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1

Factor structure of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale in trauma-exposed college students.  

PubMed

This study examined the factor structure of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS; M. Sierra & G. E. Berrios, 2000 ), a 29-item self-report measure of depersonalization. The CDS was based on a conceptualization of depersonalization as a multidimensional construct, a theoretical perspective that has received limited empirical attention. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on CDS item scores in a sample of 534 trauma-exposed college students. Results failed to support factor structures of the CDS previously reported in the literature and instead supported a 2-factor solution, with 1 factor representing a sense of unreality and detachment and a 2nd factor representing emotional and physical numbing. Implications regarding the structural validity of the CDS are discussed. [Supplementary material is available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Trauma & Dissociation for the following resource: Four tables with the following information: inter-correlations among CDS items from Samples 1 and 2; Sierra et al. (2005 ) four-factor model and Simeon et al. (2008 ) five-factor model estimated factor loadings, covariances, and R-square in Sample 1; Factor loadings for 3-7 factor EFA models in Sample 1; and estimated factor loadings for one-factor CFA model in Sample 2.]. PMID:23627478

Blevins, Christy A; Witte, Tracy K; Weathers, Frank W

2013-01-01

2

De-constructing depersonalization: Further evidence for symptom clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depersonalization disorder is defined in the DSM-IV-TR using a single symptom criterion, which does not do justice to the phenomenological complexity of the disorder. In 394 affected adults, the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale yielded five factors (numbing, unreality of self, perceptual alterations, unreality of surroundings, and temporal disintegration), put forth as symptom criteria for a better diagnosis of depersonalization disorder.

Daphne Simeon; David Stephen Kozin; Karina Segal; Brenna Lerch; Roxanne Dujour; Timo Giesbrecht

2008-01-01

3

Depersonalization Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... re in your mid- to late teens or early adulthood. Depersonalization disorder is rare in children and older adults. You have panic disorder, depression, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or multiple personality disorder. Complications Episodes of ...

4

Depersonalization and Basic Symptoms in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the classic psychopathologic notion of depersonalization in the light of the Basic Symptom paradigm. A sample of 57 chronic schizophrenics was cross-sectionally assessed with the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS) and contextually with specific scales testing positive, negative, depressive and alexithymic dimensions. In order to categorize depersonalized vs.

Carlo Maggini; Andrea Raballo; Paola Salvatore

2002-01-01

5

Alcohol-induced depersonalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A case of alcohol-induced depersonalization disorder is presented. The subject had experienced several depersonalization states following the consumption of alcohol rather than from a psychogenic etiology, and the episodes were transient, not chronic.Methods: Three quantitative EEG (QEEG) studies were performed on the subject, one during the index depersonalization episode and two subsequent studies when the subject was clinically asymptomatic.Results:

Eric B Raimo; Richard A Roemer; Mark Moster; Yang Shan

1999-01-01

6

Depersonalization: a conceptual history  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with other clinical phenomena, the historical analysis of the term, concepts and behaviours involved in the construction of 'depersonalization' should provide researchers with an essential frame for its empirical study, Before the term was coined in 1898, and under a variety of names, behaviours typical of 'depersonalization' were reported by Esquirol, Zeller, Billod, and Griesinger. The word dépersonnalisation derived

M. Sierra; G. E. Berrios

1997-01-01

7

Depersonalization as a defense mechanism in survivors of trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the relationship between experiencing depresonalization during traumatic events and subsequent psychiatric symptomatology. Participants were 75 Boston University undergraduate students who reported 186 traumatic events. Information about their experiences of depersonalization during these events was obtained by the Depersonalization Questionnaire (DQ) a scale based primarily on the Dissociation Experience Scale (Bernstein and Putnam, 1986). Symptomatology was measured by

Etay Shilony; Frances K. Grossman

1993-01-01

8

Depersonalization syndrome: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depersonalization syndrome is an intriguing condition which entails the inclusion of both philosophical and psychiatric considerations. The author presents a clinical review of the syndrome with the inclusion of four essential components classically included in the literature. These components include a possible preformed response of the brain, an obsessional quality, a depressive element and a tendency towards a peculiar perseveration.

Evan M. Torch

1981-01-01

9

Independence of depersonalization-derealization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used data from structured mental state interviews given to 866 psychiatric inpatients to investigate the hypothesized independence of the depersonalization-derealization syndrome from diagnosis and other factors of psychopathology. Results support the hypothesized relation, and confirm previous findings that depersonalization and derealization are nonspecific to other behaviors, are not related to sex, and decrease with age.

Joseph L. Fleiss; Barry J. Gurland; Kenneth Goldberg

1975-01-01

10

Early emotional processing deficits in depersonalization: an exploration with event-related potentials in an undergraduate sample.  

PubMed

Emotional stimuli may draw attention to such an extent that they hamper the processing of subsequent signals, a phenomenon termed emotion-induced blindness (EIB). As depersonalization is associated with self-reported attenuated emotional responses, the present study explored whether individuals scoring high on the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS; n=15) exhibit a diminished EIB effect relative to low CDS scoring individuals (n=15), and whether attentional processes reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs) are implicated in this effect. We obtained an EIB effect such that emotional distractors that preceded targets with a lag of 200ms reduced correct detection of targets. Although the magnitude of this effect was similar for high and low CDS participants, high CDS participants exhibited a significantly lower ERP amplitude at the frontal lead in the 200-300ms window than did low CDS individuals to targets that followed emotional versus neutral distractors. This latter effect was significantly related to the Alienation factor of the CDS. This pattern suggests that difficulties in the discrimination between emotional and neutral stimuli relate to the feeling of unreality in depersonalization. PMID:23149021

Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Giesbrecht, Timo; Meijer, Ewout; Merckelbach, Harald; de Jong, Peter J; Thorsteinsson, Haraldur; Smeets, Tom; Simeon, Daphne

2012-11-10

11

Basal norepinephrine in depersonalization disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the noradrenergic dysregulation described in PTSD, little is known regarding noradrenergic function in dissociative disorders. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate basal norepinephrine in depersonalization disorder (DPD). Nine subjects with DSM-IV DPD, without lifetime PTSD, were compared to nine healthy comparison (HC) subjects. Norepinephrine was measured via 24-h urine collection and three serial plasma

Daphne Simeon; Orna Guralnik; Margaret Knutelska; Rachel Yehuda; James Schmeidler

2003-01-01

12

Depersonalization disorder: thinking without feeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with depersonalization disorder (DP) experience a detachment from their own senses and surrounding events, as if they were outside observers. A particularly common symptom is emotional detachment from the surroundings. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we compared neural responses to emotionally salient stimuli in DP patients, and in psychiatric and healthy control subjects. Six patients with DP, 10

Mary L Phillips; Nicholas Medforda; Carl Senior; Edward T. Bullmorec; John Suckling; Michael J. Brammer; Chris Andrew; Mauricio Sierraa; Stephen C. R. Williamse; Anthony S. Davida

2001-01-01

13

Treatment of depersonalization disorder with clomipramine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although there is a dire paucity of data on the pharmacologic treatment of depersonalization disorder, there have been a few reports in the literature suggesting that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be of therapeutic benefit. In this study, we undertook to evaluate the efficacy of the potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor clomipramine in treating depersonalization.Methods: Eight subjects with DSM-III-R depersonalization

Daphne Simeon; Dan J. Stein; Eric Hollander

1998-01-01

14

Fair Trade and the Depersonalization of Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fair Trade has changed considerably since its early days. In this article, we argue that these changes have led to a depersonalization\\u000a of ethics, thus raising serious questions about the future of Fair Trade. In particular, the depersonalization of ethics which\\u000a is seen to accompany the current changes has led to greater variety in the interpretations of Fair Trade. Hiding

Jérôme Ballet; Aurélie Carimentrand

2010-01-01

15

Induction of depersonalization by the serotonin agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-seven subjects, including normal volunteers and patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and borderline personality disorder, received ratings of depersonalization after double-blind, placebo-controlled challenges with the partial serotonin agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP). Challenge with m-CPP induced depersonalization significantly more than did placebo. Subjects who became depersonalized did not differ in age, sex, or diagnosis from those who did not experience depersonalization.

Daphne Simeon; Eric Hollander; Dan J. Stein; Concetta DeCaria; Lisa J. Cohen; Jihad B. Saoud; Nazrul Islam; Michael Hwang

1995-01-01

16

The Flip Side: An Investigation into the Depersonalization of Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author investigated the depersonalization of student communication in grades six through twelve. The Flip Side Survey was run to focus in on whether or not the use of instant message programs and text messages via cellular telephones is depersonalizing communication between 6th through 12th grade students (N=213). Depersonalization was broken down in to five constructs: empathy, compassion, conversational cue

Eileen S Myer

2010-01-01

17

Effect of naloxone therapy on depersonalization: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis of the role for the opioid system in the pathogenesis of depersonalization, the effect of naloxone (an opioid receptor blocker) on the symptoms and corticosteroids secretion was studied in patients with depersonalization syndrome. Fourteen depersonalization patients were treated with naloxone: 11 patients received single doses (1.6 or 4 mg i.v.) and three others received multiple infusions,

Yuri L. Nuller; Marina G. Morozova; Olga N. Kushnir; Nikita Hamper

2001-01-01

18

Dissociation in virtual reality: depersonalization and derealization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at virtual worlds such as Second Life7 (SL) as possible incubators of dissociation disorders as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition3 (also known as the DSM-IV). Depersonalization is where \\

Gregory P. Garvey

2010-01-01

19

Depersonalization and the Sense of Realness  

Microsoft Academic Search

From Minkowski and Jaspers to Blankenburg, phenomenological psychopathology has assumed that lost or diminished experience of ‘realness’ is related to an impairment of tacit level intersubjectivity. This paper develops a theoretical framework for this hypothesis by drawing mainly on the phenomenological tradition and the works of Wittgenstein. The argument, in return, contributes to recent discussions regarding depersonalization and intersubjectivity. In

Somogy Varga

2012-01-01

20

Relationship between depersonalization and eating disorders among Japanese nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among nurses, depersonalization symptoms are serious mental problems which may prevent them from accomplishing their work and may cause medical errors. Therefore, it is important to detect de- personalization among nurses and to give care when it is found. However, depersonalization sym- ptoms are subjectively experienced and recognizing them can be di‹cult for both the person who ex- periences them

Miyuki SUGIURA; Masataka HIROSAWA; Motoki MIZUNO; Yasuyuki YAMADA; Sumio TANAKA; Aya OKADA

21

Depersonalization: Standing in the Spaces Between Recognition and Interpellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depersonalization is the experience of profound estrangement and alienation from Self and Reality. Although highly prevalent in our postmodern world, the syndrome of depersonalization has been systematically understudied, misdiagnosed, and unsuccessfully treated. In this paper we summarize our theoretical conclusions after a decade-long empirical study of this population and discuss both etiology and recommendations for treatment. Our main objective here

Orna Guralnik; Daphne Simeon

2010-01-01

22

ECEM (Eye Closure, Eye Movements): application to depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Eye Closure, Eye Movements (ECEM) is a hypnotically-based approach to treatment that incorporates eye movements adapted from the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol in conjunction with hypnosis for the treatment of depersonalization disorder. Depersonalization Disorder has been differentiated from post-traumatic stress disorders and has recently been conceptualized as a subtype of panic disorder (Baker et al., 2003; David, Phillips, Medford, & Sierra, 2004; Segui et. al., 2000). During ECEM, while remaining in a hypnotic state, clients self-generated six to seven trials of eye movements to reduce anticipatory anxiety associated with depersonalization disorder. Eye movements were also used to process triggers that elicited breath holding, often followed by episodes of depersonalization. Hypnotic suggestions were used to reverse core symptoms of depersonalization, subjectively described as "feeling unreal" (Simeon et al., 1997). PMID:19862896

Harriet, E Hollander

2009-10-01

23

Cambridge Cosmology: Black Holes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Cambridge Cosmology site introduces the concept of black holes, explaining their properties and presenting observational evidence for their existence. Also covered are black hole formation, and determination of weight, size, and distance.

Stewart, John; Hamade, Rufus

24

CambridgeSoft  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CambridgeSoft provides a variety for software for chemical structure drawing and visualization, including the popular ChemDraw and Chem3D programs. Chem3D Ultra includes computational chemistry capability.

25

Depersonalization Experiences in Undergraduates Are Related to Heightened Stress Cortisol Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The relationship between dissociative tendencies, as mea- sured with the Dissociative Experiences Scale and its amnesia, absorption\\/imaginative involvement, and depersonalization\\/dereal- ization subscales, and HPA axis functioning was studied in 2 samples,of undergraduate,students (N,58 and 67). Acute stress was induced by means of the Trier Social Stress Test. Subjective and physiological stress (i.e., cortisol) responses were measured. Indi- viduals high

Timo Giesbrecht; Tom Smeets; Harald Merckelbach; Marko Jelicic

2007-01-01

26

Cambridge Cosmology: Quantum Gravity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of Cambridge Cosmology explains the concepts of quantum gravity and quantum cosmology, and how they are useful in understanding space and the space-time continuum. This includes the M-theory, formerly known as the string theory, and the Holographic Principle, in order to explain phenomena such as black holes and the first one-hundredth of a second of the Big Bang.

Hertog, Thomas; Herdeiro, Carlos; Chamblin, H.; Ashbourn, J.; Reall, Harvey

27

Depersonalization in Patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, First-Degree Relatives and Normal Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depersonalization occurs in healthy individuals and across a broad range of psychiatric patients. Data on depersonalization in persons linked to patients through genetics, environment or education are scarce. Due to their higher risk of developing psychosis, first-degree healthy relatives might show differences with the general population. This study examines depersonalization in patients with schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum disorders, their

Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Torres; Lucía Inchausti; Maialen Aristegui; Berta Ibañez; Luis Diez; Aranzazu Fernandez-Rivas; Sonia Bustamante; Karim Haidar; Maier Rodríguez-Zabaleta; Argiñe Mingo

2010-01-01

28

A preliminary evaluation of repeated exposure for depersonalization and derealization.  

PubMed

Dissociative symptoms including depersonalization and derealization are commonly experienced by individuals suffering from panic disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have been published investigating the specific treatment of these symptoms in individuals diagnosed with panic disorder or PTSD, despite evidence that the subset of individuals with panic disorder who experience depersonalization and derealization report more panic attacks as well as greater panic severity and functional impairment. Furthermore, it has been shown that these symptoms can impede treatment and recovery in PTSD. Finally, recent research has shown that interoceptive exposure generally enhances the efficacy of treatment outcome for PTSD and PTSD with comorbid panic. This study investigated the use of a novel interoceptive exposure technique for treatment of depersonalization and derealization in individuals with high anxiety sensitivity and/or symptoms of PTSD. Results indicated significant reductions on six of seven items as well as total score on an outcome measure of depersonalization and derealization. Thus, this technique appears to hold promise for utilization as a form of interoceptive exposure in the treatment of these symptoms. PMID:23118274

Weiner, Elliot; McKay, Dean

2012-11-01

29

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis Dysregulation in Depersonalization Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate HPA axis function in dissociation. Methods: Nine subjects with DSM-IV depersonalization disorder (DPD), without lifetime Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or current major depression, were compared to nine healthy comparison (HC) subjects of comparable age and gender. Results: DPD subjects demonstrated significant hyposuppression to low-dose dexamethasone administration and significantly elevated morning

Daphne Simeon; Orna Guralnik; Margaret Knutelska; Eric Hollander; James Schmeidler

2001-01-01

30

Feeling Unreal: A PET Study of Depersonalization Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this study was to assess brain glucose metabolism and its relationship to dissociation measures and clinical symptoms in DSM-IV depersonal- ization disorder. Method: Positron emission tomography scans coregistered with magnetic reso- nance images of eight subjects with deper- sonalization disorder were compared to those of 24 healthy comparison subjects. The two groups did not differ in

Daphne Simeon; Orna Guralnik; Erin A. Hazlett; Jacqueline Spiegel-Cohen; Eric Hollander; Monte S. Buchsbaum

2000-01-01

31

Emotional memory in depersonalization disorder: A functional MRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines emotional memory effects in primary depersonalization disorder (DPD). A core complaint of DPD sufferers is the dulling of emotional responses, and previous work has shown that, in response to aversive stimuli, DPD patients do not show activation of brain regions involved in normal emotional processing. We hypothesized that DPD sufferers would not show the normal emotional enhancement

Nicholas Medford; Barbara Brierley; Michael Brammer; Edward T. Bullmore; Anthony S. David; Mary L. Phillips

2006-01-01

32

Interoceptive Cue Exposure for Depersonalization: A Case Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder relies heavily on interoceptive exposure. Specifically, therapists induce physical symptoms associated with panic in order to produce habituation to those sensations. Many common symptoms of panic are easily induced, such as increased heart rate and dizziness. However, depersonalization is a…

McKay, Dean; Moretz, Melanie W.

2008-01-01

33

The Cambridge controlled choice plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent choice in education is enjoying growing support among both minorities and whites. The greatest practical impetus to the extension of parent choice in public schools has been the use of magnet schools in desegregation plans. This study analyzes the history of parent choice in Cambridge, Mass. and its outcome. Parent choice in the Cambridge public schools has produced greater

Christine H. Rossell; Charles L. Glenn

1988-01-01

34

Cambridge Cosmology: Cosmic Strings and Other Defects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of Cambridge Cosmology discusses cosmic strings and other defects in our Universe. It begins with phase transitions in the early Universe, and how cosmic strings and other defects formed early on. Cosmic string evolution and dynamics are discussed while looking at high-resolution numerical cosmic string simulations. Also covered are possible explanations for the origin of large-scale structures (such as galaxies) and texture models of these structures.

Shellard, Paul; Martins, Carlos; Sornborger, Andrew

35

Depersonalization: a selective impairment of self-awareness.  

PubMed

Depersonalization is characterised by a profound disruption of self-awareness mainly characterised by feelings of disembodiment and subjective emotional numbing. It has been proposed that depersonalization is caused by a fronto-limbic (particularly anterior insula) suppressive mechanism--presumably mediated via attention--which manifests subjectively as emotional numbing, and disables the process by which perception and cognition normally become emotionally coloured, giving rise to a subjective feeling of 'unreality'. Our functional neuroimaging and psychophysiological studies support the above model and indicate that, compared with normal and clinical controls, DPD patients show increased prefrontal activation as well as reduced activation in insula/limbic-related areas to aversive, arousing emotional stimuli. Although a putative inhibitory mechanism on emotional processing might account for the emotional numbing and characteristic perceptual detachment, it is likely, as suggested by some studies, that parietal mechanisms underpin feelings of disembodiment and lack of agency feelings. PMID:21087873

Sierra, Mauricio; David, Anthony S

2010-11-17

36

The Cambridge Controlled Choice Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes the history and outcomes of parent choice and magnet schools in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Finds that parent choice has resulted in greater interracial exposure than the prior mandatory reassignment plan, and that student achievement has increased. (FMW)|

Rossell, Christine H.; Glenn, Charles L.

1988-01-01

37

Prevalence of depersonalization and derealization experiences in a rural population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dissociative symptoms are common psychiatric symptoms whose prevalence in rural (agricultural) populations is unknown. The\\u000a present study examines the prevalence of depersonalization and derealization experiences in a southern rural US population\\u000a as well as socio-demographic and emotional factors associated with these experiences. Method: A random sample of 1008 adults in rural eastern North Carolina completed a survey by telephone,

Y. A. Aderibigbe; R. M. Bloch; W. R. Walker

2001-01-01

38

A placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of lamotrigine in depersonalization disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence to support the view that glutamate hyperactivity might be relevant to the neurobiology of depersonalization. We tested the efficacy of lamotrigine, which reduces glutamate release, as a treatment for patients with depersonalization disorder. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design was used to evaluate 12 weeks of treatment of lamotrigine. Subjects comprised nine patients with DSM-IV depersonalization disorder. Changes

Mauricio Sierra; Mary L. Phillips; Glynis Ivin; John Krystal; Anthony S. David

2003-01-01

39

33 CFR 117.549 - Cambridge Harbor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.549 Cambridge Harbor. The draw of the S342 bridge, mile 0.1 at Cambridge, shall open on signal from 6...

2013-07-01

40

When and How Does Depersonalization Increase Conformity to Group Norms in Computer-Mediated Communication?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment reported herein examined how depersonalization, operationalized as the lack of individuating information, affects conformity to a group norm in anonymous computer-mediated communication. Participants made a decision about choice dilemmas and exchanged their decisions and supporting arguments with three ostensible partners via computer, who unanimously endorsed the position opposite of the participant’s. As predicted, depersonalization led to a more

Eun-Ju Lee

2006-01-01

41

Implicit Self-Esteem in Borderline Personality and Depersonalization Disorder  

PubMed Central

Self-perception is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and depersonalization disorder (DPD), fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem (ISE), free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined ISE using the Implicit Association Test, along with measures of emotion, behavior, and temperament, in BPD (n?=?18), DPD (n?=?18), and healthy control (n?=?35) participants. DPD participants had significantly higher ISE and were more harm avoidant than BPD and control participants, while BPD participants had more “frontal” behaviors and impulsivity and less self-directedness and cooperativeness than DPD and control participants. Thus, while BPD and DPD commonly overlap in terms of dissociative symptoms and emotional irregularities, differences in self-esteem, behavior, and temperament can help identify where they diverge in terms of their cognition, behavior, and ultimately underlying neurobiology.

Hedrick, Alexis N.; Berlin, Heather A.

2012-01-01

42

Cambridge Biotech HIV-1 Western Blot Kit  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... 1998 Approval Letter; HIV - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (Anti-HIV-1 Assay) - Cambridge Biotech HIV-1 ... Food and Drug Administration. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

43

Prevalence and childhood antecedents of depersonalization syndrome in a UK birth cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Depersonalization syndrome is characterised by a sense of unreality about the self [depersonalization (DP)] and\\/or the outside\\u000a world [derealization (DR)]. Prevalence estimates vary widely. Little is known about childhood antecedents of the disorder\\u000a although emotional abuse is thought to play a role.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Longitudinal data from 3,275 participants of a UK population-based birth cohort (the MRC National Survey of Health and

William E. LeeCharlie; Charlie H. T. Kwok; Elaine C. M. Hunter; Marcus Richards; Anthony S. David

44

Towards a Four-Dimensional Model of Burnout: A Multigroup Factor-Analytic Study Including Depersonalization and Cynicism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigated whether cynicism and depersonalization are two different dimensions of burnout or whether they may be collapsed into one construct of mental distance. Using confirmatory factor analyses in two samples of teachers (n = 483) and blue-collar workers (n = 474), a superior fit was found for the four-factor model that contained cynicism, depersonalization, exhaustion, and professional efficacy

Marisa Salanova; Susana Llorens; Mónica García-Renedo; Raül Burriel; Edgar BresÓ; Wilmar B. Schaufeli

2005-01-01

45

Depersonalization or Cynicism, Efficacy or Inefficacy: What Are the Dimensions of Teacher Burnout?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate on the dimensionality of the burnout syndrome. Specifically, its aims are: (1) to investigate the role of efficacy beliefs using negatively worded inefficacy items instead of positive ones and (2) to establish whether depersonalization and cynicism can be considered two different dimensions…

Simbula, Silvia; Guglielmi, Dina

2010-01-01

46

The neurobiology and clinical significance of depersonalization in mood and anxiety disorders: A critical reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depersonalization and derealization occur on a continuum of situations, from healthy individuals to a severely debilitating disorder where the symptoms can persist chronically. Since 1960s, different neurobiological models have been hypothesized and they have been associated with the temporal lobes. Recent advances in the functioning of the limbic system and the application of Geschwind's concept of disconnection in the cortico-limbic

Marco Mula; Stefano Pini; Giovanni B. Cassano

2007-01-01

47

Anomalous self-experience in depersonalization and schizophrenia: a comparative investigation.  

PubMed

Various forms of anomalous self-experience can be seen as central to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. We examined similarities and differences between anomalous self-experiences common in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, as listed in the EASE (Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences), and those described in published accounts of severe depersonalization. Our aims were to consider anomalous self-experience in schizophrenia in a comparative context, to refine and enlarge upon existing descriptions of experiential disturbances in depersonalization, and to explore hypotheses concerning a possible core process in schizophrenia (diminished self-affection, an aspect of "ipseity" or minimal self). Numerous affinities between depersonalization and schizophrenia-spectrum experience were found: these demonstrate that rather pure forms of diminished self-affection (depersonalization) can involve many experiences that resemble those of schizophrenia. Important discrepancies also emerged, suggesting that more automatic or deficiency-like factors--probably involving self/world or self/other confusion and erosion of first-person perspective--are more distinctive of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. PMID:23454432

Sass, Louis; Pienkos, Elizabeth; Nelson, Barnaby; Medford, Nick

2013-03-01

48

Pain Response in Depersonalization: A Functional Imaging Study Using Hypnosis in Healthy Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depersonalization (DP) is characterized by persistent or recurrent episodes of detachment from one’s self with reduced pain perception being a common feature. Alterations in the body schema similar to the cortico-limbic disconnection syndrome of pain asymbolia are suggested to be responsible for DP. In this study we used hypnosis to induce DP in healthy subjects and to examine neural

Christian H. Röder; Matthias Michal; G. Overbeck; Vincent G. van de Ven; David E. J. Linden

2007-01-01

49

Narcissistic Regulation of the Self and Interpersonal Problems in Depersonalized Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Psychoanalytical theories coincide in understanding depersonalization (DP) as a disorder of narcissistic self-regulation. DP is described as an ego defense against overwhelming shame resulting in a splitting of an observing ego detached from the experiencing self. In contrast to a behavioral-cognitive theory on DP, which suggests that the catastrophic appraisal of normal transient DP maintains the disorder, psychodynamic approaches

M. Michal; J. Kaufhold; G. Overbeck; R. Grabhorn

2006-01-01

50

Depersonalization or Cynicism, Efficacy or Inefficacy: What Are the Dimensions of Teacher Burnout?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate on the dimensionality of the burnout syndrome. Specifically, its aims are: (1) to investigate the role of efficacy beliefs using negatively worded inefficacy items instead of positive ones and (2) to establish whether depersonalization and cynicism can be considered two different dimensions of…

Simbula, Silvia; Guglielmi, Dina

2010-01-01

51

The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System provides a comprehensive, funamental, and up-to-date description of the solar system. It is written in a concise, light and uniform style, without being unnecessarily weighted down with specialized materials or the variable writing of multiple authors. It is filled with vital facts and information for astronomers of all types and for anyone with

Kenneth R. Lang

2003-01-01

52

77 FR 3118 - Security Zone; Choptank River and Cambridge Channel, Cambridge, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cambridge Channel in order to safeguard high-ranking public officials from terrorist acts and...establishing the security zone to protect high-ranking government officials, mitigate potential...intended objectives of protecting high-ranking government officials, mitigating...

2012-01-23

53

Depersonalization or cynicism, efficacy or inefficacy: what are the dimensions of teacher burnout?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate on the dimensionality of the burnout syndrome. Specifically, its aims\\u000a are: (1) to investigate the role of efficacy beliefs using negatively worded inefficacy items instead of positive ones and\\u000a (2) to establish whether depersonalization and cynicism can be considered two different dimensions of the teacher burnout\\u000a syndrome. The results show that,

Silvia Simbula; Dina Guglielmi

2010-01-01

54

Depersonalization Disorder: Disconnection of Cognitive Evaluation from Autonomic Responses to Emotional Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD) typically complain about emotional detachment. Previous studies found reduced autonomic responsiveness to emotional stimuli for DPD patients as compared to patients with anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate autonomic responsiveness to emotional auditory stimuli of DPD patients as compared to patient controls. Furthermore, we examined the modulatory effect of mindful breathing on these responses as well as on depersonalization intensity. Methods 22 DPD patients and 15 patient controls balanced for severity of depression and anxiety, age, sex and education, were compared regarding 1) electrodermal and heart rate data during a resting period, and 2) autonomic responses and cognitive appraisal of standardized acoustic affective stimuli in two conditions (normal listening and mindful breathing). Results DPD patients rated the emotional sounds as significantly more neutral as compared to patient controls and standardized norm ratings. At the same time, however, they responded more strongly to acoustic emotional stimuli and their electrodermal response pattern was more modulated by valence and arousal as compared to patient controls. Mindful breathing reduced severity of depersonalization in DPD patients and increased the arousal modulation of electrodermal responses in the whole sample. Finally, DPD patients showed an increased electrodermal lability in the rest period as compared to patient controls. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that the cognitive evaluation of emotional sounds in DPD patients is disconnected from their autonomic responses to those emotional stimuli. The increased electrodermal lability in DPD may reflect increased introversion and cognitive control of emotional impulses. The findings have important psychotherapeutic implications.

Michal, Matthias; Koechel, Ansgar; Canterino, Marco; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Vossel, Gerhard; Beutel, Manfred E.; Gamer, Matthias

2013-01-01

55

Teacher's Guide to Accompany the Cambridge Latin Course. Tentative Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to assist teachers using the "Cambridge Latin Course," a multimedia instructional system developed in the United Kingdom which can be adapted to the needs of pupils of varying backgrounds, ages, and abilities. The Guide focuses on Unit I, the first level of the Cambridge materials. The materials are especially suited to…

Masciantonio, Rudolph

56

The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expertly written and lavishly illustrated, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy offers a unique account of astronomical theory and practice from antiquity to the present day. How did Moslems of the Middle Ages use astronomy to calculate the direction of Mecca from far-flung corners of the Islamic world? Who was the only ancient Greek to suspect that the earth might revolve around the sun? How did Christopher Columbus abuse his knowledge of a lunar eclipse predicted by an astronomical almanac? Packed with anecdotes and intriguing detail, this book describes how we observed the sky and interpreted what we saw at different periods of history; how this influenced our beliefs and mythology; and how great astronomers contributed to what we now know. The result is a lively and highly visual history of astronomy - a compelling read for specialists and non-specialists alike.

Hoskin, Michael

57

The Whipple Museum and Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Whipple Museum is part of the History and Philosophy of Science Department in the University of Cambridge. It is on your right as soon as you enter Free School Lane from Pembroke Street, and is normally open between 1:30 and 4:30 P.M. on weekdays. The main room, a hall with hammer-beam roof, is a relic of Stephen Perse’s school (1624) now flourishing elsewhere in the city. It houses a large collection of mathematical, physical and astronomical instruments — abaci, Napier’s bones, slide rules; sextants and other surveying instruments; telescopes, compasses and pocket sundials (especially of ivory from Nuremberg 1500-1700); and a Grand Orrery by George Adams (1750). The gallery of a second room is used for special exhibitions, often of items from the well-stocked store. Some specialist catalogues have been compiled and are on sale.

Pippard, Brian

58

Depersonalization, Self-Esteem and Body Image in Male-to-Female Transsexuals Compared to Male and Female Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether postoperative male-to-female transsexuals differ in regard to measures of self- and body image from a nontranssexual control group was investigated. A group of 30 postoperative male-to-female transsexuals and control groups of 30 males and 30 females completed self-report measures (depersonalization, self-esteem, gender identity traits, body image). Results showed that transsexuals and males scored higher on self-esteem and dynamic body

Uwe Wolfradt; Kerstin Neumann

2001-01-01

59

Changes of P300 Elicited during a Working Memory Test in Individuals with Depersonalization-Derealization Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: The P300 component of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) is related to fundamental aspects of cognitive functions, such as Working Memory (WM) and attention allocation. Deficits in these domains have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depersonalization-derealization (DD). The present study focused on the P300 elicited during a WM test in transient DD experiences. Methods: Fifteen subjects with transient DD experiences

Charalabos Papageorgiou; Erricos Ventouras; Nikolaos Uzunoglu; Andreas Rabavilas; Costas Stefanis

2002-01-01

60

[Depersonalization syndrome after acquired brain damage. Overview based on 3 case reports and the literature and discussion of etiological models].  

PubMed

Depersonalization after brain damage is still only rarely reported and poorly understood. We describe three patients between the ages of 21 and 25 who experienced depersonalization and derealization for periods of 6 weeks to 4 months, two after traumatic brain injury, the third after surgical and radiation treatment of a pineocytoma. Each one believed to be living in a nightmare and thought about committing suicide in order to wake up. One patient developed symptoms as described in Cotard delusion. Aspects of neuroanatomy, psychodynamics, and anthropology are discussed with reference to the literature. Frontal and temporal lesions seem only to play a facilitating role but not to be a necessary condition. There is evidence for additional influence of psychological and premorbid personality factors. Summarizing the current state of information we consider depersonalization with the experience of being in a dream or being dead as a heuristic reaction to brain damage. Similar models have already been discussed in neuropsychological disorders as for instance reduplicative paramnesias, neglect, and anosognosia. PMID:9888147

Paulig, M; Böttger, S; Sommer, M; Prosiegel, M

1998-12-01

61

Pricing road space: back to the future? The Cambridge experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambridge is a small free standing city in the UK with a population of 105 000. In recent years it has endured a worsening congestion problem essentially as a result of employment growth within the city and the narrow street layout. This is not a unique problem but one which is particularly acute in historic cities. In 1990, Congestion Metering

Stephen Ison

1996-01-01

62

Open and closed systems and the Cambridge School  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years a group of researchers at Cambridge (UK) have (re)introduced conceptions of open and closed systems into economics. In doing so they have employed these categories in ways that, in my assessment, both facilitate a significant critique of current disciplinary practices and also point to more fruitful ways of proceeding. In an issue of this journal, Andrew Mearman

Vinca Bigo

2006-01-01

63

Should the Cambridge primary review be wedded to Vygotsky?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cambridge Primary Review's (CPR) preference for a Vygotskian model of schools learners and learning rather than a Piagetian is queried. There are weaknesses and uncertainties with major Vygotskian ideas such as the ‘zone of proximal development’, ‘internalisation’, ‘joint construction’, ‘language mediation’ and educational acculturation, relative to the Piagetian, while human scientific research with babies suggesting inherited capability thrust humans

Peter Silcock

2011-01-01

64

EVALUATION OF HEADSTART EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM IN CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BEGINNING WITH A REVIEW OF THE NURSERY SCHOOL MOVEMENT (FROEBEL, MONTESSORI, AND MCMILLAN,) THIS EVALUATION RELATES THE HISTORICAL MATERIAL TO HEAD START, SPECIFICALLY IN CAMBRIDGE MASS. DURING THE SUMMER OF 1965, MATCHED GROUPS OF 33 HEAD START CHILDREN AND 33 NON-HEAD START CHILDREN (CONTROL GROUP) WERE STUDIED. SCHOOL PRE-REGISTRATION LISTS…

PORTER, PHILIP J.; AND OTHERS

65

The Growth of Economic Studies at Cambridge: 1776-1860.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the resistance toward establishing an economics curriculum at Cambridge University from 1776 to 1860. Complex reasons include inertia, low intellectual standards, fear of being considered partisan, and avoidance of change during good times. The eventual introduction of economics was achieved only when wholesale reforms were enacted within…

Rashid, Salim

1980-01-01

66

The Cambridge Primary Review: A Reply to R. J. Campbell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author was disappointed by R. J. Campbell's sour critique of the Cambridge Primary Review in "FORUM" Volume 52 Number 1 2010. His description of the Review's proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking, cumbersome and partial" is such a bizarre misjudgement that it calls for some response. The author comments in turn on R. J.…

Armstrong, Michael

2010-01-01

67

Cambridge Cosmology: The Hot Big Bang Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website introduces the Big Bang Model (also known as the standard cosmology) and the fact that it successfully explains many details about the formation of the Universe. It also touches upon issues not explainable through standard cosmology. A brief history of observational cosmology in the 20th century is given as a reference, followed by a brief history of our Universe as told through standard cosmology as well as particle and quantum cosmology. This site goes through the four 'pillars' of the Hot Big Bang Model: expansion of the Universe after a violent explosion, origin of the cosmic background radiation, nucleosynthesis of the light elements, and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structures in the Universe.

