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1

[Screening for depersonalization-derealization with two items of the cambridge depersonalization scale].  

PubMed

Depersonalization (DP) and derealization (DR) are considered to be highly underdiagnosed. Therefore the development of screening instruments is important. From the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS) two items were extracted discriminating best patients with clinical significant DP from patients without DP. These two Items were assembled to a short version of the CDS. This short version (CDS-2) was tested in a sample of 38 patients with clinical significant DP-DR and 49 patients without or only mild DP-DR. Scores were compared against clinical diagnoses based on a structured interview (gold standard). The CDS-2 was able to differentiate patients with clinical significant DP well from other groups (cut-off of CDS-2>or=3, sensitivity=78.9%, specifity=85.7%) and also showed high reliability (Cronbachs alpha=0.92). Therefore the CDS-2 can be considered as a useful tool for screening and identification of DP-DR. PMID:19544244

Michal, Matthias; Zwerenz, Rüdiger; Tschan, Regine; Edinger, Jens; Lichy, Marcel; Knebel, A; Tuin, Inka; Beutel, Manfred

2010-05-01

2

Factor structure of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale in trauma-exposed college students.  

PubMed

This study examined the factor structure of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS; M. Sierra & G. E. Berrios, 2000 ), a 29-item self-report measure of depersonalization. The CDS was based on a conceptualization of depersonalization as a multidimensional construct, a theoretical perspective that has received limited empirical attention. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on CDS item scores in a sample of 534 trauma-exposed college students. Results failed to support factor structures of the CDS previously reported in the literature and instead supported a 2-factor solution, with 1 factor representing a sense of unreality and detachment and a 2nd factor representing emotional and physical numbing. Implications regarding the structural validity of the CDS are discussed. [Supplementary material is available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Trauma & Dissociation for the following resource: Four tables with the following information: inter-correlations among CDS items from Samples 1 and 2; Sierra et al. (2005 ) four-factor model and Simeon et al. (2008 ) five-factor model estimated factor loadings, covariances, and R-square in Sample 1; Factor loadings for 3-7 factor EFA models in Sample 1; and estimated factor loadings for one-factor CFA model in Sample 2.]. PMID:23627478

Blevins, Christy A; Witte, Tracy K; Weathers, Frank W

2013-01-01

3

Development of a Depersonalization Severity Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to develop a clinician-rated scale assessing depersonalization severity for use in clinical trials of Depersonalization Disorder and trauma-related disorders in general. The 6-item Depersonalization Severity Scale (DSS) was administered to 63 participants with DSM-IV Depersonalization Disorder as diagnosed by the SCID-D, and its psychometric properties were examined. The sensitivity of the DSS and of the Dissociative Experiences

Daphne Simeon; Orna Guralnik; James Schmeidler

2001-01-01

4

Depersonalization in psychiatric patients: a transcultural study.  

PubMed

There is evidence suggesting that the prevalence of depersonalization in psychiatric patients can vary across cultures. To explore the possible influence of culture on the prevalence of depersonalization, we compared psychiatric inpatient samples from the United Kingdom (N = 31), Spain (N = 68), and Colombia (N = 41) on standardized and validated self-rating measures of dissociation and depersonalization: the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Colombian patients were found to have lower global scores on the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale and the DES and all its subscales, with the exception of DES-Absorption. No differences were found for measures of depression or anxiety. These findings seem to support the view that depersonalization is susceptible to cultural influences. Attention is drawn to the potential relevance of the sociological dimension "individualism-collectivism" on the experience of the self, and it is proposed that cultures characterized by high individualism may confer vulnerability to depersonalization experiences. PMID:16699385

Sierra, Mauricio; Gomez, Juliana; Molina, Juan J; Luque, Rogelio; Muñoz, Juan F; David, Anthony S

2006-05-01

5

De-constructing depersonalization: further evidence for symptom clusters.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder is defined in the DSM-IV-TR using a single symptom criterion, which does not do justice to the phenomenological complexity of the disorder. In 394 affected adults, the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale yielded five factors (numbing, unreality of self, perceptual alterations, unreality of surroundings, and temporal disintegration), put forth as symptom criteria for a better diagnosis of depersonalization disorder. PMID:17959254

Simeon, Daphne; Kozin, David Stephen; Segal, Karina; Lerch, Brenna; Dujour, Roxanne; Giesbrecht, Timo

2008-01-15

6

Somatoform dissociation in depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Along with psychoform dissociation, somatoform dissociation has been put forth as a core aspect of dissociative states, possibly as reliable as psychoform dissociation in the screening for dissociative disorders. The goal of this study was to investigate the prominence and correlates of somatoform dissociation in one of the major Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) dissociative disorders, depersonalization disorder (DPD). A total of 54 adults with DPD and 47 healthy control participants free of lifetime Axis I and II disorders were administered the 20-item Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ) as well as the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form. Somatoform dissociation scores were statistically significantly, but clinically only modestly, elevated in the DPD as compared to the healthy control group. SDQ items significantly elevated in the DPD group were mostly perceptual in nature. Depersonalization scores were significantly correlated with somatoform dissociation in the DPD group, whereas absorption and amnesia scores were not. With respect to childhood interpersonal trauma, although emotional abuse was significantly associated with depersonalization severity, none of the 5 categories of trauma were significantly associated with somatoform dissociation in the DPD group. In conclusion, somatoform dissociation is modest in DPD, and the SDQ is a weak instrument for the screening of dissociation in this disorder, detecting only one third of the sample when using the traditional SDQ cutoff score of 30. PMID:19042782

Simeon, Daphne; Smith, Rebecca J; Knutelska, Margaret; Smith, Lisa M

2008-01-01

7

Depersonalization/derealization during acute social stress in social phobia.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at investigating how frequently and intensely depersonalization/derealization symptoms occur during a stressful performance situation in social phobia patients vs. healthy controls, as well as testing hypotheses about the psychological predictors and consequences of such symptoms. N=54 patients with social phobia and N=34 control participants without mental disorders were examined prior to, during, and after a standardized social performance situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). An adapted version of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale was applied along with measures of social anxiety, depression, personality, participants' subjective appraisal, safety behaviours, and post-event processing. Depersonalization symptoms were more frequent in social phobia patients (92%) than in controls (52%). Specifically in patients, they were highly positively correlated with safety behaviours and post-event-processing, even after controlling for social anxiety. The role of depersonalization/derealization in the maintenance of social anxiety should be more thoroughly recognized and explored. PMID:23434546

Hoyer, Juergen; Braeuer, David; Crawcour, Stephen; Klumbies, Elisabeth; Kirschbaum, Clemens

2013-03-01

8

Depersonalization as a mediator in the relationship between self-focused attention and auditory hallucinations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to study the potentially mediating role of certain dissociative factors, such as depersonalization, between self-focused attention and auditory hallucinations. A total of 59 patients diagnosed with schizophrenic disorder completed a self-focused attention scale ( M. F. Scheier & C. S. Carver, 1985 ), the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (M. Sierra & G. E. Berrios, 2000), and the hallucination and delusion items on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (S. R. Kay, L. A. Opler, & J. P. Lindenmayer, 1988). The results showed that self-focused attention correlated positively with auditory hallucinations, with delusions, and with depersonalization. It was also demonstrated that depersonalization has a mediating role between self-focused attention and auditory hallucinations but not delusions. In the discussion, the importance of dissociative processes in understanding the formation and maintenance of auditory hallucinations is suggested. PMID:21967180

Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Carrascoso-López, Francisco; García-Montes, José M; Vallina-Fernández, Oscar; Pérez-Álvarez, Marino; Ductor-Recuerda, María Jesús; Salas-Azcona, Rosario; Cuevas-Yust, Carlos; Gómez-Gómez, María Teresa

2011-01-01

9

Construct validity of three depersonalization measures in trauma-exposed college students.  

PubMed

Depersonalization is a type of dissociation characterized by feelings of unreality and detachment from one's sense of self. Despite a history rich in clinical description, the construct of depersonalization has proven difficult to define and measure. Available measures vary substantially in content, and all have relatively limited psychometric support. In this study the content validity, internal consistency, and convergent and discriminant validity of 3 depersonalization measures were compared in a sample of 209 trauma-exposed college students. Measures were the Dissociative Experiences Scale ( E. M. Bernstein & F. W. Putnam, 1986 ), Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS; M. Sierra & G. E. Berrios, 2000 ), and Multiscale Dissociation Inventory (MDI; J. Briere, 2002 ). All 3 measures exhibited adequate to high internal consistency for the depersonalization-derealization items. Based on D. Westen and R. Rosenthal's (2003) procedure for quantifying construct validity, the CDS and MDI demonstrated the best fit with the predicted pattern of correlations with measures of other constructs. The CDS and MDI also demonstrated the strongest evidence of content validity. Overall, the results most strongly support the use of the CDS and MDI for assessing depersonalization in this population. PMID:22989242

Blevins, Christy A; Weathers, Frank W; Mason, Elizabeth A

2012-01-01

10

Depersonalization disorder and anxiety: a special relationship?  

PubMed

A significant association between anxiety and depersonalization has been found in healthy controls and psychiatric patients irrespective of underlying conditions. Although patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD) often have a history of severe anxiety symptoms, clinical observations suggest that the relation between anxiety and depersonalization is complex and poorly understood. Using relevant rating scales, levels of anxiety and depersonalization were assessed in 291 consecutive DPD cases. 'High' and 'low' depersonalization groups, were compared according to anxiety severity. Correlation and multivariate regression analyses were also used to assessed the contribution of anxiety to the phenomenology and natural course of depersonalization. A low but significant association between depersonalization and anxiety (as measured by Beck's Anxiety Inventory) was only apparent in those patients with low intensity depersonalization, but not in those with severe depersonalization. Levels of anxiety did not seem to make specific contributions to the clinical features of depersonalization itself, although DPD patients with high anxiety seem characterised by additional non-specific perceptual symptoms. The presence of a 'statistical dissociation' between depersonalization and anxiety adds further evidence in favour of depersonalization disorder being an independent condition and suggests that its association with anxiety has been overemphasized. PMID:22414660

Sierra, Mauricio; Medford, Nick; Wyatt, Geddes; David, Anthony S

2012-05-15

11

Temporal disintegration in depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Distortions of the experience of time are central to some types of dissociative experiences. In this study, we investigated the relationship between a self-report measure of temporal disintegration and symptoms of dissociation in depersonalization disorder (DPD). Fifty-two DPD and thirty non-clinical control participants were administered the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) and Temporal Integration Inventory (TII). The DPD group had significantly higher TII scores than the control group. Within the DPD group, there was a significant positive correlation between DES total score and TII total score, and between TII-time distinction subscale score and TII-agency subscale score. In the DPD group, TII scores were not associated with age of onset or duration of illness. Of the three dissociative domains of absorption, amnesia, and depersonalization/derealization, only absorption was a significant predictor of TII total and subscale scores by stepwise linear regression analyses. We conclude that the experience of temporal disintegration in DPD is not directly related to the core symptoms of depersonalization/derealization, but exists when the depersonalized experience involves more prominent absorption. PMID:17409052

Simeon, Daphne; Hwu, Ruth; Knutelska, Margaret

2007-01-01

12

[The psychopathology of depersonalization].  

PubMed

In his classic overview, Mayer-Gross indicated two clinical features of depersonalization to be taken as starting points for future investigation: excessive difficulty in describing it and its relatively rare appearance in organic disorders. Neither characteristic has so far been discussed sufficiently in psychopathology and neurobiology. In this article, we examine the language aspect of depersonalization by comparisons with aphasia, in which the two objects of study described by Mayer-Gross, speech and organic disorders, intertwine. Concerning amnestic aphasia, Gelb and Goldstein insist that an object cannot be grasped as a generally understood fact using a categorical attitude but only experienced subjectively in its this-ness with a concrete attitude. The particular experience of depersonalization is the reverse of that in amnestic aphasia, as the relation of the depersonalized patient to this-ness is disturbed but an ideal view of the generality remains. PMID:16523352

Oka, K

2006-07-01

13

A survey on worries of pregnant women - testing the German version of the Cambridge Worry Scale  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnancy is a transition period in a woman's life characterized by increased worries and anxiety. The Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) was developed to assess the content and extent of maternal worries in pregnancy. It has been increasingly used in studies over recent years. However, a German version has not yet been developed and validated. The aim of this study was (1) to assess the extent and content of worries in pregnancy on a sample of women in Germany using a translated and adapted version of the Cambridge Worry Scale, and (2) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the German version. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study and enrolled 344 pregnant women in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Women filled out structured questionnaires that contained the CWS, the Spielberger-State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI), as well as questions on their obstetric history. Antenatal records were also analyzed. Results The CWS was well understood and easy to fill in. The major worries referred to the process of giving birth (CWS mean value 2.26) and the possibility that something might be wrong with the baby (1.99), followed by coping with the new baby (1.57), going to hospital (1.29) and the possibility of going into labour too early (1.28). The internal consistency of the scale (0.80) was satisfactory, and we found a four-factor structure, similar to previous studies. Tests of convergent validity showed that the German CWS represents a different construct compared with state and trait anxiety but has the desired overlap. Conclusions The German CWS has satisfactory psychometric properties. It represents a valuable tool for use in scientific studies and is likely to be useful also to clinicians.

2009-01-01

14

Episodic depersonalization in focal epilepsy.  

PubMed

In this report a patient with episodic depersonalization is described. As the depersonalization episodes had been attributed to partial seizures, this patient was treated with antiepileptic medication. However, clinical evaluation with long-term video/EEG revealed no evidence of seizure activity during the depersonalization episodes. On the other hand, further evaluation revealed findings that are frequently associated with focal epilepsy. In addition to episodic depersonalization, this patient had secondary generalized seizures. The relationship between episodic depersonalization, temporal lobe pathology, and epilepsy is discussed against the background of this case. PMID:16046278

Dietl, Thomas; Bien, Christian; Urbach, Horst; Elger, Christian; Kurthen, Martin

2005-09-01

15

Early emotional processing deficits in depersonalization: an exploration with event-related potentials in an undergraduate sample.  

PubMed

Emotional stimuli may draw attention to such an extent that they hamper the processing of subsequent signals, a phenomenon termed emotion-induced blindness (EIB). As depersonalization is associated with self-reported attenuated emotional responses, the present study explored whether individuals scoring high on the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS; n=15) exhibit a diminished EIB effect relative to low CDS scoring individuals (n=15), and whether attentional processes reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs) are implicated in this effect. We obtained an EIB effect such that emotional distractors that preceded targets with a lag of 200ms reduced correct detection of targets. Although the magnitude of this effect was similar for high and low CDS participants, high CDS participants exhibited a significantly lower ERP amplitude at the frontal lead in the 200-300ms window than did low CDS individuals to targets that followed emotional versus neutral distractors. This latter effect was significantly related to the Alienation factor of the CDS. This pattern suggests that difficulties in the discrimination between emotional and neutral stimuli relate to the feeling of unreality in depersonalization. PMID:23149021

Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Giesbrecht, Timo; Meijer, Ewout; Merckelbach, Harald; de Jong, Peter J; Thorsteinsson, Haraldur; Smeets, Tom; Simeon, Daphne

2013-06-30

16

Cognitive functioning in depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is a dissociative disorder characterized by a subjective sense of unreality and detachment, and has been associated with deficits in perception and short-term memory. In this study, 21 DPD and 17 healthy comparison participants free of psychiatric disorders were administered a comprehensive neuropsychologic battery. The groups did not differ in full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), in working memory (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), or in selective attention (Digit Span with Distracters). The DPD group performed significantly worse on immediate visual and verbal recall (Wechsler Memory Scale, Revised), but not on delayed recall. Dissociation severity was significantly correlated with processing slowness and distractibility. We conclude that DPD is associated with cognitive disruptions in early perceptual and attentional processes. PMID:18091191

Guralnik, Orna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Knutelska, Margaret; Sirroff, Beth; Simeon, Daphne

2007-12-01

17

[Depersonalization, social phobia and shame].  

PubMed

Associations between depersonalization (DP) and social phobia (SP) were described in the early scientific literature. This connection, however, has not yet been considered in the recent empirical literature and clinical trials on SP. The aim of this study is to examine these associations. In a sample of 100 consecutive inpatients we compare 45 patients with pathological DP to 55 patients without pathological DP with respect to comorbidity and the degree of social anxieties assessed with the SOCIAL INTERACTION ANXIETY SCALE (SIAS) and with the SOCIAL PHOBIA SCALE (SPS) and the extent of shame assessed with the INTERNALIZED SHAME SCALE (ISS). Social phobia was significantly more prevalent in the patients with pathological DP. Furthermore, the patients with pathological DP showed a significantly larger extent of social anxieties (SIAS, SPS) and shame (ISS). The results may be considered as a preliminary empirical support of the assumed associations and thus warrant an enhanced consideration of DP in therapy and research of social anxiety disorders. PMID:17031770

Michal, Matthias; Heidenreich, Thomas; Engelbach, Ute; Lenz, Cynthia; Overbeck, Gerd; Beutel, Manfred; Grabhorn, Ralph

2006-01-01

18

Depersonalization disorder: pharmacological approaches.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is a chronic and distressing condition with a prevalence in the general population between 0.8 and 2%. Several neurobiological studies in the last decade have shown that patients have suppressed limbic activation to emotional stimuli. Such findings are in line with a model which suggests that the condition is generated by an anxiety-triggered, 'hard-wired' inhibitory response to threat. Such a mechanism would ensure the preservation of adaptive behavior, during situations normally associated with overwhelming and potentially disorganizing anxiety. In DPD, such a response would become chronic and dysfunctional. Depersonalization remains a condition for which no definitive treatment exists, and for which conventional medications, such as antidepressants or antipsychotics, have been found to be of little value. Fortunately, a few promising lines of pharmacological treatment have emerged in recent years, although more rigorous studies are needed. For example, a number of studies suggest that opioid receptor antagonists such as naltrexone and naloxone are useful in at least a subgroup of patients. In spite of initial expectations, the use of lamotrigine as a sole medication has not been found useful. However, open-label trials suggest that its use as an add-on treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is beneficial in a substantial number of patients. Similarly, the use of clonazepam, particularly in conjunction with SSRI antidepressants, appears to be beneficial in patients with high levels of background anxiety. In line with the stress-related model of depersonalization, those neurotransmitter systems of relevance to depersonalization are known to play important inhibitory roles in the regulation of the stress response. PMID:18088198

Sierra, Mauricio

2008-01-01

19

Testing a Neurobiological Model of Depersonalization Disorder Using Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation?  

PubMed Central

Background Depersonalization disorder (DPD) includes changes in subjective experiencing of self, encompassing emotional numbing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has pointed to ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) inhibition of insula as a neurocognitive correlate of the disorder. Objective We hypothesized that inhibition to right VLPFC using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) would lead to increased arousal and reduced symptoms. Methods Patients with medication-resistant DSM-IV DPD (N = 17) and controls (N = 20) were randomized to receive one session of right-sided rTMS to VLPFC or temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). 1Hz rTMS was guided using neuronavigation and delivered for 15 min. Co-primary outcomes were: (a) maximum skin conductance capacity, and (b) reduction in depersonalization symptoms (Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS) [state version]). Secondary outcomes included spontaneous fluctuations (SFs) and event-related skin conductance responses. Results In patients with DPD, rTMS to VLPFC led to increased electrodermal capacity, namely maximum skin conductance deflections. Patients but not controls also showed increased SFs post rTMS. Patients who had either VLPFC or TPJ rTMS showed a similar significant reduction in symptoms. Event-related electrodermal activity did not change. Conclusions A single session of right-sided rTMS to VLPFC (but not TPJ) significantly increased physiological arousal capacity supporting our model regarding the relevance of increased VLPFC activity to emotional numbing in DPD. rTMS to both sites led to reduced depersonalization scores but since this was independent of physiological arousal, this may be a non-specific effect. TMS is a potential therapeutic option for DPD; modulation of VLPFC, if replicated, is a plausible mechanism.

Jay, Emma-Louise; Sierra, Mauricio; Van den Eynde, Frederique; Rothwell, John C.; David, Anthony S.

2014-01-01

20

Depersonalization and social anxiety.  

PubMed

Although the literature on depersonalization (DP) indicates links between DP and anxiety disorders, there has been no systematic investigation of the association of DP with social anxiety. The present study explores a hypothesized connection between DP and social anxiety by using correlative and regression analyses in a sample of 116 psychotherapy inpatients, 54 outpatients with epilepsy, and 31 nonpatients. Corresponding to our hypothesis, we found a connection of medium to large effect size between DP and social fears exceeding the impact of general psychopathologic symptom severity both for the psychotherapy patients and the nonpatients. The association of social anxiety with DP merits further research. A general consideration of DP in clinical and neurobiological trials on anxiety disorders like social phobia is warranted. PMID:16131947

Michal, Matthias; Kaufhold, Johannes; Grabhorn, Ralph; Krakow, Karsten; Overbeck, Gerd; Heidenreich, Thomas

2005-09-01

21

[On the differential diagnostics of depersonalization experiences].  

PubMed

Depersonalization represents an unspecific symptom which is to be found across the entire spectrum of psychiatric nosology. Delineating the historical lines of development of the depersonalization concept and reviewing existing psychopathological experiential knowledge reveals that depersonalization is underpinned by highly diverse modes of experience. In terms of differential diagnostics at the symptom level, a distinction can be made between depersonalization as a neurotic phenomenon on the one hand and a psychotic form occurring in schizophrenia and melancholia on the other. The reference points defined here extend beyond current descriptive classifications and open up the diagnostic process to allow an inclusion of etiological and therapeutic aspects. PMID:21301801

Bürgy, M

2012-01-01

22

Methylphenidate in depersonalization disorder: a case report.  

PubMed

The symptom of depersonalization is frequently associated with other mental disorders, physiological effects of substances or medical diseases. However, it is rare that, as in the case presented, the experiences of depersonalization form an isolated entity, a primary depersonalization disorder. Among the many psychoactive drugs studied, none of them has been shown to be the treatment of choice. Among those with which the best results are obtained are opioid receptor antagonists (naloxone and naltrexone), the combination of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with lamotrigine and clorimipramine. Although with virtually no evidence, we are presenting a case that responded spectacularly to methylphenidate. PMID:21274825

Foguet, Q; Alvárez, M J; Castells, E; Arrufat, F

2011-01-01

23

[Depersonalization after withdrawal from cannabis usage].  

PubMed

The phenomenon of depersonalization during cannabis usage (intoxication) is commonly known. However, its appearance after drug stoppage is relatively unknown. This article reviews the literature on depersonalization after cannabis withdrawal and discusses three representing cases demonstrating the severity of the problem. Clinical features are described as well as effects on functioning and the long-term nature of this disorder. The treatment approach in each case is also presented. PMID:15889607

Shufman, E; Lerner, A; Witztum, E

2005-04-01

24

Depersonalization, mindfulness, and childhood trauma.  

PubMed

Depersonalization (DP), i.e., feelings of being detached from one's own mental processes or body, can be considered as a form of mental escape from the full experience of reality. This mental escape is thought to be etiologically linked with maltreatment during childhood. The detached state of consciousness in DP contrasts with certain aspects of mindfulness, a state of consciousness characterized by being in touch with the present moment. Against this background, the present article investigates potential connections between DP severity, mindfulness, and childhood trauma in a mixed sample of nonpatients and chronic nonmalignant pain patients. We found a strong inverse correlation between DP severity and mindfulness in both samples, which persisted after partialing out general psychological distress. In the nonpatient sample, we additionally found significant correlations between emotional maltreatment on the one hand and DP severity (positive) and mindfulness (negative) on the other. We conclude that the results first argue for an antithetical relationship between DP and certain aspects of mindfulness and thus encourage future studies on mindfulness-based interventions for DP and second throw light on potential developmental factors contributing to mindfulness. PMID:17700303

Michal, Matthias; Beutel, Manfred E; Jordan, Jochen; Zimmermann, Michael; Wolters, Susanne; Heidenreich, Thomas

2007-08-01

25

Depersonalization experiences in undergraduates are related to heightened stress cortisol responses.  

PubMed

The relationship between dissociative tendencies, as measured with the Dissociative Experiences Scale and its amnesia, absorption/imaginative involvement, and depersonalization/derealization subscales, and HPA axis functioning was studied in 2 samples of undergraduate students (N = 58 and 67). Acute stress was induced by means of the Trier Social Stress Test. Subjective and physiological stress (i.e., cortisol) responses were measured. Individuals high on the depersonalization/derealization subscale of the Dissociative Experiences Scale exhibited more pronounced cortisol responses, while individuals high on the absorption subscale showed attenuated responses. Interestingly, subjective stress experiences, as indicated by the Tension-Anxiety subscale of the Profile of Mood States, were positively related to trait dissociation. The present findings illustrate how various types of dissociation (i.e., depersonalization/derealization, absorption) are differentially related to cortisol stress responses. PMID:17435477

Giesbrecht, Timo; Smeets, Tom; Merckelbach, Harald; Jelicic, Marko

2007-04-01

26

Validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization-Derealization Spectrum (SCI-DER)  

PubMed Central

This study evaluates the validity and reliability of a new instrument developed to assess symptoms of depersonalization: the Structured Clinical Interview for the Depersonalization-Derealization Spectrum (SCI-DER). The instrument is based on a spectrum model that emphasizes soft-signs, sub-threshold syndromes as well as clinical and subsyndromal manifestations. Items of the interview include, in addition to DSM-IV criteria for depersonalization, a number of features derived from clinical experience and from a review of phenomenological descriptions. Study participants included 258 consecutive patients with mood and anxiety disorders, 16.7% bipolar I disorder, 18.6% bipolar II disorder, 32.9% major depression, 22.1% panic disorder, 4.7% obsessive compulsive disorder, and 1.5% generalized anxiety disorder; 2.7% patients were also diagnosed with depersonalization disorder. A comparison group of 42 unselected controls was enrolled at the same site. The SCI-DER showed excellent reliability and good concurrent validity with the Dissociative Experiences Scale. It significantly discriminated subjects with any diagnosis of mood and anxiety disorders from controls and subjects with depersonalization disorder from controls. The hypothesized structure of the instrument was confirmed empirically.

Mula, Marco; Pini, Stefano; Calugi, Simona; Preve, Matteo; Masini, Matteo; Giovannini, Ilaria; Conversano, Ciro; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B

2008-01-01

27

Autonomic response in the perception of disgust and happiness in depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Patients with depersonalization disorder have shown attenuated responses to emotional unpleasant stimuli, hence supporting the view that depersonalization is characterised by a selective inhibition on the processing of unpleasant emotions. It was the purpose of this study to establish if autonomic responses to facial emotional expressions also show the same blunting effect. The skin conductance responses (SCRs) of 16 patients with chronic DSM-IV depersonalization disorder, 15 normal controls and 15 clinical controls with DSM-IV anxiety disorders were recorded in response to facial expressions of happiness and disgust. Patients with anxiety disorders were found to have greater autonomic responses than patients with depersonalization, in spite of the fact that both groups had similarly high levels of subjective anxiety as measured by anxiety scales. SCR to happy faces did not vary across groups. The findings of this study provide further support to the idea that patients with depersonalization have a selective impairment in the processing of threatening or unpleasant emotional stimuli. PMID:17074399

Sierra, Mauricio; Senior, Carl; Phillips, Mary L; David, Anthony S

2006-12-01

28

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves depersonalization: a case report.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder is a poorly understood and treatment-resistant condition. This report describes a patient with depersonalization disorder who underwent six sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation produced a 28% reduction on depersonalization scores. PMID:15115950

Jiménez-Genchi, Alejandro M

2004-05-01

29

Cambridge Desegregation Succeeding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the desegration plan of Cambridge, Massachusetts, as an example of a successful attempt at accomodating "freedom of choice" while at the same time meeting existing state and federal desegregation standards. Argues that the Cambridge plan has transfer value for other school systems. (KH)

Alves, Michael J.

1983-01-01

30

Cannabis-induced depersonalization disorder in adolescence.  

PubMed

We present a case series of 6 patients who developed persistent depersonalization disorder in adolescence after consuming cannabis. In 2 of these cases, the illness course was severely disabling. Within the growing body of literature that investigates the effects of cannabis use on mental health, the association between cannabis and depersonalization disorder is widely neglected. We review the clinical characteristics of this disorder and summarize the neurobiological evidence relating it to cannabis use. This case series extends awareness about the potentially detrimental effect of cannabis use in young individuals beyond its well-documented relationship with psychosis and other psychological sequelae. PMID:22378193

Hürlimann, Franziska; Kupferschmid, Stephan; Simon, Andor E

2012-01-01

31

CambridgeSoft  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CambridgeSoft provides a variety for software for chemical structure drawing and visualization, including the popular ChemDraw and Chem3D programs. Chem3D Ultra includes computational chemistry capability.

32

Dissociation in virtual reality: depersonalization and derealization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper looks at virtual worlds such as Second Life7 (SL) as possible incubators of dissociation disorders as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition3 (also known as the DSM-IV). Depersonalization is where "a person feels that he or she has changed in some way or is somehow unreal." Derealization when "the same beliefs are held about one's surroundings." Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder fits users of Second Life who adopt "in-world" avatars and in effect, enact multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters). Select questions from the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization (SCI-DER)8 will be discussed as they might apply to the user's experience in Second Life. Finally I would like to consider the hypothesis that rather than a pathological disorder, dissociation is a normal response to the "artificial reality" of Second Life.

Garvey, Gregory P.

2010-02-01

33

Cognitive-affective neuroscience of depersonalization.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is characterized by a subjective sense of detachment from one's own being and a sense of unreality. An examination of the psychobiology of depersonalization symptoms may be useful in understanding the cognitive-affective neuroscience of embodiment. DPD may be mediated by neurocircuitry and neurotransmitters involved in the integration of sensory processing and of the body schema, and in the mediation of emotional experience and the identification of feelings. For example, DPD has been found to involve autonomic blunting, deactivation of sub-cortical structures, and disturbances in molecular systems in such circuitry. An evolutionary perspective suggests that attenuation of emotional responses, mediated by deactivation of limbic structures, may sometimes be advantageous in response to inescapable stress. PMID:19890227

Stein, Dan J; Simeon, Daphne

2009-09-01

34

An open trial of naltrexone in the treatment of depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder (DPD) remains one of the few disorders in modern psychiatry for which no treatments are established that are even partially effective, whether pharmacological or psychotherapeutic. Depersonalization disorder is a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition dissociative disorder characterized by a pervasive subjective sense of unreality and detachment with intact reality testing. Two recent controlled medication trials, one with lamotrigine and one with fluoxetine, failed to show efficacy. There is some evidence for dysregulation of endogenous opioid systems in depersonalization, and a few studies have suggested that opioid antagonists may have efficacy in the treatment of dissociation and depersonalization symptoms. In this prospective open treatment trial, 14 subjects were recruited and treated with naltrexone for 6 weeks to a maximum dose of 100 mg/d (first 7 subjects) or 10 weeks to a maximum dose of 250 mg/d (next 7 subjects). Mean naltrexone dose was 120 mg/d. There was an average 30% reduction of symptoms with treatment, as measured by 3 validated dissociation scales. Three patients were very much improved, and 1 patient was much improved with naltrexone treatment. These findings are potentially promising in a highly treatment-refractory disorder for which no treatment guidelines exist and warrant a randomized controlled trial. PMID:15876908

Simeon, Daphne; Knutelska, Margaret

2005-06-01

35

Validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization-Derealization Spectrum (SCI-DER).  

PubMed

This study evaluates the validity and reliability of a new instrument developed to assess symptoms of depresonalization: the Structured Clinical Interview for the Depersonalization-Derealization Spectrum (SCI-DER). The instrument is based on a spectrum model that emphasizes soft-signs, sub-threshold syndromes as well as clinical and subsyndromal manifestations. Items of the interview include, in addition to DSM-IV criteria for depersonalization, a number of features derived from clinical experience and from a review of phenomenological descriptions. Study participants included 258 consecutive patients with mood and anxiety disorders, 16.7% bipolar I disorder, 18.6% bipolar II disorder, 32.9% major depression, 22.1% panic disorder, 4.7% obsessive compulsive disorder, and 1.5% generalized anxiety disorder; 2.7% patients were also diagnosed with depersonalization disorder. A comparison group of 42 unselected controls was enrolled at the same site. The SCI-DER showed excellent reliability and good concurrent validity with the Dissociative Experiences Scale. It significantly discriminated subjects with any diagnosis of mood and anxiety disorders from controls and subjects with depersonalization disorder from controls. The hypothesized structure of the instrument was confirmed empirically. PMID:19183789

Mula, Marco; Pini, Stefano; Calugi, Simona; Preve, Matteo; Masini, Matteo; Giovannini, Ilaria; Conversano, Ciro; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B

2008-10-01

36

Cambridge Public Libraries: Directories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cambridge Room at the Cambridge Public Library has a vast storehouse of material related to the history of this most historic American city. Recently, they have allowed the staff at the Internet Archive access to a variety of materials, resulting in a number of primary documents that now reside on this site. Here, users can access the annual Cambridge business directories which profile local business leaders, institutions, organizations, and much more. These very substantial volumes contain advertisements, address directories, and other pieces of information that document the ebbs and flows of the business community throughout the area. The dates range from 1884 to 1931 and users can search through each volume for key words, addresses, names, and dates.

37

Cambridge Dictionary of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Held up by the heliopause? Floored by the flatness problem? Intimidated by MACHOs? With the Cambridge Astronomy Dictionary you'll no longer be defeated by such astronomical jargon! These and 3,200 additional words, names, and abbreviations used in amateur and professional astronomy, are clearly and concisely defined. Entries include information from modern and classical astronomy, including: -- A comprehensive selection of

Jacqueline Mitton

2001-01-01

38

Cambridge Desegregation Succeeding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of the controversy concerning "freedom of choice" desegregation plans and presents a case study of the plan adopted by Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1981. Following the introduction, a short explanation of the plan's distinctive feature, controlled open enrollment, is given. (Under controlled open enrollment, no…

Alves, Michael

1983-01-01

39

Cambridge Cosmology: Relic Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of Cambridge Cosmology discusses cosmic background radiation present in our Universe. Also covered are topics such as the present temperature of the Universe as taken by the COBE satellite, fluctuations seen at the 'edge' of the Universe, and possible causes of these fluctuations.

Shellard, Paul

40

Anxiety Changes Depersonalization and Derealization Symptoms in Vestibular Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. Depersonalization and derealization are common symptoms reported in the general population. Objective. The aim of the present study was to establish the relationship between anxiety and depersonalization and derealization symptoms in patients with peripheral vestibular disorders. Methods. Twenty-four vestibular patients with anxiety and 18 vestibular patients without anxiety were examined for depersonalization and derealization symptoms. They were also compared to healthy controls. Results. The results revealed that anxiety consistently changes depersonalization and derealization symptoms in vestibular patients. They are more frequent, more severe, and qualitatively different in vestibular patients with anxiety than in those without anxiety. Conclusion. Anxiety has an effect on depersonalization and derealization symptoms in vestibular patients. The various hypotheses about the underlying mechanism of this effect were discussed.

Kolev, Ognyan I.; Georgieva-Zhostova, Spaska O.; Berthoz, Alain

2014-01-01

41

ECEM (Eye Closure, Eye Movements): application to depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Eye Closure, Eye Movements (ECEM) is a hypnotically-based approach to treatment that incorporates eye movements adapted from the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol in conjunction with hypnosis for the treatment of depersonalization disorder. Depersonalization Disorder has been differentiated from post-traumatic stress disorders and has recently been conceptualized as a subtype of panic disorder (Baker et al., 2003; David, Phillips, Medford, & Sierra, 2004; Segui et. al., 2000). During ECEM, while remaining in a hypnotic state, clients self-generated six to seven trials of eye movements to reduce anticipatory anxiety associated with depersonalization disorder. Eye movements were also used to process triggers that elicited breath holding, often followed by episodes of depersonalization. Hypnotic suggestions were used to reverse core symptoms of depersonalization, subjectively described as "feeling unreal" (Simeon et al., 1997). PMID:19862896

Harriet, E Hollander

2009-10-01

42

Depersonalization Experiences in Undergraduates Are Related to Heightened Stress Cortisol Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The relationship between dissociative tendencies, as mea- sured with the Dissociative Experiences Scale and its amnesia, absorption\\/imaginative involvement, and depersonalization\\/dereal- ization subscales, and HPA axis functioning was studied in 2 samples,of undergraduate,students (N,58 and 67). Acute stress was induced by means of the Trier Social Stress Test. Subjective and physiological stress (i.e., cortisol) responses were measured. Indi- viduals high

Timo Giesbrecht; Tom Smeets; Harald Merckelbach; Marko Jelicic

2007-01-01

43

Cambridge Cosmology: Quantum Gravity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of Cambridge Cosmology explains the concepts of quantum gravity and quantum cosmology, and how they are useful in understanding space and the space-time continuum. This includes the M-theory, formerly known as the string theory, and the Holographic Principle, in order to explain phenomena such as black holes and the first one-hundredth of a second of the Big Bang.

Hertog, Thomas; Herdeiro, Carlos; Chamblin, H.; Ashbourn, J.; Reall, Harvey

44

Depersonalization disorder may be related to glutamate receptor activation imbalance.  

PubMed

Low-dose ketamine administration mimics, both clinically and on gross neuroimaging, depersonalization disorder. The perceptual effects of ketamine may be due to secondary stimulation of glutamate release and lamotrigine, possibly by inhibited glutamate release, may reduce some of ketamine's so-called dissociative effects. However, lamotrigine does not seem to be useful in the treatment of depersonalization disorder. Glutamate release in prefrontal cortex is increased by subanaesthetic doses of ketamine, resulting in increased inhibition, possibly via intercalated GABAerg cells, of projections from amygdala, affecting structures critically involved in depersonalization. I speculate that, in depersonalization disorder, the increased glutamate activity in prefrontal cortex is due to intrinsic imbalance, resulting in long-term potentiation, at the postsynaptic glutamate receptors on the GABAerg interneurons while the same receptor abnormality at the synapses on the intercalated GABAerg cells of the amygdala result in long-term depression in the case of either normal or high glutamate release. PMID:21742442

Pikwer, Andreas

2011-10-01

45

Limbic and prefrontal responses to facial emotion expressions in depersonalization.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder, characterized by emotional detachment, has been associated with increased prefrontal cortical and decreased autonomic activity to emotional stimuli. Event-related fMRI with simultaneous measurements of skin conductance levels occurred in nine depersonalization disorder patients and 12 normal controls to neutral, mild and intense happy and sad facial expressions. Patients, but not controls, showed decreases in subcortical limbic activity to increasingly intense happy and sad facial expressions, respectively. For both happy and sad expressions, negative correlations between skin conductance measures in bilateral dorsal prefrontal cortices occurred only in depersonalization disorder patients. Abnormal decreases in limbic activity to increasingly intense emotional expressions, and increases in dorsal prefrontal cortical activity to emotionally arousing stimuli may underlie the emotional detachment of depersonalization disorder. PMID:17496806

Lemche, Erwin; Surguladze, Simon A; Giampietro, Vincent P; Anilkumar, Ananthapadmanabha; Brammer, Michael J; Sierra, Mauricio; Chitnis, Xavier; Williams, Steven C R; Gasston, David; Joraschky, Peter; David, Anthony S; Phillips, Mary L

2007-03-26

46

Cambridge Cosmology: Cosmic Strings and Other Defects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of Cambridge Cosmology discusses cosmic strings and other defects in our Universe. It begins with phase transitions in the early Universe, and how cosmic strings and other defects formed early on. Cosmic string evolution and dynamics are discussed while looking at high-resolution numerical cosmic string simulations. Also covered are possible explanations for the origin of large-scale structures (such as galaxies) and texture models of these structures.

