a and c, peridinin, diadinoxantin, and beta-carotene) was recorded. In this study, the red tide occurred in front of several fish and shrimp-culture ponds. No PST toxins were found in the samples. However, 180 fish were found dead in the infected fish-pond; the gills were the most affected part. C. polykrikoides is a cyst-forming species that recurs in this area. New blooms were observed in November 2000 and September-November 2001 in the same area. Anthropogenic activities, such as eutrophication caused by water discharge in this shallow lagoon, and nutrient enrichment in the culture ponds, as well as effects from precipitation and wind stress, could have favored the outbreak of this dinoflagellate. PMID:17465117

Gárate-Lizárraga, I; López-Cortes, D J; Bustillos-Guzmán, J J; Hernández-Sandoval, F

2004-09-01

412

Ochratoxin A in serum of swine from different Brazilian states.  

PubMed

The aims of the current study were to monitor the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the serum of slaughtered swine and to investigate its distribution in 4 major geographical regions of Brazil. A total of 400 samples of serum were collected from 4 major states of Brazil (100 samples each). Ochratoxin A concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In Santa Catarina State, 60% of the samples had OTA concentrations ranging from 4.01 to 75.4 mg/l. In Mato Grosso State, 75% of the samples had OTA concentrations ranging from 0.17 to 46.79 mg/l. Bahia State samples had OTA concentrations ranging from 2.72 to 4.13 mg/l in 36% of the samples, whereas 68% of the samples from Rio de Janeiro State had OTA concentrations ranging from 0.16 to 115 mg/l. Only Santa Catarina State and Rio de Janeiro State had serum samples that exceeded 75 mg/l OTA in 20% and 2% of the samples, respectively. A direct relationship between the higher concentrations of OTA in serum from the States of Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro and the highest concentrations of OTA in food intended for animal consumption in the same 2 Brazilian states was found in the present study. Ochratoxin A distribution in foodstuffs is very heterogeneous, and an alternative method by which to monitor the presence of OTA in feed includes analyzing swine serum samples, which reflect the toxin content of the ingested feed. This strategy could prevent the occurrence of ochratoxicosis in animal production, reduce economic losses, and minimize hazards to human health. PMID:20807935

Krüger, César D; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Direito, Glória M; Keller, Kelly M; Dalcero, Ana M; da Rocha Rosa, Carlos A

2010-09-01

413

Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

2003-08-01

414

Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter cloacae endophytes from healthy Theobroma cacao L. trees can systemically colonize seedlings and promote growth.  

PubMed

Clonal genotypes resistant to fungal diseases are an important component of the cocoa production system in southeastern Bahia state (Brazil), so that technologies for faster production of stronger and healthier plantlets are highly desirable. In this study, the effects of inoculated bacterial endophytes isolated from healthy adult cacao plants on seedlings, and aspects related to inoculation methods, colonization patterns, and photosynthesis were investigated. Sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp-60, and rpo-B genes placed the wild-type isolates within the species Enterobacter cloacae (isolates 341 and 344) and Bacillus subtilis (isolate 629). Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (rif(R)) variants for 344 were also produced and tested. Endophytic application was either by immersion of surface sterilized seeds in bacterial suspensions or direct inoculation into soil, 20 days after planting non-inoculated seeds into pots. Results from in vitro recovery of inoculated isolates showed that the wild-type endophytes and rif(R) variants systemically colonized the entire cacao seedlings in 15-20 days, regardless of the inoculation method. Some endophytic treatments showed significant increases in seedlings' height, number of leaves, and dry matter. Inoculation methods affected the combined application of endophytes, which maintained the growth-promotion effects, but not in the same manner as in single applications. Interestingly, the 344-3.2 rif(R) variant showed improved performance in relation to both the wild type and another related variant. Photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance increased significantly for some endophytic treatments, being partially associated with effects on growth and affected by the inoculation method. The results suggest that E. cloacae and B. subtilis endophytes from healthy adult plants (not transmitted by seeds) were able to promote vegetative growth on cacao seedlings. The development of products for large-scale use in seedlings/plantlets production systems was discussed. PMID:23212670

Leite, Hianna Almeida Câmara; Silva, Anderson Barbosa; Gomes, Fábio Pinto; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Faria, José Cláudio; de Souza, Jorge Teodoro; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