Shellard, Paul

68

TypeD personality and depersonalization are associated with suicidal ideation in the German general population aged 35–74: Results from the Gutenberg Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSuicidal ideation (SID) is a major risk factor for suicide attempts. Mental disorders are among the strongest correlates of suicide, with depression and anxiety disorders playing a major role. The present study aims to investigate the contribution of under researched factors contributing to SID such as depersonalization, Type-D personality and cardiovascular risk factors.

Matthias Michal; Jörg Wiltink; Yvonne Till; Philipp S. Wild; Thomas Münzel; Stefan Blankenberg; Manfred E. Beutel

2010-01-01

69

A comparison of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) with "traditional" neuropsychological testing instruments.  

PubMed

The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is frequently used in research protocols and increasingly in clinical practice. Despite the frequency of its use, important aspects of its measurement validity have yet to be established in healthy adults. Two hundred and fifty-five individuals completed the CANTAB and traditional neuropsychological tests commonly used in clinical practice, including selected subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Animal Naming, Trail Making Tests A and B, the Stroop test, and the Green Story Recall test. Results showed that CANTAB subtests were modestly correlated with traditional subtests. Correlations between CANTAB subtests and traditional subtests were less consistent when age and education were controlled for. In conclusion, the CANTAB shows modest associations with traditional neuropsychological test measures. PMID:23444947

Smith, Patrick J; Need, Anna C; Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Chiba-Falek, Ornit; Attix, Deborah K

2013-02-27

70

Highlights of the Cambridge Gyrokinetics Program: A Personal Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four-week Program/Workshop on Gyrokinetics in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas (organized by W. Dorland, S. Nazarenko, and A. Schekochihin) occurred in Cambridge, UK, during July 19 -- August 13, 2010. Topics included gyrokinetic (GK) phase-space turbulence, sheared GK turbulence, kinetic reconnection, edge GKs, and approaches to global full-f GK simulations. Key results and outstanding problems that were identified will be summarized from a personal perspective. The material is intended to provide a snapshot of the state-of-the-art in modern GK research and to foster discussion on future directions.

Krommes, John A.

2010-11-01

71

Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education1  

PubMed Central

The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal–organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout.

Battle, Gary M.; Ferrence, Gregory M.; Allen, Frank H.

2010-01-01

72

Studiebesoeka pa Department of Engineering Science i Oxford och pa Cavendish Laboratory i Cambridge (Visit to Department of Engineering Science i Oxford and Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This travel report describes some interesting details observed during the visit at the Department of Engineering Science in Oxford and the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. The visit at these two laboratories was part in a competence program in the field...

M. Oskarsson M. Jacob M. Nilsson J. Petersson A. Pettersson

2000-01-01

73

The effects of being spurned and self-esteem on depersonalization and coping preferences in kindergarten teachers: the case of Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to examine, based on a model of spurned helpers’ reactions: (a) the degrees to which\\u000a kindergarten teachers in Hong Kong, China, experienced recurrent rejections of their offers of help (being spurned) by peer\\u000a teachers; (b) whether being spurned by peers would induce depersonalization; (c) the ways teachers with higher or lower self-esteem\\u000a coped

Wai Hing Cheuk; Kwok Sai Wong; Sidney Rosen

2011-01-01

74

School Court Liaison Program: The Cambridge Model. Technical Assistance Bulletin 31.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Cambridge Rindge and Latin School in Cambridge (Massachusetts) has developed a School-Juvenile Court Liaison Program. Central to the effectiveness of this program is the appointment of a school staff member who fills the role of a liaison or "linking mechanism" between the school and court. The overall objective for the liaison is to increase…

National School Resource Network, Washington, DC.

75

Abbreviations for Hemingway Works Cambridge Edition of The Letters of Ernest Hemingway  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Sandra Spanier, General Editor of the Cambridge Edition, shares the “Abbreviations for Hemingway Works” created for The Letters of Ernest Hemingway. With this issue of The Hemingway Review we will be adopting the Cambridge system as our “house style.”

Sandra Spanier

2011-01-01

76

Abbreviations for Hemingway Works Cambridge Edition of The Letters of Ernest Hemingway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandra Spanier, General Editor of the Cambridge Edition, shares the “Abbreviations for Hemingway Works” created for The Letters of Ernest Hemingway. With this issue of The Hemingway Review we will be adopting the Cambridge system as our “house style.”

Sandra Spanier

2011-01-01

77

A Geologic Time Scale 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successor to A Geologic Time Scale 1989 (Cambridge, 1990), this volume introduces the theory and methodology behind the construction of the new time scale, before presenting the scale itself in extensive detail. An international team of over forty stratigraphic experts develops the most up-to-date international stratigraphic framework for the Precambrian and Phanerozoic eras. A large wallchart summarizing the time

Felix M. Gradstein; James G. Ogg; Alan G. Smith

2005-01-01

78

The Depersonalization of Sex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Love is frequently interpreted in a reductionistic way as a mere sublimation of sexual drives and instincts which man shares with all the other animals. Such an interpretation blocks a true understanding of all the various human phenomena. (Author)

Frankl, Viktor E.

1977-01-01

79

The German adaptation of the Cambridge pulmonary hypertension outcome review (CAMPHOR)  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) experience severely impaired quality of life. A disease-specific outcome measure for PH, the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) was developed and validated in the UK and subsequently adapted for use in additional countries. The aim of this study was to translate and assess the reliability and validity of the CAMPHOR for German-speaking populations. Methods Three main adaptation stages involved; translation (employing bilingual and lay panels), cognitive debriefing interviews with patients and validation (assessment of the adaptation’s psychometric properties). The psychometric evaluation included 107 patients with precapillary PH (60 females; age mean (standard deviation) 60 (15) years) from 3 centres in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Results No major problems were found with the translation process with most items easily rendered into acceptable German. Participants in the cognitive debriefing interviews found the questionnaires relevant, comprehensive and easy to complete. Psychometric analyses showed that the adaptation was successful. The three CAMPHOR scales (symptoms, activity limitations and quality of life) had excellent test-retest reliability correlations (Symptoms?=?0.91; Activity limitations?=?0.91; QoL?=?0.90) and internal consistency (Symptoms?=?0.94; Activity limitations?=?0.93; QoL?=?0.94). Predicted correlations with the Nottingham Health Profile provided evidence of the construct validity of the CAMPHOR scales. The CAMPHOR adaptation also showed known group validity in its ability to distinguish between participants based on perceived general health, perceived disease severity, oxygen use and NYHA classification. Conclusions The CAMPHOR has been shown to be valid and reliable in the German population and is recommend for use in clinical practice.

2012-01-01

80

A concept in the right place at the wrong time: congestion metering in the city of Cambridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1990s the concept of congestion metering was considered in the context of the city of Cambridge. A trial was undertaken in October 1993 but it did not proceed beyond this stage. Why was this so? The paper attempts first to outline the reasons why the city of Cambridge presented an ideal opportunity for the implementation of some

Stephen Ison

1998-01-01

81

An adaptation of the Cambridge Colour Test for use with animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, molecular biological techniques have presented new opportunities for addressing questions concerning the neural mechanisms involved in color coding, thereby rousing renewed interest in animal color vision testing. We have modified a computer-based assessment tool, the Cambridge Colour Test, to make it suitable for use with animals. Here, the validity and reliability of the testing method were evaluated using squirrel

KATHERINE MANCUSO; MAUREEN NEITZ; JAY NEITZ

2006-01-01

82

COMMENTARY Occurrence of Pharmaceutically Acceptable Anions and Cations in the Cambridge Structural Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of a number of pharmaceutically acceptable counterions in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been investigated. The results have been compared to the occurrence of the same counterions in a list of known pharmaceutical salts. Chloride salts are by far the highest occurring in both groups. The occurrence of hydrates in the structures of salts of pharmaceutically acceptable

DELIA A. HAYNES; WILLIAM JONES; W. D. SAMUEL MOTHERWELL

83

The Cambridge Millites and the Early Economic Writings of Leslie Stephen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leslie Stephen is now chiefly remembered as the founder of the Cambridge school of literary criticism; a champion of agnosticism during a period in which such beliefs drew condemnation; a pioneer of the art of mountaineering and the author of numerous mountaineering classics; the first editor of one of the great literary projects of the Victorian age, the Dictionary of

Gregory C G Moore

2006-01-01

84

Up the Garden Path: A Chemical Trail through the Cambridge University Botanic Garden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The living world is a rich source of chemicals with many medicines, dyes, flavorings, and foodstuffs having their origins in compounds produced by plants. We describe a chemical trail through the plant holdings of the Cambridge University Botanic Gardens. Visitors to the gardens are provided with a laminated trail guide with 22 stopping points…

Battle, Gary M.; Kyd, Gwenda O.; Groom, Colin R.; Allen, Frank H.; Day, Juliet; Upson, Timothy

2012-01-01

85

Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative, Year-Long Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…

Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

2012-01-01

86

Cambridge-Miami Score for Intestinal Transplantation Preoperative Risk Assessment: Initial Development and Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionPreoperative quantification of survival after transplantation would assist in assessing patients. We have developed a preliminary preoperative scoring system, called the Cambridge-Miami (CaMi) score, for transplantation of the small intestine either alone or as a composite graft.

S. J. Middleton; S. Nishida; A. Tzakis; J. M. Woodward; S. Duncan; C. J. Watson; A. Wiles; R. Sivaprakasam; A. J. Butler; S. M. Gabe; N. V. Jamieson

2010-01-01

87

Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative, Year-Long Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…

Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

2012-01-01

88

Dialogism in Caryl Phillips's Cambridge, or the democratisation of cultural memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets out to re?evaluate Caryl Phillips's novel Cambridge in the light of its intertextual dimension. It illustrates how the novel is carefully and deliberately composed of innumerable fragments of 18th and 19th century travelogues and histories on the one hand, and early black British writings on the other. In a major artistic and imaginative achievement, Phillips thus not

Lars Eckstein

2001-01-01

89

Using the Concordancer in Vocabulary Development for the Cambridge Advanced English (CAE) Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses concordancing activities tailored for use with English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students in the Cambridge Advanced English course in Australia. The article focuses on students selecting appropriate vocabulary to complete gapped text. Findings indicate that these activities benefit ESL students by providing authentic examples of…

Somogyi, Emma

1996-01-01

90

Preliminary control technology assessment of the Cambridge Tile Manufacturing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A visit was made to the Cambridge Tile Manufacturing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio to evaluate methods used to control hazardous conditions arising during the manufacturing process. Particular attention was given to controlling exposures to harmful chemical agents, silica, noise and excessive heat. The company manufactured 20,000 square feet of tile per day including nonrefractory tiles. A fabric stocking-type sleeve between railroad

1982-01-01

91

Ninth Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems and the Sun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Grant was used to publish the Proceedings from the Ninth Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun held in Florence, Italy from 3 to 6 October 1995. The Proceedings were published by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in the...

A. K. Dupree

1998-01-01

92

Civil Politics in the Animal Rights Conflict: God Terms versus Casuistry in Cambridge, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many public debates become polarized, degenerating into a pattern of mutual suspicion and name-calling that preclude communication or compromise. The debate over animal research has typically followed this path. To understand how polarization might be avoided, we examine the factors that helped prevent it in one local controversy: Cambridge, Massachusetts in the late 1980s. These factors include the personal style

Scott Sanders; James M. Jasper

1994-01-01

93

“The ‘Domestication’ of Heredity: The Familial Organization of Geneticists at Cambridge University, 1895–1910”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early years of Mendelism, 1900–1910, William Bateson established a productive research group consisting of women and men studying biology at Cambridge. The empirical evidence they provided through investigating the patterns of hereditary in many different species helped confirm the validity of the Mendelian laws of heredity. What has not previously been well recognized is that owing to the

Marsha L. Richmond

2006-01-01

94

Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Cambridge Primary Review: A Response to R. J. Campbell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the author's response to R.J. Campbell's critique of the "Cambridge Primary Review," which was published in the autumn of 2009. The author argues that Campbell's description of the "Review's" central proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking and inadequately theorised" is so misjudged as to call for a…

Armstrong, Michael

2011-01-01

95

Provisional Approaches to Goals for School Mathematics; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 37.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics K-6. In view of the experiences of other curriculum groups and of the general discussions since 1963, the present report initiates the next step in evolving the…

Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, Newton, MA.

96

Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia in Eighteen Volumes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week, Bartleby.com (last reviewed in the December 10, 1999 Scout Report) announced the online publication of all eighteen volumes of the classic Cambridge History of English and American Literature. This excellent free resource "comprises the largest public reference work of literary criticism and history on the Internet." Originally published in 1907-1921, the volumes include 303 chapters and more than 11,000 pages, edited and written by a worldwide panel of 171 leading scholars and thinkers of the early twentieth century. The online version features over 5,600 files, searchable by keyword and browseable by volume, chapter, and section. The electronic Cambridge History also includes chapter and bibliography indexes. Although a bit dated in parts, these eighteen volumes are a valuable, and now easily accessible, research tool for secondary and university students.

97

Innovative primary care training: the Cambridge Health Alliance Oral Physician Program.  

PubMed

We evaluated the Oral Physician Program, a dental residency sponsored by Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and the Cambridge Health Alliance that offers an innovative model for training dentists to provide limited primary care. The didactic and clinical experiences increased residents' medical knowledge and interviewing skills, and faculty assessments supported their role as oral physicians. Oral physicians could increase patients'-especially patients from underserved groups-access to integrated oral and primary care services. PMID:22994253

Giddon, Donald B; Seymour, Brittany Anne; Swann, Brian; Anderson, Nina K; Jayaratne, Yasas S N; Outlaw, Jason; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

2012-09-20

98

A spiritual leader? Cambridge zoology, mountaineering and the death of F.M. Balfour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frank Balfour was regarded by his colleagues as one of the greatest biologists of his day and Charles Darwin’s successor, yet the young aristocrat died in a climbing accident before his thirty-first birthday. Reactions to his death reveal much about the image of science and scientists in late-Victorian Britain. In this paper I examine the development of the Cambridge school

Helen Blackman

2004-01-01

99

Institutionalizing Poet’s Theater: The Cambridge Poets’ Theatre in the 1950s  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beginnings of American poet’s theater coalesced in the period immediately following WWII, when rich, performance-oriented poetry and theater scenes came together on the makeshift stages of urban coffee houses, shared apartments, and underground theaters. One of the most important poet’s theater groups was the Cambridge Poets’ Theatre, founded by playwright and performer V. R. “Bunny” Lang and Beat poet

Heidi R. Bean

2011-01-01

100

The Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative Model of Clinical Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship (HMS-CIC) is a redesign of the principal clinical year to foster students' learning from close and continuous contact with cohorts of patients in the disciplines of internal medicine, neurology, obstetrics- gynecology, pediatrics, and psychiatry. With year-long mentoring, students follow their patients through major venues of care. Surgery and radiology also are taught longitudinally, grounded

Barbara Ogur; David Hirsh; Edward Krupat; David Bor

2007-01-01

101

Belimumab Human Genome Sciences/Cambridge Antibody Technology/GlaxoSmithKline.  

PubMed

Belimumab, the lead in a series of human monoclonal antibodies against the human protein B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), is under development by Human Genome Sciences, Cambridge Antibody Technology and GlaxoSmithKline for the potential treatment of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). By January 2006, belimumab had completed phase II clinical trials in SLE and RA; a phase III clinical SLE trial is scheduled to begin later this year. PMID:16729724

Ding, Changhai; Jones, Graeme

2006-05-01

102

Conference on Surfaces of Biomaterials Biotechnology - Biointeractions '87 Held in Cambridge, United Kingdom on 6-8 July 1987,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presentations given at this conference, held in July 1987 in Cambridge, UK, are discussed. The conference was focused on the ways in which biotechnological products and man-made materials interact physically and chemically with biological environments. Th...

C. E. Zomzely-Neurath

1987-01-01

103

Adaptation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) into French-Canadian and English-Canadian  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) is the first disease-specific instrument for assessing patient-reported symptoms, functioning and quality of life (QoL) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). OBJECTIVES: To create and validate French-Canadian (FC) and English-Canadian (EC) language versions of the CAMPHOR. METHODS: A translation panel (for the FC version) and lay panels (for both versions) were convened to adapt the questionnaires (dual-panel methodology). Subsequently, these new questionnaires were field-tested in 15 FC PAH and 15 EC PAH patients. Finally, in a postal validation study, the new language versions of the CAMPHOR underwent psychometric evaluation in 41 FC and 52 EC PAH patients to test for reliability and validity. RESULTS: The FC and EC field-test interview participants found the questionnaires relevant, comprehensible and easy to complete. Psychometric analyses showed that the FC and EC adaptations were successful. High test-retest coefficients for the scales after controlling for change in respondent’s QoL (FC: 0.92 to 0.96; EC: 0.85 to 0.99) indicated a high degree of reliability. The FC and EC CAMPHOR scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients 0.90 to 0.92 and 0.88 to 0.92, respectively). Predicted correlations with the Nottingham Health Profile provided evidence of the construct validity of the FC and EC scales. The FC and EC adaptations also showed known groups validity. CONCLUSIONS: The FC and EC adaptations of the CAMPHOR have been shown to be reliable and valid for measures of health-related QoL and QoL in PAH, and thus can be recommended for use in clinical studies and routine practice in PAH.

Coffin, Donna; Duval, Karine; Martel, Simon; Granton, John; Lefebvre, Marie-Claude; Meads, David M; Twiss, James; McKenna, Stephen P

2008-01-01

104

KGB sources on the Cambridge network of Soviet agents: True or false?  

Microsoft Academic Search

John Costello and Oleg Tsarev, Deadly Illusions (New York\\/London: Gown\\/Century 1993) Pp.538, biblio, index. £18.99. ISBN 0–7126–5500?X.Yuri Modin, With Jean?Charles Deniau and Aguieszka Ziarek My Five Cambridge Friends (London: Headline 1994) Pp.282, index. £16.99. ISBN 0–7472–1280–5.Genrikh Borovik, The Philby Files (London: Little Brown and Company, 1994) Pp.382, index. £18.99. ISBN 0–316–91015–5.Pavel Sudoplatov, and Anatoli Sudoplatov with Jerrold L. and Leona

Sheila Kerr

1996-01-01

105

Liver transplantation in 100 children: Cambridge and King's College Hospital series.  

PubMed Central

To review the results of the Addenbrooke's and King's College Hospital children's liver transplantation programme. Retrospective analysis of the first 100 children to receive liver grafts at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, from December 1983 to March 1990. Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, and King's College Hospital, London. 153 children assessed for liver transplantation, of whom 22 died before a donor became available and 31 were considered unsuitable. 100 children received grafts, of whom 27 had second grafts. One year actuarial patient survival was 71%, with 57% one year graft survival. In the last two years survival rates had improved considerably, with 86% of patients and 63% of grafts surviving for at least one year. Sixty five children were alive 12 to 86 months after transplantation; 63 were well and leading normal active lives and 56 had entirely normal liver function. Children's growth and development were essentially normal, with many showing remarkable catch up growth. Liver transplantation offers children with terminal liver disease a high chance of a return to full quality life and normal development. Improved surgical and medical care have progressively improved survival. The timing of transplantation is critical but has been constrained particularly by the availability of donors and resources.

Salt, A; Noble-Jamieson, G; Barnes, N D; Mowat, A P; Rolles, K; Jamieson, N; Johnston, P; Friend, P; Calne, R Y

1992-01-01

106

The Cambridge Mathematical Journal and its descendants: the linchpin of a research community in the early and mid-Victorian Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cambridge Mathematical Journal and its successors, the Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal, and the Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, were a vital link in the establishment of a research ethos in British mathematics in the period 1837–1870. From the beginning, the tension between academic objectives and economic viability shaped the often precarious existence of this line of

Tony Crilly

2004-01-01

107

Somatoform Dissociation in Depersonalization Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with psychoform dissociation, somatoform dissociation has been put forth as a core aspect of dissociative states, possibly as reliable as psychoform dissociation in the screening for dissociative disorders. The goal of this study was to investigate the prominence and correlates of somatoform dissociation in one of the major Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.)

Daphne Simeon; Rebecca J. Smith; Margaret Knutelska; Lisa M. Smith

2008-01-01

108

NOT WHAT IT USED TO BE: THE CAMBRIDGE ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES, VOLUMES II AND III The Cambridge Economic History of the United States. Volume II: The Long Nineteenth Century; Volume III: The Twentieth Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long awaited publication of volumes II and III of the Cambridge Economic History of the United States (hereafter CEHUS) is a landmark in the historiography of the U.S. economy (volume I, on the colonial economy, appeared in 1996). A decade in the making, and appearing after the untimely death of one of its editors, Robert Gallman, these volumes will

Alexander J. Field

2001-01-01

109

Asian Influenza in 1963 in Two General Practices in Cambridge, England  

PubMed Central

A clinical, epidemiological and virological investigation was conducted on patients in two general practices in Cambridge, England, during an influenza epidemic between February and April 1963. The epidemiological pattern differed from that of the 1957-58 Asian influenza epidemic in that the overall incidence was considerably lower (3.2%) and that the highest attack rates were not in school children but in pre-school children (71.5 per 1000 persons). Virological investigation confirmed the diagnosis of Influenza A2 infection in 56 of 63 patients (89%). Isolations were made in 29 of 51 specimens tested. Serological studies revealed that the complement fixation test was more reliable than hemagglutination - inhibition or neutralization tests. Clinical features resembled those reported in previous epidemics, cough, headache and limb pains being prominent features.

Banatvala, J. E.; Reiss, B. B.; Anderson, T. B.; Nitkin, Betty C.

1965-01-01

110

Reginald Crundall Punnett: First Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics, Cambridge, 1912  

PubMed Central

R. C. Punnett, the codiscoverer of linkage with W. Bateson in 1904, had the good fortune to be invited to be the first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics at Cambridge University, United Kingdom, in 1912 when Bateson, for whom it had been intended, declined to leave his new appointment as first Director of the John Innes Horticultural Institute. We here celebrate the centenary of the first professorship dedicated to genetics, outlining Punnett’s career and his scientific contributions, with special reference to the discovery of “partial coupling” in the sweet pea (later “linkage”) and to the diagram known as Punnett’s square. His seeming reluctance as coauthor with Bateson to promote the reduplication hypothesis to explain the statistical evidence for linkage is stressed, as is his relationship with his successor as Arthur Balfour Professor, R. A. Fisher. The background to the establishment of the Professorship is also described.

Edwards, A. W. F.

2012-01-01

111

Antithrombin Cambridge II (A384S) supports a role for antithrombin deficiency in arterial thrombosis.  

PubMed

Although the control of thrombin in the microvasculature at the endothelial cell surface is crucial to prevent atherothrombosis, the role of antithrombin in arterial thrombosis is unclear. It is widely considered that antithrombin deficiency is unlikely to contribute to arterial thrombosis, but no convincing epidemiological study has been performed because of the low frequency of this deficiency. In this study we evaluated the role in myocardial infarction (MI) of a relatively common mutation affecting antithrombin gene (A384S: Antithrombin Cambridge II) that has functional features that may impair the right control of thrombogenic events caused by injury to the vascular wall. Moreover, this deficiency, which is not detected using common methods to diagnose antithrombin deficiency, also increases the risk of venous thrombosis. We included 1,224 patients with MI (691 consecutive patients and 533 survivors of a premature event), and 1,649 controls. The mutation was identified in 0.3% of controls, but 0.8% of MI patients. After adjusting for sex and other cardiovascular risk factors, the antithrombin Cambridge II significantly increased 5.66-fold the risk of MI (95% CI: 1.53-20.88; p = 0.009). Interestingly, young patients had the highest risk of MI associated with the mutation (OR: 9.98; 95%CI: 1.60-62.24; p = 0.009). This is the first epidemiological study that supports a role for antithrombin deficiency in arterial thrombosis. These results suggest that deficiency of antithrombin may be an independent risk factor for MI that has been underestimated, but larger studies are needed to confirm the relevance of inhibitors of thrombin in arterial thrombosis. PMID:19277409

Roldán, Vanessa; Ordoñez, Adriana; Marín, Francisco; Zorio, Esther; Soria, José M; Miñano, Antonia; España, Francisco; González-Conejero, Rocio; Pineda, Javier; Estellés, Amparo; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Vicente, Vicente; Corral, Javier

2009-03-01

112

Two new spider species of the genus Chrysso O. P.-Cambridge, 1882 (Araneae, Theridiidae) in Hainan Island, China.  

PubMed

Two new spider species of the genus Chrysso O. P.-Cambridge, 1882 are reported from Hainan Island, China, Chrysso bifurcasp. n. (male, female) and Chrysso bicuspidatasp.n. (male, female). Chrysso bimaculata Yoshida, 1998is recorded from China for the first time. PMID:22639529

Zhang, Bao-Shi; Zhang, Feng

2012-05-04

113

University–industry engagement: The formation of the Knowledge Integration Community (KIC) model at the Cambridge-MIT Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries are seeking to strengthen global economic competitiveness by building a ‘knowledge economy’ capability. A popular approach is supporting university–industry knowledge exchange linkages. The purpose of this paper is to show how a model developed by the Cambridge-MIT Institute (CMI) for the UK offers a more effective approach to knowledge sharing, and to present the results from one of

Edward B. Acworth

2008-01-01

114

State Control, Religious Deference and Cultural Reproduction: Some Problems with Theorising Curriculum and Pedagogy in the Cambridge Primary Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a critique of the quality of theorising underlying proposals on curriculum and pedagogy in the Cambridge Primary Review. Despite its strengths, the review is seen as omitting consideration of three major areas in primary education: gifted pupils, teacher effectiveness research and the private sector. Questions are raised about…

Campbell, R. J.

2011-01-01

115

Thirty years on: examination performance and career success of the 1950-1 intake of Cambridge medical students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between preclinical tripos and clinical examination results and subsequent career success of 188 medical graduates of Cambridge University was measured using five indicators of success. A generally positive relation was found, but this was not specific enough to make accurate individual predictions. Present levels of appointment were more closely related to clinical than preclinical results. No support was

R Wakeford; S Roberts

1983-01-01

116

Degrees of Influence: The Politics of Honorary Degrees in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, 1900-2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The universities of Oxford and Cambridge had developed different attitudes towards the award of honorary degrees through the early and middle decades of the twentieth century. Recently, both have adopted a similar cautious and apolitical stance. This essay describes the role of honorary degrees in the production and reproduction of their cultural…

Heffernan, Michael; Jons, Heike

2007-01-01

117

Towards the 1980s: Papers Presented at the BACIE Annual Conference at Trinity College, Cambridge, September 1968.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The annual conference of the British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education (BACIE), held at Trinity College, Cambridge, England, in September 1968, was devoted to educational objectives for England for the 1980's. The three speeches presented were, "The Objectives of Society" (Sir Herbert Butterfield), "Industry in the 1980's (G.A.H.…

British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education, London (England).

118

Developments in turbulence research: a review based on the 1999 Programme of the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research is making progress in framing more precisely the basic dynamical and statistical questions about turbulence and in answering them. It is helping both to define the likely limits to current methods for modelling industrial and environmental turbulent flows, and to suggest new approaches to overcome these limitations. Our selective review is based on the themes and new results that emerged from more than 300 presentations during the Programme held in 1999 at the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge, UK, and on research reported elsewhere. A general conclusion is that, although turbulence is not a universal state of nature, there are certain statistical measures and kinematic features of the small-scale flow field that occur in most turbulent flows, while the large-scale eddy motions have qualitative similarities within particular types of turbulence defined by the mean flow, initial or boundary conditions, and in some cases, the range of Reynolds numbers involved. The forced transition to turbulence of laminar flows caused by strong external disturbances was shown to be highly dependent on their amplitude, location, and the type of flow. Global and elliptical instabilities explain much of the three-dimensional and sudden nature of the transition phenomena. A review of experimental results shows how the structure of turbulence, especially in shear flows, continues to change as the Reynolds number of the turbulence increases well above about 104 in ways that current numerical simulations cannot reproduce. Studies of the dynamics of small eddy structures and their mutual interactions indicate that there is a set of characteristic mechanisms in which vortices develop (vortex stretching, roll-up of instability sheets, formation of vortex tubes) and another set in which they break up (through instabilities and self- destructive interactions). Numerical simulations and theoretical arguments suggest that these often occur sequentially in randomly occurring cycles. The factors that determine the overall spectrum of turbulence were reviewed. For a narrow distribution of eddy scales, the form of the spectrum can be defined by characteristic forms of individual eddies. However, if the distribution covers a wide range of scales (as in elongated eddies in the ‘wall’ layer of turbulent boundary layers), they collectively determine the spectra (as assumed in classical theory). Mathematical analyses of the Navier Stokes and Euler equations applied to eddy structures lead to certain limits being defined regarding the tendencies of the vorticity field to become infinitely large locally. Approximate solutions for eigen modes and Fourier components reveal striking features of the temporal, near-wall structure such as bursting, and of the very elongated, spatial spectra of sheared inhomogeneous turbulence; but other kinds of eddy concepts are needed in less structured parts of the turbulence. Renormalized perturbation methods can now calculate consistently, and in good agreement with experiment, the evolution of second- and third-order spectra of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. The fact that these calculations do not explicitly include high-order moments and extreme events, suggests that they may play a minor role in the basic dynamics. New methods of approximate numerical simulations of the larger scales of turbulence or ‘very large eddy simulation’ (VLES) based on using statistical models for the smaller scales (as is common in meteorological modelling) enable some turbulent flows with a non-local and non-equilibrium structure, such as impinging or convective flows, to be calculated more efficiently than by using large eddy simulation (LES), and more accurately than by using ‘engineering’ models for statistics at a single point. Generally it is shown that where the turbulence in a fluid volume is changing rapidly and is very inhomogeneous there are flows where even the most complex ‘engineering’ Reynolds stress transport models are only satisfactory with some special adaptation; this may entail the use of tr

Hunt, J. C. R.; Sandham, N. D.; Vassilicos, J. C.; Launder, B. E.; Monkewitz, P. A.; Hewitt, G. F.

2001-06-01

119

Preliminary control technology assessment of the Cambridge Tile Manufacturing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

A visit was made to the Cambridge Tile Manufacturing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio to evaluate methods used to control hazardous conditions arising during the manufacturing process. Particular attention was given to controlling exposures to harmful chemical agents, silica, noise and excessive heat. The company manufactured 20,000 square feet of tile per day including nonrefractory tiles. A fabric stocking-type sleeve between railroad car and underground hopper was used to control emissions during bulk material unloading. Two bag type dust collectors equipped with self-cleaning mechanisms were in use. Closed tube conveyors were well maintained. Dubois automatic mechanical power presses were equipped with shuttle transfers and each had a local exhaust system with blast gates. A 3M-W2940 air hat was worn by the employee formulating glazes. Respirator wearers were subjected to pulmonary function testing. Blood lead levels were checked every 3 months for employees who formulate glazes. All employees received a chest x-ray every 2 years. Other personal protective equipment was available. The author concludes that the safety precautions in place at this facility were good. There were several portions of the system which would be applicable for an in-depth evaluation unless better examples can be found in other on-site visits.

Mahon, R.D.

1982-01-29

120

Photomask fabrication utilizing a Philips/Cambridge vector scan e-beam system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Era of shrinking design constraints, two (2) of the many concerns facing E-Beam mask makers are: (1) data snapping on design grids smaller than E-Beams can fabricate and (2) dense designs with submicron features forcing smaller beam steps which radically effect write time and throughput. The Philips/Cambridge Vector Scan E-Beam provides novel approaches to meet Western Digitals 0.05 (mu) gird resolution, yet still maintain reasonable throughput. Using CATS Transcription, designs are fractured into two (2) or three (3) distinct patterns called a Bulk/Sleeve or Bulk/Double sleeve technique. The Bulk pattern comprised the majority of the pattern and is written at a large beam size. The Sleeve is a border pattern around all geometries written at a much smaller beam size. This combination allows throughput because of the large beam sized Bulk pattern yet gives high resolution, and edge acuity with the small beam sized sleeve pattern. By combining a Bulk and Sleeve pattern exposure matrix with a smaller bias reduction a sleeve of 1.2 (mu) is currently utilized in production. Additionally sleeve size reduction reduces the complexity of the C Format trapezia and virtually eliminates data snapping. An interesting by-product of this Bulk/Sleeve technique allows multiple exposures for the different patterns to help alleviate proximity exposure effects in extremely dense designs.

McCutchen, William C.

1991-03-01

121

Plasma-Surface Interaction Research At The Cambridge Laboratory Of Accelerator Studies Of Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The material requirements for plasma-facing components in a nuclear fusion reactor are some of the strictest and most challenging facing us today. These materials are simultaneously exposed to extreme heat loads (20 MW/m2 steady-state, 1 GW/m2 in millisecond transients) and particle fluxes (>1024 m-2 s-1) while also undergoing high neutron irradiation (1018 neutrons/m2 s). At the Cambridge Laboratory of Accelerator Studies of Surfaces (CLASS), many of the most important issues in plasma-surface interaction research, such as plasma-driven material erosion and deposition, material transport and irradiation and hydrogenic retention are investigated with the use of a 1.7 MV tandem ion accelerator. Ion-Beam Analysis (IBA) is used to investigate and quantify changes in materials due to plasma exposure and ion irradiation is used as a proxy for neutron irradiation to investigate plasma-surface interactions for irradiated materials. This report will outline the capabilities and current research activities at CLASS.

Wright, G. M.; Barnard, H. S.; Hartwig, Z. S.; Stahle, P. W.; Sullivan, R. M.; Woller, K. B.; Whyte, D. G.

2011-06-01

122

Boston Harbor Islands National Park Area: 2002 Islands Biodiversity. Proceedings of a Seminar Held in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 30, 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Biodiversity Seminar took place on May 30, 2002, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The seminar provided a rorum for scientists and land managers to present and exchange information about the Boston Harbor Islands' diverse natural resources. The Partnership...

B. Jacobsen J. Pederson

2003-01-01

123

A Robust Method of Measuring Other-Race and Other-Ethnicity Effects: The Cambridge Face Memory Test Format  

PubMed Central

Other-race and other-ethnicity effects on face memory have remained a topic of consistent research interest over several decades, across fields including face perception, social psychology, and forensic psychology (eyewitness testimony). Here we demonstrate that the Cambridge Face Memory Test format provides a robust method for measuring these effects. Testing the Cambridge Face Memory Test original version (CFMT-original; European-ancestry faces from Boston USA) and a new Cambridge Face Memory Test Chinese (CFMT-Chinese), with European and Asian observers, we report a race-of-face by race-of-observer interaction that was highly significant despite modest sample size and despite observers who had quite high exposure to the other race. We attribute this to high statistical power arising from the very high internal reliability of the tasks. This power also allows us to demonstrate a much smaller within-race other ethnicity effect, based on differences in European physiognomy between Boston faces/observers and Australian faces/observers (using the CFMT-Australian).

McKone, Elinor; Stokes, Sacha; Liu, Jia; Cohan, Sarah; Fiorentini, Chiara; Pidcock, Madeleine; Yovel, Galit; Broughton, Mary; Pelleg, Michel

2012-01-01

124

A robust method of measuring other-race and other-ethnicity effects: the Cambridge Face Memory Test format.  