Shellard, Paul; Martins, Carlos; Sornborger, Andrew

47

[Visual distortions and depersonalization-de-realization syndrome].  

PubMed

Disturbances of visual perception like micropsia, macropsia, teleopsia, pelopsia, metamorphopsia or loss of stereoscopic depth perception are usually considered in ophthalmology as symptoms of retinopathy, especially maculopathy or disorders of binocularity. Differential diagnostic considerations include disorders like migraine and epilepsy but not the visual disturbance pertaining to the depersonalization-de-realization syndrome, although the above-mentioned symptoms are more prevalent in this psychogenic disorder. This article gives a review of depersonalization-de-realization in order to enable the ophthalmologist to include this syndrome into his diagnostic considerations. PMID:16639663

Michal, M; Lüchtenberg, M; Overbeck, G; Fronius, M

2006-04-01

48

Depersonalization and individualism: the effect of culture on symptom profiles in panic disorder.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that highly individualistic cultures confer vulnerability to depersonalization. To test this idea, we carried out a comprehensive systematic review of published empirical studies on panic disorder, which reported the frequency of depersonalization/derealization during panic attacks. It was predicted that the frequency of depersonalization would be higher in Western cultures and that a significant correlation would be found between the frequency of depersonalization and individualism scores of the participant countries. As predicted, the frequency of depersonalization during panic was significantly lower in nonwestern countries. There was also a significant correlation between frequency of depersonalization and Individualism (rho = 0.68, p < 0.0001), and between fears of losing control (rho = 0.57, p = 0.005) and individualism. These findings are interpreted in light of recent studies suggesting that individualistic cultures are characterized by hypersensitivity to threat and by an external locus of control. Two features may be relevant in the genesis of depersonalization. PMID:18091192

Sierra-Siegert, Mauricio; David, Anthony S

2007-12-01

49

Interoceptive Cue Exposure for Depersonalization: A Case Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder relies heavily on interoceptive exposure. Specifically, therapists induce physical symptoms associated with panic in order to produce habituation to those sensations. Many common symptoms of panic are easily induced, such as increased heart rate and dizziness. However, depersonalization is a…

McKay, Dean; Moretz, Melanie W.

2008-01-01

50

A preliminary evaluation of repeated exposure for depersonalization and derealization.  

PubMed

Dissociative symptoms including depersonalization and derealization are commonly experienced by individuals suffering from panic disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have been published investigating the specific treatment of these symptoms in individuals diagnosed with panic disorder or PTSD, despite evidence that the subset of individuals with panic disorder who experience depersonalization and derealization report more panic attacks as well as greater panic severity and functional impairment. Furthermore, it has been shown that these symptoms can impede treatment and recovery in PTSD. Finally, recent research has shown that interoceptive exposure generally enhances the efficacy of treatment outcome for PTSD and PTSD with comorbid panic. This study investigated the use of a novel interoceptive exposure technique for treatment of depersonalization and derealization in individuals with high anxiety sensitivity and/or symptoms of PTSD. Results indicated significant reductions on six of seven items as well as total score on an outcome measure of depersonalization and derealization. Thus, this technique appears to hold promise for utilization as a form of interoceptive exposure in the treatment of these symptoms. PMID:23118274

Weiner, Elliot; McKay, Dean

2013-03-01

51

Interoceptive-reflective regions differentiate alexithymia traits in depersonalization disorder  

PubMed Central

It is unclear to what degree depersonalization disorder (DPD) and alexithymia share abnormal brain mechanisms of emotional dysregulation. We compared cerebral processing of facial expressions of emotion in individuals with DPD to normal controls (NC). We presented happy and sad emotion expressions in increasing intensities from neutral (0%) through mild (50%) to intense (100%) to DPD and non-referred NC subjects in an implicit event-related fMRI design, and correlated respective brain activations with responses on the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and its three subscales F1-F3. The TAS-20 predicts clinical diagnosis of DPD with a unique variance proportion of 38%. Differential regression analysis was utilized to ascertain brain regions for each alexithymia subscale. Differential regions of total alexithymia severity for happy emotion were the globus pallidus externus; for identifying feelings (TAS-20 F1 subscale), the right anterior insula; for description of feelings (F2), the right dorsal mid-anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24); and for externally oriented cognitive style (F3), the left paracingulate gyrus (BA 32). For sad emotion, the differential region for the total TAS-20 score was the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24); for TAS-20 F1, the left inferior anterior insula; for TAS-20 F2, the right PCC (BA 31); and for TAS-20 F3, the right orbital gyrus (BA 10). Supporting our hypotheses, the ascertained brain regions for TAS-20 subscales subserve interoception, monitoring and reflection of internal states and emotion. The presented analyses provide evidence that alexithymia plays a substantial role in emotional dysregulation in DPD, presumably based on restrictions in interoception.

Lemche, Erwin; Brammer, Michael J.; David, Anthony S.; Surguladze, Simon A.; Phillips, Mary L.; Sierra, Mauricio; Williams, Steven C.R.; Giampietro, Vincent P.

2013-01-01

52

Interoceptive-reflective regions differentiate alexithymia traits in depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

It is unclear to what degree depersonalization disorder (DPD) and alexithymia share abnormal brain mechanisms of emotional dysregulation. We compared cerebral processing of facial expressions of emotion in individuals with DPD to normal controls (NC). We presented happy and sad emotion expressions in increasing intensities from neutral (0%) through mild (50%) to intense (100%) to DPD and non-referred NC subjects in an implicit event-related fMRI design, and correlated respective brain activations with responses on the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and its three subscales F1-F3. The TAS-20 predicts clinical diagnosis of DPD with a unique variance proportion of 38%. Differential regression analysis was utilized to ascertain brain regions for each alexithymia subscale. Differential regions of total alexithymia severity for happy emotion were the globus pallidus externus; for identifying feelings (TAS-20 F1 subscale), the right anterior insula; for description of feelings (F2), the right dorsal mid-anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24); and for externally oriented cognitive style (F3), the left paracingulate gyrus (BA 32). For sad emotion, the differential region for the total TAS-20 score was the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24); for TAS-20 F1, the left inferior anterior insula; for TAS-20 F2, the right PCC (BA 31); and for TAS-20 F3, the right orbital gyrus (BA 10). Supporting our hypotheses, the ascertained brain regions for TAS-20 subscales subserve interoception, monitoring and reflection of internal states and emotion. The presented analyses provide evidence that alexithymia plays a substantial role in emotional dysregulation in DPD, presumably based on restrictions in interoception. PMID:23932225

Lemche, Erwin; Brammer, Michael J; David, Anthony S; Surguladze, Simon A; Phillips, Mary L; Sierra, Mauricio; Williams, Steven C R; Giampietro, Vincent P

2013-10-30

53

33 CFR 117.549 - Cambridge Harbor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cambridge Harbor. 117.549 Section 117...Requirements Maryland § 117.549 Cambridge Harbor. The draw of the S342 bridge, mile 0.1 at Cambridge, shall open on signal from 6 a.m....

2010-07-01

54

33 CFR 117.549 - Cambridge Harbor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Cambridge Harbor. 117.549 Section 117...Requirements Maryland § 117.549 Cambridge Harbor. The draw of the S342 bridge, mile 0.1 at Cambridge, shall open on signal from 6 a.m....

2009-07-01

55

Depersonalization: a selective impairment of self-awareness.  

PubMed

Depersonalization is characterised by a profound disruption of self-awareness mainly characterised by feelings of disembodiment and subjective emotional numbing. It has been proposed that depersonalization is caused by a fronto-limbic (particularly anterior insula) suppressive mechanism--presumably mediated via attention--which manifests subjectively as emotional numbing, and disables the process by which perception and cognition normally become emotionally coloured, giving rise to a subjective feeling of 'unreality'. Our functional neuroimaging and psychophysiological studies support the above model and indicate that, compared with normal and clinical controls, DPD patients show increased prefrontal activation as well as reduced activation in insula/limbic-related areas to aversive, arousing emotional stimuli. Although a putative inhibitory mechanism on emotional processing might account for the emotional numbing and characteristic perceptual detachment, it is likely, as suggested by some studies, that parietal mechanisms underpin feelings of disembodiment and lack of agency feelings. PMID:21087873

Sierra, Mauricio; David, Anthony S

2011-03-01

56

Revision Planned for the Cambridge Latin Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a discussion on the revision of the Cambridge Latin Course (CLC) held during the 1980 ACL Institute at the University of New Hampshire by CLC users and Cambridge University Press representatives. Emphasizes suggestions by users on grammar instruction strategies better suited to American students' needs. (MES)

Sebesta, Judith Lynn

1980-01-01

57

Cambridge University: Digital Image Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the course of the past eight centuries, Cambridge University has come into the possession of more than a few important documents. Their online digital image collection may be seen as an important first stop for anyone interested in perusing some of these remarkable materials. These documents include The Portsmouth and Macclesfield Collection, which contains the writings and ideas of Sir Isaac Newton, and the sketchbooks of Conrad Martens, who accompanied Charles Darwin on board the Beagle. That is far from all, however, as visitors can also browse the pages of the 13th century illuminated volume, "The Life of King Edward the Confessor". All in all, it is a lovely collection and one that scholars with any interest in English history will want to examine and recommend to their colleagues and students.

58

Psychophysiological investigations in depersonalization disorder and effects of electrodermal biofeedback.  

PubMed

Previous studies investigating depersonalization disorder (DPD) report a lower baseline skin conductance level (SCL) and attenuated skin conductance response (SCR) to emotive stimuli. We hypothesized that increasing physiological arousal levels via electrodermal biofeedback may ameliorate disembodiment and emotional numbing symptomatology. Real-time versus sham biofeedback yielded a significant SCL increase after just 3 real-time biofeedback sessions in healthy volunteers. Subsequently, a randomized controlled biofeedback trial was administered with DPD patients. Findings were not replicated as SCL tended to fall, curiously more substantially in the real-time condition, concomitant with increased low- and high-frequency heart rate variability. To further investigate abnormal autonomic regulation in DPD, we compared basal autonomic activity between patients and healthy volunteers and found the former to be significantly more labile, indexed by greater nonspecific SCRs and higher resting SCLs. Rather than low sympathetic arousal, DPD might be better characterized by abnormal autonomic regulation affecting emotional and physiological responsivity. PMID:22545565

Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Sierra, Mauricio; David, Anthony S

2012-01-01

59

Cambridge-Cambridge X-ray Serendipity Survey. 2: Classification of X-ray Luminous Galaxies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present the results of an intermediate-resolution (1.5 A) spectroscopic study of 17 x-ray luminous narrow emission-line galaxies previously identified in the Cambridge-Cambridge ROSAT Serendipity Survey and the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Surv...

1994-01-01

60

Implicit self-esteem in borderline personality and depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Self-perception is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and depersonalization disorder (DPD), fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem (ISE), free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined ISE using the Implicit Association Test, along with measures of emotion, behavior, and temperament, in BPD (n?=?18), DPD (n?=?18), and healthy control (n?=?35) participants. DPD participants had significantly higher ISE and were more harm avoidant than BPD and control participants, while BPD participants had more "frontal" behaviors and impulsivity and less self-directedness and cooperativeness than DPD and control participants. Thus, while BPD and DPD commonly overlap in terms of dissociative symptoms and emotional irregularities, differences in self-esteem, behavior, and temperament can help identify where they diverge in terms of their cognition, behavior, and ultimately underlying neurobiology. PMID:22493585

Hedrick, Alexis N; Berlin, Heather A

2012-01-01

61

Emotional memory in depersonalization disorder: a functional MRI study.  

PubMed

This study examines emotional memory effects in primary depersonalization disorder (DPD). A core complaint of DPD sufferers is the dulling of emotional responses, and previous work has shown that, in response to aversive stimuli, DPD patients do not show activation of brain regions involved in normal emotional processing. We hypothesized that DPD sufferers would not show the normal emotional enhancement of memory, and that they would not show activation of brain regions concerned with emotional processing during encoding and recognition of emotional verbal material. Using fMRI, 10 DPD patients were compared with an age-matched healthy control group while performing a test of emotional verbal memory, comprising one encoding and two recognition memory tasks. DPD patients showed significantly enhanced recognition for overtly emotive words, but did not show enhancement of memory for neutral words encoded in an emotive context. In addition, patients did not show activation of emotional processing areas during encoding, and exhibited no substantial difference in their neural responses to emotional and neutral material in the encoding and emotional word recognition tasks. This study provides further evidence that patients with DPD do not process emotionally salient material in the same way as healthy controls, in accordance with their subjective descriptions of reduced or absent emotional responses. PMID:17085021

Medford, Nicholas; Brierley, Barbara; Brammer, Michael; Bullmore, Edward T; David, Anthony S; Phillips, Mary L

2006-12-01

62

Conditional reasoning in Asperger's syndrome and depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Conditional reasoning premises can be systematically manipulated to elicit specific response patterns. This is useful for investigating the reasoning style of people who report clinical symptoms. We administered a standardized conditional reasoning task to 16 participants with a diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome (AS), 16 participants with a diagnosis of depersonalization disorder (DPD), and 32 intelligence-quotient-matched controls. Premises were manipulated for a) context, with some being embedded within extra statements, and b) content, neutral or emotional. Both the AS and DPD participants were less likely to incorporate exceptions to the given premises than the controls, indicating difficulties with mental flexibility, although this effect was less marked in the DPD group. It seems the AS participants were also less influenced than the controls by statements that highlight possible alternative consequences. However, this effect was less robust than that observed with statements detailing exceptions, suggesting it may be because of general problems with executive function rather than difficulties in processing contextual information. We did not observe the expected difference between the DPD participants and the controls when reasoning with emotional premises. Overall, these data suggest that the DPD and AS participants have distinct reasoning styles, which may be of use for interventions based on cognitive change. PMID:22922241

Lawrence, Emma Jane; Dumigan, Rachael; Schoenberg, Poppy; Mauricio, Sierra; Murphy, Declan G; David, Anthony S

2012-09-01

63

Altered orientation of spatial attention in depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Difficulties with concentration are frequent complaints of patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD). Standard neuropsychological tests suggested alterations of the attentional and perceptual systems. To investigate this, the well-validated Spatial Cueing paradigm was used with two different tasks, consisting either in the detection or in the discrimination of visual stimuli. At the start of each trial a cue indicated either the correct (valid) or the incorrect (invalid) position of the upcoming stimulus or was uninformative (neutral). Only under the condition of increased task difficulty (discrimination task) differences between DPD patients and controls were observed. DPD patients showed a smaller total attention directing effect (RT in valid vs. invalid trials) compared to healthy controls only in the discrimination condition. RT costs (i.e., prolonged RT in neutral vs. invalid trials) mainly accounted for this difference. These results indicate that DPD is associated with altered attentional mechanisms, especially with a stronger responsiveness to unexpected events. From an evolutionary perspective this may be advantageous in a dangerous environment, in daily life it may be experienced as high distractibility. PMID:24594203

Adler, Julia; Beutel, Manfred E; Knebel, Achim; Berti, Stefan; Unterrainer, Josef; Michal, Matthias

2014-05-15

64

Skin conductance and memory fragmentation after exposure to an emotional film clip in depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

It is often assumed that when confronted with an emotional event, patients with DPD inhibit information processing. It is also thought that this fosters memory fragmentation. This hypothesis has not been tested in chronic depersonalization. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal pattern of autonomic responding to emotional material in depersonalization disorder, along with concomitant deficits in subjective and objective memory formation (i.e., difficulties to form a coherent narrative consisting of an ordered sequence of events). Participants with depersonalization disorder (n=14) and healthy control participants (n=14) viewed an emotional video clip while their skin conductance (SC) levels were measured. Peritraumatic dissociation was measured before and after the clip, and memory performance was measured 35 min after viewing. Compared to controls, depersonalized participants exhibited a distinctly different temporal pattern of autonomic responding, characterized by an earlier peak and subsequent flattening of SCLs. Maximum SCLs did not differ between the two groups. Moreover, unlike the control group, depersonalized participants showed no SC recovery after clip offset. In terms of memory performance, patients exhibited objective memory fragmentation, which they also reported subjectively. However, they did not differ from controls in free recall performance. Apparently, emotional responding in DPD is characterized by a shortened latency to peak with subsequent flattening and is accompanied by memory fragmentation in the light of otherwise unremarkable memory functioning. PMID:20381160

Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald; van Oorsouw, Kim; Simeon, Daphne

2010-05-30

65

The neurobiology and clinical significance of depersonalization in mood and anxiety disorders: a critical reappraisal.  

PubMed

Depersonalization and derealization occur on a continuum of situations, from healthy individuals to a severely debilitating disorder where the symptoms can persist chronically. Since 1960s, different neurobiological models have been hypothesized and they have been associated with the temporal lobes. Recent advances in the functioning of the limbic system and the application of Geschwind's concept of disconnection in the cortico-limbic networks, pointed the role of the amygdala and its connections with medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, the same structures that are strictly interlinked with the neurobiology of emotions and affective disorders. In this paper, we hypothesize that depersonalization may represent a clinical index of disease severity, poorer response to treatment and high level of comorbidity, in mood and anxiety disorders, discussing the neurobiology of depersonalization and the available clinical evidence. PMID:16997382

Mula, Marco; Pini, Stefano; Cassano, Giovanni B

2007-04-01

66

Microsoft Cambridge at TREC9: Filtering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Summary Apart from a short description of our Query Track contri- bution, this report is concerned with the Adaptive Filter- ing track only. There is a separate report in this volume (1) on the Microsoft Research Cambridge participation in QA track. A number of runs were submitted for the Adaptive Fil- tering track, on all tasks (adaptive filtering, batch

Stephen E. Robertson; Steve Walker

2000-01-01

67

Microsoft Cambridge at TREC 2002: Filtering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

SW alker † 1 Summary Apart from a short description of our Query Track contri- bution, this report is concerned with the Adaptive Filter- ing track only. There is a separate report in this volume (1)on the Microsoft Research Cambridge participation in QA track. A number of runs were submitted for the Adaptive Fil- tering track, on all tasks (adaptive

Stephen E. Robertson; Steve Walker; Hugo Zaragoza; Ralf Herbrich

2002-01-01

68

The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expertly written and lavishly illustrated, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy offers a unique account of astronomical theory and practice from antiquity to the present day. How did Moslems of the Middle Ages use astronomy to calculate the direction of Mecca from far-flung corners of the Islamic world? Who was the only ancient Greek to suspect that the earth might

Michael Hoskin

1996-01-01

69

The Cambridge Photographic Guide to the Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cambridge Photographic Guide to the Planets includes a broad selection of the latest images of the planets, moons, comets, and asteroids of the Earth's Solar System. Beginning with a comprehensive introduction to the planetary system, its origin and its evolution, physicist Frederick Taylor devotes each chapter to a different planet or Solar System body, with a thorough presentation of

Fredric W. Taylor

2001-01-01

70

77 FR 3118 - Security Zone; Choptank River and Cambridge Channel, Cambridge, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-1164] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Choptank River and Cambridge Channel...Coast Guard is establishing a temporary security zone encompassing certain waters of...

2012-01-23

71

Face processing in depersonalization: an fMRI study of the unfamiliar self.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is characterized by a core sense of unfamiliarity. Nine DPD participants and 10 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing self and unfamiliar faces. Compared with control subjects, the DPD group exhibited significantly greater activation in several brain regions in response to self vs. stranger faces. Implications are discussed. PMID:24582597

Ketay, Sarah; Hamilton, Holly K; Haas, Brian W; Simeon, Daphne

2014-04-30

72

Empathy and enduring depersonalization: The role of self-related processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empathy has two key components: affective and cognitive. It relies on “embodied” processes such as the generation, representation and perception of feeling states. People diagnosed with Depersonalization Disorder (DPD) report disturbances in affective experience, such as emotional numbing, alongside aberrations in “body image” such as increased self-focus and feelings of “disembodiment”. DPD therefore provides a test bed for the role

Emma J. Lawrence; Philip Shaw; Dawn Baker; Maxine Patel; Mauricio Sierra-Siegert; Nicholas Medford; Anthony S. David

2007-01-01

73

Striking Discrepancy of Anomalous Body Experiences with Normal Interoceptive Accuracy in Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Disembodiment is a core feature of depersonalization disorder (DPD). Given the narratives of DPD patients about their disembodiment and emotional numbing and neurobiological findings of an inhibition of insular activity, DPD may be considered as a mental disorder with specific impairments of interoceptive awareness and body perception. Methods We investigated cardioceptive accuracy (CA) of DPD patients (n?=?24) as compared to healthy controls (n?=?26) with two different heartbeat detection tasks (“Schandry heartbeat counting task” and “Whitehead heartbeat discrimination task”). Self-rated clearness of body perception was measured by questionnaire. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, DPD patients performed similarly to healthy controls on the two different heartbeat detection tasks, and they had equal scores regarding their self-rated clearness of body perception. There was no correlation of the severity of “anomalous body experiences” and depersonalization with measures of interoceptive accuracy. Only among healthy controls CA in the Schandry task was positively correlated with self-rated clearness of body perception. Depersonalization was unrelated to severity of depression or anxiety, while depression and anxiety were highly correlated. Anxiety and depression did not modify the associations of depersonalization with interoceptive accuracy. Conclusions Our main findings highlight a striking discrepancy of normal interoception with overwhelming experiences of disembodiment in DPD. This may reflect difficulties of DPD patients to integrate their visceral and bodily perceptions into a sense of their selves. This problem may be considered an important target for psychotherapeutic treatment approaches.

Michal, Matthias; Reuchlein, Bettina; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Beutel, Manfred E.; Vogele, Claus; Schachinger, Hartmut; Schulz, Andre

2014-01-01

74

Temporo-parietal junction stimulation in the treatment of depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

This is the first clinical trial of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in depersonalization disorder (DPD). After 3weeks of right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) rTMS, 6/12 patients responded. Five responders received 3 more weeks of right TPJ rTMS showing 68% DPD symptoms improvement. Right TPJ rTMS was safe and effective. PMID:20837362

Mantovani, Antonio; Simeon, Daphne; Urban, Nina; Bulow, Peter; Allart, Anouk; Lisanby, Sarah

2011-03-30

75

Depersonalization or Cynicism, Efficacy or Inefficacy: What Are the Dimensions of Teacher Burnout?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate on the dimensionality of the burnout syndrome. Specifically, its aims are: (1) to investigate the role of efficacy beliefs using negatively worded inefficacy items instead of positive ones and (2) to establish whether depersonalization and cynicism can be considered two different dimensions of…

Simbula, Silvia; Guglielmi, Dina

2010-01-01

76

Anomalous self-experience in depersonalization and schizophrenia: a comparative investigation.  

PubMed

Various forms of anomalous self-experience can be seen as central to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. We examined similarities and differences between anomalous self-experiences common in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, as listed in the EASE (Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences), and those described in published accounts of severe depersonalization. Our aims were to consider anomalous self-experience in schizophrenia in a comparative context, to refine and enlarge upon existing descriptions of experiential disturbances in depersonalization, and to explore hypotheses concerning a possible core process in schizophrenia (diminished self-affection, an aspect of "ipseity" or minimal self). Numerous affinities between depersonalization and schizophrenia-spectrum experience were found: these demonstrate that rather pure forms of diminished self-affection (depersonalization) can involve many experiences that resemble those of schizophrenia. Important discrepancies also emerged, suggesting that more automatic or deficiency-like factors--probably involving self/world or self/other confusion and erosion of first-person perspective--are more distinctive of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. PMID:23454432

Sass, Louis; Pienkos, Elizabeth; Nelson, Barnaby; Medford, Nick

2013-06-01

77

Experience of Being Spurned: Coping Style, Stress Preparation, and Depersonalization in Beginning Kindergarten Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this study was to examine whether recurrent rejection of offers of help by peer teachers would induce depersonalization in kindergarten teachers. Another objective was to examine whether a predominantly problem-focused coping style would be more effective than a predominantly emotion-focused coping style in reducing the…

Wong, Kwok Sai; Cheuk, Wai Hing; Rosen, Sidney

2007-01-01

78

Cambridge Elementary students enjoy gift of computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Children at Cambridge Elementary School, Cocoa, Fla., eagerly unwrap computer equipment donated by Kennedy Space Center. Cambridge is one of 13 Brevard County schools receiving 81 excess contractor computers thanks to an innovative educational outreach project spearheaded by the Nasa k-12 Education Services Office at ksc. Behind the children is Jim Thurston, a school volunteer and retired employee of USBI, who shared in the project. The Astronaut Memorial Foundation, a strategic partner in the effort, and several schools in rural Florida and Georgia also received refurbished computers as part of the year-long project. Ksc employees put in about 3,300 volunteer hours to transform old, excess computers into upgraded, usable units. A total of $90,000 in upgraded computer equipment is being donated.

1999-01-01

79

City of Cambridge: CityViewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the best way to experience the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts? You could read a history of Harvard University, take a walking tour, or perhaps browse a topical website. But why not look at the Cambridge CityViewer for edification? This unique tool "allows the public to view, query, mark up, and print custom maps using only a web browser." Notedly, the viewer works best with Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. Visitors can check out ten different topical overlays, including those dealing with city parks, construction projects, land parcels, sewers, zoning, and traffic. There are many ways to get started, such as performing a simple search, an advanced search, or even just by typing in a street name and number. For anyone with an interest in urban history, planning, and land use, this site is a rare treat.

80

Ideologies of moral exclusion: a critical discursive reframing of depersonalization, delegitimization and dehumanization.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on some of the issues that arise when one treats notions such as depersonalization, delegitimization and dehumanization as social practices. It emphasizes the importance of: (a) understanding depersonalizing, delegitimizing and dehumanizing constructions as embedded in descriptions of located spatial activities and moral standings in the world and (b) invoking and building a socio-moral order linked to notions of lesser humanity or non-humanity, (spatial) transgression and abjection. These concerns are illustrated by taking talk on Romanies as a case in point from interviews with Romanian middle-class professionals. It is argued that a focus on description rather than explanation might be more effective in understanding the dynamics of ideologies of moral exclusion. PMID:17535456

Tileag?, Cristian

2007-12-01

81

Teacher's Guide to Accompany the Cambridge Latin Course. Tentative Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to assist teachers using the "Cambridge Latin Course," a multimedia instructional system developed in the United Kingdom which can be adapted to the needs of pupils of varying backgrounds, ages, and abilities. The Guide focuses on Unit I, the first level of the Cambridge materials. The materials are especially suited to…

Masciantonio, Rudolph

82

40 CFR 81.205 - Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.205 Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality...

2009-07-01

83

40 CFR 81.205 - Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.205 Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality...

2010-07-01

84

75 FR 38128 - Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division, Formerly Known As Airpax Corp., Cambridge...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Division, Formerly Known As Airpax Corp., Cambridge, Maryland, Including Employees of Sensata...Division Formerly Known As Airpax Corp., Cambridge, Maryland Working Off-Site in Falmouth...formerly known as Airpax Corporation, Cambridge, Maryland. The notice will soon...

2010-07-01

85

Cambridge Physics: Past, Present and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Opened in 1874, the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge is one of the oldest teaching laboratories in England. Researchers at the Laboratory have made key findings regarding the electron, positive rays, and the nucleus. This interactive site was created by staff members at the Cavendish (with the collaboration of the physics department) in order to educate the public about their work and history. First-time visitors should scroll over the boxes on the homepage to learn more about some of their key discoveries as a way of becoming familiarized with their work. Moving on, the "Past, Present, Future" area provides a virtual tour of the Cavendish Laboratory, along with biographies of the key figures who've worked at the Laboratory since the 19th century.

86

University of Cambridge : Mathematics Enrichment (nrich)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Cambridge offers this website, Mathematics Enrichment (nrich), with problems, games and articles on mathematics for students ages 5 to 19. The problems are organized by Tiers (1 to 3) and follow the UK education system, but a guide for international educators is given in the Help section. Each problem includes a question, related resources, pictures or diagrams, a form for students to submit their solution, hints for students having difficulty, and notes for parents and teachers. The website is updated monthly and offers a weekly problem. This months theme is the mathematics of making journeys, with the path of the Olympic Torch as an intriguing lead-in to the topic. Registered users can pose questions and post messages in the discussion forum, both of which are also viewable by non-registered viewers. Registration is simple and does not cost anything.

2007-12-12

87

The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expertly written and lavishly illustrated, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy offers a unique account of astronomical theory and practice from antiquity to the present day. How did Moslems of the Middle Ages use astronomy to calculate the direction of Mecca from far-flung corners of the Islamic world? Who was the only ancient Greek to suspect that the earth might revolve around the sun? How did Christopher Columbus abuse his knowledge of a lunar eclipse predicted by an astronomical almanac? Packed with anecdotes and intriguing detail, this book describes how we observed the sky and interpreted what we saw at different periods of history; how this influenced our beliefs and mythology; and how great astronomers contributed to what we now know. The result is a lively and highly visual history of astronomy - a compelling read for specialists and non-specialists alike.

Hoskin, Michael

88

University of Cambridge: Mathematics Enrichment (nrich)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Cambridge offers this website, Mathematics Enrichment (nrich), with problems, games and articles on mathematics for students ages 5 to 19. The problems are organized by Tiers (1 to 3) and follow the UK education system, but a guide for international educators is given in the Help section. Each problem includes a question, related resources, pictures or diagrams, a form for students to submit their solution, hints for students having difficulty, and notes for parents and teachers. The website is updated monthly and offers a weekly problem. This months' theme is "the mathematics of making journeys," with the path of the Olympic Torch as an intriguing lead-in to the topic. Registered users can pose questions and post messages in the discussion forum, both of which are also viewable by non-registered viewers. Registration is simple and does not cost anything.

89

Alexithymia, absorption, and cognitive failures in depersonalization disorder: a comparison to posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

Alexithymia, absorption, and cognitive failures are traits that have been implicated in dissociative psychopathology. Forty-six participants with depersonalization disorder (DPD), 21 with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 35 healthy controls completed measures of dissociation, alexithymia, absorption, cognitive failures, and childhood trauma. The DPD and posttraumatic stress disorder groups had significantly and comparably elevated absorption and cognitive failures scores. Only the DPD group had significantly elevated alexithymia scores, specifically in "difficulty identifying feelings." Regression analyses revealed that "alexithymia-difficulty identifying feelings" was predictive of both DPD diagnosis and depersonalization scores. In contrast, amnesia scores were predicted by childhood trauma and absorption. In conclusion, the link between depersonalization and alexithymia appeared to be specific rather than broadly related to early trauma or to trauma-spectrum psychopathology. PMID:19597356

Simeon, Daphne; Giesbrecht, Timo; Knutelska, Margaret; Smith, Rebecca Jo; Smith, Lisa M

2009-07-01

90

Towards a Four-Dimensional Model of Burnout: A Multigroup Factor-Analytic Study Including Depersonalization and Cynicism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigated whether cynicism and depersonalization are two different dimensions of burnout or whether they may be collapsed into one construct of mental distance. Using confirmatory factor analyses in two samples of teachers (n = 483) and blue-collar workers (n = 474), a superior fit was found for the four-factor model that contained…

Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Garcia-Renedo, Monica; Burriel, Raul; Breso, Edgar; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

2005-01-01

91

Distinctiveness and overlap of depersonalization with anxiety and depression in a community sample: results from the Gutenberg Heart Study.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder is considered to be a common clinical phenomenon and disorder with an enormous gap between prevalence and detection partly due to the common interpretation of depersonalization (DP) being a negligible variant of anxiety and depression. Therefore, we sought to analyze (1) the prevalence rate of DP in a large community sample (n=5000) according to a recently developed ultra brief two-item depersonalization screener; (2) the associations with depression, anxiety, physical and mental health status; and 93) whether DP contributes independently to the health status beyond anxiety and depression. The prevalence of clinically significant DP was 0.8% (n=41), and 8.5% (n=427) endorsed at least one symptom of DP. DP was independently associated with impairment of mental and physical health status as well as with a medical history of any depressive or anxiety disorder. Despite the consistent association of DP with anxiety and depression, the shared variances were small, and DP was clearly separated from symptoms of anxiety and depression in the principal component analysis. Therefore, we conclude that the implementation of depersonalization screening might be recommended. PMID:21122925

Michal, Matthias; Wiltink, Jörg; Till, Yvonne; Wild, Philipp S; Blettner, Maria; Beutel, Manfred E

2011-07-30

92

Emotional memory and perception of emotional faces in patients suffering from depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Previous work has shown that patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD) have reduced physiological responses to emotional stimuli, which may be related to subjective emotional numbing. This study investigated two aspects of affective processing in 13 patients with DPD according to the DSM-IV criteria and healthy controls: the perception of emotional facial expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) and memory for emotional stimuli. Results revealed a specific lack of sensitivity to facial expression of anger in patients, but normal enhancement of memory for peripheral aspects of arousing emotional material. The results are consistent with altered processing of threat-related stimuli but intact consolidation processes, at least when the stimuli involved are potently arousing. PMID:17705944

Montagne, Barbara; Sierra, Mauricio; Medford, Nick; Hunter, Elaine; Baker, Dawn; Kessels, Roy P C; de Haan, Edward H F; David, Anthony S

2007-08-01

93

[Response of traumatized patients with depersonalization --from the perspective of attachment theory].  

PubMed

We recognized that several traumatized individuals re-lived the danger associated with trauma on recollecting the original traumatic event; moreover, some of them experienced a similar traumatic event. In this article, we report these cases and show that this tendency is exhibited more frequently in victims of sexual abuse. Van der Kolk, who treated veteran soldiers who served in Vietnam, became aware of the compulsion of patients to repeat their trauma through treatment. He expressed this repetition compulsion as re-enactment or re-victimization of past traumatic experiences, showing how the trauma was repeated at a behavioral level in his article. After their treatment, he published his research on traumatized people as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the 1980's. Nowadays, generally, this repetition compulsion behavior is not included as a symptom of PTSD in Japan. Van der Kolk insisted that these repetition compulsions caused further suffering for victims and their relations. We also thought that these repetition compulsions can disturb rehabilitation. In our article, we expressed the condition as active compulsion repetition. We considered that it should be distinguished from passive conditions including instructive symptoms such as repetitive nightmare and flashback. We also represented how active compulsion was repeated in our cases, which was not consistent with the concept of PTSD on DSM-IV. When the active repetition compulsion was acted, we noticed that patients showed depersonalization. We thought that an understanding of the depersonalization following reenactment and re-vicitimization was important in order to comprehend the mechanism of PTSD. PMID:17642258

Shoda, Mayumi; Kato, Satoshi

2007-01-01

94

78 FR 52802 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code...CFR), this is notice that on July 01, 2013, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810,...

2013-08-26

95

Pricing road space: back to the future? The Cambridge experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambridge is a small free standing city in the UK with a population of 105 000. In recent years it has endured a worsening congestion problem essentially as a result of employment growth within the city and the narrow street layout. This is not a unique problem but one which is particularly acute in historic cities. In 1990, Congestion Metering

Stephen Ison

1996-01-01

96

Evolution of physics examining 1940-2000 at Cambridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much controversy exists about the supposed changing examination standards. Emphasis has been placed on the standards of GCSE and A-level examinations. However, many large employers recruit graduates, and so university examination standards also deserve attention. Here, Cambridge University Part II (third year undergraduate) examinations in Physics are studied since 1940. Trends in prescriptiveness, choice of questions, and other variables were found.

Roberts, A.; Brown, L. M.

2001-07-01

97

The Paired Format in the Cambridge Speaking Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent articles in this journal (Foot 1999; Saville and Hargreaves 1999) have focused on the advantages and disadvantages of the paired format of the Cambridge Speaking Tests. This article aims to contribute to the debate by considering how the pairing of candidates may impact upon the language sample produced and could affect the assessment…

Norton, Julie

2005-01-01

98

The Cambridge Primary Review: A Reply to R. J. Campbell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author was disappointed by R. J. Campbell's sour critique of the Cambridge Primary Review in "FORUM" Volume 52 Number 1 2010. His description of the Review's proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking, cumbersome and partial" is such a bizarre misjudgement that it calls for some response. The author comments in turn on R. J.…

Armstrong, Michael

2010-01-01

99

Increased Parental Choice and Effective Desegregation Outcomes: A Cambridge Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a policy adopted in 1981 in Cambridge public schools: No child is assigned to school on the basis of residence, and all parents and students are given the opportunity to gain admission to their preferred desegregated school within the city. Such systemwide, controlled open enrollment is working to prevent resegregation. (GC)

Alves, Michael J.

1984-01-01

100

Environmental Assessment: A Case Study of Cambridge, Massachusetts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project undertaken to advance the systematic analysis of public responses, attitudes, opinions, preferences, and values relating to the environment is discussed in this report, the third in a series of eight. The reports fall into two general categories: five describe and compare responses to representative milieus in New York, Boston, Cambridge…

Lowenthal, David

101

77 FR 64143 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope Lab  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope Lab By Notice dated June 18, 2012, and...June 26, 2012, 77 FR 38086, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts...determined that the registration of Cambridge Isotope Lab to manufacture the listed basic...

2012-10-18

102

Depersonalization experiences are strongly associated with dizziness and vertigo symptoms leading to increased health care consumption in the German general population.  

PubMed

This study investigated the association of depersonalization (DP) experiences with dizziness and its impact on subjective impairment and health care use. Trained interviewers surveyed a representative sample of 1287 persons using standardized self-rating questionnaires on dizziness, DP, and mental distress. Symptoms of dizziness were reported by 15.8% (n = 201). Thereof, 62.7% endorsed at least one symptom of DP, 40% reported impairment by symptoms of DP, and 8.5% reported clinically significant DP. Regression analyses identified DP as a significant, independent predictor for dizziness symptom severity, health care use, and impairment by dizziness. With regard to the Vertigo Symptom Scale, DP explained 34.1% (p < 0.001) of the variance for severity of symptoms of dysfunction in the balance system. In conclusion, symptoms of DP, highly prevalent in patients complaining of dizziness and vertigo, were independently associated with increased impairment and health care use. The presence of DP symptoms should actively be explored in patients complaining of dizziness. PMID:23817161

Tschan, Regine; Wiltink, Jörg; Adler, Julia; Beutel, Manfred E; Michal, Matthias

2013-07-01

103

Empathy and enduring depersonalization: the role of self-related processes.  