2013-03-01

415

Tolerance of Sponge Assemblages to Temperature Anomalies: Resilience and Proliferation of Sponges following the 1997-8 El-Ni?o Southern Oscillation  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs across the world are under threat from a range of stressors, and while there has been considerable focus on the impacts of these stressors on corals, far less is known about their effect on other reef organisms. The 1997–8 El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had notable and severe impacts on coral reefs worldwide, but not all reef organisms were negatively impacted by this large-scale event. Here we describe how the sponge fauna at Bahia, Brazil was influenced by the 1997–8 ENSO event. Sponge assemblages from three contrasting reef habitats (reef tops, walls and shallow banks) at four sites were assessed annually from 1995 to 2011. The within-habitat sponge diversity did not vary significantly across the study period; however, there was a significant increase in density in all habitats. Multivariate analyses revealed no significant difference in sponge assemblage composition (ANOSIM) between pre- and post-ENSO years for any of the habitats, suggesting that neither the 1997–8 nor any subsequent smaller ENSO events have had any measurable impact on the reef sponge assemblage. Importantly, this is in marked contrast to the results previously reported for a suite of other taxa (including corals, echinoderms, bryozoans, and ascidians), which all suffered mass mortalities as a result of the ENSO event. Our results suggest that of all reef taxa, sponges have the potential to be resilient to large-scale thermal stress events and we hypothesize that sponges might be less affected by projected increases in sea surface temperature compared to other major groups of reef organisms.

Kelmo, Francisco; Bell, James J.; Attrill, Martin J.

2013-01-01

416

Sociodemographic factors and health in a population of children living in families infected with HIV in Fortaleza and Salvador, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study explores the relationships between demographic, socioeconomic and health statuses of children whose parents were HIV positive in two cities in Northeast Brazil. We conducted a multisite exploratory study in HIV/AIDS referral services for HIV/AIDS in Fortaleza, the capital of Ceará State, and Salvador, the capital of Bahia State, between June 2008 and March 2009. The study population consisted of 562 HIV+ adults - or caretakers of children of HIV+ adults - who provided information about a single index child under 13 years of age of either sex in their household. A structured questionnaire was used for to the adult parent or caretaker. We used multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), as implemented in the software SPAD (Portable Système pour l'Analyse des données). This analysis enabled us to identify the relationships between a large number of variables simultaneously. Of the 562 children, 311 (55.3%) lived in Fortaleza and 251 (44.7%) lived in Salvador. The proportion of HIV-infected children in Fortaleza was 14.2%, and 61.4% (27/44) of these had progressed to AIDS. In Salvador 34.7% of children were seropositive and 95% (83/87) were diagnosed with AIDS. The most important factors that emerged from the study were city and serostatus of the children. These two active variables accounted for 75.3% of the variance. Results are grouped into four profiles that describe the complex of socioeconomic variables closely associated with these families, and the complex and multiple epidemics of HIV, discrimination and poverty associated with these AIDS-affected families. PMID:23061927

Cavalcante, Maria do Socorro; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Silva, Diorlene de Oliveira; Dourado, Inês; Galvão, Marli Terezinha Gimeniz; Kendall, Carl

2013-01-01

417

Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. Objective To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Methods Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (? 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (? 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (? 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ? 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ? 4,000g). Results One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW.

de Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves; Guimaraes, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla; Guimaraes, Armenio Costa

2013-01-01

418

?15N in the turtle grass from the Mexican Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient inputs associated with population growth threaten the integrity of coastal ecosystems. To assess the rapid increase in tourism, we compared the ?15N from Thalassia testudinum collected at sites with different levels of tourism development and population to detect the N inputs of wastewater discharge (WD) along the coast of Quintana Roo. The contributions of nitrogen enriched in 15N are directly related to the increase of WD inputs in areas of high tourism development (Nichupte Lagoon in Cancun, >3 million tourists per year from 2007 to 2011 and 0.7 million of resident population) and decreased towards Bahia Akumal and Tulum (>3 million tourists per year from 2007 to 2011 and 0.15 million of resident population). The ?15N from T. testudinum was significantly lower at Mahahual and Puerto Morelos (about 0.4 million tourists per year in 2007 to 2011 and 0.25 million of resident population) than other the sites. In areas of the lowest development and with tourist activity restricted and small population, such as the Yum Balam Reserve and Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, the ?15N values were in much higher enrichment that Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. Therefore is suggested that Mahahual and Puerto Morelos may be used for baseline isotopic monitoring, over environmental pressure on the reef lagoon ecosystem, where tourist activities and population are growing very slow rate. The anthropogenic N input has the potential to impact, both environmentally and economically, the seagrass meadows and the coral reefs along the coast of Quintana Roo and the Caribbean.