PubMed

Other-race and other-ethnicity effects on face memory have remained a topic of consistent research interest over several decades, across fields including face perception, social psychology, and forensic psychology (eyewitness testimony). Here we demonstrate that the Cambridge Face Memory Test format provides a robust method for measuring these effects. Testing the Cambridge Face Memory Test original version (CFMT-original; European-ancestry faces from Boston USA) and a new Cambridge Face Memory Test Chinese (CFMT-Chinese), with European and Asian observers, we report a race-of-face by race-of-observer interaction that was highly significant despite modest sample size and despite observers who had quite high exposure to the other race. We attribute this to high statistical power arising from the very high internal reliability of the tasks. This power also allows us to demonstrate a much smaller within-race other ethnicity effect, based on differences in European physiognomy between Boston faces/observers and Australian faces/observers (using the CFMT-Australian). PMID:23118912

McKone, Elinor; Stokes, Sacha; Liu, Jia; Cohan, Sarah; Fiorentini, Chiara; Pidcock, Madeleine; Yovel, Galit; Broughton, Mary; Pelleg, Michel

2012-10-30

125

MIT jar test of the natural polymer chitosan with fresh pond water from the Cambridge Water Department, November-December 1992  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) jar tests of chitosan using CWD (Cambridge Water Department Treatment Plant) water was to demonstrate the effectiveness of chitosan as a coagulant in drinking water applications. The approach was to compare the performance of the natural organic coagulant, chitosan, to the performance of alum and other chemical coagulants in terms of the parameters turbidity, color, pH and alkalinity. Twenty-five jar tests were conducted during November and December, 1992, at Parsons Laboratory, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Murcott, S.; Harleman, D.R.F.

1993-01-01

126

Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: A mixed-methods analysis  

PubMed Central

Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009–2010). Even in Britain's leading ‘cycling city’, cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a ‘park-and-ride’ site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could ‘afford’ to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio-economic range. This suggests the importance of combining individual-level ‘healthy travel’ interventions with measures aimed at creating travel environments in which all social groups can pursue healthy and satisfying lives.

Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R.; Ogilvie, David

2012-01-01

127

[CAMDEX-N: the Dutch version of the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly with automatic data processing].  

PubMed

In the study of dementia four distinct categories of instruments can be distinguished: instruments to examine cognitive dysfunction, to measure the severity of dementia, to assess disturbances in daily behaviour, and instruments to make a differential diagnosis of dementia. The Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly (CAMDEX), published in 1988, incorporates these four categories in a single comprehensive interview schedule. Items related to the diagnosis of clouded/delirious state, depression and other psychiatric symptoms are also included. The Dutch version (CAMDEX-N) and accompanying software for data analysis and for scientific research were developed. Items were added to the section on physical and neurological examination, and to the section on ancillary investigations. The software can be adapted to future developments in dementia research. PMID:1926299

Derix, M M; Hofstede, A B; Teunisse, S; Hijdra, A; Walstra, G J; Weinstein, H C; van Gool, W A

1991-08-01

128

Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 3. The Cambridge Structural Database System: Information Content and Access Software in Educational Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parts 1 and 2 of this series described the educational value of experimental three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures determined by X-ray crystallography and retrieved from the crystallographic databases. In part 1, we described the information content of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and discussed a representative teaching subset of…

Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

2011-01-01

129

Proceedings from the Symposium on Design and Construction of Slurry Walls as Part of Permanent Structures Held at Cambridge, Massachusetts on August 30-31, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains the papers of the 20 speakers who addressed the topic of Slurry Walls at the Symposium sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration. The symposium was held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Cambridge, Massachusetts on August 30 & 31, 1...

B. Dennis

1980-01-01

130

Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 4. Examples of Discovery-Based Learning Using the Complete Cambridge Structural Database  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parts 1 and 2 of this series described the educational value of experimental three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures determined by X-ray crystallography and retrieved from the crystallographic databases. In part 1, we described the information content of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and discussed a representative teaching subset of…

Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

2011-01-01

131

The greater susceptibility of North Ronaldsay sheep compared with Cambridge sheep to copper-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and hepatic stellate cell activation.  

PubMed

Sheep of the semi-feral North Ronaldsay (copper-sensitive) and domesticated Cambridge (copper-tolerant) breeds were compared in respect of pathological changes and protein expression in the liver as a result of excessive dietary copper. Acute mitochondrial damage and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation with collagen synthesis occurred in response to moderate copper overload in North Ronaldsay but not in Cambridge sheep. Mitochondrial degradative changes occurred either as ballooning degeneration and rupture with subsequent autophagic degradation or as mitochondrial matrical condensation (pyknosis). In North Ronaldsay sheep prolonged exposure to copper produced mitochondrial hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and nuclear damage with necrosis. Cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), an enzyme responsive to oxidative stress, was induced in the liver of Cambridge sheep receiving a Cu-supplemented diet but was undetectable in the non-supplemented control sheep. Conversely, IDH was detected at similar levels in both control and copper-supplemented North Ronaldsay sheep, indicating a lower threshold response, and an enhanced susceptibility, to oxidative stress. "Upregulation" of mitochondrial thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase reductase (antioxidant protein-1) in the hepatic cytosol of the North Ronaldsay (but not Cambridge) sheep affirmed the increased susceptibility of the mitochondria to Cu-induced oxidative stress in this breed. Likewise the upregulation of cathepsin-D indicated increased lysosomal activity and HSC activation. The findings may be relevant to copper toxicosis in human infants. PMID:16099232

Haywood, S; Simpson, D M; Ross, G; Beynon, R J

132

MIT jar test of the natural polymer chitosan with fresh pond water from the Cambridge Water Department, November-December 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) jar tests of chitosan using CWD (Cambridge Water Department Treatment Plant) water was to demonstrate the effectiveness of chitosan as a coagulant in drinking water applications. The approach was to compare the performance of the natural organic coagulant, chitosan, to the performance of alum and other chemical coagulants in terms of

S. Murcott; D. R. F. Harleman

1993-01-01

133

Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Function in People with Autistic Disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent structural and functional imaging work, as well as neuropathology and neuropsychology studies, provide strong empirical support for the involvement of frontal cortex in autism. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-administered set of neuropsychological tests developed to examine specific components…

Ozonoff, Sally; Cook, Ian; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Joseph, Robert M.; Klin, Ami; McMahon, William M.; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeffrey A.

2004-01-01

134

The Universities in a Steady State: The Prospect from Cambridge. Report of the General Board on the Long-Term Development of the University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report contains background to the present situation in Cambridge and nationally, discussion of decreasing growth rate and fixed upper limit to future growth, examination of "steady state" problems (e.g. how to maintain flexibility for change within a fixed budget), analysis of problems in transition to steady state including increase in…

Minerva, 1975

1975-01-01

135

The interaction of depersonalization and deindividuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal experiences of the self defined here in terms ofdepersonalization may predispose individuals to aggressive behavior in situations that further alter their self-awareness. Conditions that\\u000a raise self-awareness may inhibit the aggressive behavior of individuals prone to these abnormal experiences of self. In the\\u000a current research, individuals prone to a distorted body image were least likely to express attitudes reflecting verbal

Gregory Bovasso

1997-01-01

136

Cognitive assessment of a representative community population with Parkinson's disease (PD) using the Cambridge Cognitive Assessment-Revised (CAMCOG-R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: cognitive decline is well recognised in Parkinson's disease (PD) but the best cognitive assessment tool for use in such patients remains unclear. The 30-point Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), while quick and straightforward to use, fails to cover a full range of cognitive domains and is recognised to have a ceiling effect. The Cambridge Cognitive Assessment- Revised (CAMCOG-R) is a

RICHARD J. ATHEY; ROBERT W. PORTER; RICHARD W. WALKER

137

Polish Collection at the Alliance College Library in Cambridge Springs, PA: The Origins of the Collection in 1950, Its Rapid Development in the 1970's and the Introduction of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) in 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This essay outlines the development, present condition, and future direction of the 20,000-volume Polish research collection at Alliance College, located in Cambridge Springs, Pennsylvania. Alliance College was founded in 1912 by the Polish National Allia...

S. J. Kozaczka

1983-01-01

138

PREFACE: Proceedings of the International Conference on Nanoscale Order in Amorphous and Partially Ordered Solids, Trinity College, Cambridge, UK, July 9 11, 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying the structural order in amorphous and partially ordered solids, and the effects of such order on solid-state properties, has been a longstanding challenge in the fields of amorphous glasses, semiconductors, and metals. Significant new understanding has emerged during the past few years thanks to advances in experimental techniques, theoretical approaches, and simulation of structure and properties. The International Conference on Nanoscale Order in Amorphous and Partially Ordered Solids was held at Trinity College, Cambridge UK on July 9-11, 2007. The intent of the workshop was to bring together leading researchers from around the world to report their recent work, discuss the state of the field, and chart future directions. These interactions took place formally via 21 oral and 21 poster presentations, and informally via walks in the Fellows Garden and of course in the pubs of Cambridge. We believe that we speak for all the participants in declaring the conference a great success. The meeting was supported by the FEI company, the US National Science Foundation and Trinity College Cambridge; we are very grateful for their generous support. We would also like to thank the staff and publishers of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for their assistance and efficiency in producing this volume.

Abelson, John; Drabold, David; Elliott, Stephen; Voyles, Paul

2007-11-01

139

Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as much as 96 percent of total solids resided within 9 feet of the curb. Median accumulation rates of street solids and median washoff of street solids after rainstorms on multifamily and commercial land-use streets were also similar at about 33 and 22 pounds per curb-mile per day, and 35 and 40 percent, respectively. Results indicate that solids on the streets tested in Cambridge, Mass., can recover to pre-rainstorm yields within 1 to 3 days after washoff. The finer grain-size fractions tended to be more readily washed from the roadway surfaces during rainstorms. Street solids in the coarsest grain-size fraction on multifamily streets indicated an average net increase following rainstorms and are likely attributed to debris run-on from trees, lawns, and other plantings commonly found in residential areas. In seven experiments between May and December 2010, the median removal efficiency of solids from street surfaces following a single pass by a regenerative-air street cleaner was about 82 percent on study sites in the multifamily land-use streets and about 78 percent on the commercial land-use streets. Median street-solid removal efficiency increased with increasing grain size. This type of regenerative-air street cleaner left a median residual street-solid load on the street surface of about 100 pounds per curb-mile. Median concentrations of organic carbon and total phosphorus (P) on multifamily streets were about 35 and 29 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. The median total mass of organic carbon and total P in street solids on multifamily streets was 68 and 75 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. More than 87 percent of the mass of total P was determined to be in solids greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter for both land-use types. The median total accumulation rate for total P on multifamily streets was about 5 times greater than on commercial streets. Total P accumulation in the medium grain-size fraction was nearly the same for streets within both land-use types at 0.004 p

Sorenson, Jason R.

2013-01-01

140

Hydrogen-bond landscapes, geometry and energetics of squaric acid and its mono- and dianions: a Cambridge Structural Database, IsoStar and computational study.  

PubMed

As part of a programme of work to extend central-group coverage in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre's (CCDC) IsoStar knowledge base of intermolecular interactions, we have studied the hydrogen-bonding abilities of squaric acid (H2SQ) and its mono- and dianions (HSQ(-) and SQ(2-)) using the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) along with dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations for a range of hydrogen-bonded dimers. The -OH and -C=O groups of H2SQ, HSQ(-) and SQ(2-) are potent donors and acceptors, as indicated by their hydrogen-bond geometries in available crystal structures in the CSD, and by the attractive energies calculated for their dimers with acetone and methanol, which were used as model acceptors and donors. The two anions have sufficient examples in the CSD for their addition as new central groups in IsoStar. It is also shown that charge- and resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds involving H2SQ and HSQ(-) are similar in strength to those made by carboxylate COO(-) acceptors, while hydrogen bonds made by the dianion SQ(2-) are somewhat stronger. The study reinforces the value of squaric acid and its anions as cocrystal formers and their actual and potential importance as isosteric replacements for carboxylic acid and carboxylate functions. PMID:24056361

Allen, Frank H; Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J; Wood, Peter A; Bardwell, David A

2013-09-13

141

The ADDITION-Cambridge trial protocol: a cluster - randomised controlled trial of screening for type 2 diabetes and intensive treatment for screen-detected patients  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses a major public health challenge. Population-based screening and early treatment for type 2 diabetes could reduce this growing burden. However, the benefits of such a strategy remain uncertain. Methods and design The ADDITION-Cambridge study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of (i) a stepwise screening strategy for type 2 diabetes; and (ii) intensive multifactorial treatment for people with screen-detected diabetes in primary care. 63 practices in the East Anglia region participated. Three undertook the pilot study, 33 were allocated to three groups: no screening (control), screening followed by intensive treatment (IT) and screening plus routine care (RC) in an unbalanced (1:3:3) randomisation. The remaining 27 practices were randomly allocated to IT and RC. A risk score incorporating routine practice data was used to identify people aged 40–69 years at high-risk of undiagnosed diabetes. In the screening practices, high-risk individuals were invited to take part in a stepwise screening programme. In the IT group, diabetes treatment is optimised through guidelines, target-led multifactorial treatment, audit, feedback, and academic detailing for practice teams, alongside provision of educational materials for newly diagnosed participants. Primary endpoints are modelled cardiovascular risk at one year, and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity at five years after diagnosis of diabetes. Secondary endpoints include all-cause mortality, development of renal and visual impairment, peripheral neuropathy, health service costs, self-reported quality of life, functional status and health utility. Impact of the screening programme at the population level is also assessed through measures of mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, health status and health service use among high-risk individuals. Discussion ADDITION-Cambridge is conducted in a defined high-risk group accessible through primary care. It addresses the feasibility of population-based screening for diabetes, as well as the benefits and costs of screening and intensive multifactorial treatment early in the disease trajectory. The intensive treatment algorithm is based on evidence from studies including individuals with clinically diagnosed diabetes and the education materials are informed by psychological theory. ADDITION-Cambridge will provide timely evidence concerning the benefits of early intensive treatment and will inform policy decisions concerning screening for type 2 diabetes. Trial registration Current Controlled trials ISRCTN86769081

Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Simmons, Rebecca K; Williams, Kate M; Barling, Roslyn S; Prevost, A Toby; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J

2009-01-01

142

The Polish Collection at the Alliance College Library in Cambridge Springs, PA: The Origins of the Collection in 1950, Its Rapid Development in the 1970's and the Introduction of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) in 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay outlines the development, present condition, and future direction of the 20,000-volume Polish research collection at Alliance College, located in Cambridge Springs, Pennsylvania. Alliance College was founded in 1912 by the Polish National Alliance (PNA), a life insurance fraternal organization. In 1931 its entire library collection was…

Kozaczka, Stanley J.

143

Laser research and development in the Northeast; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Sept. 16, 17, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The development and scaling of excimer lasers with emphasis on both electron-beam and discharge pumpings; a chemical means of generating laser action in the visible region; the use of stimulated Raman techniques to improve the beam quality output of systems employing excimer lasers; the research and development of CO/sub 2/ lasers; a CO/sub 2/ laser amplifier for radar applications; medical laser usage; and laser monitors for trace species in environmental and industrial processes are examined. Consideration is given to high power laser research and development for laser energetics; linear and nonlinear frequency converters; 450 nm laser operation in Tm(3+):YLF; alexandrite lasers and their applications; and the performance limitations of vibronic lasers. Topics discussed include the laser ignition of oil spills; the application of laser rangers to submunitions; the design and application of laser intensity stabilizers; and a 535 nm active atomic line filter that uses the Tl metastable state as an absorbing medium.

Trainor, D.W.; Chicklis, E.P.

1987-01-01

144

Face ethnicity and measurement reliability affect face recognition performance in developmental prosopagnosia: evidence from the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Australian.  

PubMed

The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT, Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006) provides a validated format for testing novel face learning and has been a crucial instrument in the diagnosis of developmental prosopagnosia. Yet, some individuals who report everyday face recognition symptoms consistent with prosopagnosia, and are impaired on famous face tasks, perform normally on the CFMT. Possible reasons include measurement error, CFMT assessment of memory only at short delays, and a face set whose ethnicity is matched to only some Caucasian groups. We develop the "CFMT-Australian" (CFMT-Aus), which complements the CFMT-original by using ethnicity better matched to a different European subpopulation. Results confirm reliability (.88) and validity (convergent, divergent using cars, inversion effects). We show that face ethnicity within a race has subtle but clear effects on face processing even in normal participants (includes cross-over interaction for face ethnicity by perceiver country of origin in distinctiveness ratings). We show that CFMT-Aus clarifies diagnosis of prosopagnosia in 6 previously ambiguous cases. In 3 cases, this appears due to the better ethnic match to prosopagnosics. We also show that face memory at short (<3-min), 20-min, and 24-hr delays taps overlapping processes in normal participants. There is some suggestion that a form of prosopagnosia may exist that is long delay only and/or reflects failure to benefit from face repetition. PMID:22122116

McKone, Elinor; Hall, Ashleigh; Pidcock, Madeleine; Palermo, Romina; Wilkinson, Ross B; Rivolta, Davide; Yovel, Galit; Davis, Joshua M; O'Connor, Kirsty B

2011-03-01

145

Investigation of Prolific Sheep from UK and Ireland for Evidence on Origin of the Mutations in BMP15 (FecXG, FecXB) and GDF9 (FecGH) in Belclare and Cambridge Sheep  

PubMed Central

This paper concerns the likely origin of three mutations with large effects on ovulation rate identified in the Belclare and Cambridge sheep breeds; two in the BMP15 gene (FecXG and FecXB) and the third (FecGH) in GDF9. All three mutations segregate in Belclare sheep while one, FecXB, has not been found in the Cambridge. Both Belclare and Cambridge breeds are relatively recently developed composites that have common ancestry through the use of genetic material from the Finnish Landrace and Lleyn breeds. The development of both composites also involved major contributions from exceptionally prolific ewes screened from flocks in Ireland (Belclare) and Britain (Cambridge) during the 1960s. The objective of the current study was to establish the likely origin of the mutations (FecXG, FecXB and FecGH) through analysis of DNA from Finnish Landrace and Lleyn sheep, and Galway and Texel breeds which contributed to the development of the Belclare breed. Ewes with exceptionally high prolificacy (hyper-prolific ewes) in current flocks on Irish farms were identified to simulate the screening of ewes from Irish flocks in the 1960s. DNA was obtained from: prolific ewes in extant flocks of Lleyn sheep (n?=?44) on the Lleyn peninsula in Wales; hyper-prolific ewes (n?=?41); prolific Galway (n?=?41) ewes; Finnish Landrace (n?=?124) and Texel (n?=?19) ewes. The FecXG mutation was identified in Lleyn but not in Finnish Landrace, Galway or Texel sheep; FecXB was only found among the hyper-prolific ewes. The FecGH mutation was identified in the sample of Lleyn sheep. It was concluded from these findings that the Lleyn breed was the most likely source of the FecXG and FecGH mutations in Belclare and Cambridge sheep and that the FecXB mutation came from the High Fertility line that was developed using prolific ewes selected from commercial flocks in Ireland in the 1960?s and subsequently used in the genesis of the Belclare.

Mullen, Michael P.; Hanrahan, James P.; Howard, Dawn J.

2013-01-01

146

The Cambridge Companion to Dewey. Cambridge Companions to Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|John Dewey (1859-1952) was a major figure of the American cultural and intellectual landscape in the first half of the twentieth century. While not the originator of American pragmatism, he was instrumental to its articulation as a philosophy and the spread of its influence beyond philosophy to other disciplines. His prolific writings encompass…

Cochran, Molly

2010-01-01

147

Ganges, Cambridge, Chicago, Edinburgh, Cambridge... Values and Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Indian epic, Mahabarata, on the eve of battle Arjuna, a great warrior, argues with Krishna, a deity in human form. The battle that is to take place is in the just cause of ousting usurpers to the throne. The problem for Arjuna is not the justice of the cause, but the fact that he will be responsible for

Michael Marmot

2005-01-01

148

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, meteorites have caught the imagination of scientist and collector alike. An army of people are now actively searching for them in the hot and cold deserts of Earth. Fascinating extraterrestrial rocks in meteorites are our only contact with materials from beyond the Earth-Moon system. Using well known petrologic techniques, O. Richard Norton reveals in vivid color their extraordinary external and internal structures and taking readers to the atomic level, describes the environment within the solar nebula that existed before the planets accreted. Extensively illustrated, this volume is a valuable guide to assist searchers in the field in recognizing the many classes of meteorites and it is a superb reference source for students, teachers and scientists who wish to probe deeper these amazing rocks from space. O. Richard Norton is a contributing editor for Meteorite magazine and the author of The Planetarium and Atmospherium and Rocks from Space (Mountain Press, 1998). For the last 40 years, he has taught astronomy and space sciences at various US institutions.

Norton, O. Richard

2002-03-01

149

Sea Consultants Inc, Cambridge, MA  

SciTech Connect

The EPA is currently developing regulations to limit the radon concentration in public water supplies. Based on the latest scientific evaluations, it appears that the health impact of radon is larger than suggested by guidelines used at the state level. The radon maximum contaminant level being discussed would impact over half of the groundwater supplies in the country and a larger percentage in the New England States. In Friendship, Maine, a public water system was recently placed into operation that uses a bedrock well as a source. High radon levels are treated using granulated activated carbon contactors. Performance testing was completed that provides insight into process effectiveness and the flexibility of GAC to respond to varying loading rates. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Reed, D.F. (SEA Consultants, Inc., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1989-06-01

150

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword; Preface; List of figures; 1. The environment of outer space; 2. Orbits; 3. Ground tracks; 4. The occupation of space; 5. Launchers and launch sites; 6. Political and economic aspects; 7. Near-Earth science missions; 8. Exploration beyond geocentric orbit; 9. Earth observation; 10. Telecommunications; 11. Military applications; 12. Man in space; Bibliography; Internet sites; Index.

Verger, Fernand; Sourbès-Verger, Isabelle; Ghirardi, Raymond; Pasco, With contributions by Xavier; Logsdon, Foreword by John M.; Lyle, Translated by Stephen; Reilly, Paul

2003-08-01

151

Scaling Cubes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore scale by using building cubes to see how changing the length, width, and height of a three-dimensional object affects its surface area and its volume. Learners build bigger and bigger cubes to understand these scaling relationships.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

152

Scales Reader  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet, suitable for whiteboard display, challenges learners to read metric weighing scales in four different ranges. The scales read 0-5 kilograms in wholes or halves, 0-500 grams, 0-1000 g, and 0-5 kg in decimal tenths. The student requests a weight, places a cursor, enters a reading, and checks the answer to receive a score.

2002-01-01

153

Scaling Satan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes

Keith M. Wilson; Jennifer L. Huff

2001-01-01

154

Scaling satan.  

PubMed

The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others. PMID:11577971

Wilson, K M; Huff, J L

2001-05-01

155

[Adaptation and validation of CAMDEX-DS (Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of Older People with Down's Syndrome and Others with Intellectual Disabilities) in Spanish population with intellectual disabilities].  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION. Dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease commonly affects the adult population with Down's syndrome. This population presents two characteristic clinical features: a semiologic pattern that differs from the typical Alzheimer's disease, and previous intellectual deficits that may confound the clinical diagnosis. There is a clear need to validate specific instruments adapted to Spanish population. AIM. To adapt and to validate CAMDEX-DS (Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of Older People with Down's Syndrome and Others with Intellectual Disabilities) in Spanish population. PATIENTS AND METHODS. 146 patients with intellectual disability (mild to moderate) were recruited and assessed with CAMDEX-DS, K-BIT I and DMR tests. Test-retest reliability, inter-rater concordance and validity statistic were performed between CAMDEX-DS and clinical diagnosis. This is an observational, multicenter, cross-sectional and validation study. RESULTS. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability achieved kappa coefficient values of 0.92 and 0.91, respectively. Agreement (kappa index) for CAMDEX-DS on clinical diagnosis compared to other clinical criteria was high: CAMDEX-DS vs DSM-IV (kappa = 0.95; p < 0,001); CAMDEX-DS vs ICD-10 (kappa = 0.97; p < 0.001). All item-test correlations ranged between 0,31 and 0,69. Internal reliability-calculated using Chronbach's alpha scored 0.93. CONCLUSIONS. The Spanish version of CAMDEX-DS is a valid instrument with high applicability for people with intellectual disability. It shows good psychometric properties. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination for Older Adults with Down's Syndrome (CAMCOG-DS) can set two key points by the level of intellectual disability on the suspicion of cognitive impairment in people with Down's syndrome. PMID:24081888

Esteba-Castillo, S; Dalmau-Bueno, A; Ribas-Vidal, N; Vila-Alsina, M; Novell-Alsina, R; Garcia-Alba, J

2013-10-16

156

Astronomical Scales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 9-12. It focuses on scales and numbers used when representing distances and sizes in the science of astronomy. This involves developing equations and using scientific notation for large numbers. The Earth, Sun, Milky Way galaxy and universe are all used to develop understanding of this concept. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

157

Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

Barnett, Gillian C., E-mail: gillbarnett@doctors.org.uk [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coles, Charlotte E. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pharoah, Paul D.P. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elliott, Rebecca M. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tanteles, George A. [Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Jennifer S. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunning, Alison M. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

2012-03-01

158

Parametric Equivalence Scales and Scale Relativities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors respond to J. Banks and P. Johnson's (1994) comment on Coulter et al. (1992) drawing on a more general discussion of parametric equivalence scale and scale relativity issues and new empirical results. The authors show that criticisms of their earlier work are unfounded. When the McClements scale is properly characterized, the scale does indeed provide lower estimates of

Stephen P Jenkins; Frank A Cowell

1994-01-01

159

How do cognitively impaired elderly patients define "testament": reliability and validity of the testament definition scale.  

PubMed

The testament definition scale (TDS) is a specifically designed six-item scale aimed at measuring the respondent's capacity to define "testament." We assessed the reliability and validity of this new short scale in 31 community-dwelling cognitively impaired elderly patients. Interrater reliability for the six items ranged from .87 to .97. The interrater reliability for the total score was .77. Significant correlations were found between the TDS score and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Cambridge Cognitive Examination scores (r = .71 and .72 respectively, p = .001). Criterion validity yielded significantly different means for subjects with MMSE scores of 24-30 and 0-23: mean 3.9 and 1.6 respectively (t(20) = 4.7, p = .001). Using a cutoff point of 0-2 vs. 3+, 79% of the subjects were correctly classified as severely cognitively impaired, with only 8.3% false positives, and a positive predictive value of 94%. Thus, TDS was found both reliable and valid. This scale, however, is not synonymous with testamentary capacity. The discussion deals with the methodological limitations of this study, and highlights the practical as well as the theoretical relevance of TDS. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the relationships between TDS and existing legal requirements of testamentary capacity. PMID:10389360

Heinik, J; Werner, P; Lin, R

1999-01-01

160

Assessment of preferential flow path connectivity and hydraulic properties at single-borehole and cross-borehole scales in a fractured aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preferential flow path connectivity is generally cited to explain scaling effects in hydraulic properties [Hsieh, P.A., 1998. Scale effects in fluid flow through fractured geological media, Scale dependence and scale invariance in hydrology. Cambridge University Press, pp. 335 353; Illman, W.A., in press. Strong evidence of directional permeability scale effect in fractured rock. Journal of Hydrology]. However, this information is rarely available in the field. In this study, we present a characterization of flow paths connectivity at the Plœmeur fractured crystalline aquifer from cross-borehole flowmeter tests. We show that high transmissivity zones are connected over distances of at least 150 m all over the site. In parallel, we synthesize hydraulic properties estimates obtained at this site from field techniques having distinct scales of investigation: single borehole flowmeter experiments, cross borehole flowmeter experiments and long term pumping tests. We find that borehole scale variability of transmissivity estimates vanishes at larger scale and that the transmissivity converges towards the high values of the transmissivity distribution. This effect may be explained by the organization of the flow field in the subsurface, and particularly the good connectivity of the permeable zones all over the site.

Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Paillet, F. L.; Caudal, J.-P.

2006-08-01

161

Scale-free networks without growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we proposed an ungrowing scale-free network model, indicating the growth may not be a necessary condition of the self-organization of a network in a scale-free structure. The analysis shows that the degree distributions of the present model can varying from the Poisson form to the power-law form with the decrease of a free parameter ?. This model provides a possible mechanism for the evolution of some scale-free networks with fixed size, such as the friendship networks of school children and the functional networks of the human brain.PACS89.75.Hc64.60.Ak84.35.+i05.40.-aKeywordsComplex networksModellingScale-free networkReferencesR.AlbertA.-L.BarabásiRev. Modern Phys.74200247S.N.DorogovtsevJ.F.F.MendesAdv. Phys.5120021079M.E.J.NewmanSIAM Rev.452003167M.FaloutsosP.FaloutsosC.FaloutsosComput. Commun. Rev.291999251B.A.HubermanThe Laws of the Web2001MIT PressCambridgeJ.ScottSocial Network Analysis: A Handbook2000Sage PublicationsLondonT.ZhouJ.RenM.MedoY.-C.ZhangPhys. Rev. E762007046115H.JeongB.TomborR.AlbertZ.N.OltvaiA.-L.BarabásiNature4072000651S.L. Pimm, Food Webs, University of Chicago, Chicago, 2002L.da F.CostaF.A.RodriguesG.TraviesoP.R.V.BoasAdv. Phys.562007167D.J.WattsS.H.StrogatzNature3931998440A.-L.BarabásiR.AlbertScience2861999509A.-L.BarabásiR.AlbertH.JeongPhysica A2721999173Z.LiuY.-C.LaiN.YeP.DasguptaPhys. Lett. A3032002337P.L.KrapivskyS.RednerF.LeyvrazPhys. Rev. Lett.8520004629S.N.DorogovtsevJ.F.F.MendesA.N.SamukhimPhys. Rev. Lett.8520004633P.HolmeB.J.KimPhys. Rev. E652002026107T.ZhouG.YanB.-H.WangPhys. Rev. E712005046141R.V.SoleR.Pastor-SatorrasE.D.SmithT.KeplerAdv. Complex Syst.5200243A.CapocciG.CaldarelliR.MarchettiL.PietroneroPhys. Rev. E.642001035105J.BergM.LässigPhys. Rev. Lett.892002228701M.BaiesiS.S.MannaPhys. Rev. E682003047103B.J.KimA.TrusinaP.MinnhagenK.SneppenEur. Phys. J. B432005369A.RapoportW.J.HorvathBehav. Sci.61961279B.HuX.-Y.JiangJ.-F.DingY.-B.XieB.-H.WangPhysica A3532005576V.M.EguíluzD.R.ChialvoG.A.CecchiM.BalikiA.V.ApkarianPhys. Rev. Lett.942005018102In human brain functional networks, each node represents a voxels of dimension 3×3.475×3.475 mm3 in the picture taken by functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) in humans. Therefore, the network size is fixed as N=36×64×64.

Xie, Yan-Bo; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Bing-Hong

2008-03-01

162

Schools and Delinquency. Cambridge Criminology Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book links theory and empirical evidence to derive implications for designing school-based delinquency prevention programs. It examines how school environment and behavior interact, discusses the multiple levels of influence in and around schools that combine with student characteristics to lead to delinquency, and addresses the malleability…

Gottfredson, Denise C.

163

The Syntax of Hungarian. Cambridge Syntax Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a guide to syntax in the Hungarian language. It is intended for students and researchers working on syntax and those interested in Finno-Ugric languages. It describes the key grammatical features of the language, focusing on the phenomena that have proven to be theoretically the most relevant and that have attracted the most…

Kiss, Katalin E.

164

HIV-1 Western Blot Cambridge Biotech  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... A cotton swab dipped in reagent grade water can be used to carefully remove the spots and allow for better visualization of results. 11 Page 12. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

165

The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Changing Views and Fundamental Concepts: 1. Evolving perspectives: a historical prologue; 2. The new, close-up view from space; 3. The invisible buffer zone with space: atmospheres, magnetospheres and the solar wind; Part II. The Inner System - Rocky Worlds: 4. Third rock from the Sun: restless Earth; 5. The Moon: stepping stone to the planets; 6. Mercury: a dense battered world; 7. Venus: the veiled planet; 8. Mars: the red planet; Part III. The Giant Planets, Their Satellites and Their Rings - Worlds of Liquid, Ice and Gas: 9. Jupiter: a giant primitive planet; 10. Saturn: lord of the rings; 11. Uranus and Neptune; Part IV. Remnants of Creation - Small Worlds in the Solar System: 12. Asteroids and meteorites; 13. Colliding worlds; 14. Comets; 15. Beyond Neptune; Part V. Origin of the Solar System and Extrasolar Planets: 16. Brave new worlds; Index.

Lang, Kenneth R.

2011-03-01

166

HIV-1 Western Blot Cambridge Biotech  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... New lots of high positive control from a source whose serum is non ... filter and out the ... Employee training meets the requirements of the OSHA Hazard ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

167

Projects in Cambridge 'A' Level Business Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the organization of the extended project that is part of the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) A Level Business Studies examination. Provides a timetable for implementing the project. Includes student evaluations of the project. (LS)

Dorton, Ian

1989-01-01

168

The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book describes the phonological and grammatical structure of the whole-Dravidian language family from different aspects, examining its history and writing system, structure and typology, lexicon, and recent contacts between Dravidian and other language groups. The 11 chapters highlight the following: (1) "Introduction" (e.g., the Dravidian…

Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju

169

Weak scale supersymmetry  

SciTech Connect

An introduction to the ideas and current state of weak scale supersymmetry is given. It is shown that LEP data on Z decays has already excluded two of the most elegant models of weak scale supersymmetry. 14 refs.

Hall, L.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1990-11-12

170

Weak scale supersymmetry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An introduction to the ideas and current state of weak scale supersymmetry is given. It is shown that LEP data on Z decays has already excluded two of the most elegant models of weak scale supersymmetry. 14 refs.

L. J. Hall

1990-01-01

171

Scaling of Secondary Craters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Secondary craters are common features around fresh planetary-scale primary impact craters throughout most of the Solar System. They derive from the ejection phase of crater formation, thus secondary scaling relations provide constraints on parameters affe...

S. K. Croft

1991-01-01

172

Scaling and Personal Questionnaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

STEVENS's1 classification of types of scaling according to their group structure appears insufficient, since a higher ordered metric2,3 and an interval scaling both belong to the same group, namely, the linear group (an interval scaling according to Stevens and a higher ordered metric scaling because the only function f(x) such that for all a, b, c, d, if |a-b| >

J. P. N. Phillips

1963-01-01

173

Wellbore gypsum scale control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gypsum scale deposition in producing well bores is a recognized problem in many W. Texas oil fields. The results of gypsum scale formation are usually reduced producing rates, premature well abandonment, and high operating expenses. An effect gypsum removal and inhibition program is necessary for successful operation where gypsum scaling problems exist. Development of the gypsum control program presently in

Knowles

1975-01-01

174

Extreme Scale Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect

Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

2012-05-08

175

Scaling Behavioral Anchors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) have both intuitive and empirical appeal, they have not always yielded superior results in contrast with graphic rating scales. The present study examined the issue of how behavioral descrip tions are anchored. Subjects scaled anchors describ ing teaching performance in a college classroom using either a graphic rating procedure or a pair- comparison procedure.

Frank J. Landy; Janet L. Barnes

1979-01-01

176

Reading Graduated Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ways of teaching students to read scales are presented as process instructions that are probably overlooked or taken for granted by most instructors. Scales on such devices as thermometers, rulers, spring scales, speedometers, and thirty-meter tape are discussed. (MP)|

Hall, Lucien T., Jr.

1982-01-01

177

The Positivity Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college…

Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

2012-01-01

178

Spring Scale Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how spring scales work and how they are used for non-exact weight measurement. Learners work in teams to develop their own working spring scale out of ordinary items. They test their scale, present their designs to the group, compare their designs with those of other teams, and reflect on the experience.

Ieee

2013-07-08

179

Civilian PTSD Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strong associations between civilian posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scales and measures of general psychological distress suggest that the scales are nonspecific to PTSD. Three common PTSD scales were administered to 122 undergraduates who had experienced an emotionally salient, nontraumatic event: a college examination. Results indicated…

Shapinsky, Alicia C.; Rapport, Lisa J.; Henderson, Melinda J.; Axelrod, Bradley N.