PubMed

Empathy has two key components: affective and cognitive. It relies on "embodied" processes such as the generation, representation and perception of feeling states. People diagnosed with Depersonalization Disorder (DPD) report disturbances in affective experience, such as emotional numbing, alongside aberrations in "body image" such as increased self-focus and feelings of "disembodiment". DPD therefore provides a test bed for the role of such self-related processes in empathy. We tested 16 participants diagnosed with DPD and 48 control volunteers on measures of cognitive and affective empathy. We used self-report measures (EQ; Baron-Cohen & Wheelwright, 2004), an objective measure of cognitive empathy-the "Eyes" task (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), and a novel task tapping affective empathy, utilizing speech rate as an implicit measure of physiological arousal. We also measured participants' tendency to use mental representations that relate to the self during the affective empathy task. The DPD group showed intact performance on the cognitive empathy task. However, there was a disruption in the physiological component of affective empathy alongside a more pronounced reliance on mental representations of the self. These findings suggest affective empathy to be reliant on intact emotional experience in the observer. In addition, excessive self-focus may be detrimental to an empathic response. PMID:18633820

Lawrence, Emma J; Shaw, Philip; Baker, Dawn; Patel, Maxine; Sierra-Siegert, Mauricio; Medford, Nicholas; David, Anthony S

2007-01-01

104

Prevalence, correlates, and predictors of depersonalization experiences in the German general population.  

PubMed

The survey aimed to investigate the prevalence of depersonalization (DP) experiences, its sociodemographic characteristics and its associations with medical conditions, illness behavior, and potential etiologic factors. A representative face-to-face household survey was conducted. The sample consists of n = 1,287 participants aged 14 to 90 years. Sociodemographic variables, medical conditions, current mental disorders, health care utilization, and childhood adversities were assessed. A total of 1.9% participants scored in the range of clinically significant DP (DP-C) and 9.7% reported at least some impairment through DP (DP-I). DP-C/DP-I were strongly associated with depression and anxiety. After adjustment for depression and anxiety, DP-C and DP-I were independently associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic pulmonary disease, severe pain, and childhood adversities. We conclude that DP is common, it can not be reduced to a negligible variant of depression or anxiety and that more awareness about DP with respect to detection and research is urgently required. PMID:19597357

Michal, Matthias; Wiltink, Jörg; Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Zwerenz, Rüdiger; Tuin, Inka; Lichy, Marcel; Brähler, Elmar; Beutel, Manfred E

2009-07-01

105

SPOKEN DOCUMENT RETRIEVAL FOR TREC9 AT CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY - DRAFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents work done at Cambridge University for the TREC-9 Spoken Document Retrieval (SDR) track. The CU- HTK transcriptions from TREC-8 with Word Error Rate (WER) of 20.5% were used in conjunction with stopping, Porter stem- ming, Okapi-style weighting and query expansion using a con- temporaneous corpus of newswire. A windowing\\/recombination strategy was applied for the case where story

S. E. Johnson; P. Jourlin; K. Sp; P. C. Woodland

1998-01-01

106

University of Cambridge Department Of Materials Science and Metallurgy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Cambridge Department Of Materials Science and Metallurgy page offers information on current research ranging from the creation of new materials to improving existing materials. Considered "one of the leading materials science departments in the world," the department's research page points to more detailed pages outlining the work of seventeen groups. Research within the groups includes atomistic simulation, composites and coatings, device materials, high temperature stability of materials, materials chemistry, and the like. A special search feature allows users to easily locate information on research in progress by investigator, research topic, and supporting agency. Also available online are grant reports from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

107

Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education1  

PubMed Central

The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal–organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout.

Battle, Gary M.; Ferrence, Gregory M.; Allen, Frank H.

2010-01-01

108

The Cambridge Structural Database in retrospect and prospect.  

PubMed

The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) was established in 1965 to record numerical, chemical and bibliographic data relating to published organic and metal-organic crystal structures. The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) now stores data for nearly 700,000 structures and is a comprehensive and fully retrospective historical archive of small-molecule crystallography. Nearly 40,000 new structures are added each year. As X-ray crystallography celebrates its centenary as a subject, and the CCDC approaches its own 50th year, this article traces the origins of the CCDC as a publicly funded organization and its onward development into a self-financing charitable institution. Principally, however, we describe the growth of the CSD and its extensive associated software system, and summarize its impact and value as a basis for research in structural chemistry, materials science and the life sciences, including drug discovery and drug development. Finally, the article considers the CCDC's funding model in relation to open access and open data paradigms. PMID:24382699

Groom, Colin R; Allen, Frank H

2014-01-13

109

Investigating the Impact of Cambridge International Assessments on U.S. Stakeholders: Student and Teacher Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the continuing program to study the impact of its international assessments, the University of Cambridge International Examinations ("Cambridge") has undertaken a series of studies investigating the impact on a range of US stakeholders. This paper reports on research designed to respond to a series of washback and impact questions…

Shaw, Stuart

2011-01-01

110

77 FR 38086 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code...Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on May 7, 2012, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810,...

2012-06-26

111

Success in the US: Are Cambridge International Assessments Good Preparation for University Study?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the research being conducted by University of Cambridge International Examinations (Cambridge) to ensure that its international assessments prepare students as well as Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate for continued studies in colleges and universities. The primary purpose of the research is to highlight…

Shaw, Stuart; Bailey, Clare

2011-01-01

112

New software for statistical analysis of Cambridge Structural Database data  

PubMed Central

A collection of new software tools is presented for the analysis of geometrical, chemical and crystallographic data from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). This software supersedes the program Vista. The new functionality is integrated into the program Mercury in order to provide statistical, charting and plotting options alongside three-dimensional structural visualization and analysis. The integration also permits immediate access to other information about specific CSD entries through the Mercury framework, a common requirement in CSD data analyses. In addition, the new software includes a range of more advanced features focused towards structural analysis such as principal components analysis, cone-angle correction in hydrogen-bond analyses and the ability to deal with topological symmetry that may be exhibited in molecular search fragments.

Sykes, Richard A.; McCabe, Patrick; Allen, Frank H.; Battle, Gary M.; Bruno, Ian J.; Wood, Peter A.

2011-01-01

113

The Cambridge-Cambridge x-ray serendipity survey. 2: Classification of x-ray luminous galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results of an intermediate-resolution (1.5 A) spectroscopic study of 17 x-ray luminous narrow emission-line galaxies previously identified in the Cambridge-Cambridge ROSAT Serendipity Survey and the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. Emission-line ratios reveal that the sample is composed of ten Seyfert and seven starburst galaxies. Measured linewidths for the narrow H alpha emission lines lie in the range 170 - 460 km s(exp -1). Five of the objects show clear evidence for asymmetry in the (OIII) lambda 5007 emission-line profile. Broad H alpha emission is detected in six of the Seyfert galaxies, which range in type from Seyfert 1.5 to 2. Broad H beta emission is only detected in one Seyfert galaxy. The mean full width at half maximum for the broad lines in the Seyfert galaxies is FWHM = 3900 +/- 1750 km s(exp -1). Broad (FWHM = 2200 +/- 600 km s(exp -1) H alpha emission is also detected in three of the starburst galaxies, which could originate from stellar winds or supernovae remnants. The mean Balmer decrement for the sample is H alpha / H beta = 3, consistent with little or no reddening for the bulk of the sample. There is no evidence for any trend with x-ray luminosity in the ratio of starburst galaxies to Seyfert galaxies. Based on our previous observations, it is therefore likely that both classes of object comprise approximately 10 percent of the 2 keV x-ray background.

Boyle, B. J.; Mcmahon, R. G.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, Martin

1994-01-01

114

Testing the Cambridge Quality Checklists on a review of disrupted families and crime  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic reviews of the relationship between non-manipulated factors (e.g. low empathy) and offending are becoming more common, and it is important to consider the methodological quality of studies included in such reviews. Aims To assess aspects of the reliability and validity of the Cambridge Quality Checklists, a set of three measures for examining the methodological quality of studies included in systematic reviews of risk factors for offending. Methods All 60 studies in a systematic review of disrupted families and offending were coded on the CQC and codes compared with the effect sizes derived from the studies. Results Overall, the CQC was easy to score, and the relevant information was available in most studies. The scales had high inter-rater reliability. Only 13 studies scored high on the Checklist of Correlates, 18 scored highly on the Checklist of Risk Factors and none scored highly on the Checklist of Causal Risk Factors. Generally, studies that were of lower quality had higher effect sizes. Conclusions The CQC could be a useful method of assessing the methodological quality of studies of risk factors for offending but might benefit from additional conceptual work, changes to the wording of some scales and additional levels for scoring. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Jolliffe, Darrick; Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David; Vannick, Claire

2012-01-01

115

The Volunteer Health Advisor Program of Cambridge Health Alliance: "A Bridge Between the Community and the Health Care System" Cambridge, Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cambridge Health Alliance's Volunteer Health Advisor (VHA) Program was developed to create an effective and cost efficient outreach network to improve community health status. The program's mission is to improve community health by working collaboratively with faith-based and community-based organizations to recruit, train, and support a…

Perspectives in Peer Programs, 2005

2005-01-01

116

Evaluation of a brief anti-stigma campaign in Cambridge: do short-term campaigns work?  

PubMed Central

Background In view of the high costs of mass-media campaigns, it is important to understand whether it is possible for a media campaign to have significant population effects over a short period of time. This paper explores this question specifically in reference to stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems using the Time to Change Cambridge anti-stigma campaign as an example. Methods 410 face-to-face interviews were performed pre, during and post campaign activity to assess campaign awareness and mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Results Although campaign awareness was not sustained following campaign activity, significant and sustained shifts occurred for mental health-related knowledge items. Specifically, there was a 24% (p < 0.001) increase in persons agreeing with the statement: If a friend had a mental health problem, I know what advice to give them to get professional help, following the campaign. Additionally, for the statement: Medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems, there was a 10% rise (p = 0.05) in the proportion of interviewees responding 'agree' or 'strongly agree' following the campaign. These changes, however, were not evident for attitudinal or behaviour related questions. Conclusions Although these results only reflect the impact of one small scale campaign, these preliminary findings suggest several considerations for mass-media campaign development and evaluation strategies such as: (1) Aiming to influence outcomes pertaining to knowledge in the short term; (2) Planning realistic and targeted outcomes over the short, medium and long term during sustained campaigns; and (3) Monitoring indirect campaign effects such as social discourse or other social networking/contact in the evaluation.

2010-01-01

117

A concept in the right place at the wrong time: congestion metering in the city of Cambridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1990s the concept of congestion metering was considered in the context of the city of Cambridge. A trial was undertaken in October 1993 but it did not proceed beyond this stage. Why was this so? The paper attempts first to outline the reasons why the city of Cambridge presented an ideal opportunity for the implementation of some

Stephen Ison

1998-01-01

118

Provisional Approaches to Goals for School Mathematics; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 37.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics K-6. In view of the experiences of other curriculum groups and of the general discussions since 1963, the present report initiates the next step in evolving the "Goals".…

Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, Newton, MA.

119

Ideology, Class and Rationality: A Critique of Cambridge International Examinations' "Thinking Skills" Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article undertakes a critique of the aims and objectives of "Thinking Skills", one of the most widely and internationally used curricula in the teaching of thinking, offered by the University of Cambridge International Examinations. By engaging in a critical discourse analysis of how political and class biases are (re-)produced in the forms…

Lim, Leonel

2012-01-01

120

Factors Affecting Applications to Oxford and Cambridge--Repeat Survey. Executive Summary with Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research follows up a study conducted in 1998 by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to investigate teachers' and students' views on the factors affecting students' choices of whether or not to apply to Oxford and Cambridge universities. It identifies what has changed since 1998 and areas in which the universities could…

Ridley, Kate; White, Kerensa; Styles, Ben; Morrison, Jo

2005-01-01

121

Symmetry Motion Classes; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 40.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of The Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics. This document details the planning and response for each of ten lessons involving symmetry motions. The problems focused on (1) combining motions in a given order,…

McLane, Lyn

122

Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Cambridge Primary Review: A Response to R. J. Campbell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's response to R.J. Campbell's critique of the "Cambridge Primary Review," which was published in the autumn of 2009. The author argues that Campbell's description of the "Review's" central proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking and inadequately theorised" is so misjudged as to call for a…

Armstrong, Michael

2011-01-01

123

University of Cambridge Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gallery presents scientific images produced by members of the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy at Cambridge University. The colorful images are drawn from electron microscopy, applied superconductivity, device materials, and microstructural kinetics. More information about the images and the groups conducting the research are provided.

2007-05-21

124

Legacies, Policies and Prospects: One Year on from the Cambridge Primary Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the "Cambridge Primary Review." The "Review" has been supported from the beginning by Esmee Fairbairn Foundation, and this has given it the independence which is essential to its credibility. Its remit was to investigate, report and make recommendations on the condition and future of primary education in England. Its scope…

Alexander, Robin

2011-01-01

125

Up the Garden Path: A Chemical Trail through the Cambridge University Botanic Garden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The living world is a rich source of chemicals with many medicines, dyes, flavorings, and foodstuffs having their origins in compounds produced by plants. We describe a chemical trail through the plant holdings of the Cambridge University Botanic Gardens. Visitors to the gardens are provided with a laminated trail guide with 22 stopping points…

Battle, Gary M.; Kyd, Gwenda O.; Groom, Colin R.; Allen, Frank H.; Day, Juliet; Upson, Timothy

2012-01-01

126

James Clerk Maxwell's Cambridge Manuscripts: Extracts Relating to Control and Stability - II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maxwell's manuscripts held at Cambridge University Library contain several items of interest from a control or stability point of view. The extract reproduced in Part II consists of a draft of the first half of Maxwell's essay on the stability of the moti...

A. T. Fuller

1981-01-01

127

Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative, Year-Long Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…

Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

2012-01-01

128

What To Look for in ESL Admission Tests: Cambridge Certificate Exams, IELTS, and TOEFL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Familiarizes test users with issues to consider when employing assessments for screening and admission purposes. Examines the purpose, content, and scoring methods of three English-as-a-Second-Language admissions tests--the Cambridge certificate exams, International English Language Teaching System, and Test of English as a Foreign…

Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Turner, Carolyn E.

2000-01-01

129

Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia in Eighteen Volumes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week, Bartleby.com (last reviewed in the December 10, 1999 Scout Report) announced the online publication of all eighteen volumes of the classic Cambridge History of English and American Literature. This excellent free resource "comprises the largest public reference work of literary criticism and history on the Internet." Originally published in 1907-1921, the volumes include 303 chapters and more than 11,000 pages, edited and written by a worldwide panel of 171 leading scholars and thinkers of the early twentieth century. The online version features over 5,600 files, searchable by keyword and browseable by volume, chapter, and section. The electronic Cambridge History also includes chapter and bibliography indexes. Although a bit dated in parts, these eighteen volumes are a valuable, and now easily accessible, research tool for secondary and university students.

130

Scales  

ScienceCinema

Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

131

Scales  

SciTech Connect

Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

Murray Gibson

2007-04-27

132

Scales  

ScienceCinema

Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

Murray Gibson

2010-01-08

133

Ninth Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems and the Sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Grant was used to publish the Proceedings from the Ninth Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun held in Florence, Italy from 3 to 6 October 1995. The Proceedings were published by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in their Conference Series, Volume 109 in 1996. This volume was edited by Roberto Pallavicini and Andrea K. Dupree. A copy of the title page and the Table of Contents of the volume is appended.

Dupree, Andrea K.

1998-01-01

134

Recent improvements to the Cambridge Arabic Speech-to-Text systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes recent improvements to the Cambridge Arabic Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition (LVSCR) Speech-to-Text (STT) system. It is shown that Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) features trained on phonetic targets can improve the performance of both phonemic and graphemic systems. Also, a morphological decomposition scheme is extended from the graphemic domain to the phonetic domain, and particular attention is given

Marcus Tomalin; Frank Diehl; Mark J. F. Gales; Junho Park; Philip C. Woodland

2010-01-01

135

Plasma-Surface Interaction Research At The Cambridge Laboratory Of Accelerator Studies Of Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material requirements for plasma-facing components in a nuclear fusion reactor are some of the strictest and most challenging facing us today. These materials are simultaneously exposed to extreme heat loads (20 MW\\/m2 steady-state, 1 GW\\/m2 in millisecond transients) and particle fluxes (>1024 m-2 s-1) while also undergoing high neutron irradiation (1018 neutrons\\/m2 s). At the Cambridge Laboratory of Accelerator

G. M. Wright; H. S. Barnard; Z. S. Hartwig; P. W. Stahle; R. M. Sullivan; K. B. Woller; D. G. Whyte

2011-01-01

136

Plasma-Surface Interaction Research At The Cambridge Laboratory Of Accelerator Studies Of Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material requirements for plasma-facing components in a nuclear fusion reactor are some of the strictest and most challenging facing us today. These materials are simultaneously exposed to extreme heat loads (20 MW?m2 steady-state, 1 GW?m2 in millisecond transients) and particle fluxes (>1024 m?2 s?1) while also undergoing high neutron irradiation (1018 neutrons?m2 s). At the Cambridge Laboratory of Accelerator

G. M. Wright; H. S. Barnard; Z. S. Hartwig; P. W. Stahle; R. M. Sullivan; K. B. Woller; D. G. Whyte

2011-01-01

137

Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge  

PubMed Central

Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1) the approach to medical nutrition education, 2) evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3) areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the recommended UK medical nutrition education curriculum. This paper is intended to inform other institutions in ongoing efforts in medical nutrition education.

Ball, Lauren; Crowley, Jennifer; Laur, Celia; Rajput-Ray, Minha; Gillam, Stephen; Ray, Sumantra

2014-01-01

138

Cambridge Municipal Airport, Cambridge, Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed project contemplates the acquisition of land to permit future construction of a new single runway at the present airport site and to provide for clear zones and related facilities for the runway. Ultimately, the project will include an asphal...

1971-01-01

139

Normal Range of Cambridge Low Contrast Test; a Population Based Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the range of contrast sensitivity (CS) and its determinants in a normal population, Mashhad, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional population based study, 4,453 individuals were invited of whom 3,132 persons agreed to participate (response rate, 70.4%). CS data from 2,449 eligible individuals were analyzed. CS was determined using the Cambridge low contrast square-wave grating test, and its associations with age, gender, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) refractive error, were analyzed. Results Mean age of the participants was 29.1±17.3 (range, 4-89) years and 66.4% were female. Mean CS was 239.6±233.3 and 234.6±228.6 cps in right and left eyes, respectively. Mean binocular CS was 310.9±249.0 cps. Multiple linear regression showed that CS was inversely correlated with older age (?=-1.1, P<0.001), female gender (?=-40.1, P<0.001), poorer BCVA (?=-165.4, P<0.001), and severity of myopia (?=-10.2, P<0.001). Conclusion The normal range of Cambridge low-contrast grating test reported herein may serve as a reference for the general population in Iran. Our findings can be used for both research and clinical applications, particularly for evaluations of the outcomes of refractive surgery. In the current study, CS was lower in older subjects, myopic individuals and patients with lower BCVA.

Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Heravian, Javad; Abdolahinia, Tahereh; Norouzi Rad, Reza; Asgari, Soheila; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

2014-01-01

140

The factors influencing car use in a cycle-friendly city: the case of Cambridge  

PubMed Central

Encouraging people out of their cars and into other modes of transport, which has major advantages for health, the environment and urban development, has proved difficult. Greater understanding of the influences that lead people to use the car, particularly for shorter journeys, may help to achieve this. This paper examines the predictors of car use compared with the bicycle to explore how it may be possible to persuade more people to use the bicycle instead of the car. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the socio-demographic, transport and health-related correlates of mode choice for work, shopping and leisure trips in Cambridge, a city with high levels of cycling by UK standards. The key findings are that commuting distance and free workplace parking were strongly associated with use of the car for work trips, and car availability and lower levels of education were associated with car use for leisure, shopping and short-distanced commuting trips. The case of Cambridge shows that more policies could be adopted, particularly a reduction in free car parking, to increase cycling and reduce the use of the car, especially over short distances.

Carse, Andrew; Goodman, Anna; Mackett, Roger L.; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

2013-01-01

141

Better Management for Better Schools: A Review of the Structure and Functions of the Central Office of Cambridge Public Schools. Advisory Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews the structure and functions of the Central Office of Cambridge Public Schools, Massachusetts. During the 1990s, the Cambridge school system and other Massachusetts school districts faced intense pressure to raise student achievement in the face of redefined public expectations for public schools. This change in expectations is…

Spence, Lewis H.

142

Factors Affecting Reservoir and Stream-Water Quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area and Implications for Source-Water Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, to assess reservoir and tributary-stream quality in the Cambridge drinking water source area, ...

M. C. Waldron G. C. Bent

2001-01-01

143

How Do You Feel when You Can't Feel Your Body? Interoception, Functional Connectivity and Emotional Processing in Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder  

PubMed Central

Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder (DD) typically manifests as a disruption of body self-awareness. Interoception ?defined as the cognitive processing of body signals? has been extensively considered as a key processing for body self-awareness. In consequence, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are systematic differences in interoception between a patient with DD and controls that might explain the disembodiment symptoms suffered in this disease. To assess interoception, we utilized a heartbeat detection task and measures of functional connectivity derived from fMRI networks in interoceptive/exteroceptivo/mind-wandering states. Additionally, we evaluated empathic abilities to test the association between interoception and emotional experience. The results showed patient's impaired performance in the heartbeat detection task when compared to controls. Furthermore, regarding functional connectivity, we found a lower global brain connectivity of the patient relative to controls only in the interoceptive state. He also presented a particular pattern of impairments in affective empathy. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental research that assesses the relationship between interoception and DD combining behavioral and neurobiological measures. Our results suggest that altered neural mechanisms and cognitive processes regarding body signaling might be engaged in DD phenomenology. Moreover, our study contributes experimental data to the comprehension of brain-body interactions and the emergence of self-awareness and emotional feelings.

Sedeno, Lucas; Couto, Blas; Melloni, Margherita; Canales-Johnson, Andres; Yoris, Adrian; Baez, Sandra; Esteves, Sol; Velasquez, Marcela; Barttfeld, Pablo; Sigman, Mariano; Kichic, Rafael; Chialvo, Dante; Manes, Facundo; Bekinschtein, Tristan A.; Ibanez, Agustin

2014-01-01

144

Asian Influenza in 1963 in Two General Practices in Cambridge, England  

PubMed Central

A clinical, epidemiological and virological investigation was conducted on patients in two general practices in Cambridge, England, during an influenza epidemic between February and April 1963. The epidemiological pattern differed from that of the 1957-58 Asian influenza epidemic in that the overall incidence was considerably lower (3.2%) and that the highest attack rates were not in school children but in pre-school children (71.5 per 1000 persons). Virological investigation confirmed the diagnosis of Influenza A2 infection in 56 of 63 patients (89%). Isolations were made in 29 of 51 specimens tested. Serological studies revealed that the complement fixation test was more reliable than hemagglutination - inhibition or neutralization tests. Clinical features resembled those reported in previous epidemics, cough, headache and limb pains being prominent features.

Banatvala, J. E.; Reiss, B. B.; Anderson, T. B.; Nitkin, Betty C.

1965-01-01

145

COMMERCIALIZING A DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY BASED UPON UNIVERSITY IP THROUGH OPEN INNOVATION: A CASE STUDY OF CAMBRIDGE DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of a university spin-out firm to bring a potentially disruptive technology to market. The focus for discussion is how a spin-out can build a technology ecosystem of providers of complementary resources to enable partner organizations to build competence in a novel and potentially disruptive technology. The paper uses the illustrative case of Cambridge Display Technology

TIM MINSHALL; STUART SELDON; DAVID PROBERT

2007-01-01

146

Degrees of Influence: The Politics of Honorary Degrees in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, 1900-2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The universities of Oxford and Cambridge had developed different attitudes towards the award of honorary degrees through the early and middle decades of the twentieth century. Recently, both have adopted a similar cautious and apolitical stance. This essay describes the role of honorary degrees in the production and reproduction of their cultural…

Heffernan, Michael; Jons, Heike

2007-01-01

147

State Control, Religious Deference and Cultural Reproduction: Some Problems with Theorising Curriculum and Pedagogy in the Cambridge Primary Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a critique of the quality of theorising underlying proposals on curriculum and pedagogy in the Cambridge Primary Review. Despite its strengths, the review is seen as omitting consideration of three major areas in primary education: gifted pupils, teacher effectiveness research and the private sector. Questions are raised about…

Campbell, R. J.

2011-01-01

148

State control, religious deference and cultural reproduction: some problems with theorising curriculum and pedagogy in the Cambridge Primary Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a critique of the quality of theorising underlying proposals on curriculum and pedagogy in the Cambridge Primary Review. Despite its strengths, the review is seen as omitting consideration of three major areas in primary education: gifted pupils, teacher effectiveness research and the private sector. Questions are raised about the review's use of evidence about a broad and

R. J. Campbell

2011-01-01

149

M-DCPS Student Performance in International Baccalaureate and Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education Programs. Research Brief. Volume 1102  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Research Brief summarizes the performance of M-DCPS students participating in the International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education (AICE) programs. Outcome data are provided for the eight M-DCPS schools offering the two programs and corresponding examinations. Participation in international…

Blazer, Christie

2011-01-01

150

The conquest of vitalism or the eclipse of organicism? The 1930s Cambridge organizer project and the social network of mid-twentieth-century biology.  

PubMed

In the 1930s, two concepts excited the European biological community: the organizer phenomenon and organicism. This essay examines the history of and connection between these two phenomena in order to address the conventional 'rise-and-fall' narrative that historians have assigned to each. Scholars promoted the 'rise-and-fall' narrative in connection with a broader account of the devitalizing of biology through the twentieth century. I argue that while limited evidence exists for the 'fall of the organizer concept' by the 1950s, the organicism that often motivated the organizer work had no concomitant fall--even during the mid-century heyday of molecular biology. My argument is based on an examination of shifting social networks of life scientists from the 1920s to the 1970s, many of whom attended or corresponded with members of the Cambridge Theoretical Biology Club (1932-1938). I conclude that the status and cohesion of these social networks at the micro scale was at least as important as macro-scale conceptual factors in determining the relative persuasiveness of organicist philosophy. PMID:24941735

Peterson, Erik

2014-06-01

151

Bone anchored hearing aids: a second fixture reduces auditory deprivation in Cambridge.  

PubMed

Bone anchored hearing aids are well established for canal atresia, otosclerosis and chronic suppurative otitis media. Refinements in technique to maximise gain while keeping the complications to a minimum are desirable. This study was taken up in order to explore the potential advantage of a second or spare fixture placed at the time of primary surgery. A group of patients who underwent BAHA insertion at The Emmeline Centre for Cochlear Implants and Bone Anchored Hearing Aids, Addenbrookes hospital, Cambridge, UK with the placement of a spare fixture between 1999 and 2002 were compared to those patients with one fixture BAHA undertaken from 1991. Main outcome measures were complications encountered and duration of disability, (i.e. loss of hearing while waiting for new fixture placement). Both groups had similar incidence of complications, but the group with two fixtures suffered a shorter period of disability when a fixture failed. In our experience the use of second or spare fixture reduces the duration of disability. It engenders no additional complications with minimal extra cost. PMID:17415580

Durvasula, V S P; Patel, H; Mahendran, S; Gray, R F

2007-09-01

152

Using a neural network to proximity correct patterns written with a Cambridge electron beam microfabricator 10.5 lithography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter describes the initial results of using a theoretical determination of the proximity function and an adaptively trained neural network to proximity-correct patterns written on a Cambridge electron beam lithography system. The methods described are complete and may be applied to any electron beam exposure system that can modify the dose during exposure. The patterns produced in resist show the effects of proximity correction versus noncorrected patterns.

Cummings, K. D.; Frye, R. C.; Rietman, E. A.

1990-10-01

153

A Robust Method of Measuring Other-Race and Other-Ethnicity Effects: The Cambridge Face Memory Test Format  

PubMed Central

Other-race and other-ethnicity effects on face memory have remained a topic of consistent research interest over several decades, across fields including face perception, social psychology, and forensic psychology (eyewitness testimony). Here we demonstrate that the Cambridge Face Memory Test format provides a robust method for measuring these effects. Testing the Cambridge Face Memory Test original version (CFMT-original; European-ancestry faces from Boston USA) and a new Cambridge Face Memory Test Chinese (CFMT-Chinese), with European and Asian observers, we report a race-of-face by race-of-observer interaction that was highly significant despite modest sample size and despite observers who had quite high exposure to the other race. We attribute this to high statistical power arising from the very high internal reliability of the tasks. This power also allows us to demonstrate a much smaller within-race other ethnicity effect, based on differences in European physiognomy between Boston faces/observers and Australian faces/observers (using the CFMT-Australian).

McKone, Elinor; Stokes, Sacha; Liu, Jia; Cohan, Sarah; Fiorentini, Chiara; Pidcock, Madeleine; Yovel, Galit; Broughton, Mary; Pelleg, Michel

2012-01-01

154

A robust method of measuring other-race and other-ethnicity effects: the Cambridge Face Memory Test format.  

PubMed

Other-race and other-ethnicity effects on face memory have remained a topic of consistent research interest over several decades, across fields including face perception, social psychology, and forensic psychology (eyewitness testimony). Here we demonstrate that the Cambridge Face Memory Test format provides a robust method for measuring these effects. Testing the Cambridge Face Memory Test original version (CFMT-original; European-ancestry faces from Boston USA) and a new Cambridge Face Memory Test Chinese (CFMT-Chinese), with European and Asian observers, we report a race-of-face by race-of-observer interaction that was highly significant despite modest sample size and despite observers who had quite high exposure to the other race. We attribute this to high statistical power arising from the very high internal reliability of the tasks. This power also allows us to demonstrate a much smaller within-race other ethnicity effect, based on differences in European physiognomy between Boston faces/observers and Australian faces/observers (using the CFMT-Australian). PMID:23118912

McKone, Elinor; Stokes, Sacha; Liu, Jia; Cohan, Sarah; Fiorentini, Chiara; Pidcock, Madeleine; Yovel, Galit; Broughton, Mary; Pelleg, Michel

2012-01-01

155

Psychological impact of screening for type 2 diabetes: controlled trial and comparative study embedded in the ADDITION (Cambridge) randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To quantify the psychological impact of primary care based stepwise screening for type 2 diabetes. Design Controlled trial and comparative study embedded in a randomised controlled trial. Setting 15 practices (10 screening, five control) in the ADDITION (Cambridge) trial in the east of England. Participants 7380 adults (aged 40-69) in the top fourth for risk of having undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (6416 invited for screening, 964 controls). Interventions Invited for screening for type 2 diabetes or not invited (controls), incorporating a comparative study of subgroups of screening attenders. Attenders completed questionnaires after a random blood glucose test and at 3-6 months and 12-15 months later. Controls were sent questionnaires at corresponding time points. Non-attenders were sent questionnaires at 3-6 months and 12-15 months. Main outcome measures State anxiety (Spielberger state anxiety inventory), anxiety and depression (hospital anxiety and depression scale), worry about diabetes, and self rated health. Results No significant differences were found between the screening and control participants at any time—for example, difference in means (95% confidence intervals) for state anxiety after the initial blood glucose test was ?0.53, ?2.60 to 1.54, at 3-6 months was 1.51 (?0.17 to 3.20), and at 12-15 months was 0.57, ?1.11 to 2.24. After the initial test, compared with participants who screened negative, those who screened positive reported significantly poorer general health (difference in means ?0.19, ?0.25 to ?0.13), higher state anxiety (0.93, ?0.02 to 1.88), higher depression (0.32, 0.08 to 0.56), and higher worry about diabetes (0.25, 0.09 to 0.41), although effect sizes were small. Small but significant trends were found for self rated health across the screening subgroups at 3-6 months (P=0.047) and for worry about diabetes across the screen negative groups at 3-6 months and 12-15 months (P=0.001). Conclusions Screening for type 2 diabetes has limited psychological impact on patients. Implementing a national screening programme based on the stepwise screening procedure used in the ADDITION (Cambridge) trial is unlikely to have significant consequences for patients' psychological health. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN99175498.

Griffin, Simon J; Prevost, A Toby; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; French, David P; Sutton, Stephen

2007-01-01

156

Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Neuropsychological Tests in Differentiating Alzheimer's Disease from Mild Cognitive Impairment: Can the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Be Better than the Cambridge Cognitive Examination?  

PubMed Central

Objective Considering the lack of studies on measures that increase the diagnostic distinction between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and on the role of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) in this, our study aims to compare the utility of the CAMCOG, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in helping to differentiate AD from MCI in elderly people with >4 years of schooling. Method A total of 136 elderly subjects – 39 normal controls as well as 52 AD patients and 45 MCI patients treated at the Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Porto Alegre, Brazil – were assessed using the MMSE, CAMCOG, clock drawing test (CDT), verbal fluency test (VF), Geriatric Depression Scale and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire. Results The results obtained by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the MoCA is a better screening test for differentiating elderly subjects with AD from those with MCI than the CAMCOG and MMSE as well as other tests such as the CDT and VF. Conclusion The MoCA, more than the CAMCOG and the other tests, was shown to be able to differentiate AD from MCI, although, as Roalf et al. [Alzheimers Dement 2013;9:529-537] pointed out, further studies might lead to measures that will improve this differentiation.

Martinelli, Jose Eduardo; Cecato, Juliana Francisca; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, Jose Maria

2014-01-01

157

Test well DO-CE 88 at Cambridge, Dorchester County, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Test well DO-CE 88 at Cambridge, Maryland, penetrated 3,299 feet of unconsolidated Quaternary, Tertiary and Cretaceous sediments and bottomed in quartz-monzonite gneiss. The well was drilled to provide data for a study of the aquifer system of the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain. Twenty-one core samples were collected. Six sand zones were tested for aquifer properties and sampled for ground-water chemistry. Point-water heads were measured at seven depths. Environmental heads (which ranged from - 18.33 to + 44.16 feet relative to sea level)indicate an upward component of flow. A temperature log showed a maximum temperature of 41.9 degrees Celsius and a mean temperature gradient of 0.00838 degrees Celsius per foot. The water analyses delineated the freshwater-saltwater transition zone between 2,650 and 3,100 feet. The ground water changes progressively downward from a sodium bicarbonate to a sodium chloride character. Clays in the analyzed core samples belong to the montmorillonite and kaolinite groups, and mean cation exchange capacity ranged from 8.3 to 38.9 milliequivalents per 100 grams. Vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivities measured in cores ranged from 1.5 x 10 6 to 1.3 feet per day and from 7.3 x 10 -6 to 1.3 feet per day, respectively, but the most permeable sands were not cored. Porosity was 1.5 percent in the quartz monzonite bedrock and ranged from 22.4 to 41 percent in the overlying sediments. Transmissivities from aquifer tests ranged from 25 to 850 feet squared per day; horizontal hydraulic conductivities ranged from.2.5 to 85 feet squared per day, and intrinsic permeabilities ranged from 0.8 to 23 micrometers squared. Fossils identified in core samples include palynomorphs, dinoflagellates, and foraminifers.

Trapp, Henry, Jr.; Knobel, Leroy L.; Meisler, Harold; Leahy, P. Patrick

1984-01-01

158

Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual mean specific conductance for water year 2005 which was 737 uS/cm. However, the annual mean specific conductance at Stony Brook near Route 20 in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) station 01104460), on the principal tributary to the Stony Brook Reservoir, and at USGS station 01104475 on a smaller tributary to the Stony Brook Reservoir were about 15 and 13 percent lower, respectively, than the previous annual mean specific conductances of 538 and 284 uS/cm, respectively for water year 2005. The annual mean specific conductance for Fresh Pond Reservoir decreased from 553 uS/cm in the 2005 water year to 514 uS/cm in the 2006 water year. Water samples were collected in nearly all of the subbasins in the Cambridge drinking-water source area and from Fresh Pond during water year 2006. Discrete water samples were collected during base-flow conditions with an antecedent dry period of at least 4 days. Composite samples, consisting of as many as 100 subsamples, were collected by automatic samplers during storms. Concentrations of most dissolved constituents were generally lower in samples of stormwater than in samples collected during base flow; however, the average concentration of total phosphorus in samples of stormwater were from 160 to 1,109 percent greater than the average concentration in water samples collected during base-flow conditions. Concentrations of total nitrogen in water samples collected during base-flow conditions and composite samples of stormwater at USGS stations 01104415, 01104460, and 01104475 were similar, but mean concentrations of total nitrogen in samples of stormwater differed by about 0.5 mg/L (milligrams per liter) from those in water samples collected during base-flow conditions at U.S. Geological Survey stations 01104433 and 01104455. In six water samples, measurements of pH were lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) national recommended freshwater quality criteria and the USEPA secondary drinking water-standa

Smith, Kirk P.

2008-01-01

159

Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104455) were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. The annual mean specific conductance for Fresh Pond Reservoir increased from 514 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm) in the 2004 water year to 553 ?S/cm for the 2005 water year. Water samples were collected from four tributaries during base-flow and stormflow conditions in December 2004, and July, August, and September 2005 and analyzed for suspended sediment, 6 major dissolved ions, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, 8 total metals, 18 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 61 pesticides and metabolites, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Concentrations for most dissolved constituents in samples of stormwater were generally lower than the concentrations observed in samples collected during base flow; however, concentrations of total phosphorus, PAHs, suspended sediment, and some total recoverable metals were substantially greater in stormwater samples. Concentrations of dissolved chloride and total recoverable manganese in water samples collected during base-flow conditions from three tributaries exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary drinking water standards of 250 and 0.05 milligrams per liter (mg/L), respectively. Concentrations of total recoverable manganese exceeded the secondary drinking water standard in samples of stormwater from each tributary. Concentrations of total recoverable iron in water samples exceeded the (USEPA) secondary drinking water standard of 0.3 mg/L periodically in water samples collected at (USEPA) stations 01104415, 01104455, and 01104475, and consistently in all water samples collected at USGS station 01104433. Concentrations of Escherichia coli bacteria in water samples collected during base flow ranged from 4 to 1,400 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters (col/100mL). Concentrations of Escherichia coli bacteria in composite samples of stormwater ranged between 1,700 to 43,000 c

Smith, Kirk P.

2007-01-01

160

Byron Emerson Wall - John Venn, James Ward, and the Chair of Mental Philosophy and Logic at the University of Cambridge - Journal of the History of Ideas 68:1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1897, Cambridge University created a professorship in Mental Philosophy and Logic; despite the double name it was filled by a “mental philosopher,” James Ward, who did no work in logic. The chief logician candidate, John Venn, then turned his attention elsewhere, leaving Cambridge without senior leadership in logic. Ward himself turned to other philosophical issues, doing little further original

Byron E. Wall

2007-01-01

161

Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: A mixed-methods analysis  

PubMed Central

Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009–2010). Even in Britain's leading ‘cycling city’, cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a ‘park-and-ride’ site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could ‘afford’ to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio-economic range. This suggests the importance of combining individual-level ‘healthy travel’ interventions with measures aimed at creating travel environments in which all social groups can pursue healthy and satisfying lives.

Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R.; Ogilvie, David

2012-01-01

162

Contrast Sensitivity—An Unnoticed Factor of Visual Perception in Children with Developmental Delay: Normal Data of the Cambridge Low Contrast Gratings Test in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrast sensitivity is one of several factors necessary to obtain good visual quality. The aim of this study was to develop normal data on the Cambridge Low Contrast Gratings test in children and to compare these data with data from a group of children with developmental delay. Ninety-nine normal children (aged 2-14 years) and 146 children with developmental delay were

Lisbeth Sandfeld Nielsen; Sidse Kringelholt Nielsen; Liselotte Skov; Hanne Jensen

2007-01-01

163

Trajectories of Offending and Their Relation to Life Failure in Late Middle Age: Findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have hypothesized that over the life course, criminal offending varies with problems in other domains, including life failure and physical and mental health. To examine this issue, the authors use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males first studied at age 8…

Piquero, Alex R.; Farrington, David P.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

2010-01-01

164

Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 3. The Cambridge Structural Database System: Information Content and Access Software in Educational Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parts 1 and 2 of this series described the educational value of experimental three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures determined by X-ray crystallography and retrieved from the crystallographic databases. In part 1, we described the information content of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and discussed a representative teaching subset of…

Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

2011-01-01

165

Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 4. Examples of Discovery-Based Learning Using the Complete Cambridge Structural Database  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parts 1 and 2 of this series described the educational value of experimental three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures determined by X-ray crystallography and retrieved from the crystallographic databases. In part 1, we described the information content of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and discussed a representative teaching subset of…

Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

2011-01-01

166

Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected in nearly all of the subbasins in the Cambridge drinking-water source area and from Fresh Pond during the study period. Discrete water samples were collected during base-flow conditions with an antecedent dry period of at least 3 days. Composite sampl

Smith, Kirk P.

2011-01-01

167

Integrating Mass Scale Spectroscopic Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper briefly presents the challenges in implementing the data driven pipelines which will support the delivery of science data products from three major new spectroscopic , namely the Gaia-ESO survey, the WEAVE multi-object spectrograph for the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope, and the 4MOST multi-object spectrograph for the ESO VISTA telescope. We note the design solutions being implemented at the Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit where an integrated approach in the delivery of a scalable data pipeline is being adopted. The design of the processing system is strongly science driven, which ensures that the analysis system delivers high quality data products to the science survey teams on the shortest possible time-scales, thereby allowing rapid scientific validation and exploitation of the data.

Walton, N. A.; Irwin, M. J.; Koposov, S.; Lewis, J. R.; Gonzales-Solarez, E.

2014-05-01

168

Earthquake triggering and large-scale geologic storage of carbon dioxide  

PubMed Central

Despite its enormous cost, large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing CO2 emissions associated with coal-based electrical power generation and other industrial sources of CO2 [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2005) IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds Metz B, et al. (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK); Szulczewski ML, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:5185–5189]. We argue here that there is a high probability that earthquakes will be triggered by injection of large volumes of CO2 into the brittle rocks commonly found in continental interiors. Because even small- to moderate-sized earthquakes threaten the seal integrity of CO2 repositories, in this context, large-scale CCS is a risky, and likely unsuccessful, strategy for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Zoback, Mark D.; Gorelick, Steven M.

2012-01-01

169

EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW 12), Cambridge, MA, USA, 13 16 December 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was a great pleasure and an honor for us to host the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW) at MIT and the LIGO Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the place where this workshop series started in 1996. This time the conference was held at the conference facilities of the Royal Sonesta Hotel in Cambridge from 13 16 December, 2007. This 12th GWDAW found us with the ground interferometers having just completed their most sensitive search for gravitational waves and as they were starting their preparation to bring online and/or propose more sensitive instruments. Resonant mass detectors continued to observe the gravitational wave sky with instruments that have been operating now for many years. LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, was recently reviewed by NASA's Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee (BEPAC) convened by the National Research Council (NRC) and found that 'on purely scientific grounds LISA is the mission that is the most promising and least scientifically risky…thus, the committee gave LISA its highest scientific ranking'. Even so, JDEM, the Joint Dark Energy Mission, was identified to go first, with LISA following a few years after. New methods, analysis ideas, results from the analysis of data collected by the instruments, as well as Mock Data Challenges for LISA were reported in this conference. While data from the most recent runs of the instruments are still being analyzed, the first upper limit results show how even non-detection statements can be interesting astrophysics. Beyond these traditional aspects of GWDAW though, for the first time in this workshop we tried to bring the non-gravitational wave physics and astronomy community on board in order to present, discuss and propose ways to work together as we pursue the first detection of gravitational waves and as we hope to transition to gravitational wave astronomy in the near future. Overview talks by colleagues leading observations in the electromagnetic and particle spectrum, from what is expected to be common sources of gravitational and electromagnetic radiation as well as neutrinos, have created great excitement, lively discussions and have given birth to collaborations for joint analyses and observations. A special thank you to our non-gravitational wave presenters and participants for making the time to join us. We hope this will be the beginning of a long tradition for this workshop. In this workshop we also introduced the student prize for the best poster. Twenty student posters participated in this competition. Pinkesh Patel of Caltech was the prize winner on a 'Resampling Technique to Calculate the F-statistic', co-authored with X Siemens and R Dupuis. We are grateful to the MIT Kavli Institute for providing the financial support for the cash prize that accompanied this. We would like to thank the local and international organizing committees for putting together a great scientific program, all the conference presenters and participants and finally the CQG editorial staff for making this conference proceeding volume happen.

Hughes, S.; Katsavounidis, E.

2008-09-01

170

Development and validation of a preference based measure derived from the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) for use in cost utility analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Pulmonary Hypertension is a severe and incurable disease with poor prognosis. A suite of new disease-specific measures - the\\u000a Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) - was recently developed for use in this condition. The purpose\\u000a of this study was to develop and validate a preference based measure from the CAMPHOR that could be used in cost-utility analyses.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Items were

Stephen P McKenna; Julie Ratcliffe; David M Meads; John E Brazier

2008-01-01

171

Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as much as 96 percent of total solids resided within 9 feet of the curb. Median accumulation rates of street solids and median washoff of street solids after rainstorms on multifamily and commercial land-use streets were also similar at about 33 and 22 pounds per curb-mile per day, and 35 and 40 percent, respectively. Results indicate that solids on the streets tested in Cambridge, Mass., can recover to pre-rainstorm yields within 1 to 3 days after washoff. The finer grain-size fractions tended to be more readily washed from the roadway surfaces during rainstorms. Street solids in the coarsest grain-size fraction on multifamily streets indicated an average net increase following rainstorms and are likely attributed to debris run-on from trees, lawns, and other plantings commonly found in residential areas. In seven experiments between May and December 2010, the median removal efficiency of solids from street surfaces following a single pass by a regenerative-air street cleaner was about 82 percent on study sites in the multifamily land-use streets and about 78 percent on the commercial land-use streets. Median street-solid removal efficiency increased with increasing grain size. This type of regenerative-air street cleaner left a median residual street-solid load on the street surface of about 100 pounds per curb-mile. Median concentrations of organic carbon and total phosphorus (P) on multifamily streets were about 35 and 29 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. The median total mass of organic carbon and total P in street solids on multifamily streets was 68 and 75 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. More than 87 percent of the mass of total P was determined to be in solids greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter for both land-use types. The median total accumulation rate for total P on multifamily streets was about 5 times greater than on commercial streets. Total P accumulation in the medium grain-size fraction was nearly the same for streets within both land-use types at 0.004 p

Sorenson, Jason R.

2013-01-01

172

Hydrogen-bond landscapes, geometry and energetics of squaric acid and its mono- and dianions: a Cambridge Structural Database, IsoStar and computational study.  

PubMed

As part of a programme of work to extend central-group coverage in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre's (CCDC) IsoStar knowledge base of intermolecular interactions, we have studied the hydrogen-bonding abilities of squaric acid (H2SQ) and its mono- and dianions (HSQ(-) and SQ(2-)) using the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) along with dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations for a range of hydrogen-bonded dimers. The -OH and -C=O groups of H2SQ, HSQ(-) and SQ(2-) are potent donors and acceptors, as indicated by their hydrogen-bond geometries in available crystal structures in the CSD, and by the attractive energies calculated for their dimers with acetone and methanol, which were used as model acceptors and donors. The two anions have sufficient examples in the CSD for their addition as new central groups in IsoStar. It is also shown that charge- and resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds involving H2SQ and HSQ(-) are similar in strength to those made by carboxylate COO(-) acceptors, while hydrogen bonds made by the dianion SQ(2-) are somewhat stronger. The study reinforces the value of squaric acid and its anions as cocrystal formers and their actual and potential importance as isosteric replacements for carboxylic acid and carboxylate functions. PMID:24056361

Allen, Frank H; Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J; Wood, Peter A; Bardwell, David A

2013-10-01

173

The Cambridge Bachelor of Medicine (MB)/Doctor of Philosophy (PhD): graduate outcomes of the first MB/PhD programme in the UK.  

PubMed

We reviewed outcomes of the Cambridge Bachelor of Medicine (MB)/Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programme for the period 1989-2010. Of the 90 alumni contacted, 80 (89%; 24 women) completed an anonymous questionnaire. Thirty were academic staff and 35 were in general professional (core) or higher medical training. Of the latter, 11 were specialty registrars, six were academic clinical fellows and three held academic foundation year posts. Eight alumni were overseas, including five in North America. Most (95%) respondents considered that their academic career goals were facilitated by the programme. Sixty-eight of the 80 alumni had conducted further research, 63 (79%) were active in research, and 90% had explicit plans for further full-time research. Twelve graduates had further substantive research support (six clinician scientist awards and three senior fellowships) and two were Wellcome Trust postdoctoral MB/PhD fellows. Alumni included two full university professors, one reader, six senior lecturers, two assistant professors and nine university clinical lecturers. MB/PhD programmes offer an alternative training pathway for clinician-scientists in UK medical schools: the Cambridge programme promotes scientific discovery and sustained academic development within the context of contemporary medicine and clinical practice. PMID:23342406

Cox, Timothy M; Brimicombe, James; Wood, Diana F; Peters, D Keith

2012-12-01

174

Shuttle Astronauts Visit NASA's X-Ray Observatory Operations Control Center in Cambridge to Coordinate Plans for Launch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CAMBRIDGE, MASS.-- June 25, 1998 Eileen Collins, the first U.S. woman commanderof a Space Shuttle mission and her fellow astronauts for NASA s STS-93 mission toured the Operations Control Center (OCC) for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) today. AXAF is scheduled for launch on January 26, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. They met with the staff of the OCC and discussed how the status of the observatory will be monitored while in the shuttle bay and during deployment. "We are honored to have this historic shuttle crew visit us and familiarize themselves with the OCC," said Harvey Tananbaum, director of the AXAF Science Center, which operates the OCC for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory through a contract with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. "It is appropriate that a pathbreaking shuttle mission will deploy the premier X-ray observatory of this century." AXAF is the third of NASA s Great Observatories along with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. It will observe in greater detail than ever before the hot, violent regions of the universe that cannot be seen with optical telescopes. Exploding stars, black holes and vast clouds of gas in galaxy clusters are among the fascinating objects that AXAF is designed to study. The satellite is currently in the final stages of testing at TRW Space and Electronics Group,the prime contractor, in Redondo Beach, California. In late August it will be flown aboard a specially-outfitted Air Force C-5 aircraft to Kennedy Space Center in Florida where it will be integrated with a Boeing booster and then installed in the Shuttle bay. The shuttle crew that will take AXAF into space includes Collins (Col., USAF), Jeffrey Ashby (Cmdr., USN), pilot; Steven Hawley, Ph.D., mission specialist; Catherine Cady Coleman, Ph.D. (Major, USAF), mission specialist; and Michel Tognini (Col., French Air Force), mission specialist. While visiting the OCC the crew learned how critical data (temperatures, voltages, etc.,) will be monitored while AXAF is in the bay of the shuttle. This information will be relayed to the shuttle from the OCC via Johnson Space Center. The condition of the satellite during launch and the first few orbits will determine if it can be sent on its way. Unlike the Hubble Space telescope, AXAF will not be serviceable after it is in orbit. When the satellite has been released into space from the shuttle bay, a built in propulsion system will boost it into a large elliptical orbit around Earth. The nearest the observatory will come to Earth is 6,200 miles and its furthest point will be more than a third of the way to the moon. This means that the telescope will have approximately 52 hours of observing time each orbit. AXAF images will show fifty times more detail than any previous X-ray telescope. The revolutionary telescope combines the ability to make sharp images while measuring precisely the energies of X-rays coming from cosmic sources. The impact AXAF will have on X-ray astronomy can be compared to the difference between a fuzzy black and white and a sharp color picture.

1998-06-01

175

Solar and interplanetary dynamics; Proceedings of the Symposium, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., August 27-31, 1979  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The symposium focuses on solar phenomena as the source of transient events propagating through the solar system, and theoretical and observational assessments of the dynamic processes involved in these events. The topics discussed include the life history of coronal structures and fields, coronal and interplanetary responses to long time scale phenomena, solar transient phenomena affecting the corona and interplanetary medium, coronal and interplanetary responses to short time scale phenomena, and future directions.

Dryer, M. (editor); Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

1980-01-01

176

Level II scour analysis for Bridge 53 (CAMBTH00750053) on Town Highway 75, crossing the Brewster River, Cambridge, Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CAMBTH00750053 on Town Highway 75 crossing the Brewster River, Cambridge, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 4.30-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest, except for the downstream right overbank area which has a barn surrounded by grass and shrubs. In the study area, the Brewster River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.05 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 62 ft and an average bank height of 12 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 84.4 mm (0.277 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 11, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 75 crossing of the Brewster River is a 28-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 24-foot concrete tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 8, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 22.4 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 40 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway as surveyed is 10 degrees. A scour hole 1 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the left abutment during the Level I assessment. The scour counter-measures at the site included type-3 stone fill (less than 48 inches diameter) along the entire base length of the upstream left wingwall. There was also type-4 stone fill (less than 60 inches diameter) along the downstream end of the downstream right wingwall. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E. Scour depths and recommended rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and others, 1995). Total scour at a highway crossing is comprised of three components: 1) long-term streambed degradation; 2) contraction scour (due to accelerated flow caused by a reduction in flow area at a bridge) and; 3) local scour (caused by accelerated flow around piers and abutments). Total scour is the sum of the three components. Equations are available to compute depths for contraction and local scour and a summary of the results of these computations follows. Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 1.1 to 1.4 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the 100-year discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 10.7 to 17.3 ft. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance duri

Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

1997-01-01

177

Level II scour analysis for Bridge 28 (CAMBTH00460028) on Town Highway 46, crossing the Seymour River, Cambridge, Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CAMBTH00460028 on Town Highway 46 crossing the Seymour River, Cambridge, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 9.94-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, the Seymour River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 81 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 62.0 mm (0.204 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 11, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 46 crossing of the Seymour River is a 38-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 33-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 8, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 30.6 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 10 degrees. A scour hole 0.2 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the upstream right wingwall and right abutment during the Level I assessment. The only scour protection measure at the site was type-1 stone fill (less than 12 inches diameter) along the upstream left road embankment. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E. Scour depths and recommended rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and others, 1995) for the 100- and 500-year discharges. In addition, the incipient roadway-overtopping discharge is determined and analyzed as another potential worst-case scour scenario. Total scour at a highway crossing is comprised of three components: 1) long-term streambed degradation; 2) contraction scour (due to accelerated flow caused by a reduction in flow area at a bridge) and; 3) local scour (caused by accelerated flow around piers and abutments). Total scour is the sum of the three components. Equations are available to compute depths for contraction and local scour and a summary of the results of these computations follows. Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the incipient roadway-overtopping discharge. Left abutment scour ranged from 4.2 to 4.9 ft. The worst-case left abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Right abutment scour ranged from 8.8 to 9.7 ft. The worst-case right abutment scour occurred at the incipient roadway-overtopping discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Rich

Ivanoff, Michael A.

1997-01-01

178

Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Fourth Cambridge Radio Survey Catalogue (4C) (Pilkington, Gower, Scott and Wills 1965, 1967)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The machine readable catalogue contains survey data from the papers of Pilkington and Scott and Gower, Scott and Wills. These data result from a survey of radio sources between declinations -07 deg and +80 deg using the large Cambridge interferometer at 178 MHz. The computerized catalog contains for each source the 4C number, 1950 position, measured flux density, and accuracy class. For some sources miscellaneous brief comments such as cross identifications to the 3C catalog or remarks on contamination from nearby sources are given at the ends of the data records. A detailed description of the machine readable catalog as it is currently being distributed by the Astronomical Data Center is given to enable users to read and process the data.

Warren, W. H., Jr.

1983-01-01

179

The Polish Collection at the Alliance College Library in Cambridge Springs, PA: The Origins of the Collection in 1950, Its Rapid Development in the 1970's and the Introduction of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) in 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay outlines the development, present condition, and future direction of the 20,000-volume Polish research collection at Alliance College, located in Cambridge Springs, Pennsylvania. Alliance College was founded in 1912 by the Polish National Alliance (PNA), a life insurance fraternal organization. In 1931 its entire library collection was…

Kozaczka, Stanley J.

180

Symposium on Combustion /International/, 16th, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., August 15-20, 1976, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aspects of combustion technology in power systems are considered, taking into account a combustion in large boilers, the control of over-all thermal efficiency of combustion heating systems, a comparison of mathematical models of the radiative behavior of a large-scale experimental furnace, a concentric multiannular swirl burner, and the effects of water introduction on diesel engine combustion and emissions. Attention is also given to combustion and related processes in energy production from coal, spray and droplet combustion, soot formation and growth, the kinetics of elementary reactions, flame structure and chemistry, propellant ignition and combustion, fire and explosion research, mathematical modeling, high output combustion systems, turbulent flames and combustion, and ignition, optical, and electrical properties.

1977-01-01

181

Laser research and development in the Northeast; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Sept. 16, 17, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The development and scaling of excimer lasers with emphasis on both electron-beam and discharge pumpings; a chemical means of generating laser action in the visible region; the use of stimulated Raman techniques to improve the beam quality output of systems employing excimer lasers; the research and development of CO/sub 2/ lasers; a CO/sub 2/ laser amplifier for radar applications; medical laser usage; and laser monitors for trace species in environmental and industrial processes are examined. Consideration is given to high power laser research and development for laser energetics; linear and nonlinear frequency converters; 450 nm laser operation in Tm(3+):YLF; alexandrite lasers and their applications; and the performance limitations of vibronic lasers. Topics discussed include the laser ignition of oil spills; the application of laser rangers to submunitions; the design and application of laser intensity stabilizers; and a 535 nm active atomic line filter that uses the Tl metastable state as an absorbing medium.

Trainor, D.W.; Chicklis, E.P.

1987-01-01

182

Laser research and development in the Northeast; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Sept. 16, 17, 1986  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and scaling of excimer lasers with emphasis on both electron-beam and discharge pumpings; a chemical means of generating laser action in the visible region; the use of stimulated Raman techniques to improve the beam quality output of systems employing excimer lasers; the research and development of CO2 lasers; a CO2 laser amplifier for radar applications; medical laser usage; and laser monitors for trace species in environmental and industrial processes are examined. Consideration is given to high power laser research and development for laser energetics; linear and nonlinear frequency converters; 450 nm laser operation in Tm(3+):YLF; alexandrite lasers and their applications; and the performance limitations of vibronic lasers. Topics discussed include the laser ignition of oil spills; the application of laser rangers to submunitions; the design and application of laser intensity stabilizers; and a 535 nm active atomic line filter that uses the Tl metastable state as an absorbing medium.

Trainor, Daniel W.; Chicklis, Evan P.

183

Associations between active commuting and physical activity in working adults: Cross-sectional results from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study  

PubMed Central

Objective To quantify the association between time spent in active commuting and in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a sample of working adults living in both urban and rural locations. Methods In 2009, participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study were sent questionnaires enquiring about sociodemographic characteristics and weekly time spent in active commuting. They were also invited to wear an accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were used to compute the time spent in MVPA. Multiple regression models were used to examine the association between time spent in active commuting and MVPA. Results 475 participants (70% female) provided valid data. On average, participants recorded 55 (SD: 23.02) minutes of MVPA per day. For women, reporting 150 or more minutes of active commuting per week was associated with an estimated 8.50 (95% CI: 1.75 to 51.26, p = 0.01) additional minutes of daily MVPA compared to those who reported no time in active commuting. No overall associations were found in men. Conclusions Promoting active commuting might be an important way of increasing levels of physical activity, particularly in women. Further research should assess whether increases in time spent in active commuting are associated with increases in physical activity.

Yang, Lin; Panter, Jenna; Griffin, Simon J.; Ogilvie, David

2012-01-01

184

Reduction of De Novo Postsurgical Adhesions by Intraoperative Precoating with Sepracoat (HAL-C) Solution: A Prospective, Randomized, Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Study ? ? Sepracoat and HAL-C are trademarks; they are the property of Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of Sepracoat (HAL-C; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) solution in reducing the incidence, severity, and extent of de novo adhesion formation at sites without direct surgical trauma or adhesiolysis at the time of gynecologic laparotomy.Design: Prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled multicenter study. Patients underwent gynecologic procedures via laparotomy; approximately 40 days later, surgeons assessed their

Michael P. Diamond

1998-01-01

185

Changes in physical activity and modelled cardiovascular risk following diagnosis of diabetes: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort  

PubMed Central

Aims To describe change in physical activity over 1 year and associations with change in cardiovascular disease risk factors in a population with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes. Methods Eight hundred and sixty-seven individuals with screen-detected diabetes underwent measurement of self-reported physical activity, cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and 1 year (n = 736) in the ADDITION-Cambridge trial. Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in different physical activity domains and cardiovascular disease risk factors at 1 year. Results There was no change in self-reported physical activity over 12 months. Even relatively large changes in physical activity were associated with relatively small changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors after allowing for changes in self-reported medication and diet. For every 30 metabolic equivalent-h increase in recreational activity (equivalent to 10 h/brisk walking/week), there was an average reduction of 0.1% in HbA1c in men (95% CI ?0.15 to ?0.01, P = 0.021) and an average reduction of 2 mmHg in systolic blood pressure in women (95% CI ?4.0 to ?0.05, P = 0.045). Conclusions Few associations were observed between change in different physical activity domains and cardiovascular disease risk factors in this trial cohort. Cardiovascular disease risk reduction appeared to be driven largely by factors other than changes in self-reported physical activity in the first year following diagnosis.

Barakat, A; Williams, K M; Prevost, A T; Kinmonth, A-L; Wareham, N J; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

2013-01-01

186

Are people with negative diabetes screening tests falsely reassured? Parallel group cohort study embedded in the ADDITION (Cambridge) randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess whether receiving a negative test result at primary care based stepwise diabetes screening results in false reassurance. Design Parallel group cohort study embedded in a randomised controlled trial. Setting 15 practices (10 screening, 5 control) in the ADDITION (Cambridge) trial. Participants 5334 adults (aged 40-69) in the top quarter for risk of having undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (964 controls and 4370 screening attenders). Main outcome measures Perceived personal and comparative risk of diabetes, intentions for behavioural change, and self rated health measured after an initial random blood glucose test and at 3-6 and 12-15 months later (equivalent time points for controls). Results A linear mixed effects model with control for clustering by practice found no significant differences between controls and people who screened negative for diabetes in perceived personal risk, behavioural intentions, or self rated health after the first appointment or at 3-6 months or 12-15 months later. After the initial test, people who screened negative reported significantly (but slightly) lower perceived comparative risk (mean difference ?0.16, 95% confidence interval ?0.30 to ?0.02; P=0.04) than the control group at the equivalent time point; no differences were evident at 3-6 and 12-15 months. Conclusions A negative test result at diabetes screening does not seem to promote false reassurance, whether this is expressed as lower perceived risk, lower intentions for health related behavioural change, or higher self rated health. Implementing a widespread programme of primary care based stepwise screening for type 2 diabetes is unlikely to cause an adverse shift in the population distribution of plasma glucose and cardiovascular risk resulting from an increase in unhealthy behaviours arising from false reassurance among people who screen negative. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN99175498.

2009-01-01

187

Correlates of Reported and Recorded Time Spent in Physical Activity in Working Adults: Results from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge Study  

PubMed Central

Background The correlates of physical activity in adults are relatively well studied. However, many studies use self-reported (‘reported’) measures of activity and we know little about the possible differences between the correlates of reported and objective (‘recorded’) measures of physical activity. We compared the correlates of reported and recorded time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a sample of working adults. Methods In 2009, participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study completed questionnaires assessing individual, socio-demographic, health and contextual characteristics. Recorded time spent in MVPA over seven days was ascertained using accelerometers and reported time spent in MVPA was assessed using the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ). Correlates of MVPA were investigated using sex-specific linear regression models. Results 486 participants (70% women) provided both reported and recorded physical activity data. 89% recorded at least 30 minutes of MVPA per day. In men, none of the potential explanatory variables were associated with both reported and recorded time spent in MVPA. In women, of all the potential explanatory variables only that of having a standing or manual occupation was associated with both reported (+42 min/day; 95% CI 16.4 to 68.4, p?=?0.001) and recorded (+9 min/day; 95% CI: 3.5 to 15.7, p?=?0.002) time spent in MVPA. Discussion The use of an objective measure of physical activity may influence the correlates which are observed. Researchers may wish to consider using and analysing recorded and reported measures in combination to gain a more complete view of the correlates of physical activity.

Panter, Jenna; Griffin, Simon; Ogilvie, David

2012-01-01

188

Water-quality conditions, and constituent loads and yields in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, Massachusetts, water years 2005–07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The source water area for the drinking-water supply of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, encompasses major transportation corridors, as well as large areas of light industrial, commercial, and residential land use. Because of ongoing development in the drinking-water source area, the Cambridge water supply has the potential to be affected by a wide variety of contaminants. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored surface-water quality in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins, which compose the drinking-water source area, since 1997 (water year 1997) through continuous monitoring and discrete sample collection and, since 2004, through systematic collection of streamwater samples during base-flow and stormflow conditions at five primary sampling stations in the drinking-water source area. Four primary sampling stations are on small tributaries in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins; the fifth primary sampling station is on the main stem of Stony Brook and drains about 93 percent of the Cambridge drinking-water source area. Water samples also were collected at six secondary sampling stations, including Fresh Pond Reservoir, the final storage reservoir for the raw water supply. Storm runoff and base-flow concentrations of calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) were estimated from continuous records of streamflow and specific conductance for six monitoring stations, which include the five primary sampling stations. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, estimate loads and yields, and describe trends in Cl and Na in the tributaries and main-stem streams in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins. These data also were used to describe how streamwater quality is affected by various watershed characteristics and provide information to guide future watershed management. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of Ca, Cl, Na, and SO4, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), caffeine, and a suite of 59 polar pesticides. Values of physical properties and constituent concentrations varied widely, particularly in samples from tributaries. Median concentrations of Ca, Cl, Na, and SO4 in samples collected in the Hobbs Brook Basin (39.8, 392, 207, and 21.7 milligrams per liter (mg/L), respectively) were higher than those for the Stony Brook Basin (17.8, 87.7, 49.7, and 14.7 mg/L, respectively). These differences in major ion concentrations are likely related to the low percentages of developed land and impervious area in the Stony Brook Basin. Concentrations of dissolved Cl and Na in samples, and those estimated from continuous records of specific conductance (particularly during base flow), often were greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary drinking-water guideline for Cl (250 mg/L), the chronic aquatic-life guideline for Cl (230 mg/L), and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs drinking-water guideline for Na (20 mg/L). Mean annual flow-weighted concentrations of Ca, Cl, and Na were generally positively correlated with the area of roadway land use in the subbasins. Correlations between mean annual concentrations of Ca and SO4 in base flow and total roadway, total impervious, and commercial-industrial land uses were statistically significant. Concentrations of TN (range of 0.42 to 5.13 mg/L in all subbasins) and TP (range of 0.006 to 0.80 mg/L in all subbasins) in tributary samples did not differ substantially between the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins. Concentrations of TN and TP in samples collected during water years 2004–07 exceeded proposed reference concentrations of 0.57 and 0.024 mg/L, in 94 and 56 percent of the samples, respectively. Correlations between annual flow-weighted concentrations of TN and percentages of recreational land use and water-body area were statistically significant; however, no significant relation was found between TP and available land-use information. The volume of streamflow affected water-quality conditions at the pri

Smith, Kirk P.

2013-01-01

189

Scaling Cubes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore scale by using building cubes to see how changing the length, width, and height of a three-dimensional object affects its surface area and its volume. Learners build bigger and bigger cubes to understand these scaling relationships.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

190

Map Scales  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The proportion chosen for a particular map is its scale. Selecting the appropriate scale depends on the size of the sheet of paper and the accurate placement of features. Ground area, rivers, lakes, roads, distances between features, and so on must be shown proportionately smaller than they really are.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2002-01-01

191

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword; Preface; List of figures; 1. The environment of outer space; 2. Orbits; 3. Ground tracks; 4. The occupation of space; 5. Launchers and launch sites; 6. Political and economic aspects; 7. Near-Earth science missions; 8. Exploration beyond geocentric orbit; 9. Earth observation; 10. Telecommunications; 11. Military applications; 12. Man in space; Bibliography; Internet sites; Index.

Verger, Fernand; Sourbès-Verger, Isabelle; Ghirardi, Raymond; Pasco, With contributions by Xavier; Logsdon, Foreword by John M.; Lyle, Translated by Stephen; Reilly, Paul

2003-08-01

192

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the lift-off of Sputnik in 1957, over 8,000 satellites and spacecraft have been launched from over thirty countries, costing hundreds of billions of dollars. While only about 350 people have made the incredible journey beyond our atmosphere, we all benefit in countless ways from the missions. An authoriative and accessible source that collects information on man's quest to explore

Fernand Verger; Isabelle Sourbès-Verger; Raymond Ghirardi

2003-01-01

193

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, meteorites have caught the imagination of scientist and collector alike. An army of people are now actively searching for them in the hot and cold deserts of Earth. Fascinating extraterrestrial rocks in meteorites are our only contact with materials from beyond the Earth-Moon system. Using well known petrologic techniques, O. Richard Norton reveals in vivid color their

O. Richard Norton

2002-01-01

194

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, meteorites have caught the imagination of scientist and collector alike. An army of people are now actively searching for them in the hot and cold deserts of Earth. Fascinating extraterrestrial rocks in meteorites are our only contact with materials from beyond the Earth-Moon system. Using well known petrologic techniques, O. Richard Norton reveals in vivid color their extraordinary external and internal structures and taking readers to the atomic level, describes the environment within the solar nebula that existed before the planets accreted. Extensively illustrated, this volume is a valuable guide to assist searchers in the field in recognizing the many classes of meteorites and it is a superb reference source for students, teachers and scientists who wish to probe deeper these amazing rocks from space. O. Richard Norton is a contributing editor for Meteorite magazine and the author of The Planetarium and Atmospherium and Rocks from Space (Mountain Press, 1998). For the last 40 years, he has taught astronomy and space sciences at various US institutions.

Norton, O. Richard

2002-03-01

195

RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.  

PubMed

Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals. PMID:24341115

James, Andrew

2013-10-01

196

University of Cambridge: Science Festival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Festival aims to provide the public with opportunities to explore and discuss issues of scientific interest and concern and to raise aspirations by encouraging young people to consider a career in science, technology, engineering or mathematics.Each year, the Festival welcomes over 30,000 visitors to over 250 events and receives extensive national and local media coverage. Over 170 event coordinators organise talks, interactive demonstrations, hands-on activities, film showings and debates with the assistance of around 1,000 staff and students from departments and organisations across the University and research institutions, charities and industry in the eastern region. In addition, over 150 people volunteer their time to act as stewards to ensure visitors have a safe and enjoyable Festival experience.

197

Analysis of N-H···O hydrogen bonds in new C(O)-NH-P(O)-based phosphoric triamides and analogous structures deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database.  

PubMed

Five new compounds belonging to the phosphoric triamide family have been synthesized: two of them with the formula XC(O)NHP(O)Y [X = CF3 (1) and CClF2 (2), Y = NHCH2C(CH3)2CH2NH] involving a 1,3-diazaphosphorinane ring part, and three 2,6-Cl2C6H3C(O)NHP(O)Z2 phosphoric triamides [Z = NHC(CH3)3 (3), N(CH3)(C6H11) (4) and N(CH3)(CH2C6H5) (5)]. The characterization was performed by (31)P{(1)H}, (1)H, (13)C NMR, IR spectroscopy besides (19)F NMR for fluorine containing compounds (1) and (2), and X-ray single-crystal structure analysis for (1), (3), (4) and (5). In each molecule the P atom has a distorted tetrahedral environment. The N atoms bonded to P atom have mainly sp(2) character with a very slight tendency to a pyramidal coordination for some amido groups. Different types of N-H···O hydrogen bonds have been analyzed for (1), (3), (4) and (5) and 118 other structures (including 194 hydrogen bonds) deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database, containing either C(O)-NH-P(O)[N(C)(C)]2 or C(O)-NH-P(O)[NH(C)]2. The participation of N(CP)-H···O=P [N(CP) = the nitrogen atom of the C(O)-NH-P(O) fragment], N-H···O=P, N-H···O=C and N(CP)-H···O=C hydrogen bonds in different hydrogen-bonded motifs are discussed. Moreover, the involvement of the O atoms of C=O or P=O in the [N(CP)-H][N-H]···O=P, [N-H]2···O=P, [N-H]2···O=C and [N-H]3···O=C groups are considered. A histogram of N···O distances, the distribution of N-H···O angles and the scatterplot of N-H···O angles versus N···O distances are studied. PMID:23719705

Pourayoubi, Mehrdad; Toghraee, Maryam; Divjakovic, Vladimir; van der Lee, Arie; Mancilla Percino, Teresa; Leyva Ramírez, Marco A; Saneei, Anahid

2013-04-01

198

Helicity scalings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a helical shell model of turbulence, Chen et al. (2003) showed that both helicity and energy dissipate at the Kolmogorov scale, independently from any helicity input. This is in contradiction with a previous paper by Ditlevsen & Giuliani (2001) in which, using a GOY shell model of turbulence, they found that helicity dissipates at a scale larger than the Kolmogorov scale, and does depend on the helicity input. In a recent paper by Lessinnes et al. (2011), we showed that this discrepancy is due to the fact that in the GOY shell model only one helical mode (+ or -) is present at each scale instead of both modes in the helical shell model. Then, using the GOY model, the near cancellation of the helicity flux between the + and - modes cannot occur at small scales, as it should be in true turbulence. We review the main results with a focus on the numerical procedure needed to obtain accurate statistics.

Plunian, F.; Lessinnes, T.; Carati, D.; Stepanov, R.

2011-12-01

199

Scales Reader  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet, suitable for whiteboard display, challenges learners to read metric weighing scales in four different ranges. The scales read 0-5 kilograms in wholes or halves, 0-500 grams, 0-1000 g, and 0-5 kg in decimal tenths. The student requests a weight, places a cursor, enters a reading, and checks the answer to receive a score.

2002-01-01

200

Scaling Relationships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom ready resourse is good for teaching scaling of size in relationship to semiconductor components. It describes the role of modeling and simulation, including example pictures to help students understand the material. The document contains two pages and may be downloaded in PowerPoint file format.

2013-07-30

201

Scaling Satan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes

Keith M. Wilson; Jennifer L. Huff

2001-01-01

202

Scaling Away  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, "students will measure the dimensions of a common object, multiply each dimension by a scale factor, and examine a model using the multiplied dimensions. Students will then compare the surface area and volume of the original object and the enlarged model." (From NCTM's Illuminations)

Nctm/illuminations

2009-02-12

203

Sleepiness Scale  

MedlinePLUS

... to your usual way of life in recent times. Even if you have not done some of these things recently try to work out how they would have affected you. Use the following scale to choose the most appropriate number for each ...

204

Nuclear scales  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

Friar, J.L.

1998-12-01

205

Astronomical Scales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 9-12. It focuses on scales and numbers used when representing distances and sizes in the science of astronomy. This involves developing equations and using scientific notation for large numbers. The Earth, Sun, Milky Way galaxy and universe are all used to develop understanding of this concept. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

206

Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

Barnett, Gillian C., E-mail: gillbarnett@doctors.org.uk [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coles, Charlotte E. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pharoah, Paul D.P. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elliott, Rebecca M. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tanteles, George A. [Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Jennifer S. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunning, Alison M. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

2012-03-01

207

Measuring Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Anisotropy on Medium Angular Scales.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medium scale anisotropy measurement flown in June of 1992 (MSAMI (1992)) is a balloon-borne, off -axis telescope designed to measure fluctuations in the microwave background radiation (MBR) at 5.6, 9, 16.5, and 22.5 cm^{-1}. The telescope beam width is approximately 0.5^circ as measured in flight. Analysis of the 4.7 hours of sky observation near the North Celestial Pole shows statistically significant fluctuations in the MBR at the 0.5^circ angular scale. Using a Gaussian autocorrelation function analysis, the double difference demodulation is most sensitive at theta c = 0.3^circ and the single difference demodulation at theta c = 0.5^circ. At these angles, the 90% single difference confidence interval is 1.8 times 10^{-5} < Delta T/T < 4.2 times 10^{-5} . For the double difference data, the interval at the most sensitive angle is 1.8 times 10^{-5} < Delta T/T < 3.5 times 10^{-5}. Much of the signal is due to two prominent regions of the sky binned data which are spectrally consistent with small but extended (3 ^' < theta_{rm diam} < 20^') MBR sources. They are not correlated with known foreground sources. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).

Puchalla, Jason L.

1995-01-01

208

Multidimensional scaling  

PubMed Central

The concept of similarity, or a sense of "sameness" among things, is pivotal to theories in the cognitive sciences and beyond. Similarity, however, is a difficult thing to measure. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a tool by which researchers can obtain quantitative estimates of similarity among groups of items. More formally, MDS refers to a set of statistical techniques that are used to reduce the complexity of a data set, permitting visual appreciation of the underlying relational structures contained therein. The current paper provides an overview of MDS. We discuss key aspects of performing this technique, such as methods that can be used to collect similarity estimates, analytic techniques for treating proximity data, and various concerns regarding interpretation of the MDS output. MDS analyses of two novel data sets are also included, highlighting in step-by-step fashion how MDS is performed, and key issues that may arise during analysis.

Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

209

Fractionaly Integrated Flux model and Scaling Laws in Weather and Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fractionaly Integrated Flux model (FIF) has been extensively used to model intermittent observables, like the velocity field, by defining them with the help of a fractional integration of a conservative (i.e. strictly scale invariant) flux, such as the turbulent energy flux. It indeed corresponds to a well-defined modelling that yields the observed scaling laws. Generalised Scale Invariance (GSI) enables FIF to deal with anisotropic fractional integrations and has been rather successful to define and model a unique regime of scaling anisotropic turbulence up to planetary scales. This turbulence has an effective dimension of 23/9=2.55... instead of the classical hypothesised 2D and 3D turbulent regimes, respectively for large and small spatial scales. It therefore theoretically eliminates a non plausible "dimension transition" between these two regimes and the resulting requirement of a turbulent energy "mesoscale gap", whose empirical evidence has been brought more and more into question. More recently, GSI-FIF was used to analyse climate, therefore at much larger time scales. Indeed, the 23/9-dimensional regime necessarily breaks up at the outer spatial scales. The corresponding transition range, which can be called "macroweather", seems to have many interesting properties, e.g. it rather corresponds to a fractional differentiation in time with a roughly flat frequency spectrum. Furthermore, this transition yields the possibility to have at much larger time scales scaling space-time climate fluctuations with a much stronger scaling anisotropy between time and space. Lovejoy, S. and D. Schertzer (2013). The Weather and Climate: Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades. Cambridge Press (in press). Schertzer, D. et al. (1997). Fractals 5(3): 427-471. Schertzer, D. and S. Lovejoy (2011). International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos 21(12): 3417-3456.