Talavera-Saenz, A.; Sanchez, A.; Ortiz-Hernandez, M.

2013-05-01

419

Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.  

PubMed

Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both types of subtropical grass pollens to achieve optimal diagnosis and treatment of patients with allergic respiratory disease in subtropical regions of the world. PMID:24684550

Davies, J M

2014-06-01

420

Relative salinity tolerance of warm season turfgrass species.  

PubMed

Fresh water, coupled with soil salinization in many areas has resulted in an increased need forscreening of salt tolerant turf grasses. Relative salinity tolerance of eightwarm season turfgrass species were examined in this study in sand culture. Grasses were grown in a glasshouse, irrigated with either distilled water or saline sea water adjusted to 24, 48 or 72 dSm-1. Salt tolerances of the grasses were assessed on the basis of their shoot and root growth, leaf firing and turf quality. Regression analysis indicated that Zoysiajaponica (Japanese lawn grass) (JG), Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustine) (SA), Cynodon dactylon (satiri) (BS), Zoysia teneuifolia (Korean grass) (KG), Digitaria didactyla (Serangoon grass) (SG), Cynodon dactylon (Tifdwarf) (TD), Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass) (BG) and Axonopus compressus(Pearl blue) (PB) suffered a 50% shoot growth reduction at 36.0, 31.8, 30.9, 28.4, 26.4, 25.7, 20.0 and 18.6 dSm1 of salinity, respectively and a root growth reduction at44.9, 43.7, 33.4, 31.0, 29.5 27.5, 21.5 and 21.4 dSm- of salinity, respectively. Leaf firing and turf quality of the selected species, as a whole, were also found to be affected harmoniously with the change in root and shoot growth. On the basis of the experimental results the selected species were ranked for salinity tolerance as JG>SA>BS>KG>SG >TD>BG>PB. PMID:22167942

Uddin, Kamal M; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Othman, Radziah; Rahim, Anuar Abdul

2011-05-01

421

Impaired lymphocyte profile in schistosomiasis patients with periportal fibrosis.  

PubMed

The Th2 immune response in chronic schistosomiasis is associated with the development of periportal fibrosis. However, little is known about the phenotype and activation status of T cells in the process. Objective. To evaluate the profile of T cells in schistosomiasis patients with periportal fibrosis. Methods. It was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the village of Agua Preta, Bahia, Brazil, which included 37 subjects with periportal fibrosis determined by ultrasound. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained by the Ficcol-hypaque gradient and the frequency of T cells expressing the surface markers CD28, CD69, CD25, and CTLA-4 was determined by flow cytometry. Results. The frequency of CD4(+)CD28(+) T lymphocytes was higher in individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis compared to patients with incipient fibrosis. We did not observe any significant difference in the frequency of CD4(+) T cells expressing CD69 among groups of individuals. There was also no significant difference in the frequency of CD8(+) T cells expressing CD28 or CD69 among the studied groups. Individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis presented a lower frequency of CD8(+) T cells, CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells, and CD4(+)CTLA-4(+) T cells when compared to patients without fibrosis or incipient fibrosis. The frequency of CD4(+)CD25(low) cells did not differ between groups. Conclusion. The high frequency of activated T cells coinciding with a low frequency of putative Treg cells may account for the development of periportal fibrosis in human schistosomiasis. PMID:24348679

Cardoso, Luciana Santos; Barreto, Andréia de Souza Rocha; Fernandes, Jamille Souza; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; de Souza, Robson da Paixão; Carvalho, Edgar M; Araujo, Maria Ilma

2013-01-01

422

Impaired Lymphocyte Profile in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

The Th2 immune response in chronic schistosomiasis is associated