2005-01-01

180

Optimal renormalization scales and commensurate scale relations  

SciTech Connect

Commensurate scale relations relate observables to observables and thus are independent of theoretical conventions, such as the choice of intermediate renormalization scheme. The physical quantities are related at commensurate scales which satisfy a transitivity rule which ensures that predictions are independent of the choice of an intermediate renormalization scheme. QCD can thus be tested in a new and precise way by checking that the observables track both in their relative normalization and in their commensurate scale dependence. For example, the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule at a given momentum transfer Q can be predicted from measurements of the e+e{sup {minus}} annihilation cross section at a corresponding commensurate energy scale {radical}s {proportional_to} Q, thus generalizing Crewther`s relation to non-conformal QCD. The coefficients that appear in this perturbative expansion take the form of a simple geometric series and thus have no renormalon divergent behavior. The authors also discuss scale-fixed relations between the threshold corrections to the heavy quark production cross section in e+e{sup {minus}} annihilation and the heavy quark coupling {alpha}{sub V} which is measurable in lattice gauge theory.

Brodsky, S.J. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lu, H.J. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics

1996-01-01

181

NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

2003-03-01

182

Recursive scaled DCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the various image data compression methods, the discrete cosine transform (DCT) has become the most popular in performing gray-scale image compression and decomposition. However, the computational burden in performing a DCT is heavy. For example, in a regular DCT, at least 11 multiplications are required for processing an 8 X 1 image block. The idea of the scaled-DCT is that more than half the multiplications in a regular DCT are unnecessary, because they can be formulated as scaling factors of the DCT coefficients, and these coefficients may be scaled back in the quantization process. A fast recursive algorithm for computing the scaled-DCT is presented in this paper. The formulations are derived based on practical considerations of applying the scaled-DCT algorithm to image data compression and decompression. These include the considerations of flexibility of processing different sizes of DCT blocks and the actual savings of the required number of arithmetic operations. Due to the recursive nature of this algorithm, a higher-order scaled-DCT can be obtained from two lower-order scaled DCTs. Thus, a scaled-DCT VLSI chip designed according to this algorithm may process different sizes of DCT under software control. To illustrate the unique properties of this recursive scaled-DCT algorithm, the one-dimensional formulations are presented with several examples exhibited in signal flow-graph forms.

Hou, Hsieh-Sheng

1991-12-01

183

Requirements scaling properties in large scale computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fast Illinois Solver Code (FISC) is a code to tackle large scale computing and scattering problems using multi-level fast multipole algorithms. FISC requirements for memory and CPU time are discussed. Some empirically derived formulas and charts are given. The examples used to get these conclusions are also plotted. FISC is designed to compute the RCS of a target described

J. M. Song; W. C. Chew

1998-01-01

184

Scaling indices of disablement.  

PubMed Central

Williams et al. (1976) have suggested the use of Guttman scaling for scoring an index of disability. Two examples confirm the applicability of this method in the context of survey research. One of these examples is of a disablement scale widely employed in local authority social services research. For the purpose of survey assessment of disabled populations, the precise choice of scaling method for scoring disability is often of little consequence.

Bebbington, A C

1977-01-01

185

The positivity scale.  

PubMed

Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure positivity, defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college participants. In Study 2, the unidimensionality of the P Scale was corroborated with confirmatory factor analysis in 2 independent samples (N? = 322; N? = 457). In Study 3, P Scale invariance across sexes and its relations with self-esteem, life satisfaction, optimism, positive negative affect, depression, and the Big Five provided further evidence of the internal and construct validity of the new measure in a large community sample (N = 3,589). In Study 4, test-retest reliability of the P Scale was found in a sample of college students (N = 262) who were readministered the scale after 5 weeks. In Study 5, measurement invariance and construct validity of P Scale were further supported across samples in different countries and cultures, including Italy (N = 689), the United States (N = 1,187), Japan (N = 281), and Spain (N = 302). Psychometric findings across diverse cultural context attest to the robustness of the P Scale and to positivity as a basic disposition. PMID:22250591

Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

2012-01-16

186

Alberta Essay Scales: Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Alberta Essay Scales were developed to assist teachers in the grading of essays. They represent a standard based on written compositions at the 12th grade level in 1964 to be compared with current composition writing achievement. A scale for mechanics in English and one for writing style and content are defined through model essays and…

Nyberg, Verner R.; Nyberg, Adell M.

187

Parkfield Aftershock Interoccurrence Scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aftershock sequences present a unique opportunity to study the physics of earthquakes. Important questions concern the fundamental origin of three widely applicable scaling laws: 1) Gutenberg-Richter frequency- magnitude scaling, 2) Omori's law for aftershock decay rates, and 3) Båth's law for the difference between the magnitude of the largest aftershock and a main shock. The high resolution Parkfield seismic network

R. Shcherbakov; D. L. Turcotte; J. B. Rundle

2006-01-01

188

Scaling up as Catachresis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The metaphor of scaling up is the wrong one to use for describing and prescribing educational change. Many of the strategies being employed to achieve scaling up are counter-productive: they conceive of practitioners as delivery agents or consumers, rather than as co-constructors of change. An approach to educational innovation based on the…

Tobin, Joseph

2005-01-01

189

Fundamentals of zoological scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most introductory physics courses emphasize highly idealized problems with unique well-defined answers. Though many textbooks complement these problems with estimation problems, few books present anything more than an elementary discussion of scaling. This paper presents some fundamentals of scaling in the zoological domain-a domain complex by any standard, but one also well suited to illustrate the power of very simple

Herbert Lin

1982-01-01

190

The Cosmic Distance Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of web-based exercises takes students on an interactive tour measuring cosmic distances. The exercises systematically steps out in scale from the familiar world of everyday objects to larger and larger astronomical scales, ultimately exploring the expansion rate of the universe. Links to other resources on the web are included.

Larson, Ana

2004-07-17

191

SCALE INSECTS ON PECAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect control in pecan orchards typically focuses on those pests that are apparent and cause noticeable economic damage. However, there are other pests of pecan that somehow slip through the cracks of pest management programs. Included in this category are the scale insects. As a group, scale inse...

192

Pre-Kindergarten Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 25-item scale for rating prekindergarten children concerns personal and cognitive skills. Directions for using the scale are provided. Personal skills include personal hygiene, communication skills, eating habits, relationships with the teacher, peer relations, and personal behavior. Cognitive skills rated are verbal skills, object…

Flynn, Tim

193

A Scale for Sexism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defines the consciousness scale as a measurement technique which divides media protrayals of women into five conceptually-derived categories that can be placed in ordinal relationships with one another. Suggests that such a scale may be useful as a tool for analyzing mass media content. (MH)|

Pingree, Suzanne; And Others

1976-01-01

194

What Is Scale?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scale is one of the big ideas that cross the science domains. Whether one is talking about the weight of a blue whale, the size of a galaxy or a molecule, or the age of a mountain range, scale is an essential tool in understanding the universe in a scient

Taylor, Amy R.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2009-09-01

195

Economies of scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working in groups of three, students analyze economies of scale. Each student constructs an individual short-run ATC curve, then the three students collaborate to determine if there are economies or diseconomies of scale and to create the long run ATC.

Maier, Mark

196

On nature's scaling effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation afforded the opportunity to look back in the literature to discover scaling effects in nature that might be relevant to composites. Numerous examples were found in nature's approaches to wood, teeth, horns, leaves, eggs, feathers, etc. Nature transmits tensile forces rigidly with cohesive bonds, while dealing with compression forces usually through noncompressible hydraulics. The optimum design scaling approaches

Dick J. Wilkins

1994-01-01

197

Animal scale-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal scale-up is discussed as a formal approach to drug distribution in the body which permits consideration of scale through the individual processes that occur. Some of these are physical, such as blood flows, tissue binding, and kidney clearances. Others are chemical, such as metabolic reactions. The physical processes often vary quite predictably among mammalian species, and much is known

Robert L. Dedrick

1973-01-01

198

Behavior Rating Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Behavior Rating Scale measures behavioral skills by observing the child during the administration of other tests. The rating dimensions include independence, concentration, tractability, attitude and disposition toward testing, and overflow behavior. All are scored on a scale of 0-4, low to high. (PR)

University City School District, MO.

199

Commercial scale solar drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial scale drying requires a tremendous amount of energy to heat air when drying various food products and there is an opportunity to utilize solar energy in the drying process. Commercial drying is different from the small scale traditional sun drying practised by farmers. The paper begins with a summary of a feasibility study done for the Spices Board of

J. C. Hollick

1999-01-01

200

Saver-Spender Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Initial conceptual and empirical background to the Saver-Spender (SS) Scales of the personality correlate of consumer behavior are presented. These nine scales were developed to assess major behavioral orientations that underlie or facilitate consumer behavior. They are: (1) Aware of Other's Possessions; (2) Decision Confident; (3) Desires…

Heslin, Richard; And Others

201

Submicron scaling of HBTs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) bandwidth with scaling is reviewed. High bandwidths are obtained by thinning the base and collector layers, increasing emitter current density, decreasing emitter contact resistivity, and reducing the emitter and collector junction widths. In mesa HBTs, minimum dimensions required for the base contact impose a minimum width for the collector junction, frustrating device scaling.

Mark J. W. Rodwell; Miguel Urteaga; Thomas Mathew; Dennis Scott; Dino Mensa; Q. Lee; James Guthrie; Y. Betser; Suzanne C. Martin; R. P. Smith; S. Jaganathan; Sundararajan Krishnan; Stephen I. Long; R. Pullela; Bipul Agarwal; Uddalak Bhattacharya; Lorene Samoska; Mattias Dahlstrom

2001-01-01

202

INL Laboratory Scale Atomizer  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory scale atomizer has been built at the Idaho National Laboratory. This has proven useful for laboratory scale tests and has been used to fabricate fuel used in the RERTR miniplate experiments. This instrument evolved over time with various improvements being made ‘on the fly’ in a trial and error process.

C.R. Clark; G.C. Knighton; R.S. Fielding; N.P. Hallinan

2010-01-01

203

Beyond Miransky scaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the scaling behavior of physical observables in strongly-flavored asymptotically free gauge theories, such as many-flavor QCD. Such theories approach a quantum critical point when the number of fermion flavors is increased. It is well-known that physical observables at this quantum critical point exhibit an exponential scaling behavior (Miransky scaling), provided the gauge coupling is considered as a constant external parameter. This scaling behavior is modified when the scale dependence of the gauge coupling is taken into account. Provided that the gauge coupling approaches an IR fixed point, we derive the resulting universal power-law corrections to the exponential scaling behavior and show that they are uniquely determined by the IR critical exponent of the gauge coupling. To illustrate our findings, we compute the universal corrections in many-flavor QCD with the aid of nonperturbative functional renormalization group methods. In this case, we expect the power-law scaling to be quantitatively more relevant if the theories are probed, for instance, at integer Nf as done in lattice simulations.

Braun, Jens; Fischer, Christian S.; Gies, Holger

2011-08-01

204

Sulfate scale dissolution  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

1992-01-28

205

The extragalactic distance scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disagreements and controversy surrounding the extragalactic distance scale are reviewed. Particular consideration is given to the Hubble distance scale, the Sandage-Tammann program, Kennicutt's refinements, van den Bergh's assessment, de Vaucouleur's reassessment, and the H I line-width method. The present situation of the extragalactic distance scale is then considered with regard to galactic calibrations, the Local Group, nearby groups, the Virgo cluster, and more distant clusters. It is suggested that the existing disagreements and complicated controversy are merely symptoms of the adolescent nature of the field.

Hodge, P. W.

206

On nature's scaling effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation afforded the opportunity to look back in the literature to discover scaling effects in nature that might be relevant to composites. Numerous examples were found in nature's approaches to wood, teeth, horns, leaves, eggs, feathers, etc. Nature transmits tensile forces rigidly with cohesive bonds, while dealing with compression forces usually through noncompressible hydraulics. The optimum design scaling approaches for aircraft were also reviewed for comparison with similitude laws. Finally, some historical evidence for the use of Weibull scaling in composites was reviewed.

Wilkins, Dick J.

1994-07-01

207

Connecting gender and economic competitiveness: lessons from Cambridge’s high-tech regional economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although recognition of the significance of gender divisions continues to transform economic geography, the discipline nevertheless remains highly uneven in its degree of engagement with gender as a legitimate focus of analysis. In particular, although social institutions are now widely regarded as key determinants of economic success, the regional learning and innovation literature remains largely gender blind, simultaneously subordinating the

Mia Gray; Al James

2007-01-01

208

GSA Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Geological Society of America (GSA) site contains a detailed geologic time scale as an educational resource. It may be downloaded to a larger size, and includes all Eras, Eons, Periods, Epochs and ages as well as magnetic polarity information.

1999-01-01

209

Geological Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document describes how geologic time is approached in discussions of geologic topics. The uses of relative time and absolute time are compared, and a geologic time scale is provided to represent both concepts. References are provided.

210

Integration on time scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the process of Riemann and Lebesgue integration on time scales. The relationship of the Riemann and Lebesgue integrals is considered and a criterion for Riemann integrability is established.

Gusein Sh. Guseinov

2003-01-01

211

Rating Scales in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the field of schizophrenia treatment and research, psychiatric symptom rating scales have served to evaluate and elucidate\\u000a the value of antipsychotic medications and psychosocial interventions in treating this disorder. Useful scales have also been\\u000a developed to assist in measuring side effects of medications, to assess areas of cognitive functioning, to evaluate quality\\u000a of life, and to monitor medication treatment

Jennifer D. Gottlieb; Xiaoduo Fan; Donald C. Goff

212

A Mesozoic time scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an integrated geomagnetic polarity and stratigraphic time scale for the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods of the Mesozoic Era, with age estimates and uncertainty limits for stage boundaries. The time scale uses a suite of 324 radiometric dates, including high-resolution Ar-40\\/Ar-39 age estimates. This framework involves the observed ties between (1) radiometric dates, biozones, and stage boundaries, and

Felix M. Gradstein; Frits P. Agterberg; James G. Ogg; Jan Hardenbol; Paul van Veen; Jacques Thierry; Zehui Huang

1994-01-01

213

Scaling Up Education Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of various sizes. This article discusses the classroom design and teaching techniques that allow pedagogical advances such as SCALE-UP to be used in large-enrollment classes.

Richards, Evan; Gaffney, Jon D.; Ding, Lin; Kustusch, Mary B.; Beichner, Robert J.

2008-05-01

214

The Pet Attitude Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It was the intention of the authors that this chapter be a resource of test and measures for the reader. The name of the Pet\\u000a Attitude Scale (PAS) (Templer, Salter, Dickey, Baldwin, & Veleber, 1981), apparently the first published scale that measures\\u000a human–animal bonding, reflects the fact that it was developed three decades ago. If it were constructed today, it

Donald I. Templer; Hiroko Arikawa

215

Inhibition of reservoir scale  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a treating process for inhibiting scaling by fluid which is produced from a non-carbonate subterranean reservoir via a wellbore. It comprises injecting down the wellbore and into the reservoir a mixture of a phosphonate scale inhibiting compound and a metal chelate where the metal chelate has a lower stability constant (Ke) than the phosphonate inhibitor and where the metal in the metal chelate forms an insoluble salt upon reaction with the phosphonate.

Carlberg, B.L.; Wolfe, N.O.; Pober, K.W.; Nash, W.D.

1989-08-29

216

Simple Scales FS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet provides a virtual environment in which students can explore the concept of weight/mass. They place virtual teddy bears on a pan scale to determine their weights. The bears weigh from 1 to 4 units and can be placed on the scale individually or in groups. The activity lends itself to mental addition and subtraction with values less than or equal to ten.

Bunker, Dan

2004-01-01

217

The Improbability scale  

SciTech Connect

The Improbability Scale (IS) is proposed as a way of communicating to the general public the improbability (and by implication, the probability) of events predicted as the result of scientific research. Through the use of the Improbability Scale, the public will be able to evaluate more easily the relative risks of predicted events and draw proper conclusions when asked to support governmental and public policy decisions arising from that research.

Ritchie, David J.; /Fermilab

2005-03-01

218

Measurement, value, and scale.  

PubMed

The terms 'qualitative', 'semiquantitative', and 'quantitative' are used ambiguously. Based on international recommendations by IEC, IFCC, ISO, IUPAC, and OIML, and the work on scales by Stevens, a systematic terminology is presented. Measurement is considered to be the set of operations by which a value (consisting of a relational operator, and symbols, figures, or letters) is assigned to a quantity. The possible values constitute a scale that may be subdivided into classes. A hierarchy of four types of scale is characterized: nominal (values are independent of magnitude), ordinal (ranked according to magnitude), interval (equality of differences, arbitrary zero), and ratio scale (equality of ratios, absolute zero); each type allows a different set of statistical calculations. The type of scale is independent of its number of values or classes, or the uncertainty of measurement. The number of values on a scale is indicated by the terms two-value, three-value,..., multivalue and the number of classes analogously by two-class, etc. Examples of transformation of quantities are given. PMID:2772558

Dybkaer, R; Jørgensen, K

1989-01-01

219

Child Development Program Evaluation Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Child Development Program Evaluation Scale (CDPES) is actually two scales in one, a licensing scale and a quality scale. Licensing predictor items have been found to predict overall compliance of child day care centers with state regulations in four states. Quality scale items have been found to predict the overall quality of child day care…

Fiene, Richard J.

220

Fast ignition breakeven scaling.  

SciTech Connect

A series of numerical simulations have been performed to determine scaling laws for fast ignition break even of a hot spot formed by energetic particles created by a short pulse laser. Hot spot break even is defined to be when the fusion yield is equal to the total energy deposited in the hot spot through both the initial compression and the subsequent heating. In these simulations, only a small portion of a previously compressed mass of deuterium-tritium fuel is heated on a short time scale, i.e., the hot spot is tamped by the cold dense fuel which surrounds it. The hot spot tamping reduces the minimum energy required to obtain break even as compared to the situation where the entire fuel mass is heated, as was assumed in a previous study [S. A. Slutz, R. A. Vesey, I. Shoemaker, T. A. Mehlhorn, and K. Cochrane, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3483 (2004)]. The minimum energy required to obtain hot spot break even is given approximately by the scaling law E{sub T} = 7.5({rho}/100){sup -1.87} kJ for tamped hot spots, as compared to the previously reported scaling of E{sub UT} = 15.3({rho}/100){sup -1.5} kJ for untamped hotspots. The size of the compressed fuel mass and the focusability of the particles generated by the short pulse laser determines which scaling law to use for an experiment designed to achieve hot spot break even.

Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger Alan

2005-01-01

221

Absolute neutrino mass scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the absolute neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the absolute neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.

Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale

2013-04-01

222

Hyperspectral Interactions: Invariance and Scaling,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New invariance scaling results for scale space analysis are presented for hyperspectral data. First, note that a hyperspectral curve can be segmented into independent regions selected by features of scale space fingerprints. These fingerprint features are...

M. A. Piech K. R. Piech

1989-01-01

223

Developmental Depersonalization: The Prefrontal Cortex and Self-Functions in Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human self model suggests that the construct of self involves functions such as agency, body-centered spatial perspectivity, and long-term unity. Vogeley, Kurthen, Falkai, and Maieret (1999) suggest that agency is subserved by the prefrontal cortex and other association areas of the cortex, spatial perspectivity by the prefrontal cortex and the parietal lobes, and long-term unity by the prefrontal cortex

Dorit Ben Shalom

2000-01-01

224

Basal activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in patients with depersonalization disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depersonalisation disorder may occur during severe anxiety or following a traumatic event, suggesting a possible role of stress hormones. This study investigated basal activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with depersonalisation disorder. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at four time points over 12 h in patients with depersonalisation disorder (N=13), major depressive disorder (MDD, N=14) and healthy controls

Biba R Stanton; Anthony S David; Anthony J Cleare; Mauricio Sierra; Michelle V Lambert; Mary L Phillips; Richard J Porter; Peter Gallagher; Allan H Young

2001-01-01

225

Intergroup Relations and Group Solidarity: Effects of Group Identification and Social Beliefs on Depersonalized Attraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intergroup extension of M. A. Hogg's (1992, 1993) social attraction hypothesis is proposed. Netball teams were investigated with measures assessing the relationship between (a) objective status; (b) \\

Michael A. Hogg; Sarah C. Hains

1996-01-01

226

Basalt weathering across scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weathering of silicate minerals impacts many geological and ecological processes. For example, the weathering of basalt contributes significantly to consumption of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) and must be included in global calculations of such consumption over geological timeframes. Here we compare weathering advance rates for basalt ( wD?), where D and ? indicate the scale at which the rate is determined and surface area measured, respectively, from the laboratory to the watershed scales. Data collected at the laboratory, weathering rind, soil profile and watershed scales show that weathering advance rate of basalt is a fractal property that can be described by a fractal dimension ( dr ? 2.3). By combining the fractal description of rates with an Arrhenius relationship for basalt weathering, we derive the following equation to predict weathering advance rates at any spatial scale from weathering advance rates measured at the BET scale: wD?=k(e. Here, k0 is the pre-exponential factor (1.29 × 10 7 mm 3 mm - 2 yr - 1 ), Ea is the activation energy (70 kj mol - 1 ), and a is a spatial constant related to the scale of measurement of BET surface area (10 - 7 mm). The term, (, is the roughness. The roughness fractal dimension can be conceptualized as a factor related to both the thickness of the reaction front and the specific surface area within the reaction front. However, the above equation can also be written in terms of a surface fractal dimension and the hypothetical average grain radius. These fractal dimensions provide insight into reaction front geometry and should vary with lithology. Once the surface area discrepancy has been accounted for using this method, we find a one to two order of magnitude range in weathering advance rates measured at any scale or temperature that can be attributed to factors such as changes in erosional regime, parent lithology, mechanism, climate, composition of reacting fluid, and biological activity. Our scaled equation, when used to predict global basalt CO 2 consumption based upon global lithologic maps, yields an uptake flux (1.75 × 1013 mol CO 2 yr - 1 ) within the predicted error of fluxes estimated based upon riverine measurements.

Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Brantley, Susan

2007-09-01

227

Scale invariance in biophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this general talk, we offer an overview of some problems of interest to biophysicists, medical physicists, and econophysicists. These include DNA sequences, brain plaques in Alzheimer patients, heartbeat intervals, and time series giving price fluctuations in economics. These problems have the common feature that they exhibit features that appear to be scale invariant. Particularly vexing is the problem that some of these scale invariant phenomena are not stationary-their statistical properties vary from one time interval to the next or form one position to the next. We will discuss methods, such as wavelet methods and multifractal methods, to cope with these problems. .

Stanley, H. Eugene

2000-06-01

228

Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This table presents the modified Mercalli Intensity Scale (MMI), a measure of earthquake intensity based on shaking severity and observed effects of earthquakes. It includes MMI value, a description of shaking severity, and a summary and full description of damage effects. Each MMI value is accompanied by an illustration showing its expected effects.

229

Earthquake Impact Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the

D. J. Wald; K. S. Jaiswal; K. D. Marano; D. Bausch

2011-01-01

230

The Behavior Evaluation Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper describes the development and use of the Behavior Evaluation Scale (BES), an instrument designed to rate behavior problems for diagnosis, assist in developing individualized education programs (IEPs), document progress resulting from intervention, and collect data for research purposes. The uses of the BES in screening, diagnosis, IEP…

McCarney, Stephen B.

231

The organizational empowerment scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present research is to develop a reliable and valid scale to distinguish and measure the three environmental factors of dynamic structural framework, control of workplace decisions, and fluidity in information sharing that are conceptually related to and affect an employee's perception of empowerment. By quantifying the environmental factors that facilitate empowerment through a valid and reliable

Russell A. Matthews; Wendy Michelle Diaz; Steven G. Cole

2003-01-01

232

Fundamentals of Zoological Scaling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The following animal characteristics are considered to determine how properties and characteristics of various systems change with system size (scaling): skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing-flapping, and maximum sizes of flying and…

Lin, Herbert

1982-01-01

233

Small Scale Industries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovative programs for the promotion of small-scale enterprise are being conducted by a variety of organizations, including universities, government agencies, international research institutes, and voluntary assistance agencies. Their activities encompass basic extension services, management of cooperatives, community action programs, and…

Rural Development Detwork Bulletin, 1977

1977-01-01

234

Scaling up Psycholinguistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation contains several projects, each addressing different questions with different techniques. In chapter 1, I argue that they are unified thematically by their goal of "scaling up psycholinguistics"; they are all aimed at analyzing large data-sets using tools that reveal patterns to propose and test mechanism-neutral hypotheses…

Smith, Nathaniel J.

2011-01-01

235

Scaling up Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

2008-01-01

236

Distributed Dynamic Speed Scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years we have witnessed a great interest in large distributed computing platforms, also known as clouds. While these systems offer enormous computing power, they are major energy consumers. In existing data centers CPUs are responsible for approximately half of the energy consumed by the servers. A promising technique for saving CPU energy consumption is dynamic speed scaling, in

Rade Stanojevic; Robert Shorten

2010-01-01

237

The Social Integration Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Social Integration Scale (SIS) is intended to facilitate empirical research on the applicability of control theory to many types of adult crime, including "street crime," white collar crime, and physical assaults on spouses. There are five subscales: (1) belief (belief in law and social control); (2) commitment (psychological investment in…

Ross, Susan M.; Straus, Murray A.

238

Allometric scaling of countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As huge complex systems consisting of geographic regions, natural resources, people and economic entities, countries follow the allometric scaling law which is ubiquitous in ecological, and urban systems. We systematically investigated the allometric scaling relationships between a large number of macroscopic properties and geographic (area), demographic (population) and economic (GDP, gross domestic production) sizes of countries respectively. We found that most of the economic, trade, energy consumption, communication related properties have significant super-linear (the exponent is larger than 1) or nearly linear allometric scaling relations with the GDP. Meanwhile, the geographic (arable area, natural resources, etc.), demographic (labor force, military age population, etc.) and transportation-related properties (road length, airports) have significant and sub-linear (the exponent is smaller than 1) allometric scaling relations with area. Several differences of power law relations with respect to the population between countries and cities were pointed out. First, population increases sub-linearly with area in countries. Second, the GDP increases linearly in countries but not super-linearly as in cities. Finally, electricity or oil consumption per capita increases with population faster than cities.

Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Tongkui

2010-11-01

239

Scaling Violation in QCD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of scaling violation in QCD are discussed in the perturbative scheme, based on the factorization of mass singularities in the light-like gauge. Some recent applications including the next-to-leading corrections are presented (large psub(T) sca...

W. Furmanski

1981-01-01

240

Scale Pulse Tube Refrigerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

For miniature cryocoolers, CFD modeling is the best technique available to accurately repre- sent phenomena which becomes important as the device scale is reduced. However, the increased detail provided by CFD models is paid for with greatly increased computational time, and thus performing extensive parametric studies with CFD may be prohibitively time consuming. This paper describes work in progress on

T. J. Conrad; E. C. Landrum; S. M. Ghiaasiaan; C. S. Kirkconnell; T. Crittenden; S. Yorish

241

Hypsographic Demography Across Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The typical framework for assessing human population distribution is across a flat, two-dimensional landscape. We alter this perspective by examining population distribution with respect to a third dimension, elevation. This alternative framework, termed hypsographic demography, conceptually provides a more complete visualization and understanding of population distribution. We apply hypsographic demography to North Carolina from the scale of the entire state

Lauren A. Patterson; Martin W. Doyle

2011-01-01

242

Scaling in model aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic principles of flight are described from the point of view of the way they scale from the largest full-size aircraft to the smallest flying models. Particular attention is paid to the difficulties encountered by small, slow flying machines.

Chris Waltham

1997-01-01

243

The Illness Attitude Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Illness Attitude Scales (IAS) were developed by Robert Kellner as a clinimetric index for measuring hypochondriacal fears and beliefs (worry about illness, concerns about pain, health habits, hypochondriacal beliefs, thanatophobia, disease phobia, bodily preoccupations, treatment experience and effects of symptoms). The IAS have been extensively used in the past two decades, but there has been no comprehensive review

Laura Sirri; Silvana Grandi; Giovanni A. Fava

2008-01-01

244

Minimum scale and competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper analyses a duopoly game with discrete technology choice: the low cost technology is characterized by a minimum scale con- straint whereas the high cost one is innitely divisible. It is shown that this technological constraint can imply asymmetry at equilibrium. It can limit the use of the low cost technology but it can also prevents market power

Guy MEUNIER

245

Improved Seagoing Scale.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To solve the problems of weighing material at sea, a simple seagoing scale has been designed that accomplishes the task by eliminating platform-induced acceleration effects. The material to be weighed is placed in a sealed sample chamber with an attached ...

S. Niskin

1975-01-01

246

Scale Factor X  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, students navigate a maze to get to a math challenge. The three challenges are: move blue and green "fuel cells" around to match the ratios in the given containers; measure shapes to determine the scale factors needed to make them match the given templates; determine how to place bases on a map based on clues involving proportions.

2010-01-01

247

Scale, Composition, and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scale (gross domestic product), composition (goods and services), and technology (impacts per unit of goods and services) in combination are the proximate determinants in an economy of the resources used, wastes generated, and land transformed. In this article, we examine relationships among these determinants to understand better the…

Victor, Peter A.

2009-01-01

248

Scaling and small-scale structure in cosmic string networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the scaling properties of an evolving network of strings in Minkowski spacetime and study the evolution of length scales in terms of a three-scale model proposed by Austin, Copeland, and Kibble (ACK). We find good qualitative and some quantitative agreement between the model and our simulations. We also investigate small-scale structure by altering the minimum allowed size for

Graham R. Vincent; Mark Hindmarsh; Mairi Sakellariadou

1997-01-01

249

Financial management: Development of scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a contribution to the development of family resource management scales, specifically financial management scales. Principal axis factor analysis, with varimax rotation, is used to assess underlying relationships in 23 family resource management variables related to time and money resources. Reliability and content, construct, and criterion-related validity of the scales are assessed. Two scales that are reliable and

Vicki Schram Fitzsimmons; Tahira K. Hira; Jean W. Bauer; Jeanne L. Hafstrom

1993-01-01

250

Anisotropic scale invariant cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a possibility of anisotropic scale invariant cosmology. It is shown that within the conventional Einstein gravity, the violation of the null energy condition is necessary. We construct an example based on a ghost condensation model that violates the null energy condition. The cosmological solution necessarily contains at least one contracting spatial direction as in the Kasner solution. Our cosmology is conjectured to be dual to, if any, a non-unitary anisotropic scale invariant Euclidean field theory. We investigate simple correlation functions of the dual theory by using the holographic computation. After compactification of the contracting direction, our setup may yield a dual field theory description of the winding tachyon condensation that might solve the singularity of big bang/crunch of the universe.

Nakayama, Yu

2011-01-01

251

Large-Scale Disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Extreme" events - including climatic events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and drought - can cause massive disruption to society, including large death tolls and property damage in the billions of dollars. Events in recent years have shown the importance of being prepared and that countries need to work together to help alleviate the resulting pain and suffering. This volume presents a review of the broad research field of large-scale disasters. It establishes a common framework for predicting, controlling and managing both manmade and natural disasters. There is a particular focus on events caused by weather and climate change. Other topics include air pollution, tsunamis, disaster modeling, the use of remote sensing and the logistics of disaster management. It will appeal to scientists, engineers, first responders and health-care professionals, in addition to graduate students and researchers who have an interest in the prediction, prevention or mitigation of large-scale disasters.

Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

252

ELECTRONIC PULSE SCALING CIRCUITS  

DOEpatents

Electronic pulse scaling circults of the klnd comprlsing a serles of bi- stable elements connected ln sequence, usually in the form of a rlng so as to be cycllcally repetitive at the highest scallng factor, are described. The scaling circuit comprises a ring system of bi-stable elements each arranged on turn-off to cause, a succeeding element of the ring to be turned-on, and one being arranged on turn-off to cause a further element of the ring to be turned-on. In addition, separate means are provided for applying a turn-off pulse to all the elements simultaneously, and for resetting the elements to a starting condition at the end of each cycle.

Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

1958-11-18

253

Biological Large Scale Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integrated circuit revolution changed our lives by automating computational tasks on a grand scale. My group has been asking whether a similar revolution could be enabled by automating biological tasks. To that end, we have developed a method of fabricating very small plumbing devices chips with small channels and valves that manipulate fluids containing biological molecules and cells, instead of the more familiar chips with wires and transistors that manipulate electrons. Using this technology, we have fabricated chips that have thousands of valves in an area of one square inch. We are using these chips in applications ranging from screening to structural genomics to ultrasensitive genetic analysis. However, there is also a substantial amount of basic physics to explore with these systems the properties of fluids change dramatically as the working volume is scaled from milliliters to nanoliters!

Quake, Stephen

2005-03-01

254

Subgrid-Scale modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this lecture is to give an overview of the subgrid scale models used for Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The first models where essentially eddy-viscosity models, where the turbulent viscosity coefficient was found by simple dimensional considerations (the mixing length theory) or taking into account Kolmogorov theory (the Smagorinsky model). Since then there have been many improvements, and now some of the physical ingredients of turbulence, such as the local backscatter and the anisotropy of small scale structures, can be successfully taken into account. Far from being a black box tool to obtain answers to turbulent flow problems, the Large Eddy Simulation technique is still a work in progress with many odds and ends. We give in this lecture an overview of the historical development of turbulence models and we point out the lights and shadows of them with attention to the open problems that still remain to be solved.

Valdettaro, L.

255

The Nonius Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the 16th century, sea navigation still depended on mariner’s astrolabes and other relatively primitive instruments for\\u000a measuring astronomical altitudes. The precision of these instruments was greatly limited by the graduated scale they used,\\u000a which was normally based on a minimum unit of one degree and could be subdivided into half-degrees but not into smaller units,\\u000a as the measurement marks

Nuno Crato

256

Beyond the Planck Scale  

SciTech Connect

I outline motivations for believing that important quantum gravity effects lie beyond the Planck scale at both higher energies and longer distances and times. These motivations arise in part from the study of ultra-high energy scattering, and also from considerations in cosmology. I briefly summarize some inferences about such ultra-planckian physics, and clues we might pursue towards the principles of a more fundamental theory addressing the known puzzles and paradoxes of quantum gravity.

Giddings, Steven B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 PH-TH, CERN, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

2009-12-15

257

Size, Scale and Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners take measurements and create charts to learn about the size of dinosaurs and their relative scale to humans. In addition, learners discover how scientists estimate the volume of dinosaurs by using a simple displacement procedure. Learners also examine how fossilized bones fit together when they make their own dinosaur skeleton. This activity is featured on pp.28-32 (part of a lesson that begins on p.19) of the "Dinosphere" unit of study for grades 3-5.

Crosslin, Rick; Fortney, Mary; Indianapolis, The C.

2004-01-01

258

Smov FOS Plate Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal is to measure the precise plate scale and orientation. This will be acheived by performing a raster step and dwell sequence in the 4.3 arcsec aperture. The edges of the aperture should be avoided to prevent vignetting effects. An aperture map is required at each step of the dwell sequence. This test has to be conducted for both the RED and BLUE detectors. We will also determine the offset between the two detectors.

Kinney, Anne

1994-07-01

259

Regional-Scale Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we emphasize that regional processes shape local diversity and that the realized diversity represents the\\u000a interplay of local and regional processes. Local diversity is predicted by the number of species in the regional species pool.\\u000a This species pool is a result of speciation, extinction and migration among regions. At smaller scales, environmental disturbance,\\u000a stochastic extinctions, productivity, predation,

Jonne Kotta; Jon D. Witman

260

Scaling an Atom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a scale model of an atom to see how big or how small an atom is compared to its nucleus. Learners will realize that most of matter is just empty space! Learners will calculate the diameter and radius of a pinhead and the distance between the radius and the electron cloud as well as other optional measurements listed in the "Etc." portion of the resource.

Muller, Eric

2002-01-01

261

Landscape Multidimensional Scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We revisit the problem of representing a high-dimensional data set by a distance-preserving projection onto a two-dimensional\\u000a plane. This problem is solved by well-known techniques, such as multidimensional scaling. There, the data is projected onto\\u000a a flat plane and the Euclidean metric is used for distance calculation. In real topographic maps, however, travel distance (or time) is\\u000a not determined by

Katharina Tschumitschew; Frank Klawonn; Frank Höppner; Vitaliy Kolodyazhniy

2007-01-01

262

Comparison of Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education features a learning module on scale: macro, micro and nano. The material is intended as a background for students learning about nanotechnology and microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS. A participant guide, instructor guide (both in PDF format) and a comprehensive powerpoint presentation are included. Classroom activities are included. Users are encouraged to register and log in in order to access the full content on the site.