Schertzer, Daniel; Lovejoy, Shaun

2013-04-01

210

Earth History databases and visualization - the TimeScale Creator system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "TimeScale Creator" team (www.tscreator.org) and the Subcommission on Stratigraphic Information (stratigraphy.science.purdue.edu) of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (www.stratigraphy.org) has worked with numerous geoscientists and geological surveys to prepare reference datasets for global and regional stratigraphy. All events are currently calibrated to Geologic Time Scale 2004 (Gradstein et al., 2004, Cambridge Univ. Press) and Concise Geologic Time Scale (Ogg et al., 2008, Cambridge Univ. Press); but the array of intercalibrations enable dynamic adjustment to future numerical age scales and interpolation methods. The main "global" database contains over 25,000 events/zones from paleontology, geomagnetics, sea-level and sequence stratigraphy, igneous provinces, bolide impacts, plus several stable isotope curves and image sets. Several regional datasets are provided in conjunction with geological surveys, with numerical ages interpolated using a similar flexible inter-calibration procedure. For example, a joint program with Geoscience Australia has compiled an extensive Australian regional biostratigraphy and a full array of basin lithologic columns with each formation linked to public lexicons of all Proterozoic through Phanerozoic basins - nearly 500 columns of over 9,000 data lines plus hot-curser links to oil-gas reference wells. Other datapacks include New Zealand biostratigraphy and basin transects (ca. 200 columns), Russian biostratigraphy, British Isles regional stratigraphy, Gulf of Mexico biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy, high-resolution Neogene stable isotope curves and ice-core data, human cultural episodes, and Circum-Arctic stratigraphy sets. The growing library of datasets is designed for viewing and chart-making in the free "TimeScale Creator" JAVA package. This visualization system produces a screen display of the user-selected time-span and the selected columns of geologic time scale information. The user can change the vertical-scale, column widths, fonts, colors, titles, ordering, range chart options and many other features. Mouse-activated pop-ups provide additional information on columns and events; including links to external Internet sites. The graphics can be saved as SVG (scalable vector graphics) or PDF files for direct import into Adobe Illustrator or other common drafting software. Users can load additional regional datapacks, and create and upload their own datasets. The "Pro" version has additional dataset-creation tools, output options and the ability to edit and re-save merged datasets. The databases and visualization package are envisioned as a convenient reference tool, chart-production assistant, and a window into the geologic history of our planet.

Ogg, James; Lugowski, Adam; Gradstein, Felix

2010-05-01

211

How scaling fluctuation analyses can transform our view of the climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exist a bewildering diversity of proxy climate data including tree rings, ice cores, lake varves, boreholes, ice cores, pollen, foraminifera, corals and speleothems. Their quantitative use raises numerous questions of interpretation and calibration. Even in classical cases - such as the isotope signal in ice cores - the usual assumption of linear dependence on ambient temperature is only a first approximation. In other cases - such as speleothems - the isotope signals arise from multiple causes (which are not always understood) and this hinders their widespread use. We argue that traditional interpretations and calibrations - based on essentially deterministic comparisons between instrumental data, model outputs and proxies (albeit with the help of uncertainty analyses) - have been both overly ambitious while simultaneously underexploiting the data. The former since comparisons typically involve series at different temporal resolutions and from different geographical locations - one does not expect agreement in a deterministic sense, while with respect to climate models, one only expects statistical correspondences. The proxies are underexploited since comparisons are done at unique temporal and / or spatial resolutions whereas the fluctuations they describe provide information over wide ranges of scale. A convenient method of overcoming these difficulties is the use of fluctuation analysis systematically applied over the full range of available scales to determine the scaling proeprties. The new transformative element presented here, is to define fluctuations ?T in a series T(t) at scale ?t not by differences (?T(?t) = T(t+?t) - T(t)) but rather by the difference in the means over the first and second halves of the lag ?t . This seemingly minor change - technically from "poor man's" to "Haar" wavelets - turns out to make a huge difference since for example, it is adequate for analysing temperatures from seconds to hundreds of millions of years yet remaining simple to interpret [Lovejoy and Schertzer, 2012]. It has lead for example to the discovery of the new "macroweather" regime between weather (?t 30 yrs) in which fluctuations decrease rather than increase with scale [Lovejoy, 2013]. We illustrate the transformative power of combining such fluctuation analysis with scaling by giving numerous examples from instrumental data, multiproxies, ice core proxies, corals, speleothems and GCM outputs [Lovejoy and Schertzer, 2013]. References: Lovejoy, S. (2013), What is climate?, EOS, 94, (1), 1 January, p1-2. Lovejoy, S., and D. Schertzer (2012), Haar wavelets, fluctuations and structure functions: convenient choices for geophysics, Nonlinear Proc. Geophys. , 19, 1-14 doi: 10.5194/npg-19-1-2012. Lovejoy, S., and D. Schertzer (2013), The Weather and Climate: Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades, 480 pp., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Lovejoy, Shaun; Schertzer, Daniel

2013-04-01

212

CCD wafer scale integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wafer scale CCD photodetector arrays of 26 million pixels or more are being fabricated on a limited production basis today. This paper provides an introduction to CCD wafer scale integration with an emphasis on common wafer scale CCD design architectures, applications and fabrication processes. Examples of wafer scale CCD products are reviewed, and a triple poly, double metal wafer scale

Paul P. Suni

1995-01-01

213

Scale Space Hierarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the deep structure of a scale space image. We concentrate on scale space critical points— points with vanishing gradient with respect to both spatial and scale direction. We show that these points are always saddle points. They turn out to be extremely useful, since the iso-intensity manifolds through these points provide a scale space hierarchy tree and induce

Arjan Kuijper; Luc M. J. Florack; Max A. Viergever

2003-01-01

214

Raters & Rating Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first article in this section, "Rating Scales and Shared Meaning," by Winifred A. Lopez, discusses the analysis of rating scale data. The second article, "Rating Scale Categories: Dichotomy, Double Dichotomy, and the Number Two," by Mark H. Stone, argues that dichotomies in rating scales are more useful than multiple ratings. (SLD)

Lopez, Winifred A.; Stone, Mark H.

1998-01-01

215

Educational Scale-Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article explores the complexities of educational scale-making. "Educational scales" are defined as the spatial and temporal orders generated as pupils and teachers move and are moved through educational systems; scales are "envelopes of spacetime" into which certain schoolbased identities (and not others) can be folded. Scale is thus both an…

Nespor, Jan

2004-01-01

216

ESA's Hipparcos satellite revises the scale of the cosmos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This ruler relies on the brightnesses of winking stars called Cepheids, but the distances of the nearest examples, which calibrate the ruler, could only be estimated. Direct measurements by Hipparcos imply that the Cepheids are more luminous and more distant than previously imagined. The brightnesses of Cepheids seen in other galaxies are used as a guide to their distances. All of these galaxies may now be judged to lie farther away. At the same time the Hipparcos Cepheid scale drastically reduces the ages of the oldest stars, to about 11 billion years. By a tentative interpretation the Universe is perhaps 12 billion years old. Michael Feast from the University of Cape Town, South Africa, announces his conclusion about the Cepheids at a meeting devoted to Hipparcos at the Royal Astronomical Society in London today (14 February 1997). It will provoke much comment and controversy, because the scale and age of the Universe is the touchiest issue in cosmology. The best hope for confirming or modifying the result now rests with studies using Hipparcos data on other kinds of variable stars. An investigation of the variables called Miras, by Floor van Leeuwen of Royal Greenwich Observatory, Cambridge, and his colleagues, is described at the same London meeting. Full scientific reports on both the Cepheids and Miras have been accepted for publication in a leading journal, the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. European teams of scientists and engineers conceived and launched the unique Hipparcos satellite, which operated from 1989 to 1993. Hipparcos fixed precise positions in the sky of 120,000 stars (Hipparcos Catalogue) and logged a million more with a little less accuracy (Tycho Catalogue). Since 1993 the largest computations in the history of astronomy have reconciled the observations, to achieve a hundredfold improvement in the accuracy of star positions compared with previous surveys. Slight seasonal shifts in stellar positions as the Earth orbits the Sun, called parallaxes, give the first direct measurements of the distances of large numbers of stars. With the overall calculations completed, the harvest of scientific discoveries has begun. Among those delighted with the immediate irruption into cosmology, from this spacecraft made in Europe, is ESA's director of science, Roger Bonnet. "When supporters of the Hipparcos project argued their case," Bonnet recalls, "they were competing with astrophysical missions with more obvious glamour. But they promised remarkable consequences for all branches of astronomy. And already we see that even the teams using the Hubble Space Telescope will benefit from a verdict from Hipparcos on the distance scale that underpins all their reckonings of the expansion of the Universe." The pulse-rates of the stars Cepheid stars alternately squeeze themselves and relax, like a beating heart. They wax and wane rhythmically in brightness, every few days or weeks, at a rate that depends on their luminosity. Henrietta Leavitt at the Harvard College Observatory discovered in the early years of this century that bigger and more brilliant Cepheids vary with a longer period, according to a strict rule. It allows astronomers to gauge relative distances simply by taking the pulse-rates of the Cepheids and measuring their apparent brightnesses. Nearby Cepheids are typically 1000-2000 light-years away. They are too far for even Hipparcos to obtain very exact distance measurements, but by taking twenty-six examples and comparing them, Michael Feast and his colleague Robin Catchpole of RGO Cambridge arrive at consistent statistics. These define the relationship between the period and the luminosity, needed to judge the distances of Cepheids. The zero point is for an imaginary Cepheid pulsating once a day. This would be a star 300 times more luminous than the Sun, according to the Hipparcos data. The slowest Cepheid in the sample, l Carinae, has a period of 36 days and is equivalent to 18,000 suns. Applied to existing data on Cepheids seen in nearby galaxies, the Hipparcos res

1997-02-01

217

The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Changing Views and Fundamental Concepts: 1. Evolving perspectives: a historical prologue; 2. The new, close-up view from space; 3. The invisible buffer zone with space: atmospheres, magnetospheres and the solar wind; Part II. The Inner System - Rocky Worlds: 4. Third rock from the Sun: restless Earth; 5. The Moon: stepping stone to the planets; 6. Mercury: a dense battered world; 7. Venus: the veiled planet; 8. Mars: the red planet; Part III. The Giant Planets, Their Satellites and Their Rings - Worlds of Liquid, Ice and Gas: 9. Jupiter: a giant primitive planet; 10. Saturn: lord of the rings; 11. Uranus and Neptune; Part IV. Remnants of Creation - Small Worlds in the Solar System: 12. Asteroids and meteorites; 13. Colliding worlds; 14. Comets; 15. Beyond Neptune; Part V. Origin of the Solar System and Extrasolar Planets: 16. Brave new worlds; Index.

Lang, Kenneth R.

2011-03-01

218

The Syntax of Hungarian. Cambridge Syntax Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a guide to syntax in the Hungarian language. It is intended for students and researchers working on syntax and those interested in Finno-Ugric languages. It describes the key grammatical features of the language, focusing on the phenomena that have proven to be theoretically the most relevant and that have attracted the most…

Kiss, Katalin E.

219

And Now What about Reforming Cambridge Governance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After its recent Assurance visit from HEFCE, Oxford went through a high profile public debate at the end of which its academic community voted against moving to a governance structure which would have given Oxford a majority of external members on its Council. The Higher Education Funding Council asked Oxford to answer eight questions justifying…

Evans, G. R.

2009-01-01

220

The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes the phonological and grammatical structure of the whole-Dravidian language family from different aspects, examining its history and writing system, structure and typology, lexicon, and recent contacts between Dravidian and other language groups. The 11 chapters highlight the following: (1) "Introduction" (e.g., the Dravidian…

Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju

221

The Cambridge photographic atlas of the planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of the solar systems is considered along with the formation of the planets, the evolution of the planets, the surfaces of solid planets, and the atmosphere of the planets. A description is provided of the various planets of the solar system. It is pointed out that Mercury was little known until March 1974 when the Mariner 10 spacecraft made the first of its three flybys of that body. In the case of Venus, the Pioneer mission to Venus by NASA in 1978 provided a breakthrough concerning a knowledge of the solid body hidden beneath the clouds. The characteristics of the planet earth are discussed together with information about the moon. A shaded relief map of Mars illustrates the geographic features of this planet. The map was produced with the aid of Mariner 9 photographs. Maps of the Jovian system based on photographs provided by space missions are also presented, and the Saturnian system is discussed, taking into account major satellites and rings of Saturn.

Briggs, G.; Taylor, F.

1982-01-01

222

Schools and Delinquency. Cambridge Criminology Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book links theory and empirical evidence to derive implications for designing school-based delinquency prevention programs. It examines how school environment and behavior interact, discusses the multiple levels of influence in and around schools that combine with student characteristics to lead to delinquency, and addresses the malleability…

Gottfredson, Denise C.

223

The Cambridge encyclopedia of space (revised edition)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive and intensively illustrated development history is presented for spaceflight, ranging over its basic concepts' speculative and fictional origins, the historical roots of rocket-related technologies, and the scientific accomplishments of earth orbit and interplanetary missions to date. Attention is given to propulsion systems, spaceflight launch centers, satellite systems, and solar system exploration by the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Current space-related activities encompass the meteorology, remote sensing, telecommunications and direct broadcasting, and navigation functions of unmanned satellites, as well as such manned spacecraft roles as medical and materials science research. The military uses of space, and increasingly important space industrialization concepts, are discussed as well.

D'Allest, Frederic; Arets, Jean; Baker, Phillip J.; Balmino, Georges; Barth, Hans; Benson, Robert H.

1990-01-01

224

On Quantitative Rorschach Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two types of quantitative Rorschach scales are discussed: first, those based on the response categories of content, location, and the determinants, and second, global scales based on the subject's responses to all ten stimulus cards. (Author/JKS)

Haggard, Ernest A.

1978-01-01

225

The Scale of Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about size and scale. Learners will create and walk through a distance scale model of the size of the Solar System. This activity requires a straight line distance of approximately 295 meters (300 yards).

226

Steerable, Progressive Multidimensional Scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current implementations of Multidimensional Scaling (MDS), an approach that attempts to best represent data point similarity in a low-dimensional representation, are not suited for many of today's large-scale datasets. We propose an extension to the spring model approach that allows the user to interactively explore datasets that are far beyond the scale of previous implementations of MDS. We present MDSteer,

Matt Williams; Tamara Munzner

2004-01-01

227

Extreme Scale Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect

Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

2012-05-08

228

Scaling Laws for SGEMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaling laws for the nonlinear system-generated electromagnetic pulse (SGEMP) problem are defined and resulting implications for theory and experiments are explored. The scaling laws are used to present calculations in a scaled format which permits display of responses to a wide range of variations in fluence, spectrum, pulse width, and characteristic dimension. Interesting trends in the solutions as a function

A. J. Woods; E. P. Wenaas

1976-01-01

229

Spring Scale Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how spring scales work and how they are used for non-exact weight measurement. Learners work in teams to develop their own working spring scale out of ordinary items. They test their scale, present their designs to the group, compare their designs with those of other teams, and reflect on the experience.

Ieee

2013-07-08

230

The Positivity Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college…

Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

2012-01-01

231

Rubber Band newton Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a simple spring-like scale using a rubber band instead of a spring, and calibrate the scale in newtons (N). Learners will gain an understanding of and familiarity with the newton as a unit of force, and use the scale to weigh common objects.

Rathjen, Don

2009-01-01

232

IMAGE Satellite Scale Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about scale model building. Learners will use mathematics to determine the scale model size, construct a pattern, and build a paper scale model of the IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) satellite, the first satellite mission to image the Earth's magnetosphere. This is the second activity in the Solar Storms and You: Exploring Satellite Design educator guide.

233

Wellbore gypsum scale control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gypsum scale deposition in producing well bores is a recognized problem in many W. Texas oil fields. The results of gypsum scale formation are usually reduced producing rates, premature well abandonment, and high operating expenses. An effect gypsum removal and inhibition program is necessary for successful operation where gypsum scaling problems exist. Development of the gypsum control program presently in

Knowles

1975-01-01

234

Why do Scale-Free Networks Emerge in Nature? From Gradient Networks to Transport Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been recognized [1,2,3] that a large number of complex networks are scale-free (having a power-law degree distribution). Examples include citation networks [4], the internet [5], the world-wide-web [6], cellular metabolic networks [7], protein interaction networks [8], the sex-web [9] and alliance networks in the U.S. biotechnology industry [10]. The existence of scale-free networks in such diverse systems suggests that there is a simple underlying common reason for their development. Here, we propose that scale-free networks emerge because they ensure efficient transport of some entity. We show that for flows generated by gradients of a scalar "potential'' distributed on a network, non scale-free networks, e.g., random graphs [11], will become maximally congested, while scale-free networks will ensure efficient transport in the large network size limit. [1] R. Albert and A.-L. Barabási, Rev.Mod.Phys. 74, 47 (2002). [2] M.E.J. Newman, SIAM Rev. 45, 167 (2003). [3] S.N. Dorogovtsev and J.F.F. Mendes, Evolution of Networks: From Biological Nets to the Internet and WWW, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2003. [4] S. Redner, Eur.Phys.J. B, 4, 131 (1998). [5] M. Faloutsos, P. Faloutsos and C. Faloutsos Comp.Comm.Rev. 29, 251 (1999). [6] R. Albert, H. Jeong, and A.L. Barabási, Nature 401, 130 (1999). [7] H. Jeong et.al. Nature 407, 651 (2000). [8] H. Jeong, S. Mason, A.-L. Barabási and Z. N. Oltvai, Nature 411, 41 (2001). [9] F. Liljeros et. al. Nature 411 907 (2000). [10] W. W. Powell, D. R. White, K. W. Koput and J. Owen-Smith Am.J.Soc. in press. [11] B. Bollobás, Random Graphs, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press (2001).

Toroczkai, Zoltan

2004-03-01

235

Instantaneous scale and the short-time scale transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of instantaneous scale, ci, is developed and it is shown that it is given by ci=tØ'(t) where Ø'( t) is the derivative of the phase of the signal. Formulas for average scale, scale bandwidth, and scale group delay are obtained. The scale transform, the short time scale transform, the analytic scale signal, and other related concepts are defined

LEON COHEN

1992-01-01

236

NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

2003-03-01

237

Two-scale technicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walking technicolor theories naturally have fermions belonging to different technicolor representations and, therefore, at least two distinct energy scales below 1 TeV. We study a simplified two-scale version without ordinary color. We show that masses of light-scale technipions and technirhos are such that the latter tend always to decay to at least one W+\\/- or Z0. This signatur e should

Estia Eichten

1989-01-01

238

INL Laboratory Scale Atomizer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory scale atomizer has been built at the Idaho National Laboratory. This has proven useful for laboratory scale tests and has been used to fabricate fuel used in the RERTR miniplate experiments. This instrument evolved over time with various impr...

C. R. Clark G. C. Knighton N. P. Hallinan R. S. Fielding

2010-01-01

239

INL Laboratory Scale Atomizer  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory scale atomizer has been built at the Idaho National Laboratory. This has proven useful for laboratory scale tests and has been used to fabricate fuel used in the RERTR miniplate experiments. This instrument evolved over time with various improvements being made ‘on the fly’ in a trial and error process.

C.R. Clark; G.C. Knighton; R.S. Fielding; N.P. Hallinan

2010-01-01

240

A Scale for Sexism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines the consciousness scale as a measurement technique which divides media protrayals of women into five conceptually-derived categories that can be placed in ordinal relationships with one another. Suggests that such a scale may be useful as a tool for analyzing mass media content. (MH)

Pingree, Suzanne; And Others

1976-01-01

241

Saver-Spender Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Initial conceptual and empirical background to the Saver-Spender (SS) Scales of the personality correlate of consumer behavior are presented. These nine scales were developed to assess major behavioral orientations that underlie or facilitate consumer behavior. They are: (1) Aware of Other's Possessions; (2) Decision Confident; (3) Desires…

Heslin, Richard; And Others

242

Magnetron injection gun scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of tradeoff equations was simplified to obtain scaling laws for magnetron injection guns (MIGs). The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum-peak-power capabilities of MIGs. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations in which each MIG is designed to double the beam power of an existing design

W. Lawson

1988-01-01

243

Poetry Methods Rating Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assess high school teachers' attitudes about teaching poetry, this questionnaire asked teachers to respond to a 38-item poetry methods rating scale (PMRS) on a seven-point scale (from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree"). The items for the questionnaire were derived from a study of popular methods texts for teaching literature.…

Gallo, Donald R.

244

The birth satisfaction scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a psychometric scale – the birth satisfaction scale (BSS) – for assessing women's birth perceptions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Literature review and transcribed research-based perceived birth satisfaction and dissatisfaction expression statements were converted into a scored questionnaire. Findings – Three overarching themes were identified: service provision (home assessment, birth environment, support, relationships

Caroline Hollins Martin; Valerie Fleming

2011-01-01

245

Scaling Behavioral Anchors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although behaviorally anchored rating scales have both intuitive and empirical appeal, they have not always yielded superior results in contrast with graphic rating scales. Results indicate that the choice of an anchoring procedure will depend on the nature of the actual rating process. (Author/JKS)

Barnes, Janet L.; Landy, Frank J.

1979-01-01

246

Allometric Scaling in Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter

Jayanth Banavar

2009-01-01

247

Submicron scaling of HBTs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) bandwidth with scaling is reviewed. High bandwidths are obtained by thinning the base and collector layers, increasing emitter current density, decreasing emitter contact resistivity, and reducing the emitter and collector junction widths. In mesa HBTs, minimum dimensions required for the base contact impose a minimum width for the collector junction, frustrating device scaling.

Mark J. W. Rodwell; Miguel Urteaga; Thomas Mathew; Dennis Scott; Dino Mensa; Q. Lee; James Guthrie; Y. Betser; Suzanne C. Martin; R. P. Smith; S. Jaganathan; Sundararajan Krishnan; Stephen I. Long; R. Pullela; Bipul Agarwal; Uddalak Bhattacharya; Lorene Samoska; Mattias Dahlstrom

2001-01-01

248

Scaling up as Catachresis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The metaphor of scaling up is the wrong one to use for describing and prescribing educational change. Many of the strategies being employed to achieve scaling up are counter-productive: they conceive of practitioners as delivery agents or consumers, rather than as co-constructors of change. An approach to educational innovation based on the…

Tobin, Joseph

2005-01-01

249

Animal scale-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal scale-up is discussed as a formal approach to drug distribution in the body which permits consideration of scale through the individual processes that occur. Some of these are physical, such as blood flows, tissue binding, and kidney clearances. Others are chemical, such as metabolic reactions. The physical processes often vary quite predictably among mammalian species, and much is known

Robert L. Dedrick

1973-01-01

250

The Family Constellation Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Family Constellation Scale (FC Scale) is an instrument that assesses perceived birth order in families. It can be used in counseling to help initiate conversations about various traits and assumptions that tend to characterize first-born, middle-born children, youngest-born, and only children. It provides both counselors and clients insights…

Lemire, David

251

Simulated human skin scales  

PubMed Central

Human skin scales which have been shed naturally bear a flora of microorganisms which is unknown until tested. To replace these scales in a study of the micro-environment of both the human body and of models a method has been devised of making synthetic scales which behave both physically and aerodynamically in a similar way to the natural material. The synthetic materials carry no natural flora and it is possible to include in them test markers of several kinds to assist in identification after dispersion. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2

Lees, Julienne; Brighton, W. D.

1972-01-01

252

On nature's scaling effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation afforded the opportunity to look back in the literature to discover scaling effects in nature that might be relevant to composites. Numerous examples were found in nature's approaches to wood, teeth, horns, leaves, eggs, feathers, etc. Nature transmits tensile forces rigidly with cohesive bonds, while dealing with compression forces usually through noncompressible hydraulics. The optimum design scaling approaches for aircraft were also reviewed for comparison with similitude laws. Finally, some historical evidence for the use of Weibull scaling in composites was reviewed.

Wilkins, Dick J.

1994-07-01

253

Large scale dynamic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classes of large scale dynamic systems were discussed in the context of modern control theory. Specific examples discussed were in the technical fields of aeronautics, water resources and electric power.

Doolin, B. F.

1975-01-01

254

GSA Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Geological Society of America (GSA) site contains a detailed geologic time scale as an educational resource. It may be downloaded to a larger size, and includes all Eras, Eons, Periods, Epochs and ages as well as magnetic polarity information.

1999-01-01

255

Multichannel Scaling Analyzer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An autonomous multichannel scaling analyzer is described. It consists of: scalers, multiplexer, memory controller for FIFO operation mode, 4Kx16 bit RAM, preset scalers, graphic display driver, controller for the link to a computer. The analyzer carrier o...

N. I. Zhuravlev A. V. Salamatin A. N. Sinaev

1986-01-01

256

Large Scale Tactical Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project effort was to develop an experimental model of an automated large scale situation display which is transportable, compact, and functionally and environmentally tailored to a tactical environment. The model is being used by RA...

G. P. Plotnikoff

1973-01-01

257

Scaling in sensitivity analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population matrix models allow sets of demographic parameters to be summarized by a single value 8, the finite rate of population increase. The consequences of change in individual demographic parameters are naturally measured by the corresponding changes in 8; sensitivity analyses compare demographic parameters on the basis of these changes. These comparisons are complicated by issues of scale. Elasticity analysis attempts to deal with issues of scale by comparing the effects of proportional changes in demographic parameters, but leads to inconsistencies in evaluating demographic rates. We discuss this and other problems of scaling in sensitivity analysis, and suggest a simple criterion for choosing appropriate scales. We apply our suggestions to data for the killer whale, Orcinus orca.

Link, W. A.; Doherty, P.F., Jr.

2002-01-01

258

Robust Multidimensional Scaling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for multidimensional scaling that is highly resistant to the effects of outliers is described. Some Monte Carlo simulations illustrate the efficacy of the procedure, which performs well with or without outliers. (SLD)

Spence, Ian; Lewandowsky, Stephan

1989-01-01

259

Geological Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document describes how geologic time is approached in discussions of geologic topics. The uses of relative time and absolute time are compared, and a geologic time scale is provided to represent both concepts. References are provided.

260

Impact crater scaling laws  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impact craters are numerous on planetary bodies and furnish important information about the composition and past histories of those bodies. The interpretation of that information requires knowledge about the fundamental aspects of impact cratering mechanics. Since the typical conditions of impacts are at a size scale and velocity far in excess of experimental capabilities, direct simulations are precluded. Therefore, one must rely on extrapolation from experiments of relatively slow impacts of very small bodies, using physically based scaling laws, or must study the actual cases of interest using numerical code solutions of the fundamental physical laws that govern these processes. A progress report is presented on research on impact cratering scaling laws, on numerical studies that were designed to investigate those laws, and on various applications of the scaling laws developed by the author and his colleagues. These applications are briefly reviewed.

Holsapple, K. A.

1987-01-01

261

The Improbability scale  

SciTech Connect

The Improbability Scale (IS) is proposed as a way of communicating to the general public the improbability (and by implication, the probability) of events predicted as the result of scientific research. Through the use of the Improbability Scale, the public will be able to evaluate more easily the relative risks of predicted events and draw proper conclusions when asked to support governmental and public policy decisions arising from that research.

Ritchie, David J.; /Fermilab

2005-03-01

262

Rating Scales in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the field of schizophrenia treatment and research, psychiatric symptom rating scales have served to evaluate and elucidate\\u000a the value of antipsychotic medications and psychosocial interventions in treating this disorder. Useful scales have also been\\u000a developed to assist in measuring side effects of medications, to assess areas of cognitive functioning, to evaluate quality\\u000a of life, and to monitor medication treatment

Jennifer D. Gottlieb; Xiaoduo Fan; Donald C. Goff

263

A Mesozoic time scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an integrated geomagnetic polarity and stratigraphic time scale for the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods of the Mesozoic Era, with age estimates and uncertainty limits for stage boundaries. The time scale uses a suite of 324 radiometric dates, including high-resolution Ar-40\\/Ar-39 age estimates. This framework involves the observed ties between (1) radiometric dates, biozones, and stage boundaries, and

Felix M. Gradstein; Frits P. Agterberg; James G. Ogg; Jan Hardenbol; Paul van Veen; Jacques Thierry; Zehui Huang

1994-01-01

264

Scaling the pyramids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page features activities that compare the Great Pyramid to such modern structures as the Statue of Liberty and the Eiffel Tower. In the first activity, students use a template to construct a scale model of the Great Pyramid. They must find the scale heights for the tallest building in their neighborhood or for their height. In the remaining activity, students are given the dimensions for two other pyramids and challenged to create models. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Unit, Wgbh S.

1997-01-01

265

Interactive Geological Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This time scale allows students to select multiple time periods from a list and view them on a highlighted display. It shows the relationship between eon, era, period, sub-period, and epoch and also includes the date in mega-annum (Ma) or millions of years before present. The scale reflects the changes in the Cenozoic Era (Tertiary and Quaternary have been eliminated and the Neogene modified) in the most recent International Stratigraphic Charts.

266

Scaling of Nanowire Transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the scaling of nanowire transistors to 10-nm gate lengths and below. The 2-D scale length theory for a cylindrical surrounding-gate MOSFET is reviewed first, yielding a general guideline between the gate length and the nanowire size for acceptable short-channel effects. Quantum confinement of electrons in the nanowire is discussed next. It gives rise to a ground-state energy

Bo Yu; Lingquan Wang; Yu Yuan; Peter M. Asbeck; Yuan Taur

2008-01-01

267

Algebra Balance Scales - Negatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a virtual balance on which the student can represent (and then solve) simple linear equations with integer answers. Conceptually, positive weights (unit-blocks and x-boxes) push the pans of the scale downward. Negative values are represented by balloons which can be attached to the pans of the scale. The student can then manipulate the weights to solve the equation while simultaneously seeing a visual display of these effects on the equation.

University, Utah S.

2009-07-01

268

Extended scaling for ferromagnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple systematic rule, inspired by high-temperature series expansion (HTSE) results, is proposed for optimizing the expression for thermodynamic observables of ferromagnets exhibiting critical behavior at Tc . This ``extended scaling'' scheme leads to a protocol for the choice of scaling variables, tau=(T-Tc)\\/T or (T2-Tc2)\\/T2 depending on the observable instead of (T-Tc)\\/Tc , and more importantly to temperature dependent noncritical

I. A. Campbell; K. Hukushima; H. Takayama

2007-01-01

269

The Cambridge-Cambridge X-ray Serendipity Survey: I X-ray luminous galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the first results obtained from a new optical identification program of 123 faint X-ray sources with S(0.5-2 keV) greater than 2 x 10(exp -14) erg/s/sq cm serendipitously detected in ROSAT PSPC pointed observations. We have spectroscopically identified the optical counterparts to more than 100 sources in this survey. Although the majority of the sample (68 objects) are QSO's, we have also identified 12 narrow emission line galaxies which have extreme X-ray luminosities (10(exp 42) less than L(sub X) less than 10(exp 43.5) erg/s). Subsequent spectroscopy reveals them to be a mixture of star-burst galaxies and Seyfert 2 galaxies in approximately equal numbers. Combined with potentially similar objects identified in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey, these X-ray luminous galaxies exhibit a rate of cosmological evolution, L(sub X) varies as (1 + z)(exp 2.5 +/- 1.0), consistent with that derived for X-ray QSO's. This evolution, coupled with the steep slope determined for the faint end of the X-ray luminosity function (Phi(L(sub X)) varies as L(sub X)(exp -1.9)), implies that such objects could comprise 15-35% of the soft (1-2 keV) X-ray background.

Boyle, B. J.; Mcmahon, R. G.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, M.

1994-01-01

270

Cambridge-Cambridge X-ray Serendipity Survey: I X-ray Luminous Galaxies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report on the first results obtained from a new optical identification program of 123 faint X-ray sources with S(0.5-2 keV) greater than 2 x 10(exp -14) erg/s/sq cm serendipitously detected in ROSAT PSPC pointed observations. We have spectroscopically ...

B. J. Boyle R. G. Mcmahon B. J. Wilkes M. Elvis

1994-01-01

271

The Cambridge-Cambridge ROSAT Serendipity Survey - V. Catalogue and optical identifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of a medium-depth X-ray survey of 20 ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) fields. 123 X-ray sources were detected down to a flux limit of S(0.5-2 keV)>2x10^-14 erg s^-1 cm^-2 lying between that of the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) and the deepest ROSAT surveys. Optical identifications of 110 of these sources have revealed 68

B. J. Boyle; B. J. Wilkes; M. Elvis

1997-01-01

272

Connecting gender and economic competitiveness: lessons from Cambridge’s high-tech regional economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although recognition of the significance of gender divisions continues to transform economic geography, the discipline nevertheless remains highly uneven in its degree of engagement with gender as a legitimate focus of analysis. In particular, although social institutions are now widely regarded as key determinants of economic success, the regional learning and innovation literature remains largely gender blind, simultaneously subordinating the

Mia Gray; Al James

2007-01-01

273

Review of Large Scale and Small Scale Underwater Thermal Explosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains a review of large scale propagating thermal explosions and small scale single drop explosions. The review of large scale propagating thermal explosions identifies potential thermal explosive systems, as well as the experimental condit...

M. Rizk

1990-01-01

274

Universities Scale Like Cities  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the ‘gross university income’ in terms of total number of citations over ‘size’ in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities -the top-100 European universities- we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

van Raan, Anthony F. J.

2013-01-01

275

Scale invariance and cosmology  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of mass in the context of scale-invariant, generally covariant theories, is discussed. Scale invariance is considered in the context of a gravitational theory where the action, in the first order formalism, is of the form S={integral}L{sub 1}{phi}d{sup 4}x+{integral}L{sup 2}{radical}(-g)d{sup 4}x where {phi} is a density built out of degrees of freedom independent of the metric. For global scale invariance, a ''dilaton''{phi} has to be introduced, with non-trivial potentials V({phi})=f{sub 1}e{sup {alpha}}{sup {phi}} in L{sub 1} and U({phi})=f{sub 2}e{sup 2{alpha}}{sup {phi}} in L{sub 2}. This leads to non-trivial mass generation and a potential for {phi} which is interesting for new inflation. Scale invariant mass terms for fermions lead to a possible explanation of the present day accelerated universe and of cosmic coincidences. Although the scale symmetry is spontaneously broken there is no Goldstone boson. This surprising effect is due to the fact that in spite of the fact that there is a locally conserved current, no globally conserved dilatation charge exists due to the singular infrared behavior of the spatial components of such a current.

Guendelman, E. I. [Physics Department, Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva (Israel)

1999-11-19

276

Fire toxicity scaling  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of the thermal-decomposition products from two flexible polyurethane foams (with and without a fire retardant) and a cotton upholstery fabric was evaluated by a series of small-scale and large-scale tests single mock-up upholstery chair tests during smoldering or flaming decomposition. In addition other fire property data such as rates of heat release, effective heats of combustion, specific gas species yields, and smoke obscuration were measured. The degree of toxicity observed during and following the flaming tests (both large-scale room burns and the NBS Toxicity Tests) could be explained by a 3-Gas Model which includes the combined toxicological effects of CO, CO/sub 2/, and HCN. Essentially, no animal deaths were noted during the thirty minute exposures to the non-flaming or smoldering combustion products produced in the NBS Toxicity Test Method or the large-scale room test. In the large-scale room tests, little toxicological difference was noted between decomposition products from the burn room and a second room 12 meters away.

Braun, E.; Levin, B.C.; Paabo, M.; Gurman, J.; Holt, T.

1987-02-01

277

Spatial ecology across scales.  

PubMed

The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management. PMID:21068027

Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew

2011-04-23

278

Scales of rock permeability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permeability is a transport property which is currently measured in Darcy units. Although this unit is very convenient for most purposes, its use prevents from recognizing that permeability has units of length squared. Physically, the square root of permeability can thus be seen as a characteristic length or a characteristic pore size. At the laboratory scale, the identification of this characteristic length is a good example of how experimental measurements and theoretical modelling can be integrated. Three distinct identifications are of current use, relying on three different techniques: image analysis of thin sections, mercury porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption. In each case, one or several theoretical models allow us to derive permeability from the experimental data (equivalent channel models, statistical models, effective media models, percolation and network models). Permeability varies with pressure and temperature and this is a decisive point for any extrapolation to crustal conditions. As far as pressure is concerned, most of the effect is due to cracks and a model which does not incorporate this fact will miss its goal. Temperature induced modifications can be the result of several processes: thermal cracking (due to thermal expansion mismatch and anisotropy, or to fluid pressure build up), and pressure solution are the two main ones. Experimental data on pressure and temperature effects are difficult to obtain but they are urgently needed. Finally, an important issue is: up to which point are these small scale data and models relevant when considering formations at the oil reservoir scale, or at the crust scale? At larger scales the identification of the characteristic scale is also a major goal which is examined.

Guéguen, Y.; Gavrilenko, P.; Le Ravalec, M.

1996-05-01

279

Irreversibility time scale.  

PubMed

Entropy creation rate is introduced for a system interacting with thermostats (i.e., for a system subject to internal conservative forces interacting with "external" thermostats via conservative forces) and a fluctuation theorem for it is proved. As an application, a time scale is introduced, to be interpreted as the time over which irreversibility becomes manifest in a process leading from an initial to a final stationary state of a mechanical system in a general nonequilibrium context. The time scale is evaluated in a few examples, including the classical Joule-Thompson process (gas expansion in a vacuum). PMID:16822023

Gallavotti, G

2006-06-01

280

5.NBT Kipton's Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Kipton has a digital scale. He puts a marshmallow on the scale and it reads 7.2 grams. How much would you expect 10 marshmallows to weigh? Why? Kipton ...

281

Difficulty Scaling through Incongruity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss our work on using the incongruity measure from psychological literature to scale the difficulty level of a game online to the capabilities of the human player. Our approach has been implemented in a small game called Glove.

Giel Van Lankveld; Pieter Spronck; Matthias Rauterberg

2008-01-01

282

Scaling the Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to determine map distances and areas using the map scale. They get a feel for how much an area represents on the map in relation to the size they are suggesting for their underground caverns to shelter the Alabraska population.

Adventure Engineering

283

Scaled angular spectrum method.  

PubMed

The angular spectrum method (ASM) calculates diffraction calculation in a high numerical aperture, unlike Fresnel diffraction. However, this method does not allow us to calculate at different sampling rates on source and destination planes. In this Letter, we propose a scaled ASM that calculates diffraction at different sampling rates on source and destination planes using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform. PMID:23027301

Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Matsushima, Kyoji; Kakue, Takashi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

2012-10-01

284

The Spiritual Competency Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the development of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which was based on the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling's original Spiritual Competencies. Participants were 662 counseling students from religiously based and secular universities nationwide. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 22-item,…

Robertson, Linda A.

2010-01-01

285

Scaling the Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Continuing the Asteroid Impact challenge, students learn how to determine map distances and areas using a map scale. They also get a better feel for how much an area represents on a map in relation to the sizes they are suggesting for their underground caverns.

Adventure Engineering

286

Forced Choice Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ipsative scale is composed of triads of statements concerning school tasks. The tasks are: write a story, write the alphabet, read a story, paint a picture, add numbers, subtract numbers, and write the numbers from 1 to 20. The triples are composed with each of the three arithmetic tasks combined with all possible pairs of the four…

Harvill, Leo M.