2011-10-11

263

Scale Independent Fracture Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fracture mechanics is considered from the viewpoint of a field theoretical approach based on the physical principle known\\u000a as gauge invariance. The advantage of this approach is scale independent and universal. All stages of deformation, from the\\u000a elastic stage to fracturing stage can be treated on the same theoretical foundation. A quantity identified as the deformation\\u000a charge is found to

Sanichiro Yoshida; Diwas Bhattarai; Tatsuo Okiyama; Kensuke Ichinose

264

Skin, Scales and Skulls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine body parts (including skin, scales, and skulls) from fish, mammals and reptiles. Questions are provided to help encourage learner investigations. Several activities are described, including object identification (what animal and what part of the animal?), free sorting of the objects, and a discussion of similarities, differences, and protective functions of the animal parts. It's written for use as a cart demo in a museum or aquarium, but could be done anywhere animal body parts are available.

Center, Virginia A.

2009-01-01

265

Scaling body size fluctuations  

PubMed Central

The size of an organism matters for its metabolic, growth, mortality, and other vital rates. Scale-free community size spectra (i.e., size distributions regardless of species) are routinely observed in natural ecosystems and are the product of intra- and interspecies regulation of the relative abundance of organisms of different sizes. Intra- and interspecies distributions of body sizes are thus major determinants of ecosystems’ structure and function. We show experimentally that single-species mass distributions of unicellular eukaryotes covering different phyla exhibit both characteristic sizes and universal features over more than four orders of magnitude in mass. Remarkably, we find that the mean size of a species is sufficient to characterize its size distribution fully and that the latter has a universal form across all species. We show that an analytical physiological model accounts for the observed universality, which can be synthesized in a log-normal form for the intraspecies size distributions. We also propose how ecological and physiological processes should interact to produce scale-invariant community size spectra and discuss the implications of our results on allometric scaling laws involving body mass.

Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian; Carrara, Francesco; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea

2013-01-01

266

Scaling body size fluctuations.  

PubMed

The size of an organism matters for its metabolic, growth, mortality, and other vital rates. Scale-free community size spectra (i.e., size distributions regardless of species) are routinely observed in natural ecosystems and are the product of intra- and interspecies regulation of the relative abundance of organisms of different sizes. Intra- and interspecies distributions of body sizes are thus major determinants of ecosystems' structure and function. We show experimentally that single-species mass distributions of unicellular eukaryotes covering different phyla exhibit both characteristic sizes and universal features over more than four orders of magnitude in mass. Remarkably, we find that the mean size of a species is sufficient to characterize its size distribution fully and that the latter has a universal form across all species. We show that an analytical physiological model accounts for the observed universality, which can be synthesized in a log-normal form for the intraspecies size distributions. We also propose how ecological and physiological processes should interact to produce scale-invariant community size spectra and discuss the implications of our results on allometric scaling laws involving body mass. PMID:23487793

Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian; Carrara, Francesco; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea

2013-03-04

267

Scale adaptive channel estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Channel (linear operator) estimation requires either a-priori knowledge or joint estimation of channel temporal coherence. This information serves to condition the estimation process reducing estimator variance. Kalman-like conditional expectation algorithms have exhibited success by modeling the channel response via time evolution either assuming coherence time a priori or jointly estimating it. With coherence time viewed as a ''time resolution'' property of the channel response rather than a ''time evolution'' property a new computational structure results. From this viewpoint we introduce a new channel estimation algorithm ''in-scale'' vice ''in-time.'' In such a framework detail is added, or synonymously coherence time is successively reduced, to meet a maximum a posteriori (MAP) criteria. The algorithm starts with a ''mean'' (time invariant) estimate and gradually adds detail evolving in scale until the MAP is attained. Computationally the algorithm exploits conjugate gradient directions recursing from low resolution to higher resolution until the requisite prior complexity (estimated via an empirical Bayes method) and data fidelity are met. Scale projections are computed efficiently and dimension reduction is aided via a wavelet decomposition. Explanations in terms of the minimum description length principle are also provided.

Gendron, Paul J.; Yang, T. C.

2002-11-01

268

Mechanism for salt scaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of stresses from several other sources, including thermal expansion mismatch between the pore water and the solid cement, and wedging of cracks by newly formed ice. To analyze the experimental data from the warping experiment, it was necessary to measure several material properties. Results from these measurements were used to substantiate a recent analysis of the beam bending experiment, which is a technique for measuring permeability. In addition, these results indicated that thermopermeametry, another technique for measuring permeability, was applicable to rigid materials. Comparison of the permeability measured by these two techniques indicated that the pore fluid in cement paste exhibits anomalous thermal expansion. Finally, the cause of swelling when cement paste is exposed to salts was investigated.

Valenza, John J., II

269

The Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a large, easy to read, detailed geologic time scale for the Phanerozoic Eon (544 million years ago - Present). This is the period of time, also known as an eon, between the end of the Precambrian and today. The Phanerozoic begins with the start of the Cambrian period, 544 million years ago. It encompasses the period of abundant, complex life on Earth. The chart includes the Era, Period or System, and the Epoch or Series and features a brief description of each.

270

Effects of changing scale on landscape pattern analysis: scaling relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landscape pattern is spatially correlated and scale-dependent. Thus, understanding landscape structure and functioning requires\\u000a multiscale information, and scaling functions are the most precise and concise way of quantifying multiscale characteristics\\u000a explicitly. The major objective of this study was to explore if there are any scaling relations for landscape pattern when\\u000a it is measured over a range of scales (grain size

Jianguo Wu

2004-01-01

271

Progress in Scaling Biomolecular Simulations to Petaflop Scale Platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some of the issues involved with scaling biomolecular simulations onto massively parallel machines drawing\\u000a on the Blue Matter application team’s experiences with Blue Gene\\/L. Our experiences in scaling biomolecular simulation to\\u000a one atom\\/node on BG\\/L should be relevant to scaling biomolecular simulations onto larger peta-scale platforms because the\\u000a path to increased performance is through the exploitation of

Blake G. Fitch; Aleksandr Rayshubskiy; Maria Eleftheriou; T. J. Christopher Ward; Mark Giampapa; Michael Pitman; Robert S. Germain

2006-01-01

272

Time scales in fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

The problem of fragmentation of excited finite systems is explored in the frame of classical molecular dynamics experiments of two-dimensional Lennard-Jones drops. The main objective of this work is to get information about the relative value of the relevant characteristic time scales (CTS) for this kind of process. We investigate the CTS for fragment formation, the stabilization of the radial flux, and the internal {open_quotes}temperature.{close_quotes} It is found that the asymptotic fragments are realized early in phase space, when the system is still dense, by the time the radial flux attains its asymptotic value. It is also shown that the temperature of the system during the breakup is quite homogenous with respect to the expected profile if local thermal equilibration takes place. Special emphasis is put on the investigation of the time scale of stabilization of the statistical properties of the mass spectrum, which is related to the kind of information carried by the asymptotic fragments. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Strachan, A.; Dorso, C.O. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon I, Ciudad Universitaria, Nunez 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

1997-02-01

273

Small scale sanitation technologies.  

PubMed

Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable. PMID:16104403

Green, W; Ho, G

2005-01-01

274

Hydrodynamic Aspects of Shark Scales.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ridge morphometrices on placoid scales from 12 galeoid shark species were examined in order to evaluate their potential value for frictional drag reduction. The geometry of the shark scales is similar to longitudinal grooved surfaces (riblets) that have b...

W. G. Raschi J. A. Musick

1986-01-01

275

Scale and Powers of 10  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scale is a unifying concept in science. Whether one is considering the size and scope of the universe, an atom, or anything in-between, conceptual understanding of scale is a prerequisite to understanding. Other phenomena requiring knowledge of scale include geologic time, pH, and maps. Cognitively, most middle school students hold a concrete, incomplete conception of scale. Teachers can facilitate conceptual change to a more abstract conception with help from these resources.

University, Staff A.

2008-03-07

276

Westside Test Anxiety Scale Validation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Westside Test Anxiety Scale is a brief, ten item instrument designed to identify students with anxiety impairments who could benefit from an anxiety-reduction intervention. The scale items cover self-assessed anxiety impairment and cognitions which can impair performance. Correlations between anxiety-reduction as measured by the scale and…

Driscoll, Richard

2007-01-01

277

Ecological Resilience, Biodiversity, and Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe existing models of the relationship between species diversity and ecological function, and propose a conceptual model that relates species richness, ecological resilience, and scale. We suggest that species interact with scale-dependent sets of ecological structures and processes that determine functional opportunities. We propose that ecologi- cal resilience is generated by diverse, but overlap- ping, function within a scale

Garry Peterson; Craig R. Allen; C. S. Holling

1998-01-01

278

Hydrodynamic aspects of shark scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ridge morphometrices on placoid scales from 12 galeoid shark species were examined in order to evaluate their potential value for frictional drag reduction. The geometry of the shark scales is similar to longitudinal grooved surfaces (riblets) that have been previously shown to give 8 percent skin-friction reduction for turbulent boundary layers. The present study of the shark scales was undertaken

W. G. Raschi; J. A. Musick

1986-01-01

279

The Theory of Scale Relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basing our discussion on the relative character of all scales in nature and on the explicit dependence of physical laws on scale in quantum physics, we apply the principle of relativity to scale transformations. This principle, in combination with its breaking above the Einstein-de Broglie wavelength and time, leads to the demonstration of the existence of a universal, absolute and

Laurent Nottale

1992-01-01

280

Scale Independence in Marking Menus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how marking menus use an explicit recognizer to support menu selection using marks. A key property of the recognizer is scale independence: recognition of marks drawn at any size. We hypothesize that scale independence contributes to fast selections and reduces the effort required. To test this hypothesis, we present an experiment to examine the effects of scale

Gordon Kurtenbach; George Fitzmaurice; Azam Khan; Don Almeida

281

Web Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California-Berkeley Museum of Paleontology (last mentioned in the June 16, 1995 Scout Report) has recently updated its Web Geologic Time Scale, an online feature that helps users learn about the geologic timeline and explore related museum exhibits. The familiar geologic timeline appears on the main page of the Web site, with hypertext links for each division of time. Every page of the Web Geologic Time Machine site is liberally sprinkled with links to related UCMP Web pages; think of it as a portal to all online information available from the museum. Altogether, this Web site provides a well-organized and comprehensive resource for learning how the planet has changed over time, and would be a great addition to earth or life sciences classroom material for a broad range of grades.

1994-01-01

282

Cellular-scale hydrodynamics.  

PubMed

Microfluidic tools are providing many new insights into the chemical, physical and physicochemical responses of cells. Both suspension-level and single-cell measurements have been studied. We review our studies of these kinds of problems for red blood cells with particular focus on the shapes of individual cells in confined geometries, the development and use of a 'differential manometer' for evaluating the mechanical response of individual cells or other objects flowing in confined geometries, and the cross-streamline drift of cells that pass through a constriction. In particular, we show how fluid mechanical effects on suspended cells can be studied systematically in small devices, and how these features can be exploited to develop methods for characterizing physicochemical responses and possibly for the diagnosis of cellular-scale changes to environmental factors. PMID:18765900

Abkarian, Manouk; Faivre, Magalie; Horton, Renita; Smistrup, Kristian; Best-Popescu, Catherine A; Stone, Howard A

2008-09-03

283

In Brief: Scale model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here's one for Guinness or maybe Ripley: The Worlds's largest scale model of the solar system begins at a museum in Peoria, Ill., and extends geographically as far away as Ecuador and the South Pole. In the model, which was developed by the museum's deputy director Sheldon Schafer, 42 feet equal about 1 million miles. The Sun, which is 36-feet wide, is painted on the dome of the Lakeview Museum's planetarium in Peoria. Mercury, which is 1.5 inches across, can be found at a nearby store; Venus sits in a local bank lobby; Earth is lodged at a gas station; and Mars at a radio station. “The idea is that people will encounter a little bit of astronomy in the walks of their daily lives,” Schafer says.

284

In Brief: Scale model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here's one for Guinness or maybe Ripley: The Worlds's largest scale model of the solar system begins at a museum in Peoria, Ill., and extends geographically as far away as Ecuador and the South Pole. In the model, which was developed by the museum's deputy director Sheldon Schafer, 42 feet equal about 1 million miles. The Sun, which is 36-feet wide, is painted on the dome of the Lakeview Museum's planetarium in Peoria. Mercury, which is 1.5 inches across, can be found at a nearby store; Venus sits in a local bank lobby; Earth is lodged at a gas station; and Mars at a radio station. "The idea is that people will encounter a little bit of astronomy in the walks of their daily lives," Schafer says.

285

Understanding Scale: Powers of Ten  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classic film "Powers of Ten" is often employed to catalyze the building of more accurate conceptions of scale, yet its effectiveness is largely unknown. This study examines the impact of the film on students' concepts of size and scale. Twenty-two middle school students and six science teachers participated. Students completed pre- and post-intervention interviews and a Scale Card Sorting (SCS) task; all students observed the film "Powers of Ten." Experienced teachers' views on the efficacy of the film were assessed through a short written survey. Results showed that viewing the film had a positive influence on students' understandings of powers of ten and scale. Students reported that they had more difficulty with sizes outside of the human scale and found small scales more difficult to conceptualize than large scales. Students' concepts of relative size as well as their ability to accurately match metric sizes in scientific notation to metric scale increased from pre- to post-viewing of the film. Experienced teachers reported that the film was a highly effective tool. Teachers reported that the design of the film that allowed students to move slowly from the human scale to the large and small scales and then quickly back again was effective in laying the foundation for understanding the different scales.

Jones, M. Gail; Taylor, Amy; Minogue, James; Broadwell, Bethany; Wiebe, Eric; Carter, Glenda

2007-04-01

286

Some Divertor Scaling Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A case is advanced for ``divertor non-scaling'', viz that absolute values of divertor density nd˜10^21 m-3 and temperature Td˜ 5 eV need to be achieved for optimal demo/reactor-relevant studies. For Td> 10 eV sputtering is very strong; for Td< 2 eV there is risk of detachment and density limit. High nd is required for high power, high duty cycle devices so that net erosion gross erosion via prompt local re-deposition of sputtered material. This occurs when impurity neutral ionization mean free path fuel ion gyro-radius (magnetic pre-sheath thickness); for B˜ 5 T this requires nd> ˜ 10^21 m-3. Thus peak parallel power flux density ˜0.1 - 0.5 GW/m^2. Modified two-point modeling then gives that: (a) ``upstream'' (e.g. outside midplane, separatrix), conditions, neu, Tu, are almost fixed, independent of R (device size) and PSOL (power entering the SOL), and (b) the required PSOL˜ R^1, R^1.5 or R^2, depending on assumptions about target power width; the latter are discussed. A test device with these absolute nd, Td values will reproduce the most critical edge aspects of demo/reactors including power handling and material erosion/migration.

Stangeby, P. C.

2009-11-01

287

Turbulent scaling in fluids  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project was a study of turbulence in fluids that are subject to different body forces and to external temperature gradients. Our focus was on the recent theoretical prediction that the Kolomogorov picture of turbulence may need to be modified for turbulent flows driven by buoyancy and subject to body forces such as rotational accelerations. Models arising from this research are important in global climate modeling, in turbulent transport problems, and in the fundamental understanding of fluid turbulence. Experimentally, we use (1) precision measurements of heat transport and local temperature; (2) flow visualization using digitally- enhanced optical shadowgraphs, particle-image velocimetry, thermochromic liquid-crystal imaging, laser-doppler velocimetry, and photochromic dye imaging; and (3) advanced image- processing techniques. Our numerical simulations employ standard spectral and novel lattice Boltzmann algorithms implemented on parallel Connection Machine computers to simulate turbulent fluid flow. In laboratory experiments on incompressible fluids, we measure probability distribution functions and two-point spatial correlations of temperature T and velocity V (both T-T and V-T correlations) and determine scaling relations for global heat transport with Rayleigh number. We also explore the mechanism for turbulence in thermal convection and the stability of the thermal boundary layer.

Ecke, R.; Li, Ning; Chen, Shiyi; Liu, Yuanming

1996-11-01

288

Impact crater scaling laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the impactor size and velocity, of the material properties of the impactor and impacted body, and of the gravitational field strength were examined. The dependence of the coupling parameter on the Gruniesen parameter and the us/up slope values that characterize a Tillotson material model were tested. Whether a code calculation can recover the scaling exponents that can be derived theoretically for an idealized perfectly-porous material that crushes at zero strength and subsequently is incompressible was investigated. A model that was close to the idealized case was generated in a form suitable for code calculations and utilized for a series of one dimensional calculations. The code calculation demonstrated the theoretical coupling parameter. Calculations of impacts using a physically real porous material model seem to indicate a coupling parameter of the same form applicable to a nonporous material, distinctly different from that expected from other theoretical and experimental results for porous materials. The one dimensional calculations are being extended to two dimensional impacts.

Holsapple, K. A.

1985-04-01

289

Large scale traffic simulations  

SciTech Connect

Large scale microscopic (i.e. vehicle-based) traffic simulations pose high demands on computational speed in at least two application areas: (i) real-time traffic forecasting, and (ii) long-term planning applications (where repeated {open_quotes}looping{close_quotes} between the microsimulation and the simulated planning of individual person`s behavior is necessary). As a rough number, a real-time simulation of an area such as Los Angeles (ca. 1 million travellers) will need a computational speed of much higher than 1 million {open_quotes}particle{close_quotes} (= vehicle) updates per second. This paper reviews how this problem is approached in different projects and how these approaches are dependent both on the specific questions and on the prospective user community. The approaches reach from highly parallel and vectorizable, single-bit implementations on parallel supercomputers for Statistical Physics questions, via more realistic implementations on coupled workstations, to more complicated driving dynamics implemented again on parallel supercomputers. 45 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Nagel, K.; Barrett, C.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Institute, NM (United States); Rickert, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)

1997-04-01

290

Scaling of structural failure  

SciTech Connect

This article attempts to review the progress achieved in the understanding of scaling and size effect in the failure of structures. Particular emphasis is placed on quasibrittle materials for which the size effect is complicated. Attention is focused on three main types of size effects, namely the statistical size effect due to randomness of strength, the energy release size effect, and the possible size effect due to fractality of fracture or microcracks. Definitive conclusions on the applicability of these theories are drawn. Subsequently, the article discusses the application of the known size effect law for the measurement of material fracture properties, and the modeling of the size effect by the cohesive crack model, nonlocal finite element models and discrete element models. Extensions to compression failure and to the rate-dependent material behavior are also outlined. The damage constitutive law needed for describing a microcracked material in the fracture process zone is discussed. Various applications to quasibrittle materials, including concrete, sea ice, fiber composites, rocks and ceramics are presented.

Bazant, Z.P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Chen, Er-Ping [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-01-01

291

The large-scale landslide risk classification in catchment scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The landslide disasters caused heavy casualties during Typhoon Morakot, 2009. This disaster is defined as largescale landslide due to the casualty numbers. This event also reflects the survey on large-scale landslide potential is so far insufficient and significant. The large-scale landslide potential analysis provides information about where should be focused on even though it is very difficult to distinguish. Accordingly, the authors intend to investigate the methods used by different countries, such as Hong Kong, Italy, Japan and Switzerland to clarify the assessment methodology. The objects include the place with susceptibility of rock slide and dip slope and the major landslide areas defined from historical records. Three different levels of scales are confirmed necessarily from country to slopeland, which are basin, catchment, and slope scales. Totally ten spots were classified with high large-scale landslide potential in the basin scale. The authors therefore focused on the catchment scale and employ risk matrix to classify the potential in this paper. The protected objects and large-scale landslide susceptibility ratio are two main indexes to classify the large-scale landslide risk. The protected objects are the constructions and transportation facilities. The large-scale landslide susceptibility ratio is based on the data of major landslide area and dip slope and rock slide areas. Totally 1,040 catchments are concerned and are classified into three levels, which are high, medium, and low levels. The proportions of high, medium, and low levels are 11%, 51%, and 38%, individually. This result represents the catchments with high proportion of protected objects or large-scale landslide susceptibility. The conclusion is made and it be the base material for the slopeland authorities when considering slopeland management and the further investigation.

Liu, Che-Hsin; Wu, Tingyeh; Chen, Lien-Kuang; Lin, Sheng-Chi

2013-04-01

292

Excitable scale free networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a simple excitable system is continuously stimulated by a Poissonian external source, the response function (mean activity versus stimulus rate) generally shows a linear saturating shape. This is experimentally verified in some classes of sensory neurons, which accordingly present a small dynamic range (defined as the interval of stimulus intensity which can be appropriately coded by the mean activity of the excitable element), usually about one or two decades only. The brain, on the other hand, can handle a significantly broader range of stimulus intensity, and a collective phenomenon involving the interaction among excitable neurons has been suggested to account for the enhancement of the dynamic range. Since the role of the pattern of such interactions is still unclear, here we investigate the performance of a scale-free (SF) network topology in this dynamic range problem. Specifically, we study the transfer function of disordered SF networks of excitable Greenberg-Hastings cellular automata. We observe that the dynamic range is maximum when the coupling among the elements is critical, corroborating a general reasoning recently proposed. Although the maximum dynamic range yielded by general SF networks is slightly worse than that of random networks, for special SF networks which lack loops the enhancement of the dynamic range can be dramatic, reaching nearly five decades. In order to understand the role of loops on the transfer function we propose a simple model in which the density of loops in the network can be gradually increased, and show that this is accompanied by a gradual decrease of dynamic range.

Copelli, M.; Campos, P. R. A.

2007-04-01

293

Industrial scale gene synthesis.  

PubMed

The most recent developments in the area of deep DNA sequencing and downstream quantitative and functional analysis are rapidly adding a new dimension to understanding biochemical pathways and metabolic interdependencies. These increasing insights pave the way to designing new strategies that address public needs, including environmental applications and therapeutic inventions, or novel cell factories for sustainable and reconcilable energy or chemicals sources. Adding yet another level is building upon nonnaturally occurring networks and pathways. Recent developments in synthetic biology have created economic and reliable options for designing and synthesizing genes, operons, and eventually complete genomes. Meanwhile, high-throughput design and synthesis of extremely comprehensive DNA sequences have evolved into an enabling technology already indispensable in various life science sectors today. Here, we describe the industrial perspective of modern gene synthesis and its relationship with synthetic biology. Gene synthesis contributed significantly to the emergence of synthetic biology by not only providing the genetic material in high quality and quantity but also enabling its assembly, according to engineering design principles, in a standardized format. Synthetic biology on the other hand, added the need for assembling complex circuits and large complexes, thus fostering the development of appropriate methods and expanding the scope of applications. Synthetic biology has also stimulated interdisciplinary collaboration as well as integration of the broader public by addressing socioeconomic, philosophical, ethical, political, and legal opportunities and concerns. The demand-driven technological achievements of gene synthesis and the implemented processes are exemplified by an industrial setting of large-scale gene synthesis, describing production from order to delivery. PMID:21601681

Notka, Frank; Liss, Michael; Wagner, Ralf

2011-01-01

294

Optimal scaling of digital controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaling the inputs and outputs of a digital controller is necessary to guarantee that these signals do not exceed the dynamic range of the analog-to-digital, and digital-to-analog converters. This paper gives two optimization problems that can be used to efficiently compute fully parametrized scaling matrices. An example that demonstrates the advantages of fully parametrized scaling over the more conventional diagonal

Daniel E. Viassolo; Mario A. Rotea

1997-01-01

295

Struvite scale formation and control.  

PubMed

Struvite scale formation is a major operational issue at both conventional and biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment plants. Factors affecting the formation of struvite scales were investigated including supersaturation, pH and pipe material and roughness. A range of control methods have been investigated including low fouling materials, pH control, inhibitor and chemical dosing. Control methods exist to reduce scale formation although each has its advantages and disadvantages. PMID:14982179

Parsons, S A; Doyle, J D

2004-01-01

296

Molecular-scale metal wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a novel technique employing material deposition into nanometer-scale stencils for the fabrication of continuous wires with precisely controlled widths below 10nm. These molecular-scale metallic structures allow the examination of localization and conductance fluctuations at new length and temperature scales. This study reports measurements of continuous AuPd alloy wires with diameters as small as 3nm and lengths greater than

D. Natelson; R. L. Willett; K. W. West; L. N. Pfeiffer

2000-01-01

297

Universal Scaling in Transient Creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental evidence that pressure solution creep does not establish a steady-state interface microstructure as previously thought. Conversely, pressure solution controlled strain and the characteristic length scale of interface microstructures grow as the cubic root of time. Transient creep with the same scaling is known in metallurgy (Andrade creep). The apparent universal scaling of pressure solution transient creep is explained using an analogy with spinodal dewetting.

Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Podladchikov, Yuri; Renard, Francois; Feder, Jens; Jamtveit, Bjørn

2002-11-01

298

Pseudo-scaling and multifractality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Random systems with stretched (and fluctuating) exponential form of probability density functions (PDFs), such as turbulence (distribution of velocity differences) and percolation (visiting frequency in percolative diffusion), are studied. Dimensionless moments are defined as Fnp(r) =fp /fp/nn, where fp(r) is the standard moments of order p (p > n). Pseudo-scaling (PS) is defined as existence of power relationships Fnp ~ P?nq, where exponent ?npq depends on p, q and n. It is shown that for large enough n, p, q, the PS takes place even if the ordinary scaling is broken. It is shown that there are two kinds of the asymptotical pseudo-scaling: with ?npq = (p -n )/(q - n) and with ?npq = (p/q)[ln(p/n)/(ln(q/n)]. If ordinary scaling also takes place in the systems then these two kinds of the pseudo-scaling lead to two kinds of corresponding ordinary scaling laws. A speculation concerning genesis of the stretched exponential PDFs is briefly discussed. Phase transition from random fractal structures to homogeneity is studied in the framework of the pseudo-scaling approach and it is shown that multifractality of passive scalar concentration has the pseudo-scaling form of the second kind near the transition (whereas for systems far from the transition the multifractality has the pseudo-scaling form of the first kind). The condition of compatibility of the pseudo-scaling and of the generalized dimension approaches is also investigated. Agreement between the theoretical results and experimental data of different authors is established both for the situations where ordinary scaling takes place and for situations where ordinary scaling does not take place.

Bershadskii, A.

1997-02-01

299

Scaling of fire extinguishment data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of small-scale tests of fire extinguishment by total flooding with Halon 1301, when compared on a normalized basis,\\u000a with those of large-scale tests conducted by other organizations indicated that the small-scale test results predict accurately\\u000a the amounts of hydrogen fluoride formed during the extinguishment of full-size fires.

Edward T. McHale

1973-01-01

300

Scaling laws of disk lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limit of power from amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), round-trip loss, and overheating is considered within simple model. The optimization of the output power with respect to size of the pumped region, its thickness and round-trip gain leads to the scaling laws for these parameters. In vicinity of the limit of power scaling, the round-trip loss should scale inversely proportional to

Dmitrii Kouznetsov; Jean-François Bisson; Kenichi Ueda

2009-01-01

301

Understanding Scale: Powers of Ten  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classic film “Powers of Ten” is often employed to catalyze the building of more accurate conceptions of scale, yet its\\u000a effectiveness is largely unknown. This study examines the impact of the film on students’ concepts of size and scale. Twenty-two\\u000a middle school students and six science teachers participated. Students completed pre- and post-intervention interviews and\\u000a a Scale Card Sorting

M. Gail Jones; Amy Taylor; James Minogue; Bethany Broadwell; Eric Wiebe; Glenda Carter

2007-01-01

302

Ecological Resilience, Biodiversity, and Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe existing models of the relationship between species diversity and ecological function, and propose a conceptual\\u000a model that relates species richness, ecological resilience, and scale. We suggest that species interact with scale-dependent\\u000a sets of ecological structures and processes that determine functional opportunities. We propose that ecological resilience\\u000a is generated by diverse, but overlapping, function within a scale and by

Garry Peterson; Craig R. Allen; C. S. Holling

1998-01-01

303

Mechanically reliable scales and coatings  

SciTech Connect

As the first stage in examining the mechanical reliability of protective surface oxides, the behavior of alumina scales formed on iron-aluminum alloys during high-temperature cyclic oxidation was characterized in terms of damage and spallation tendencies. Scales were thermally grown on specimens of three iron-aluminum composition using a series of exposures to air at 1000{degrees}C. Gravimetric data and microscopy revealed substantially better integrity and adhesion of the scales grown on an alloy containing zirconium. The use of polished (rather than just ground) specimens resulted in scales that were more suitable for subsequent characterization of mechanical reliability.

Tortorelli, P.F.; Alexander, K.B.

1995-07-01

304

Electroweak scale neutrinos and Higgses  

SciTech Connect

We present two different models with electroweak scale right-handed neutrinos. One of the models is created under the constraint that any addition to the Standard Model must not introduce new higher scales. The model contains right-handed neutrinos with electroweak scale masses and a lepton number violating singlet scalar field. The scalar phenomenology is also presented. The second model is a triplet Higgs model where again the right-handed neutrinos have electroweak scale masses. In this case the model has a rich scalar phenomenology and in particular we present the analysis involving the doubly charged Higgs.

Aranda, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo No. 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Dual CP Institute of High Energy Physics (Mexico)

2009-04-20

305

The theory of scale relativity  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors' discussion on the relative character of all scales in nature and on the explicit dependence of physical laws on scale in quantum physics, the authors apply the principle of relativity to scale transformations. This principle, in combination with its breaking above the Einstein-de Broglie wavelength and time, leads to the demonstration of the existence of a universal, absolute and impassable scale in nature, which is invariant under dilation. This lower limit to all lengths is identified with the Planck scale, which now plays for scale the same role as is played by light velocity for motion. The authors get new scale transformations of a Lorentzian form and generalize the de Broglie and Heisenberg relations. As a consequence the high energy length and mass scales now decouple, energy and momentum tending to infinity when resolution tends to the Planck scale, which thus plays the role of the previous zero point. This theory solves the problem of divergence of charge and mass (self-energy) in electrodynamics, implies that the four fundamental couplings (including gravitation) converge at the Planck energy, improves the agreement of GUT predictions with experimental results, and allows one to get precise estimates of the values of the fundamental coupling constants.

Nottale, L. (CNRS, Dept. d'Astrophysique Extragalactique et de Cosmologie, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France))

1992-08-10

306

Microfilter simulations and scaling laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents DSMC simulations used to quantify the effect of Knudsen number on flows through filters with micron-scale holes. The empirical scaling laws currently used to predict pressure drop as a function of flow conditions and filter geometry are based on experiments and calculations within the continuum regime. We illustrate that noncontinuum effects are significant for filters designed to capture biowarfare agents and pathogens of current interest. We also suggest a scaling based on Knudsen number for correcting the classic scaling laws to include these effects. .

Mott, David R.; Oran, Elaine S.; Kaplan, Carolyn R.

2001-08-01

307

Global scale deposition of radioactivity from a large scale exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global impact of radioactivity pertains to the continental scale and planetary scale deposition of the radioactivity in a delayed mode; it affects all peoples. Global deposition is distinct and separate from close-in fallout. Close-in fallout is delivered in a matter of a few days or less and is much studied in the literature of civilian defense. But much less

Knox

1983-01-01

308

Cross-scale: multi-scale coupling in space plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the visible universe is in the highly ionised plasma state, and most of that plasma is collision-free. Three physical phenomena are responsible for nearly all of the processes that accelerate particles, transport material and energy, and mediate flows in systems as diverse as radio galaxy jets and supernovae explosions through to solar flares and planetary magnetospheres. These processes in turn result from the coupling amongst phenomena at macroscopic fluid scales, smaller ion scales, and down to electron scales. Cross-Scale, in concert with its sister mission SCOPE (to be provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency—JAXA), is dedicated to quantifying that nonlinear, time-varying coupling via the simultaneous in-situ observations of space plasmas performed by a fleet of 12 spacecraft in near-Earth orbit. Cross-Scale has been selected for the Assessment Phase of Cosmic Vision by the European Space Agency.

Schwartz, Steven J.; Horbury, Timothy; Owen, Christopher; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Nakamura, Rumi; Canu, Patrick; Roux, Alain; Sahraoui, Fouad; Louarn, Philippe; Sauvaud, Jean-André; Pinçon, Jean-Louis; Vaivads, Andris; Marcucci, Maria Federica; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Fujimoto, Masaki; Escoubet, Philippe; Taylor, Matt; Eckersley, Steven; Allouis, Elie; Perkinson, Marie-Claire

2009-03-01

309

Nonrelativistic scale anomaly, and composite operators with complex scaling dimensions  

SciTech Connect

Research Highlights: > Nonrelativistic scale anomaly leads to operators with complex scaling dimensions. > We study an operator O={psi}{psi} in quantum mechanics with 1/r{sup 2} potenial. > The propagator of the composite operator is analytically computed. - Abstract: It is demonstrated that a nonrelativistic quantum scale anomaly manifests itself in the appearance of composite operators with complex scaling dimensions. In particular, we study nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with an inverse square potential and consider a composite s-wave operator O={psi}{psi}. We analytically compute the scaling dimension of this operator and determine the propagator <0|TOO{sup +}|0>. The operator O represents an infinite tower of bound states with a geometric energy spectrum. Operators with higher angular momenta are briefly discussed.

Moroz, Sergej, E-mail: s.moroz@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-05-15

310

Drift Scale THM Model  

SciTech Connect

This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a drift to transport any exposed radionuclides out of the drift to the groundwater below, and eventually to people within the accessible environment. Absent sufficient water, radionuclides cannot be transported and there would be no significant health effect on people, even if radioactive waste containers were damaged or corroded to such an extent that radionuclides were exposed to water.

J. Rutqvist

2004-10-07

311

Scaling Laws in Welding Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few simple formulas to predict the results of a welding process. Such formulas would be of enormous help in the design of welding processes, and they are ubiquitous in other engineering disciplines such as strength of materials, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer, typically in the form of scaling laws. Scaling laws provide accurate approximations and display clearly the

P. F. Mendez

312

Vineland Social Maturity Scale Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS), despite its limitations, is an excellent clinical technique and includes psychometric and questionnaire characteristics. It is a good single measure of adaptive behavior. The VSMS Profile in this paper uses content categories different from the original Scale, but based upon the same items. It lends…

Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

313

A penetration-aspiration scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of an 8-point, equalappearing interval scale to describe, penetration and aspiration events are described. Scores are determined primarily by the depth to which material passes in the airway and by whether or not material entering the airway is expelled. Intra-and interjudge reliability have been established. Clinical and scientific uses of the scale are discussed.

John C. Rosenbek; Jo Anne Robbins; Ellen B. Roecker; Jame L. Coyle; Jennifer L. Wood

1996-01-01

314

Scaling up through domain decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we discuss domain decomposition parallel iterative solvers for highly heterogeneous problems of flow and transport in porous media. We are particularly interested in highly unstructured coefficient variation where standard periodic or stochastic homogenization theory is not applicable. When the smallest scale at which the coefficient varies is very small, it is often necessary to scale up the

Clemens Pechstein; Robert Scheichl

2009-01-01

315

Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

Collins, James

2013-01-01

316

The Callier-Azusa Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the Callier-Azusa Scale designed to aid in the assessment of deaf-blind and multihandicapped children in the areas of motor development, perceptual abilities, daily living skills, language development, and socialization. The scale is said to be predicated on the assumption that given the appropriate environment all children follow the…

Stillman, Robert D., Ed.

317

Scaling Laws and Luminosity Segregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We debate how the scaling properties of the angular correlation function w(theta) depend on luminosity segregation. Under the approximation that there is no deviation from Euclidean geometry and no evolution, we find that the scaling with catalog depth (D*) is the same both for a luminosity (L) independent clustering length (r0) and for a generic dependence of r0 on L.

Loris P. L. Colombo; Silvio A. Bonometto

2001-01-01

318

Spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central goal in ecology is to understand the spatial scaling of biodiversity. Patterns in the spatial distribu- tion of organisms provide important clues about the underlying mechanisms that structure ecological com- munities and are central to setting conservation priori- ties. Although microorganisms comprise much of Earth's biodiversity, little is known about their biodiver- sity scaling relationships relative to that

Jessica Green; Brendan J. M. Bohannan

2006-01-01

319

Degree Scale Anisotropy: Current Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cosmic Background Radiation gives us one of the few probes into the density perturbations in the early universe that should later lead to the formation of structure we now observe. Recent advances in degree scale anisotropy measurements have allowed us to begin critically testing cosmological models. Combined with the larger scale measurements from COBE we are now able to

P. M. Lubin

1994-01-01

320

Architectural scale modelling using stereolithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability and effectiveness of Stereolithography rapid prototyping to the field of scale modelling for architectural design evaluation and demonstration purposes. Two scale models concerning a modern renovated track and field sports facility and a reconstructed ancient stadium are examined. Both models were constructed by assembling together resin parts fabricated with Stereolithography

J. Giannatsis; V. Dedoussis; D. Karalekas

2002-01-01

321

Design challenges of technology scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaling advanced CMOS technology to the next generation improves performance, increases transistor density, and reduces power consumption. Technology scaling typically has three main goals: 1) reduce gate delay by 30%, resulting in an increase in operating frequency of about 43%; 2) double transistor density; and 3) reduce energy per transition by about 65%, saving 50% of power (at a 43%

S. Borkar

1999-01-01

322

Dimension zero at all scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the notion of dimension in four categories: the category of (unbounded) separable metric spaces and (metrically proper) Lipschitz maps, and the category of (unbounded) separable metric spaces and (metrically proper) uniform maps. A unified treatment is given to the large scale dimension and the small scale dimension. We show that in all categories a space has dimension zero

N. Brodskiy; J. Dydak; J. Higes; A. Mitra

2007-01-01

323

Power unit controls scale magnetically  

Microsoft Academic Search

A power unit introduced by Aqua Magnetics Inc. uses magnetic principles to control scale and paraffin in flow lines and oil wells at low installation and energy costs. The unit works by utilizing the diamagnetic properties of most scale-causing substances common in oil field operations, e.g., calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, barium sulfate, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, paraffin, oil waxes, and

Lang

1982-01-01

324

Scale, prices, and biophysical assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent forum on biophysical assessments, a number of ecological economists expressed serious reservations about the use of prices to assess the appropriate scale of macroeconomic systems. While such reservations are warranted, the preference for biophysical assessments over prices indicates that many ecological economists are focussing on one notion of scale and neglecting another altogether. There are two notions

Philip A. Lawn

2001-01-01

325

Understanding Scale: Powers of Ten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The classic film "Powers of Ten" is often employed to catalyze the building of more accurate conceptions of scale, yet its effectiveness is largely unknown. This study examines the impact of the film on students' concepts of size and scale. Twenty-two middle school students and six science teachers participated. Students completed pre- and…

Jones, M. Gail; Taylor, Amy; Minogue, James; Broadwell, Bethany; Wiebe, Eric; Carter, Glenda

2007-01-01

326

Prognostic Scale for Chronic Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although prognostic scales are available for schizophrenia, these focus on acute or subacute populations where premorbid functioning and established chronicity are the best predictors of outcome. Their usefulness in chronic schizophrenia is limited. The authors describe a simple and reliable 5-item, 12-point prognostic scale for chronic schizophrenia independent of chronicity. It measures prognosis as the product of a dynamic interplay

Wayne S. Fenton; Thomas H. McGlashan

1987-01-01

327

Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), the state-of-the-art production techniques for computer chips, promises such powerful, inexpensive computing that, in the future, people will be able to communicate with computer devices in natural language or even speech. However, before full-scale VLSI implementation can occur, certain salient factors must…

Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

328

Featured Invention: Laser Scaling Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 2003, NASA signed a nonexclusive license agreement with Armor Forensics, a subsidiary of Armor Holdings, Inc., for the laser scaling device under the Innovative Partnerships Program. Coupled with a measuring program, also developed by NASA, the unit provides crime scene investigators with the ability to shoot photographs at scale without having to physically enter the scene, analyzing details

Carol Anne Dunn

2008-01-01

329

Development of sport courage scale.  

PubMed

While theory and practice of sport have much to say about fear, stress and anxiety, they have little to say about courage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a Sport Courage Scale. Data were collected from two groups of male and female athletes aged from 13 to 22 in different individual and team sports. The first set of data (N = 380) was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis, and the second set of data (N = 388) was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Analyses revealed a 5-factor structure of Sport Courage Scale that supported factorial validity and reliability of scale scores. These factors were labelled: "Determination", "Mastery", "Assertiveness", "Venturesome", and "Self-Sacrifice Behaviour". Finally, evidence of test-retest reliability of scale scores was supported based on responses from 75 athletes. However, more research is needed to further improve the Sport Courage Scale. PMID:23487444

Konter, Erkut; Ng, Johan

2012-07-04

330

Reshape scale method: A novel multi scale entropic analysis approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Reshape Scale (RS) method was introduced in this article as a novel approach to perform multi scale transition of sample entropy. This method was able to quantify the orderliness in the signal by determining the distance over which the subsequent data points can remain affiliated to one another. Entropic Half Life (EnHL) was introduced to characterize such an affiliation. The method was tested for 1/f? processes for different ? values. Furthermore, the dependency of the multi scale entropy analysis developed by Costa et al. (2002) [6] to the probability density function and the standard deviation of autoregressive signals was studied and discussed.

Zandiyeh, P.; von Tscharner, V.

2013-12-01

331

SCALE PROBLEMS IN REPORTING LANDSCAPE PATTERN AT THE REGIONAL SCALE  

EPA Science Inventory

Remotely sensed data for Southeastern United States (Standard Federal Region 4) are used to examine the scale problems involved in reporting landscape pattern for a large, heterogeneous region. Frequency distributions of landscape indices illustrate problems associated with the g...

332

Length-scale ill conditioning in linear-scaling DFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the problem of searching for the electronic ground state in linear-scaling DFT techniques, with particular attention to the pseudopotential scheme embodied in the CONQUEST code. An important source of difficulty in the ground-state search is ill conditioning associated with the different dependence of the total energy on wavefunction variations at different length scales. We recall how this `length-scale ill conditioning' is handled by preconditioning in conventional plane-wave methods, and we show that analogous preconditioning schemes can be derived in the linear-scaling framework. We present the results of practical tests which show that the proposed preconditioning gives a substantial speed-up in convergence to the ground state.

Bowler, D. R.; Gillan, M. J.

1998-08-01

333

Scale factor in digital cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For objects on a plane, a "scale factor" relates the physical dimensions of the objects to the corresponding dimensions in a camera image. This scale factor may be the only calibration parameter of importance in many test applications. The scale factor depends on the angular size of a pixel of the camera, and also on the range to the object plane. A measurement procedure is presented for the determination of scale factor to high precision, based on the translation of a large-area target by a precision translator. A correlation analysis of the images of a translated target against a reference image is used to extract image shifts and the scale factor. The precision of the measurement is limited by the translator accuracy, camera noise and various other secondary factors. This measurement depends on the target being translated in a plane perpendicular to the optic axis of the camera, so that the scale factor is constant during the translation. The method can be extended to inward-looking 3D camera networks and can, under suitable constraints, yield both scale factor and transcription angle.

Badali, Anthony P.; Zhang, Yahui; Carr, Peter; Thomas, Paul J.; Hornsey, Richard I.

2005-09-01

334

Scale of fermion mass generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unitarity of longitudinal weak vector boson scattering implies an upper bound on the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking, ?EWSB?(8?)v~1 TeV. Appelquist and Chanowitz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2405 (1987)] have derived an analogous upper bound on the scale of fermion mass generation, proportional to v2/mf, by considering the scattering of same-helicity fermions into pairs of longitudinal weak vector bosons in a theory without a standard Higgs boson. We show that there is no upper bound, beyond that on the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking, in such a theory. This result is obtained by considering the same process, but with a large number of longitudinal weak vector bosons in the final state. We further argue that there is no scale of (Dirac) fermion mass generation in the standard model. In contrast, there is an upper bound on the scale of Majorana-neutrino mass generation, given by ?Maj?4?v2/m?. In general, the upper bound on the scale of fermion mass generation depends on the dimensionality of the interaction responsible for generating the fermion mass. We explore the scale of fermion mass generation in a variety of excursions from the standard model: models with fermions in nonstandard representations, a theory with higher-dimension interactions, a two-Higgs-doublet model, and models without a Higgs boson.

Maltoni, F.; Niczyporuk, J. M.; Willenbrock, S.

2002-02-01

335

Inorganic Mineral Scale Control in Sugar Evaporators Using Scale Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple effect evaporators consume about 70% of the total energy required in a typical sugar refinery. A small amount of\\u000a scale buildup on evaporators tubes can significantly increase the energy consumption. The fouling consists of mineral scales,\\u000a organic sludge, and corrosion products. Minerals commonly found as a part of the deposit include calcium carbonate, calcium\\u000a sulfate, calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate,

Jasbir Gill

336

Classical scale invariance, the electroweak scale, and vector dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a classically scale-invariant extension of the standard model in which a dark, non-Abelian gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. Higgs portal couplings between the dark and standard model sectors provide an origin for the Higgs mass squared parameter and, hence, the electroweak scale. We find that choices for model parameters exist in which the dark gauge multiplet is viable as dark matter.

Carone, Christopher D.; Ramos, Raymundo

2013-09-01

337

Scale-invariant galaxy clustering on large scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scaling properties of galaxy clustering at large separations were explored using the Perseus-Pisces region redshift catalog and other correlation results from the literature. The analysis reveals that the distribution of galaxies in scales much larger than the correlation length still obeys a very small defined scaling law, characterized by a fractal dimension D approximately equal to 2.2. Homogeneity seems to be reached for separations greater than 30/h Mpc, while for r less than 4/h Mpc the large scale symmetry is broken into the 'standard' D approximately equal to 1.2 clustering usually evidenced by two point correlation analyses. These features are presented in all the different redshift surveys analyzed. It is argued that this result could be explained as the consequence of gravitational small scale amplification of an initially scale invariant distribution with D approximately equal to 2, corresponding to a spectrum of fluctuations with (the absolute value of delta k) squared proportional to 1/(k squared).

Guzzo, Luigi; Chincarini, Guido; Iovino, Angela; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

1991-05-01

338

Gribov copies and anomalous scaling  

SciTech Connect

Nonperturbative and lattice methods indicate that Gribov copies modify the infrared behavior of gauge theories and cause a suppression of gluon propagation. We investigate whether this can be implemented in a modified perturbation theory. The minimal modification proceeds via a nonlocal generalization of the Fadeev-Popov ghost that automatically decouples from physical states. The expected scale invariance of the physics associated with Gribov copies leads to the emergence of a nontrivial infrared fixed point. For a range of a scaling exponent the gauge bosons exhibit unparticlelike behavior in the infrared. The confining regime of interest for QCD requires a larger scaling exponent, but then the severity of ghost dominance upsets naive power counting for the infrared scaling behavior of amplitudes.

Holdom, B. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S1A7 (Canada)

2008-12-15

339

Scaling behavior of threshold epidemics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the classic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model for the spread of an infectious disease. In this stochastic process, there are two competing mechanism: infection and recovery. Susceptible individuals may contract the disease from infected individuals, while infected ones recover from the disease at a constant rate and are never infected again. Our focus is the behavior at the epidemic threshold where the rates of the infection and recovery processes balance. In the infinite population limit, we establish analytically scaling rules for the time-dependent distribution functions that characterize the sizes of the infected and the recovered sub-populations. Using heuristic arguments, we also obtain scaling laws for the size and duration of the epidemic outbreaks as a function of the total population. We perform numerical simulations to verify the scaling predictions and discuss the consequences of these scaling laws for near-threshold epidemic outbreaks.

Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

2012-05-01

340

A Scale of Bidirectional Similarity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sets of ambiguous stimuli built around reversible figures were constructed, scaled, and validated. Positions on a continuum of bidirectional similarity were determined in terms of per cent similarity to each of two referent prototypes, similarity being de...

J. H. Brown

1964-01-01

341

Progress of DORIS Automatic Scaling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major component of the Digital Oblique Remote Ionospheric Sensing program (DORIS) is the development of an automatic oblique ionogram scaling algorithm. The nature of the variations that have been observed in oblique ionograms collected to data has requ...

B. W. Reinisch K. Chandra W. S. Kuklinski

1989-01-01

342

Scaling issues in dynamic fragmentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A set of relations which would allow the experimental results of impact fragmentation experiments conducted under the controlled environment of a testing laboratory to be confidently scaled to realistic system dimensions would be an effective tool in the ...

D. Grady

1995-01-01

343

Trends in Analytical Scale Separations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses recent developments in the instrumentation and practice of analytical scale operations. Emphasizes detection devices and procedures in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, supercritical fluid chromatography, and field-flow fractionation. (JN)|

Jorgenson, James W.

1984-01-01

344

Scaling laws for planetary dynamos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose new scaling laws for the properties of planetary dynamos. In particular, the Rossby number, the magnetic Reynolds number, the ratio of magnetic to kinetic energy, the Ohmic dissipation timescale and the characteristic aspect ratio of the columnar convection cells are all predicted to be power-law functions of two observable quantities: the magnetic dipole moment and the planetary rotation rate. The resulting scaling laws constitute a somewhat modified version of the scalings proposed by Christensen and Aubert. The main difference is that, in view of the small value of the Rossby number in planetary cores, we insist that the non-linear inertial term, u \\cdot nabla u, is negligible. This changes the exponents in the power-laws which relate the various properties of the fluid dynamo to the planetary dipole moment and rotation rate. Our scaling laws are consistent with the available numerical evidence.

Davidson, P. A.

2013-10-01

345

Solar supergranulation-scale simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the nature of supergranulation and provide a test bed for calibrating local helioseismic methods we have performed a realistic solar surface convection simulation on supergranulation scales (48 Mm wide by 20 Mm deep), whose duration is currently 48 hours. The simulation includes f-plane rotation and develops a surface shear layer. There is a gradual increase in the horizontal scale of upflows with increasing depth due to merging of downflows advected by the larger scale diverging upflows from below. There is a rich spectrum of p-modes excited in the simulation. This data set is available for studying solar oscillations and local helioseismic inversion techniques. We will shortly be initiating an even larger- scale simulation, 96 Mm wide, containing an active region.

Stein, R. F.; Benson, D.; Nordlund, A.

2006-08-01

346

Study of Adherent Oxide Scales.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In agreement with previously reported studies involving alumina formers, the bond between a protective chromia scale and a Ni-40 wt. % Cr substrate is intrinsically strong. Segregation of sulfur to this interface weakens that bond. Segregated sulfur has b...

J. G. Smeggil

1989-01-01

347

Scale issues in tourism development  

Treesearch

Description: Proponents of Alternative Tourism overwhelmingly believe that alternative forms ... scale on natural resources and the environment from the perspective of externalities, strategic business behaviors, energy and resource efficiency, ...

348

Interval Scales From Paired Comparisons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of scales can increase the objectivity in a domain characterized by subjectivity. The increase in objectivity typically leads to improved decisions and enhances the effectiveness of an organization or an investigation. The issues associate...

A. A. Thompson

2012-01-01

349

Inflation in the scaling limit  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the stochastic dynamics of the/ital inflaton/ for a wide class of potentials leading either tochaotic or to power-law inflation.At late times the system enters a /ital scaling/ /ital regime/where macroscopic order sets in: the field distribution sharply peaksaround the classical slow-rollover configuration and curvature perturbationsoriginate with a non-Gaussian scale-invariant statistics.

Matarrese, S.; Ortolan, A.; Lucchin, F.

1989-07-15

350

Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Model Report is to document two models for drift-scale radionuclide transport. This has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) 2002 [160819]), which includes planning documents for the technical work scope, content, and management of this Model Report in Section 1.15, Work Package AUZM11, ''Drift-Scale

P. R. Dixon

2004-01-01

351

Turbulencelike scaling in polymer interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial structure and statistical properties of polymer interfaces grown by vapor deposition polymerization have been studied in the context of fluid turbulence. The extended self-similarity present in the correlation functions of the polymer interface uncovers two types of multiscaling for different spatial scales. The relative qth-order scaling exponents and the probability distribution functions of the height gradient display intermittent height fluctuations, which lead to spatial multiscaling analogous to the velocity fluctuations in turbulent fluid.

Lee, I. J.; Park, Euldoo

2013-03-01

352

Degree Scale Anisotropy: Current Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cosmic Background Radiation gives us one of the few probes into the\\u000adensity perturbations in the early universe that should later lead to the\\u000aformation of structure we now observe. Recent advances in degree scale\\u000aanisotropy measurements have allowed us to begin critically testing\\u000acosmological models. Combined with the larger scale measurements from COBE we\\u000aare now able to

P. M. Lubin

1994-01-01

353

Scaling laws for fatigue crack  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of scaling laws has been developed for describing intermittent as well as continuous fatigue crack growth of large cracks\\u000a in steels in the power-law regime. The proposed scaling laws are developed on the basis that fatigue crack growth occurs as\\u000a the result of low-cycle fatigue (LCF) failure of a crack-tip element whose width and height correspond to the

K. S. Chan

1993-01-01

354

Scaling laws for fatigue crack  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of scaling laws has been developed for describing intermittent as well as continuous fatigue crack growth of large cracks in steels in the power-law regime. The proposed scaling laws are developed on the basis that fatigue crack growth occurs as the result of low-cycle fatigue (LCF) failure of a crack-tip element whose width and height correspond to the

K. S. Chan

1993-01-01

355

Scaling internet routers using optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routers built around a single-stage crossbar and a centralized scheduler do not scale, and (in practice) do not provide the throughput guarantees that network operators need to make efficient use of their expensive long-haul links. In this paper we consider how optics can be used to scale capacity and reduce power in a router. We start with the promising load-balanced

Isaac Keslassy; Shang-Tse Chuang; Kyoungsik Yu; David Miller; Mark Horowitz; Olav Solgaard; Nick McKeown

2003-01-01

356

Large-scale SAR analysis.  

PubMed

The analysis of structure–activity relationships (SARs) is a central task in medicinal chemistry. Traditionally, SAR exploration has concentrated on individual compound series. This conventional approach is complemented by large-scale SAR analysis, which puts strong emphasis on data mining and SAR visualization. This contribution reviews recent concepts for large-scale SAR analysis including numerical functions to characterize global and local SAR information content of compound data sets, alternative activity landscape representations and data mining strategies. PMID:24050139

Bajorath, Jürgen

2013-09-01

357

Development of an empathy scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the development of a 64-item self-raport measure of empathy, constructed by comparing the responses of group with high- and low-rated empathy, using the combined MMPI-CPI item pool. After providing evidence concerning the scale's reliability and validity, an attempt is made to show its relevance for specifically moral conduct by relating empathy scale scores to real life indexes of socially

Robert Hogan

1969-01-01

358

Scaling issues for biodiversity protection  

SciTech Connect

Environmental heterogeneity, in both space and time, has been important in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Moreover, this heterogeneity is hierarchical in nature. Differences occur between biomes, between landscapes. Thus, hierarchical patterns of heterogeneity are a consequence of the the complexity within ecological communities, and the maintenance of biodiversity means the preservation of this complexity. Natural landscapes are dynamic systems that exhibit temporal and spatial heterogeneity. However, the exploitative nature of human activity tends to simplify landscapes (Krummel et al. 1987). The challenge of preserving biodiversity in managed landscapes is to incorporate natural levels of spatial and temporal heterogeneity into management schemes. The concept of scale has emerged as an important topic among ecologists that recognize the role of heterogeneity in natural ecosystems. Subjects related to scale such as grain (level of detail) and extent (size of area or duration of time) are frequently used to determine the appropriate interpretation of ecological data. Likewise, scale is important when applying ecological principles to biodiversity protection and conservation. The scale of a conservation endeavor affects the strategy involved, realistic goals, and probability of success. For instance, the spatial extent of a reserve system may be determined, for better or worse, by biogeography, distribution of surviving populations, political boundaries, or fiscal constraints. Our objectives are to: emphasize the importance of natural patterns of spatial and temporal heterogeneity, encourage a broader-scale perspective for conservation efforts, and illustrate the interaction between landscape-level heterogeneity and organism-based scales of resource utilization with a simulation experiment.

Pearson, S.M.; Turner, M.G.; Gardner, R.H.; O`Neill, R.V.

1992-08-01

359

Scaling issues for biodiversity protection  

SciTech Connect

Environmental heterogeneity, in both space and time, has been important in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Moreover, this heterogeneity is hierarchical in nature. Differences occur between biomes, between landscapes. Thus, hierarchical patterns of heterogeneity are a consequence of the the complexity within ecological communities, and the maintenance of biodiversity means the preservation of this complexity. Natural landscapes are dynamic systems that exhibit temporal and spatial heterogeneity. However, the exploitative nature of human activity tends to simplify landscapes (Krummel et al. 1987). The challenge of preserving biodiversity in managed landscapes is to incorporate natural levels of spatial and temporal heterogeneity into management schemes. The concept of scale has emerged as an important topic among ecologists that recognize the role of heterogeneity in natural ecosystems. Subjects related to scale such as grain (level of detail) and extent (size of area or duration of time) are frequently used to determine the appropriate interpretation of ecological data. Likewise, scale is important when applying ecological principles to biodiversity protection and conservation. The scale of a conservation endeavor affects the strategy involved, realistic goals, and probability of success. For instance, the spatial extent of a reserve system may be determined, for better or worse, by biogeography, distribution of surviving populations, political boundaries, or fiscal constraints. Our objectives are to: emphasize the importance of natural patterns of spatial and temporal heterogeneity, encourage a broader-scale perspective for conservation efforts, and illustrate the interaction between landscape-level heterogeneity and organism-based scales of resource utilization with a simulation experiment.

Pearson, S.M.; Turner, M.G.; Gardner, R.H.; O'Neill, R.V.

1992-01-01

360

Large-scale sequencing trials begin  

SciTech Connect

As genome sequencing gets under way, investigators are grappling not just with new techniques but also with questions about what is acceptable accuracy and when data should be released. Four groups are embarking on projects that could make or break the human genome project. They are setting out to sequence the longest stretches of DNA ever tackled-several million bases each-and to do it faster and cheaper than anyone has before. If these groups can't pull it off, then prospects for knocking off the entire human genome, all 3 billion bases, in 15 years and for $3 billion will look increasingly unlikely. Harvard's Walter Gilbert, is first tackling the genome of Mycoplasma capricolum. At Stanford, David Botstein and Ron Davis are sequencing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In a collaborative effort, Robert Waterson at Washington University and John Sulston at the Medical Research Council lab in Cambridge, England, have already started on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. And in the only longstanding project of the bunch, University of Wisconsin geneticist Fred Blattner is already several hundred kilobases into the Escherichia coli genome.

Roberts, L.

1990-12-07

361

BRAILLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE, PROCEEDINGS (CAMBRIDGE, NOVEMBER 18, 1966).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THESE PAPERS ARE FROM THE BRAILLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE SPONSORED BY THE SENSORY AIDS EVALUATION DEVELOPMENT CENTER ON NOVEMBER 18, 1966. THE PAPERS PRESENTED ARE--"A STUDY OF BRAILLE PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND USE," BY LOUIS GOLDISH, "AUTOMATED BRAILLE AND THE PROFESSION OF PROGRAMMING FOR THE BLIND," BY THEODOR D. STERLING,…

Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Sensory Aids Evaluation and Development Center.

362

BRAILLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE, PROCEEDINGS (CAMBRIDGE, NOVEMBER 18, 1966).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THESE PAPERS ARE FROM THE BRAILLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE SPONSORED BY THE SENSORY AIDS EVALUATION DEVELOPMENT CENTER ON NOVEMBER 18, 1966. THE PAPERS PRESENTED ARE--"A STUDY OF BRAILLE PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND USE," BY LOUIS GOLDISH, "AUTOMATED BRAILLE AND THE PROFESSION OF PROGRAMMING FOR THE BLIND," BY THEODOR D. STERLING,…

Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Sensory Aids Evaluation and Development Center.

363

BP010009 Cambridge Biotech HIV-1 Urint Wetern Blot ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... HFM-99) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Food and Drug Administration 1401 Rockville Pike RockvilIe, Maryland 20852-1448 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

364

Mean Streets: Youth Crime and Homelessness. Cambridge Criminology Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores the social worlds of homeless children in two Canadian cities, Toronto and Vancouver, comparing them with the environments of in-home and in-school children from the perspective of the children. Samples of 390 and 482 children were interviewed. The following chapters are included: (1) "Street and School Criminologies"; (2)…

Hagan, John; McCarthy, Bill

365

Microsoft Cambridge at TREC10: Filtering and Web Tracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Summary This report is concerned with the Adaptive Filtering and Web tracks. There are separate reports in this volume (1, 2) on the Microsoft Research Redmond participation in QA track and the Microsoft Research Beijing partici- pation in the Web track.. Two runs were submitted for the Adaptive Filtering track, on the adaptive filtering task only (two optimisa- tion

Stephen E. Robertson; Steve Walker; Hugo Zaragoza

2001-01-01

366

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138  

Microsoft Academic Search

During Voyager l's encounter with Jupiter, two images were obtained on small portions of Jupiter's dark side. These were recorded through the narrow angle camera without a filter, partly to search for fireballs. The corresponding images during Voyager 2 were taken with filters at considerably longer range so that they need not be considered as part of the search, especially

T. C. DUXBURY

1981-01-01

367

Bibliography for Conference on Thinking. Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawn from several comprehensive bibliographies and computer searches of volumes by speakers at the Conference on Thinking, this brief bibliography presents resources for researchers and practitioners interested in the areas of cognitive and critical thinking skills. The materials are divided into the following topic areas: (1) general, (2)…

Cipollone, Anthony, Comp.

368

Groundwater support of stream flows in the Cambridge area, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a feasibility study for the maintenance of stream flows during dry summer months in an area of Cambridgeshir e. Groundwater pumped from boreholes is used for augmentation. A mathematical model was used to represent the study area and led to an improved understanding of the aquifer flow mechanisms. Groundwater flow within horizons of high hydraulic conductivity is

K. R. RUSHTON

369

The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores the development of creoles and other new languages, highlighting conceptual and methodological issues for genetic linguistics and discussing the significance of ecologies that influence language evolution. It presents examples of changes in the structure, function, and vitality of languages, suggesting that similar ecologies…

Mufwene, Salikoko S.

370

Rowing Strategies in Cambridge Bumps Races (P148)  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Bumps’ racing is a form of rowing with boats in a line astern which has evolved to allow a large number of crews to race\\u000a simultaneously on narrow rivers. Boats line up with approximately 1.5 lengths between them and start simultaneously. A crew\\u000a is successful if they manage to catch and ‘bump’ the crew ahead without being caught by the

Matt Findlay; Stephen Turnock

371

New Cambridge Macroeconomics: A Simple Text-Book Exposition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that current economic events should be incorporated into simple textbook models. As an example, shows how some of the major aspects of the debate on macroeconomic policy can be dealt with by using a simple Keynesian expenditure model. (Author/DB)

Cuthbertson, K.

1979-01-01

372

Learning about Intermolecular Interactions from the Cambridge Structural Database  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A clear understanding and appreciation of noncovalent interactions, especially hydrogen bonding, are vitally important to students of chemistry and the life sciences, including biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmacology, and medicine. The opportunities afforded by the IsoStar knowledge base of intermolecular interactions to enhance the…

Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.

2012-01-01

373

Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. The Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collection of essays on second language vocabulary learning includes: "Historical Trends in Second Language Vocabulary Instruction" (Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman); "The Lexical Plight in Second Language Reading: Words You Don't Know, Words You Think You Know, and Words You Can't Guess" (Batia Laufer); "Orthographic Knowledge in L2 Lexical Processing:…

Coady, James, Ed.; Huckin, Thomas, Ed.

374

Imitation in Infancy. Cambridge Studies in Cognitive and Perceptual Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Modern research has suggested that imitation is a natural mechanism of learning and communication, yet the possibility of imitation in newborn humans has been controversial. This book looks at evidence for innate imitation in babies. The chapters in the first section of the book reassess the Piagetian tradition, especially concerning the relation…

Nadel, Jacqueline, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

375

Feasibility of scaling from pilot to process scale.  

PubMed

The pharmaceutical industry is looking for new technology that is easy to scale up from analytical to process scale and is cheap and reliable to operate. Large scale counter-current chromatography is an emerging technology that could provide this advance, but little was known about the key variables affecting scale-up. This paper investigates two such variables: the rotor radius and the tubing bore. The effect of rotor radius was studied using identical: length, beta-value, helix angle and tubing bore coils for rotors of different radii (50 mm, 110 mm and 300 mm). The effect of bore was researched using identical: length, helix angle and mean beta-value coils on the Maxi-DE centrifuge (R=300 mm). The rotor radius results show that there is very little difference in retention and resolution as rotor radius increases at constant bore. The tubing bore results show that good retention is maintained as bore increases and resolution only decrease slightly, but at the highest bore (17.5 mm) resolution can be maintained at very high flow rates making it possible for process scale centrifuges to be designed with throughputs exceeding 25 kg/day. PMID:17383663

Ignatova, Svetlana; Wood, Philip; Hawes, David; Janaway, Lee; Keay, David; Sutherland, Ian

2007-03-01

376

Local Dissipation Scales and Integral-Scale Reynolds Number Scalings in Thermally-Driven Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present direct multi-point velocity measurements of the two-dimensional velocity fields in a cylindrical Rayleigh-Benard convection cell using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique over the Rayleigh number range 5.9 × 109 ? Ra ? 1.1 × 1011. The longitudinal integral length scale of the horizontal and vertical velocity fields are obtained at the cell center, near the cell sidewall, and near the bottom plate of the cell, respectively. In addition, the Reynolds number based on these scales, ReLx and ReLz, are obtained. It is found that all measured ReL scales as ReL ~ Ra?, with the exponent ? ? 0.5, except ReLx for the horizontal velocity at the cell center, which has a ? ? 0.75. The local dissipation scale field ? at the three different places are also studied. Our results reveal two types of universality of ?. The first one is that, for the same flow, the probability density functions (PDF) of ? are insensitive to turbulent intensity and large-scale inhomogeneity and anisotropy of the system. The second is that the small-scale dissipation dynamics in buoyancy-driven turbulence can be described by the same models developed for homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. However, the exact functional form of the PDF of the local dissipation scale is not universal with respect to different types of flows, but depends on the integral-scale velocity boundary condition, which is found to have an exponential, not Gaussian, distribution in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

Xia, Ke-Qing; Zhou, Quan

2011-12-01

377

Multidimensional scaling: I. Theory and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidimensional scaling can be considered as involving three basic steps. In the first step, a scale of comparative distances between all pairs of stimuli is obtained. This scale is analogous to the scale of stimuli obtained in the traditional paired comparisons methods. In this scale, however, instead of locating each stimulus-object on a given continuum, the distances between each pair

Warren S. Torgerson

1952-01-01

378

SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

Almár, Iván

2011-11-01

379

Single-scale natural SUSY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the prospects for natural SUSY models consistent with current data. Recent constraints make the standard paradigm unnatural so we consider what could be a minimal extension consistent with what we now know. The most promising such scenarios extend the MSSM with new tree-level Higgs interactions that can lift its mass to at least 125 GeV and also allow for flavor-dependent soft terms so that the third generation squarks are lighter than current bounds on the first and second generation squarks. We argue that a common feature of almost all such models is the need for a new scale near 10 TeV, such as a scale of Higgsing or confinement of a new gauge group. We consider the question whether such a model can naturally derive from a single mass scale associated with supersymmetry breaking. Most such models simply postulate new scales, leaving their proximity to the scale of MSSM soft terms a mystery. This coincidence problem may be thought of as a mild tuning, analogous to the usual ? problem. We find that a single mass scale origin is challenging, but suggest that a more natural origin for such a new dynamical scale is the gravitino mass, m 3/2, in theories where the MSSM soft terms are a loop factor below m 3/2. As an example, we build a variant of the NMSSM where the singlet S is composite, and the strong dynamics leading to compositeness is triggered by masses of order m 3/2 for some fields. Our focus is the Higgs sector, but our model is compatible with a light stop (either with the first and second generation squarks heavy, or with R-parity violation or another mechanism to hide them from current searches). All the interesting low-energy mass scales, including linear terms for S playing a key role in EWSB, arise dynamically from the single scale m 3/2. However, numerical coefficients from RG effects and wavefunction factors in an extra dimension complicate the otherwise simple story.

Randall, Lisa; Reece, Matthew

2013-08-01

380

Scale Length of Disk Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disk scale length rd and central surface brightness ?0 for a sample of 29955 bright disk galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey have been analyzed. Cross correlation of the SDSS sample with the LEDA catalogue allowed us to investigate the variation of the scale lengths for different types of disk/spiral galaxies and present distributions and typical trends of scale lengths all the SDSS bands with linear relations that indicate the relation that connect scale lengths in one passband to another. We use the volume corrected results in the r-band and revisit the relation between these parameters and the galaxy morphology, and find the average values = 3.8 +/- 2.1 kpc and = 20.2 +/- 0.7 mag arcsec-2. The derived scale lengths presented here are representative for a typical galaxy mass of 1010.8 M?, and the RMS dispersion is larger for more massive galaxies. We analyse the rd-?0 plane and further investigate the Freeman Law and confirm that it indeed defines an upper limit for ?0 in bright disks (rmag < 17.0), and that disks in late type spirals (T >= 6) have fainter central surface brightness. Our results are based on a sample of galaxies in the local universe (z < 0.3) that is two orders of magnitudes larger than any sample previously studied, and deliver statistically significant results that provide a comprehensive test bed for future theoretical studies and numerical simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.

Fathi, Kambiz

2011-12-01

381

SCALE FORMATION IN CHRYSOPHYCEAN ALGAE  

PubMed Central

The cell wall of the marine chrysophycean alga Pleurochrysis scherfellii is composed of distinct wall fragments embedded in a gelatinous mass. The latter is a polysaccharide of pectic character which is rich in galactose and ribose. These wall fragments are identified as scales. They have been isolated and purified from the vegetative mother cell walls after zoospore formation. Their ultrastructure is described in an electron microscope study combining sectioning, freeze-etch, and negative staining techniques. The scales consist of a layer of concentrically arranged microfibrils (ribbons with cross-sections of 12 to 25 x 25 to 40 A) and underlying radial fibrils of similar dimensions. Such a network-plate is densely coated with particles which are assumed to be identical to the pectic component. The microfibrils are resistant to strong alkaline treatment and have been identified as cellulose by different methods, including sugar analysis after total hydrolysis, proton resonance spectroscopical examination (NMR spectroscopy) of the benzoylated product, and diverse histochemical tests. The formation and secretion of the scales can be followed along the maturing Golgi cisternae starting from a pronounced dilated "polymerization center" as a completely intracisternal process which ends in the exocytotic extrusion of the scales. The scales reveal the very same ultrastructure within the Golgi cisternae as they do in the cell wall. The present finding represents the first evidence on cellulose formation by the Golgi apparatus and is discussed in relation to a basic scheme for cellulose synthesis in plant cells in general.

Brown, R. Malcolm; Franke, Werner W.; Kleinig, Hans; Falk, Heinz; Sitte, Peter

1970-01-01

382

[Health regions and geographic scales].  