287

Sensor system scaling issues  

SciTech Connect

A model for IR sensor performance is used to compare estimates of sensor cost effectiveness. Although data from aircraft sensors indicate a weaker scaling, their agreement is adequate to support the assessment of the benefits of operating up to the maximum altitude of most current UAVs.

Canavan, G.H.

1996-07-01

288

Scaling up Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

2008-01-01

289

Scale, Composition, and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scale (gross domestic product), composition (goods and services), and technology (impacts per unit of goods and services) in combination are the proximate determinants in an economy of the resources used, wastes generated, and land transformed. In this article, we examine relationships among these determinants to understand better the contribution…

Victor, Peter A.

2009-01-01

290

Scale Factor X  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, students navigate a maze to get to a math challenge. The three challenges are: move blue and green "fuel cells" around to match the ratios in the given containers; measure shapes to determine the scale factors needed to make them match the given templates; determine how to place bases on a map based on clues involving proportions.

2010-01-01

291

The Dissertation Barriers Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Barriers to doctoral dissertation completion were identified from a review of empirical studies of doctoral graduates and graduate students who had not completed a dissertation (ABD students) and reviews of components of doctoral persistence. The Dissertation Barriers Scale, comprising 45 items, was constructed and administered jointly with 2…

Green, Kathy E.; Kluever, Raymond C.

292

Small scale membrane mechanics.  

PubMed

Large scale changes to lipid bilayer shapes are well represented by the Helfrich model. However, there are membrane processes that take place at smaller length scales that this model cannot address. In this work, we present a one-dimensional continuum model that captures the mechanics of the lipid bilayer membrane at the length scale of the lipids themselves. The model is developed using the Cosserat theory of surfaces with lipid orientation, or 'tilt', as the fundamental degree of freedom. The Helfrich model can be recovered as a special case when the curvatures are small and the lipid tilt is everywhere zero. We use the tilt model to study local membrane deformations in response to a protein inclusion. Parameter estimates and boundary conditions are obtained from a coarse-grained molecular model using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to capture the same phenomenon. The continuum model is able to reproduce the membrane bending, stretch and lipid tilt as seen in the DPD model. The lipid tilt angle relaxes to the bulk tilt angle within 5-6 nm from the protein inclusion. Importantly, for large tilt gradients induced by the proteins, the tilt energy contribution is larger than the bending energy contribution. Thus, the continuum model of tilt accurately captures behaviors at length scales shorter than the membrane thickness. PMID:24081650

Rangamani, Padmini; Benjamini, Ayelet; Agrawal, Ashutosh; Smit, Berend; Steigmann, David J; Oster, George

2014-08-01

293

Scaling Down The Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit intended to teach children the size and scale of the Universe. Through hands-on manipulatives the students proceed in sequential stages to create four models, beginning with the Solar System and ending with the entire Universe. They also learn the distance of a light year.

Leger, Victor

2007-03-29

294

Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

Briggs, Derek C.

2013-01-01

295

Color scales for image data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desirable properties of color scales are examined, and a linearized optimal color scale (LOCS) is introduced. The merits of color scales for medical image data were studied, and it was found that, in tests, although observers performed somewhat better with the newly developed LOCS than with the previously advocated heated-object color scale, they performed significantly better with a linearized gray

Haim Levkowitz; Gabor T. Herman

1992-01-01

296

Small scale windmill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter the authors report experimental results on an optimized small scale piezoelectric windmill, which can solve the problems associated with autonomous sensor networks in outdoor, remote or inaccessible locations. The whole structure of the windmill is made of plastic, and it utilizes 18 piezoelectric bimorphs which makes this design extremely cost effective. The windmill was tested at average wind speed of 10 miles/h and it provided 5 mW continuous power. The threshold wind speed for the windmill was found to be of the order of 5.4 miles/h. Further, the authors present analysis on two other windmill structures which illustrate the design parameters required for small scale windmill.

Myers, Robert; Vickers, Mike; Kim, Hyeoungwoo; Priya, Shashank

2007-01-01

297

Large-Scale Disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Extreme" events - including climatic events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and drought - can cause massive disruption to society, including large death tolls and property damage in the billions of dollars. Events in recent years have shown the importance of being prepared and that countries need to work together to help alleviate the resulting pain and suffering. This volume presents a review of the broad research field of large-scale disasters. It establishes a common framework for predicting, controlling and managing both manmade and natural disasters. There is a particular focus on events caused by weather and climate change. Other topics include air pollution, tsunamis, disaster modeling, the use of remote sensing and the logistics of disaster management. It will appeal to scientists, engineers, first responders and health-care professionals, in addition to graduate students and researchers who have an interest in the prediction, prevention or mitigation of large-scale disasters.

Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

298

Micrometre-scale refrigerators.  

PubMed

A superconductor with a gap in the density of states or a quantum dot with discrete energy levels is a central building block in realizing an electronic on-chip cooler. They can work as energy filters, allowing only hot quasiparticles to tunnel out from the electrode to be cooled. This principle has been employed experimentally since the early 1990s in investigations and demonstrations of micrometre-scale coolers at sub-kelvin temperatures. In this paper, we review the basic experimental conditions in realizing the coolers and the main practical issues that are known to limit their performance. We give an update of experiments performed on cryogenic micrometre-scale coolers in the past five years. PMID:22790509

Muhonen, Juha T; Meschke, Matthias; Pekola, Jukka P

2012-04-01

299

Dissolution of sulfate scales  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a composition for the removal of sulfate scale from surfaces. It comprises: an aqueous solution of about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) containing 1 to 4 amino groups or a salt thereof, and about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of a second component which is diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP) or a salt thereof, or aminotri (methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) or a salt thereof as an internal phase enveloped by a hydrocarbon membrane phase which is itself emulsified in an external aqueous phase, the hydrocarbon membrane phase continuing a complexing agent weaker for the cations of the sulfate scale than the APCA and DTPMP or ATMP, any complexing agent for the cations in the external aqueous phase being weaker than that in the hydrocarbon membrane phase.

Hen, J.

1991-11-26

300

Large-Scale Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the previous chapter, we dealt with how the properties of air and water affected small-scale weather such as the formation of clouds, the formation of fog, and how comfortable you feel at different times of the year. In this chapter, we're going to go global, talking about major interactions between the Sun and Earth, the resulting effects on large air masses, and how these major interactions help us figure out what the weather's going to be tomorrow. As discussed earlier in the book, when science concepts are applied to the real world, things don't always work out exactly as expected. However, it is possible to get an overall picture of what's happening in large-scale weather.

Robertson, William C.

2005-01-01

301

Toys and Scale Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Play is fun. With toys designed like real world objects – kitchen sinks, hot wheels, lawn mowers, baby dolls – children are\\u000a socialized through play. By playing with these toys, children exercise their imaginations, creativity, and intuition. So,\\u000a too, do adults exercise these mental muscles through play. Scale models are the toys that engineers and scientists use to\\u000a solve problems.

Richard I. Emori

302

Comparison of Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education features a learning module on scale: macro, micro and nano. The material is intended as a background for students learning about nanotechnology and microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS. A participant guide, instructor guide (both in PDF format) and a comprehensive powerpoint presentation are included. Classroom activities are included. Users are encouraged to register and log in in order to access the full content on the site.

2011-10-11

303

Rating Scales for Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the past few decades, a number of clinician-rated and patient-rated instruments have been developed as primary efficacy\\u000a measures in depression clinical trials. All those scales have relative strengths and weaknesses and some of them have been\\u000a more successful than others, and have become the gold standards for depression clinical research. With all these measures\\u000a available and with the evidence

Cristina Cusin; Huaiyu Yang; Albert Yeung; Maurizio Fava

304

Chip Scale Atomic Magnetometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optically pumped magnetometer was drastically miniaturized, by taking advantage of MEMS techniques, producing the chip-scale atomic magnetometers (CSAM) physics package. The key component of the package is an alkali vapor cell. To probe the magnetic field experienced by the atoms, the injection current to the VCSEL was modulated at 3.4 GHz near half the hyperfine frequency of 87Rb. Lock-in

Peter D. D. Schwindt; B. J. Lindseth; S. Knappe; John Kitching; J. Moreland; L. Hollberg

2006-01-01

305

Scaling an Atom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a scale model of an atom to see how big or how small an atom is compared to its nucleus. Learners will realize that most of matter is just empty space! Learners will calculate the diameter and radius of a pinhead and the distance between the radius and the electron cloud as well as other optional measurements listed in the "Etc." portion of the resource.

Muller, Eric

2002-01-01

306

Smov FOS Plate Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal is to measure the precise plate scale and orientation. This will be acheived by performing a raster step and dwell sequence in the 4.3 arcsec aperture. The edges of the aperture should be avoided to prevent vignetting effects. An aperture map is required at each step of the dwell sequence. This test has to be conducted for both the RED and BLUE detectors. We will also determine the offset between the two detectors.

Kinney, Anne

1994-07-01

307

Color quality scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The color rendering index (CRI) has been shown to have deficiencies when applied to white light-emitting-diode-based sources. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the restricted scope of the CRI unnecessarily penalizes some light sources with desirable color qualities. To solve the problems of the CRI and include other dimensions of color quality, the color quality scale (CQS) has been developed. Although the CQS uses many of elements of the CRI, there are a number of fundamental differences. Like the CRI, the CQS is a test-samples method that compares the appearance of a set of reflective samples when illuminated by the test lamp to their appearance under a reference illuminant. The CQS uses a larger set of reflective samples, all of high chroma, and combines the color differences of the samples with a root mean square. Additionally, the CQS does not penalize light sources for causing increases in the chroma of object colors but does penalize sources with smaller rendered color gamut areas. The scale of the CQS is converted to span 0-100, and the uniform object color space and chromatic adaptation transform used in the calculations are updated. Supplementary scales have also been developed for expert users.

Davis, Wendy; Ohno, Yoshi

2010-03-01

308

Scale effects in necking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geometrically similar specimens spanning a scale range of 100:1 are tested quasi-statically to failure. Images of neck development are acquired using optical means for large specimens, and in-situ scanning electron microscope testing for small specimens, to examine the dependence of neck geometry on a broad range of specimen sizes. Size effects typically arise when the smallest specimen dimension is on the order of a microstructural length (e.g. grain size, dislocation mean free path, etc.), or in the presence of significant plastic strain gradients, which increase the density of geometrically necessary dislocations. This study was carried out for the purpose of investigating scale dependence in models used for predicting dynamic deformation and damage to very high strains for ballistic impact applications, such as the Goldthorpe path-dependent failure model, which includes temperature and strain-rate dependence but does not account for specimen size or a dependence on microstructural lengths. Although the experiments show that neck geometry does not exhibit a clear dependence on specimen size across the range of length scales tested, the statistical variation due to microstructural variations was found to increase monotonically with decreasing size, becoming significant for the smallest (0.35 mm diameter) size, allowing a limit to be identified for reliable model calibration.

Dunnett, T.; Balint, D.; MacGillivray, H.; Church, P.; Gould, P.

2012-08-01

309

Fractionating the unitary notion of dissociation: disembodied but not embodied dissociative experiences are associated with exocentric perspective-taking  

PubMed Central

It has been argued that hallucinations which appear to involve shifts in egocentric perspective (e.g., the out-of-body experience, OBE) reflect specific biases in exocentric perspective-taking processes. Via a newly devised perspective-taking task, we examined whether such biases in perspective-taking were present in relation to specific dissociative anomalous body experiences (ABE) – namely the OBE. Participants also completed the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS; Sierra and Berrios, 2000) which provided measures of additional embodied ABE (unreality of self) and measures of derealization (unreality of surroundings). There were no reliable differences in the level of ABE, emotional numbing, and anomalies in sensory recall reported between the OBE and control group as measured by the corresponding CDS subscales. In contrast, the OBE group did provide significantly elevated measures of derealization (“alienation from surroundings” CDS subscale) relative to the control group. At the same time we also found that the OBE group was significantly more efficient at completing all aspects of the perspective-taking task relative to controls. Collectively, the current findings support fractionating the typically unitary notion of dissociation by proposing a distinction between embodied dissociative experiences and disembodied dissociative experiences – with only the latter being associated with exocentric perspective-taking mechanisms. Our findings – obtained with an ecologically valid task and a homogeneous OBE group – also call for a re-evaluation of the relationship between OBEs and perspective-taking in terms of facilitated disembodied experiences.

Braithwaite, Jason J.; James, Kelly; Dewe, Hayley; Medford, Nick; Takahashi, Chie; Kessler, Klaus

2013-01-01

310

Fractionating the unitary notion of dissociation: disembodied but not embodied dissociative experiences are associated with exocentric perspective-taking.  

PubMed

It has been argued that hallucinations which appear to involve shifts in egocentric perspective (e.g., the out-of-body experience, OBE) reflect specific biases in exocentric perspective-taking processes. Via a newly devised perspective-taking task, we examined whether such biases in perspective-taking were present in relation to specific dissociative anomalous body experiences (ABE) - namely the OBE. Participants also completed the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS; Sierra and Berrios, 2000) which provided measures of additional embodied ABE (unreality of self) and measures of derealization (unreality of surroundings). There were no reliable differences in the level of ABE, emotional numbing, and anomalies in sensory recall reported between the OBE and control group as measured by the corresponding CDS subscales. In contrast, the OBE group did provide significantly elevated measures of derealization ("alienation from surroundings" CDS subscale) relative to the control group. At the same time we also found that the OBE group was significantly more efficient at completing all aspects of the perspective-taking task relative to controls. Collectively, the current findings support fractionating the typically unitary notion of dissociation by proposing a distinction between embodied dissociative experiences and disembodied dissociative experiences - with only the latter being associated with exocentric perspective-taking mechanisms. Our findings - obtained with an ecologically valid task and a homogeneous OBE group - also call for a re-evaluation of the relationship between OBEs and perspective-taking in terms of facilitated disembodied experiences. PMID:24198776

Braithwaite, Jason J; James, Kelly; Dewe, Hayley; Medford, Nick; Takahashi, Chie; Kessler, Klaus

2013-01-01

311

Bureau of Mines Geotechnical Centrifuge Research: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines has, primarily through its contract program, used large-scale centrifuges to determine design criteria for tailings embankments. The centrifuge runs were made at two installations, the University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England a...

P. C. McWilliams

1989-01-01

312

Graphing - Scaling a Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In science, students often start their graphs at an origin other than (0, 0). Also the scales are often very large or very small and variables, other than x and y, are used. The students will need to use breaks in the graph to accommodate the values. For example with the first problem they will want to start the vertical axis at 350, and the horizontal at 0.1000. In the answer key a graph created in Excel gives a general view of the data, however it is not possible to insert the necessary break to indicate that the intersection of the axis in not (0, 0).

2011-01-01

313

Homes scaling and BCS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued on the basis of the BCS theory that the zero-T penetration depth satisfies ?-2(0)??Tc (? is the normal state dc conductivity) not only in the extreme dirty limit ?0/??1, but in a broad range of scattering parameters down to ?0/?˜1 (?0 is the zero-T BCS coherence length and ? is the mean free path). Hence, the scaling ?-2(0)??Tc, suggested as a new universal property of superconductors [Dordevic, Basov, and Homes, Sci. Rep.10.1038/srep01713 3, 1713 (2013)], finds a natural explanation within the BCS theory.

Kogan, V. G.

2013-06-01

314

Scale in education research: towards a multi-scale methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores some theoretical and methodological problems concerned with scale in education research through a critique of a recent mixed-method project. The project was framed by scale metaphors drawn from the physical and earth sciences and I consider how recent thinking around scale, for example, in ecosystems and human geography might offer helpful points and angles of view on

Andrew Noyes

2012-01-01

315

A Validity Scale for the Sharp Consumer Satisfaction Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A validity scale for the Sharp Consumer Satisfaction Scale was developed and used in experiments to assess patients' satisfaction with community mental health centers. The scale discriminated between clients who offered suggestions and those who did not. It also improved researcher's ability to predict true scores from obtained scores. (DWH)

Tanner, Barry A.; Stacy, Webb, Jr.

1985-01-01

316

Scaling in Transportation Networks  

PubMed Central

Subway systems span most large cities, and railway networks most countries in the world. These networks are fundamental in the development of countries and their cities, and it is therefore crucial to understand their formation and evolution. However, if the topological properties of these networks are fairly well understood, how they relate to population and socio-economical properties remains an open question. We propose here a general coarse-grained approach, based on a cost-benefit analysis that accounts for the scaling properties of the main quantities characterizing these systems (the number of stations, the total length, and the ridership) with the substrate's population, area and wealth. More precisely, we show that the length, number of stations and ridership of subways and rail networks can be estimated knowing the area, population and wealth of the underlying region. These predictions are in good agreement with data gathered for about subway systems and more than railway networks in the world. We also show that train networks and subway systems can be described within the same framework, but with a fundamental difference: while the interstation distance seems to be constant and determined by the typical walking distance for subways, the interstation distance for railways scales with the number of stations.

Louf, Remi; Roth, Camille; Barthelemy, Marc

2014-01-01

317

Scaling relations for watersheds.  

PubMed

We study the morphology of watersheds in two and three dimensional systems subjected to different degrees of spatial correlations. The response of these objects to small, local perturbations is also investigated with extensive numerical simulations. We find the fractal dimension of the watersheds to generally decrease with the Hurst exponent, which quantifies the degree of spatial correlations. Moreover, in two dimensions, our results match the range of fractal dimensions 1.10?d(f)?1.15 observed for natural landscapes. We report that the watershed is strongly affected by local perturbations. For perturbed two and three dimensional systems, we observe a power-law scaling behavior for the distribution of areas (volumes) enclosed by the original and the displaced watershed and for the distribution of distances between outlets. Finite-size effects are analyzed and the resulting scaling exponents are shown to depend significantly on the Hurst exponent. The intrinsic relation between watershed and invasion percolation, as well as relations between exponents conjectured in previous studies with two dimensional systems, are now confirmed by our results in three dimensions. PMID:22060465

Fehr, E; Kadau, D; Araújo, N A M; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

2011-09-01

318

Spectral multidimensional scaling  

PubMed Central

An important tool in information analysis is dimensionality reduction. There are various approaches for large data simplification by scaling its dimensions down that play a significant role in recognition and classification tasks. The efficiency of dimension reduction tools is measured in terms of memory and computational complexity, which are usually a function of the number of the given data points. Sparse local operators that involve substantially less than quadratic complexity at one end, and faithful multiscale models with quadratic cost at the other end, make the design of dimension reduction procedure a delicate balance between modeling accuracy and efficiency. Here, we combine the benefits of both and propose a low-dimensional multiscale modeling of the data, at a modest computational cost. The idea is to project the classical multidimensional scaling problem into the data spectral domain extracted from its Laplace–Beltrami operator. There, embedding into a small dimensional Euclidean space is accomplished while optimizing for a small number of coefficients. We provide a theoretical support and demonstrate that working in the natural eigenspace of the data, one could reduce the process complexity while maintaining the model fidelity. As examples, we efficiently canonize nonrigid shapes by embedding their intrinsic metric into , a method often used for matching and classifying almost isometric articulated objects. Finally, we demonstrate the method by exposing the style in which handwritten digits appear in a large collection of images. We also visualize clustering of digits by treating images as feature points that we map to a plane.

Aflalo, Yonathan; Kimmel, Ron

2013-01-01

319

Large scale collapse testing  

SciTech Connect

The design of deep water pipelines must consider external pressure loading which is applied to the line during construction or in service when the line is evacuated. A collapse failure can occur due to this external pressure alone or external pressure in combination with tension or bending loads which are imparted to the line during construction. Thus, there is an incentive for research to more accurately define the failure envelope for combined external pressure, bending, and tension for offshore pipelines. Previous work at the University of Texas at Austin concentrated on small scale testing and theoretical work. The purpose of the work in this project was to perform large scale tests to verify the previous work, and in particular to test a limited amount of seam welded Double Submerged Arc Welded (DSAW) pipe to compare with widely available seamless data. Deepwater gaslines normally are in the 16-24 in. size range where DSAW and ERW (electric resistance welded) are the only available manufacturing processes. ERW pipe was not studied in this project. Three main types of tests were performed by Stress Engineering Services, Inc. in this project. These were collapse only (16 in. pipe), collapse plus tension (6-5/8 in. pipe), and collapse plus bending (6-5/8 in. pipe). SES designed and had a multi purpose test vessel constructed to accommodate all three types of tests.

Fowler, J.R.; Hormberg, B.; Katsounas, A. (Stress Engineering Services, Inc., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-06-01

320

Small scale sanitation technologies.  

PubMed

Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable. PMID:16104403

Green, W; Ho, G

2005-01-01

321

Scaling in transportation networks.  

PubMed

Subway systems span most large cities, and railway networks most countries in the world. These networks are fundamental in the development of countries and their cities, and it is therefore crucial to understand their formation and evolution. However, if the topological properties of these networks are fairly well understood, how they relate to population and socio-economical properties remains an open question. We propose here a general coarse-grained approach, based on a cost-benefit analysis that accounts for the scaling properties of the main quantities characterizing these systems (the number of stations, the total length, and the ridership) with the substrate's population, area and wealth. More precisely, we show that the length, number of stations and ridership of subways and rail networks can be estimated knowing the area, population and wealth of the underlying region. These predictions are in good agreement with data gathered for about [Formula: see text] subway systems and more than [Formula: see text] railway networks in the world. We also show that train networks and subway systems can be described within the same framework, but with a fundamental difference: while the interstation distance seems to be constant and determined by the typical walking distance for subways, the interstation distance for railways scales with the number of stations. PMID:25029528

Louf, Rémi; Roth, Camille; Barthelemy, Marc

2014-01-01

322

MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

323

Scale-sets image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper addresses the problem,of multi-scale region-oriented image analysis. It first deals with a representational issue : how to represent all the solutions of a multi-scale partitioning algo- rithm, i.e. of an algorithm returning ordered partitions with res- pect to a one-dimensional ’scale’ parameter ? To achieve this, we propose the scale-sets representation which,can be viewed,as a region-oriented version

Laurent Guigues; Hervé Le Men

2003-01-01

324

Scaling-Up Exemplary Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scale-up is the practice of introducing proven interventions into new settings with the goal of producing similarly positive effects in larger, more diverse populations. Scale-up research examines factors that influence the effectiveness of interventions as they are brought to scale across settings. This article has three objectives. First, it defines the goals of scale-up research with respect to broader efforts

Sarah-Kathryn McDonald; Venessa Ann Keesler; Nils J. Kauffman; Barbara Schneider

2006-01-01

325

Scale and Powers of 10  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scale is a unifying concept in science. Whether one is considering the size and scope of the universe, an atom, or anything in-between, conceptual understanding of scale is a prerequisite to understanding. Other phenomena requiring knowledge of scale include geologic time, pH, and maps. Cognitively, most middle school students hold a concrete, incomplete conception of scale. Teachers can facilitate conceptual change to a more abstract conception with help from these resources.

University, Staff A.

2008-03-07

326

Scaling behavior of semiclassical gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the idea of metric scaling we examine the scaling behavior of the stress tensor of a scalar quantum field in curved space-time. The renormalization of the stress tensor results in a departure from naive scaling. We view the process of renormalizing the stress tensor as being equivalent to renormalizing the coupling constants in the Lagrangian for gravity (with terms

Bruce L. Nelson; Prakash Panangaden

1984-01-01

327

Scaling relations for galaxy clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use preliminary results of WINGS survey (Fasano et al.) to obtain determinations of optical scaling relations for galaxy clusters. Passing from one- to two- parameter scaling relations we pay particular attention to the Kormendy relation (KR) and to the Fundamental Plane (FP) of galaxy clusters, comparing them with scaling relations of elliptical galaxies.

Marmo, C.; Fasano, G.; Pignatelli, E.; Poggianti, B.; Bettoni, D.; Halliday, C.; Varela, J.; Moles, M.; Kjærgaard, P.; Couch, W.; Dressler, A.

2004-07-01

328

The Theory of Scale Relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basing our discussion on the relative character of all scales in nature and on the explicit dependence of physical laws on scale in quantum physics, we apply the principle of relativity to scale transformations. This principle, in combination with its breaking above the Einstein-de Broglie wavelength and time, leads to the demonstration of the existence of a universal, absolute and

Laurent Nottale

1992-01-01

329

Scale Freeness in Factor Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion of scale freeness does not seem to have been well understood in the factor analytic literature. Misconceptions concerning scale-freeness are clarified, and a theorem that ensures scale freeness in the orthogonal factor model is given in this paper. (Author/JKS)

Swaminathan, Hariharan; Algina, James

1978-01-01

330

Ecological Resilience, Biodiversity, and Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe existing models of the relationship between species diversity and ecological function, and propose a conceptual model that relates species richness, ecological resilience, and scale. We suggest that species interact with scale-dependent sets of ecological structures and processes that determine functional opportunities. We propose that ecologi- cal resilience is generated by diverse, but overlap- ping, function within a scale

Garry Peterson; Craig R. Allen; C. S. Holling

1998-01-01

331

Scaling-Up Exemplary Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scale-up is the practice of introducing proven interventions into new settings with the goal of producing similarly positive effects in larger, more diverse populations. Scale-up "research" examines factors that influence the effectiveness of interventions as they are brought to scale across settings. This article has three objectives. First, it…

McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Keesler, Venessa Ann; Kauffman, Nils J.; Schneider, Barbara

2006-01-01

332

Hamiltonian Systems on Time Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear and nonlinear Hamiltonian systems are studied on time scales T. We unify symplectic flow properties of discrete and continuous Hamiltonian systems. A chain rule which unifies discrete and continuous settings is presented for our so-called alpha derivatives on generalized time scales. This chain rule allows transformation of linear Hamiltonian systems on time scales under simultaneous change of independent and

Calvin D. Ahlbrandt; Martin Bohner; Jerry Ridenhour

2000-01-01

333

The Gains from Vertical Scaling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is often assumed that a vertical scale is necessary when value-added models depend upon the gain scores of students across two or more points in time. This article examines the conditions under which the scale transformations associated with the vertical scaling process would be expected to have a significant impact on normative interpretations…

Briggs, Derek C.; Domingue, Ben

2013-01-01

334

Scale behaviour of dry spells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power-law scaling of rainfall depths has been amply documented in recent years, even beyond the scales that have a spatial counterpart explaining the phenomenology. Scale behaviour of dry spells, however, is a more complex subject, not only due to the sensitivity of the analysis to the rainfall detection threshold, but also because of its intrinsically slow convergence to an asymptotic

A. A. Carsteanu; A. Barbulescu; A. Ionescu

2009-01-01

335

Studies with pain rating scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good correlation has been shown between pain scores derived from 4 different rating scales. The correlation was maintained when presentation of the scales was separated by a series of questions and by physical examination. There is good evidence that the 4 scales are measuring the same underlying pain variable as they calibrate well. There is also evidence that an 11-point

W W Downie; P A Leatham; V M Rhind; V Wright; J A Branco; J A Anderson

1978-01-01

336

Galactic-scale civilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

Kuiper, T. B. H.

1980-01-01

337

FOC Plate Scale - Revised  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of these tests is to measure the plate scale of the FOC f/48 and f/96 modes. This will be achieved by imaging a pair of astrometric stars (separation 10.5") in the full (512x1024 zoomed) format and the centered (512x512 normal) format of both the f/48 and the f/96 cameras. This sequence of observations will be repeated twice at intervals not less than 4 weeks and not greater than 8 weeks. The change in telescope roll angle over this period will rotate this pair of stars relative to the photocathode and will unambiguously define the platescale for both relays. The observations will be analyzed off-line using CDBS, and the analysis will be used to update the FOC reference files in SOGS.

Paresce, Francesco

1991-07-01

338

Full Scale Tunnel (FST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of Full Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

1930-01-01

339

Full Scale Tunnel (FST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

1930-01-01

340

Scaling behaviour in the number of criminal acts committed by individuals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the distribution of the extent of criminal activity by individuals in two widely cited data bases. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development records criminal convictions amongst a group of working class youths in the UK over a 14 year period. The Pittsburgh Youth Study measures self-reported criminal acts over intervals of six months or a year in three groups of boys in the public school system in Pittsburgh, PA. The range of the data is very substantially different between these two measures of criminal activity, one of which is convictions and the other self-reported acts. However, there are many similarities between the characteristics of the data sets. A power law relationship between the frequency and rank of the number of criminal acts describes the data well in both cases, and fits the data better than an exponential relationship. Power law distributions of macroscopic observables are ubiquitous in both the natural and social sciences. They are indicative of correlated, cooperative phenomena between groups of interacting agents at the microscopic level. However, there is evidence of a bimodal distribution, again in each case. Excluding the frequency with which zero crimes are committed or reported reduces the absolute size of the estimated exponent in the power law relationship. The exponent is virtually identical in both cases. A better fit is obtained for the tail of the distribution. In other words, there appears to be a subtle deviation from straightforward power law behaviour. The description of the data when the number of boys committing or reporting zero crimes are excluded is different from that when they are included. The crucial step in the criminal progress of an individual appears to be committing the first act. Once this happens, the number of criminal acts committed by an individual can take place on all scales.

Cook, Will; Ormerod, Paul; Cooper, Ellie

2004-07-01

341

The Cross-Scale Mission  

SciTech Connect

Collisionless space plasmas exhibit complex behavior on many scales. Fortunately, one can identify a small number of processes and phenomena, essentially shocks, reconnection and turbulence that play a predominant role in the dynamics of a plasma. These processes act to transfer energy between locations, scales and modes, a transfer characterized by variability and three-dimensional structure on at least three scales: electron kinetic, ion kinetic and fluid scale. The nonlinear interaction between physical processes at these scales is the key to understanding these phenomena. Current and upcoming multi-spacecraft missions such as Cluster, THEMIS, and MMS only study three-dimensional variations on one scale at any given time, but one needs to measure the three scales simultaneously to understand the energy transfer processes and the coupling and interaction between the different scales. A mission called Cross-Scale would comprise three nested groups, each consisting of up to four spacecraft. Each group would have a different spacecraft separation, at approximately the electron and ion gyro radii, and at the larger magnetohydrodynamic or fluid scale. One would therefore be able to measure simultaneously variations on all three important physical scales, for the first time. With the spacecraft traversing key regions of near-Earth space, namely solar wind, bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause and magnetotail, all three aforementioned processes can be studied.

Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R. [Space Research Institute, Graz (Austria); Horbury, T.; Schwartz, S. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Canu, P.; Roux, A. [CETP/CNRS, Velizy (France); Louarn, P. [CNRS/CESR, Toulouse (France); Fujimoto, M. [ISAS/JAXA, Sagamihara (Japan); Owen, C. [University College, London (United Kingdom); Vaivads, A. [Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)

2009-06-16

342

Transition from Large-Scale to Small-Scale Dynamo  

SciTech Connect

The dynamo equations are solved numerically with a helical forcing corresponding to the Roberts flow. In the fully turbulent regime the flow behaves as a Roberts flow on long time scales, plus turbulent fluctuations at short time scales. The dynamo onset is controlled by the long time scales of the flow, in agreement with the former Karlsruhe experimental results. The is governed by a generalized {alpha} effect, which includes both the usual {alpha} effect and turbulent diffusion, plus all higher order effects. Beyond the onset we find that this generalized {alpha} effect scales as O(Rm{sup -1}), suggesting the takeover of small-scale dynamo action. This is confirmed by simulations in which dynamo occurs even if the large-scale field is artificially suppressed.

Ponty, Y. [Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, B.P. 4229, Nice cedex 04 (France); Plunian, F. [Institut des Sciences de la Terre, CNRS, Universite Joseph Fourier, B.P. 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

2011-04-15

343

A Unified Approach to IRT Scale Linking and Scale Transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines IRT scale transformations and IRT scale-linking methods used in the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design to equate two tests, X and Y. It proposes a unifying approach to the commonly used IRT linking methods: mean–mean, mean–var linking, concurrent calibration, Stocking and Lord, and Haebara characteristic curves approaches, and fixed-item parameters scale linkage. The main idea

Matthias von Davier; Alina A. von Davier

2007-01-01

344

Will Lessons from Small-Scale Social Dilemmas Scale Up?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we ask whether the design principles that have been proposed as ways of solving small- and medium-sized dilemmas\\u000a related to use of resources are applicable at a larger scale. Obviously, these principles do not scale up automatically. On\\u000a the other hand, more hope exists regarding the feasibility of scaling up than is sometimes expressed in the literature

Michael McGinnis; Elinor Ostrom

345

Planetary scale interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric teleconnections in the medium to long (10-90 days) time scales focusing on the interactions between extratropical circulation and tropical convection are studied. In a continuing effort to study short-term climate variability and atmospheric teleconnection as inferred from satellite observed outgoing longwave radiation, the low frequency variability (LFB) of tropical and extratropical cloud fluctuation over the Pacific was studied. It was found that during the Northern winter, the LFV of tropical cloud fluctuation is dominated by a 40-50 day dipole-like oscillation linking convection over Indonesia and the equatorial central Pacific. Eastward propagating signals appearing as outbursts of convective cloud clusters originating from the Indian Ocean appear to periodically feed energy into this dipole oscillation. It was also found that there are cloud features appearing over East Asia and subsequently over the eastern North Pacific which vary coherently with the tropical dipole anomaly. Based on analysis and an a priori phenomenological model, it is believed that the cloud fluctuations are associated with two space/time extended normal modes of tropical-extratropical interactions over the Pacific involving a coupling between the tropical dipole convective heating anomaly with cold surges over East Asia, and blocking over the eastern North Pacific respectively.

Lau, W. K. M.

1984-01-01

346

Some Divertor Scaling Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A case is advanced for ``divertor non-scaling'', viz that absolute values of divertor density nd˜10^21 m-3 and temperature Td˜ 5 eV need to be achieved for optimal demo/reactor-relevant studies. For Td> 10 eV sputtering is very strong; for Td< 2 eV there is risk of detachment and density limit. High nd is required for high power, high duty cycle devices so that net erosion gross erosion via prompt local re-deposition of sputtered material. This occurs when impurity neutral ionization mean free path fuel ion gyro-radius (magnetic pre-sheath thickness); for B˜ 5 T this requires nd> ˜ 10^21 m-3. Thus peak parallel power flux density ˜0.1 - 0.5 GW/m^2. Modified two-point modeling then gives that: (a) ``upstream'' (e.g. outside midplane, separatrix), conditions, neu, Tu, are almost fixed, independent of R (device size) and PSOL (power entering the SOL), and (b) the required PSOL˜ R^1, R^1.5 or R^2, depending on assumptions about target power width; the latter are discussed. A test device with these absolute nd, Td values will reproduce the most critical edge aspects of demo/reactors including power handling and material erosion/migration.

Stangeby, P. C.

2009-11-01

347

Turbulent scaling in fluids  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project was a study of turbulence in fluids that are subject to different body forces and to external temperature gradients. Our focus was on the recent theoretical prediction that the Kolomogorov picture of turbulence may need to be modified for turbulent flows driven by buoyancy and subject to body forces such as rotational accelerations. Models arising from this research are important in global climate modeling, in turbulent transport problems, and in the fundamental understanding of fluid turbulence. Experimentally, we use (1) precision measurements of heat transport and local temperature; (2) flow visualization using digitally- enhanced optical shadowgraphs, particle-image velocimetry, thermochromic liquid-crystal imaging, laser-doppler velocimetry, and photochromic dye imaging; and (3) advanced image- processing techniques. Our numerical simulations employ standard spectral and novel lattice Boltzmann algorithms implemented on parallel Connection Machine computers to simulate turbulent fluid flow. In laboratory experiments on incompressible fluids, we measure probability distribution functions and two-point spatial correlations of temperature T and velocity V (both T-T and V-T correlations) and determine scaling relations for global heat transport with Rayleigh number. We also explore the mechanism for turbulence in thermal convection and the stability of the thermal boundary layer.

Ecke, R.; Li, Ning; Chen, Shiyi; Liu, Yuanming

1996-11-01

348

Large scale traffic simulations  

SciTech Connect

Large scale microscopic (i.e. vehicle-based) traffic simulations pose high demands on computational speed in at least two application areas: (i) real-time traffic forecasting, and (ii) long-term planning applications (where repeated {open_quotes}looping{close_quotes} between the microsimulation and the simulated planning of individual person`s behavior is necessary). As a rough number, a real-time simulation of an area such as Los Angeles (ca. 1 million travellers) will need a computational speed of much higher than 1 million {open_quotes}particle{close_quotes} (= vehicle) updates per second. This paper reviews how this problem is approached in different projects and how these approaches are dependent both on the specific questions and on the prospective user community. The approaches reach from highly parallel and vectorizable, single-bit implementations on parallel supercomputers for Statistical Physics questions, via more realistic implementations on coupled workstations, to more complicated driving dynamics implemented again on parallel supercomputers. 45 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Nagel, K.; Barrett, C.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Institute, NM (United States); Rickert, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)

1997-04-01

349

FOC Plate Scale - Revised  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of these observations is to allow the platescale of the FOC f/48 and f/96 cameras to be monitored. This will be achieved by imaging a pair of astrometric stars (separation ~10.5") in the full (512x1024 zoomed) format. A sequence of exposures will be obtained using each relay at positions with known angular offsets. The offsets combined with the astrometric separation will serve to unambiguously define the platescale for both relays. The observations will be analyzed off-line using CDBS and the analysis will be used to update the FOC reference files in SOGS. These observations will be combined with an observation of the center of 47-Tuc in order to determine the separation of stars in 47-Tuc. Future monitoring of the FOC's plate scale will use single observations of 47-Tuc for comparisions; this will be much more efficient the current method. It is intended to run this proposal at intervals of 4-6 months until such timeas it is clearly no longer required.

Paresce, Francesco

1992-07-01

350

Scaling of structural failure  

SciTech Connect

This article attempts to review the progress achieved in the understanding of scaling and size effect in the failure of structures. Particular emphasis is placed on quasibrittle materials for which the size effect is complicated. Attention is focused on three main types of size effects, namely the statistical size effect due to randomness of strength, the energy release size effect, and the possible size effect due to fractality of fracture or microcracks. Definitive conclusions on the applicability of these theories are drawn. Subsequently, the article discusses the application of the known size effect law for the measurement of material fracture properties, and the modeling of the size effect by the cohesive crack model, nonlocal finite element models and discrete element models. Extensions to compression failure and to the rate-dependent material behavior are also outlined. The damage constitutive law needed for describing a microcracked material in the fracture process zone is discussed. Various applications to quasibrittle materials, including concrete, sea ice, fiber composites, rocks and ceramics are presented.

Bazant, Z.P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Chen, Er-Ping [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-01-01

351

Optimizing rating scale category effectiveness.  

PubMed

Rating scales are employed as a means of extracting more information out of an item than would be obtained from a mere "yes/no", "right/wrong" or other dichotomy. But does this additional information increase measurement accuracy and precision? Eight guidelines are suggested to aid the analyst in optimizing the manner in which rating scales categories cooperate in order to improve the utility of the resultant measures. Though these guidelines are presented within the context of Rasch analysis, they reflect aspects of rating scale functioning which impact all methods of analysis. The guidelines feature rating-scale-based data such as category frequency, ordering, rating-to-measure inferential coherence, and the quality of the scale from measurement and statistical perspectives. The manner in which the guidelines prompt recategorization or reconceptualization of the rating scale is indicated. Utilization of the guidelines is illustrated through their application to two published data sets. PMID:11997586

Linacre, John M

2002-01-01

352

Image filtering via generalized scale.  