PubMed

The present article aims to discuss how the so-called health regions have been organized in Brazil since the respective governing ruling was issued (NOAS - SUS 01/2001). In order to clarify this new context, the author emphasises such concepts as region and geographic scale. The regional division under this ruling is based on the regional planning concept underlying the country's territorial policies since the founding of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). However, the apportionment in health regions has been both a requirement for improving the Unified National Health System (SUS) and a qualitative change in the national health policy. It is necessary to move forward by relating the regional division to the issue of scale. What is at stake is whether the regionalization of health in Brazil represents an improvement in the mediations between the various scales in the SUS. PMID:16021239

Guimarães, Raul Borges

2005-07-11

383

Developing an IGS time scale.  

PubMed

Currently, the International GPS Service (IGS) provides a set of clock products for both satellites and tracking receivers, tabulated at 5-min intervals. These products allow users to determine consistent coordinates and clock values for an isolated GPS receiver with an internal accuracy at the few-cm level. However, because the underlying time scale for the IGS combined clocks is based on a linear alignment to broadcast GPS Time for each day separately, the day-to-day stability of this reference is poor. We show the results of a new filter package written to automate the production of an integrated IGS frequency scale based on a dynamically weighted ensemble of the included frequency standards. The new scale is loosely steered to GPS Time. PMID:12839170

Senior, Ken; Koppang, Paul; Ray, Jim

2003-06-01

384

Scaling of cosmic string loops  

SciTech Connect

We study the spectrum of loops as a part of a complete network of cosmic strings in flat spacetime. After a long transient regime, characterized by production of small loops at the scale of the initial conditions, it appears that a true scaling regime takes over. In this final regime the characteristic length of loops scales as 0.1t, in contrast to earlier simulations which found tiny loops. We expect the expanding-universe behavior to be qualitatively similar. If this expectation is correct, then the large loop sizes have important cosmological implications. In particular, the nucleosynthesis bound then becomes G{mu} < or approx. 10{sup -7}, much tighter than that obtained from earlier analyses.

Vanchurin, Vitaly; Olum, Ken D.; Vilenkin, Alexander [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2006-09-15

385

Maintaining the benefits of CMOS scaling when scaling bogs down  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of industry trends from the last two decades of scaling for CMOS logic is examined in an attempt to extrapolate practical directions for CMOS technology as lithography progresses toward the point at which CMOS is limited by the size of the silicon atom itself. Some possible directions for various specialized applications in CMOS logic are explored, and it

Edward J. Nowak

2002-01-01

386

Scaling Properties of Universal Tetramers  

SciTech Connect

We evidence the existence of a universal correlation between the binding energies of successive four-boson bound states (tetramers), for large two-body scattering lengths (a), related to an additional scale not constrained by three-body Efimov physics. Relevant to ultracold atom experiments, the atom-trimer relaxation peaks for |a|{yields}{infinity} when the ratio between the tetramer and trimer energies is {approx_equal}4.6 and a new tetramer is formed. The new scale is also revealed for a<0 by the prediction of a correlation between the positions of two successive peaks in the four-atom recombination process.

Hadizadeh, M. R.; Yamashita, M. T. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tomio, Lauro [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Delfino, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Frederico, T. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, 12228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

2011-09-23

387

Stability of Pulsar Time Scale.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known, that stability of pulsar period in the barycenter of Solar system depends on different effects. The stability is determined by both physical conditions in pulsar and processes along the way of signal propagation which affect the pulse time of arrival (TOA). In the presentation it will be discussed stability of pulsar time scale based on the long term millisecond pulsar timing. It will be considered an influence of the propagation conditions along the pulsar signal way. In this presentation it will be considered an influence of microlensing to TOA, as well. This effect can put a natural limit for pulsar time scale stability.

Sazhin, M. V.; Pshirkov, M. S.

2006-08-01

388

Angles, Scales and Parametric Renormalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the structure of renormalized Feynman rules. Regarding them as maps from the Hopf algebra of Feynman graphs to {{C}} originating from the evaluation of graphs by Feynman rules, they are elements of a group {G=Spec_{Feyn}(H)} . We study the kinematics of scale and angle-dependence to decompose G into subgroups {G_{{1-s}}} and {G_{fin}} . Using parametric representations of Feynman integrals, renormalizability and the renormalization group underlying the scale dependence of Feynman amplitudes are derived and proven in the context of algebraic geometry.

Brown, Francis; Kreimer, Dirk

2013-09-01

389

Scaling Issues in Forest Succession Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews scaling issues in forest succession modelling, focusing on forest gap models. Two modes of scaling are distinguished: (1) implicit scaling, i.e. taking scale-dependent features into account while developing model equations, and (2) explicit scaling, i.e. using procedures that typically involve numerical simulation to scale up the response of a local model in space and\\/or time. Special attention

Harald Bugmann; Marcus Lindner; Petra Lasch; Michael Flechsig; Beatrix Ebert; Wolfgang Cramer

2000-01-01

390

Large-Scale Fault Isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the many distributed applications designed for the Internet, the successful ones are those that have paid careful atten- tion to scale and robustness. These applications share several de- sign principles. In this paper, we illustrate the application of these principles to common network monitoring tasks. Specifically, we describe and evaluate 1) a robust distributed topology discovery mechanism and 2)

Anoop Reddy; Deborah Estrin; Ramesh Govindan

1999-01-01

391

Scaling properties of lithographic VCSELs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data are presented demonstrating lithographic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and their scaling properties. Lithographic VCSELs have simultaneous mode- and current-confinement defined only by lithography and epitaxial crystal growth. The lithographic process of these devices allows getting uniform device size throughout a wafer and easy scaling to manufacture very small lasers. The semiconductor's high thermal conductivity enables the small lithographic VCSEL to have lower thermal resistance than an oxide-aperture VCSEL, while the lithographic fabrication produces high VCSEL uniformity even at small size. Very dense packing is also possible. Devices of 3 ?m to 20 ?m diameters are fabricated and scaling properties are characterized. 3 ?m lithographic VCSELs produce output power of 4.1 mW, with threshold current of 260 ?A and slope efficiency of 0.76 W/A at emission wavelength of ~980 nm. These VCSELs also have single-mode single-polarization lasing without the use of a surface grating, and have >25 dB sidemode- suppression-ratio up to 1 mW of output power. Lifetime tests demonstrate that 3 ?m VCSEL operates for hundreds of hours at high injection current level of 85 kA/cm2 with 3.7 mW output power without degradation. Scaling properties and low thermal resistance of the lithographic VCSELs can extend the VCSEL technology to manufacturable and reliable small size lasers and densely packed arrays with long device lifetime.

Demir, Abdullah; Zhao, Guowei; Freisem, Sabine; Liu, Xiaohang; Deppe, Dennis G.

2011-02-01

392

Inhibition of adherent scale accumulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for inhibiting the deposition of scale in or on equipment used in the production of fluids and also in the pores and passageways of the formation in the immediate vicinity of the well bore. The method consists of emplacing a composition comprising an organophosphorus compound, for sequestering ions which impart hardeners to water, and an adsorption

T. J. Nolan; C. F. Smith

1969-01-01

393

The Concise Geologic Time Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This concise handbook presents a summary of Earth's history over the past 4.5 billion years as well as a brief overview of contemporaneous events on the Moon, Mars and Venus. The authors have been at the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives to create an international geologic time scale for many years, and the charts in this book present the

James G. Ogg; Gabi Ogg; Felix M. Gradstein

2008-01-01

394

Large-scale vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The security level of networks and systems is determined by the software vulnerabilities of its elements. Defending against large scale attacks requires a quantitative understanding of the vulnerability lifecycle. Specifically, one has to understand how exploitation and remediation of vulnerabilities, as well as the distribution of information thereof is handled by industry.In this paper, we examine how vulnerabilities are handled

Stefan Frei; Martin May; Ulrich Fiedler; Bernhard Plattner

2006-01-01

395

Developing an IGS time scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, the International GPS Service (IGS) provides a set of clock products for both satellites and tracking receivers, tabulated at 5-min intervals. These products allow users to determine consistent coordinates and clock values for an isolated GPS receiver with an internal accuracy at the few-cm level. However, because the underlying time scale for the IGS combined clocks is based on

Ken Senior; Paul Koppang; Jim Ray

2003-01-01

396

Developing an IGS time scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, the International GPS Service (IGS) provides a set of clock products for both satellites and tracking receivers, tabulated at 5-minute intervals. These products provide users with sufficient information to determine consistent coordinates and clock values for an isolated GPS receiver with a precision at roughly the 5-cm level. However, because the underlying time scale for the IGS combined clocks

Ken Senior; Paul Koppang; Demetrios Matsakis

2001-01-01

397

Linear scaling electronic structure methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods exhibiting linear scaling with respect to the size of the system, the so-called O(N) methods, are an essential tool for the calculation of the electronic structure of large systems containing many atoms. They are based on algorithms that take advantage of the decay properties of the density matrix. In this article the physical decay properties of the density matrix

Stefan Goedecker

1999-01-01

398

Fault heterogeneity and earthquake scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an on-going debate in the seismological community as to whether stress drop is independent of earthquake size and this has important implications for earthquake physics. Here we investigate this question in a simple 2D cellular automaton that includes heterogeneity. We find that when the range of heterogeneity is low, the scaling approaches that of constant stress drop. However,

Alison Hetherington; Sandy Steacy

2007-01-01

399

Stability of Pulsar Time Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known, that stability of pulsar period in the barycenter of Solar system depends on different effects. The stability is determined by both physical conditions in pulsar and processes along the way of signal propagation which affect the pulse time of arrival (TOA). In the presentation it will be discussed stability of pulsar time scale based on the

M. V. Sazhin; M. S. Pshirkov

2006-01-01

400

Large Scale Structure in COSMOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large scale structures in the COSMOS field are defined using new high accuracy (2%) photometric redshifts from 21 band photometry. The masses of these structures range up to that of the Coma cluster. We compare the relative amounts of observed structure with results from the most recent numerical simulations out to z 2.

Nicholas Scoville

2007-01-01

401

Combat Trauma Art Therapy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study correlated an art therapy descriptive technique originally applied to adolescent burn victims with adult combat-related victims in an effort to identify art themes and graphic elements associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. The designed rating instrument, referred to as the Combat Trauma Art Therapy Scale (CTATS), consisted of 62 items aimed to detect common themes associated with war time

R. Gregory Lande; Vanita Tarpley; Jennifer L. Francis; Rebecca Boucher

2010-01-01

402

The College Alcohol Problems Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short, reliable two-factor instrument measuring drinking-related negative consequences was developed from a previous measure using two samples of college students. In Study I, data on alcohol use and problems associated with alcohol use were collected on 382 introductory psychology students. The original College Alcohol Problems Scale (CAPS) was tested and found to fit the data poorly. Sequential methods were

Jason E Maddock; Robert G Laforge; Joseph S Rossi; Thomas O'Hare

2001-01-01

403

Hydrodynamic aspects of shark scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ridge morphometrices on placoid scales from 12 galeoid shark species were examined in order to evaluate their potential value for frictional drag reduction. The geometry of the shark scales is similar to longitudinal grooved surfaces (riblets) that have been previously shown to give 8 percent skin-friction reduction for turbulent boundary layers. The present study of the shark scales was undertaken to determine if the physical dimensions of the ridges on the shark scales are of the right magnitude to be used by the sharks for drag reduction based on previous riblet work. The results indicate that the ridge heights and spacings are normally maintained between the predicted optimal values proposed for voluntary and burst swimming speeds throughout the individual's ontogeny. Moreover, the species which might be considered to be the faster posses smaller and more closely spaced ridges that based on the riblet work would suggest a greater frictional drag reduction value at the high swimming speeds, as compared to their more sluggish counterparts.

Raschi, W. G.; Musick, J. A.

1986-03-01

404

Dynamic scaling of growing interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is proposed for the evolution of the profile of a growing interface. The deterministic growth is solved exactly and exhibits nontrivial relaxation patterns. The stochastic version is studied by dynamic renormalization-group techniques and by mappings to Burger's equation and to a random directed polymer problem. The exact dynamic scaling form obtained for a one-dimensional interface is in excellent

Mehran Kardar; Giorgio Parisi; Yi-Cheng Zhang

1986-01-01

405

The scale independence of evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In this paper, I argue that the ultimate causes of morphological, and hence developmental, evolution are scale independent. In other words, micro- and macroevolu- tionary patterns show fundamental similarities and therefore are most simply explained as being caused by the same kinds of evolutionary forces. I begin by examining the evolu- tion of single lineages and argue that dynamics

Armand M. Leroi

2000-01-01

406

Scaling properties of fault rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage structures in fault zones are well known to exhibit various scaling properties. Typically, previous studies have separated different structural descriptions of localised shear zones in order to extract their scaling properties. In this study, however, we examine simultaneously scaling properties of particles found in shear zones, described here by the particle size distribution power law exponent D, and scaling properties of fracture surface roughness in these same zones, described here by the Hurst exponent, H. We study thin sections of samples of Sidobre granite sheared in the laboratory but left unopened, thereby maintaining the original spatial context of the structures examined. Through spatial analysis we track increase of the particle power law exponent D with increasing local strain state, and slight decrease of the surface roughness Hurst exponent H with increased slip component on fracture surfaces. The progression of these two parameters occurrs in parallel with increasing proximity to the centre of shear zones. This preliminary article leads to further work on direct spatial overlap of the two parameters.

Dyer, H.; Amitrano, D.; Boullier, A.-M.

2012-04-01

407

Scaling properties of fault rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage structures in fault zones are well known to exhibit various scaling properties. Typically, previous studies have separated different structural descriptions of localised shear zones in order to extract their scaling properties. In this study, however, we examine simultaneously scaling properties of particles found in shear zones, described here by the particle size distribution power law exponent D, and scaling properties of fracture surface roughness in these same zones, described here by the Hurst exponent, H. We study thin sections of samples of Sidobre granite sheared in the laboratory but left unopened, thereby maintaining the original spatial context of the structures examined. Through spatial analysis we track increase of the particle power law exponent D with increasing local strain state. The Hurst exponent does not show a conclusive trend as a function of the strain state of the fractures for our data set. This article could lead to further work on direct spatial overlap of the two parameters directly along concentrated shear band edges.

Dyer, Hilary; Amitrano, David; Boullier, Anne-Marie

2012-12-01

408

Evaluating Ratings on Bidirectional Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures are described for determining the statistical significance of a set of ratings made on bidirectional (B) scales. B and its statistical significance can be determined on samples of items or raters. The statistical significance of a mean of B values can be assessed by applying a normal approximation test. (Author/DWH)

Aiken, Lewis R.

1985-01-01

409

The social construction of scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last ten years, scholars in human geography have been paying increasing theoretical and empirical attention to understanding the ways in which the production of scale is implicated in the production of space. Overwhelmingly, this work reflects a social construc- tionist approach, which situates capitalist production (and the role of the state, capital, labor and nonstate political actors) as

Sallie A. Marston

2000-01-01

410

Model scale railcar fire tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of tests has been performed in a model of a typical passenger train compartment (railcar). The tests were carried out on a scale of 1–10. The main purpose of the tests was to investigate if it is possible to calculate the heat release rate for a flashed over train compartment with simple mathematical expressions derived for ordinary compartment

Haukur Ingason

2007-01-01

411

Scale invariance and superfluid turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a Schroedinger field theory invariant under local spatial scaling. It is shown to provide an effective theory of superfluid turbulence by deriving, analytically, the observed Kolmogorov 5/3 law and to lead to a Biot-Savart interaction between the observed filament excitations of the system as well.

Sen, Siddhartha; Ray, Koushik

2013-11-01

412

Skin, Scale, Feather, and Fur.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "skin, scale, feather, and fur" program was designed to provide children in the New York City public schools with knowledge about various animal species and their place in the animal world. Teacher and paraprofessional staff along with the Staten Island Zoo Personnel developed activities and instructed children at the zoo. They also conducted…

Kastner, Sheldon

413

Small Scale Thermosyphon Heat Exchanger.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small circular heat transfer cell was used to study the cooling of a disc heat source by a thin evaporating liquid film. This small scale thermosyphon is a thermal spreader and a passive heat sink in that the interfacially induced liquid flow rates are ...

M. Sujanani E. W. Kiewra P. C. Wayner

1986-01-01

414

Cyberchase: Paying Attention to Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Lesson Plan students explore how scale effects the way data is displayed and interpreted. Throughout the lesson students watch 3 short video clips in which the Cyberchase kids use data to present a problem. The lesson plan includes links to the 3 video clips, a student document to create a bar graph, 2 assessment options, and an answer key.

Wnet.org

2012-01-01

415

Animal coloration: sexy spider scales.  

PubMed

Many male jumping spiders display vibrant colors that are used in visual communication. A recent microscopic study on a jumping spider from Singapore shows that three-layered 'scale sandwiches' of chitin and air are responsible for producing their brilliant iridescent body coloration. PMID:17686428

Taylor, Lisa A; McGraw, Kevin J

2007-08-01

416

Sizing Up Allometric Scaling Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic rate, heart rate, lifespan, and many other physiological properties vary with body mass in systematic and interrelated ways. Present empirical data suggest that these scaling relationships take the form of power laws with exponents that are simple multiples of one quarter. A compelling explanation of this observation was put forward a decade ago by West, Brown, and Enquist (WBE).

Van M. Savage; Eric J. Deeds; Walter Fontana

2008-01-01

417

Spatial Variable Thresholding for SCALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stochastic Coherent Adaptive Large Eddy Simulation (SCALES) is a novel wavelet-based approach that resolves energy containing turbulent motions using wavelet multiresolution decomposition and self-adaptivity. The extraction of the most energetic structures is achieved using wavelet thresholding filter with a priori prescribed threshold level. This strategy, although successful, has a major drawback: the thresholding criterion is global and does not

Alireza Nejadmalayeri; Oleg V. Vasilyev; Alexei Vezolainen; Giuliano de Stefano

2009-01-01

418

CRM: conceptualization and scale development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To develop a reliable and valid measuring scale for customer relationship management (CRM). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A series of studies were conducted for the development and validation of multiple measures for the dimensions of CRM. Once the dimensions of CRM were identified, data from study 1 (n=150 business executives attending a part-time MBA program) were used to select items

Leo Y. M. Sin; Alan C. B. Tse; Frederick H. K. Yim

2005-01-01

419

Large Scale Optimal Power Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new optimization method is applied to optimal power flow analysis. The method is shown to be well suited to large scale (500 buses or more) power systems in that it is computationally efficient and is particularly effective with infeasible starting points. The optimization approach is based on transforming the original problem to that of solving a sequence of linearly

R. C. Burchett; H. H. Happ; K. A. Wirgau

1982-01-01

420

Allometric scaling laws of metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most pervasive laws in biology is the allometric scaling, whereby a biological variable Y is related to the mass M of the organism by a power law, Y=YM, where b is the so-called allometric exponent. The origin of these power laws is still a matter of dispute mainly because biological laws, in general, do not follow from

Jafferson Kamphorst Leal da Silva; Guilherme J. M. Garcia; Lauro A. Barbosa

2006-01-01

421

The P scale and psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents an appraisal of H. Eysenck and S. Eysenck's psychoticism (P) scale. Their claims of continuity between psychosis and normality are based on a shifting concept of continuity. At times, Eysenck and Eysenck appear to be arguing for a continuum between psychosis and normality at the level of clinical symptoms. On other occasions they seem to say that the P

D. V. M. Bishop

1977-01-01

422

A universal scale of comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative constructions form two classes, those that permit direct comparisons (comparisons of measurements as in Seymour is taller than he is wide) and those that only allow indirect comparisons (comparisons of relative positions on separate scales as in Esme is more beautiful than Einstein is intelligent). In contrast with other semantic theories, this paper proposes that the interpretation of the

Alan Clinton Bale

2008-01-01

423

Scaling laws for river networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seemingly unrelated empirical hydrologic laws and several experimental facts related to the fractal geometry of the river basin are shown to find a natural explanation into a simple finite size scaling ansatz for the power laws exhibited by cumulative distributions of river basin areas. Our theoretical predictions suggest that the exponent of the power law is directly related to a

Amos Maritan; Andrea Rinaldo; Riccardo Rigon; Achille Giacometti; Ignacio Rodríguez-Iturbe

1996-01-01

424

Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyâ??s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nationâ??s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

425

REGIONAL SCALE COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) is an approach to regional-scale ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by EPA's Office of Research and Development. The pilot assessment will be done for the mid-Atlantic region and builds on data collected for th...

426

Scaling in Chaotic Dynamical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material presented here is a study of some scaling properties in chaotic dynamical systems or those at the onset of chaos. Some systems that are simple enough for detailed study and yet useful to understand are circle maps, period doubling and strange attractors. We present some properties of these systems. The first chapter describes circle maps. We present a

Gemunu Herat Gunaratne

1986-01-01

427

Basin-scale hydrogeologic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical modeling of coupled groundwater flow, heat transfer, and chemical mass transport at the sedimentary basin scale has been increasingly used by Earth scientists studying a wide range of geologic processes including the formation of excess pore pressures, infiltration-driven metamorphism, heat flow anomalies, nuclear waste isolation, hydrothermal ore genesis, sediment diagenesis, basin tectonics, and petroleum generation and migration. These models

Mark Person; Jeff P. Raffensperger; Shemin Ge; Grant Garven

1996-01-01

428

Implementing large scale new technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference paper deals with the implementation of large scale new technology in offshore field development. The intention of the paper is to draw on Conoco's experience of the building of three TLPs, Hutton, Jolliet and Heidrun, to illustrate some of ...

R. S. Ramshaw

1993-01-01

429

Make Your Own Temperature Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the difference between temperature and thermal energy. They build a thermometer using simple materials and develop their own scale for measuring temperature. They compare their thermometer to a commercial thermometer, and get a sense for why engineers need to understand the properties of thermal energy.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

430

Time scales in cognitive neuroscience.  

PubMed

Cognitive neuroscience boils down to describing the ways in which cognitive function results from brain activity. In turn, brain activity shows complex fluctuations, with structure at many spatio-temporal scales. Exactly how cognitive function inherits the physical dimensions of neural activity, though, is highly non-trivial, and so are generally the corresponding dimensions of cognitive phenomena. As for any physical phenomenon, when studying cognitive function, the first conceptual step should be that of establishing its dimensions. Here, we provide a systematic presentation of the temporal aspects of task-related brain activity, from the smallest scale of the brain imaging technique's resolution, to the observation time of a given experiment, through the characteristic time scales of the process under study. We first review some standard assumptions on the temporal scales of cognitive function. In spite of their general use, these assumptions hold true to a high degree of approximation for many cognitive (viz. fast perceptual) processes, but have their limitations for other ones (e.g., thinking or reasoning). We define in a rigorous way the temporal quantifiers of cognition at all scales, and illustrate how they qualitatively vary as a function of the properties of the cognitive process under study. We propose that each phenomenon should be approached with its own set of theoretical, methodological and analytical tools. In particular, we show that when treating cognitive processes such as thinking or reasoning, complex properties of ongoing brain activity, which can be drastically simplified when considering fast (e.g., perceptual) processes, start playing a major role, and not only characterize the temporal properties of task-related brain activity, but also determine the conditions for proper observation of the phenomena. Finally, some implications on the design of experiments, data analyses, and the choice of recording parameters are discussed. PMID:23626578

Papo, David

2013-04-19

431

Time scales in cognitive neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Cognitive neuroscience boils down to describing the ways in which cognitive function results from brain activity. In turn, brain activity shows complex fluctuations, with structure at many spatio-temporal scales. Exactly how cognitive function inherits the physical dimensions of neural activity, though, is highly non-trivial, and so are generally the corresponding dimensions of cognitive phenomena. As for any physical phenomenon, when studying cognitive function, the first conceptual step should be that of establishing its dimensions. Here, we provide a systematic presentation of the temporal aspects of task-related brain activity, from the smallest scale of the brain imaging technique's resolution, to the observation time of a given experiment, through the characteristic time scales of the process under study. We first review some standard assumptions on the temporal scales of cognitive function. In spite of their general use, these assumptions hold true to a high degree of approximation for many cognitive (viz. fast perceptual) processes, but have their limitations for other ones (e.g., thinking or reasoning). We define in a rigorous way the temporal quantifiers of cognition at all scales, and illustrate how they qualitatively vary as a function of the properties of the cognitive process under study. We propose that each phenomenon should be approached with its own set of theoretical, methodological and analytical tools. In particular, we show that when treating cognitive processes such as thinking or reasoning, complex properties of ongoing brain activity, which can be drastically simplified when considering fast (e.g., perceptual) processes, start playing a major role, and not only characterize the temporal properties of task-related brain activity, but also determine the conditions for proper observation of the phenomena. Finally, some implications on the design of experiments, data analyses, and the choice of recording parameters are discussed.

Papo, David

2013-01-01

432

Multi-scale lung modeling  

PubMed Central

Multi-scale modeling of biological systems has recently become fashionable due to the growing power of digital computers as well as to the growing realization that integrative systems behavior is as important to life as is the genome. While it is true that the behavior of a living organism must ultimately be traceable to all its components and their myriad interactions, attempting to codify this in its entirety in a model misses the insights gained from understanding how collections of system components at one level of scale conspire to produce qualitatively different behavior at higher levels. The essence of multi-scale modeling thus lies not in the inclusion of every conceivable biological detail, but rather in the judicious selection of emergent phenomena appropriate to the level of scale being modeled. These principles are exemplified in recent computational models of the lung. Airways responsiveness, for example, is an organ-level manifestation of events that begin at the molecular level within airway smooth muscle cells, yet it is not necessary to invoke all these molecular events to accurately describe the contraction dynamics of a cell, nor is it necessary to invoke all phenomena observable at the level of the cell to account for the changes in overall lung function that occur following methacholine challenge. Similarly, the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone has complex origins within the individual smooth muscle cells that line the blood vessels but, again, many of the fine details of cell behavior average out at the level of the organ to produce an effect on pulmonary vascular pressure that can be described in much simpler terms. The art of multi-scale lung modeling thus reduces not to being limitlessly inclusive, but rather to knowing what biological details to leave out.

Tawhai, Merryn H.

2011-01-01

433

Dimensional analysis of pore scale and field scale immiscible displacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic re-examination of the traditional dimensional analysis of microscopic and macroscopic multiphase flow equations in porous media is presented. We introduce a ‘macroscopic capillary number’\\u000a$$\\\\overline {Ca}$$\\u000a which differs from the usual microscopic capillary number Ca in that it depends on length scale, type of porous medium and saturation history. The macroscopic capillary number\\u000a$$\\\\overline {Ca}$$\\u000a is defined as

R. Hilfer; P. E. Øren

1996-01-01

434

A case report of dissociative neurosis (depersonalization disorder) in an adolescent treated with family therapy and behavior modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the use of behavioral procedures within the context of systems-oriented family therapy in the treatment of a 15-yr-old girl's functional blackouts. Despite fairly clear psychosexual issues, treatment successfully eliminated blackouts without directly addressing such issues. The matter is discussed with reference to conceptualizing etiology and treatment. Working with the adolescent's family is advocated, the importance of client attributions for

Stephen J. Dollinger

1983-01-01

435

Scaling in Chaotic Dynamical Systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The material presented here is a study of some scaling properties in chaotic dynamical systems or those at the onset of chaos. Some systems that are simple enough for detailed study and yet useful to understand are circle maps, period doubling and strange attractors. We present some properties of these systems. The first chapter describes circle maps. We present a calculation of the (unique) unstable manifold of the fixed point of the renormalization group for critical circle maps. Subsequently an analytical approximation is derived for the critical Farey map which describes the universal structure of the parameter axis in the neighborhood of a noble rotation number. Finally we give some results on the onset of bistability and period doubling in super critical circle maps. In particular it is shown that for certain sequences of rationals which converge to a low order rational, the coupling for the onset of bistability (as well as that for the onset of period doubling) approaches a finite value above criticality. This is counter intuitive in view of the convergence of the widths of such tongues to zero. In the second chapter we develop the trajectory scaling function for period doubling bifurcations in area perserving maps. Hence a complete description is available of the universal properties of the orbit at the accumulation point of the period doubling cascade. In particular an upperbound is derived for its fractal dimension, and recursion relations are derived for the power spectra. Chapter 3 is an attempt to develop a scheme which will help explain the self similarities of a strange attractor. First we argue why the set of unstable periodic points in the neighborhood of the attractor (along with their eigenvalues) is a suitable subset for the study of scaling properties. Next we study the special case of strange attractors in one dimensional maps and show that for a certain subclass, the scaling functions have nice properties. In particular the scaling function, and hence the local structure of periodic points is approximately determined by the stability at the fixed points. Finally we attempt to extend the results to attractors in two dimensions, solving the simple case of the Lozi attractor analytically when the Jacobian of the map is small. We use the scaling functions to show that the distribution of periodic points have the same generalized dimensions as a set of dynamically generated points in some simple cases.

Gunaratne, Gemunu Herat

436

Stability of Rasch Scales Over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Item response theory (IRT) methods are generally used to create score scales for large-scale tests. Research has shown that IRT scales are stable across groups and over time. Most studies have focused on items that are dichotomously scored. Now Rasch and other IRT models are used to create scales for tests that include polytomously scored items. When tests are equated

Catherine S. Taylor; Yoonsun Lee

2009-01-01

437

Computational Applications of DNA Structural Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study from a computational standpoint several different physical scales associated with structural features of DNA se- quences, including dinucleotide scales such as base stacking energy and propeller twist, and trinucleotide scales such as bendability and nucleosome positioning. We show that these scales provide an alternative or complementary compact rep- resentation of DNA sequences. As an example we construct a

Pierre Baldi; Søren Brunak; Yves Chauvin; Anders Gorm Pedersen

1998-01-01

438

Fecal incontinence quality of life scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This goal of this research was to develop and evaluate the psychometrics of a health-related quality of life scale developed to address issues related specifically to fecal incontinence, the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale. METHODS: The Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale is composed of a total of 29 items; these items form four scales: Lifestyle (10 items),

Todd H. Rockwood; James M. Church; James W. Fleshman; Robert L. Kane; Constantinos Mavrantonis; Alan G. Thorson; Steven D. Wexner; Donna Bliss; Ann C. Lowry

2000-01-01

439

The large scale structure of the universe  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments concerning the large scale structure of the universe are discussed. All seem to indicate inhomogeneities on much larger scales than previously thought. Specific observations from above the atmosphere can aid in understanding several outstanding questions, like the spatial distribution of various absorbers, the global geometry of the universe, or the nature of large scale velocities over scales considerably larger than currently available.

Szalay, A.S. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-07-05

440

Development of a Facebook Addiction Scale.  

PubMed

The Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS), initially a pool of 18 items, three reflecting each of the six core elements of addiction (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, and relapse), was constructed and administered to 423 students together with several other standardized self-report scales (Addictive Tendencies Scale, Online Sociability Scale, Facebook Attitude Scale, NEO-FFI, BIS/BAS scales, and Sleep questions). That item within each of the six addiction elements with the highest corrected item-total correlation was retained in the final scale. The factor structure of the scale was good (RMSEA = .046, CFI = .99) and coefficient alpha was .83. The 3-week test-retest reliability coefficient was .82. The scores converged with scores for other scales of Facebook activity. Also, they were positively related to Neuroticism and Extraversion, and negatively related to Conscientiousness. High scores on the new scale were associated with delayed bedtimes and rising times. PMID:22662404

Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Pallesen, Ståle

2012-04-01

441

Scaling arguments and gravitating solitons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaling arguments are generalized to discuss the existence and the stability of static, spherically symmetric self-gravitating solitons in asymptotically flat and asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes in D dimensions. The formulas obtained from the scaling arguments are applied to the Einstein-Yang-Mills solitons with higher order terms in D=4 and D=5 dimensions and the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons solitons in D=5 dimension. We have shown that the negative cosmological constant, in general, improves the stability of the solitons. In D=4, in fact, the negative cosmological constant is essential for the stability of the solitons. In D=5, however, the higher order terms or the Chern-Simons term play more crucial role in the stability of the solitons; the possibility of having stable solitons exists in an asymptotically flat spacetime.

Park, D. H.

2012-12-01

442

Large-scale hot embossing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot embossing process is a flexible molding technique to produce delicate microstructures with high aspect ratios on thin\\u000a layers. Large-scale hot embossing is one effective way to meet future requirements and produce high-quality microstructures\\u000a at low costs. For this, however, principal changes of the molding process and molding tool design will be required. In the\\u000a present paper, constructive solutions

M. Worgull; M. Heckele; W. K. Schomburg

2005-01-01

443

Recent developments in complex scaling  

SciTech Connect

Some recent developments in the use of complex basis function techniques to study resonance as well as certain types of non-resonant, scattering phenomena are discussed. Complex scaling techniques and other closely related methods have continued to attract the attention of computational physicists and chemists and have now reached a point of development where meaningful calculations on many-electron atoms and molecules are beginning to appear feasible.

Rescigno, T.N.

1980-12-15

444

Scaling step-wise refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Step-wise refinement is a powerful paradigm for developing a complex program from a simple program by adding features incrementally. We present the AHEAD (Algebraic Hierarchical Equations for Application Design) model that shows how step-wise refinement scales to synthesize multiple programs and multiple non-code representations. AHEAD shows that software can have an elegant, hierarchical mathematical structure that is expressible as nested

Don S. Batory; Jacob Neal Sarvela; Axel Rauschmayer

2003-01-01

445

Allometric scaling laws of metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most pervasive laws in biology is the allometric scaling, whereby a biological variable Y is related to the mass M of the organism by a power law, Y=Y0Mb, where b is the so-called allometric exponent. The origin of these power laws is still a matter of dispute mainly because biological laws, in general, do not follow from

Jafferson Kamphorst Leal da Silva; Guilherme J. M. Garcia; Lauro A. Barbosa

2006-01-01

446

Large-Scale Plant Micropropagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant micropropagation is an efficient method of propagating disease-free, genetically uniform and massive amounts of plants\\u000a in vitro. The micropropagation from cells can be achieved by direct organogenesis from hairy roots or regeneration via somatic tissue.\\u000a Once the availability of embryogenic cell and hairy root systems based on liquid media has been demonstrated, the scale-up\\u000a of the whole process should

Hiroyuki Honda; Chunzhao Liu; Takeshi Kobayashi

447

Scaling Law of Sars Onset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SARS onsets within different municipalities/provinces/autonomous regions of the Chinese mainland around April 20, 2003, when normalized by population, obeys a piece-wise Zipf distribution, implying that there are three main modes in the propagation of SARS. Extrapolation of the scaling relation gives that the range of the expected final cumulative SARS cases in Beijing would be 2170-2540. The real situation is 2522 at the end of June 2003.

Wu, Zhongliang

448

Scaling down trickle bed reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scaling down of trickle bed reactors for catalyst testing in deep hydrodesulphurisation (HDS) is evaluated. A multiphase micro-reactor system has been built specifically for HDS, consisting of a set of six 2mm diameter packed beds with particles of approximately 100?m. To confirm plug-flow behaviour (for integral conversion) and to guarantee the measurement of true kinetics, the hydrodynamics have to

Daniël van Herk; Michiel T. Kreutzer; Michiel Makkee; Jacob A. Moulijn

2005-01-01

449

Large-scale PACS implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition to filmless radiology is a much more formidable task than making the request for proposal to purchase a (Picture\\u000a Archiving and Communications System) PACS. The Department of Defense and the Veterans Administration have been pioneers in\\u000a the transformation of medical diagnostic imaging to the electronic environment. Many civilian sites are expected to implement\\u000a large-scale PACS in the next

John A. Carrino; Paul J. Unkel; Ira D. Miller; Cindy L. Bowser; Michael W. Freckleton; Thomas G. Johnson

1998-01-01

450

Friction at the atomic scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the current race to manufacture machine components with astoundingly small dimensions, what is today considered fundamental research on the atomic scale may give way tomorrow to direct applications. For instance, the authors now know why substances made of branched-chain molecules make better lubricant than straight-chain molecules, even though the branched-chain one are, in bulk form, more viscous. (They remain

Krim

1997-01-01

451

Scaling Theory: Application to Marine Ornithology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of scale has three components: (a) direct measurement is usually confined to small areas and brief periods, (b)\\u000a the most pressing issues occur at the scale of ecosystems and decades, but (c) direct scale-up fails when pattern and process\\u000a at small scales differ from those at larger scales. Recognition of this dilemma has grown exponentially since around 1980.