PubMed

In medical imaging, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and/or contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) often cause many image processing algorithms to perform poorly. Postacquisition image filtering is an important off-line image processing approach widely employed to enhance the SNR and CNR. A major drawback of many filtering techniques is image degradation by diffusing/blurring edges and/or fine structures. In this paper, we introduce a scale-based filtering method that employs scale-dependent diffusion conductance to perform filtering. This approach utilizes novel object scale information via a concept called generalized scale, which imposes no shape, size, or anisotropic constraints unlike previously published ball scale-based filtering strategies. The object scale allows us to better control the filtering process by constraining smoothing in regions with fine details and in the vicinity of boundaries while permitting effective smoothing in the interior of homogeneous regions. A new quantitative evaluation strategy that captures the SNR to CNR trade-off behavior of filtering methods is presented. The evaluations based on the Brainweb data sets show superior performance of generalized scale-based diffusive filtering over two existing methods, namely, ball scale-based and nonlinear complex diffusion processes. Qualitative experiments based on both phantom and patient magnetic resonance images demonstrate that the generalized scale-based approach leads to better preservation of fine details and edges. PMID:17827051

Souza, Andre; Udupa, Jayaram K; Madabhushi, Anant

2008-04-01

353

Proportions - Scaling Up and Down  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Description:Students will investigate the use of linear scaling to enlarge or shrink a variety of objects. Students are lead through a series of hands on activities and then are asked to apply the concepts to some real world situations. Ensure that the students realize that if they scale an object in one direction by a given amount; they must scale the same amount in the other direction. By having the students do the activity in class they can 'see' that scaling in one direction may cause the other to over flow the allowable dimension or under fill it..

2011-01-01

354

Image Filtering via Generalized Scale  

PubMed Central

In medical imaging, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and/or contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) often cause many image processing algorithms to perform poorly. Postacquisition image filtering is an important off-line image processing approach widely employed to enhance the SNR and CNR. A major drawback of many filtering techniques is image degradation by diffusing/blurring edges and/or fine structures. In this paper, we introduce a scale-based filtering method that employs scale-dependent diffusion conductance to perform filtering. This approach utilizes novel object scale information via a concept called generalized scale, which imposes no shape, size, or anisotropic constraints unlike previously published ball scale-based filtering strategies. The object scale allows us to better control the filtering process by constraining smoothing in regions with fine details and in the vicinity of boundaries while permitting effective smoothing in the interior of homogeneous regions. A new quantitative evaluation strategy that captures the SNR to CNR trade-off behavior of filtering methods is presented. The evaluations based on the Brainweb data sets show superior performance of generalized scale-based diffusive filtering over two existing methods, namely, ball scale-based and nonlinear complex diffusion processes. Qualitative experiments based on both phantom and patient magnetic resonance images demonstrate that the generalized scale-based approach leads to better preservation of fine details and edges.

Souza, Andre; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Madabhushi, Anant

2008-01-01

355

Scale behaviour of dry spells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power-law scaling of rainfall depths has been amply documented in recent years, even beyond the scales that have a spatial counterpart explaining the phenomenology. Scale behaviour of dry spells, however, is a more complex subject, not only due to the sensitivity of the analysis to the rainfall detection threshold, but also because of its intrinsically slow convergence to an asymptotic behaviour. The present work compares the scaling of dry spells in rainfall time series with that of run lengths in series of river discharges, hereby depicting interesting connections, and adding reliability to the results.

Carsteanu, A. A.; Barbulescu, A.; Ionescu, A.

2009-04-01

356

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING BATCH SCALES. SERIES OF FIVE SCALES WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING BATCH SCALES. SERIES OF FIVE SCALES WITH SIX DIFFERENT MATERIALS. MIX SIFTED DOWN FROM SILOS ABOVE. INGREDIENTS: SAND, SODA ASH, DOLOMITE LIMESTONE, NEPHELINE SYENITE, SALT CAKE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

357

Allometric Scaling Laws and the Derivation of the Scaling Exponent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allometric scaling relations abound in nature. Examples include the power law relating the metabolic rate of organisms to their masses and the power law describing the dependence of the size. In Kleiber's Law, the metabolic rate scales as the three-quarter power of body mass. These relations are the characteristic of all organisms and are here derived from a general allometric

Marcel Grunert

358

Conceptions of scale and scaling: The expert-novice continuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education reform recommendations include incorporation of big, overarching themes in K--12 science to reduce curricular fragmentation. One recommended unifying theme is scaling, but there appears to be a gap in the research literature on educators' knowledge of how students think about size and scale. This research investigated students' conceptions of size and scale across a continuum from 5th grade (n = 37), 7th grade (n = 71), 9th grade (n = 59), 12th grade academically gifted (n = 38), to experts (n = 10). Results showed that relative sizes of objects were more accurately conceptualized than absolute sizes for all groups. Objects that serve as size reference points were identified along with experiences that impact conceptions of scale. The size of a person was a major reference point for all groups. There were varying numbers of conceptually distinct size categories for each group, with the expert group possessing more distinct as well as more clearly defined categories, particularly at scales smaller than a person. Objects larger than a person were categorized into size groupings based on the nature of experiences with those sizes---visual or kinesthetic, wholistic or sequential. An asymmetry between conceptualizations of large and small scale was identified. At scales larger than a person, conceptualizations degraded uniformly as the size increased, but at small scale this degradation occurred in a discontinuous manner at the boundary where objects become invisible to the unaided eye. Experts mentally maneuvered across this discontinuity by conceptually jumping to a new scale world, using mathematics and various units of measurement to provide resilient links between microscopic and macroscopic worlds. This research concludes with implications for teachers, parents, and curriculum developers to help students make better use of scaling concepts as a broad, unifying theme to create coherence in the science curriculum.

Tretter, Thomas R.

359

The efficacy of lamotrigine in a resistant case of depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

The individuals with depersonalizattion disorder suffer from a painful feeling that their body and mental experiences or the experiences of the environment seem become unreal, distant or mechanical. This phenomenon is often associated with other mental disorders, as in the case presented. Among the many psychoactive drugs studied, none of them has been shown to be the treatment of choice. Among those with which the best results are obtained are opioid receptor antagonists, the combination of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with lamotrigine and clorimipramine. We are presenting a resistant case that responded to lamotrigine. PMID:21769750

Rosagro-Escámez, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Noelia; Gómez-Merino, Patricia; de la Vega, Irene; Carrasco, José L

2011-01-01

360

The differentiated classroom observation scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a new classroom observation scale that was developed to examine the differential learning activities and experiences of gifted children educated in regular classroom settings. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale (DCOS) is presented in total, with clarification of the coding practices and strategies. Although the DCOS was developed to examine the impact of differentiated classroom practices for gifted

Jerrell C. Cassady; Kristie L. Speirs Neumeister; Cheryll M. Adams; Tracy L. Cross; Felicia A. Dixon; Rebecca L. Pierce

2004-01-01

361

Removing scale from oil wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A workover process for removing calcium sulfate scale from oil wells includes introducing into the well and into contact with the scale an aqueous solution of sodium or potassium gluconate and sodium or potassium hydroxide. The weight ratio of gluconate to hydroxide is between about 2:1 and about 5:1 to give a direct solvent action. The concentration is between about

1972-01-01

362

Multi-scale Material Appearance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling and rendering the appearance of materials is important for a diverse range of applications of computer graphics - from automobile design to movies and cultural heritage. The appearance of materials varies considerably at different scales, posing significant challenges due to the sheer complexity of the data, as well the need to maintain inter-scale consistency constraints. This thesis presents a series of studies around the modeling, rendering and editing of multi-scale material appearance. To efficiently render material appearance at multiple scales, we develop an object-space precomputed adaptive sampling method, which precomputes a hierarchy of view-independent points that preserve multi-level appearance. To support bi-scale material appearance design, we propose a novel reflectance filtering algorithm, which rapidly computes the large-scale appearance from small-scale details, by exploiting the low-rank structures of Bidirectional Visible Normal Distribution Functions and pre-rotated Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions in the matrix formulation of the rendering algorithm. This approach can guide the physical realization of appearance, as well as the modeling of real-world materials using very sparse measurements. Finally, we present a bi-scale-inspired high-quality general representation for material appearance described by Bidirectional Texture Functions. Our representation is at once compact, easily editable, and amenable to efficient rendering.

Wu, Hongzhi

363

Scaling properties of granular materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given an assembly of viscoelastic spheres with certain material properties, we raise the question how the macroscopic properties\\u000a of the assembly will change if all lengths of the system, i.e. radii, container size etc., are scaled by a constant. The result\\u000a leads to a method to scale down experiments to lab-size.

T. Pöschel; C. Salueña; T. Schwager

364

Profile Analysis: Multidimensional Scaling Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines an exploratory multidimensional scaling-based approach to profile analysis called Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) (M. Davison, 1994). The PAMS model has the advantages of being applied to samples of any size easily, classifying persons on a continuum, and using person profile index for further hypothesis studies, but…

Ding, Cody S.

2001-01-01

365

Earthquakes Scaling Laws: Are Independent?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquakes exhibit three well known scaling laws: Gutenberg - Richter (GR) frequency magnitude relation, the Omori law and the multifractal distribution of epicenters. We shall show that there exist two relations between the scaling exponente of these relations. In particular the b value shall be proportional to the correlation dimension of the epicenter distribution trough the fractal dimension of the

C. Godano; M. Falanga; S. de Martino

2002-01-01

366

Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

2006-01-01

367

A Scale of Mobbing Impacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research was to develop the Mobbing Impacts Scale and to examine its validity and reliability analyses. The sample of study consisted of 509 teachers from Sakarya. In this study construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliabilities and item analysis of the scale were examined. As a result of factor analysis for…

Yaman, Erkan

2012-01-01

368

Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), the state-of-the-art production techniques for computer chips, promises such powerful, inexpensive computing that, in the future, people will be able to communicate with computer devices in natural language or even speech. However, before full-scale VLSI implementation can occur, certain salient factors must be…

Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

369

Scaling up through domain decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we discuss domain decomposition parallel iterative solvers for highly heterogeneous problems of flow and transport in porous media. We are particularly interested in highly unstructured coefficient variation where standard periodic or stochastic homogenization theory is not applicable. When the smallest scale at which the coefficient varies is very small, it is often necessary to scale up the

Clemens Pechstein; Robert Scheichl

2009-01-01

370

Convergent Validity of Four Innovativeness Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four scales of innovativeness were administered to two samples of undergraduate students: the Open Processing Scale, Innovativeness Scale, innovation subscale of the Jackson Personality Inventory, and Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory. Intercorrelations indicated the scales generally exhibited convergent validity. (GDC)

Goldsmith, Ronald E.

1986-01-01

371

Scaling of Fractured Rock Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractured rocks exhibit a hierarchical structure which renders their attributes scale-dependent. Published data indicate a tendency for fracture length scales to be distributed according to a power law, average fracture aperture to be given by a power of the fracture length scale, and fracture density as well as log permeability to exhibit power-law scaling. We illustrate such scaling on log air permeabilities measured on a nominal support scale of 1-m along vertical and inclined boreholes spanning a 30×20×30 m3 block of unsaturated fractured tuff near Superior, Arizona. Log permeability sample structure functions of order q scale as powers ?(q) of separation scale (lag) over limited ranges of lags. A procedure known as extended self-similarity (ESS) extends power-law scaling to all lags and yields a nonlinear (concave) functional relationship between ? and q. Whereas the literature associates such nonlinear power-law scaling with multifractals or fractional Laplace motions, our analysis shows that this behavior is consistent with sub-Gaussian random fields subordinated to truncated (monofractal) fractional Brownian motion (tfBm). While the frequency distribution of the log permeability data appears to be Gaussian, those of increments corresponding to small lags exhibit heavy tails consistent with such sub-Gaussian fields. The same scaling theory allowed us to develop previously a consistent statistical relationship between fracture length, aperture, density and log permeability. In particular, for fractures having a given length scale L, variances of density and log permeability that exhibit power-law scaling grow as positive powers of L and decrease as negative powers of the smallest length scale sampled. For nominal parameters that are most representative of published values inferred from field data, the variance of fracture densities increases quadratically with L and that of log permeability increases as L3/2; for a given L the variance of log permeability is proportional to that of fracture density, the constant of proportionality being a (positive, zero or negative) power of L, and the standard deviation of log permeability is proportional to a positive power ? of the average aperture where 0

Neuman, S. P.; Guadagnini, A.; Riva, M.

2012-12-01

372

Scaling issues in dynamic fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

A set of relations which would allow the experimental results of impact fragmentation experiments conducted under the controlled environment of a testing laboratory to be confidently scaled to realistic system dimensions would be an effective tool in the developments toward a predictive capability in full scale applications involving fragmentation. Here some of the issues governing scaling relations in dynamic fragmentation are discussed. Dimensional arguments are pursued. Some of the consequences indicate that fragmentation scaling relations are dependent on the specific material properties and mechanisms governing the fragmentation process. Transitions in functional forms of the scaling relations can be expected under conditions in which fragmentation mechanism transitions occur in complex engineering materials. Some computational simulations and experimental impact fragmentation results are examined.

Grady, D.

1995-03-01

373

Important Scaling Parameters for Testing Model-Scale Helicopter Rotors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation into the effects of aerodynamic and aeroelastic scaling parameters on model scale helicopter rotors has been conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The effect of varying Reynolds number, blade Lock number, and structural elasticity on rotor performance has been studied and the performance results are discussed herein for two different rotor blade sets at two rotor advance ratios. One set of rotor blades were rigid and the other set of blades were dynamically scaled to be representative of a main rotor design for a utility class helicopter. The investigation was con-densities permits the acquisition of data for several Reynolds and Lock number combinations.

Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

1998-01-01

374

Scale effect on overland flow connectivity at the plot scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major challenge in present-day hydrological sciences is to enhance the performance of existing distributed hydrological models through a better description of subgrid processes, in particular the subgrid connectivity of flow paths. The relative surface connection function (RSC) was proposed by Antoine et al. (2009) as a functional indicator of runoff flow connectivity. For a given area, it expresses the percentage of the surface connected to the outflow boundary (C) as a function of the degree of filling of the depression storage. This function explicitly integrates the flow network at the soil surface and hence provides essential information regarding the flow paths' connectivity. It has been shown that this function could help improve the modeling of the hydrogram at the square meter scale, yet it is unknown how the scale affects the RSC function, and whether and how it can be extrapolated to other scales. The main objective of this research is to study the scale effect on overland flow connectivity (RSC function). For this purpose, digital elevation data of a real field (9 × 3 m) and three synthetic fields (6 × 6 m) with contrasting hydrological responses were used, and the RSC function was calculated at different scales by changing the length (l) or width (w) of the field. Border effects, at different extents depending on the microtopography, were observed for the smaller scales, when decreasing l or w, which resulted in a strong decrease or increase of the maximum depression storage, respectively. There was no scale effect on the RSC function when changing w. On the contrary, a remarkable scale effect was observed in the RSC function when changing l. In general, for a given degree of filling of the depression storage, C decreased as l increased. This change in C was inversely proportional to the change in l. This observation applied only up to approx. 50-70% (depending on the hydrological response of the field) of filling of depression storage, after which no correlation was found between C and l. The results of this study help identify the minimal scale to study overland flow connectivity. At scales larger than the minimal scale, the RSC function showed a great potential to be extrapolated to other scales.

Peñuela, A.; Javaux, M.; Bielders, C. L.

2012-06-01

375

Scale effect on overland flow connectivity, at the interill scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative surface connection function (RSC) was proposed by Antoine et al. (2009) as a functional indicator of runoff flow connectivity. For a given area, it expresses the percentage of the surface connected to the outlet (C) as a function of the degree of filling of the depression storage. This function explicitly integrates the flow network at the soil surface and hence provides essential information regarding the flow paths' connectivity. It has been shown that this function could help improve the modeling of the hydrogram at the square meter scale, yet it is unknown how the scale affects the RSC function, and whether and how it can be extrapolated to other scales. The main objective of this research is to study the scale effect on overland flow connectivity (RSC function). For this purpose, digital elevation data of a real field (9 x 3 m) and three synthetic fields (6 x 6 m) with contrasting hydrological responses was used, and the RSC function was calculated at different scales by changing the length (L) or width (l) of the field. Border effects were observed for the smaller scales. In most of cases, for L or l smaller than 750mm, increasing L or l, resulted in a strong increase or decrease of the maximum depression storage, respectively. There was no scale effect on the RSC function when changing l. On the contrary, a remarkable scale effect was observed in the RSC function when changing L. In general, for a given degree of filling of the depression storage, C decreased as L increased. This change in C was inversely proportional to the change in L. This observation applied only up to approx. 50-70% (depending on the hydrological response of the field) of filling of depression storage, after which no correlation was found between C and L. The results of this study help identify the critical scale to study overland flow connectivity. At scales larger than the critical scale, the RSC function showed a great potential to be extrapolated to other scales.

Penuela Fernandez, A.; Bielders, C.; Javaux, M.

2012-04-01

376

Scale effect on overland flow connectivity at the plot scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major challenge in present-day hydrological sciences is to enhance the performance of existing distributed hydrological models through a better description of subgrid processes, in particular the subgrid connectivity of flow paths. The Relative Surface Connection (RSC) function was proposed by Antoine et al. (2009) as a functional indicator of runoff flow connectivity. For a given area, it expresses the percentage of the surface connected to the outflow boundary (C) as a function of the degree of filling of the depression storage. This function explicitly integrates the flow network at the soil surface and hence provides essential information regarding the flow paths' connectivity. It has been shown that this function could help improve the modeling of the hydrograph at the square meter scale, yet it is unknown how the scale affects the RSC function, and whether and how it can be extrapolated to other scales. The main objective of this research is to study the scale effect on overland flow connectivity (RSC function). For this purpose, digital elevation data of a real field (9 × 3 m) and three synthetic fields (6 × 6 m) with contrasting hydrological responses were used, and the RSC function was calculated at different scales by changing the length (l) or width (w) of the field. To different extents depending on the microtopography, border effects were observed for the smaller scales when decreasing l or w, which resulted in a strong decrease or increase of the maximum depression storage, respectively. There was no scale effect on the RSC function when changing w, but a remarkable scale effect was observed in the RSC function when changing l. In general, for a given degree of filling of the depression storage, C decreased as l increased, the change in C being inversely proportional to the change in l. However, this observation applied only up to approx. 50-70% (depending on the hydrological response of the field) of filling of depression storage, after which no correlation was found between C and l. The results of this study help identify the minimal scale to study overland flow connectivity. At scales larger than the minimal scale, the RSC function showed a great potential to be extrapolated to other scales.

Peñuela, A.; Javaux, M.; Bielders, C. L.

2013-01-01

377

Gravitation on large scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sample of dwarf and spiral galaxies with extended rotation curves is analysed, assuming that the fraction of dark matter is small. The objective of the paper is to prepare a framework for a theory, based on fundamental principles, that would give fits of the same quality as the phenomenology of dark halos. The following results are obtained: 1) The geodesics of massive systems with low density (Class I galaxies) can be described by the metric ds^2 = b^{-1}(r)dr^2 - b(r)dt^2 + r^2 dOmega^2 where b(r) = 1 - {2 over c^2}({{GM} over r} + gamma_f M^{1/2}) In this expression Gamma_f is a new fundamental constant which has been deduced from rotation curves of galaxies with circular velocity V_c^2 >= 2 {{GM} over r} for all r 2) The above metric is deduced from the conformal invariant metric ds^2 = B^{-1}(r)dr^2 - B(r)dt^2 + r^2 dOmega^2 where B(r) = 1 - {2 over c^2}({{GM} over r} + Gamma_f M^{1/2} + {1 over 3} {Gamma_f^2 over G}r) through a linear transform, u, of the linear special group SL(2, R) 3) The term {2 over c^2}Gamma_f M^{1/2} accounts for the difference between the observed rotation velocity and the Newtonian velocity. The term {2 over {3c^2}}{Gamma_f^2 over G}r is interpreted as a scale invariance between systems of different masses and sizes. 4) The metric B is a vacuum solution around a mass M deduced from the least action principle applied to the unique action I_a = -2 a int (-g)^{1/2} [R_{mu kappa}R^{ mu kappa} - 1/3(Ralphaalpha)^2] dx^4 built with the conformal Weyl tensor 5) For galaxies such that there is a radius, r_0, at which {{GM} over r_0} = Gamma M^{1/2} (Class II), the term Gamma M^{1/2} might be confined by the Newtonian potential yielding stationary solutions. 6) The analysed rotation curves of Class II galaxies are indeed well described with metrics of the form b(r) = 1 - {2 over c^2}({{GM} over r} + (n + 1) Gamma_0 M^{1/2}) where n is an integer and Gamma_0 = {1 over the square root of 3}Gamma_f 7) The effective potential is determined and found to be E(Gamma, r) = {Gamma^2 over G}r 8) A quantized model is deduced from a Schrodinger-type equation - {{D^2} {{d^2 Psi(r)} over {dr^2}}} = {[E - {{G M} over r}] Psi(r)} where D^2 is the product of the energy Gamma M^{1/2} by the square of the radius r where {{G M} over r} = {Gamma_f M^{1/2}}. The boundary conditions are given by Psi (0) = 0 and the effective potential 9) The data are in agreement with the hypothesis of quantization, but that hypothesis is not proved because, the mass-to-light ratio being a ''free'' variable, it is always possible to shift a Gamma-curve out of its best ''energy level''. However, if one moves a Gamma-fit from an ''energy level'' to the next, the fitting of the curve becomes clearly poorer. 10) The Newtonian mass-to-light ratios of Class I galaxies range from ~7 to ~75. The mass-to-light ratios of the same objects deduced from the Gamma-dynamics are reduced to 1.1 <= Mdyn/L <= 7.4. For Class II galaxies, the range of the Newtonian mass-to-light ratios of the sample is 10 <= M_{lum+dark}^N/L <= 40. It is reduced to 1.7 <= Mdyn/L <= 4.2 when using the quantized version of the Gamma-dynamics. It is approximately 3.5 M_odot/L_odot for Sb galaxies and 2 M_odot/L_odot for Sc galaxies. 11) None of the Gamma-fits are poorer than the models with dark halos of the reference articles. The Gamma-dynamics is sensitive to the integrated mass through the term Gamma M^{1/2}, and to the mass and density through the Newtonian term {G M} over r. This kind of coupling is particularly efficient in galaxies like NGC 1560 whose rotation curve shows conspicuous structure.

Giraud, E.

378

Bench-scale/field-scale interpretations: Session overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In situ bioremediation involves complex interactions between biological, chemical, and physical processes and requires integration of phenomena operating at scales ranging from that of a microbial cell (10 to the -6 power) to that of a remediation site (1...

A. B. Cunningham B. M. Peyton

1995-01-01

379

Gelation on the microscopic scale.  

PubMed

Particle-tracking methods are used to study gelation in a colloidal suspension of Laponite clay particles. We track the motion of small fluorescent polystyrene spheres added to the suspension, and obtain the micron-scale viscous and elastic moduli of the material from their mean-squared displacement. The fluorescent spheres move subdiffusively due to the microstructure of the suspension, with the diffusive exponent decreasing from close to one at early times to near zero as the material gels. The particle-tracking data show that the system becomes more heterogeneous on the microscopic scale as gelation proceeds. We also determine the bulk-scale moduli using small-amplitude oscillatory shear rheometry. Both the macroscopic and microscopic moduli increase with time, and on both scales we observe a transition from a primarily viscous fluid to an elastic gel. We find that the gel point, determined as the time at which the viscous and elastic moduli are equal, is length-scale dependent--gelation occurs earlier on the bulk scale than on the microscopic scale. PMID:18850834

Oppong, Felix K; Coussot, P; de Bruyn, John R

2008-08-01

380

Full-Scale Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) balance. Smith DeFrance described the 6-component type balance in NACA TR No. 459 (which also includes a schematic diagram of the balance and its various parts). 'Ball and socket fittings at the top of each of the struts hod the axles of the airplane to be tested; the tail is attached to the triangular frame. These struts are secured to the turntable, which is attached to the floating frame. This frame rests on the struts (next to the concrete piers on all four corners), which transmit the lift forces to the scales (partially visible on the left). The drag linkage is attached to the floating frame on the center line and, working against a known counterweight, transmits the drag force to the scale (center, face out). The cross-wind force linkages are attached to the floating frame on the front and rear sides at the center line. These linkages, working against known counterweights, transmit the cross-wind force to scales (two front scales, face in). In the above manner the forces in three directions are measured and by combining the forces and the proper lever arms, the pitching, rolling, and yawing moments can be computed. The scales are of the dial type and are provided with solenoid-operated printing devices. When the proper test condition is obtained, a push-button switch is momentarily closed and the readings on all seven scales are recorded simultaneously, eliminating the possibility of personal errors.'

1931-01-01

381

Classical scale invariance, the electroweak scale, and vector dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a classically scale-invariant extension of the standard model in which a dark, non-Abelian gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. Higgs portal couplings between the dark and standard model sectors provide an origin for the Higgs mass squared parameter and, hence, the electroweak scale. We find that choices for model parameters exist in which the dark gauge multiplet is viable as dark matter.

Carone, Christopher D.; Ramos, Raymundo

2013-09-01

382

The preoccupation scale: its development and relationship with depression scales.  

PubMed

Self-focus has been thought to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of depression. The disposition to focus attention inward has been measured by the Private Self-Consciousness Scale (PSCS), which does not reflect the duration of self-focusing. Study 1 aimed to develop a Self-Preoccupation Scale (SPS) that would reflect both the degree and duration of self-focusing. In addition, a new concept, external-preoccupation-the maintenance of external-focus on a specific object-was proposed as a risk factor of depression. An External-Preoccupation Scale (EPS) was developed to measure this. Both the SPS and EPS showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Study 2 aimed to examine the relationship between the SPS, EPS, and PSCS and depression. The EPS was not significantly correlated with depression scales. The moderate correlations of the SPS with the depression scales were significantly higher than the correlations of the PSCS with the depression scales. PMID:9696114

Sakamoto, S

1998-08-01

383

Straight scaling FFAG beam line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerators are recently subject to a strong revival. They are usually designed in a circular shape; however, it would be an asset to guide particles with no overall bend in this type of accelerator. An analytical development of a straight FFAG cell which keeps zero-chromaticity is presented here. A magnetic field law is thus obtained, called "straight scaling law", and an experiment has been conducted to confirm this zero-chromatic law. A straight scaling FFAG prototype has been designed and manufactured, and horizontal phase advances of two different energies are measured. Results are analyzed to clarify the straight scaling law.

Lagrange, J.-B.; Planche, T.; Yamakawa, E.; Uesugi, T.; Ishi, Y.; Kuriyama, Y.; Qin, B.; Okabe, K.; Mori, Y.

2012-11-01

384

Large Scale Cluster Computing Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within H...

A. Silverman D. Skow

2001-01-01

385

Scale Length of Disk Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of a Euro-VO research initiative, we have undertaken a programme aimed at studying the scale length of 54909 Sa-Sd spiral galaxies from the SDSS DR6 catalogue. We have retrieved u, g, r, i, z-band images for all galaxies in order to derive the light profiles. We also calculate asymmetry parameters to select non-disturbed disks for which we will derive exponential disk scale lengths. As images in different bands probe different optical depths and stellar populations, it is likely that a derived scale length value should depend on waveband, and our goal is to use the scale length variations with band pass, inclination, galaxy type, redshift, and surface brightness, in order to better understand the nature of spiral galaxies.

Fathi, K.; Allen, M.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Peletier, R.

2009-07-01

386

Trends in Analytical Scale Separations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent developments in the instrumentation and practice of analytical scale operations. Emphasizes detection devices and procedures in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, supercritical fluid chromatography, and field-flow fractionation. (JN)

Jorgenson, James W.

1984-01-01

387

Scaling Relations for Fragmenting Shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mott (1943) recognized the need for scaling relations to allow designers the immediate ability to assess effects of parameter\\u000a changes on the fragmentation characteristics of exploding bombs and warheads.

Dennis Grady

388

Efficiency Scaling for Railgun Armatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a numerical study on three hypervelocity railgun armature options are presented in this paper. The armatures considered are the plasma, the hybrid, and the transitioning armatures. Several scaling studies are presented which illustrate the ...

L. Thornhill J. Batteh D. Littrell

1988-01-01

389

Scale-Independent Biomechanical Optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, the authors present a scale-independent method of optimization with a stochastic global optimization approach introduced by Kennedy and Eberhart: the Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO). They apply this method to the biomechanical system identif...

J. F. Schutte B. Koh J. A. Reinbolt R. T. Haftka A. George

2003-01-01

390

Progress of DORIS Automatic Scaling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major component of the Digital Oblique Remote Ionospheric Sensing program (DORIS) is the development of an automatic oblique ionogram scaling algorithm. The nature of the variations that have been observed in oblique ionograms collected to data has requ...

B. W. Reinisch K. Chandra W. S. Kuklinski

1989-01-01

391

Large scale cross hole testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the Site Characterisation and Validation programme the results of the large scale cross hole testing have been used to document hydraulic connections across the SCV block, to test conceptual models of fracture zones and obtain hydrogeological p...

J. K. Ball J. H. Black T. Doe

1991-01-01

392

Small-Scale Hydropower Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers several aspects of small-scale hydropower systems. The topics covered are: head and flow; waterwheels; impulse and reaction turbines; feasibility and practicality; environmental impact; and economics. 24 refs., 5 figs. (ERA citation 14:...

1988-01-01

393

Scaling the Plant Cell Wall  

NSF Publications Database

... Scaling the Plant Cell Wall New method brings greater understanding of how plants build cell walls ... plant, Arabidopsis. The team, which was supported in part by the National Science Foundation?s Plant ...

394

Scale Locality of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the scale locality of cascades of conserved invariants at high kinetic and magnetic Reynold’s numbers in the “inertial-inductive range” of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, where velocity and magnetic field increments exhibit suitable power-law scaling. We prove that fluxes of total energy and cross helicity—or, equivalently, fluxes of Elsässer energies—are dominated by the contributions of local triads. Flux of magnetic helicity may be dominated by nonlocal triads. The magnetic stretching term may also be dominated by nonlocal triads, but we prove that it can convert energy only between velocity and magnetic modes at comparable scales. We explain the disagreement with numerical studies that have claimed conversion nonlocally between disparate scales. We present supporting data from a 10243 simulation of forced MHD turbulence.

Aluie, Hussein; Eyink, Gregory L.

2010-02-01

395

Large scale content distribution protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces large scale content distribution protocols, which are capable of scaling to massive numbers of users and providing low delay end-to-end delivery. Delivery of files and static objects is described, with real-time content streaming being outside the scope of this paper. The focus is on solutions provided by the IETF Reliable Multicast Transport Working Group. More precisely, the

Christoph Neumann; Vincent Roca; Rod Walsh

2005-01-01

396

Scaling analysis of transient heating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem is a simple case designed to show the power of scaling analysis to estimate the behavior of variables of interest without doing a detailed analysis. Here, internal heat generation heats a square part and the student is asked to find the dependence of the maximum temperature on time. The use of a scaling analysis encourages the student to think about the physics of the problem more than just solving the differential equation.

Krane, Matthew J.

2008-10-14

397

Inflation in the scaling limit  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the stochastic dynamics of the/ital inflaton/ for a wide class of potentials leading either tochaotic or to power-law inflation.At late times the system enters a /ital scaling/ /ital regime/where macroscopic order sets in: the field distribution sharply peaksaround the classical slow-rollover configuration and curvature perturbationsoriginate with a non-Gaussian scale-invariant statistics.

Matarrese, S.; Ortolan, A.; Lucchin, F.

1989-07-15

398

Scaling Properties of Magnetic Reconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection is a universal process in space plasmas which often dominates the magnetic topology of the system and the flow patterns within and around it This process is operative in systems with vastly different spatial scales such as the Sun planetary magnetospheres and at comets In addition magnetic reconnection operates on plasma scales ranging from those associated with kinetic electrons and ions to fluid and macro-scales A true knowledge of the magnetic reconnection process requires the understanding of the minimum spatial scales at which it can be operative and how its properties scale with the system size Without such an understanding it is not possible to apply our knowledge of reconnection to systems with various sizes and properties In this talk we examine the scaling properties of reconnection using results of global hybrid simulations kinetic ions fluid electrons of solar wind interaction with magnetic dipoles of various strength Focus is on dayside reconnection during purely southward interplanetary magnetic field direction The parameter Dp defined as the standoff distance of the nose magnetopause normalized to solar wind ion skin depth is used to characterize the nature of the resulting magnetosphere as a function of dipole strength It is found that magnetic reconnection generation of reconnection electric field and the associated plasma jetting first occur at small values of Dp sim 2 before a terrestrial like magnetosphere is formed Further evolution of this process is observed with increasing values of

Omidi, N.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.

399

Scaling of Braided River Depths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Braided rivers are dynamic systems of interweaving channels. The properties of these systems are difficult to study in the field and system evolution is difficult to predict. Knowledge of scaling relationships present in these rivers would assist in model testing as well as statistical prediction of channel evolution. In our previous work, scaling relationships have been quantified for braided channel system morphology and evolution and inferences on how the density of channels changes with scale and on the magnitude and frequency of channel shifts have been made. In this work, we study the scaling of hydrological characteristics of braided rivers by analyzing cross-sections from an experimental braided river using global and local multifractal analysis methods. Analysis has been performed separately on depth fluctuations that come from within and outside the braided river system channels and differences in their scaling characteristics have been quantified. The effect of combining the within and outside channel depth fluctuations into a single multifractal analysis has been shown to manifest itself into a phase transition\\" phenomenon i.e., a cross-over region in the log-log plot of moments of depth increments versus scale, which depends on the order of the moment.

Tilman, E.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Arneodo, A.; Tal, M.; Paola, C.

2004-12-01

400

Optimal pixel scales for NGST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time required to obtain an observation of an astronomical source depends upon the characteristics of that source, the characteristics of the detector, the brightness of the background, the desired signal-to-noise ration, and the angle subtended by a detector pixel (the pixel scale). In addition, if the observation is not of a single source, but is a survey of many sources, then the field of view of the detector is also important. For background-limited observations, which is expected to be the typical case for NGST, the source characteristic of importance is the solid angle of the source image. The detector characteristic of importance is the dark current. An optimal pixel scale exists that minimizes the time required to obtain the observations. That optimal scale depends upon the above variables. The Design Reference Mission (DRM), prepared by the Ad Hoc Science Working Group, embodies the key science goals for NGST. An approximately equal amount of single-target and survey observations and a range of target sizes comprise the DRM. Therefore, no single pixel scale is optimal for all observations. We present the functional dependance of the optimal scale upon the relevant variables. We also present the results of parametric variations of the NGST Yardstick design which determine for each instrument module the optimal pixel scale that minimizes the time required to complete the Design Reference Mission.

Petro, L.; Stockman, H. S.

2000-05-01

401

Scaling issues for biodiversity protection  

SciTech Connect

Environmental heterogeneity, in both space and time, has been important in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Moreover, this heterogeneity is hierarchical in nature. Differences occur between biomes, between landscapes. Thus, hierarchical patterns of heterogeneity are a consequence of the the complexity within ecological communities, and the maintenance of biodiversity means the preservation of this complexity. Natural landscapes are dynamic systems that exhibit temporal and spatial heterogeneity. However, the exploitative nature of human activity tends to simplify landscapes (Krummel et al. 1987). The challenge of preserving biodiversity in managed landscapes is to incorporate natural levels of spatial and temporal heterogeneity into management schemes. The concept of scale has emerged as an important topic among ecologists that recognize the role of heterogeneity in natural ecosystems. Subjects related to scale such as grain (level of detail) and extent (size of area or duration of time) are frequently used to determine the appropriate interpretation of ecological data. Likewise, scale is important when applying ecological principles to biodiversity protection and conservation. The scale of a conservation endeavor affects the strategy involved, realistic goals, and probability of success. For instance, the spatial extent of a reserve system may be determined, for better or worse, by biogeography, distribution of surviving populations, political boundaries, or fiscal constraints. Our objectives are to: emphasize the importance of natural patterns of spatial and temporal heterogeneity, encourage a broader-scale perspective for conservation efforts, and illustrate the interaction between landscape-level heterogeneity and organism-based scales of resource utilization with a simulation experiment.

Pearson, S.M.; Turner, M.G.; Gardner, R.H.; O'Neill, R.V.

1992-01-01

402

Scaling issues for biodiversity protection  

SciTech Connect

Environmental heterogeneity, in both space and time, has been important in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Moreover, this heterogeneity is hierarchical in nature. Differences occur between biomes, between landscapes. Thus, hierarchical patterns of heterogeneity are a consequence of the the complexity within ecological communities, and the maintenance of biodiversity means the preservation of this complexity. Natural landscapes are dynamic systems that exhibit temporal and spatial heterogeneity. However, the exploitative nature of human activity tends to simplify landscapes (Krummel et al. 1987). The challenge of preserving biodiversity in managed landscapes is to incorporate natural levels of spatial and temporal heterogeneity into management schemes. The concept of scale has emerged as an important topic among ecologists that recognize the role of heterogeneity in natural ecosystems. Subjects related to scale such as grain (level of detail) and extent (size of area or duration of time) are frequently used to determine the appropriate interpretation of ecological data. Likewise, scale is important when applying ecological principles to biodiversity protection and conservation. The scale of a conservation endeavor affects the strategy involved, realistic goals, and probability of success. For instance, the spatial extent of a reserve system may be determined, for better or worse, by biogeography, distribution of surviving populations, political boundaries, or fiscal constraints. Our objectives are to: emphasize the importance of natural patterns of spatial and temporal heterogeneity, encourage a broader-scale perspective for conservation efforts, and illustrate the interaction between landscape-level heterogeneity and organism-based scales of resource utilization with a simulation experiment.

Pearson, S.M.; Turner, M.G.; Gardner, R.H.; O`Neill, R.V.

1992-08-01

403

Mineral Dissolution Rates at the Pore Scale: Scaling Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral dissolution reactions play an important role in various physical, chemical and biological processes in nature. Although rates of these reactions have been extensively studied in laboratories, they have been found to be orders of magnitude faster than those measured in the natural systems. This work examines some of the mechanisms that can produce such a discrepancy at the pore scale, while quantifying the conditions under which the discrepancy becomes significant. This work used the reactive transport model CrunchFlow to examine the dissolution rates of three minerals, calcite, labradorite, and iron hydroxide, in a single pore. Pores were assumed to be cylindrical, with axisymmetric flow given by the analytical solution for Poiseuille flow in a cylinder. Mineral dissolution occurs only at the pore wall, with the reactive surface area of the dissolving phase specified geometrically. The average dissolution rates in the pore (R_D) for various flow velocities is determined by the flux-weighted change in concentration over the length of the pore and is compared to the rates that assume complete mixing (R_M). The differences in rates between the two models, quantified by the ratio of R_D over R_M, provide a measure of the scaling effect. The modeling results were validated by a microfluidic reactive flow experiment using a cylindrical pore in calcite. Modeling results show that the scaling effect arises due to the development of large concentration gradients caused by incomplete mixing within a pore when transport and reaction rates are comparable. The magnitude of the scaling effect depends on the reaction kinetics, flow velocity, and pore size. For labradorite and iron hydroxide, the scaling effect is negligible under all conditions due to their slow dissolution rates, thus limiting the development of any intra-pore concentration gradients. For calcite dissolution at low (smaller than 0.1 cm/s) and high (larger than 1000 cm/s) flow velocities the scaling effect is negligible, while at intermediate flow velocities the scaling effect is at a maximum, with the ratio of RD over RM becoming as large as 7. The scaling effect also increases with increasing pore length due to the effect of incomplete mixing within large pores. Under natural flow conditions where flow velocities are typically slower than 0.001 cm/s, diffusion becomes the dominant transport process in 10 to 1000 micron length pores, thus eliminating concentration gradients within single pores. As a result, scaling effects within single pores are negligible in most cases of geological and environmental significance.