David C. Schneider

2002-01-01

452

Coupled length scales in eroding landscapes  

SciTech Connect

We report results from an empirical study of the anisotropic structure of eroding landscapes. By constructing a novel correlation function, we show quantitatively that small-scale channel-like features of landscapes are coupled to the large-scale structure of drainage basins. We show additionally that this two-scale interaction is scale-dependent. The latter observation suggests that a commonly applied effective equation for erosive transport may itself depend on scale.

Chan, Kelvin K.; Rothman, Daniel H.

2001-05-01

453

The scaling of secondary craters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary craters are common features around fresh planetary-scale primary impact craters throughout most of the Solar System. They derive from the ejection phase of crater formation, thus secondary scaling relations provide constraints on parameters affecting ejection processes. Secondary crater fields typically begin at the edge of the continuous ejecta blankets (CEB) and extend out several crater radii. Secondaries tend to have rounded rims and bilateral symmetry about an axis through the primary crater's center. Prominent secondary chains can extend inward across the CEB close to the rim. A simple method for comparing secondary crater fields was employed: averaging the diameters and ranges from the center of the primary crater of the five largest craters in a secondary crater field. While not as much information is obtained about individual crater fields by this method as in more complete secondary field mapping, it facilitates rapid comparison of many secondary fields. Also, by quantifying a few specific aspects of the secondary crater field, this method can be used to construct scaling relations for secondary craters.

Croft, Steven K.

1991-06-01

454

Universal scaling in transient creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When aggregates of small grains are pressed together in the presence of small amounts of solvent the aggregate compacts and the grains tend to stick together. This happens to salt and sugar in humid air, and to sediments when buried in the Earths crust. Stress concentration at the grain contacts cause local dissolution, diffusion of the dissolved material out of the interface and deposition on the less stressed faces of the grains. This process, in geology known as pressure solution creep, plays a central role during compaction of sedimentary basins during tectonic deformation of the Earth's crust in strengthening of active fault gouges following earthquakes and in ceramics. Experimental data on pressure solution creep has so far not been sufficiently accurate to understand the transient processes at the grain scale. Here we present experimental evidence that pressure solution creep does not establish a steady state interface microstructure as previously thought. Conversely, pressure solution creep strain and the characteristic size of interface microstructures grow as the cubic root of time. Transient creep with the same scaling is known in metallurgy (Andrade creep). The apparent universal scaling of pressure solution transient creep is explained here using an analogy with spinodal dewetting.

Dysthe, D. K.; Podladchikov, Y.; Renard, F.; Feder, J.; Jamtveit, B.

2002-12-01

455

Patch scales in coastal ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying the spatial and temporal scales over which ecological processes are coupled to environmental variability is a major challenge for ecologists. Here, I assimilate patterns of oceanographic variability with ecological field studies in an attempt to quantify spatial and temporal scales of coupling. Using coastal time series of chlorophyll-a concentration from remote sensing, the first chapter examines the alongshore extent of coastal regions subject to similar temporal patterns of oceanographic variability in Western North America (WNA) and North-Central Chile (Chile). I found striking interhemispherical differences in the length of coastal sections under similar oceanographic regimes, with the Chile region showing longshore coherency over much smaller spatial scales (˜60 km) than on the coast of WNA (˜140 km). Through a spatial analysis of coastal orientation I suggest that the characteristic length scales may be traced to the geomorphologic character of the ocean margins. The second chapter examines spatial patterns of primary production through long-term means of coastal chlorophyll-a concentration and kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) cover and explores their relationship with coastal geomorphology and sea surface temperature (SST). Spatial analyses showed a striking match in length scales around 180--250 km. Strong anticorrelations at small spatial lags and positive correlations at longer distances suggest little overlap between patches of kelp and coastal chlorophyll-a. In agreement with findings from the previous chapter, I found that coastal patches could be traced back to spatial patterns of coastal geomorphology. Through SST time series and long-term datasets of larval recruitment in Santa Cruz Island, California, the third chapter examines temporal patterns of oceanographic variability as determinants of ecological patterns. SST time series from sites experiencing low larval recruitment rates were dominated by strong temporal variability. These sites also experienced the coldest SST detected during the study suggesting the presence of recently upwelled waters containing low number of larvae. Larval supply, along with patterns of community organization presented an accompanying manuscript, indicated that very strong upwelling may generate recruitment limitation of populations of intertidal invertebrates.

Broitman, Bernardo R.

456

Scale Selection for Anisotropic Scale-Space: Application to Volumetric Tumor Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unified approach for treating the scale selection prob- lem in the anisotropic scale-space is proposed. The anisotropic scale-space is a generalization of the classical isotropic Gaussian scale-space by considering the Gaus- sian kernel with a fully parameterized analysis scale (band- width) matrix. The \\

Kazunori Okada; Dorin Comaniciu; Arun Krishnan

2004-01-01

457

Scale dependence of subgrid-scale model coefficients: An a priori study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic subgrid-scale models require an a priori assumption about the variation in the model coefficients with filter scale. The standard dynamic model assumes independence of scale while the scale dependent model assumes power-law dependence. In this paper, we use field experimental data to investigate the dependence of model coefficients on filter scale for the Smagorinsky and the nonlinear models. The

Elie Bou-Zeid; Nikki Vercauteren; Marc B. Parlange; Charles Meneveau

2008-01-01

458

Determination of the b quark mass at the MZ scale with the DELPHI detector at LEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of the normalized three-jet rate of b quark events with respect to light quarks events (light=l?u,d,s) has been performed using the CAMBRIDGE and DURHAM jet algorithms. The data used were collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP on the Z peak from 1994 to 2000. The results are found to agree with theoretical predictions treating mass corrections

P Abreu; W Adam; P Adzic; T Albrecht; T Alderweireld; R Alemany-Fernandez; T Allmendinger; P P Allport; Ugo Amaldi; N Amapane; S Amato; E Anashkin; A Andreazza; S Andringa; N Anjos; P Antilogus; W D Apel; Y Arnoud; S Ask; B Åsman; J E Augustin; A Augustinus; Paul Baillon; A Ballestrero; P Bambade; R Barbier; D Bardin; G J Barker; A Baroncelli; M Battaglia; M Baubillier; K H Becks; M Begalli; A Behrmann; E Ben-Haim; N Benekos; A C Benvenuti; C Bérat; M Berggren; L Berntzon; D Bertrand; M Besançon; N Besson; D Bloch; M Blom; M Bluj; M Bonesini; M Boonekamp; P S L Booth; G Borisov; O Botner; B Bouquet; T J V Bowcock; I Boyko; M Bracko; R Brenner; E Brodet; P Brückman; J M Brunet; P Buschmann; M Calvi; T Camporesi; V Canale; F Carena; N Castro; F Cavallo; M Chapkin; P Charpentier; P Checchia; R Chierici; P Shlyapnikov; J Chudoba; S U Chung; K Cieslik; P Collins; R Contri; G Cosme; F Cossutti; M J Costa; D J Crennell; J Cuevas-Maestro; J D'Hondt; J Dalmau; T Da Silva; W Da Silva; G Della Ricca; A De Angelis; Wim de Boer; C De Clercq; B De Lotto; N De Maria; A De Min; L De Paula; L Di Ciaccio; A Di Simone; K Doroba; J Drees; G Eigen; T J C Ekelöf; M Ellert; M Elsing; M C Espirito-Santo; G K Fanourakis; D Fassouliotis; M Feindt; J Fernández; A Ferrer; F Ferro; U Flagmeyer; H Föth; E Fokitis; F Fulda-Quenzer; J Fuster; M Gandelman; C García; P Gavillet; E Gazis; R Gokieli; B Golob; G Gómez-Ceballos; P Gonçalves; E Graziani; G Grosdidier; K Grzelak; J Guy; C Haag; A Hallgren; K Hamacher; S Haug; F Hauler; V Hedberg; M Hennecke; H Herr; J Hoffman; S O Holmgren; P J Holt; M A Houlden; K Hultqvist; J N Jackson; G Jarlskog; P Jarry; D Jeans; E K Johansson; P D Johansson; P Jonsson; C Joram; L Jungermann; F Kapusta; S Katsanevas; E Katsoufis; B P Kersevan; U Kerzel; B T King; N J Kjaer; P Kluit; P Kokkinias; C Kourkoumelis; O Kuznetsov; Z Krumshtein; M Kucharczyk; J Lamsa; G Leder; F Ledroit; L Leinonen; R Leitner; J Lemonne; V Lepeltier; T Lesiak; W Liebig; D Liko; A Lipniacka; J H Lopes; J M López; D Loukas; P Lutz; L Lyons; J MacNaughton; A Malek; S Maltezos; F Mandl; J Marco; R Marco; B Maréchal; M Margoni; J C Marin; C Mariotti; A Markou; C Martínez-Rivero; J Masik; N Mastroyiannopoulos; F Matorras; C Matteuzzi; F Mazzucato; M Mazzucato; R McNulty; C Meroni; E Migliore; W A Mitaroff; U Mjörnmark; T Moa; M Moch; K Mönig; R Monge; J Montenegro; D Moraes; S Moreno; P Morettini; U Müller; K Münich; M Mulders; L Mundim; W Murray; B Muryn; G Myatt; T Myklebust; M Nassiakou; Francesco Luigi Navarria; K Nawrocki; R Nicolaidou; M Nikolenko; A Oblakowska-Mucha; V F Obraztsov; A G Olshevskii; A Onofre; R Orava; K Österberg; A Ouraou; A Oyanguren; M Paganoni; S Paiano; J P Palacios; H Palka; T D Papadopoulou; L Pape; C Parkes; F Parodi; U Parzefall; A Passeri; O Passon; L Peralta; V F Perepelitsa; A Perrotta; A Petrolini; J Piedra; L Pieri; F Pierre; M Pimenta; E Piotto; T Podobnik; V Poireau; M E Pol; G Polok; V Pozdnyakov; N Pukhaeva; A Pullia; J Rames; A Read; P Rebecchi; J Rehn; D Reid; R Reinhardt; P B Renton; F Richard; J Rídky; M Rivero; D Rodríguez; A Romero; P Ronchese; P Roudeau; T Rovelli; V Ruhlmann-Kleider; D Ryabtchikov; A Sadovskii; L Salmi; J Salt; C Sander; A Savoy-Navarro; U Schwickerath; A Segar; R L Sekulin; M Siebel; A Sisakian; G Smadja; O Smirnova; A Sokolov; A Sopczak; R Sosnowski; Tz Spassoff; M Stanitzki; A Stocchi; J Strauss; B Stugu; M Szczekowski; M Szeptycka; T Szumlak; T Tabarelli de Fatis; A C Taffard; F Tegenfeldt; J Timmermans; L G Tkatchev; M Tobin; S Todorovova; B Tomé; A Tonazzo; P Tortosa; P Travnicek; D Treille; G Tristram; M Trochimczuk; C Troncon; M L Turluer; I A Tyapkin; P Tyapkin; S Tzamarias; V Uvarov; G Valenti; P van Dam; J Van Eldik; N Van Remortel; I Van Vulpen; G Vegni; F Veloso; W Venus; P Verdier; V Verzi; D Vilanova; L Vitale; V Vrba; H Wahlen; A J Washbrook; C Weiser; D Wicke; J Wickens; G Wilkinson; M Winter; M Witek; O P Yushchenko; A Zalewska-Bak; P Zalewski; D Zavrtanik; V Zhuravlov; N I Zimin; A Zintchenko; M Zupan

2006-01-01

459

Level splitting at macroscopic scale.  

PubMed

A walker is a classical self-propelled wave particle association moving on a fluid interface. Two walkers can interact via their waves and form orbiting bound states with quantized diameters. Here we probe the behavior of these bound states when setting the underlying bath in rotation. We show that the bound states are driven by the wave interaction between the walkers and we observe a level splitting at macroscopic scale induced by the rotation. Using the analogy between Coriolis and Lorentz forces, we show that this effect is the classical equivalent to Zeeman splitting of atomic energy levels. PMID:23004988

Eddi, A; Moukhtar, J; Perrard, S; Fort, E; Couder, Y

2012-06-26

460

New Scalings in Nuclear Fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

Fragment partitions of fragmenting hot nuclei produced in central and semiperipheral collisions have been compared in the excitation energy region 4-10 MeV per nucleon where radial collective expansion takes place. It is shown that, for a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the amount of radial collective energy fixes the mean fragment multiplicity. It is also shown that, at a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the different properties of fragment partitions are completely determined by the reduced fragment multiplicity (i.e., normalized to the source size). Freeze-out volumes seem to play a role in the scalings observed.

Bonnet, E. [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen cedex (France); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); Borderie, B.; Rivet, M. F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); Le Neindre, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, Ensicaen, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen cedex (France); Raduta, Ad. R. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Bougault, R. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, Ensicaen, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen cedex (France); Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J. D.; Wieleczko, J. P. [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen cedex (France); Galichet, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, F-75141 Paris cedex 03 (France); Gagnon-Moisan, F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire, Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Lukasik, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics IFJ-PAN, PL-31342 Krakow (Poland); Marini, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen cedex (France); Parlog, M. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, Ensicaen, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen cedex (France); National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

2010-10-01

461

Supergroups and economies of scale.  

PubMed

With the changing environment for medical practice, physician practice models will continue to evolve. These "supergoups'' create economies of scale, but their advantage is not only in the traditional economic sense. Practices with enough size are able to better meet the challenges of medical practice with increasing regulatory demands, explosion of clinical knowledge, quality and information technology initiatives, and an increasingly tight labor market. Smaller practices can adapt some of these strategies selectively. Depending on the topic, smaller practices should think differently about how to approach the challenges of practice. PMID:19038641

Schlossberg, Steven

2009-02-01

462

Scale problem in wormhole physics  

SciTech Connect

Wormhole physics from the quantum thoery of gravity coupled to the second-rank antisymmetric tensor or Goldstone-boson fields leads to an effective potential for these fields. The cosmological energy-density bound is shown to put an upper bound on the cosmological constant which wormhole physics can make zero. This upper bound, of order 10/sup 11/ GeV, is far smaller than the Planck scale and barely compatible with the possible cosmological constant arising from grand unified theories. In addition, the effect of wormholes on the axion for the strong /ital CP/ problem is discussed.

Kim, J. E.; Lee, K.

1989-07-03

463

New scalings in nuclear fragmentation.  

PubMed

Fragment partitions of fragmenting hot nuclei produced in central and semiperipheral collisions have been compared in the excitation energy region 4-10 MeV per nucleon where radial collective expansion takes place. It is shown that, for a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the amount of radial collective energy fixes the mean fragment multiplicity. It is also shown that, at a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the different properties of fragment partitions are completely determined by the reduced fragment multiplicity (i.e., normalized to the source size). Freeze-out volumes seem to play a role in the scalings observed. PMID:21230826

Bonnet, E; Borderie, B; Le Neindre, N; Raduta, Ad R; Rivet, M F; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Frankland, J D; Galichet, E; Gagnon-Moisan, F; Guinet, D; Lautesse, P; ?ukasik, J; Marini, P; Pârlog, M; Rosato, E; Roy, R; Spadaccini, G; Vigilante, M; Wieleczko, J P; Zwieglinski, B

2010-09-30

464

SCALE-UP OF RAPID SMALL-SCALE ADSORPTION TESTS TO FIELD-SCALE ADSORBERS: THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BASIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Design of full-scale adsorption systems typically includes expensive and time-consuming pilot studies to simulate full-scale adsorber performance. Accordingly, the rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT) was developed and evaluated experimentally. The RSSCT can simulate months of f...

465

Impedance Scaling and Impedance Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a machine becomes really large, such as the Really Large Hadron Collider (RLHC),(G. W. Foster and E. Malamud, Fermilab-TM-1976 (June, 1996).) of which the circumference could reach the order of megameters, beam instability could be an essential bottleneck. This paper studies the scaling of the instability threshold vs. machine size when the coupling impedance scales in a ``normal'' way. It is shown that the beam would be intrinsically unstable for the RLHC. As a possible solution to this problem, it is proposed to introduce local impedance inserts for controlling the machine impedance. In the longitudinal plane, this could be done by using a heavily detuned rf cavity (e.g., a biconical structure), which could provide large imaginary impedance with the right sign (i.e., inductive or capacitive) while keeping the real part small. In the transverse direction, a carefully designed variation of the cross section of a beam pipe could generate negative impedance that would partially compensate the transverse impedance in one plane.

Chou, W.; Griffin, J.

1997-05-01

466

Creating Large Scale Database Servers  

SciTech Connect

The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is designed to perform a high precision investigation of the decays of the B-meson produced from electron-positron interactions. The experiment, started in May 1999, will generate approximately 300TB/year of data for 10 years. All of the data will reside in Objectivity databases accessible via the Advanced Multi-threaded Server (AMS). To date, over 70TB of data have been placed in Objectivity/DB, making it one of the largest databases in the world. Providing access to such a large quantity of data through a database server is a daunting task. A full-scale testbed environment had to be developed to tune various software parameters and a fundamental change had to occur in the AMS architecture to allow it to scale past several hundred terabytes of data. Additionally, several protocol extensions had to be implemented to provide practical access to large quantities of data. This paper will describe the design of the database and the changes that we needed to make in the AMS for scalability reasons and how the lessons we learned would be applicable to virtually any kind of database server seeking to operate in the Petabyte region.

Becla, Jacek

2001-12-14

467

Scaling and the Smoluchowski equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Smoluchowski equations, which describe coalescence growth, take into account combination reactions between a j-mer and a k-mer to form a (j+k)-mer, but not breakup of larger clusters to smaller ones. All combination reactions are assumed to be second order, with rate constants Kjk. The Kjk are said to scale if K?j,?k=????Kjk for j<=k. It can then be shown that, for large k, the number density or population of k-mers is given by Akae-bk, where A is a normalization constant (a function of a, b, and time), a=-(?+?), and b?+?-1 depends linearly on time. We prove this in a simple, transparent manner. We also discuss the origin of odd-even population oscillations for small k. A common scaling arises from the ballistic model, which assumes that the velocity of a k-mer is proportional to 1/?mk (Maxwell distribution), i.e., thermal equilibrium. This does not hold for the nascent distribution of clusters produced from monomers by reactive collisions. By direct calculation, invoking conservation of momentum in collisions, we show that, for this distribution, velocities are proportional to mk-0.577. This leads to ?+?=0.090, intermediate between the ballistic (0.167) and diffusive (0.000) results. These results are discussed in light of the existence of systems in the experimental literature which apparently correspond to very negative values of ?+?.

Goodisman, J.; Chaiken, J.

2006-08-01

468

The Kirby-Desai Scale  

PubMed Central

Background: As tattoos have become increasingly popular in the Western world, tattoo-removal requests have also increased, as patients’ personal identities advance. Laser tattoo removal is the current treatment of choice given its safety and efficacy. However, due to varying types of tattoos, it has been difficult to quantify the number of laser treatments required with certainty when discussing laser tattoo removal with our patients. Objective: To propose a practical numerical scale to assess the number of laser tattoo-removal treatments necessary to achieve satisfactory results. Methods and materials: A retrospective chart review was performed on 100 clinic patients who presented for laser tattoo removal. An algorithm was proposed to assign a numerical score to each tattoo across six different categories (skin type, location, color, amount of ink, scarring, and layering). The cumulative score (Kirby-Desai score) is proposed to correlate with the number of treatment sessions required for satisfactory tattoo removal. Results: A correlation coefficient of 0.757 was achieved, with satisfactory tattoo removal in all subjects (N=100, p<0.001). Conclusion: We propose the Kirby-Desai scale as a practical tool to assess the number of laser tattoo-removal sessions required, which will translate into a more certain cost calculation for the patient.

Desai, Alpesh; Desai, Tejas; Kartono, Francisca; Geeta, Patel

2009-01-01

469

The Multidimensional Scale of Sexuality.  

PubMed

Research on the assessment of sexual orientation has been limited, and what does exist is often conflicting and confusing. This is largely due to the lack of any agreed upon definition of bisexuality. The Multidimensional Scale of Sexuality (MSS) was developed to validate and to contrast six proposed categories of bisexuality, as well as categories related to heterosexuality, homosexuality, and asexuality. This instrument includes ratings of the behavioral and cognitive/affective components of sexuality. The MSS was completed by 148 subjects, the majority of whom were from identified homosexual and bisexual populations. Although subjects' self-descriptions on the MSS were consistent with their self-descriptions on the Kinsey Heterosexual-Homosexual Scale, the MSS provided a more varied description of sexual orientation. Subject's self-described sexual orientation on the MSS was more consistent with their cognitive/affective ratings than with their behavioral ratings. With the exception of self-described heterosexuals, the frequency of cognitive/affective sexuality was greater than that of behavioral sexuality. PMID:2230111

Berkey, B R; Perelman-Hall, T; Kurdek, L A

1990-01-01

470

Building Scale vs. Community Scale Net-Zero Energy Performance  

SciTech Connect

Many government and industry organizations are focusing building energy-efficiency goals around producing individual net-zero buildings (nZEBs), using photovoltaic (PV) technology to provide on-site renewable energy after substantially improving the energy efficiency of the buildings themselves. Seeking net-zero energy (NZE) at the community scale instead introduces the possibility of using a wider range of renewable energy technologies, such as solar-thermal electricity generation, solar-assisted heating/cooling systems, and wind energy, economically. This paper reports results of a study comparing NZE communities to communities consisting of individual nZEBs. Five scenarios are examined: 1) base case – a community of nZEBs with roof mounted PV systems; 2) NZE communities served by wind turbines on leased land; 3) NZE communities served by wind turbines on owned land; 4) communities served by solar-thermal electric generation; and 5) communities served by photovoltaic farms. All buildings are assumed to be highly efficient, e.g., 70% more efficient than current practice. The scenarios are analyzed for two climate locations (Chicago and Phoenix), and the levelized costs of electricity for the scenarios are compared. The results show that even for the climate in the U.S. most favorable to PV (Phoenix), more cost-effective approaches are available to achieving NZE than the conventional building-level approach (rooftop PV with aggressive building efficiency improvements). The paper shows that by expanding the measurement boundary for NZE, a community can take advantage of economies of scale, achieving improved economics while reaching the same overall energy-performance objective.

Katipamula, Srinivas; Fernandez, Nicholas; Brambley, Michael R.; Reddy, T. A.

2010-06-30

471

Information Services for Small-Scale Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents highlights of several papers which reviewed experiences of large-scale and specialized information systems and services from the viewpoint of their value to small-scale, science-based industries, particularly those in developing region...

R. W. Swanson

1968-01-01

472

Development of a Scale to Measure Narcissism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An objective scale to measure narcissism or selfism was developed. Discriminant and convergent validity of the scale appears adequate. A construct validity study showed a correlation of .50 between subjects' own selfism scores and friends' estimates of th...

E. J. Phares

1981-01-01

473

Aqueous-Solution pH Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parallel existence of two forms of pH scale is considered, which is unique for the international metrological community. The basic advantages and shortcomings are considered for the multireference NIST scale and the single-reference BSI one.

O. V. Karpov; I. I. Maksimov; A. L. Seifer

2000-01-01

474

Scaling and Resolution of Senic Holographic Stereograms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scaling of holographic stereograms in the ratio d/d' can be accomplished by using a spacing, d, between component photographs and a different spacing, d', between corresponding holograms. Scaling down of scenic holograms is desirable in order to increase ...

N. George J. T. McCrickerd M. M. T. Chang

1968-01-01

475

Scaling Properties of Gold Nanocluster Chemiresistor Sensors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of geometric scaling on the performance of metal- insulator metal-ensemble (MIME) chemiresistors based on gold nanoclusters is investigated. The ultrasmall size of the nanoclusters is shown to enable extreme scaling of the sensors with reductio...

A. W. Snow E. E. Foos M. G. Ancona R. Bass W. Kruppa

2006-01-01

476

A Study of Subsynoptic Scale Energy Transformations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kinetic energy transformations from the viewpoint of energetics of the large-scale circulation are investigated with a series of subsynoptic scale radiosonde network soundings. Individual terms of the kinetic energy equation are evaluated along with the g...

D. H. McInnis E. C. Kung

1971-01-01

477

Effective Temperature Scale and Its Modifications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although empirically derived from immediate thermal sensations, the Effective Temperature scale shows agreement with physiological responses to the thermal environment over a wider range of temperature conditions than scales whose application is limited t...

D. Minard

1964-01-01

478

Strongly scale-dependent non-Gaussianity  

SciTech Connect

We discuss models of primordial density perturbations where the non-Gaussianity is strongly scale dependent. In particular, the non-Gaussianity may have a sharp cutoff and be very suppressed on large cosmological scales, but sizable on small scales. This may have an impact on probes of non-Gaussianity in the large-scale structure and in the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies.

Riotto, Antonio [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); CERN, PH-TH Division, CH-1211, Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Sloth, Martin S. [CERN, PH-TH Division, CH-1211, Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

2011-02-15

479

Scale-up studies of spouted beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scaling relationships proposed by Glicksman (Chem. Engng Sci.39, 1373–1379, 1984) for fluidized-bed scale-up have been modified to provide a full set of scaling parameters for spouted bed scale-up. A force balance for particles in the annulus region of a spouted bed leads to addition of two non-dimensional parameters, the internal friction angle (?) and the loose packed voidage (?0)

Y.-L. He; C. J. Lim; J. R. Grace

1997-01-01

480

Scale-Space Theory in Computer Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic problem when deriving information from measured data, such as images, originates from the fact that objects in the world, and hence image structures, exist as meaningful entities only over certain ranges of scale. "Scale-Space Theory in Computer Vision" describes a formal theory for representing the notion of scale in image data, and shows how this theory applies to

Tony Lindeberg

1994-01-01

481

Scaling model for symmetric star polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron scattering data from symmetric star polymers with six poly (urethane-ether) arms, chemically bonded to a C-60 molecule are fitted using a new scaling model and scattering function. The new scaling function can describe both good solvent and theta solvent conditions as well as resolve deviations in chain conformation due to steric interactions between star arms. The scaling model quantifies

Ram Ramachandran; Durgesh K. Rai; Gregory Beaucage

2010-01-01

482

Researching Developmental Careers: The Career Conformity Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed interval scale to measure deviation from the normative sequencing of first job, marriage, and birth of first child. Scale scores had predictive utility for marital instability and work interruptions. Use of scale score as independent variable provided more information than that provided by Hogan's (1978) temporal sequence categories as…

White, James M.

1987-01-01

483

Small-Scale Production of Cementitious Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report begins with a discussion of the place of cement in development and existing cement-production technology. The second part on small scale Portland cement plants covers Indian development work on small scale vertical shaft kilns, medium scale ve...

R. J. S. Spence

1980-01-01

484

Scaling and hierarchical structures in DNA sequences.  

PubMed

A method of analyzing DNA correlation structure is introduced. Density fluctuations of nucleotides are shown to display an extended self-similarity scaling when the scale varies between 100 and 8000 base pairs. The scaling is accurately described by a hierarchical structure model of She and Leveque [Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 336 (1994)

Ouyang, Zhengqing; Wang, Chao; She, Zhen-Su

2004-08-13

485

Erosional development of small scale drainage networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drainage networks are usually determined for large scale river systems. Small scale drainage networks for upland eroding areas have rarely been studied. In this scale, drainage networks of surface runoff substantially affect soil erosion. The objective of this study was i) to explore the similarities between drainage networks of runoff on eroding surfaces and those of river systems and ii)

K. Helming; M. Römkens; S. Prasad; H. Sommer

486

Deep Structure of Gaussian Scale Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep structure of scale space is essential to the further processing of an image at different resolutions to extract certain features or to carry out other requirements such as image denosing. In this paper we study the deep structure of Gaussian scale space by virtue of singularity theory. Five normal forms of Gaussian scale space are provided, which is

Yang Zhihui; Cui Wenjuan; Zhang Mengmeng

2008-01-01

487

Broken Scales: Obesity and Justice in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article is not so much about the scales we use to measure weight, but the scales we use to infer causation and assign responsibility-including the scales of justice. Ultimately, the problem we face is not obesity itself. Obesity is only a symptom of the problem. When scientists and public health experts point to various environmental agents-whether larger portion sizes,

Adam Benforado; Jon Hanson; David Yosifon

2004-01-01

488

L-scaling. Working Paper No. 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given "T" joint observations on "K" variables, it is frequently useful to consider the weighted average or scaled score. L-scaling is introduced as a technique for determining the weights. The technique is so named because of its resemblance to the Leontief matrix of mathematical economics. L-scaling is compared to two widely-used procedures for…

Blankmeyer, Eric

489

Self-Determination Scale: The Adaptation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to adaptate in Turkish and determine the reliability and validity of the Self- Determination Scale. The original scale was translated into Turkish and then administered to 232 university students. Factor analysis of the scale yielded a 2-factor solution with 5 items established in the first factor (self-contact) and 4 in the second (choicefulness).

Müge ERSOY KART; Özgür GÜLDÜ

2008-01-01

490

Musical Scales, Integer Partitions, Necklaces, and Polygons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A musical scale can be viewed as a subsequence of notes taken from a chromatic sequence. Given integers (N,K) N > K we use particular integer partitions of N into K parts to construct distinguished scales. We show that a natural geometric realization of these scales results in maximal polygons. In his book on jazz ear training Steve Masakowski (6)

David Rappaport

491

Scaling regimes of composite rainfall time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scaling behaviour of rainfall is analysed both for a range of scales in time and for a given scale in intensity using the statistics of the Fourier transform and the cumulative probability distribution. The analyses are applied to sets of long time series of daily rainfall (26 (8) files of 45 (90) years at 13 European stations) and sets

Klaus Fraedrich; Chris Larnder

1993-01-01

492

Brightness Scaling of White and Colored Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brightness scales for chromatic and achromatic test stimuli have been obtained by the methods of ratio production and magnitude estimation for the dark-adapted observer and conditions of brief foveal stimulation. All scales adhere to the form of a power law for brightness, and scales obtained under the differing psychophysical procedures agree.

Judith Wheeler Onley

1960-01-01

493

Scaled vehicle tire characteristics: dimensionless analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article demonstrates the use of dimensional analysis for scaled vehicle tires. The motivation for this approach is the understanding of realistic nonlinear tire behavior in scaled vehicle control studies. By examining the behavior of vehicle tires within a dimensionless framework, several key tire parameters are developed that allow for an appropriate relationship between full-sized tires and scaled tires. Introducing

Matthew Polley; Andrew Alleyne; Edwin De Vries

2006-01-01

494

Towards energy efficient scaling of scientific codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption is becoming a crucial concern within the high performance computing community as com- puters expand to the peta-scale and beyond. Although the peak execution rates on tuned dense matrix operations in supercomputers have consistently increased to approach the peta-scale regime, the linear scaling of peak execution rates has been achieved at the expense of cubic growth in power

Yang Ding; Konrad Malkowski; Padma Raghavan; Mahmut T. Kandemir

2008-01-01

495

Improving dynamic voltage scaling algorithms with PACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses algorithms for dynamically varying (scaling) CPU speed and voltage in order to save energy. Such scaling is useful and effective when it is immaterial when a task completes, as long as it meets some deadline. We show how to modify any scaling algorithm to keep performance the same but minimize expected energy consumption. We refer to our

Jacob R. Lorch; Alan Jay Smith

2001-01-01

496

Exploring scaling laws in surface topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface topography affects many soil properties and processes, particularly surface water storage and runoff. Application of fractal analysis helps understand the scaling laws inherent in surface topography at a wide range of spatial scales and climatic regimes. In this research, a high resolution digital elevation model with a 3mm resolution on one side of the spectrum and large scale DEMs,

M. J. Abedini; M. R. Shaghaghian

2009-01-01

497

Scaling Properties of Shoreline Change: Process Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using shoreline-change measurements of two open-ocean reaches of the North Carolina Outer Banks, U.S.A., we explore an existing premise that shoreline change on a sandy coast is a self-affine signal, wherein patterns of change are scale-invariant. Wavelet analysis confirms that the mean variance (spectral power) of shoreline change can be approximated by a power law at alongshore scales from tens of m up to a few kilometers. In some systems, a power law reflects the presence of a unifying process or interaction that spans the scales of the power law. Classic examples include turbulent fluids, networks of interacting faults/Earthquakes, and fluvially sculpted landscapes. However, an approximately linear portion of a spectrum in a log-log plot does not necessarily indicate a scale-free, dominant process, as the shoreline-change spectrum exemplifies; distinct processes dominate different scale ranges within the range of the approximate power law. Why an amalgamation scale-dependent processes often produces an approximately linear portion of a spectrum remains an intriguing question. The shoreline-change spectra also illustrates the point that deviations from approximate power-law scaling can also be interesting. At scales of kilometers to tens of kilometers, the spectra exhibit a maximum of the variance (not related to finite-domain-size effects). Both the magnitude of the variance in this broad peak, and the spatial scale at which that maximum occurs, increase when shoreline change is measured over longer time scales (up to decadal). The scaling relationship between the time and spatial scales of this peak suggest a large-scale diffusion of coastline shape (possibly driven by gradients in alongshore sediment flux related to large-scale coastline curvature). Recent analysis of shoreline curvature and change in curvature for shoreline changes spanning hurricane-related wave events shows that large-scale coastline-shape anti-diffusion can occur during extreme storms (possibly related to the oblique wave incidence during these storms and a consequent instability in large-scale coastline shape). This storm-related coastline roughening is apparently counteracted in the longer term by coastline smoothing (possibly by gradients in alongshore sediment flux arising from the long-term wave climate). Comparing the time-scale-dependent magnitude of shoreline-change variance at scales greater than a few kilometers with the time-independent variances at smaller scales suggests that interactions occurring on large scales produce cumulative changes in shoreline location (e.g. long-term erosion)-rather than the much better studied processes causing shoreline changes on smaller scales.

Murray, A.; Lazarus, E.; Ashton, A. D.; Tebbens, S. F.; Burroughs, S. M.

2011-12-01

498

Aspects of stellarator confinement scaling  

SciTech Connect

Extensive discussion has been made concerning stellarator experimental confinement scaling and the extrapolation to reactor systems. Two features are discussed here: (1) The role of hydrogen-impurity interactions. (2) The neoclassical (bootstrap) current has been invoked as an argument against the possibility of optimizing the stellarator magnetic configuration to reach high ..beta... It is felt that significant bootstrap current production under conditions of high ..beta.. will dominate the vacuum fields. In this regard, a brief summary is presented of a comparison made between ISX-B high-..beta.. data and the neoclassical predictions. The non-neoclassical rates of electron pitch-angle scattering serve to destroy this current, and are evidently responsible for a lack of evidence for the bootstrap current under conditions in tokamaks where a large effect is expected.

Hogan, J.

1981-01-01

499

Enabling department-scale supercomputing  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories have one of the longest and most consistent histories of supercomputer use. The authors summarize the architecture of DOE`s new supercomputers that are being built for the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). The authors then argue that in the near future scaled-down versions of these supercomputers with petaflop-per-weekend capabilities could become widely available to hundreds of research and engineering departments. The availability of such computational resources will allow simulation of physical phenomena to become a full-fledged third branch of scientific exploration, along with theory and experimentation. They describe the ASCI and other supercomputer applications at Sandia National Laboratories, and discuss which lessons learned from Sandia`s long history of supercomputing can be applied in this new setting.

Greenberg, D.S.; Hart, W.E.; Phillips, C.A.

1997-11-01

500

Significant Scales in Community Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of ``significance'' of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine ``good'' resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role.

Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; van Dooren, P.

2013-10-01