Li, L.; Steefel, C. I.; Yang, L.

2006-12-01

404

Scaling effects in sublaminate-scaled composite laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of tensile tests have been carried out to determine the effect of specimen size on the mechanical response of composite laminates which were scaled at the sublaminate level. Two material systems were studied AS4/3502 and AS4/PEEK. The effect of specimen size was examined with respect to first ply failure stress, delamination stress, ultimate stress, and strain at failure. In general, the strength of scaled specimens increased with increasing specimen size. Several models from the published literature were applied with varying degrees of success to predict the first ply failure and delamination stress in scaled composites. It was found that the effect of ply constraint is not addressed properly in the existing theories.

Kellas, Sotiris; Johnson, David P.; Morton, John; Jackson, Karen E.

1993-01-01

405

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138  

Microsoft Academic Search

During Voyager l's encounter with Jupiter, two images were obtained on small portions of Jupiter's dark side. These were recorded through the narrow angle camera without a filter, partly to search for fireballs. The corresponding images during Voyager 2 were taken with filters at considerably longer range so that they need not be considered as part of the search, especially

T. C. DUXBURY

1981-01-01

406

The Cambridge challenge to the Ricardian analysis of poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ricardian economists’ famous model of economic growth employed the Malthusian population doctrine, the law of diminishing\\u000a returns, and the classical or iron law of wages. This analysis was based on utilitarian moral philosophy. The gloomy Stationary\\u000a State conclusions of the Ricardian growth model — maldistribution of income and widespread poverty — were challenged by both\\u000a economists and moral philosophers.

James F. Henderson

1998-01-01

407

Learning about Intermolecular Interactions from the Cambridge Structural Database  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A clear understanding and appreciation of noncovalent interactions, especially hydrogen bonding, are vitally important to students of chemistry and the life sciences, including biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmacology, and medicine. The opportunities afforded by the IsoStar knowledge base of intermolecular interactions to enhance the…

Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.

2012-01-01

408

Microsoft Cambridge at TREC10: Filtering and Web Tracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Summary This report is concerned with the Adaptive Filtering and Web tracks. There are separate reports in this volume (1, 2) on the Microsoft Research Redmond participation in QA track and the Microsoft Research Beijing partici- pation in the Web track.. Two runs were submitted for the Adaptive Filtering track, on the adaptive filtering task only (two optimisa- tion

Stephen E. Robertson; Steve Walker; Hugo Zaragoza

2001-01-01

409

Imitation in Infancy. Cambridge Studies in Cognitive and Perceptual Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern research has suggested that imitation is a natural mechanism of learning and communication, yet the possibility of imitation in newborn humans has been controversial. This book looks at evidence for innate imitation in babies. The chapters in the first section of the book reassess the Piagetian tradition, especially concerning the relation…

Nadel, Jacqueline, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

410

The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores the development of creoles and other new languages, highlighting conceptual and methodological issues for genetic linguistics and discussing the significance of ecologies that influence language evolution. It presents examples of changes in the structure, function, and vitality of languages, suggesting that similar ecologies…

Mufwene, Salikoko S.

411

Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. The Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of essays on second language vocabulary learning includes: "Historical Trends in Second Language Vocabulary Instruction" (Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman); "The Lexical Plight in Second Language Reading: Words You Don't Know, Words You Think You Know, and Words You Can't Guess" (Batia Laufer); "Orthographic Knowledge in L2 Lexical Processing: A…

Coady, James, Ed.; Huckin, Thomas, Ed.

412

Managing Organization Vitality. M.S. Thesis - MIT, Cambridge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three major objectives are: (1) to measure the extent to which the organization renewal techniques have been adopted by organizations in both the private and public sectors; (2) to determine the overall results of these applications; and (3) to test a number of specific hypotheses regarding situational determinants of the success of this approach. It appears that top management involvement is the single most crucial determinant of the success of organization renewal. Organization renewal has considerable potential for increasing the commitment of individuals, and can have a significant positive influence on the results of the organization.

Chandler, G. P., Jr.

1976-01-01

413

Cambridge Business Conferences: A Case Study of Strategic Cost Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case follows Shank, and Govindarajan (1988)in developing a scenario which provides opportunities for both “relevant cost” and “strategic” analyses. The case focuses on the use of relevant costs in a practical decision-making framework. It requires a distinction between fixed, variable, sunk and discretionary costs and a facility with break-even analysis. Further, it highlights the importance of economic and marketing

M Smith

1998-01-01

414

Mean Streets: Youth Crime and Homelessness. Cambridge Criminology Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the social worlds of homeless children in two Canadian cities, Toronto and Vancouver, comparing them with the environments of in-home and in-school children from the perspective of the children. Samples of 390 and 482 children were interviewed. The following chapters are included: (1) "Street and School Criminologies"; (2)…

Hagan, John; McCarthy, Bill

415

Clinician and caregiver agreement on neuropsychiatric symptom severity: a study using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Clinician rating scale (NPI-C).  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are highly prevalent in dementia. The recently developed Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Clinician rating scale (NPI-C) includes clinical judgment and new symptom domains. Our objective was to evaluate NPI-C reliability and to compare caregiver and clinician ratings across the range of mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study. Participants were geriatric memory clinic patients and nursing-home residents (n = 30) with an established diagnosis of dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). A psychiatrist (MK) interviewed caregiver-patient dyads using the NPI-C. Neuropsychological tests and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were used to assess cognitive impairment. Two NPI-C caregiver interviews were videotaped and rated by psychologists and geriatricians. Intra-class correlations (ICCs) were used to examine inter-rater agreement. Correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate caregiver and psychiatrist NPI-C ratings. Disagreement between caregiver and clinician was expressed in delta scores and examined across the range of mild to severe cognitive impairment, using Levene's homogeneity of variances tests. Results: Inter-rater agreement on ratings of two caregiver videos was high (ICC = 0.99-1.0). Clinician-caregiver concordance on NPI-C total severity ratings was high (r = 0.77). Variability in clinician-caregiver concordance was associated with cognitive impairment: MMSE (P = 0.02), CAMCOG-R (Cambridge Cognitive Examination-revised) total scores (P = 0.02), CAMCOG-R Memory scores (P = 0.04) and Language scores (P = 0.01). Conclusions: The NPI-C is a reliable measure of NPS in patients with MCI or dementia. Clinician-caregiver agreement on NPS severity may vary with cognitive impairment, underlining the importance of clinician-based measures of NPS. PMID:24622334

Zaidi, Shirin; Kat, Martin G; de Jonghe, Jos F M

2014-07-01

416

SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

Almár, Iván

2011-11-01

417

On the spatial scaling of soil moisture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial scale of soil moisture measurements is often inconsistent with the scale at which soil moisture predictions are needed. Consequently a change of scale (upscaling or downscaling) from the measurements to the predictions or model values is needed. The measurement or model scale can be defined as a scale triplet, consisting of spacing, extent and support. ‘Spacing’ refers to

Günter Blöschl

1999-01-01

418

Generalized Scaling Relations for Level Ground Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis To investigate the generalized scaling relation in centrifuge modeling, a prototype is scaled down to 1\\/100 with 9 combinations of scaling factors of virtual 1 G and centrifugal field. The model ground is flat and made of a homogeneous sand layer. Five accelerometers are employed in various depths. Dynamic input motions are scaled accordingly. In prototype scale, the applicability

Tetsuo TOBITA; Susumu IAI; Saki NODA

419

Single-scale natural SUSY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the prospects for natural SUSY models consistent with current data. Recent constraints make the standard paradigm unnatural so we consider what could be a minimal extension consistent with what we now know. The most promising such scenarios extend the MSSM with new tree-level Higgs interactions that can lift its mass to at least 125 GeV and also allow for flavor-dependent soft terms so that the third generation squarks are lighter than current bounds on the first and second generation squarks. We argue that a common feature of almost all such models is the need for a new scale near 10 TeV, such as a scale of Higgsing or confinement of a new gauge group. We consider the question whether such a model can naturally derive from a single mass scale associated with supersymmetry breaking. Most such models simply postulate new scales, leaving their proximity to the scale of MSSM soft terms a mystery. This coincidence problem may be thought of as a mild tuning, analogous to the usual ? problem. We find that a single mass scale origin is challenging, but suggest that a more natural origin for such a new dynamical scale is the gravitino mass, m 3/2, in theories where the MSSM soft terms are a loop factor below m 3/2. As an example, we build a variant of the NMSSM where the singlet S is composite, and the strong dynamics leading to compositeness is triggered by masses of order m 3/2 for some fields. Our focus is the Higgs sector, but our model is compatible with a light stop (either with the first and second generation squarks heavy, or with R-parity violation or another mechanism to hide them from current searches). All the interesting low-energy mass scales, including linear terms for S playing a key role in EWSB, arise dynamically from the single scale m 3/2. However, numerical coefficients from RG effects and wavefunction factors in an extra dimension complicate the otherwise simple story.

Randall, Lisa; Reece, Matthew

2013-08-01

420

Scale Length of Disk Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disk scale length rd and central surface brightness ?0 for a sample of 29955 bright disk galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey have been analyzed. Cross correlation of the SDSS sample with the LEDA catalogue allowed us to investigate the variation of the scale lengths for different types of disk/spiral galaxies and present distributions and typical trends of scale lengths all the SDSS bands with linear relations that indicate the relation that connect scale lengths in one passband to another. We use the volume corrected results in the r-band and revisit the relation between these parameters and the galaxy morphology, and find the average values = 3.8 +/- 2.1 kpc and = 20.2 +/- 0.7 mag arcsec-2. The derived scale lengths presented here are representative for a typical galaxy mass of 1010.8 M?, and the RMS dispersion is larger for more massive galaxies. We analyse the rd-?0 plane and further investigate the Freeman Law and confirm that it indeed defines an upper limit for ?0 in bright disks (rmag < 17.0), and that disks in late type spirals (T >= 6) have fainter central surface brightness. Our results are based on a sample of galaxies in the local universe (z < 0.3) that is two orders of magnitudes larger than any sample previously studied, and deliver statistically significant results that provide a comprehensive test bed for future theoretical studies and numerical simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.

Fathi, Kambiz

2011-12-01

421

Galaxy clustering on large scales.  

PubMed

I describe some recent observations of large-scale structure in the galaxy distribution. The best constraints come from two-dimensional galaxy surveys and studies of angular correlation functions. Results from galaxy redshift surveys are much less precise but are consistent with the angular correlations, provided the distortions in mapping between real-space and redshift-space are relatively weak. The galaxy two-point correlation function, rich-cluster two-point correlation function, and galaxy-cluster cross-correlation function are all well described on large scales ( greater, similar 20h-1 Mpc, where the Hubble constant, H0 = 100h km.s-1.Mpc; 1 pc = 3.09 x 10(16) m) by the power spectrum of an initially scale-invariant, adiabatic, cold-dark-matter Universe with Gamma = Omegah approximately 0.2. I discuss how this fits in with the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite detection of large-scale anisotropies in the microwave background radiation and other measures of large-scale structure in the Universe. PMID:11607400

Efstathiou, G

1993-06-01

422

Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General view of concrete column base for Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In 1924, George Lewis, Max Munk and Fred Weick began to discuss an idea for a wind tunnel large enough to test a full-scale propeller. Munk sketched out a design for a tunnel with a 20-foot test section. The rough sketches were presented to engineers at Langley for comment. Elliott Reid was especially enthusiastic and he wrote a memorandum in support of the proposed 'Giant Wind Tunnel.' At the end of the memorandum, he appended the recommendation that the tunnel test section should be increased to 30-feet diameter so as to allow full-scale testing of entire airplanes (not just propellers). Reid's idea for a full-scale tunnel excited many at Langley but the funds and support were not available in 1924. Nonetheless, Elliot Reid's idea would eventually become reality. In 1928, NACA engineers began making plans for a full-scale wind tunnel. In February 1929, Congress approved of the idea and appropriated $900,000 for construction. Work on the foundation began in the spring of 1929 and cost $11,293.22.

1930-01-01

423

SCALE FORMATION IN CHRYSOPHYCEAN ALGAE  

PubMed Central

The cell wall of the marine chrysophycean alga Pleurochrysis scherfellii is composed of distinct wall fragments embedded in a gelatinous mass. The latter is a polysaccharide of pectic character which is rich in galactose and ribose. These wall fragments are identified as scales. They have been isolated and purified from the vegetative mother cell walls after zoospore formation. Their ultrastructure is described in an electron microscope study combining sectioning, freeze-etch, and negative staining techniques. The scales consist of a layer of concentrically arranged microfibrils (ribbons with cross-sections of 12 to 25 x 25 to 40 A) and underlying radial fibrils of similar dimensions. Such a network-plate is densely coated with particles which are assumed to be identical to the pectic component. The microfibrils are resistant to strong alkaline treatment and have been identified as cellulose by different methods, including sugar analysis after total hydrolysis, proton resonance spectroscopical examination (NMR spectroscopy) of the benzoylated product, and diverse histochemical tests. The formation and secretion of the scales can be followed along the maturing Golgi cisternae starting from a pronounced dilated "polymerization center" as a completely intracisternal process which ends in the exocytotic extrusion of the scales. The scales reveal the very same ultrastructure within the Golgi cisternae as they do in the cell wall. The present finding represents the first evidence on cellulose formation by the Golgi apparatus and is discussed in relation to a basic scheme for cellulose synthesis in plant cells in general.

Brown, R. Malcolm; Franke, Werner W.; Kleinig, Hans; Falk, Heinz; Sitte, Peter

1970-01-01

424

Micron-Scale Polymer Analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disordered fiber mats made of glass microfibers (GMF) immersed in an index matching fluid were studied using small-angle light scattering (SALS), ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) and optical microscopy. In GMF and several other fibrous materials the structure is stocastically randomized at the time of formation leading to an analogy with the thermal randomization which occurs in nanometer-scale, high polymers. The morphology of these materials in the micron-scale displays strong parallels to that of polymers in the nanometer-scale. Observation of Gaussian and self-avoidance scaling over decades in size can be made in these systems depending on preparation conditions. Structural analogues for the coil radius of gyration, persistence unit and scaling regimes are observed. These are useful features both for macroscopically modeling thermally equilibrated polymeric systems, as well as for understanding the physical properties of such disordered fibers through analogy with theoretical understanding of thermally equilibrated polymeric systems. Mechanical deformation and solvent/surfactant treatments lead to interesting variation in these structures. Comparison of optical micrographs with scattering gives a simple analogy for polymer structure in the solution or melt state.

Beaucage, Gregory; Sukumaran, Sathish; Rane, Shrish

1998-03-01

425

Strength Scaling in Fiber Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program was initiated to study and isolate the factors responsible for scale effects in the tensile strength of graphite/epoxy composite laminates. Four layups were chosen with appropriate stacking sequences so as to highlight individual and interacting failure modes. Four scale sizes were selected for investigation including full scale size, 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4, with n = to 4, 3, 2, and 1, respectively. The full scale specimen sizes was 32 piles thick as compared to 24, 16, and 8 piles for the 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4 specimen sizes respectively. Results were obtained in the form of tensile strength, stress-strain curves and damage development. Problems associated with strength degradation with increasing specimen sizes are isolated and discussed. Inconsistencies associated with strain measurements were also identified. Enhanced x ray radiography was employed for damage evaluation, following step loading. It was shown that fiber dominated layups were less sensitive to scaling effects compared to the matrix dominated layups.

Kellas, Sotiris; Morton, John

1990-01-01

426

Scales (ChemPages Lab)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scales: this is a resource in the collection "ChemPages Laboratory Resources". Correctly reading a scale is a skill that is important to master. The Spectronic 20?, spectroscope, pipet, buret, graduated cylinder, and many other instruments and devices utlilize scales that must be read properly for successful laboratory work. The procedures outlined in this module should be followed for reading any scalar quantity in the laboratory. The ChemPages Laboratory Resources are a set of web pages that include text, images, video, and self check questions. The topics included are those that are commonly encountered in the first-year chemistry laboratory. They have been put together for use as both a pre-laboratory preparation tool and an in-laboratory reference source.

427

Scaling Laws in Disk Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview of several recent disk galaxy scaling relations is presented, along with some historical background. In particular, after introducing the radial light profiles of disk galaxies, I discuss several important ‘structural’ scaling relations and the latest bulge-(black hole) scaling relations. I additionally present the typical bulge-to-disk flux ratios of disk galaxies and suggest the use of a grid of bulge-to-disk ratio versus disk Hubble type — based on the nature of the spiral arms — to complement the Hubble-Jeans sequence. I then briefly mention pure disk galaxies before cautioning on difficulties with identifying pseudobulges built from secular evolution. Finally, I conclude by discussing a likely connection between modern day bulges and high-redshift (z ˜ 2 ± 0.5) compact galaxies which may have since acquired a disk via cold flows and quiescent accretion.

Graham, A. W.

2014-03-01

428

Scaling radiative plasmas to ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the radiative regime non-intrinsic impurities have been used to produce divertor power loads which would be considered acceptable when extrapolated to ITER. However, it has been a matter of concern that the maximum Zeff currently deemed acceptable for ITER has been exceeded by a large margin in radiative plasma experiments in large divertor machines such as JET, JT60-U, AUG and DIII-D. This paper points out that without a suitable scaling law, comparisons of Zeff between current machines and ITER are meaningless. Results from a multi-machine database are presented which show that there appears to be a remarkably simple and robust scaling which relates Zeff to line averaged density, total radiated power and main plasma surface area. A similar scaling has been found in code simulations with EDGE2D and DIVIMP. The consequences for ITER are discussed.

Matthews, G. F.; Allen, S.; Asakura, N.; Goetz, J.; Guo, H.; Kallenbach, A.; Lipschultz, B.; McCormick, K.; Stamp, M.; Samm, U.; Stangeby, P. C.; Steuer, K.-H.; Taroni, A.; Unterberg, B.; West, P.

1997-02-01

429

Assessing Behavioral Problems: Burks' Scale vs. Devereux Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychologists, diagnosticians, and educators are often required to assess a child's functioning to assist in placing the child in the most appropriate educational setting. To assess the child's current level of functioning, various behavior rating scales have been designed to integrate both teacher and parent observations in this assessment…

Naylor, Kim

430

Childhood Career Development Scale: Scale Construction and Psychometric Properties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to construct a theoretically driven and psychometrically sound childhood career development scale to measure career progress in fourth-through sixth-grade children. Super's nine dimensions (i.e., curiosity, exploration, information, key figures, interests, locus of control, time perspective, self-concept, and…

Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino; Stead, Graham B.

2004-01-01

431

SCALE UNIFICATION ± A UNIVERSAL SCALING LAW FOR ORGANIZED MATTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

From observational data and our theoretical analysis, we demonstrate that a scaling law can be written for all organized matter utilizing the Schwarzschild condition, describing cosmological to sub-atomic structures. Of interest are solutions involving torque and Coriolis effects in the field equations. Significant observations have led to theoretical and experimental advancement describing systems undergoing gravitational collapse , including vacuum interactions.

Nassim Haramein; Michael Hyson; E. A. Rauscher

2008-01-01

432

IMF Length Scales and Predictability: The Two Length Scale Medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present preliminary results from a systematic study using simultaneous data from three spacecraft, Wind, IMP 8 (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform) and Geotail to examine interplanetary length scales and their implications on predictability for magnetic field parcels in the typical solar wind. Time periods were selected when the plane formed by the three spacecraft included the GSE (Ground Support Equipment) x-direction so that if the parcel fronts were strictly planar, the two adjacent spacecraft pairs would determine the same phase front angles. After correcting for the motion of the Earth relative to the interplanetary medium and deviations in the solar wind flow from radial, we used differences in the measured front angle between the two spacecraft pairs to determine structure radius of curvature. Results indicate that the typical radius of curvature for these IMF parcels is of the order of 100 R (Sub E). This implies that there are two important IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) scale lengths relevant to predictability: (1) the well-established scale length over which correlations observed by two spacecraft decay along a given IMF parcel, of the order of a few tens of Earth radii and (2) the scale length over which two spacecraft are unlikely to even observe the same parcel because of its curvature, of the order of a hundred Earth radii.

Collier, Michael R.; Szabo, Adam; Slavin, James A.; Lepping, R. P.; Kokubun, S.

1999-01-01

433

HIERARCHY AND SCALING: EXTRAPOLATING INFORMATION ALONG A SCALING LADDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The large number of components, nonlinear interactions, time delays and feedbacks, and spatial heterogeneity together often make ecological systems overwhelmingly complex. This complexity must be effectively dealt with for understanding and scaling. Hierarchy theory suggests that ecological systems are nearly completely decomposable (or nearly decomposable) systems because of their loose vertical and horizontal coupling in structure and function. Such

JIANGUO WU

434

Bath County Computer Attitude Scale: A Reliability and Validity Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bath County Computer Attitude Scale (BCCAS) has received limited attention concerning its reliability and validity with a U.S. adult population. As developed by G. G. Bear, H. C. Richards, and P. Lancaster in 1987, the instrument assessed attitudes toward computers in areas of computer use, computer-aided instruction, programming and technical…

Moroz, Pauline A.; Nash, John B.

435

Issues of Scale in Conservation Biology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For any problem, spatial and temporal scale must both be carefully defined. Spatial and temporal scales are positively correlated, in that processes at larger spatial scales are usually slower. For example, physicochemical changes in a leaf occur at a fas...

R. F. Noss

1990-01-01

436

Sizing Up Allometric Scaling Theory  

PubMed Central

Metabolic rate, heart rate, lifespan, and many other physiological properties vary with body mass in systematic and interrelated ways. Present empirical data suggest that these scaling relationships take the form of power laws with exponents that are simple multiples of one quarter. A compelling explanation of this observation was put forward a decade ago by West, Brown, and Enquist (WBE). Their framework elucidates the link between metabolic rate and body mass by focusing on the dynamics and structure of resource distribution networks—the cardiovascular system in the case of mammals. Within this framework the WBE model is based on eight assumptions from which it derives the well-known observed scaling exponent of 3/4. In this paper we clarify that this result only holds in the limit of infinite network size (body mass) and that the actual exponent predicted by the model depends on the sizes of the organisms being studied. Failure to clarify and to explore the nature of this approximation has led to debates about the WBE model that were at cross purposes. We compute analytical expressions for the finite-size corrections to the 3/4 exponent, resulting in a spectrum of scaling exponents as a function of absolute network size. When accounting for these corrections over a size range spanning the eight orders of magnitude observed in mammals, the WBE model predicts a scaling exponent of 0.81, seemingly at odds with data. We then proceed to study the sensitivity of the scaling exponent with respect to variations in several assumptions that underlie the WBE model, always in the context of finite-size corrections. Here too, the trends we derive from the model seem at odds with trends detectable in empirical data. Our work illustrates the utility of the WBE framework in reasoning about allometric scaling, while at the same time suggesting that the current canonical model may need amendments to bring its predictions fully in line with available datasets.

Fontana, Walter

2008-01-01

437

Make a Human Scale Ladder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity about size and scale (on page 2 of the PDF), each learner will be given an image of an object and communicate with other members of the group to arrange the objects they are holding in order of size (largest objects on one end and smallest on the other). Scale ladders help kids recognize the order of magnitude of some benchmark objects and correctly arrange them in order of size. This exercise also increases familiarity with the metric system, the universal language used by scientists, and some common prefixes such as "micro" and "nano." Also relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: What's Nano?

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

438

Landscape scale soil pollen analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whatever the potential of soil pollen analysis, the medium has not been exploited to the same extent as conventional approaches involving lake and peat deposits. Problems endemic to soil pollen studies may, however, be preventing the realisation of investigations which might otherwise be carried out, especially those at the landscape scale. Spatially-based pilot studies focusing upon sub-peat podsols in Sussex (England) and Jura (Scotland) provide encouragement for the use of soil pollen analyses in broader scale inquiries of settlement and the wider landscape. A newly-instigated application of the approach is introduced for part of Shetland (Scotland).

Whittington, Graeme; Edwards, Kevin J.

1999-10-01

439

Cavitation erosion size scale effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Size scaling in cavitation erosion is a major problem confronting the design engineers of modern high speed machinery. An overview and erosion data analysis presented in this paper indicate that the size scale exponent n in the erosion rate relationship as a function of the size or diameter can vary from 1.7 to 4.9 depending on the type of device used. There is, however, a general agreement as to the values of n if the correlations are made with constant cavitation number.

Rao, P. V.; Buckley, D. H.

1984-01-01

440

Inflation at the electroweak scale  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a model for slow-rollover inflation where the vacuum energy that drives inflation is of the order of G(F) exp -2; unlike most models, the conversion of vacuum energy to radiation ('reheating') is moderately efficient. The scalar field responsible for inflation is a standard-model singlet, develops a vacuum expectation value of 4 x 10 exp 6 GeV, has a mass of about 1 GeV, and can play a role in electroweak phenomena. We also discuss models where the energy scale of inflation is somewhat larger, but still well below the unification scale.

Knox, Lloyd; Turner, Michael S.

1993-01-01

441

Principles of Adult Learning Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) was developed and validated for measuring congruency between adult education practitioners' actual observable classroom behavior and their expressed belief in the collaborative teaching-learning mode. This model is a learner-centered instruction method in which learner and practitioner share authority…

Conti, Gary J.

442

REGIONAL SCALE COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) is an approach to regional-scale ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by EPA's Office of Research and Development. The pilot assessment will be done for the mid-Atlantic region and builds on data collected for th...

443

Perceptual scaling of room reverberation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent evidence suggests that reverberant energy can provide listeners with important spatial information regarding the distance of a sound source. However, relatively little is known about the perceptual attributes of the reverberation itself, and how these attributes may be related to physical properties of the environment that also potentially impact perceived spatial location. Here, perceived similarity among 15 reverberant rooms simulated using virtual auditory space techniques was examined. Room size and surface absorption properties were varied, along with aspects of the virtual simulation including the use of individualized head-related transfer function (HRTF) measurements and properties of the room acoustic simulation. Seven listeners rated perceived similarity on a 100-point scale between all possible pairs of simulated rooms using a speech source signal. Multidimensional scaling techniques were used to estimate scales of perceived room reverberation. Although the resulting scales were complex and somewhat unique to individual listeners, it is clear that the perceptual effects of manipulating properties of the reverberant sound are much larger than the effects due to either nonindividualized HRTFs or nonoptimal room simulation methods. [Work supported by NIDCD.

Zahorik, Pavel

2001-05-01

444

Locally Scaled Density Based Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density based clustering methods allow the identification o f arbitrary, not necessarily convex regions of data points that are densely populated. The number of clusters does not need to be specified beforehand; a cluster is defined to be a connected region that exceeds a given density threshold. This paper in- troduces the notion of local scaling in density based cluste

Ergun Biçici; Deniz Yuret

2007-01-01

445

Functional Nano-Scale Gels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nanometer-scale hydrogels are formed from a polymer film by exposing said film to a focused electron beam of 1 to 10 nm diameter. The hydrogels may be formed in regular patterns, such as arrays, or in irregular patterns. The hydrogels have a plurality of ...

M. R. Libera P. Krsko S. A. Sukhishvili Y. Hong

2005-01-01

446

Large-Scale Fault Isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the many distributed applications designed for the Internet, the successful ones are those that have paid careful atten- tion to scale and robustness. These applications share several de- sign principles. In this paper, we illustrate the application of these principles to common network monitoring tasks. Specifically, we describe and evaluate 1) a robust distributed topology discovery mechanism and 2)

Anoop Reddy; Deborah Estrin; Ramesh Govindan

1999-01-01

447

The P scale and psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents an appraisal of H. Eysenck and S. Eysenck's psychoticism (P) scale. Their claims of continuity between psychosis and normality are based on a shifting concept of continuity. At times, Eysenck and Eysenck appear to be arguing for a continuum between psychosis and normality at the level of clinical symptoms. On other occasions they seem to say that the P

D. V. M. Bishop

1977-01-01

448

Children's Social Relations Interview Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Children's Social Relations Interview Scale (CSRIS) was developed to assess the role expectations and role behaviors associated with physical disabilities, namely low status and independence. Three traits are assessed: succorance, the seeking of help and support; restraint, physical and social limitation and circumscription by others; and…

Volpe, Richard

449

Layered materials: Scaling up exfoliation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-shear mixing is now shown to be an effective approach for the exfoliation of large quantities of graphene and other two-dimensional materials, providing a viable route for the industrial scaling of applications based on these layered crystals.

Tour, James M.

2014-06-01

450

GCM's and scaling climate sensitivities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate sensitivity (?) is usually defined as a deterministic quantity relating climate forcings and responses. While this may be appropriate for evaluating the outputs of (deterministic) GCM's it is problematic for estimating sensitivities from empirical data. We introduce a stochastic definition where it is only a statistical link between the forcing and response, an upper bound on the deterministic sensitivities. Over the range ?30 yrs to 100 kyrs we estimate this ? using temperature data from instruments, reanalyses, multiproxies and paleo spources; the forcings include several solar, volcanic and orbital series. With the exception of the latter - we find that ? is roughly a scaling function of resolution ?t: ? ? ?t**H?, with exponent 0 ? < H? ? < 0.7. Since most have H? > 0, the implied feedbacks must generally increase with scale and this may be difficult to achieve with existing GCM's. Similarly, we consider the scaling of GCM temperature flucutations Last Millenium simulations, and find that the scaling exponents and multicentennial variability are too low. We conclude that it is likely that GCM's are missing slow processes such as land-ice or deep ocean dynamics. The Root Mean Square Radiative forcings from solar and volancic recontructions as well as orbital surrogates and solar satellite data. This compares selecting RMS forcings with RMS temeprature fluctuations assuming a climate sensitivity of 4.5 K/(w/m**2).

Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D. J.

2012-12-01

451

The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales (PMRS) were developed for assessing psychological maltreatment in the mother-child interaction, and were used to rate the videotaped interaction of 49 high-risk mother-child dyads and predict child protective service involvements. The PMRS was found to be a moderately reliable and valid measure.…

Brassard, Marla R.; And Others

1993-01-01

452

Airfoil Smoothing and Scaling Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two programs smooth and scale arbitrary airfoil coordinates. Airfoil smoothing program (AFSMO) utilizes both least-squares polynomial and leastsquares cubic-spline techniques to smooth iteratively second derivatives of y-axis airfoil coordinates with respect to transformed x-axis system that unwraps airfoil and stretches nose and trailing-edge regions.

Morgan, Harry L., Jr.

1986-01-01

453

Make Your Own Temperature Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the difference between temperature and thermal energy. They build a thermometer using simple materials and develop their own scale for measuring temperature. They compare their thermometer to a commercial thermometer, and get a sense for why engineers need to understand the properties of thermal energy.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

454

Baryogenesis below The Electroweak Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new alternative for baryogenesis which resolves a number of the problems associated with grand unified theory (GUT) and electroweak scenarios, and which may allow baryogenesis even in modest extensions of the standard model. If the Universe never reheats above the electroweak scale following inflation, GUT baryon production does not occur, and at the same time thermal sphalerons,

Lawrence M. Krauss; Mark Trodden

1999-01-01

455

Scaling issues in snow hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of scale can be used to quantify characteristic lengths of (a) a natural process (such as the correlation length of the spatial snow water equivalent (SWE) variability); (b) a measurement (such as the size of a snow density sample or the footprint of a satellite sensor), and (c) a model (such as the grid size of a distributed

Günter Blöschl

1999-01-01

456

Evaluating Ratings on Bidirectional Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures are described for determining the statistical significance of a set of ratings made on bidirectional (B) scales. B and its statistical significance can be determined on samples of items or raters. The statistical significance of a mean of B values can be assessed by applying a normal approximation test. (Author/DWH)

Aiken, Lewis R.

1985-01-01

457

Scaling exponents in fluid turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the scaling behavior of moments of absolute values of velocity increments in the inertial range by using data obtained in (a) approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulence behind horizontal round-rod bars, (b) a flat plate boundary layer, (c) the atmospheric surface layer over land, and (d) direct numerical simulations of homogeneous turbulence in a 512^3 box. We use the

Brindesh Dhruva; K. R. Sreenivasan; N. Cao; S. Chen

1996-01-01

458

The Creative Processes Rating Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed from research about and teacher experience with children and creativity, the Creative Processes Rating Scale was tested with 100 sixth graders and found to be an effective instrument (which can be used by teachers with no experience in art) for assessing the creative processes of children in the visual arts. (Author/CB)

Kulp, Margaret; Tarter, Barbara J.

1986-01-01

459

Scaling of pressurized fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect

The project has two primary objectives. The first is to verify a set of hydrodynamic scaling relationships for commercial pressurized fluidized bed combustors (PFBC). The second objective is to investigate solids mixing in pressurized bubbling fluidized beds. American Electric Power`s (AEP) Tidd combined-cycle demonstration plant will provide time-varying pressure drop data to serve as the basis for the scaling verification. The verification will involve demonstrating that a properly scaled cold model and the Tidd PFBC exhibit hydrodynamically similar behavior. An important issue in PFBC design is the spacing of fuel feed ports. The feed spacing is dictated by the fuel distribution and the mixing characteristics within the bed. After completing the scaling verification, the cold model will be used to study the characteristics of PFBCs. A thermal tracer technique will be utilized to study mixing both near the fuel feed region and in the far field. The results allow the coal feed and distributor to be designed for optimal heating.

Guralnik, S.; Glicksman, L.R.

1994-10-01

460

Economies of scale in networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A network's capacity can typically be increased in a variety of ways. For example, in a highway network, existing roads can be made wider or new roads added. This paper is concerned with the determination of the degree of local economies of scale in the cost function for the outputs of a congestible network when there are multiple margins for

Marvin Kraus

2008-01-01

461

FARM-SCALE BIOGAS PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In Germany there are only about fifteen years of experiences in the planning and construction of farm- scale biogas plants. In the meantime, approximately 1,600 biogas plants are in operation under stable conditions on farms. This is primarily due to investment funding and payment for each kWh delivered to the public energy grid. In general, three different kinds of

Torsten Fischer; Krieg Kyu; Jung Chae; Seong Keun Yim; Kwang Ho Choi; Woo Kyun Park; Ki Cheol Eom

462

3% scale BWB-450 model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

3% scale model of the Boeing BWB-450 passenger subscale transport is mounted for stability and control tests in the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Subsonic Tunnel. Standing next to the model (left to right): Michele Zambito and Tod O'Connell. Photographed in building 644, 12 Foot Low-Speed Tunnel.

2000-01-01

463

Pilot Scale Synthesis of TATB.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The processes developed by Mason and Hanger for the pilot scale production of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) are described. 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (TCB) was nitrated to form 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TCTNB) and then aminated to T...

W. T. Quinlin Z. L. Estes V. H. Evans C. L. Schaffer

1976-01-01

464

Structural Similitude and Scaling Laws  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft and spacecraft comprise the class of aerospace structures that require efficiency and wisdom in design, sophistication and accuracy in analysis and numerous and careful experimental evaluations of components and prototype, in order to achieve the necessary system reliability, performance and safety. Preliminary and/or concept design entails the assemblage of system mission requirements, system expected performance and identification of components and their connections as well as of manufacturing and system assembly techniques. This is accomplished through experience based on previous similar designs, and through the possible use of models to simulate the entire system characteristics. Detail design is heavily dependent on information and concepts derived from the previous steps. This information identifies critical design areas which need sophisticated analyses, and design and redesign procedures to achieve the expected component performance. This step may require several independent analysis models, which, in many instances, require component testing. The last step in the design process, before going to production, is the verification of the design. This step necessitates the production of large components and prototypes in order to test component and system analytical predictions and verify strength and performance requirements under the worst loading conditions that the system is expected to encounter in service. Clearly then, full-scale testing is in many cases necessary and always very expensive. In the aircraft industry, in addition to full-scale tests, certification and safety necessitate large component static and dynamic testing. Such tests are extremely difficult, time consuming and definitely absolutely necessary. Clearly, one should not expect that prototype testing will be totally eliminated in the aircraft industry. It is hoped, though, that we can reduce full-scale testing to a minimum. Full-scale large component testing is necessary in other industries as well, Ship building, automobile and railway car construction all rely heavily on testing. Regardless of the application, a scaled-down (by a large factor) model (scale model) which closely represents the structural behavior of the full-scale system (prototype) can prove to be an extremely beneficial tool. This possible development must be based on the existence of certain structural parameters that control the behavior of a structural system when acted upon by static and/or dynamic loads. If such structural parameters exist, a scaled-down replica can be built, which will duplicate the response of the full-scale system. The two systems are then said to be structurally similar. The term, then, that best describes this similarity is structural similitude. Similarity of systems requires that the relevant system parameters be identical and these systems be governed by a unique set of characteristic equations. Thus, if a relation or equation of variables is written for a system, it is valid for all systems which are similar to it. Each variable in a model is proportional to the corresponding variable of the prototype. This ratio, which plays an essential role in predicting the relationship between the model and its prototype, is called the scale factor.

Simitses, George J.

1998-01-01

465

Time scales in cognitive neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Cognitive neuroscience boils down to describing the ways in which cognitive function results from brain activity. In turn, brain activity shows complex fluctuations, with structure at many spatio-temporal scales. Exactly how cognitive function inherits the physical dimensions of neural activity, though, is highly non-trivial, and so are generally the corresponding dimensions of cognitive phenomena. As for any physical phenomenon, when studying cognitive function, the first conceptual step should be that of establishing its dimensions. Here, we provide a systematic presentation of the temporal aspects of task-related brain activity, from the smallest scale of the brain imaging technique's resolution, to the observation time of a given experiment, through the characteristic time scales of the process under study. We first review some standard assumptions on the temporal scales of cognitive function. In spite of their general use, these assumptions hold true to a high degree of approximation for many cognitive (viz. fast perceptual) processes, but have their limitations for other ones (e.g., thinking or reasoning). We define in a rigorous way the temporal quantifiers of cognition at all scales, and illustrate how they qualitatively vary as a function of the properties of the cognitive process under study. We propose that each phenomenon should be approached with its own set of theoretical, methodological and analytical tools. In particular, we show that when treating cognitive processes such as thinking or reasoning, complex properties of ongoing brain activity, which can be drastically simplified when considering fast (e.g., perceptual) processes, start playing a major role, and not only characterize the temporal properties of task-related brain activity, but also determine the conditions for proper observation of the phenomena. Finally, some implications on the design of experiments, data analyses, and the choice of recording parameters are discussed.

Papo, David

2013-01-01

466

Maximum versus meaningful discrimination in scale response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues for the use of the number of response categories that are meaningful to respondents as a criterion in designing attribute rating scales in marketing in contrast to a focus in past research on using scales to maximize the discrimination elicited from respondents. Whereas scales eli